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Sample records for bilateral hippocampal ca4

  1. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma. MRI finding

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    Shimauchi, M.; Wakisaka, S.; Kinoshita, K. (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1989-11-01

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.).

  2. Beyond Dizziness: Virtual Navigation, Spatial Anxiety and Hippocampal Volume in Bilateral Vestibulopathy

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    Kremmyda, Olympia; Hüfner, Katharina; Flanagin, Virginia L.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Linn, Jennifer; Strupp, Michael; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) is defined as the impairment or loss of function of either the labyrinths or the eighth nerves. Patients with total BVP due to bilateral vestibular nerve section exhibit difficulties in spatial memory and navigation and show a loss of hippocampal volume. In clinical practice, most patients do not have a complete loss of function but rather an asymmetrical residual functioning of the vestibular system. The purpose of the current study was to investigate navigational ability and hippocampal atrophy in BVP patients with residual vestibular function. Fifteen patients with BVP and a group of age- and gender- matched healthy controls were examined. Self-reported questionnaires on spatial anxiety and wayfinding were used to assess the applied strategy of wayfinding and quality of life. Spatial memory and navigation were tested directly using a virtual Morris Water Maze Task. The hippocampal volume of these two groups was evaluated by voxel-based morphometry. In the patients, the questionnaire showed a higher spatial anxiety and the Morris Water Maze Task a delayed spatial learning performance. MRI revealed a significant decrease in the gray matter mid-hippocampal volume (Left: p = 0.006, Z = 4.58, Right: p < 0.001, Z = 3.63) and posterior parahippocampal volume (Right: p = 0.005, Z = 4.65, Left: p < 0.001, Z = 3.87) compared to those of healthy controls. In addition, a decrease in hippocampal formation volume correlated with a more dominant route-finding strategy. Our current findings demonstrate that even partial bilateral vestibular loss leads to anatomical and functional changes in the hippocampal formation and objective and subjective behavioral deficits. PMID:27065838

  3. Beyond dizziness: virtual navigation, spatial anxiety and hippocampal volume in bilateral vestibulopathy

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    Olympia eKremmyda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP is defined as the impairment or loss of function of either the labyrinths or the eighth nerves. Patients with total BVP due to bilateral vestibular nerve section exhibit difficulties in spatial memory and navigation and show a loss of hippocampal volume. In clinical practice, most patients do not have a complete loss of function but rather an asymmetrical residual functioning of the vestibular system. The purpose of the current study was to investigate navigational ability and hippocampal atrophy in BVP patients with residual vestibular function. Fifteen patients with BVP and a group of age- and gender- matched healthy controls were examined. Self-reported questionnaires on spatial anxiety and wayfinding were used to assess the applied strategy of wayfinding and quality of life. Spatial memory and navigation were tested directly using a virtual Morris Water Maze Task. The hippocampal volume of these two groups was evaluated by voxel-based morphometry. In the patients, the questionnaire showed a higher spatial anxiety and the Morris Water Maze Task a delayed spatial learning performance. MRI revealed a significant decrease in the gray matter mid-hippocampal volume (Left: p = 0.006, Z = 4.58, Right: p < 0.001, Z = 3.63 and posterior parahippocampal volume (Right: p = 0.005, Z = 4.65, Left: p < 0.001, Z = 3.87 compared to those of healthy controls. In addition, a decrease in hippocampal formation volume correlated with a more dominant route-finding strategy. Our current findings demonstrate that even partial bilateral vestibular loss leads to anatomical and functional

  4. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

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    Mehrabian Shima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer’s disease. Few cases have so far described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer’s disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation The patient presented here is a 33 year old Bulgarian male, whose clinical features include progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes over the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (Mini Mental State Examination score was 16/30 with impaired memory and attention, and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, and extrapyramidal signs, as well as dysarthria and impairment in coordination, were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with noticeable bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test/Treponema pallidum hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High-dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. At 6 month follow up, improvements were noted clinically, on neuropsychological examinations, and in cerebrospinal fluid samples. Conclusion This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition which requires early aggressive antibiotic therapy.

  5. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a 33-years-old man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer's disease. Few number of cases described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer's disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation: The clinical feature is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes for the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (MMSE=16) with impaired memory, attention and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, extrapyramidal signs, dysarthria and impairment in coordination were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with marked bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test - Treponema Pallidum. Hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. During the follow up examination at 6 month, the clinical signs, and neuropsychological examinations, and cerebrospinal fluid samples showed improvement. Conclusion: This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition and needs early aggressive antibiotic therapy

  6. Developmental hypothyroidism abolishes bilateral differences in sonic hedgehog gene control in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus.

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    Tanaka, Takeshi; Wang, Liyun; Kimura, Masayuki; Abe, Hajime; Mizukami, Sayaka; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism disrupt rat hippocampal neurogenesis. We previously showed that exposing mouse offspring to manganese permanently disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and abolishes the asymmetric distribution of cells expressing Mid1, a molecule regulated by sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. The present study examined the involvement of Shh signaling on the disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in rats with hypothyroidism. Pregnant rats were treated with methimazole (MMI) at 0 or 200 ppm in the drinking water from gestation day 10-21 days after delivery (developmental hypothyroidism). Adult male rats were treated with MMI in the same manner from postnatal day (PND) 46 to PND 77 (adult-stage hypothyroidism). Developmental hypothyroidism reduced the number of Mid1(+) cells within the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of offspring on PND 21, and consequently abolished the normal asymmetric predominance of Mid1(+) cells on the right side through the adult stage. In control animals, Shh was expressed in a subpopulation of hilar neurons, showing asymmetric distribution with left side predominance on PND 21; however, this asymmetry did not continue through the adult stage. Developmental hypothyroidism increased Shh(+) neurons bilaterally and abolished the asymmetric distribution pattern on PND 21. Adult hypothyroidism also disrupted the asymmetric distribution of Mid1(+) cells but did not affect the distribution of Shh(+) hilar neurons. The results suggest that the hippocampal neurogenesis disruption seen in hypothyroidism involves changes in asymmetric Shh(+) neuron distribution in developmental hypothyroidism and altered Mid1 expression in both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism.

  7. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia.

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    Beadle, J N; Tranel, D; Cohen, N J; Duff, M C

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. The scientific investigation of empathy has focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, and has pointed to the importance of a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate). While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity) make it well-suited to meet some of the crucial demands of empathy, and a careful investigation of this possibility could make a significant contribution to the neuroscientific understanding of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female) with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC) damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. Unlike healthy comparison participants, in response to the empathy inductions hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior. The results provide preliminary evidence for a role for hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  8. Empathy in Hippocampal Amnesia

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    Beadle, J. N.; Tranel, D.; Cohen, N. J.; Duff, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. The scientific investigation of empathy has focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, and has pointed to the importance of a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate). While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity) make it well-suited to meet some of the crucial demands of empathy, and a careful investigation of this possibility could make a significant contribution to the neuroscientific understanding of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female) with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC) damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. Unlike healthy comparison participants, in response to the empathy inductions hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior. The results provide preliminary evidence for a role for hippocampal declarative memory in empathy. PMID:23526601

  9. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle N Beadle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific investigation of empathy has become a cornerstone in the field of social cognition. Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. Scientific investigations of empathy have focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, pointing to a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate. While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, we propose that there are compelling reasons to inquire about the contribution of the hippocampus to social cognition. We propose that the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity make it well-suited to meet the demands of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. In response to the empathy inductions, unlike healthy comparison participants, hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior from the control condition. Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence for a role of hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  10. Autophagy blockade sensitizes the anticancer activity of CA-4 via JNK-Bcl-2 pathway

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    Li, Yangling; Luo, Peihua; Wang, Jincheng; Dai, Jiabin; Yang, Xiaochun; Wu, Honghai; Yang, Bo, E-mail: yang924@zju.edu.cn; He, Qiaojun, E-mail: qiaojunhe@zju.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) has already entered clinical trials of solid tumors over ten years. However, the limited anticancer activity and dose-dependent toxicity restrict its clinical application. Here, we offered convincing evidence that CA-4 induced autophagy in various cancer cells, which was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the degradation of p62, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence. Interestingly, CA-4-mediated apoptotic cell death was further potentiated by pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) or small interfering RNAs against the autophagic genes (Atg5 and Beclin 1). The enhanced anticancer activity of CA-4 and 3-MA was further confirmed in the SGC-7901 xenograft tumor model. These findings suggested that CA-4-elicited autophagic response played a protective role that impeded the eventual cell death while autophagy inhibition was expected to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy of CA-4. Meanwhile, CA-4 treatment led to phosphorylation/activation of JNK and JNK-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Importantly, JNK inhibitor or JNK siRNA inhibited autophagy but promoted CA-4-induced apoptosis, indicating a key requirement of JNK-Bcl-2 pathway in the activation of autophagy by CA-4. We also identified that pretreatment of Bcl-2 inhibitor (ABT-737) could significantly enhance anticancer activity of CA-4 due to inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, our data suggested that the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway was considered as the critical regulator of CA-4-induced protective autophagy and a potential drug target for chemotherapeutic combination. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibition could be a potential for combretastatin A-4 antitumor efficacy. • The JNK-Bcl-2 pathway plays a critical role in CA-4-induced autophagy. • ABT-737 enhances CA-4 anticancer activity due to inhibition of autophagy.

  11. 双侧海马病变引起的短暂性全面性遗忘一例及文献综述%Transient Global Amnesia Caused by Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions:Case Report and Review of Literature

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    张勇; 王国瑾; 王丽萍; 庄儒鸿; 袁振华; 黄婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnosis, pathological location and the pathophysiology of transient glob-al amnesia(TGA). Methods: The history, clinical presentations, neuropsychological examinations and neuroimaging data of the TGA patient were collected. Results: The patient had no risk factors of cerebrovascular disease and had no the other neurological diseases, had a transient anterograde amnesia, had the disorder in word recognition and the increased signals of the CA1 field of the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) in the DWI and T2FLAIR of brain MRI. Conclusioin: The hippocampal CA1 neurons is the lesion location of TGA. Stress can play a key role in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an acute cytotoxic edema of hippocampal CA1 neurons during TGA.%目的:探讨短暂性全面性遗忘(TGA)的诊断、发病部位、病因及发病机制。方法:收集一例 TGA 患者的病史、临床表现、神经心理学检查和神经影像学资料。结果:该患者无脑血管病的危险因素及神经科疾病的病史,临床表现为一过性顺行性情景记忆障碍,神经心理学检查提示词语再认障碍,头颅 MRI 的液体衰减反转恢复序列、MR 扩散加权成像序列在海马 CA1区显示高信号。结论:TGA 的发病部位在海马 CA1区,其发病机制可能为应激诱发海马 CA1区一系列病理生理的级联反应,导致海马神经元的急性细胞性水肿。

  12. [Hippocampal stroke].

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    Rollnik, J D; Traitel, B; Dietrich, B; Lenz, O

    2015-02-01

    Unilateral cerebral ischemia of the hippocampus is very rare. This paper reviews the literature and presents the case of a 59-year-old woman with an amnestic syndrome due to a left hippocampal stroke. The patient suffered from retrograde amnesia which was most severe over the 2 days prior to presenting and a slight anterograde amnesia. In addition, a verbal memory disorder was confirmed 1 week after admission by neurological tests. As risk factors, arterial hypertension and a relative hyper-beta lipoproteinemia were found. This case shows that unilateral amnestic stroke, e.g. in the hippocampus region, may be the cause of an amnestic syndrome and should be included in the differential diagnostics.

  13. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

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    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  14. Hippocampal inactivation with TTX impairs long-term spatial memory retrieval and modifies brain metabolic activity.

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    Conejo, Nélida María; Cimadevilla, José Manuel; González-Pardo, Héctor; Méndez-Couz, Marta; Arias, Jorge Luis

    2013-01-01

    Functional inactivation techniques enable studying the hippocampal involvement in each phase of spatial memory formation in the rat. In this study, we applied tetrodotoxin unilaterally or bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus to evaluate the role of this brain structure in retrieval of memories acquired 28 days before in the Morris water maze. We combined hippocampal inactivation with the assessment of brain metabolism using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Several brain regions were considered, including the hippocampus and other related structures. Results showed that both unilateral and bilateral hippocampal inactivation impaired spatial memory retrieval. Hence, whereas subjects with bilateral hippocampal inactivation showed a circular swim pattern at the side walls of the pool, unilateral inactivation favoured swimming in the quadrants adjacent to the target one. Analysis of cytochrome oxidase activity disclosed regional differences according to the degree of hippocampal functional blockade. In comparison to control group, animals with bilateral inactivation showed increased CO activity in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus during retrieval, while the activity of the dentate gyrus substantially decreased. However, unilateral inactivated animals showed decreased CO activity in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus. This study demonstrated that retrieval recruits differentially the hippocampal subregions and the balance between them is altered with hippocampal functional lesions. PMID:23724089

  15. Role of the amygdala in the hippocampal kindling effect of rats.

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    Araki, H; Aihara, H; Watanabe, S; Yamamoto, T; Ueki, S

    1985-02-01

    In the present experiment, the role of the amygdala in the formation of the hippocampal kindling effect was investigated in rats with chronic electrode implants. The number of trials required for the establishment of hippocampal kindling was significantly shortened by either ipsilateral or bilateral amygdaloid lesions. The high amplitude spike waves in the frontal cortex and reticular formation appeared earlier in the amygdaloid lesioned rats than in the sham lesioned rats. It is suggested that the amygdala has an inhibitory effect on the development of the hippocampal kindling effect. On the other hand, either the ipsilateral or bilateral amygdaloid lesions after the establishment of hippocampal kindling inhibited the induction of generalized convulsion by hippocampal stimulation. Three and 8 repeated daily stimulations were needed to reestablish the hippocampal kindling effect after the ipsilateral and bilateral amygdaloid lesions, respectively. These results do not coincide with the above-mentioned results indicating that the amygdala has an inhibitory role in the formation of hippocampal kindling. It is suggested that the neuronal circuits involved in the formation of hippocampal kindling in the amygdaloid lesioned rats are different from those in the intact rats.

  16. Hippocampal internal architecture and postoperative seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis

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    Elkommos, Samia; Weber, Bernd; Niehusmann, Pitt; Volmering, Elisa; Richardson, Mark P.; Goh, Yen Y.; Marson, Anthony G.; Elger, Christian; Keller, Simon S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Semi-quantitative analysis of hippocampal internal architecture (HIA) on MRI has been shown to be a reliable predictor of the side of seizure onset in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postoperative seizure outcome and preoperative semi-quantitative measures of HIA. Methods We determined HIA on high in-plane resolution preoperative T2 short tau inversion recovery MR images in 79 patients with presumed unilateral mesial TLE (mTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent amygdalohippocampectomy and postoperative follow up. HIA was investigated with respect to postoperative seizure freedom, neuronal density determined from resected hippocampal specimens, and conventionally acquired hippocampal volume. Results HIA ratings were significantly related to some neuropathological features of the resected hippocampus (e.g. neuronal density of selective CA regions, Wyler grades), and bilaterally with preoperative hippocampal volume. However, there were no significant differences in HIA ratings of the to-be-resected or contralateral hippocampus between patients rendered seizure free (ILAE 1) compared to those continuing to experience seizures (ILAE 2-5). Conclusions This work indicates that semi-quantitative assessment of HIA on high-resolution MRI provides a surrogate marker of underlying histopathology, but cannot prospectively distinguish between patients who will continue to experience postoperative seizures and those who will be rendered seizure free. The predictive power of HIA for postoperative seizure outcome in non-lesional patients with TLE should be explored. PMID:26803053

  17. Additive Gene–Environment Effects on Hippocampal Structure in Healthy Humans

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    Rabl, Ulrich; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Berger, Andreas; Mandorfer, Dominik; Popovic, Ana; Scharinger, Christian; Huemer, Julia; Kalcher, Klaudius; Pail, Gerald; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Windischberger, Christian; Brocke, Burkhard; Sitte, Harald H.; Pollak, Daniela D.; Dreher, Jean-Claude; Kasper, Siegfried; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Moser, Ewald; Esterbauer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal volume loss has been related to chronic stress as well as genetic factors. Although genetic and environmental variables affecting hippocampal volume have extensively been studied and related to mental illness, limited evidence is available with respect to G × E interactions on hippocampal volume. The present MRI study investigated interaction effects on hippocampal volume between three well-studied functional genetic variants (COMT Val158Met, BDNF Val66Met, 5-HTTLPR) associated with hippocampal volume and a measure of environmental adversity (life events questionnaire) in a large sample of healthy humans (n = 153). All three variants showed significant interactions with environmental adversity with respect to hippocampal volume. Observed effects were additive by nature and driven by both recent as well as early life events. A consecutive analysis of hippocampal subfields revealed a spatially distinct profile for each genetic variant suggesting a specific role of 5-HTTLPR for the subiculum, BDNF Val66Met for CA4/dentate gyrus, and COMT Val158Met for CA2/3 volume changes. The present study underscores the importance of G × E interactions as determinants of hippocampal volume, which is crucial for the neurobiological understanding of stress-related conditions, such as mood disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PMID:25057194

  18. Additive gene-environment effects on hippocampal structure in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ulrich; Meyer, Bernhard M; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Berger, Andreas; Mandorfer, Dominik; Popovic, Ana; Scharinger, Christian; Huemer, Julia; Kalcher, Klaudius; Pail, Gerald; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Windischberger, Christian; Brocke, Burkhard; Sitte, Harald H; Pollak, Daniela D; Dreher, Jean-Claude; Kasper, Siegfried; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Moser, Ewald; Esterbauer, Harald; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-07-23

    Hippocampal volume loss has been related to chronic stress as well as genetic factors. Although genetic and environmental variables affecting hippocampal volume have extensively been studied and related to mental illness, limited evidence is available with respect to G × E interactions on hippocampal volume. The present MRI study investigated interaction effects on hippocampal volume between three well-studied functional genetic variants (COMT Val158Met, BDNF Val66Met, 5-HTTLPR) associated with hippocampal volume and a measure of environmental adversity (life events questionnaire) in a large sample of healthy humans (n = 153). All three variants showed significant interactions with environmental adversity with respect to hippocampal volume. Observed effects were additive by nature and driven by both recent as well as early life events. A consecutive analysis of hippocampal subfields revealed a spatially distinct profile for each genetic variant suggesting a specific role of 5-HTTLPR for the subiculum, BDNF Val66Met for CA4/dentate gyrus, and COMT Val158Met for CA2/3 volume changes. The present study underscores the importance of G × E interactions as determinants of hippocampal volume, which is crucial for the neurobiological understanding of stress-related conditions, such as mood disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Hippocampal MRI Assessments in Intractable Epilepsy

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    Paramdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To acquire normative data of hippocampal volumes and T2 relaxation times, to evaluate and compare qualitative and quantitative assessments in evaluating hippocampi in patients with different durations of intractable epilepsy, and to propose an imaging protocol based on performance of these techniques. Methods. MRI analysis was done in 50 nonepileptic controls and 30 patients with intractable epilepsy on 1.5T scanner. Visual assessment and hippocampal volumetry were done on oblique coronal IR/T2W and T1W MP-RAGE images, respectively. T2 relaxation times were measured using 16-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. Volumetric data was normalized for variation in head size between individuals. Patients were divided into temporal ( and extratemporal ( groups based on clinical and EEG localization. Results. In controls, right hippocampal volume was slightly more than the left with no effect of age or gender. In TLE patients, hippocampal volumetry provided maximum concordance with EEG. Visual assessment of unilateral pathology concurred well with measured quantitative values but poorly in cases with bilateral pathologies. There were no significant differences of mean values between extratemporal group and controls group. Quantitative techniques detected mild abnormalities, undetected on visual assessment. Conclusions. Quantitative techniques are more sensitive to diagnose bilateral and mild unilateral hippocampal abnormalities.

  20. Tuberous sclerosis complex coexistent with hippocampal sclerosis.

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    Lang, Min; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis are both well-defined entities associated with medically intractable epilepsy. To our knowledge, there has been only one prior case of these two pathologies being co-existent. We report a 7-month-old boy who presented with intractable seizures at 2 months of age. MRI studies showed diffuse volume loss in the brain with bilateral, multiple cortical tubers and subcortical migration abnormalities. Subependymal nodules were noted without subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Genetic testing revealed TSC2 and PRD gene deletions. Histopathology of the hippocampus showed CA1 sclerosis marked by loss of neurons in the CA1 region. Sections from the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes showed multiple cortical tubers characterized by cortical architectural disorganization, gliosis, calcifications and increased number of large balloon cells. Focal white matter balloon cells and spongiform changes were also present. The patient underwent resection of the right fronto-parietal lobe and a subsequent resection of the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. The patient is free of seizures on anti-epileptic medication 69 months after surgery. Although hippocampal sclerosis is well documented to be associated with coexistent focal cortical dysplasia, the specific co-existence of cortical tubers and hippocampal sclerosis appears to be rare. PMID:26498091

  1. Docencia de cinemática con el simulador de mecanismos ATiCA4b

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    López Martínez, Joan Antoni; Font Andreu, Jorge; Hernández Abad, Francisco, 1952-; Hernández Díaz, David

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta un ejemplo de las posibilidades que tenemos los docentes a la hora de generar material didáctico para nuestros alumnos y alumnas: el simulador ATiCA4b, (Aplicación Trazadora e Interactiva de Curvas de Acoplador de mecanismos articulados de Cuatro Barras). Un entorno interactivo desarrollado en las Escuelas de Ingeniería de Manresa y Terrassa(BCN) con la herramienta Mathematica, en el que el usuario puede jugar, familiarizarse e interactuar con conceptos clave de cinemática de meca...

  2. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  3. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

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    Mehrdad Karimi; Masoud Soheilian; Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lympho...

  4. Moxibustion upregulates hippocampal progranulin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, moxibustion is reported to be useful and has few side effects for chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. More recently, the focus has been on the wealth of information supporting stress as a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome, and largely concerns dysregulation in the stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of moxibustion on behavioral symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome rats and examine possible mechanisms. Rats were subjected to a combination of chronic restraint stress and forced swimming to induce chronic fatigue syndrome. The acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zusanli (ST36, bilateral were simultaneously administered moxibustion. Untreated chronic fatigue syndrome rats and normal rats were used as controls. Results from the forced swimming test, open field test, tail suspension test, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot assay showed that moxibustion treatment decreased mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in plasma, and markedly increased progranulin mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that moxibustion may relieve the behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, at least in part, by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulating hippocampal progranulin.

  5. Moxibustion upregulates hippocampal progranulin expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yi; Li Qi; Ji Li; Jing-jing Le; Lei Shao; Xin Du; Jing-cheng Dong

    2016-01-01

    In China, moxibustion is reported to be useful and has few side effects for chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanisms are largely un-known. More recently, the focus has been on the wealth of information supporting stress as a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome, and largely concerns dysregulation in the stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of moxibustion on behavioral symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome rats and examine possible mechanisms. Rats were subjected to a combination of chronic restraint stress and forced swimming to induce chronic fatigue syndrome. The acupointsGuanyuan (CV4) and Zusanli (ST36, bilateral) were simultaneously administered moxibustion. Untreated chronic fatigue syndrome rats and normal rats were used as controls. Results from the forced swimming test, open ifeld test, tail suspension test, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay, and western blot assay showed that moxibustion treatment decreased mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in plasma, and markedly increased progranulin mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. These ifndings suggest that moxibustion may relieve the behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, at least in part, by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulating hippocampal progranulin.

  6. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-12-12

    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  7. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. PMID:26474741

  8. Neuropeptides and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaben, M J; Gray, W P

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is important for modulating the behavioural responses to stress and for certain forms of learning and memory. The mechanisms underlying the necessary coupling of neuronal activity to neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) function remain poorly understood. Within the dentate subgranular stem cell niche, local interneurons appear to play an important part in this excitation-neurogenesis coupling via GABAergic transmission, which promotes neuronal differentiation and integration. Neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and galanin have emerged as important mediators for signalling local and extrinsic interneuronal activity to subgranular zone precursors. Here we review the distribution of these neuropeptides and their receptors in the neurogenic area of the hippocampus and their precise effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. We also discuss neuropeptides' potential involvement in functional aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis particularly their involvement in the modulation of learning and memory and behavior responses.

  9. Hippocampal subfield volumetry in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwei; Li, Deyu; Li, Qiongling; Li, Yuxia; Li, Kuncheng; Li, Shuyu; Han, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Memory impairment is a typical characteristic of patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) or with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The hippocampus, which plays an important role in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, is a heterogeneous structure that consists of several anatomically and functionally distinct subfields. However, whether distinct hippocampal subfields are differentially and selectively affected by svMCI pathology and whether these abnormal changes in hippocampal subfields are different between svMCI and aMCI patients are largely unknown. A total of 26 svMCI patients, 26 aMCI patients and 26 healthy controls matched according to age, gender and years of education were enrolled in this study. We utilized an automated hippocampal subfield segmentation method provided by FreeSurfer to estimate the volume of several hippocampal subfields, including the cornu ammonis (CA) areas, the dentate gyrus (DG), the subiculum and the presubiculum. Compared with controls, the left subiculum and presubiculum and the right CA4/DG displayed significant atrophy in patients with svMCI. Interestingly, we also found significant differences in the volume of the right CA1 between the svMCI and aMCI groups. Taken together, our results reveal region-specific vulnerability of hippocampal subfields to svMCI pathology and identify distinct hippocampal subfield atrophy patterns between svMCI and aMCI patients. PMID:26876151

  10. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, E; Han, L K M; Connolly, C G; Ho, T C; Lin, J; LeWinn, K Z; Simmons, A N; Sacchet, M D; Mobayed, N; Luna, M E; Paulus, M; Epel, E S; Blackburn, E H; Wolkowitz, O M; Yang, T T

    2015-11-10

    Several studies have reported that adults with major depressive disorder have shorter telomere length and reduced hippocampal volumes. Moreover, studies of adult populations without major depressive disorder suggest a relationship between peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume. However, the relationship of these findings in adolescents with major depressive disorder has yet to be explored. We examined whether adolescent major depressive disorder is associated with altered peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume, and whether these measures relate to one another. In 54 unmedicated adolescents (13-18 years) with major depressive disorder and 63 well-matched healthy controls, telomere length was assessed from saliva using quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and bilateral hippocampal volumes were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. After adjusting for age and sex (and total brain volume in the hippocampal analysis), adolescents with major depressive disorder exhibited significantly shorter telomere length and significantly smaller right, but not left hippocampal volume. When corrected for age, sex, diagnostic group and total brain volume, telomere length was not significantly associated with left or right hippocampal volume, suggesting that these cellular and neural processes may be mechanistically distinct during adolescence. Our findings suggest that shortening of telomere length and reduction of hippocampal volume are already present in early-onset major depressive disorder and thus unlikely to be only a result of accumulated years of exposure to major depressive disorder.

  11. Escleritis posterior bilateral Bilateral posterior scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zurutuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática.Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

  12. 海马硬化14例临床病理分型及意义%Clinico-pathological classification and significance of 14 cases hippocampal sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 陈晓东; 王伟; 赖续文; 陈敬文; 曹慧霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨海马硬化(hippocampal sclerosis,HS)的组织学特点、病理分型及临床意义.方法 回顾性分析14例因HS所致的慢性颞叶癫痫患者的临床资料,结合免疫组化检测结果观察其海马组织形态学,并对患者术后癫痫发作情况进行随访.结果 患者年龄5 ~42岁(平均20岁),男性9例,女性5例,临床均以慢性颞叶癫痫为主要表现.MRI示12例病变累及单侧海马、2例双侧受累.组织学主要表现为海马CA1-CA4区选择性锥体神经元丢失及胶质细胞增生,同时伴齿状回颗粒细胞数量和分布的异常.根据神经元丢失区域及程度的不同,14例分为经典1a型4例(CA1区神经元严重丢失,除CA2区外其他各区中度丢失)和经典1b型8例(各区神经元均严重丢失),非典变异型2型(仅CA1区神经元严重丢失)和3型(神经元丢失以CA4区为主)各1例,1b型最为多见.免疫组化染色神经元核抗原NeuN可清晰显示海马各区神经元的分布及丢失情况.13例获随访,结果表明经典型患者预后好.结论 HS病理形态学改变简单,规范的取材及熟悉海马正常的组织学形态是HS正确诊断及分型的前提和基础,正确的诊断及分型可为临床判断预后提供依据.%Purpose To investigate the morphological features, pathological classification and clinical significance of hippocampal sclerosis ( HS). Methods Clinical data of 14 HS patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies was analyzed, and hippocampal neuoral cell loss was observed by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The follow-up data after surgery were analyzed. Results The patients' age ranged from 5 to 42 years (mean, 20 years) , among them 9 male and 5 female. All cases displayed symptoms of chronic temporal lobe epilepsies. Unilateral hippocampal were involved in 12 patients, and two cases had bilateral lesions. Pathological changes presented with selective neuronal loss in hippocampal subfields, accompanying

  13. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahemey, R.; Warfield, A.T.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  14. Hippocampal dosimetry correlates with the change in neurocognitive function after hippocampal sparing during whole brain radiotherapy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    parameters specific to left sided hippocampus exerted an influence on immediate recall of verbal memory (adjusted odds ratio, 4.08; p-value, 0.042, predicting patients’ neurocognitive decline after receiving HS-WBRT). Functional preservation by hippocampal sparing during WBRT is indeed achieved in our study. Providing that modern VMAT techniques can reduce the dose irradiating bilateral hippocampi below dosimetric threshold, patients should be recruited in prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to accomplish neurocognitive preservation while maintaining intracranial control

  15. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  16. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay; Aditya Pratap; Chetan; Ramesh; Rajlaxmi Jaysing

    2014-01-01

    : Immature teratoma (IMT) is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fac...

  17. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : Immature teratoma (IMT is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fact that the patient age is below the average for the occurrence of these tumors.

  18. Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B.

  19. Bilateral akillesseneruptur hos nyretransplanterede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Nimb, L;

    1996-01-01

    Increased incidence of tendinitis and tendon ruptures is reported in recipients of a kidney transplant. Two cases of bilateral achilles tendon rupture after minimal trauma are described. Tendon ruptures are more frequent in individuals with kidney disease in dialysis or after transplantation comp...

  20. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    ) surgery. The overall retreatment rate was 21.6% (57 of 264 patients). Cases treated with unilateral surgery had twice the risk of retreatment compared with cases undergoing bilateral surgery (28.7% vs 14.1%, respectively, p = 0.002). In accordance with previous studies, the data also showed...

  1. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  2. Estrogen intervention in microvascular morphology and choline acetyltransferase expression in rat hippocampal neurons in chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang; Hongwei Yan; Guomin Zhang; Zhihong Chen; Jingfeng Xue

    2011-01-01

    We observed dynamic changes in microvessels and a protective effect of estrogen on chronic cerebral ischemia ovariectomized rat models established through permanent occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries at 7, 14 and 21 days. The results revealed that estrogen improved microvasculature in the hippocampus of chronic cerebral ischemic rats, upregulated Bcl-2 protein expression, downregulated Bax protein expression, increased choline acetyltransferase expression in hippocampal cholinergic neurons, and suppressed hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. These findings indicate that estrogen can protect hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia.

  3. Study on hippocampal volume with quantitative 3T magnetic resonance imaging in Chinese patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Mei-chun; LU Qin-chi; LI Yan-sheng; SHEN Jia-lin

    2012-01-01

    Background It was still rare for the quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research of regional changes in hippocampus sclerosis (HS) in Chinese patients with epilepsy.This study aimed to study the hippocampal volumes (HVs)with quantitative MRI measurement in Chinese patients with epilepsy.Methods Forty-six Chinese patients with epilepsy (intractable epilepsy (IE),n=21; non-intractable epilepsy (NIE),n=25)and 25 normal controls were collected between July 2007 and March 2008.All of the subjects underwent a 3T high-resolution MRI with oblique coronal thin sections oriented perpendicular to the hippocampal long axis.Hippocampal structures were assessed by visual detection,and HVs were quantitatively studied with a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS).Results Our study suggested that there was no significant difference in gender (P >0.05) while the right hippocampal head volume (HHV),hippocampal body volume (HBV),and the whole hippocampal volume (HCV) were greater than the left one (P <0.05),but no significant difference was found in bilateral hippocampal tail volume (HTV) (P >0.05) in normal controls.That unilateral/diffuse (64%/21%) and bilateral/focal (86%/20%) hippocampal atrophy (HA)were significant in IE and NIE patients,respectively.Anterior hippocampus,especially HHV (26% in IE and 20% in NIE) and HBV (29% in IE and 12% in NIE),had more significant atrophy than the HTV (5% in IE and 0% in NIE) in patients with epilepsy.Conclusion By assessing the volumes of the regional hippocampus with 3T MRI,we could better define the range and distribution of HS,since regional or subtle changes in HVs could be detected earlier with 3T MRI.

  4. Correlation between volume and morphological changes in the hippocampal formation in Alzheimer's disease: rounding of the outline of the hippocampal body on coronal MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Michito; Sato, Takamichi [Ohshima Clinic, Department of Radiology, Yamagata (Japan); Kawakatsu, Shinobu [Yamagata University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata (Japan); Ohshima, Fumi [Ohshima Clinic, Department of Neurology, Yamagata (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the outline of the hippocampal body becomes rounded on coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the volume of the hippocampal formation decreases in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Institutional review board approval of the study protocol was obtained, and all subjects provided informed consent for the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and MRI. The MRI and MMSE were prospectively performed in all 103 subjects (27 men and 76 women; mean age {+-} standard deviation, 77.7 {+-} 7.8 years) who had AD or were concerned about having of dementia and who consulted our institute over 1 year. The subjects included 14 non-dementia cases (MMSE score {>=} 28) and 89 AD cases (MMSE score {<=} 27). The total volume of the bilateral hippocampal formation (VHF) was assessed with a tracing method, and the ratio of the VHF to the intracranial volume (RVHF) and the rounding ratio (RR) of the hippocampal body (mean ratio of its short dimension to the long dimension in the bilateral hippocampal body) were calculated. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, the correlations between RR and VHF and between RR and RVHF were assessed. Correlation coefficients between RR and VHF and between RR and RVHF were -0.419 (p < 0.01) and -0.418 (p < 0.01), respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between RR and the volume of the hippocampal formation. The outline of the body of the hippocampal formation becomes rounded on coronal images as its volume decreases in AD. (orig.)

  5. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]...

  6. Hippocampal development at gestation weeks 23 to 36. An ultrasound study on preterm neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Ewald, Uwe [Uppsala University, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    During fetal development, the hippocampal structures fold around the hippocampal sulcus into the temporal lobe. According to the literature, this inversion should be completed at gestation week (GW) 21. Thereafter, the hippocampal shape should resemble the adult shape. However, incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) is found in 19% of the common population. The aim of this study was to study fetal hippocampal development by examining neonates born preterm. We analyzed cranial ultrasound examinations, performed as a part of the routine assessment of all preterm infants, over a 3-year period and excluded the infants with brain pathology. The final material consisted of 158 children born <35 GW. A rounded form (the ratio between the horizontal and vertical diameters of the hippocampal body {<=}1) in coronal slices was considered the sign of IHI. The age at examination was 23-24 GW in 24 neonates, 25-28 GW in 70 neonates, and 29-36 GW in 64 neonates. IHI was found in 50%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. The difference between the neonates <25 GW and {>=}25 GW was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The frequency of bilateral IHI was highest in the youngest age group. In the other groups, the left-sided IHI was the most common. In about 50% of the neonates, hippocampal inversion is not completed up to GW 24; but from 25 GW onwards, the frequency and laterality of IHI is similar to that in the adult population. (orig.)

  7. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. PMID:26187691

  8. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine.

  9. [Spontaneous bilateral Petit hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, Rodrigo Dias; Araújo, Emerson Silveira de; Oliveira, Gustavo Alves de; Sarmenghi Filho, Deolindo; Kalil, Mitre

    2011-01-01

    Petit's lumbar hernia is an uncommon defect of the posterior abdominal wall that represents less than 1% of all abdominal wall hernias. It is more often unilateral and founded in young females, rarely containing a real herniated sac. There are two different approaches to repair: laparoscopy and open surgery. The goal of this article is to report one case of spontaneous bilateral lumbar Petit's hernia treated with open surgery.

  10. Bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular dirofilariasis mostly presents as a subconjunctival or eyelid lesion. [1] Intraocular dirofilarial infestation is rare. [2],[3] We report a case of a young woman who was accidentally detected to have a live motile worm in the anterior segment in one eye and a cystic lesion on the optic disc in the other eye. To our knowledge, bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis has never been reported.

  11. Rhythms of the hippocampal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgin, Laura Lee

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampal local field potential (LFP) shows three major types of rhythms: theta, sharp wave-ripples and gamma. These rhythms are defined by their frequencies, they have behavioural correlates in several species including rats and humans, and they have been proposed to carry out distinct functions in hippocampal memory processing. However, recent findings have challenged traditional views on these behavioural functions. In this Review, I discuss our current understanding of the origins and the mnemonic functions of hippocampal theta, sharp wave-ripples and gamma rhythms on the basis of findings from rodent studies. In addition, I present an updated synthesis of their roles and interactions within the hippocampal network. PMID:26961163

  12. Compressive Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kenjiro; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient constant-time bilateral filter that produces a near-optimal performance tradeoff between approximate accuracy and computational complexity without any complicated parameter adjustment, called a compressive bilateral filter (CBLF). The constant-time means that the computational complexity is independent of its filter window size. Although many existing constant-time bilateral filters have been proposed step-by-step to pursue a more efficient performance tradeoff, they have less focused on the optimal tradeoff for their own frameworks. It is important to discuss this question, because it can reveal whether or not a constant-time algorithm still has plenty room for improvements of performance tradeoff. This paper tackles the question from a viewpoint of compressibility and highlights the fact that state-of-the-art algorithms have not yet touched the optimal tradeoff. The CBLF achieves a near-optimal performance tradeoff by two key ideas: 1) an approximate Gaussian range kernel through Fourier analysis and 2) a period length optimization. Experiments demonstrate that the CBLF significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of approximate accuracy, computational complexity, and usability. PMID:26068315

  13. Memory Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Correlates with Reduced Hippocampal CA1 and Subiculum Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Wei Zhang; Jiu-Quan Zhang; Chen Liu; Ping Wei; Xiao Zhang; Qiao-Ying Yuan; Xun-Tao Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Little attention has been paid to the role of subcortical deep gray matter (SDGM) structures in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced cognitive impairment,especially hippocampal subfields.Our aims were to assess the in vivo volumes of SDGM structures and hippocampal subfields using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to test their associations with cognitive performance in T2DM.Methods:A total of 80 T2DM patients and 80 neurologically unimpaired healthy controls matched by age,sex and education level was enrolled in this study.We assessed the volumes of the SDGM structures and seven hippocampal subfields on MRI using a novel technique that enabled automated volumetry.We used Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores as measures of cognitive performance.The association of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) with SDGM structures and neuropsychological tests and correlations between hippocampal subfields and neuropsychological tests were assessed by partial correlation analysis in T2DM.Results:Bilaterally,the hippocampal volumes were smaller in T2DM patients,mainly in the CA1 and subiculum subfields.Partial correlation analysis showed that the MoCA scores,particularly those regarding delayed memory,were significantly positively correlated with reduced hippocampal CA 1 and subiculum volumes in T2DM patients.Additionally,higher HbA1c levels were significantly associated with poor memory performance and hippocampal atrophy among T2DM patients.Conclusions:These data indicate that the hippocampus might be the main affected region among the SDGM structures in T2DM.These structural changes in the hippocampal CA1 and subiculum areas might be at the core of underlying neurobiological mechanisms of hippocampal dysfunction,suggesting that degeneration in these regions could be responsible for memory impairments in T2DM patients.

  14. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  15. Calcified neurocysticercosis associates with hippocampal atrophy: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Salgado, Perla; Lama, Julio; Del Brutto, Victor J; Campos, Xavier; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H

    2015-01-01

    Calcified neurocysticercosis has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with refractory epilepsy, but the relevance of this association in the population at large is unknown. We assessed calcified cysticerci and its association with hippocampal atrophy in elderly persons living in Atahualpa, an Ecuadorian village endemic for neurocysticercosis. All Atahualpa residents ≥ 60 years of age were invited to undergo computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging for neurocysticercosis detection. Twenty-eight (11%) out of 248 enrolled persons had calcified cysticerci (case-patients) and were matched 1:1 by age, sex, and years of education to individuals without neurocysticercosis on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (controls). Four case-patients and none of the controls had epilepsy (P = 0.134). Cognitive performance was similar across both groups. The Scheltens' medial temporal atrophy scale was used for hippocampal rating in case-patients and matched controls without neurocysticercosis. Mean score in the Scheltens' scale was higher in case-patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Atrophic hippocampi were noticed in 19 case-patients and five controls (P = 0.003). Atrophy was bilateral in 11 case-patients and unilateral in eight. All case-patients with unilateral hippocampal atrophy had at least one ipsilateral calcification. This study shows an association between calcified cysticerci and hippocampal atrophy and raises the possibility of an inflammation-mediated hippocampal damage as the responsible mechanism for these findings.

  16. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  17. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  18. Isolated bilateral ectopic microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Godefroy Koki2, Emilienne Epée2, Didier Owono2, Lucienne Bella Asumpta2, Côme Ebana Mvogo21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Douala Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé CameroonSummary: An eight-year-old school girl presented to us with a bilateral ectopic microspherophakia. She was surgically managed in the ophthalmology unit of the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaoundé in Cameroon. The postoperative follow up was uneventful, and the patient returned to school with a best corrected visual acuity of 4/10 in both eyes to the great satisfaction of her parents.Keywords: ectopic, microspherophakia, surgery

  19. Bilateral acute corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, T F; Leibowitz, H M

    1985-04-01

    A 38-year-old man with brittle, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral severe dry eyes with recurrent corneal ulcers developed atypical band-shaped calcifications of both corneas during a 24-hour period. Serum calcium, phosphate, and carbon dioxide levels all were within normal limits. The patient was mildly uremic but was not in renal failure. When EDTA chelation failed to clear the deposits, partial keratectomies were performed in both eyes and the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, including energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Microscopic studies revealed an atypical calcific keratopathy which involved neither Bowman's layer nor the most superficial stromal lamellae. The deposits were confined to deeper lamellae in the anterior stroma and by electron microscopy were composed of extracellular crystalline aggregates. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of these aggregates confirmed the presence of calcium and phosphate. Corneal dessication appeared to be a major contributing factor in the rapid formation of these deposits.

  20. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts.

  1. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Fotedar Sanjay; Chaudhary Dhruva; Singhla Vikas; Narang Rajat

    2010-01-01

    Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  2. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  3. Developmental amnesia and its relationship to degree of hippocampal atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, E. B.; Vargha-Khadem, F.; Watkins, K. E.; Lucas, A.; Mishkin, M.; Gadian, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents, one born preterm and one with a diagnosis of developmental amnesia, were compared with age-matched normal controls on measures of hippocampal volume and memory function. Relative to control values, the preterm group values showed a mean bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume of 8–9% (ranging to 23%), whereas the developmental amnesic group values showed a reduction of 40% (ranging from 27% to 56%). Despite equivalent IQ and immediate memory scores in the two study groups, there were marked differences between them on a wide variety of verbal and visual delayed memory tasks. Consistent with their diagnosis, the developmental amnesic group was impaired relative to both other groups on nearly all delayed memory measures. The preterm group, by contrast, was significantly impaired relative to the controls on only a few memory measures, i.e., route following and prospective memory. We suggest that early hippocampal pathology leads to the disabling memory impairments associated with developmental amnesia when the volume of this structure is reduced below normal by ≈20–30% on each side. Whether this is a sufficient condition for the disorder or whether abnormality in other brain regions is also necessary remains to be determined. PMID:14555756

  4. Profile of hippocampal volumes and stroke risk varies by neuropsychological definition of mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, Amy J.; URBAN, STEPHANIE; McCAULEY, ASHLEY; Bangen, Katherine J.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bondi, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Wide-ranging conceptual and diagnostic approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have led to highly variable prevalence and progression rates. We sought to examine whether bilateral hippocampal volumes and cerebrovascular risk factors in individuals characterized by two different neuropsychological definitions of MCI subtypes would also differ. Participants were 65 nondemented, community-dwelling, older adults, ages 62–91 years, drawn from a larger group of individuals enrolled i...

  5. Hippocampal histone acetylation regulates object recognition and the estradiol-induced enhancement of object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zaorui; Fan, Lu; Fortress, Ashley M.; Boulware, Marissa I.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetylation has recently been implicated in learning and memory processes, yet necessity of histone acetylation for such processes has not been demonstrated using pharmacological inhibitors of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As such, the present study tested whether garcinol, a potent HAT inhibitor in vitro, could impair hippocampal memory consolidation and block the memory-enhancing effects of the modulatory hormone 17β-estradiol (E2). We first showed that bilateral infusion of ga...

  6. Basolateral amygdala noradrenergic influence enables enhancement of memory consolidation induced by hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor activation

    OpenAIRE

    Roozendaal, Benno; Nguyen, Bichngoc T.; Power, Ann E.; McGaugh, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we reported that bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) block the enhancing effects of posttraining systemic or intrahippocampal glucocorticoid administration on memory for inhibitory avoidance training. The present study further examined the basis of this permissive influence of the BLA on hippocampal memory functioning. Immediate posttraining unilateral infusions of the specific glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 28362 (11β,17β-dihydroxy-6...

  7. Usefulness of single voxel proton MR spectroscopy in the evaluation of hippocampal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our study was to determine the ability of H-1 MR spectroscopy (MRS) to lateralize the lesion in patients with hippocampal scleros is. Twenty healthy volunteers and 25 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy whose MR imaging diagnosis was unilateral hippocampal sclerosis were included. This diagnosis was based on the presence of unilateral atrophy and/or high T2 signal intensity of the hippocampus. Singlevoxel H-1 MRS was carried out on a 1.5-T unit using PRESS sequence (TE, 136 msec). Spectra were obtained from hippocampal areas bilaterally with volumes of interest (VOIs) of 6.0 cm3 and 2.25 cm3 in healthy volunteers, and of either 6.0 c m3 (n = 14) or 2.25 cm3 (n = 11) in patients. Metabolite ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were calculated from relative peak height measurements. The capability of MRS to lateralize the lesion and to detect bilateral abnormalities was compared with MR imaging diagnosis as a standard of reference. In healthy volunteers, NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios were greater than 0.8 and 1.0, respectively. In patients, the mean values of these ratios were significantly lower on the lesion side than on the contralateral side, and lower than those of healthy volunteers (p 3 than of 2.25 cm3 (64% versus 82%, p <.05). Bilateral abnormalities on MRS were found in 24% (6/25) of cases. Although its rate of correct lateralization is low, single-voxel H-1 MRS is a useful and promising diagnostic tool in the evaluation of hippocampal sclerosis, particularly for the detection of bilateral abnormalities. To improve the diagnostic accuracy of H-1 MRS, further investigation, including the use of a smaller VOI and measurement of the absolute amount of metabolites, are needed

  8. Hippocampal volume and functional connectivity changes during the female menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisofsky, Nina; Mårtensson, Johan; Eckert, Anne; Lindenberger, Ulman; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-09-01

    Hippocampal volume has been shown to be sensitive to variations in estrogen and progesterone levels across rodents' estrous cycle. However, little is known about the covariation of hormone levels and brain structure in the course of the human menstrual cycle. Here, we examine this covariation with a multi-method approach that includes several brain imaging methods and hormonal assessments. We acquired structural and functional scans from 21 naturally cycling women on four time points during their cycles (early follicular phase, late follicular phase, ovulation and luteal phase). Hormone blood concentrations and cognitive performance in different domains were assessed on each of the measurement occasions. Structural MRI images were processed by means of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry and FreeSurfer. With either method, bilateral increases in hippocampal volume were found in the late follicular phase relative to the early follicular phase. The gray matter probability in regions of hippocampal volume increase was associated with lower mean diffusivity in the same region. In addition, we observed higher functional connectivity between the hippocampi and the bilateral superior parietal lobe in the late follicular phase. We did not find any reliable cycle-related performance variations on the cognitive tasks. The present results show that hormonal fluctuations covary with hippocampal structure and function in the course of the human menstrual cycle. PMID:26057590

  9. CA4DC2-12E4柴油机的机油耗开发%Oil Consumption Development on CA4DC2-12E4 Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启航; 金喆; 吴彩丽; 张松涛; 韩祖豪

    2014-01-01

    对于CA4DC2-12E4国Ⅳ排放柴油机的机油耗开发,它是通过控制缸孔变形,优化缸套网纹和改进活塞环的措施来实现。试验结果表明:优化后的样机标定功率机油燃油比为0.1%,满足工程目标0.2%的要求。%To development China IV compliant diesel engine of CA4DC2-12E4, measures were taken of controlling cylinder bore distortion, optimizing cylinder liner crosshatch parameters and developing piston oil ring, and then relevant tests were made to verify the effect of the measures. The results show that the oil/fuel at rated power is 0.1%, much lower than the project target of 0.2%.

  10. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  11. Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2 sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3 resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

  12. Multi-contrast submillimetric 3 Tesla hippocampal subfield segmentation protocol and dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaga-Yoskovitz, Jessie; Bernhardt, Boris C; Hong, Seok-Jun; Mansi, Tommaso; Liang, Kevin E; van der Kouwe, Andre J W; Smallwood, Jonathan; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is composed of distinct anatomical subregions that participate in multiple cognitive processes and are differentially affected in prevalent neurological and psychiatric conditions. Advances in high-field MRI allow for the non-invasive identification of hippocampal substructure. These approaches, however, demand time-consuming manual segmentation that relies heavily on anatomical expertise. Here, we share manual labels and associated high-resolution MRI data (MNI-HISUB25; submillimetric T1- and T2-weighted images, detailed sequence information, and stereotaxic probabilistic anatomical maps) based on 25 healthy subjects. Data were acquired on a widely available 3 Tesla MRI system using a 32 phased-array head coil. The protocol divided the hippocampal formation into three subregions: subicular complex, merged Cornu Ammonis 1, 2 and 3 (CA1-3) subfields, and CA4-dentate gyrus (CA4-DG). Segmentation was guided by consistent intensity and morphology characteristics of the densely myelinated molecular layer together with few geometry-based boundaries flexible to overall mesiotemporal anatomy, and achieved excellent intra-/inter-rater reliability (Dice index ≥90/87%). The dataset can inform neuroimaging assessments of the mesiotemporal lobe and help to develop segmentation algorithms relevant for basic and clinical neurosciences. PMID:26594378

  13. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  14. Bilateral Polydactyly in a foal

    OpenAIRE

    Carstanjen, Bianca; Abitbol, Marie; Desbois, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The following case report describes the diagnosis and surgery of bilateral polydactyly of unknown origin in a colt. A 7-month-old Berber colt was referred for cosmetic and curative excision of supernumerary digits. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral polydactyly and well-developed first carpal bones. Surgery consisted of an osteotomy of both second metacarpal bones combined with an amputation of the supernumerary digits. The follow-up at 18 months after surgery revealed a sound horse ...

  15. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Arun; Nandini R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the li...

  16. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bilateral factor. 4.26... DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.26 Bilateral factor. When a partial disability results from disease... disability. The bilateral factor will be applied to such bilateral disabilities before other combinations...

  17. Modelling the magnetic activity & filtering radial velocity curves of young Suns: the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 4

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, J -F; Hussain, G; Moutou, C; Grankin, K; Boisse, I; Morin, J; Gregory, S G; Vidotto, A A; Bouvier, J; Alencar, S H P; Delfosse, X; Doyon, R; Takami, M; Jardine, M M; Fares, R; Cameron, A C; Menard, F; Dougados, C; Herczeg, G

    2014-01-01

    We report results of a spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa4 within the MaTYSSE programme, involving ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Despite an age of only 2Myr and a similarity with prototypical classical T Tauri stars, LkCa4 shows no evidence for accretion and probes an interesting transition stage for star and planet formation. Large profile distortions and Zeeman signatures are detected in the unpolarized and circularly-polarized lines of LkCa4 using Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD), indicating the presence of brightness inhomogeneities and magnetic fields at the surface of LkCa4. Using tomographic imaging, we reconstruct brightness and magnetic maps of LkCa4 from sets of unpolarized and circularly-polarized LSD profiles. The large-scale field is strong and mainly axisymmetric, featuring a ~2kG poloidal component and a ~1kG toroidal component encircling the star at equatorial latitudes - the latter making LkCa4 markedly different from classical...

  18. Rare-Earth Calcium Oxyborate Piezoelectric Crystals ReCa4O(BO33: Growth and Piezoelectric Characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapeng Yu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth calcium oxyborate crystals, ReCa4O(BO33 (ReCOB, Re = Er, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd, Pr, and La , are potential piezoelectric materials for ultrahigh temperature sensor applications, due to their high electrical resistivity at elevated temperature, high piezoelectric sensitivity and temperature stability. In this paper, different techniques for ReCOB single-crystal growth are introduced, including the Bridgman and Czochralski pulling methods. Crystal orientations and the relationships between the crystallographic and physical axes of the monoclinic ReCOB crystals are discussed. The procedures for dielectric, elastic, electromechanical and piezoelectric property characterization, taking advantage of the impedance method, are presented. In addition, the maximum piezoelectric coefficients for different piezoelectric vibration modes are explored, and the optimized crystal cuts free of piezoelectric cross-talk are obtained by rotation calculations.

  19. Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

  20. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  1. Comparison of Hippocampal Volume in Dementia Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims. To examine the relationship between different types of dementia and hippocampal volume. Methods. Hippocampal volume was measured using FL3D sequence magnetic resonance imaging in 26 Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and 15 healthy controls and also hippocampal ratio, analyzed. Minimental scale was used to stratify patients on cognitive function impairments. Results. Hippocampal volume and ratio was reduced by 25% in Alzheimer's disease, 21% in mixed dementia, 11% in vascular dementia and 5% in normal pressure hydrocephalus in comparison to control. Also an asymmetrical decrease in volume of left hippocampus was noted. The severity of dementia increased in accordance to decreasing hippocampal volume. Conclusion. Measurement in hippocampal volume may facilitate in differentiating different types of dementia and in disease progression. There was a correlation between hippocampal volume and severity of cognitive impairment

  2. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, G. N.; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of...

  3. Modelling the magnetic activity and filtering radial velocity curves of young Suns : the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, J.-F.; Hébrard, E.; Hussain, G.; Moutou, C.; Grankin, K.; Boisse, I.; Morin, J.; Gregory, S. G.; Vidotto, A. A.; Bouvier, J.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Delfosse, X.; Doyon, R.; Takami, M.; Jardine, M. M.; Fares, R.; Cameron, A. C.; Ménard, F.; Dougados, C.; Herczeg, G.; Matysse Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We report results of a spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 4 within the Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of close-in giant Exoplanets (MaTYSSE) programme, involving ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Despite an age of only 2 Myr and a similarity with prototypical classical T Tauri stars, LkCa 4 shows no evidence for accretion and probes an interesting transition stage for star and planet formation. Large profile distortions and Zeeman signatures are detected in the unpolarized and circularly polarized lines of LkCa 4 using Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD), indicating the presence of brightness inhomogeneities and magnetic fields at the surface of LkCa 4. Using tomographic imaging, we reconstruct brightness and magnetic maps of LkCa 4 from sets of unpolarized and circularly polarized LSD profiles. The large-scale field is strong and mainly axisymmetric, featuring a ≃2 kG poloidal component and a ≃1 kG toroidal component encircling the star at equatorial latitudes - the latter making LkCa 4 markedly different from classical T Tauri stars of similar mass and age. The brightness map includes a dark spot overlapping the magnetic pole and a bright region at mid-latitudes - providing a good match to the contemporaneous photometry. We also find that differential rotation at the surface of LkCa 4 is small, typically ≃5.5 times weaker than that of the Sun, and compatible with solid-body rotation. Using our tomographic modelling, we are able to filter out the activity jitter in the radial velocity curve of LkCa 4 (of full amplitude 4.3 km s-1) down to an rms precision of 0.055 km s-1. Looking for hot Jupiters around young Sun-like stars thus appears feasible, even though we find no evidence for such planets around LkCa 4.

  4. Determination of Gibbs Free Energy of Formation from Elements for Ca4Fe9O17 by Solid-state Galvanic Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Yu; Guo, Xing-Min

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to fill the thermodynamic blank in CaO-FeO-Fe2O3 system, the determination of the Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for ternary Ca4Fe9O17 was carried out using a solid-state galvanic cell with air and calcium zirconate material, respectively, as the reference electrode and electrolyte. The ternary system Ca2Fe2O5-CaFe2O4-Ca4Fe9O17 was selected as the measuring electrode and its equilibrium was confirmed. The essential thermodynamic data of Ca2Fe2O5 and CaFe2O4 were cited from the reassessed data from a previous investigation. The reversible electromotive forces of the cell were determined from 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 was derived and given by: The increment of enthalpy and entropy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 at 298 K (25 °C) are calculated to be and . The Ellingham diagram was developed in temperature range 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The oxygen potential of Ca4Fe9O17 was found to be slightly higher than CaFe2O4 and much higher than Ca2Fe2O5.

  5. Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer (PSBBC is a rare clinical entity. The reported incidence ranges between 0.3% and 12%. There are several controversial issues regarding PSBBC pertaining to the diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, and management policies. Materials and Methods: Fourteen cases of PSBBC treated between 2001 to 2010 at our institute were retrospectively analysed in regards to demographic data, management and follow up. Results: PSBBC constituted 0.19% of total breast cancer patients at our institute. Age ranged from 28 to 78 years. PSBBC were detected by clinical examination in eight cases and by mammography in six cases. Twelve patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy, one had unilateral mastectomy on one side and breast conservation on the other side and one patient has bilateral breast conservation. Majority of patients belonged to stage 2 and stage 3. All patients were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma. Five cases were ER/PR positive and 8 patients were triple hormone receptor negative. Eight patients received unilateral and six received bilateral adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median follow up of patients was 15.4 months. Conclusion: PSBBC is a rare event warranting awareness and screening of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral breast cancer. These patients require individualized treatment planning based on the tumor factors of the index lesion. Further multi institutional prospective studies are needed for adequate understanding of management of PSBBC.

  6. Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, N; Lee, K; Yegappan, M

    2007-11-01

    Spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 30-year-old man with end-stage renal failure, who sustained this injury, and subsequently had surgical repair of both tendons on separate occasions. He has since regained full range of movement of both knees.

  7. Bilateral familial nevus of Ota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sunali; Uwaydat, Sami H; Phillips, Paul H; Schaefer, G Bradley

    2014-12-01

    Nevus of Ota is a benign congenital melanocytic lesion found most commonly in people of Asian ancestry. It is associated with an increased risk of glaucoma and uveal melanomas. Most cases are sporadic and unilateral. We present the first reported case of a brother and sister with familial, bilateral nevus of Ota.

  8. Analysis of parahippocampal gyrus in 115 patients with hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Nelson Fortes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Analysis of the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG involvement in 115 patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS by MR imaging. The simultaneous occurrence of ipsilateral fornix (F and mamillary body (MB volume loss was checked also. These findings were correlated with the side of hippocampal involvement, the sex, patient´s age, and the symptoms onset. METHOD: The MR images of 115 patients with HS were studied retrospectively. All the examinations were performed on 1.5 T units (SIGNA, GE, Milwaukee, WI and included high resolution coronal T2-weighted images (3 mm thickness, 0.6 mm gap. RESULTS: The patient's age ranged between 3.5 and 80 years (mean 34.1; 62 (53.9% were female and 53 (46.1% were male. There were HS on the left side in 53 (46.0%, on the right side in 51 (44.3%, and bilateral in 11 (9.7%. In 43 (37.3% cases there were ipsilateral PHG volume loss and signal hyper intensity on T2-weighted imaging. In 29 (25.2% cases there were ipsilateral fornix volume loss and in 10 (34.5% of this there were also ipsilateral MB changes. In abnormal PHG, 23 (53.4% were on the left side, 17 (39.5% were on the right side, and 3 (7.1% were bilateral. There were fornix changes in 15 (34.8% cases and MB volume loss in 5 (11.6% cases. Pertinent clinical data were obtained in only 18 (41.8% of the PHG lesion cases and 11 (61.1% of these patients had epileptic attacks for more than 20 years before the examination. CONCLUSION: PHG involvement must be investigated in patients with HS and we suggest that the term mesial temporal sclerosis should be used only if there are also changes at this anatomical site.

  9. Long-term neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, and life outcome in hippocampal amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Magnotta, Vincent; Capizzano, Aristides A; Cassell, Martin D.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Focal bilateral hippocampal damage typically causes severe and selective amnesia for new declarative information (facts and events), a cognitive deficit that greatly impacts the ability to live a normal, fully-independent life. We describe the case of 1846, a 48-year-old woman with profound hippocampal amnesia following status epilepticus and an associated anoxic episode at age 30. 1846 has undergone extensive neuropsychological testing on many occasions over the 18 years since her injury, and we present data indicating that her memory impairment has remained severe and stable during that time. New, high-resolution structural MRI studies of 1846's brain reveal substantial bilateral hippocampal atrophy resembling that of other well-known amnesic patients. In spite of severe amnesia, 1846 lives a full and mostly independent adult life, facilitated by an extensive social support network of family and friends. Her case provides an example of a rare and unlikely positive outcome in the face of severe memory problems. PMID:22401298

  10. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, J. Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E.; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á.; Olvera-Cortés, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  11. Hippocampal, parahippocampal and occipital-temporal contributions to associative and item recognition memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonelinas, A P; Hopfinger, J B; Buonocore, M H; Kroll, N E; Baynes, K

    2001-02-12

    The temporal lobe regions involved in memory retrieval were examined using fMRI. During an associative recognition test, participants made memory judgments about the study color of previously presented drawings of objects, and during item recognition tests they made old/new judgments about previously studied objects or new objects. Associative recognition compared with old item recognition led to activations in bilateral hippocampal and parahippocampal regions, as well as in the left middle occipital gyrus. Old item recognition compared with new item recognition led to activation in the left middle occipital gyrus and the left middle temporal gyrus, and relative deactivations in bilateral hippocampal regions. The results indicate that partially distinct temporal lobe regions are involved during recognition memory for item and associative information. PMID:11209950

  12. Restoration of hippocampal growth hormone reverses stress-induced hippocampal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin M. Vander Weele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Though growth hormone (GH is synthesized by hippocampal neurons, where its expression is influenced by stress exposure, its function is poorly characterized. Here, we show that a regimen of chronic stress that impairs hippocampal function in rats also leads to a profound decrease in hippocampal GH levels. Restoration of hippocampal GH in the dorsal hippocampus via viral-mediated gene transfer completely reversed stress-related impairment of two hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks, auditory trace fear conditioning and contextual fear conditioning, without affecting hippocampal function in unstressed control rats. GH overexpression reversed stress-induced decrements in both fear acquisition and long-term fear memory. These results suggest that loss of hippocampal GH contributes to hippocampal dysfunction following prolonged stress and demonstrate that restoring hippocampal GH levels following stress can promote stress resilience.

  13. Hippocampal Sclerosis in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Findings at 7 T

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Thomas R.; Chupin, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Strupp, John P.; Sikora, Michael A.; Sha, Zhiyi Y.; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François

    2011-01-01

    Use of 7-T MR imaging might enable us to fully define a wide range of macroscopically visible findings in patients with hippocampal sclerosis, including atrophy of hippocampal subregions and deformities of the hippocampal head and body.

  14. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 region of hyperlipidemic rats with chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingying Cheng; Ying Zhang; Hongmei Song; Jiachun Feng

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cerebral ischemia is a pathological process in many cerebrovascular diseases and it is induced by long-term hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. After being fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks, rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries to establish rat models of chronic cerebral ischemia with hyperlipidemia. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in rat hippocampal CA1 region was determined to better understand the mechanism underlying the effects of hyperlipidemia on chronic cerebral ischemia. Water maze test results showed that the cognitive function of rats with hyperlipidemia or chronic cerebral ischemia, particularly in rats with hyperlipidemia combined with chronic cerebral ischemia, gradually decreased between 1 and 4 months after occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. This correlated with pathological changes in the hippocampal CA1 region as detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical staining showed that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 region was noticeably increased in rats with hyperlipidemia or chronic cerebral ischemia, in particular in rats with hyperlipidemia combined with chronic cerebral ischemia. These findings suggest that hyperlipidemia aggravates chronic cerebral ischemia-induced neurological damage and cognitive impairment in the rat hippocampal CA1 region, which may be mediated, at least in part, by up-regulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

  15. Synthesis and luminescence properties of Eu2+-activated Ca4Mg5(PO4)6 for blue-emitting phosphor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liu Min; Tang Wanjun; Deng Kejian

    2012-02-01

    Ca4Mg5(PO4)6:Eu2+ blue-emitting phosphor was synthesized by the combustion-assisted synthesis method under reductive atmosphere. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of Ca4Mg5(PO4)6 pure phase. Photoluminescence results showed that the phosphor can be excited efficiently by UV light range from 230–400 nm, and then exhibited bright blue light with peak wavelength at 431 nm. It is a very promising candidate as a blue-emitting phosphor for potential applications in display devices.

  16. Structural, Electronic and Elastic Properties of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 for Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djellab, Sihem; Bouhadda, Youcef; Bououdina, Mohamed; Fenineche, Noureddine; Boudouma, Youcef

    2016-08-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 have been determined using first principles calculation based on density functional theory. The calculated lattice constants were in good agreement with the experimental values. The electronic density of states revealed that these hydrides are insulators. The calculated elastic constants of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 indicated that these hydrides are mechanically stable at zero pressure. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ν were derived, and the ductility was discussed.

  17. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Suárez; Mabel C. Ospina; Sandra A. Arias; González, María E

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT) o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicen...

  18. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Metachronous Aldosteronomas

    OpenAIRE

    Rizek, Philippe; Gorecki, Piotr; Lindenmayer, Aristid; Moktan, Sabita

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Primary aldosteronism affects 5% to 13% of patients with hypertension. Idiopathic bilateral hyperplasia (IHA) and unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) are the most common types of primary aldosteronism. Bilateral APA is a very rare entity with only a few reports in the literature. We present the case of a patient with metachronous bilateral APA treated with metachronous bilateral total and near total adrenalectomy. Case Report: A 66-year-old female was evaluated for hy...

  19. The cumulative analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture involves synaptic remodeling in the hippocampal CA3 region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuling Xu; Tao Liu; Shuping Chen; Yonghui Gao; Junying Wang; Lina Qiao; Junling Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the analgesic effect of repeated electroacupuncture at bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) once a day for 14 consecutive days in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. In addition, concomitant changes in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression and synaptic ultrastructure of neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region were examined. The thermal pain threshold (paw withdrawal latency) was increased significantly in both groups at 2 weeks after electroacupuncture intervention compared with 2 days of electroacupuncture. In ovariectomized rats with chronic constriction injury, the analgesic effect was significantly reduced. Electroacupuncture for 2 weeks significantly diminished the injury-induced increase in synaptic cleft width and thinning of the postsynaptic density, and it significantly suppressed the down-regulation of intracellular calcium/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region. Repeated electroacupuncture intervention had a cumulative analgesic effect on injury-induced neuropathic pain reactions, and it led to synaptic remodeling of hippocampal neurons and upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression in the hippocampal CA3 region.

  20. Hippocampal GABA transporter distribution in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, O.; Karaca, U.; Andrade, P.; Nijs, L. de; Kusters, B.; Peeters, A.; Dings, J.; Pannek, H.; Ebner, A.; Rijkers, K.; Hoogland, G.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal expression of neuronal GABA-transporter (GAT-1) and glial GABA-transporter (GAT-3) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: Hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for GABA-transporter 1 and GABA-transpor

  1. Habitat-Specific Shaping of Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis of Wild Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eCavegn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Daily life of wild mammals is characterized by a multitude of attractive and aversive stimuli. The hippocampus processes complex polymodal information associated with such stimuli and mediates adequate behavioral responses. How newly generated hippocampal neurons in wild animals contribute to hippocampal function is still a subject of debate. Here, we test the relationship between adult hippocampal neurogenesis and habitat types. To this end, we compare wild Muridae species of southern Africa (Namaqua rock mouse (Micaelamys namaquensis, red veld rat (Aethomys chrysophilus, highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii and spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus with data from wild European Muridae (long-tailed wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, pygmy field mice (Apodemus microps, yellow-necked wood mice (Apodemus flavicollis, and house mice (Mus musculus domesticus from previous studies. The pattern of neurogenesis, expressed in normalized numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells to total granule cells, is similar for the species from a southern African habitat. However, we found low proliferation, but high neuronal differentiation in rodents from the southern African habitat compared to rodents from the European environment. Within the African rodents, we observe additional regulatory and morphological traits in the hippocampus. Namaqua rock mice with previous pregnancies showed lower adult hippocampal neurogenesis compared to males and nulliparous females. The phylogenetically closely related species (Namaqua rock mouse and red veld rat show a CA4, which is not usually observed in murine rodents. The specific features of the southern environment that may be associated with the high number of young neurons in African rodents still remain to be elucidated. This study provides the first evidence that a habitat can shape adult neurogenesis in rodents across phylogenetic groups.

  2. Simultaneous and staged bilateral total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Joergensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA) and bilateral simultaneous total hip arthroplasty (BSTHA) are done increasingly. Previous studies evaluating outcomes after bilateral procedures have found different results. The aim of this study was to investigate length of hospital stay (LOS), 30 days...

  3. Bilateral pallidotomy for generalized dystonia Palidotomia bilateral para distonias generalizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bilateral pallidotomies in five patients with generalized dystonia. BACKGROUND: Generalized dystonias are frequently a therapeutic challenge, with poor responses to pharmacological treatment. GPi (globus pallidus internus pallidotomies for Parkinson's disease ameliorate all kinds of dyskinesias/dystonia, and recent studies reported a marked improvement of refractory dystonias with this procedure. METHODS: Five patients with generalized dystonias refractory to medical treatment were selected; one posttraumatic and four idiopathic. The decision to perform bilateral procedures was based on the predominant axial involvement in these patients. Dystonia severity was assessed with the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Scale (BFM. Simultaneous procedures were performed in all but one patient, who had a staged procedure. They were reevaluated with the same scale (BFM by an unblinded rater at 1, 2, 3, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days post-operatively. RESULTS: The four patients with idiopathic dystonia showed a progressive improvement up to three months; the patient with posttraumatic dystonia relapsed at three months. One patient had a marked improvement, being able to discontinue all the medications. A mean decrease in the BFM scores of 52,58% was noted. One patient had a trans-operative motor seizure followed by a transient hemiparesis secondary to rack hemorrhage; other was lethargic up to three days after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that bilateral GPi pallidotomies may be a safe and effective approach to medically refractory generalized dystonias; it can also be speculated that the posttraumatic subgroup may not benefit with this procedure.As distonias generalizadas são freqüentemente um desafio terapêutico, com pobres respostas aos tratamentos farmacológicos. As cirurgias estereotáxicas, como a palidotomia, têm sido utilizadas com êxito no tratamento da doença de Parkinson e estudos

  4. Bilateral Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozbuga Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD is a pathologic entity with progrediating, diffuse hypertrophy chiefly of the stratum granulosum of the cerebellum. Typically LDD is a unilateral lesion of the cerebellum or in vermis. Here we report a case of LDD with bilateral lesions of cerebellar hemispheres managed surgically. A 28-year-old woman presented with one-year history of progressive headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision. Neurologic examination revealed a bilateral mild papilledema, mild dysmetria, and dysdiadochokinesia. The cerebellar lesions caused moderate mass effect in posterior fossa with hydrocephalus, and Chiari type I malformation. We performed the suboccipital-retrosigmoid approach, and removed completely the left intracerebellar mass. Symptoms related to elevated intracranial pressure disappeared in a short period postoperatively.

  5. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  6. Bilateral Molariform Mandibular Second Premolars

    OpenAIRE

    Sonu Acharya; Pradip Kumar Mandal; Chiranjit Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side ...

  7. Hippocampal volume predicts fluid intelligence in musically trained people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Descloux, Céline; Croquelois, Alexandre; Chanal, Julien; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; James, Clara E

    2013-07-01

    Recently, age-related hippocampal (HP) volume loss could be associated with a decrease in general fluid intelligence (gF). In the present study we investigated whether and how extensive musical training modulates human HP volume and gF performance. Previously, some studies demonstrated positive effects of musical training on higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory, associated with neural adaptations beyond the auditory domain. In order to detect possible associations between musical training and gF, we bilaterally segmented the HP formation and assessed the individual gF performance of people with different levels of musical expertise. Multiple regression analyses revealed that HP volume predicts gF in musicians but not in nonmusicians; in particular, bilaterally enhanced HP volume is associated with increased gF exclusively in musically trained people (amateurs and experts). This result suggests that musical training facilitates the recruitment of cognitive resources, which are essential for gF and linked to HP functioning. Musical training, even at a moderate level of intensity, can thus be considered as a potential strategy to decelerate age-related effects of cognitive decline. PMID:23519979

  8. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  9. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden); Wang, Chen [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  10. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  11. Image shifts resulting from the misorientation of two individuals in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoboHu; JiyangWang; ShushengJiang; HongLiu; MingGuo; HuaidongJian

    2001-01-01

    Large GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method.The quality of GdCa4(BO3)3 crystal was assessed by white-beam synchrotron radiation topography.It has been found that there is a sub-grain boundary in the GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystal.The boundary divides the large GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystal into two individuals.Due to the misorientation between the two individuals,the image shifts can be observed in the synchrotron topopraphs.Based on the misorientation determined by high resolution X-ray diffractometer,the image shifts were calculated for several reflections.The calculations are in agreement with the measurements from the topogrphs very Well.In addition,the formation mechanism of sub-grain boundary is discussed.2001 Elsevier science B.V.All rights reserved.

  12. Changes of evoked potential in different hippocampal regions induced by electrostimulation at medial mamillary nucleus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Li; Lihong Shang; Liang Zhang; Fengzhi Cui

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphological data have shown that the most important afferent fibers of papillary body come from hippocampal structure.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of evoked potential in hippocampus and the significance after electrostimulation at medial mamillary nucleus.DESIGN: An observational control experiment.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Shenyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Twenty-three male or female Wistar rats, 3-4 months old, weighing 270-350 g, were provided by bhe animal room of Shenyang Medical College [the license number was scxk(Liao)2003-0016].METHODS: The Wistar rats were anaesthetized by intraperintoneal injection of 20% urethane (1 g/kg), tracheal intubation was also given. The self-made double-pole metal stimulating electrode with the point diameter of 1 mm was inserted into medial mamillary nucleus, the wanted hippocampal guidance spot was found within the rang of the hippocampal region at the same side of tee mamillary body range (CA1-CA4),inserted with same-core guidance electrode, a sole square-wave stimulation of wave wide 0.2 ms stimulated with electrodes at the applied intensity of 7-9 V, the evoked potential was induced through guidance electrodes, and then input to the ATAC-350 data-processing machine for memory showing wave processing, the memory recorded wave recording graph was separately drawn up by the X-Y recording instrument to observe the latency, time procedure and amplitude of the evoked potential in each hippocampal region of the rats and calculate the percentage of the evoked potential in each hippocampal region, Totally 78 guidance spots in hippocampus were recorded, including 30 positive reaction spots and 48 negative ones.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:① Latency,time procedure and amplitude of the evoked potentials in each hippocampal region of rats;② percentage of the evoked potentials in each hippocampal region;③ the wave shapes of the evoked potentials in each hippocampal region from different arrangement in the

  13. Epigenetics, estradiol, and hippocampal memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations of histone proteins and DNA are essential for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function, and contribute to the etiology of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hippocampal memory formation depends on histone alterations and DNA methylation, and increasing evidence suggests that regulation of these epigenetic processes by modulatory factors such as environmental enrichment, stress, and hormones substantially influences memory function. Recen...

  14. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  15. Hippocampal sclerosis and status epilepticus: cause or consequence? A MRI study; Esclerose hipocampal e status epilepticus: causa ou consequencia? Um estudo de RM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, Gustavo Wruck; Braga-Neto, Pedro; Santos-Neto, Denizart; Santana, Maria Teresa Garcia; Barsottini, Orlando Graziani [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Neurology. Div. of General Neurology]. E-mail: gwkuster@hotmail.com; Maia Junior, Antonio Carlos Martins [Fleury Institute, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Magnetic Resonance Imaging Unit

    2007-12-15

    Background: Transient imaging abnormalities, including changes on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), may be seen in status epilepticus. These abnormalities can be followed by hippocampal sclerosis. Case Report: We report a 15-year-old lady with focal non convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) and focal slowing on EEG. DWI exhibited abnormal hyperintense signals in bilateral temporal and insular cortices. After 3 weeks, MRI performed a localized hippocampal atrophy. Conclusion: The MRI findings indicated vasogenic and cytotoxic edema during seizure activity and subsequent loss of brain parenchyma. (author)

  16. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  17. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajkta A Thete

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery

  18. Bilateral molariform mandibular second premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sonu; Kumar Mandal, Pradip; Ghosh, Chiranjit

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side and erupted macrodontic premolar on the other side and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, and molariform crowns and tapering, single roots. PMID:25685564

  19. Protective roles of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunxu; WANG Hanxing

    2007-01-01

    The effects of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of brain ischemia/reperfusion were explored.The mice were pretreated with heat stress followed by ischemia/reperfusion by clipping bilateral cervical common arteries for 7 min.Mice were divided randomly into four groups as follows:(1)normal control group;(2)heat stress pretreated subsequent to ischemia/reperfusion group (HS/IR);(3)ischemia/reperfusion group(IR);and(4)heat stress group(HS).Animals in the last three groups were subdivided into three subgroups:1 d,4 d,14 d respectively.The Morris water maze was used to test the ability of learning and memorizing,Nissl staining was used to count the average number of survived neurons in hippocampal CA1 region,and immunohistochemistry combined with image analysis system to detect the changes of Microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2)expression.The results showed that mice in IR group exhibited increased escape latency when compared with that of normal,HS and HS/IR groups(P<0.01),and the mice in IR group adopted an inefficient search strategy,major in circling and restricted searching manners.Nissl staining results showed a significant reduction in the number of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 regions in HS/IR and IR groups,with a decrease in IR group(P<0.01).Compared with normal group,the expression of MAP-2 in hippocampal CA1 region obviously decreased in IR group(P<0.05).The present results indicate that heat stress pretreatment can improve the spatial learning and memorizing function through protection to hippocampal neurons.

  20. Hippocampal and thalamic neuronal metabolism in a putative rat model of schizophrenia○

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolin Ma; Tianbin Song; Min Chen; Yuan Fu; Yong Xu; Ensen Ma; Wu Wang; Jiang Du; Mingxiong Huang

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor early growth response protein 3 (EGR3) is involved in schizophrenia. We developed a putative rat model of schizophrenia by transfecting lentiviral particles carrying the Egr3 gene into bilateral hippocampal dentate gyrus. We assessed spatial working memory using the Morris water maze test, and neuronal metabolite levels in bilateral hippocampus and thalamus were determined by 3.0 T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Choline content was significantly greater in the hippocampus after transfection, while N-acetylaspartate and the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine/phosphocreatine in the thalamus were lower than in controls. This study is the first to report evaluation of brain metabolites using 3.0 T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in rats transfected with Egr3, and reveals metabolic abnormalities in the hippocampus and thalamus in this putative model of schizophrenia.

  1. Simultaneous Registration and Parcellation of Bilateral Hippocampal Surface Pairs for Local Asymmetry Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Nicholas A.; Ho, Jeffrey; Vemuri, Baba C.; Eisenschenk, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    In clinical applications where structural asymmetries between homologous shapes have been correlated with pathology, the questions of definition and quantification of “asymmetry” arise naturally. When not only the degree but the position of deformity is thought relevant, asymmetry localization must also be addressed. Asymmetries between paired shapes have already been formulated in terms of (nonrigid) diffeomorphisms between the shapes. For the infinity of such maps possible for a given pair,...

  2. Bilateral Monteggia fracture in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1814 Giovanni Monteggia first described two cases of fractures of the proximal third of ulna with dislocation of the radial head. These fractures are more common in children than in adults, and mutual Monteggia fracture is a rare complication. This study presents a treatment course of a patient with bilateral Monteggia fracture. Case report. A 55- year-old patient was injured by falling in the yard. Radiography showed bilateral Monteggia fracture type II (by the Badon classification. Operative treatment of fracture was done by a compression plate on the right side and by the zuggurtung technique on the left one. Closed repositioning of the radial head was done on both sides. The patient was wearing a plaster splint for the upper arm for 21 days. After removing the fixation, the function of the elbow was determined by the Broberg Morrey score (BM which was on the right side 45.5 and on the left side 47.5. After the proper physical therapy, four months after the surgery, BM score was 100 on the right side, and 93 on the left one. Conclusion. Surgical treatment and early rehabilitation is the key for the return of good function of both elbows.

  3. [Simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, A; Caminiti, F; Tosato, F; Ruggieri, M; Paolini, G; Carnevale, L; Corsini, F; Marano, S; Monsellato, I

    2001-04-01

    A case report of a 44 year-old white man admitted to the surgical unit for a bilateral simultaneous pneumothorax is presented. The pneumothorax occurred on day one after a surgical operation for discal hernia; in the past the patient already presented a right spontaneous pneumothorax at 32 years of age and a left pneumothorax at 37 years of age, both treated with a pleural drainage. A thoracic drain was bilaterally positioned with a good result only in the right side. The persistence of the left pneumothorax induced the authors to perform a postero-lateral thoracotomy bullae excision and pleurectomy with a good postoperative course. After a few months a new right pneumothorax occurred and the patient was treated with a right postero-lateral thoracotomy, bullae resection and pleurectomy. On the basis of the case reported, the authors consider the different opportunities in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to the present knowledges and technologies. Surgical procedure is to be preferred in case of persistence of pneumothorax despite a pleural drain and in case of pneumothorax in high risk subjects. Even if thoracoscopy seems to give better results regarding postoperative pain, it is not always possible with such a method to perform a careful pleurectomy neither to obtain it in all cases (above all in secondary pneumothorax). Every case must then be carefully studied to choose the best treatment at present available. PMID:11353349

  4. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    Danish bilateral development assistance is aimed at reducing poverty in the partner countries. Even so, bilateral assistance may have secondary, or knock-on, effects, which are beneficial for Denmark. An important secondary effect is the prospect of increased export from Denmark to the partner...... countries. This Evaluation Study presents an econometric analysis of Danish exports to 144 countries over the period from 1981 to 2010. The analysis is based on the gravity model of bilateral trade; a structural model developed over decades and now the central model in analyses of bilateral trade flows...... and trade policies. The main result of the study is that Danish bilateral aid has a positive and statistically significant impact on Danish exports to the recipient countries. Bilateral development assistance may affect exports through several channels. Three of the main channels are direct aid tying...

  5. New Curious Bilateral q-Series Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Jouhet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By applying a classical method, already employed by Cauchy, to a terminating curious summation by one of the authors, a new curious bilateral q-series identity is derived. We also apply the same method to a quadratic summation by Gessel and Stanton, and to a cubic summation by Gasper, respectively, to derive a bilateral quadratic and a bilateral cubic summation formula.

  6. A longitudinal study of alterations of hippocampal volumes and serum BDNF levels in association to atypical antipsychotics in a sample of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Rizos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, which have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and emergence of schizophrenia syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction and progressive hippocampal volume decrease in first-episode patients with schizophrenia has been shown in many neuroimaging studies. Dysfunction of the neurotrophic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The initiation of antipsychotic medication alters the levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels. However it is unclear whether treatment with antipsychotics is associated with alterations of hippocampal volume and BDNF levels. METHODS: In the present longitudinal study we investigated the association between serum BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes in a sample of fourteen first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FEP. MRI scans, BDNF and clinical measurements were performed twice: at baseline before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment and 8 months later, while the patients were receiving monotherapy with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. RESULTS: We found that left hippocampal volume was decreased (corrected left HV [t = 2.977, df = 13, p = .011] at follow-up; We also found that the higher the BDNF levels change the higher were the differences of corrected left hippocampus after 8 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotics (Pearson r = 0.597, p = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: The association of BDNF with hippocampal volume alterations in schizophrenia merits further investigation and replication in larger longitudinal studies.

  7. Bilateral Clavicle Fracture in Two Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Arun Ozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fracture of clavicle is the most frequently observed bone fracture as birth trauma and it is usually unilateral. It is seen following shoulder dystocia deliveries or breech presentation of macrosomic newborns.Case Presentation: We report two macrosomic newborns with bilateral clavicle fracture and brachial plexus palsy due to birth trauma. Chest X-rays confirmed bilateral fracture of clavicles. Both patients were recovered without any sequel.Conclusion: Bilateral clavicular fracture should be considered in any neonate with bilateral absent Moro reflexes.

  8. Spectroscopic study of the Pr-doped BiBO glass and Ca4GdO(BO3)3 single crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Majchrowski; M.G.Brik; G.A.Kumar; K.Ozga; I.Sildos; A.Suchocki; A.(S)l(e)zak; T.(L)ukasiewicz; I.V.Kityk

    2009-01-01

    Detailed spectroscopic studies of Pr3+ ions in BiBO glass and Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystal were performed.Experimental absorption spectra were measured at room temperature and assigned.The first principles discrete variational multielectron method was used to model the polarized absorption spectra of the Ca4GdO(BO3)3:Pr3+;without any fitting parameters,the overall appearance of the spectra was reproduced satisfactorily.The energy intervals between different molecular orbitals in the [PrO6]cluster were estimated.The conventional Judd-Ofelt theory was used to calculate the oscillator strengths of the 4f-4f transitions in the BiBO:Pr3+ system;the set of the phenomenological intensity parameters was determined.

  9. Photo-luminescent properties of Eu3+ ion-doped Ca4REO(BO3)3 (RE=La,Y,Gd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europium-doped materials Ca4REO(BO3)3 (RE=La,Y,Gd) were first synthesized by a sol-gel process technique. The reaction temperature of the sol-gel process was 300 deg C lower than that of solid-state reaction and the reaction time of sol-gel process was shorter. The photo-luminescence characteristics of Eu-doped Ca4REO(BO3)3 (RE=La,Y,Gd) indicated that all compounds exhibited strong luminescence of 5D0-7F2 at 608 nm under excitation at 242 nm. The emission intensity of phosphors prepared by sol-gel process was higher than those prepared by solid-state reaction; particularly the compound Ca4La0.9Eu0.1O(BO3)3 prepared by sol-gel process presented the highest brightness. SEM images showed that particles prepared by sol-gel process had more regular morphology and smaller grain size

  10. Improvement in the microwave dielectric properties of SrCa4Nb4TiO17 ceramics by Ba substitution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Manan; Yaseen Iqbal

    2014-10-01

    Microwave dielectric ceramics in the Sr1–BaCa4Nb4TiO17 (0 ≤ ≤ 0.75) composition series were fabricated via a solid-state mixed oxide route. All the compositions formed single phase in Sr1–BaCa4Nb4TiO17 (0 ≤ ≤ 0.75) solid solutions within the detection limit of in-house X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sintered microstructure of these ceramics comprised densely packed elongated and plate-like grains. The dielectric properties varied linearly with . Relative permittivity (r) increased from 47.2 to 54.5, unloaded quality factor multiplying the resonant frequency (u o) decreased from 11,984 to 9345 GHz and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (f) increased from –78.6 to 20 ppm/°C with an increase in x from 0 to 0.75. In the present study, r ≈ 51.6, u o ≈ 10,160 GHz (5.37 GHz) and f ≈ –13.5 ppm/°C were achieved for Sr0.5Ba0.5Ca4Nb4TiO17 ( = 0.5) ceramics.

  11. Bilateral metachronous breast cancer with bilateral recurrences: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The incidence of bilateral breast cancer has been reported to range from 0.4% to 14%, and it increases gradually as a result of improved early detection capabilities and longer survival times. We report a rare case where the bilateral breast cancers occurred as a metachronous bilateral breast cancer with bilateral recurrences, detected by mammography, and the rapid growth of tumor that manifested as microcalcification and skin thickening within 3 months.

  12. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  13. Bilateral fracture in atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana SIGNORINI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the elderly population in Brazil has brought a higher number of patients of this age level for dental treatment in several areas of dentistry.Elderly patients are exposed to many kinds of aggressor agents, such as falling down and accidents that cause maxillofacial fractures, which require the specialized assistance of a maxillofacial surgeon. The elderly present a differentiated condition involving systemic changes and use of several drugs that must be taken into consideration when planning the therapeutics ofeach case. The treatment of facial trauma must aim fast recovery along with minimal morbidity. The authors present a case of mandible bilateral fracture in edentulous elderly patient with severe atrophy, treated with titanium plate and screws osteosynthesis. The healing period was satisfactory, without postoperative complications in 18 months follow up.

  14. Marfan's syndrome presenting as bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax.

    OpenAIRE

    Gawkrodger, D J

    1981-01-01

    A case of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in a 14-year-old girl with previously undiagnosed Marfan's syndrome is described. The pulmonary abnormalities of Marfan's syndrome are not commonly encountered and bilateral pneumothorax is itself a rare event which, in most instances, has been reported following invasive procedures.

  15. Bilateral failure of adduction following orbital decompression.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsella, F; Kyle, P.; Stansfield, A

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral complete failure of adduction following bilateral translid antralethmoidal orbital decompression. We believe the probable mechanism is neuropraxia (temporary dysfunction) of the third cranial nerves' supply to the medial recti, owing to these nerves' occupying an anatomically abnormal position. Partial recovery of adduction occurred over the ensuing six months.

  16. Secondary polycythaemia associated with bilateral renal lymphocoeles.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, I E; Sambrook, P.; McWilliam, L J

    1994-01-01

    A patient with a 15 year history of secondary polycythaemia due to renal erythropoietin hypersecretion is presented. Subsequent spontaneous development of bilateral renal lymphocoeles, which contained high erythropoietin levels, was shown by computerized tomography. The lymphocoeles were successfully treated by bilateral peritoneal marsupialization. No cause for the persistent polycythaemia or lymphocoeles was found at laparotomy or on renal biopsy.

  17. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin.

  18. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  19. Bilateral breast involvement in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakeem A, Mandakini BT, Asif K, Firdaus, Shagufta RC

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast involvement by leukemic infiltration is usually bilateral, but may be unilateral. Clinically patients can present with either single or multiple masses, or with diffuse breast engorgement, with or without nodularity. The affected patients are predominantly young adults. We present a case of an adolescent girl with acute myeloid leukemia having bilateral breast infiltration by leukemic cells.

  20. Concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy: a rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare twin gestation with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a 30 year old woman without any high risk factor for ectopic pregnancy, who had concurrent bilateral ectopic pregnancy. A 30 year old female presented to the Gynecology emergency department complaining of vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. The presumptive diagnosis of ruptured left sided ectopic pregnancy was made on basis of clinical findings and ultrasound finings. An emergency laparotomy was done revealed a hemoperitoneum of 1.5 liters, a ruptured left tubal pregnancy with active bleeding and right tubal un-ruptured ectopic was found. A bilateral salpingectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed presence of chorionic villi in both tubes. In theory, laparoscopic salpingostomy is the best surgical approach in bilateral tubal pregnancy. However, bilateral salpingectomy may be necessary when both tubes are extensively damaged or are actively bleeding. Successful pregnancies have been reported after conservative surgical treatment of bilateral ectopic, but the risk of recurrence is high. Our decision for an emergency laparotomy followed by bilateral salpingectomy was based on the fact that the patient presented with acute abdomen and was haemodynamically unstable and there was extensive bilateral tubal damage. As the incidence of ectopic pregnancies is increasing concurrently with the incidences of pelvic inflammatory disease and use of assisted fertility techniques; it may be that these and ldquo;rare ectopics and rdquo; will become less uncommon. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1197-1199

  1. Acral osteolysis in bilateral compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Saeed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common neurological condition with rare yet potentially serious cutaneous and skeletal complications. We present a case of mutilating/ulcerating bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a 63 year old female. Radiographs showed symmetrical acral osteolysis in the index and middle fingers distal phalanges bilaterally. Carpal tunnel decompressions provided symptomatic relief.

  2. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin. PMID:22561379

  3. Neonatal hypoxia, hippocampal atrophy, and memory impairment: evidence of a causal sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-06-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life. PMID:24343890

  4. Profile of hippocampal volumes and stroke risk varies by neuropsychological definition of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Amy J; Urban, Stephanie; McCauley, Ashley; Bangen, Katherine J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bondi, Mark W

    2009-11-01

    Wide-ranging conceptual and diagnostic approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have led to highly variable prevalence and progression rates. We sought to examine whether bilateral hippocampal volumes and cerebrovascular risk factors in individuals characterized by two different neuropsychological definitions of MCI subtypes would also differ. Participants were 65 nondemented, community-dwelling, older adults, ages 62-91 years, drawn from a larger group of individuals enrolled in a longitudinal study of normal aging. A comprehensive neuropsychological definition of MCI that required the presence of more than one impaired score in a cognitive domain resulted in expected anatomical results; hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller in the aMCI group as compared to cognitively normal or nonamnestic MCI participants. However, a typical definitional scheme for classifying MCI based only on the presence of one impaired score within a cognitive domain did not result in hippocampal differences between groups. Global stroke risk factors did not differ between the two definitional schemes, although the relationship between stroke risk variables and neuropsychological performance did vary by diagnostic approach. The comprehensive approach demonstrated associations between stroke risk and cognition, whereas the typical approach did not. Use of more sophisticated clinical decision-making and diagnostic approaches that incorporate comprehensive neuropsychological assessment techniques is supported by this convergence of neuropsychological, neuropathological, and stroke risk findings. PMID:19570306

  5. Investigating the Role of Hippocampal BDNF in Anxiety Vulnerability Using Classical Eyeblink Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Kellie L; Cominski, Tara P; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V; Servatius, Richard J; Pang, Kevin C H

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), behavioral inhibition temperament (BI), and small hippocampal volume have been linked to anxiety disorders. Individuals with BI show facilitated acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response (CCER) as compared to non-BI individuals, and a similar pattern is seen in an animal model of BI, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. The present study examined the role of hippocampal BDNF in the facilitated delay CCER of WKY rats. Consistent with earlier work, acquisition was facilitated in WKY rats compared to the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Facilitated acquisition was associated with increased BDNF, TrkB, and Arc mRNA in the dentate gyrus of SD rats, but learning-induced increases in BDNF and Arc mRNA were significantly smaller in WKY rats. To determine whether reduced hippocampal BDNF in WKY rats was a contributing factor for their facilitated CCER, BDNF or saline infusions were given bilaterally into the dentate gyrus region 1 h prior to training. BDNF infusion did not alter the acquisition of SD rats, but significantly dampened the acquisition of CCER in the WKY rats, such that acquisition was similar to SD rats. Together, these results suggest that inherent differences in the BDNF system play a critical role in the facilitated associative learning exhibited by WKY rats, and potentially individuals with BI. Facilitated associative learning may represent a vulnerability factor in the development of anxiety disorders.

  6. Investigating the role of hippocampal BDNF in anxiety vulnerability using classical eyeblink conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie L Janke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, behavioral inhibition temperament (BI and small hippocampal volume have been linked to anxiety disorders. Individuals with BI show facilitated acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response (CCER as compared to non-BI individuals, and a similar pattern is seen in an animal model of BI, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat. The present study examined the role of hippocampal BDNF in the facilitated delay CCER of WKY rats. Consistent with earlier work, acquisition was facilitated in WKY rats compared to the SD rats. Facilitated acquisition was associated with increased BDNF, TrkB, and Arc mRNA in the dentate gyrus of SD rats, but learning-induced increases in BDNF and Arc mRNA were significantly smaller in WKY rats. To determine if reduced hippocampal BDNF in WKY rats was a contributing factor for their facilitated CCER, BDNF or saline infusions were given bilaterally into the dentate gyrus region one hour prior to training. BDNF infusion did not alter the acquisition of SD rats, but significantly dampened the acquisition of CCER in the WKY rats, such that acquisition was similar to SD rats. Together, these results suggest that inherent differences in the BDNF system play a critical role in the facilitated associative learning exhibited by WKY rats, and potentially individuals with BI. Facilitated associative learning may represent a vulnerability factor in the development of anxiety disorders.

  7. Detection of volume loss in hippocampal layers in Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Claire; Chupin, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Poupon, Cyril; Wiggins, Christopher; Vignaud, Alexandre; Hasboun, Dominique; Defontaines, Bénédicte; Hanon, Olivier; Dubois, Bruno; Sarazin, Marie; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Colliot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the hippocampus is an early site of tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Histological studies have shown that lesions are not uniformly distributed within the hippocampus. Moreover, alterations of different hippocampal layers may reflect distinct pathological processes. 7 T MRI dramatically improves the visualization of hippocampal subregions and layers. In this study, we aimed to assess whether 7 T MRI can detect volumetric changes in hippocampal layers in vivo in patients with AD. We studied four AD patients and seven control subjects. MR images were acquired using a whole-body 7 T scanner with an eight channel transmit–receive coil. Hippocampal subregions were manually segmented from coronal T2*-weighted gradient echo images with 0.3 × 0.3 × 1.2 mm3 resolution using a protocol that distinguishes between layers richer or poorer in neuronal bodies. Five subregions were segmented in the region of the hippocampal body: alveus, strata radiatum, lacunosum and moleculare (SRLM) of the cornu Ammonis (CA), hilum, stratum pyramidale of CA and stratum pyramidale of the subiculum. We found strong bilateral reductions in the SRLM of the cornu Ammonis and in the stratum pyramidale of the subiculum (p < 0.05), with average cross-sectional area reductions ranging from −29% to −49%. These results show that it is possible to detect volume loss in distinct hippocampal layers using segmentation of 7 T MRI. 7 T MRI-based segmentation is a promising tool for AD research. PMID:25161900

  8. Detection of volume loss in hippocampal layers in Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Boutet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, the hippocampus is an early site of tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Histological studies have shown that lesions are not uniformly distributed within the hippocampus. Moreover, alterations of different hippocampal layers may reflect distinct pathological processes. 7 T MRI dramatically improves the visualization of hippocampal subregions and layers. In this study, we aimed to assess whether 7 T MRI can detect volumetric changes in hippocampal layers in vivo in patients with AD. We studied four AD patients and seven control subjects. MR images were acquired using a whole-body 7 T scanner with an eight channel transmit–receive coil. Hippocampal subregions were manually segmented from coronal T2*-weighted gradient echo images with 0.3 × 0.3 × 1.2 mm3 resolution using a protocol that distinguishes between layers richer or poorer in neuronal bodies. Five subregions were segmented in the region of the hippocampal body: alveus, strata radiatum, lacunosum and moleculare (SRLM of the cornu Ammonis (CA, hilum, stratum pyramidale of CA and stratum pyramidale of the subiculum. We found strong bilateral reductions in the SRLM of the cornu Ammonis and in the stratum pyramidale of the subiculum (p < 0.05, with average cross-sectional area reductions ranging from −29% to −49%. These results show that it is possible to detect volume loss in distinct hippocampal layers using segmentation of 7 T MRI. 7 T MRI-based segmentation is a promising tool for AD research.

  9. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Gebara; Florian Udry; Sébastien Sultan; Nicolas Toni

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the d...

  10. Hippocampal theta oscillations are travelling waves

    OpenAIRE

    Lubenov, Evgueniy V.; Siapas, Athanassios G.

    2009-01-01

    Theta oscillations clock hippocampal activity during awake behaviour and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These oscillations are prominent in the local field potential, and they also reflect the subthreshold membrane potential and strongly modulate the spiking of hippocampal neurons. The prevailing view is that theta oscillations are synchronized throughout the hippocampus, despite the lack of conclusive experimental evidence. In contrast, here we show that in freely behaving rats, theta oscil...

  11. The Guided Bilateral Filter: When the Joint/Cross Bilateral Filter Becomes Robust

    OpenAIRE

    Caraffa, Laurent; Tarel, Jean Philippe; Charbonnier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The bilateral filter and its variants such as the Joint/Cross bilateral filter are well known edge-preserving image smoothing tools used in many applications. The reason of this success is its simple definition and the possibility of many adaptations. The bilateral filter is known to be related to robust estimation. This link is lost by the ad hoc introduction of the guide image in the Joint/Cross bilateral filter. We here propose a new way to derive the Joint/Cross bilateral filter as a part...

  12. Hippocampal neuroplasticity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, N V; Coupland, N J

    2015-11-19

    One of the most replicated findings has been that hippocampus volume is decreased in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that localized differences in hippocampal volume may be more prominent than global differences. Preclinical and post-mortem studies in MDD indicated that different subfields of the hippocampus may respond differently to stress and may also have differential levels of plasticity in response to antidepressant treatment. Advances in high-field MRI allowed researchers to visualize and measure hippocampal subfield volumes in MDD patients in vivo. The results of these studies provide the first in vivo evidence that hippocampal volume reductions in MDD are specific to the cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus hippocampal subfields, findings that appear, on the surface, consistent with preclinical evidence for localized mechanisms of hippocampal neuroplasticity. In this review we discuss how recent advances in neuroimaging allow researchers to further understand hippocampal neuroplasticity in MDD and how it is related to antidepressant treatment, memory function, and disease progression.

  13. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. II. Hippocampal EEG correlates with elementary motor acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    1979-01-01

    A positive correlation has been shown between the speed of forced stepping on a conveyor belt and the amplitude and frequency of the concomitant hippocampal EEG. Significant modulation in the spectral properties of the dog's hippocampal EEG has been found in relation to 3 elementary motor acts: ste

  14. Bilateral panophthalmitis in dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral panophthalmitis as the initial ocular manifestation of dengue fever. The diagnosis was a little confusing as he initially presented with features suggestive of retrobulbar hemorrhage secondary to his very low platelet count, which is a common feature of dengue fever. Ophthalmic complications are usually seen in young adults who often present at the nadir of thrombocytopenia. Ocular findings may include anterior uveitis, vitritis, retinal hemorrhages, retinal vascular sheathing, yellow subretinal dots, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling, foveolitis that is clinically seen as a round subretinal yellowish lesion at the fovea, retinochoroiditis, choroidal effusion, optic disc swelling, optic neuritis, neuroretinitis, and oculomotor nerve palsy. [1] There is only one reported case of unilateral endogenous panophthalmitis due to dengue fever. Hence, clinicians and ophthalmologists have to be aware of this vision-threatening complication of dengue for early recognition and prompt treatment to save the vision of these young patients and prevent morbidity.

  15. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  16. [True hermaphroditism with bilateral ovotestis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güitrón, A; Forsbach, G; González, J M; Garza, J G; Vázquez, J; Espinoza, G

    1998-01-01

    A nineteen years old woman with ambiguous external genitalia was studied. This condition had been previously identified as a newborn, but her parents refused medical attention and it was reared as a girl. At 12-years, she began spontaneous mammary development, appearing pubic and axillary hair, and clitoral enlargement. The menarche occurred at 15-years and it was followed by irregular periods. Physical examination, showed absence of hirsutism and acne, normal mammary development equivalent to grade V of Tanner. The external genitalia showed fused labio-scrotal folds with an small introitus. The urethral meatus was absent and was later located inside the introitus. There was a big phallus similar to an adult penis with a normal glans, flexed by a chordee. Hormonal determinations discarded congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The karyotype was 46,XX and testosterone levels were in adult male range. Pelvic ultrasonography disclosed a normal uterus and both gonads in confirmed by laparoscopy identifying bilateral ovotestis. Testicular tissue was removed and plastic reconstruction of female genitals was done. PMID:9528217

  17. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  18. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Zampetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70% makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres.

  19. Spectral analysis of bilateral or alternate-site kindling-induced afterdischarges in the rabbit hippocampi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Komei; Kogure, Shinichi

    2012-09-01

    Kindling is one of the popular animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study following the previous results obtained using unilateral hippocampal kindling (UK), we performed spectral analysis of bilateral or alternate-site kindling-induced afterdischarges (ADs) in the rabbit hippocampi. Eight and ten adult rabbits were used for bilateral kindling (BK) and alternate-site kindling (AK), respectively. Kindling stimuli consisted of a train of biphasic pulses (1ms duration each) of 50Hz for 1s, with suprathreshold intensity for AD. The stimulations were applied simultaneously to the bilateral hippocampi in the BK and were delivered to the right and left hippocampus once every 24h in the AK. Motor responses were classified into five stages according to the conventional criteria. All animals in BK as well as AK developed stage 5 convulsions. This contrasts to the result of UK (kindled: 50%; incomplete: 50%). We normalized power spectral density (PSD) and monitored the changes in the proportion of lower frequency band component (LFB: 0-9Hz) and the higher frequency band (HFB: 12-30Hz). BK animals showed a significantly large decrement (0.5 times, pkindling progression. Very strong positive correlations were found in both kindling animals. Chronological spectral analysis of seizure discharges, resulting in a pattern of LFB decrement accompanied by HFB increment, is a convenient tool to investigate epileptic disorders and diagnose epileptic states.

  20. The right hippocampus leads the bilateral integration of gamma-parsed lateralized information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Nuria; Martín-Vázquez, Gonzalo; Makarova, Julia; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the two hippocampal lobes convey similar or different activities and how they cooperate. Spatial discrimination of electric fields in anesthetized rats allowed us to compare the pathway-specific field potentials corresponding to the gamma-paced CA3 output (CA1 Schaffer potentials) and CA3 somatic inhibition within and between sides. Bilateral excitatory Schaffer gamma waves are generally larger and lead from the right hemisphere with only moderate covariation of amplitude, and drive CA1 pyramidal units more strongly than unilateral waves. CA3 waves lock to the ipsilateral Schaffer potentials, although bilateral coherence was weak. Notably, Schaffer activity may run laterally, as seen after the disruption of the connecting pathways. Thus, asymmetric operations promote the entrainment of CA3-autonomous gamma oscillators bilaterally, synchronizing lateralized gamma strings to converge optimally on CA1 targets. The findings support the view that interhippocampal connections integrate different aspects of information that flow through the left and right lobes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16658.001 PMID:27599221

  1. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  2. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma and on exploration it turned out to be rarest extra peritoneal bilateral Petit’s trianglehernia, fat as contents.

  3. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S BILATERAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The EU is a world economic power and a major trading partner for most countries. All the time, this region has been interested and has acted towards a free and fair trade. The decrease and even the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers in the world trade are among the main objectives of the EU strategy for international trade. At the moment, the elusive outcome of the WTO Doha Round has led to the proliferation of bilateral trade agreements worldwide. Although the EU remains committed to further development of the multilateral trading system, however, the EU still has appealed also to the development of bilateral trade relations. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the current bilateral dimension of the common commercial policy of the EU. In conclusion, to describe this bilateral approach of the EU we are using one word, namely “diversity”.

  4. Bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárdy, Miklós; Korting, Hans Christian; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wolff, Hans

    2010-08-01

    An adolescent boy presented with isolated, symmetrical, bilateral areolar and periareolar pityriasis versicolor. This extremely rare condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of light brown patches on the areolae.

  5. FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Moreaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.

  6. An unusual cause of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, A; Kalra, S.; Woodcock, A

    1992-01-01

    In a patient who had a sudden onset of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after forceful neck manipulation complete, though gradual, recovery in lung function and transdiaphragmatic pressures was seen over three years. This is a previously unrecognised risk of neck osteopathy.

  7. Relationship between Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: evidence for differential susceptibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Vasu Kalmady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various lines of evidence including epidemiological, genetic and foetal pathogenetic models suggest a compelling role for Interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. IL-6 mediated inflammatory response triggered by maternal infection or stress induces disruption of prenatal hippocampal development which might contribute towards psychopathology during adulthood. There is a substantial lack of knowledge on how genetic predisposition to elevated IL-6 expression effects hippocampal structure in schizophrenia patients. In this first-time study, we evaluated the relationship between functional polymorphism rs1800795 of IL-6 and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients in comparison with healthy controls. METHODOLOGY: We examined antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients [N = 28] in comparison with healthy controls [N = 37] group matched on age, sex and handedness. Using 3 Tesla - MRI, bilateral hippocampi were manually segmented by blinded raters with good inter-rater reliability using a valid method. Additionally, Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM analysis was performed using hippocampal mask. The IL-6 level was measured in blood plasma using ELISA technique. SNP rs1800795 was genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients had significantly deficient left and right hippocampal volumes after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and total brain volume. Plasma IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients than controls. There was a significant diagnosis by rs1800795 genotype interaction involving both right and left hippocampal volumes. Interestingly, this effect was significant only in men but not in women. CONCLUSION: Our first time observations suggest a significant relationship between IL-6 rs1800795 and reduced

  8. Grafts of fetal locus coeruleus neurons in rat amygdala-piriform cortex suppress seizure development in hippocampal kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, D I; Wanscher, B; Kragh, J; Bolwig, T G; Kokaia, M; Brundin, P; Björklund, A; Lindvall, O

    1989-11-01

    Hippocampal kindling was investigated in rats with a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the forebrain catecholamine system after implantation of neural tissue from the fetal locus coeruleus region either bilaterally into the amygdala-piriform cortex (i.e., distant to the kindling site) or unilaterally into the hippocampus (close to the kindling site). Lesioned animals with either sham grafts or control grafts consisting of fetal striatal tissue showed a kindling rate much faster than that of normal controls. In contrast, in rats with bilateral locus coeruleus grafts in the amygdala-piriform cortex (implanted at three sites) the development of seizures was similar to that of controls and significantly slower than that in lesioned animals with sham grafts. All these animals had bilateral surviving grafts with a mean of 125 noradrenergic cells per implantation site. In the animals with locus coeruleus grafts in the stimulated hippocampus the kindling rate did not differ from that in the lesioned animals with control grafts. Most of these animals had large surviving grafts and showed a dense noradrenergic reinnervation of the implanted hippocampus. The present findings indicate that grafting of fetal pontine tissue (rich in noradrenergic neurons) to a site distant to the stimulation focus, but important for the generalization and spread of seizures, can retard the development of seizures in hippocampal kindling. Together with the data of our previous report this study also indicates that noradrenergic reinnervation of both hippocampi is important for the seizure-suppressant action in hippocampal kindling of locus coeruleus grafts implanted in the hippocampus.

  9. Developmental changes in hippocampal associative coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Mary E; Kim, Jangjin; Freeman, John H

    2015-03-11

    Behavioral analyses of the ontogeny of memory have shown that hippocampus-dependent learning emerges relatively late in postnatal development compared with simple associative learning. Maturation of hippocampal mnemonic mechanisms has been hypothesized to underlie the development of the later emerging learning processes. However, the role of hippocampal maturation in learning has not been examined directly. The goal of the present study was to examine developmental changes in hippocampal neuronal coding during acquisition of a hippocampus-dependent learning task. We recorded activity from CA1 pyramidal cells in rat pups while they were trained on trace eyeblink conditioning. Trace eyeblink conditioning is a Pavlovian conditioning task that involves the association of a conditioned stimulus (CS) with an unconditioned stimulus over a stimulus-free trace interval. The inclusion of the trace interval is what makes the task hippocampus dependent. In the present study, rats were trained at 21-23, 24-26, and 31-33 d of age. Previous research from our laboratory and others shows that trace conditioning begins to emerge during the third postnatal week. The results indicate that hippocampal neurons show a substantial increase in responsiveness to task-relevant events during development. Moreover, there is an age-related increase in the proportion of neurons that respond to a combination of trial events (e.g., CS and trace). Our findings indicate that the developmental emergence of hippocampally mediated learning is related to increases in the strength and complexity of CA1 associative coding.

  10. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  11. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Geetha; Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V

    2016-04-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  12. Bilateral anophthalmia with septo-optic dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral anophthalmia is a rare entity and association with septo-optic dysplasia is an even rare condition. The condition is characterized by absent eyeballs in the presence of eyelids, conjunctiva or lacrimal apparatus. Though anophthalmia can be diagnosed clinically, imaging plays a crucial role in delineating the associated anomalies. In addition, often clinical anophthalmia may prove to be severe microphthalmia on imaging. We describe the imaging findings in an infant with bilateral anophthalmia and septo-optic dysplasia.

  13. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  14. Bilateral Keratectasia 34 Years after Corneal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Valldeperas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 µm in the right eye and of 710 µm in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 µm in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus.

  15. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  16. SPECT and MRI study in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le GUAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the changes of hippocampus blood perfusion and hippocampal volume in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE caused by hippocampal sclerosis (HS using single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT and MRI, so as to explore the effect on localization of epileptogenic focus in TLE patients.  Methods Eighteen TLE patients and 3 healthy controls underwent 99Tcm-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99Tcm-ECD SPECT. Eighteen TLE patients and 21 healthy controls were performed MRI. The relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF and hippocampal volume were calculated and compared between 2 groups. The correlation between rCBF in ipsilateral hippocampus and hippocampal volume of TLE patients was analyzed. Results SPECT showed rCBF in ipsilateral hippocampus [(46.04 ± 7.94 ml/(100 g·min] was significantly decreased compared with contralateral hippocampus in TLE patients [(54.76 ± 9.62 ml/(100 g·min; t = -2.966, P = 0.005] and bilateral hippocampus in healthy controls [(64.87 ± 7.28 ml/(100 g·min; t = -4.824, P = 0.000]. The volume of ipsilateral hippocampus [(1.69 ± 0.39 cm3] was significantly smaller than that of contralateral hippocampus in TLE patients [(2.68 ± 0.41 cm3; t = -7.410, P = 0.000] and bilateral hippocampus in healthy controls [(3.50 ± 0.39 cm3; t = -16.340, P = 0.000]. The rCBF of ipsilateral hippocampus had positive correlation with the volume of corresponding hippocampus in TLE patients (r = 0.394, P = 0.017.  Conclusions Both rCBF and the volume of ipsilateral hippocampus were reduced in patients with TLE caused by HS, and there was positive correlation between the two. It was helpful for preoperative localization of epileptogenic focus to combine SPECT with MRI. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.007

  17. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Darío Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a normal developmental process associated with neurobiological changes leading to cognitive alterations with preserved, impaired, and enhanced functions. Evidence from animal and human studies is reviewed to explore the potential role of hippocampal plasticity on age-related cognitive changes with special attention to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Results from lesion and stimulation strategies, as well as correlation data, support either a direct or modulatory role for adult newborn neurons in cognition at advanced ages. Further research on this topic may help to develop new treatments and to improve the quality of life of older people.

  18. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoya, Maria A.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McGraw, Michael H. [Hospitalof theUniversityof Pennsylvania, Divisionof Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed. (orig.)

  19. Multimodal assessments of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Evidences from neurobehavioral measures and functional and structural MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Knöchel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential clinical and etiological overlap between schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD has long been a subject of discussion. Imaging studies imply functional and structural alterations of the hippocampus in both diseases. Thus, imaging this core memory region could provide insight into the pathophysiology of these disorders and the associated cognitive deficits. To examine possible shared alterations in the hippocampus, we conducted a multi-modal assessment, including functional and structural imaging as well as neurobehavioral measures of memory performance in BD and SZ patients compared with healthy controls. We assessed episodic memory performance, using tests of verbal and visual learning (HVLT, BVMT in three groups of participants: BD patients (n = 21, SZ patients (n = 21 and matched (age, gender, education healthy control subjects (n = 21. In addition, we examined hippocampal resting state functional connectivity, hippocampal volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and fibre integrity of hippocampal connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We found memory deficits, changes in functional connectivity within the hippocampal network as well as volumetric reductions and altered white matter fibre integrity across patient groups in comparison with controls. However, SZ patients when directly compared with BD patients were more severely affected in several of the assessed parameters (verbal learning, left hippocampal volumes, mean diffusivity of bilateral cingulum and right uncinated fasciculus. The results of our study suggest a graded expression of verbal learning deficits accompanied by structural alterations within the hippocampus in BD patients and SZ patients, with SZ patients being more strongly affected. Our findings imply that these two disorders may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. The results could thus help to further advance and integrate current pathophysiological models of SZ and BD.

  20. Synthesis of HgBa2Ca3Cu4O10+δ(Hg-1234) and HgBa2Ca4Cu5O12+δ(Hg-1245) from oxygen controlled precursors under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of oxygen content in the precursor have been investigated on the synthesis of HgBa2Ca4Cu5O12+δ(Hg-1245) under high pressure. The superconducting phases continuously changed from Hg-1234 to Hg-1245 with reducing the oxygen content in the precursor of Ba2Ca4Cu5O11+δ. Samples of Hg- 1245 have been synthesized by optimizing the oxygen content of the precursor with the stoichiometric composition. (author)

  1. Bilateral ovarian cystic teratomata mimicking bilateral pure ovarian hemangiomata: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, I M; Aronson, B L; McCarthy, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral, benign cystic ovarian teratomata which were composed predominantly of cavernous hemangiomatous elements. The right-sided lesion, in particular, mimicked a pure ovarian hemangioma. The clinical presentation, bilaterality of the lesions, the sizes of the hemangiomata, and the subsequent hemangioma of the leg are all of interest in this very rare lesion. PMID:6511164

  2. New Learning of Music after Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobe Damage: Evidence from an Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi eValtonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly-identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ’s rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed, closely matched for factors contributing to a piece’s musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ’s complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance.

  3. Bilateral electric energy contracts: return and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, Laura K.; Silva, Elisa B.; Correia, Paulo B. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). College of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil electricity is traded through three segments: the spot market that balances offer and demand, with prices calculated by a cost-based computational model; the regulated market , where prices are settled in public auctions, and the free market for bilateral contracts. As spot and regulated market prices are public information, a seller is able to calculate his opportunity price to trade a bilateral contract in the free market by using the non-arbitrage principle. Thus, the seller searches the price of a bilateral contract in the free market that balances his/her revenues with the value expected in case it were negotiated in the regulated and the spot market. Besides the expected revenue, the seller may also consider the CVaR to measure the risk of her/his bilateral contract in the free market. So this paper develops a binomial lattice approach to price bilateral contracts in the free market, considering the seller's opportunity of negotiations in both regulated and spot markets, and measuring the contract risk directly. (author)

  4. Changes in fitness are associated with changes in hippocampal microstructure and hippocampal volume among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemeyer, Maike Margarethe; Kühn, Simone; Prindle, John; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Brechtel, Lars; Garthe, Alexander; Kempermann, Gerd; Schaefer, Sabine; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of fitness changes on hippocampal microstructure and hippocampal volume. Fifty-two healthy participants aged 59-74years with a sedentary lifestyle were randomly assigned to either of two levels of exercise intensity. Training lasted for six months. Physical fitness, hippocampal volumes, and hippocampal microstructure were measured before and after training. Hippocampal microstructure was assessed by mean diffusivity, which inversely reflects tissue density; hence, mean diffusivity is lower for more densely packed tissue. Mean changes in fitness did not differ reliably across intensity levels of training, so data were collapsed across groups. Multivariate modeling of pretest-posttest differences using structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that individual differences in latent change were reliable for all three constructs. More positive changes in fitness were associated with more positive changes in tissue density (i.e., more negative changes in mean diffusivity), and more positive changes in tissue density were associated with more positive changes in volume. We conclude that fitness-related changes in hippocampal volume may be brought about by changes in tissue density. The relative contributions of angiogenesis, gliogenesis, and/or neurogenesis to changes in tissue density remain to be identified.

  5. Stress, hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition: functional correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Lucassen; C.A. Oomen

    2016-01-01

    The brain of many species including humans, harbors stem cells that continue to generate new neurons up into adulthood. This form of structural plasticity occurs in a limited number of brain regions, i.e. the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus and is regulated by environmental and

  6. Stimulus Configuration, Classical Conditioning, and Hippocampal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmajuk, Nestor A.; DiCarlo, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The participation of the hippocampus in classical conditioning is described in terms of a multilayer network portraying stimulus configuration. A model of hippocampal function is presented, and computer simulations are used to study neural activity in the various brain areas mapped according to the model. (SLD)

  7. Nocturnal Mnemonics: Sleep and Hippocampal Memory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M. Saletin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are symbiotically accomplished, associated with specific NREM sleep physiological oscillations. As a result, the optimal network outcome is achieved, increasing hippocampal independence and hence overnight consolidation, while restoring next-day sparse hippocampal encoding capacity for renewed learning ability upon awakening. Finally, emerging evidence is considered suggesting that, unlike previous conceptions, sleep does not universally consolidate all information equally. Instead, and based on explicit as well as motivational cues during initial encoding, sleep executes the discriminatory offline consolidation only of select information. Consequently, sleep promotes the targeted strengthening of some memories while actively forgetting others; a proposal with significant theoretical and clinical ramifications.

  8. Hippocampal kindling: corticosterone modulation of induced seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R. de; Cottrell, G.A.; Nyakas, C.; Bohus, B.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of adrenalectomy (ADX) and corticosterone replacement was studied on seizures induced by hippocampal kindling. A complex series of changes occurred in after-discharge (AD) and behavioural depression (BD) during the immediate hours after ADX, culminating at day 1 in markedly decreased AD a

  9. Glucocorticoid receptor knockdown and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijdonk, Leonarda Wilhelmina Antonia van

    2010-01-01

    The research in this thesis is aimed at the elucidation of the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hippocampal neuroplasticity and functioning. To achieve this, we have developed a novel method to specifically knockdown GR in a discrete cell population of the mouse brain. In this thesis I r

  10. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  11. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Dailey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. Keywords: Bilateral intramedullary nailing, bilateral tibial stress fractures, valgus

  12. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hippocampal formation in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.W. Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal output is increased in affective disorders and is mediated by increased glutamatergic input via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and moderated by antidepressant treatment. Activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate evokes the release of nitric oxide (NO by the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. The human hippocampus contains a high density of NMDA receptors and nNOS-expressing neurons suggesting the existence of an NMDA-NO transduction pathway which can be involved in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. We tested the hypothesis that nNOS expression is increased in the human hippocampus from affectively ill patients. Immunocytochemistry was used to demonstrate nNOS-expressing neurons in sections obtained from the Stanley Consortium postmortem brain collection from patients with major depression (MD, N = 15, bipolar disorder (BD, N = 15, and schizophrenia (N = 15 and from controls (N = 15. nNOS-immunoreactive (nNOS-IR and Nissl-stained neurons were counted in entorhinal cortex, hippocampal CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 subfields, and subiculum. The numbers of Nissl-stained neurons were very similar in different diagnostic groups and correlated significantly with the number of nNOS-IR neurons. Both the MD and the BD groups had greater number of nNOS-IR neurons/400 µm² in CA1 (mean ± SEM: MD = 9.2 ± 0.6 and BD = 8.4 ± 0.6 and subiculum (BD = 6.7 ± 0.4 when compared to control group (6.6 ± 0.5 and this was significantly more marked in samples from the right hemisphere. These changes were specific to affective disorders since no changes were seen in the schizophrenic group (6.7 ± 0.8. The results support the current view of the NMDA-NO pathway as a target for the pathophysiology of affective disorders and antidepressant drug development.

  13. Prognosis of synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Tjønneland, Anne; Balslev, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    Currently, no consistent evidence-based guidelines for the management of synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) exist and it is uncertain how presenting with SBBC affects patients' prognosis. We conducted a review of studies analyzing the association between SBBC and prognosis. The studies...... that reported adjusted effect measures were included in meta-analyses of effect of bilaterality on breast cancer mortality. From 57 initially identified records 17 studies from 11 different countries including 8,050 SBBC patients were included. The quality of the studies varied but was generally low with small...... sample sizes, and lack of consistent, detailed histo-pathological information. When doing meta-analysis on the subgroup of studies that provided adjusted effect estimates on breast cancer mortality (nine studies including 3,631 SBBC cases), we found that bilaterality in itself had a negative impact...

  14. Bilateral Sequential Pneumolabyrinth Resulting from Nose Blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Seob; Kwon, Sae Young; Kim, Ji Heui; Kim, Hyung-Jong

    2015-12-01

    Pneumolabyrinth describes a condition with entrapped air in the labyrinth and usually occurs in temporal bone fractures that involve the otic capsule. While sporadic cases of bilateral pneumolabyrinth have been reported, cases lacking head trauma are very rare. We report the case of a 43-year-old man who had sudden hearing loss bilaterally after blowing his nose at an interval of 1 year. Although conservative management for the right ear and exploratory tympanotomy with sealing of the possible site of perilymphatic leakage in the left ear were performed, hearing outcome was poor in both ears. To our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth occurring as a result of nose blowing. PMID:26771019

  15. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Bilateral Mastoid Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım Bozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of headache, dizziness, nausea, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus, and hearing loss in both ears for 3 weeks. Physical examination revealed edema in the tympanic membrane and external ear canal, and pain by palpation in the mastoid area bilaterally. There was no nystagmus, and the rest of the physical examination was otherwise normal. Temporal bone high resolution computed tomography (CT showed a lesion causing erosion in the mastoid cortex, tegmen tympani, ossicles, and in the bone covering the sigmoid sinus bilaterally. There was also erosion in the superior semicircular canal and petrous bone on the left side. Cortical mastoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic examination of the tissue revealed Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH. In this paper a case with LCH, presenting with bilateral mastoid involvement which has been rarely reported in the literature, is discussed with the existing literature.

  16. Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome with hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Hattapoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS, whichis seen by indications of mental retardasyon, epilepsi,speech disorder and pseudobulbar palsy, is a diseasewhich comes up with genetic and non-genetic reasons.Revealing characteristic indications (like polymicrogyriawith MR imaging and clinic indications contributes makingdiagnosis. In present paper, we aimed to present 18month girl case report who diagnosed as CBPS with hydrocephaliindication. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 552-554Key words: Epilepsy, congenital bilateral perisylviansyndrome, polymicrogyria, hydrocephalus, pseudobulbarpalsy

  17. [Bilateral choroidal osteoma--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrychowska-Jamborska, Justyna; Kulig-Stochmal, Agnieszka; Markiewicz, Anna; Jakubowska, Barbara; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a an extremely rare (especially located bilaterally), benign, intraocular tumor, the type of choristoma. It occurs between 2-3 decades of life, women are particularly vulnerable. The main complication in 1/3 cases is a subretinal neovascularization which may cause bleeding. The gradually progressive decalcification develops within the tumour over time, which causes atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane deformity. The article presents a case of a 26-year-old woman with bilateral choroidal osteoma complicated by subretinal hemorrhage; the diagnosis was based on clinical examination (biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy) as well as specialised tests including: ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography.

  18. Bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Josephin; Guenther, Pete; Hoffmann, Karl Titus [Leipzig University Hospital, Leipzig (Greece)

    2013-04-15

    Hypertrophic olivary degeneration resulting from lesions of the dento-rubro-olivary pathway, also called Guillain-Mollaret-triangle, has been described previously in a number of cases. Reports about bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration of the inferior olivary nuclei are very limited, and the magnetic resonance imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease have not yet been described to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we present the first report of bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging in a patient suffering from Wilson disease.

  19. High-frequency electroacupuncture evidently reinforces hippocampal synaptic transmission in Alzheimer’s disease rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Li-hong Kong; Hui Wang; Feng Shen; Ya-wen Wang; Hua Zhou; Guo-jie Sun

    2016-01-01

    The frequency range of electroacupuncture in treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in rats is commonly 2–5 Hz (low frequency) and 50–100 Hz (high frequency). We established a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease by injectingβ-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42) into the bilateral hippocam-pal dentate gyrus to verify which frequency may be better suited in treatment. Electroacupuncture at 2 Hz or 50 Hz was used to stimulate Baihui(DU20) andShenshu (BL23) acupoints. The water maze test and electrophysiological studies demonstrated that spatial memory ability was apparently improved, and the ranges of long-term potentiation and long-term depression were increased in Alzheimer’s disease rats after electroacupuncture treatment. Moreover, the effects of electroacupuncture at 50 Hz were better than that at 2 Hz. These ifndings suggest that high-frequency electroacupuncture may enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and potentially improve memory disor-ders in Alzheimer’s disease rats.

  20. Impairment on a self-ordered working memory task in patients with early-acquired hippocampal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Sharon; Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2016-08-01

    One of the features of both adult-onset and developmental forms of amnesia resulting from bilateral medial temporal lobe damage, or even from relatively selective damage to the hippocampus, is the sparing of working memory. Recently, however, a number of studies have reported deficits on working memory tasks in patients with damage to the hippocampus and in macaque monkeys with neonatal hippocampal lesions. These studies suggest that successful performance on working memory tasks with high memory load require the contribution of the hippocampus. Here we compared performance on a working memory task (the Self-ordered Pointing Task), between patients with early onset hippocampal damage and a group of healthy controls. Consistent with the findings in the monkeys with neonatal lesions, we found that the patients were impaired on the task, but only on blocks of trials with intermediate memory load. Importantly, only intermediate to high memory load blocks yielded significant correlations between task performance and hippocampal volume. Additionally, we found no evidence of proactive interference in either group, and no evidence of an effect of time since injury on performance. We discuss the role of the hippocampus and its interactions with the prefrontal cortex in serving working memory. PMID:27288821

  1. Bilateral Diabetic Papillopathy and Metabolic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit;

    2010-01-01

    patient-years of observation, bilateral diabetic papillopathy developed in 5 patients. During the year preceding this incident, all 5 patients had experienced a decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1C)) at a maximum rate of -2.5 (mean) percentage points per quarter year, which was significantly...

  2. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  3. Occipital seizures presenting with bilateral visual loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjikoutis S; Sawhney I

    2003-01-01

    Transient visual loss may occur with occipital seizures as an ictal or post-ictal phenomenon. Its duration varies from less than one minute to days, or can be permanent. We describe a 61-year-old man presenting with headache, vomiting and bilateral visual loss. EEG revealed persistent spike discharge in the occipital lobes suggesting occipital seizures. His vision improved with carbamazepine.

  4. Simulations of bilateral energy markets using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents simulation results of energy bilateral markets using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The algorithm for congestion management and transmission pricing is implemented by means of DC load flow. The simulation results show how elasticity of market participants to transmission usage charges can affect the overall network usage and its cost. (Author)

  5. Bilateral eyelid edema : Cutis laxa or blepharochalasis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakenburg, A; Nicolai, JPA

    2000-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman with massive bilateral edema of the upper and lower eyelids is presented. The edema occurred suddenly and without provocation. No cause could be identified despite a multitude of examinations. Initially the patient was diagnosed as having blepharochalasis, but later skin biopsy s

  6. A Bilateral Traumatic Hip Obturator Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Karci, Tolga; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    A case of a bilateral simultaneous traumatic obturator dislocation of both hip joints in an 18-year-old young man following a traffic accident is presented. We reduced the dislocated femoral heads immediately under general anesthesia followed by passive and active exercises and early full-weight bearing mobilization. After 5 years, the result was excellent. PMID:26977327

  7. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  8. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Dabhade, Swapnil D

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires O(S) operations per pixel, where S is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to O(1) per pixel for any arbitrary S . The algorithm has a simple implementation involving N+1 spatial filterings, where N is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to estimate the order N required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy. PMID:27093722

  9. Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis diagnosed during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Cid, P; Sendagorta Cudós, E; Noguera Morel, L; Beato Merino, M J

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare subtype of neurofibromatosis type 1 defined by lesions affecting a single segment of the body and crossing the midline, with no systemic involvement. We present a case diagnosed during pregnancy because of the characteristic increase in size of the lesions during this period. PMID:21635828

  10. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia.

  11. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer.

  12. Bilateral renal agenesis in an alpaca cria

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Keith P; Gerard, Mathew P.; Spaulding, Kathy A.; Geissler, Kyleigh A.; Anderson, Kevin L.

    2006-01-01

    A 3-day-old male alpaca cria was presented for lack of vigor and failure to urinate since birth. Based on the history, laboratory data, ultrasonographs, surgical findings, and postmortem examination, the cria was diagnosed with bilateral renal agenesis and hypoplastic bladder, a congenital condition rarely seen in veterinary medicine.

  13. Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Pothiawala

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant.

  14. "Ostrich sign" indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David Z; Husain, M Rizwan

    2012-11-01

    Vertebral artery dissections (VADs) comprise about 2% of ischemic strokes and can be associated with trauma, chiropractic manipulation, motor vehicle collisions, whiplash, amusement park rides, golfing, and other motion-induced injuries to the neck. We present a case of bilateral extracranial VAD as a complication of conducting an orchestra. To our knowledge, this has not been documented in the literature. Conceivably, vigorous neck twisting in an inexperienced, amateur conductor may place excessive rotational forces upon mobile portions of the verterbral arteries, tear the intima, deposit subintimal blood that extends longitudinally, and cause neck pain and/or posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. Magnetic resonance angiography examinations of axially oriented slices of bilateral VADs resemble the face of an ostrich. This observation is similar to the "puppy sign," in which bilateral internal carotid artery dissections resemble the face of a dog. Craniocervical dissections of either the carotid or vertebral arteries have the potential to form an aneurysm, cause artery-to-artery embolism, or completely occlude the parent artery, resulting in an ischemic stroke. Because bilateral VADs in axial magnetic resonance angiographic sections stand out like the eyes of an ostrich, and because the fast identification of VADs is so critical, we eponymize this image the "ostrich sign."

  15. Severe Hyperkalemia and Bilateral Adrenal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nagler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal metastases are a common finding in metastatic lung and breast cancer. Often there are no clinical symptoms suggesting them. In this paper, we present a case of a 66-year-old man with metastatic lung cancer suffering from severe hyperkaliemia due to hypoaldosteronism as a result of bilateral adrenal metastasis.

  16. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, P; Pavesi, G; Salaffi, F

    1987-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may be associated with endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism and acromegaly. A direct relationship between CTS and hyperthyroidism has recently been suggested. We now report a case in which bilateral CTS developed after treatment of Graves' disease, thus, questioning the possibility of a relationship between these two disease processes.

  17. Hippocampal subfield volumes: Age, vascular risk, and correlation with associative memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lee eShing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging and age-related diseases have negative impact on the hippocampus (HC, which is crucial for such age-sensitive functions as memory formation, maintenance, and retrieval. We examined age differences in hippocampal subfield volumes in 10 younger and 19 older adults, and association of those volumes with memory performance in the older participants. We manually measured volumes of HC regions CA1 and CA2 (CA1-2, sectors CA3 and CA4 plus dentate gyrus (CA3-4/DG, subiculum and the entorhinal cortex using a contrast-optimized high-resolution PD-weighted MRI sequence. Although, as in previous reports, the volume of one region (CA1-2 was larger in the young, the difference was due to the presence of hypertensive subjects among the older adults. Among older participants, increased false alarm (FA rate in an associative recognition memory task was linked to reduced CA3-4/DG volume. We discuss the role of the dentate gyrus in pattern separation and the formation of discrete memory representations.

  18. Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of preoperatively diagnosed bilateral obturator and incidental bilateral femoral herniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Usman; Connelly, Tara M; Hamid, Mustafa; Pretorius, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Obturator hernia (OH), a rare type of hernia, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often delayed as clinical symptoms are typically non-specific. OH is frequently associated with other occult inguinopelvic herniae. Early diagnosis is vital to decrease morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented to the surgical outpatients' department with non-specific bilateral groin pain radiating to the thighs. CT of the pelvis demonstrated bilateral OH with no radiological evidence of bowel obstruction. Semiurgent elective laparoscopic total extraperitoneal mesh repair was performed. Intraoperative findings confirmed bilateral obturator herniae as well as incidental bilateral femoral herniae. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for such concomitant hernias that, in the presence of OH, may only be identified intraoperatively. PMID:27113790

  19. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Şevik Eliçora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis.

  20. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv;

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change in hippocam......Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change...... in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  1. Prediction of Dementia by Hippocampal Shape Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, H.C.; Lijn, F. van der; Heijer, T. den;

    2010-01-01

    with dementia during a 9 year follow-up period, was selected from a large population based cohort study. 47 Age and gender matched subjects who stayed cognitively intact were selected from the same cohort study as a control group. The hippocampi were automatically segmented and all segmentations were inspected......This work investigates the possibility of predicting future onset of dementia in subjects who are cognitively normal, using hippocampal shape and volume information extracted from MRI scans. A group of 47 subjects who were non-demented normal at the time of the MRI acquisition, but were diagnosed...... and, if necessary, manually corrected by a trained observer. From this data a statistical model of hippocampal shape was constructed, using an entropy-based particle system. This shape model provided the input for a Support Vector Machine classifier to predict dementia. Cross validation experiments...

  2. Inhibitory microcircuit modules in hippocampal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, Pico

    2015-12-01

    It has recently become possible to investigate connectivities and roles of identified hippocampal GABAergic interneurons (INs) in behaving rodents. INs targeting distinct pyramidal neuron subcompartments are recruited dynamically at defined phases of behavior and learning. They include Parvalbumin Axo-axonic and perisomatic Basket cells, and Somatostatin radiatum-oriens and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells. Each IN is in turn either activated or inhibited upon specific behavioral and network state requirements through specific inputs and neuromodulators. Subpopulations of these principal neurons and INs interconnect selectively, suggesting selective processing and routing of alternate information streams. First canonical functional modules have emerged, which will have to be further defined and linked to identified afferents and efferents towards a circuit understanding of how hippocampal networks support behavior.

  3. Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Depressive Disorders, and Antidepressant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Paizanis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that neural stem cells reside in the adult central nervous system where neurogenesis occurs throughout lifespan. Neurogenesis concerns mainly two areas in the brain: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, where it is controlled by several trophic factors and neuroactive molecules. Neurogenesis is involved in processes such as learning and memory and accumulating evidence implicates hippocampal neurogenesis in the physiopathology of depression. We herein review experimental and clinical data demonstrating that stress and antidepressant treatments affect neurogenesis in opposite direction in rodents. In particular, the stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by all types of antidepressant drugs supports the view that neuroplastic phenomena are involved in the physiopathology of depression and underlie—at least partly—antidepressant therapy.

  4. A Compressed Sensing Perspective of Hippocampal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis ePetrantonakis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampus is one of the most important information processing units in the brain. Input from the cortex passes through convergent axon pathways to the downstream hippocampal subregions and, after being appropriately processed, is fanned out back to the cortex. Here, we review evidence of the hypothesis that information flow and processing in the hippocampus complies with the principles of Compressed Sensing (CS. The CS theory comprises a mathematical framework that describes how and under which conditions, restricted sampling of information (data set can lead to condensed, yet concise, forms of the initial, subsampled information entity (i.e. of the original data set. In this work, hippocampus related regions and their respective circuitry are presented as a CS-based system whose different components collaborate to realize efficient memory encoding and decoding processes. This proposition introduces a unifying mathematical framework for hippocampal function and opens new avenues for exploring coding and decoding strategies in the brain.

  5. Adiponectin protects rat hippocampal neurons against excitotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Guang; Wan, Ruiqian; Hu, Jingping; Mattson, Mark P.; Spangler, Edward; Liu, Shan; Yau, Suk-yu; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Gleichmann, Marc; Ingram, Donald K.; So, Kwok-Fai; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin exerts multiple regulatory functions in the body and in the hypothalamus primarily through activation of its two receptors, adiponectin receptor1 and adiponectin receptor 2. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin receptors are widely expressed in other areas of the brain including the hippocampus. However, the functions of adiponectin in brain regions other than the hypothalamus are not clear. Here, we report that adiponectin can protect cultured hippocampal neurons against ka...

  6. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  7. A review of bilateral training for upper extremity hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Upper extremity hemiparesis is the most common post-stroke disability. Longitudinal studies have indicated that 30-66% of stroke survivors do not have full arm function 6 months post-stroke. The current gold standard for treatment of mild post-stroke upper limb impairment is constraint-induced therapy but, because of the inclusion criteria, alternative treatments are needed which target more impaired subjects. Bilateral arm training has been investigated as a potential rehabilitation intervention. Bilateral arm training encompasses a number of methods including: (1) bilateral isokinematic training; (2) mirror therapy using bilateral training; (3) device-driven bilateral training; and (4) bilateral motor priming. Neural mechanisms mediating bilateral training are first reviewed. The key bilateral training studies that have demonstrated evidence of efficacy will then be discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning clinical implications based on the reviewed literature. PMID:19517519

  8. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary metastases of synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary tumor is uncommon and with pulmonary metastases is rare. The clinical and radiological features of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax from a synovial sarcoma in a 14 years old boy are described. (author)

  9. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Broersma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results expand on previous findings of bilateral cerebellar involvement in ET. We have identified specific areas in the bilateral somatomotor regions of the cerebellum: lobules V, VI and VIII.

  10. Coexistent arteriovenous malformation and hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayson, Richard A; O'Toole, Elizabeth E

    2016-06-01

    Cavernous angiomas or cavernomas have been occasionally described in patients presenting with medically intractable epilepsy. Reports of cavernomas associated with a second pathology potentially causative of seizures have rarely been documented; most commonly, the second pathology is focal cortical dysplasia or less frequently, hippocampal sclerosis. To our knowledge, cases of arteriovenous malformation arising in this clinical setting and associated with hippocampal sclerosis have not been previously described. We report a 56-year-old woman who initially presented at age 24years with staring spells. Imaging studies revealed an arteriovenous malformation in the right parietal lobe. At age 51years, she represented with signs and symptoms related to a hemorrhage from the malformation. The patient underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) of the lesion. She subsequently developed seizures, refractory to medical management. MRI studies showed atrophy in the right hippocampus. She underwent resection of the right parietal lobe and hippocampus. Histopathologic examination of the right parietal lesion revealed an arteriovenous malformation marked by focally prominent vascular sclerosis, calcification and adjacent hemosiderin deposition. The hippocampus was marked by prominent neuronal loss and gliosis in the CA1 region, consistent with CA1 sclerosis or hippocampal sclerosis International League Against Epilepsy type 2. PMID:26899356

  11. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Shen, H;

    1993-01-01

    Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector...... effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts...... or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions....

  12. Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel link-bridge and B-Ring Modified Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) Analogues as Potent Antitubulin Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yong-Tao; Man, Ruo-Jun; Tang, Dan-Jie; Yao, Yong-Fang; Tao, Xiang-Xiang; Yu, Chen; Liang, Xin-Yi; Makawana, Jigar A.; Zou, Mei-Juan; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    A series of 12 novel acylhydrazone, chalcone and amide–bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 were designed and synthesized toward tubulin. All these compounds were determined by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, and MS. Among them, compound 7 with acylhydrazone-bridge, bearing a benzyl at the indole-N position, was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to 35.6 μM. In contrast, its cytotoxic effects on three normal human cells were minimal. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by compound 7 was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2, P21) and some apoptosis-related proteins (Bax, PARP, Bcl-2, Caspase3). The docking mode showed the binding posture of CA-4 and compound 7 are similar in the colchicine-binding pocket of tubulin, as confirmed by colchicine-tubulin competitive binding assay, tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity, extracellular protein expression determination assay and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In vivo study, compound 7 effectively inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth without causing significant loss of body weight suggesting that compound 7 is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:27138035

  13. High-power CW and passively Q-switched laser operation of Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Lisha; Liu, Junhai; Guo, Yunfeng; Han, Wenjuan; Xu, Honghao; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate efficient high-power CW and passively Q-switched operations of Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers. An output power of 18.2 W is generated at 1031.5 nm in CW mode, with optical-to-optical and slope efficiencies being respectively 55% and 70%, with respect to incident pump power. In passively Q-switched operation with a Cr4+:YAG crystal as saturable absorber, a maximum average output power of 15.6 W is produced at a pulse repetition rate of 91 kHz, with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44%. Low-repetition-rate Q-switched action is also realized, generating an average output power of 4.2 W at 5.7 kHz, the resulting pulse energy and duration are 737 μJ and 3.6 ns, leading to a peak power amounting to 205 kW.

  14. High efficiency angular non-critical phase matching for Ti:sapphire laser realized on LaCa4O(BO3)3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular non-critical phase-matching (A-NCPM) second harmonic generation (SHG) for a Ti:sapphire laser was realized on LaCa4O(BO3)3 (LaCOB) single crystals, grown by the Czochralski pulling method. Properties including the wavelength, bandwidth, effective nonlinear optical (NLO) coefficient (deff), and acceptance angle were evaluated. At ambient temperature of 20 °C, the type-I NCPM (808 nm wavelength) was obtained along the y axis of LaCOB crystals, where the effective nonlinear optical coefficient (deff), PM waveband, and angular acceptance were found to be of the order of 0.59 pm/V, 803∼818 nm and 50.6 mrad cm1/2 (ΔϕL), respectively. Moreover, high single-pass SHG conversion efficiency (44.6%) was achieved for 24.8 mm long Y-cut samples at 808 nm, using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire fundamental laser. (letter)

  15. Effect of Strontium Ion on the Growth and Second-Harmonic Generation Properties of GdCa4O(BO3)3 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树君; 程振祥; 刘均海; 韩建儒; 王继扬; 邵宗书; 陈焕矗

    2001-01-01

    Large sized and optical quality GdCa4O(BO3)3 (GdCOB) crystal with calcium partially substituted by strontium (Sr) ions was grown for the first time. The x-ray powder diffraction shows that the Sr ion has an effect on the cell parameters of the GdCOB crystal Second-harmonic generation (SHG) experiments were performed on the Sr:GdCOB and GdCOB crystals along the spatial phase-matching direction. The results show that the cw green laser output power is 1.04 W when the laser diode pump power is 10 W in the Nd:YVO4/Sr:GdCOB intracavity laser. Considering the slope efficiency of Nd:YVO4 and the fundamental laser in cavity, the intracavity SHG conversion efficiency of the GdCOB crystal is 21% while it is 24% for the Sr:GdCOB crystal, the SHG conversion efficiency is improved by 14%. The effect of the Sr ions on the nonlinearity of the GdCOB crystal is also discussed by using the anion group theory.

  16. Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel link-bridge and B-Ring Modified Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) Analogues as Potent Antitubulin Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yong-Tao; Man, Ruo-Jun; Tang, Dan-Jie; Yao, Yong-Fang; Tao, Xiang-Xiang; Yu, Chen; Liang, Xin-Yi; Makawana, Jigar A; Zou, Mei-Juan; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    A series of 12 novel acylhydrazone, chalcone and amide-bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 were designed and synthesized toward tubulin. All these compounds were determined by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and MS. Among them, compound 7 with acylhydrazone-bridge, bearing a benzyl at the indole-N position, was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to 35.6 μM. In contrast, its cytotoxic effects on three normal human cells were minimal. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by compound 7 was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2, P21) and some apoptosis-related proteins (Bax, PARP, Bcl-2, Caspase3). The docking mode showed the binding posture of CA-4 and compound 7 are similar in the colchicine-binding pocket of tubulin, as confirmed by colchicine-tubulin competitive binding assay, tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity, extracellular protein expression determination assay and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In vivo study, compound 7 effectively inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth without causing significant loss of body weight suggesting that compound 7 is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:27138035

  17. Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in calcium neodymium oxyborate Ca4NdO(BO3)3-LDA versus GGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshak, Ali H; Auluck, S; Kityk, I V

    2009-02-26

    We have performed ab inito theoretical calculations of the electronic structure and the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities for calcium neodymium oxyborate Ca4NdO(BO3)3 using two approximations for the exchange correlation (XC) potentials, the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Our calculations show that this compound is metallic-like, with density of states at the Fermi energy E(F), N(E(F)), of 5.95 and 10.33 states/Ry-cell or bare electronic specific heat coefficients of 1.03 and 1.79 mJ/mol-K2 for LDA and GGA, respectively. The overlap between the valence and conduction bands is strong, resulting in metallic behavior. We found that Nd-s/p/d, Ca-s/p, B-p, and O-s/p states controlled the overlapping around E(F). The effect of LDA and GGA on the band structure, density of states, and linear optical properties is very small, while for the nonlinear optical properties, it is very pronounced. Our calculations show that χ(111)(2)(ω) is the dominant component for both LDA and GGA. We find opposite signs of the contributions of the 2ω and 1ω inter/intraband to the real and imaginary parts for the dominant component throughout the wide optical frequency range.

  18. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Suárez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre 1997 y 2007. MÉTODO: se hizo enucleación del ojo con el tumor de mayor tamaño. En el otro ojo se hizo tratamiento con TTT, con el láser diodo (810 nm, spot amplio, solo o combinado con otras terapias. RESULTADOS: se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: 16 pacientes (32 ojos en el grupo 1 tratados conservadoramente y 4 pacientes (8 ojos en el grupo 2 con tratamiento convencional. El rango de edad fue de 1-72 meses en el grupo 1 y de 1-12 meses en el grupo 2. El tiempo de seguimiento fue de 7-67 meses para el grupo 1 y de 13-73 meses para el grupo 2. En el grupo 1 se hizo enucleación de 16 ojos (50%, radioterapia externa de uno (3,1%, quimioterapia más termoterapia de 5 (15,6% y quimioterapia más termoterapia más crioterapia de 10 (31,3%. En todos los pacientes se logró preservar al menos un ojo. En el grupo 2, se enuclearon 7 ojos (87,5% y se hizo radioterapia externa más enucleación en un paciente (12.5%. Además, todos los pacientes recibieron quimioterapia. CONCLUSIÓN: la terapia conservadora actual consistente en tratamiento local (termoterapia, crioterapia o braquiterapia y quimiorreducción permite preservar al menos un ojo y en algunos casos de los dos, muchas veces con buena agudeza visual, en niños con retinoblastoma bilateral; se evitan así la enucleación bilateral y la radioterapia externa usada en el tratamiento convencional con todos sus efectos secundarios. La enucleación contin

  19. Agmatine increases proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis in chronically stressed mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-feng LI; Hong-xia CHEN; Ying LIU; You-zhi ZHANG; Yan-qin LIU; Jin LI

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To explore the mechanism of agmatine's antidepressant action.Methods: Male mice were subjected to a variety of unpredictable stressors on a daily basis over a 24-d period.The open-field behaviors of the mice were displayed and recorded using a Videomex-V image analytic system automatically.For bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU;thymidine analog as a marker for dividing cells) labeling,the mice were injected with BrdU (100 mg/kg,ip,twice per d for 2 d),and the hippocampal neurogenesis in stressed mice was measured by immunohistochemistry.The proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells from neonatal rats was determined by colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8) and 3H-thymidine incorporation assay.Results:After the onset of chronic stress,the locomotor activity of the mice in the open field significantly decreased,while coadministration of agmatine 10 mg/kg (po) blocked it.Furthermore,the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus significantly decreased in chronically stressed mice, which was also blocked by chronic coadministration with agmatine 10 mg/kg (po). Four weeks after the BrdU injection, some of the new born cells matured and became neurons, as determined by double labeling for BrdU and neuron specific enolase (NSE), a marker for mature neurons.In vitro treatment with agmatine 0.1-10 μmo1/L for 3 d significantly increased the proliferation of the cultured hippocampal progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion:We have found that agmatine increases proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro and the hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo in chronically stressed mice.This may be one of the important mechanisms involved in agmatine's antidepressant action.

  20. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  1. Amyloid Beta-peptide (25-35) changes (Ca2+) in hippocampal neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Beatty, Diane; Morris, Stephen;

    1998-01-01

    neuroscience, Alzheimer, calcium ion, hippocampal neurons, amyloid-beta-peptide, hydrogen ion, rat......neuroscience, Alzheimer, calcium ion, hippocampal neurons, amyloid-beta-peptide, hydrogen ion, rat...

  2. Amount of lifetime video gaming is positively associated with entorhinal, hippocampal and occipital volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, S; Gallinat, J

    2014-07-01

    Playing video games is a popular leisure activity among children and adults, and may therefore potentially influence brain structure. We have previously shown a positive association between probability of gray matter (GM) volume in the ventral striatum and frequent video gaming in adolescence. Here we set out to investigate structural correlates of video gaming in adulthood, as the effects observed in adolescents may reflect only a fraction of the potential neural long-term effects seen in adults. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 62 male adults, we computed voxel-based morphometry to explore the correlation of GM with the lifetime amount of video gaming (termed joystick years). We found a significant positive association between GM in bilateral parahippocamal region (entorhinal cortex) and left occipital cortex/inferior parietal lobe and joystick years (Pvideo game genres played, such as logic/puzzle games and platform games contributing positively, and action-based role-playing games contributing negatively. Furthermore, joystick years were positively correlated with hippocampus volume. The association of lifetime amount of video game playing with bilateral entorhinal cortex, hippocampal and occipital GM volume could reflect adaptive neural plasticity related to navigation and visual attention. PMID:23958958

  3. Hippocampal expression of synaptic structural proteins and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein in a rat model of vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhao; Zhiyong Li; Yali Wang; Qiuxia Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The present study established a rat model of vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hy-poperfusion through permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries. At 60 days after mod-eling, escape latency and swimming path length during hidden-platform acquisition training in Morris water maze significantly increased in the model group. In addition, the number of accurate crossings over the original platform significantly decreased, hippocampal CA1 synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 expression significantly decreased, cAMP response element-binding protein expression remained unchanged, and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein expression significantly decreased. Results suggested that abnormal expression of hippo-campal synaptic structural protein and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation played a role in cognitive impairment following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

  4. Recurrence of bilateral herpes simplex virus keratitis following bimatoprost use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Mihir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man presented with features of bilateral herpes simplex virus (HSV keratitis. It was found to be recurrence of bilateral HSV keratitis following the use of Bimatoprost eye drops for uncontrolled intraocular pressure in a case of bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma.

  5. Nocturnal seizure and simultaneous bilateral shoulder fracture-dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbudin, Ilfita; Filer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise fit and well 27-year-old man presented with acute onset unexplained bilateral shoulder pain, and was found to have bilateral shoulder fractures and dislocations on imaging. Although features were atypical, a nocturnal seizure causing the bilateral shoulder fractures was suspected and EEG showed features compatible with epilepsy. PMID:26838296

  6. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Faramarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of Nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Case Report: A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response.

  7. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Amir; Feizi, Sepehr; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Case Report A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response. PMID:23275825

  8. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  9. Bilateral Psoas Abscess in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomich, Eric B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presented multiple times to the emergency department with acute low back pain and was subsequently diagnosed with bilateral psoas muscle abscess. Psoas abscess is an uncommon cause of acute low back pain that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The onset of symptoms is frequently insidious and the clinical presentation vague. Proper diagnosis requires vigilance of the physician to recognize signs in the history and physical examination that are suggestive of a potentially serious spinal condition and initiate further workup. While most patients with acute low back pain have a benign etiology, this case report demonstrates the challenge of diagnosing a patient with bilateral psoas abscess who had few known risk factors and symptoms typical of mechanical low back pain.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:288-291.

  10. Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Chakrabarti; Koushik Pan

    2014-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features...

  11. Frequency and causes of bilateral ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and causes of bilateral ocular trauma. All patients coming to the hospital with bilateral eye trauma and requiring admission were recruited into the study. The details of patients demographics, risk factors, ocular examination, treatment offered and final visual acuity were noted and described as frequency and percentages. Out of a total of 1551 patients of hospitalized ocular trauma, 46 (2.9%, 92 eyes) had bilateral ocular trauma. The majority (54.3%) were due to landmine blast injuries followed by dynamite blast in 10.8%, coalmine blast and firearm injury in 6.5% each. Pressure cooker explosion and road traffic accident was the cause in 4.3% each. Gas cylinder and automobile battery explosion, alkali and acid burn, assault and incidental trauma occurred in 2.1%. Sixty three percent were between 16 and 40 years of age. Males were affected in 93.4%. Corneal and / or scleral repair was done in 58.6%, conjunctival and or corneal foreign body removal in 26% and extracapular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation in 16.3%. The visual acuity was in the range of 6/60 and perception of light in 54.3%, while in 21.7%, there was no perception of light at the time of admission. Due to severity of injury, the final visual acuity was poor and only 28.2% regained vision between 6/18 and 6/60. In this series, landmine, dynamite and coalmine blasts were the major causes of bilateral ocular trauma. Victims were usually young males. Due to severity of ocular trauma, majority had poor visual outcome. (author)

  12. BILATERAL LUXATIO ERECTA, A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, César Augusto Xavier; da Silva Resch, Elemar; Rodrigues, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Inferior shoulder dislocation (luxactio erecta) is a rare lesion affecting approximately 0.5% of dislocations of this joint. The vast majority of these cases occur unilaterally. In September 2004, a 43 year old man was brought to the emergency room of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) complaining of bilateral shoulder pain and inability to lower the arms, as a result of a fall with the arms abducted, while carrying out work activities. After physical examination and radiological e...

  13. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterio...

  14. Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Lik Thai; Blum, Robert Alexander; Cheng, Chee Peng; Hanifudin, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib phone: +44-784-3617788 (Lim, Lik Thai) (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Blum, Robert Alexander) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - G...

  15. Bilateral Pregnancy Luteoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Annu Nanda; Uday A. Gokhale; G Rajasekharan Pillai

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy luteoma is a non-neoplastic lesion of the ovary occurring during pregnancy and is usually discovered incidentally at the time of a cesarean section or during postpartum tubal ligation. An accurate diagnosis is important for the mother and the fetus as it can be confused with ovarian malignancy leading to unnecessary surgery. We report a case of a pregnant female who was discovered to have bilateral enlarged ovaries at the time of emergency cesarean section.

  16. Bilateral exposures and systemic solvency risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gouriéroux, Christian; Héam, Jean-Cyprien; Monfort, Alain

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a structure of the balance sheets of the banks, which takes into account their bilateral exposures in terms of stocks or lendings, we get a structural model for default analysis. This model allows us to distinguish the exogenous and endogenous default dependence. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the liquidation equilibrium, we study the consequences of exogenous shocks on the banking system and we measure contagion phenomena. This approach is illustrated by an applicati...

  17. Bilateral Filter Evaluation Based on Exponential Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ismaeil, Kassem; Aouada, Djamila; Mirbach, Bruno; Ottersten, Björn

    2012-01-01

    The well-known bilateral filter is used to smooth noisy images while keeping their edges. This filter is commonly used with Gaussian kernel functions without real justification. The choice of the kernel functions has a major effect on the filter behavior. We propose to use exponential kernels with L1 distances instead of Gaussian ones. We derive Stein's Unbiased Risk Estimate to find the optimal parameters of the new filter and compare its performance with the conventional one. We show that t...

  18. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterior uveitis. PMID:22694887

  19. China-Pakistan Strengthen Bilateral Custom Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mr.Abdullah Yusuf,Secretary General/Chairman,Central Board Of Revenue of Pakistan,arrived Shenzhen on April 22 to meet with Mr.Sheng Guangzu,the Chinese Minister for Customs Administration for discussing the bilateral customs issues.During his two-day visit,China's Foreign Trade Magazine interviewed to Mr.Abdullah Yusuf in Beijing,he gave the high evaluation on this visit and China's great development in the recent years.

  20. Characteristics of immigrants and bilateral trade

    OpenAIRE

    José Vicente Blanes-Cristóbal

    2008-01-01

    This paper tests the impact of immigration on bilateral trade using Spanish data from 1995 to 2003. It also explores some possible mechanisms behind this link. It uses a gravity equation for trade augmented with an immigrant’s stock variable and a set of control variables. The immigrants variable enters the estimated equation in different ways depending on immigrant relevant characteristics both individual and non individualspecific. Results show that there is a positive link between immigrat...

  1. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez; Sergio Bonafonte Royo

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for i...

  2. Psychosocial Outcomes after Bilateral Hand Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Mansher; Oser, Megan; Zinser, Jennifer; Sisk, Geoffroy; Carty, Matthew J; Sampson, Christian; Pribaz, Julian J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Talbot, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the first successful hand transplantation in 1998, there have been multiple reports about surgical technique, transplant survival, and immunosuppression. However, very limited published data exist on psychosocial outcomes following hand transplantation. Methods: We report psychosocial outcomes in a patient with bilateral hand transplants at the midforearm level with serial follow-ups over 3.5 years. Different metrics used to study psychosocial outcomes included the following...

  3. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  4. Bilateral Brodie's abscess at the proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldu, Halil; Bilen, Fikri Erkal; Eralp, Levent; Kocaoglu, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Brodie's abscess is a form of subacute osteomyelitis, which typically involves the metaphyses of the long tubular bones, particularly in the tibia. The diagnosis is usually made incidentally, as there are no accompanying symptoms or laboratory studies. Bilateral involvement at the proximal tibia is unusual. However, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of this entity, as it may present without symptoms. Checking the contralateral limb for concomitant Brodie's abscess is recommended.

  5. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  6. Bilateral limbic system destruction in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Justin S.; Rudrauf, David; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cassell, Martin D.; Bruss, Joel; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We report here a case study of a rare neurological patient with bilateral brain damage encompassing a substantial portion of the so-called “limbic system.” The patient, Roger, has been studied in our laboratory for over 14 years and the current article presents his complete neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profiles. The brain damage occurred in 1980 following an episode of herpes simplex encephalitis. The amount of destroyed neural tissue is extensive and includes bilateral damage to core limbic and paralimbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal poles, orbitofrontal cortex, basal forebrain, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex. The right hemisphere is more extensively affected than the left, although the lesions are largely bilateral. Despite the magnitude of his brain damage, Roger has a normal IQ, average to above average attention, working memory, and executive functioning skills, and very good speech and language abilities. In fact, his only obvious presenting deficits are a dense global amnesia and a severe anosmia and ageusia. Roger's case presents a rare opportunity to advance our understanding of the critical functions underlying the human limbic system, and the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data presented here provide a critical foundation for such investigations. PMID:19763994

  7. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  8. Bilateral femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 300 cases of femoral neck fractures following radiotherapy for intrapelvic malignant tumor have been reported in various countries since Baensch reported this disease in 1927. In Japan, 40 cases or so have been reported, and cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures have not reached to ten cases. The authors experienced a case of 75 year-old female who received radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, and suffered from right femoral neck fracture 3 months after and left femoral neck fracture one year and half after. As clinical symptoms, she had not previous history of trauma in bilateral femurs, but she complained of a pain in a hip joint and of gait disturbance. The pain in left femoral neck continued for about one month before fracture was recognized with roentgenogram. As histopathological findings, increase of fat marrow, decrease of bone trabeculae, and its marked degeneration were recognized. Proliferation of some blood vessels was found out, but thickness of the internal membrane and thrombogenesis were not recognized. Treatment should be performed according to degree of displacement of fractures. In this case, artificial joint replacement surgery was performed to the side of fracture of this time, because this case was bilateral femoral neck fractures and the patient had received artificial head replacement surgery in the other side of fracture formerly. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  10. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  11. A case misdiagnosed as bilateral abducens palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 66-year-old male was admitted to our neurosurgical floor because of double vision and gait disturbance. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral 6th nerve palsy with both eyes pointing toward the midline. Initially, using a tentative diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions, especially localized at the base of the skull, computerized tomography of the head, cerebral angiography, orbital venography, and metrizamide CT cisternography were performed; the findings were normal. An orbital CT scan showed an enlargement of the bilateral medial rectus muscles, and the thyroid functions of T3 and T4 and the T3 uptake were all elevated, which was compatible with the diagnosis of Graves' disease. The limitations of both eyeballs were considered to be due not to the 6th nerve palsy, but to the hypertrophy of the bilateral medial rectus muscles. We neurosurgeons should recall Graves' disease as well as intracranial lesions, cerebrovascular disease, and post-traumatic sequelae when examining a patient who presents limitations of external ocular movement. (author)

  12. Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Parwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid was aspirated from the right cyst. Radiographically, erosion of bone in a "cupping" fashion was observed in the region of left cyst. The cysts were enucleated using intraoral approach. Histopathology of the right-sided cyst revealed a cystic cavity lined by stratified squamous cells along with a few mucosal cells. At few places, stratified squamous and pseudostratified columnar epithelia with many cilia and goblet cells were also evident. Capsule was loosely arranged with fibrous tissue and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Left-sided cystic specimen showed two or more layered stratified squamous lining epithelium with thin capsule. Diagnosis of bilateral nasolabial/nasoalveolar cysts was confirmed.

  13. FEATURES OF BILATERAL BREAST CANCER NODAL METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on issues related to the identification and investigation of the lymph node metastases with bilateral breast cancer. The presence of metastases in the lymph nodes determines the stage of the disease, and introducing a form of tumor progression, characterizes the course and prognosis for the future in a specific patient. Thus, the identification of possible morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor tissue and their comparison with the frequency and severity of regional lymph nodes would help to solve the problem of the identification of prognostic factors and markers associated with the risk of nodal metastasis in bilateral breast cancer. This work is relevant due to the fact that the literature on this issue to date are treated ambiguously, and answers to many questions, unfortunately, no.The authors performed a morphological study of the tumor tissue from 600 patients suffering from unilateral and bilateral breast cancer. To avoid false results were studied only cases corresponding to the histological type of invasive carcinoma of non-specific type. The study found that a greater number and a greater percentage of the affected lymph node metastases were observed in patients with bilaterally synchronous tumors. The patients of this group of metastatic lymph nodes was detected more frequently in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the presence of these discrete groups of tumor cells, and the observed maximum degree of inflammatory infiltration of the tumor stroma. In the group of patients with unilateral breast cancer nodal metastasis often detects when triple negative molecular genetic type of the lesion, with large amounts of tumor site, in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the obligatory presence of these microalveolar structures and discretely spaced groups of tumor cells and the highest severity of

  14. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold

  15. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test–retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score ≤−1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose–volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) assuming an α/β ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose–response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD2 to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in

  16. Interaction of Rydberg atoms in circular states with the alkaline-earth Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironchuk, E. S.; Narits, A. A.; Lebedev, V. S., E-mail: vlebedev@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The resonant mechanism of interaction of alkaline-earth atoms having a low electron affinity to Rydberg atoms in circular (l = vertical bar m vertical bar = n–1) and near-circular states has been studied. To describe the dynamics of resonant processes accompanied by nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule, an approach based on the integration of coupled equations for the probability amplitudes has been developed taking into account the possibility of the decay of an anion in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core of a highly excited atom. The approach involves the specific features of the problem associated with the structure of the wavefunction of a Rydberg electron in states with high orbital angular momenta l ∼ n–1. This approach provides a much more accurate description of the dynamics of electronic transitions at collisions between atoms than that within the modified semiclassical Landau–Zener model. In addition, this approach makes it possible to effectively take into account many channels of the problem. The cross sections for resonant quenching of Rydberg states of the Li(nlm) atom with given principal n, orbital l = n–1, and magnetic m quantum numbers at thermal collisions with the Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms have been calculated. The dependences of the results on n, m, and angle α between the relative velocity of the atoms and the normal to the plane of the orbit of the Rydberg electron have been obtained. The influence of orientational effects on the efficiency of the collisional destruction of circular and near-circular states has been studied. The results indicate a higher stability of such states to their perturbations by neutral particles as compared to usually studied nl states with low values of l (l ≪ n)

  17. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis after limbic kindling: Relationship to BDNF and hippocampal-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterill, J J; Brymer, K J; Caruncho, H J; Kalynchuk, L E

    2015-06-01

    Seizures dramatically increase the number of adult generated neurons in the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether this effect depends on seizures that originate in specific brain regions or whether it is nonspecific to seizure activity regardless of origin. We used kindling of different brain sites to address this question. Rats received 99 kindling stimulations of the basolateral amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, or caudate nucleus over a 6-week period. After kindling, we counted the number of adult generated hippocampal neurons that were birth-dated with the proliferative marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to evaluate cell proliferation and survival under conditions of repeated seizures. Next, we counted the number of doublecortin immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells and evaluated their dendritic complexity to determine if limbic and nonlimbic seizures have differential effects on neuronal maturation. We also quantified hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) protein levels using an ELISA kit and assessed memory performance using a hippocampal-dependent fear conditioning paradigm. We found that limbic, but not nonlimbic, seizures dramatically increased hippocampal cell proliferation and the number of hilar-CA3 ectopic granule cells. Further, limbic kindling promoted dendritic outgrowth of DCX-ir cells and the number of DCX-ir cells containing basal dendrites. Limbic kindling also enhanced BDNF protein levels throughout the entire hippocampus and impaired the retrieval of fear memories. Collectively, our results suggest a relationship between limbic seizures, neurogenesis, BDNF protein, and cognition.

  18. Anterior Thalamic Lesions Alter Both Hippocampal-Dependent Behavior and Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Lisa M.; Hall, Joseph M.; Vetreno, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are important for learning and memory as damage to this region produces a persistent amnestic syndrome. Dense connections between the ATN and the hippocampus exist, and importantly, damage to the ATN can impair hippocampal functioning. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key neurotransmitter in the hippocampus, and in vivo…

  19. The Neuropsychology of Down Syndrome: Evidence for Hippocampal Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.; Moon, Jennifer; Edgin, Jamie; Stedron, Jennifer; Nadel, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Tested prefrontal and hippocampal functions in school-aged individuals with Down syndrome (DS) compared functions with those of typically developing children individually matched on mental age. Found that hippocampal and prefrontal composite scores contributed unique variance to the prediction of mental age and adaptive behavior. Noted a…

  20. The Impact of Sleep Loss on Hippocampal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal cellular and molecular processes critical for memory consolidation are affected by the amount and quality of sleep attained. Questions remain with regard to how sleep enhances memory, what parameters of sleep after learning are optimal for memory consolidation, and what underlying hippocampal molecular players are targeted by sleep…

  1. Involvement of dopamine D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, P; Wang, S; Zhang, Y; Lv, J; Jin, Q H

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the involvement of dopamine (DA) and its D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD) established by permanent bilateral carotid occlusion. Spatial learning and memory abilities of rats were measured by Morris water maze, and extracellular concentrations of DA in the DG were determined by in vivo microdialysis. The DA concentrations in the DG decreased in the VD rats compared with sham-operated group. Microinjection of SFK38393 (D1 receptor agonist) into the DG attenuates spatial learning and memory deficits in the VD rats. PMID:25272945

  2. Economic Diplomacy in Africa: The Impact of Regional Integration versus Bilateral Diplomacy on Bilateral Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku

    The paper examines the impact of two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy on export flows among African states. We test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We...... compare the effects of these two instruments of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade by employing a gravity model for 45 African states over the period 1980-2005. The results show that bilateral diplomatic exchange is a relatively more significant determinant of bilateral exports among African states...... that there exists a trade-off between regional integration and commercial diplomacy in facilitating exports or a lack of complementarity between these two instruments of economic diplomacy....

  3. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  4. Modeling Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-03-01

    Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation. We considered four compartments to model hippocampal neurogenesis and, consequently, the effects of radiation treatment in altering neurogenesis: (1) neural stem cells (NSCs), (2) neuronal progenitor cells or neuroblasts (NB), (3) immature neurons (ImN) and (4) glioblasts (GB). Because neurogenesis is decreasing with increasing mouse age, a description of the age-related dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis is considered in the model, which is shown to be an important factor in comparisons to experimental data. A key feature of the model is the description of negative feedback regulation on early and late neuronal proliferation after radiation exposure. The model is augmented with parametric descriptions of the dose and time after irradiation dependences of activation of microglial cells and a possible shift of NSC proliferation from neurogenesis to gliogenesis reported at higher doses (∼10 Gy). Predictions for dose-fractionation regimes and for different mouse ages, and prospects for future work are then discussed. PMID:26943452

  5. Chemotherapy, cognitive impairment and hippocampal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, J; Prust, M; Kaiser, J

    2015-11-19

    Cancer therapies can be associated with significant central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. While radiation-induced brain damage has been long recognized both in pediatric and adult cancer patients, CNS toxicity from chemotherapy has only recently been acknowledged. Clinical studies suggest that the most frequent neurotoxic adverse effects associated with chemotherapy include memory and learning deficits, alterations of attention, concentration, processing speed and executive function. Preclinical studies have started to shed light on how chemotherapy targets the CNS both on cellular and molecular levels to disrupt neural function and brain plasticity. Potential mechanisms include direct cellular toxicity, alterations in cellular metabolism, oxidative stress, and induction of pro-inflammatory processes with subsequent disruption of normal cellular and neurological function. Damage to neural progenitor cell populations within germinal zones of the adult CNS has been identified as one of the key mechanisms by which chemotherapy might exert long-lasting and progressive neurotoxic effects. Based on the important role of the hippocampus for maintenance of brain plasticity throughout life, several experimental studies have focused on the study of chemotherapy effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and associated learning and memory. An increasing body of literature from both animal studies and neuroimaging studies in cancer patients suggests a possible relationship between chemotherapy induced hippocampal damage and the spectrum of neurocognitive deficits and mood alterations observed in cancer patients. This review aims to briefly summarize current preclinical and neuroimaging studies that are providing a potential link between the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy and hippocampal dysfunction, highlighting challenges and future directions in this field of investigation.

  6. The role of the rat hippocampal cellular electrophysiology in electrogenic cortical epileptic network reorganization%电刺激构建大鼠皮层网络癫痫的海马细胞电生理特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪胜; 刘青; 邹祖玉; 韩丹

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study hippocampal cellular electrophysiology involved in cortical epileptic networks reorganized by acute tetanization (60 Hz, 2 s, 0.4-0.6 mA) of the right posterior dorsal hippocampus (ATPDH). Experiments were performed on 35 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The ATPDH was used to establish epilepsy model. Four-channel recordings were done simultaneously, two channels for single unit recordings from bilateral hippocampi and other two channels for electrocorticogram (ECoG) or hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings on the bilateral sides. The ATPDH bilaterally induced: (1) Epileptic ECoG activities that were originated from single unit afterdischarges of ipsilateral hippocampal neuron, followed by single unit afterdischarges of contralateral hippocampal neuron, finally produced seizure-like oscillations in the contralateral and ipsilateral ECoG. (2) 4-10 Hz rhythmic ECoG oscillations and 100-250 Hz hippocampal EEG oscillations, and asymmetric electrical activities of bilateral hippocampal neurons. (3) The hippocampal neuronal bursting that appeared its interspike interval (ISI) spot distribution in an irregular circular shape. The ipsilateral circular shape ISI distribution was more regular and occurred often, which was time-locked with the sinusoidal pattern of maximum peaks of hippocampal oscillatory trains. The results imply that the epileptic networks are reorganized bilaterally between ECoG and hippocarnpal EEG by the ATPDH. The hippocampal neuronal firing temporally encodes its information, in particular, the irregular circular shape ISI distribution during epileptic network reorganization.%本文旨在探讨急性强直电刺激右后背海马(hippocampus,HPC)诱导出现双侧皮层网络癫痫的前背HPC神经元电生理机制.实验共用雄性SD大鼠35只,急性强直电刺激(60 Hz,2s,0.4-0.6 mA)大鼠右侧后背HPC(a-cute tetanization of the right posterior dorsal hippocampus,ATPDH)诱发癫痫模

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic Performance of a Multi-Atlas Hippocampal Segmentation Method using the Harmonized Hippocampal Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Cecilie Benedicte; Sørensen, Lauge; Pai, Akshay;

    PURPOSE Hippocampal volumetry is the most widely used structural MRI biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and state-of-the-art, automatic hippocampal segmentation can be obtained using longitudinal FreeSurfer. In this study, we compare the diagnostic AD performance of a single time point, multi...

  8. Ceratite bilateral por Acanthamoeba: relato de caso Bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nahmatallah Obeid

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A ceratite por Acanthamoeba é uma infecção ocular grave que, apesar dos recentes progressos no diagnóstico e tratamento, ainda provoca prolongada morbidade e perda da acuidade visual. Relatamos um caso de ceratite bilateral por Acanthamoeba em usuário de lentes de contato, que é o primeiro caso descrito na literatura brasileira.Acanthamoeba keratitis is a severe ocular infection which even with recent progress in diagnosis and treatment still causes long morbidity and loss of visual acuity. We describe a case of bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis in a user of contact lenses, which is the first case discussed in Brazilian literature.

  9. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  10. Effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-o-Tang, a polyherbal medicine on the hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of global ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Woo Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been well characterized as a common pathological status contributing to vascular dementia (VD. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of modified Bo yang Hwan O Tang (mBHT, a polyherbal medicine for ischemic stroke, was investigated in a rat model for global ischemia. Materials and Methods: Global ischemia model was prepared in Sprague Dawley rats by the permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (two vessel occlusion [2VO] induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was orally administrated for 4 weeks once a day, 24 h after 2VO. Histopathological change of the hippocampal region was observed by hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and Fluoro Jade B staining and immunohistochemistry with anti glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti neuronal nuclei antibodies. The expression of Bax, Bcl 2, and caspase 3 was investigated in the hippocampus by Western blot. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF κB expression was also analyzed in hippocampal CA1 region using immunofluorescence staining. Results: The administration of mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced neuronal damage and astroglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region in 2VO rats. mBHT increased the NF κB expression in the CA1 neuronal cells but decreased in activated astrocytes. In addition, mBHT significantly decreased the hippocampal expression of Bax and caspase 3 and increased the Bcl 2 expression in 2VO rats. Conclusions: Our data indicate that mBHT has a neuroprotective property in VD induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through inhibiting the hippocampal neuronal damage and astrogliosis.

  11. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A. [Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Disability Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sekita, Y. [Tohoku University Graduate School of Economics, Sendai (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  12. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS.

  13. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma.

  14. Bilateral generating functions and operational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Bilateral generating functions are those involving products of different types of polynomials. It is showed that operational methods offer a powerful tool to derive these families of generating functions. Cases relevant to products of Hermite and Laguerre, Hermite and Legendre ... polynomials and propose further extensions of the method are studied in this report. [Italian] Le funzioni generatrici bilaterali sono quelle che coinvolgono prodotti di tipi differenti di polinomi, si dimostra che i metodi operazionali offrono uno strumento potente per derivare queste nuove famiglie di funzioni speciali. Si studiano casi relativi a prodotti di polinomi di Hermite e Laguerre, Hermite e Legendre. Si propongono infine possibili estensioni del metodo.

  15. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, N; Veerarajkumar, N; Madeswaran, K

    2001-05-01

    A 7-year-old child presented with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) following a trivial head injury. CT was normal. MRI revealed a pontine lesion. Two months after the injury the patient was neurologically normal. INO following head injury is rare. Rarer still is INO following mild head injury. To date, only four cases of INO had been reported following mild head injury; the present case is the fifth and the first in which the lesion was documented using MRI. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:11417420

  16. Bilateral maculopathy associated with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Matthew T; Vasan, Ryan; Levy, Richard; Davis, Jessica; Chan, R V Paul

    2012-08-01

    Pierre Robin sequence has been associated with a number of ocular complications, including myopia, strabismus, Möbius syndrome, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, glaucoma, cataract, microphthalmos, coloboma of choroid, and retinal detachment. We report a 10-day-old boy who presented with micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate as well as multiple congenital anomalies. Ophthalmic examination was notable for bilateral maculopathy, with focal areas of retinal and retinal pigment epithelial atrophy. The association of Pierre Robin sequence and maculopathy has been reported only twice previously.

  17. Bilateral akillesseneruptur efter behandling med ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attarzadeh, Amir Pasha; Ryge, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons following ciprofloxacin treatment. A 54-year-old man presented with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture on the left side, tendinitis and partial tear on the right side following few days of treatment with...... ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily and long-term treatment with prednisolon 10 mg once daily. This rare side effect caused by concurrent treatment with steroids and ciprofloxacin should be kept in mind. Any signs of tendinitis following this treatment should arouse the physicians' suspicion towards ciprofloxacin....

  18. Bilateral pulmonary sequestration: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja Hong; Jeon, Eui Yong; Seo, Heung Suk; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    A 21-year-old woman presented with productive cough and hemoptysis. Chest radiograph shows a large thin-walled cystic lesion with an air-fluid level in medial portion of the left lower lung zone and opacity in paravertebral area of the right lower lung zone. Chest CT scan shows a thin-walled cavitary lesion in the posterior basal segment of left lower lobe with an air-fluid level. Area of consolidation containing air-filled cysts was also observed in medial aspect of right lower lobe. Selective angiogram obtained from aberrant artery arising from descending abdominal aorta showed two main branches of the artery supplying bilateral pulmonary lesions.

  19. Timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural em potro Bilateral tympany of a guttural pouch in foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Araújo Valadão

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma potra da raça Quarto de Milha com dois meses de idade apresentava aumento de volume bilateral na região da parótida desde algumas horas após o nascimento. Por exame radiográfico diagnosticou-se timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural. Realizou-se a abertura cirúrgica da bolsa gutural esquerda e fenestrou-se o septo medial das bolsas guturais. Adicionalmente, procedeu-se à ressecção parcial da mucosa na abertura do orifício guturo-faríngeo. A afecção foi debelada, sem recidivas.A 2-month old Quarter Horse filly presented, since few hours after birth, increased bilateral volume in the parotid gland region, with progressive enlargement. The radiographic examination revealed bilateral tympany of guttural pouch. Surgery was performed by medial septal fenestration. In addition, partial ressection of mucous membrane of the pharingeal orifice was performed. The disease was healed without recurrences.

  20. Unusual Bilateral Rim Fracture in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of one case of bilateral acetabular rim fracture in association with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI, which was treated with a hip arthroscopic procedure, performing a partial resection, a labral reinsertion, and a subsequential internal fixation with cannulated screws. Up to date, there are in the literature only two reports of rim fracture and “os acetabuli” in association with FAI. In the case we present, the pincer and cam resection were performed without complications; the technique used was published previously. With this technique the head of the screw lays hidden by the reattached labrum. We removed partially the fractured rim fragment and the internal fixation of the remaining portion was achieved with a screw. In the event of a complete resection of the fragment, it would have ended with a LCE angle of 18° and a high probability of hip instability. We believe that this bilateral case helps establish the efficacy and reproducibility of the technique described by Larson.

  1. A RARE CASE OF BILATERAL MICROSPHEREPHAKIA

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    Pandu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microspherophakia is rare bilateral congenital anamoly of the crystalline lens. The condition may be isolated , familial or it may be associated with systemic affections like Marfan's syndrome , Weil - Marchesani syndrome , hyperlysinemia and congenital rubella. Microspherophakia results in lenticular myopia , lens dislocation , usually inferiorly and inverse glaucoma. We present a case in a 8 year old child who presented with bilateral microspherophakia and anterior dislocation of lens of right eye. visual acuity in right eye was counting fingers close to face and i n left eye 6/60.IOP with perkins applanation tonometer was 30mmHg in right eye 22mmHg in left eye , cornea was hazy due to edema , anterior chamber was shallow in both eye patient was managed with emergency lens extraction of right eye and secondary ACIOL im plantation. Left eye was managed by laser peripheral iridotomy. IOP was within normal limits postoperatively in both eyes without any antiglaucoma medications. Postoperatively best corrected visual acuity in right was 6/18 and 6/9 in left eye.

  2. [Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mejido, José Antonio; Delgado-Jiménez, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Palomino, Laura; Sánchez-Sevilla, Miguel; Iglesias-Bravo, Eva; Caballero-Fernández, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: el cáncer de mama en el hombre es una enfermedad con baja incidencia, que se reduce aún más cuando es bilateral sincrónica. Existen pocas publicaciones en los últimos años. Objetivo: establecer pautas para el tratamiento de este cáncer, aunque sea infrecuente. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 75 años de edad, con tumores en ambas mamas, que se le resecaron completamente con exéresis de ganglios palpables. El estudio histopatológico informó que se trataba de un carcinoma ductal infiltrante no especificado. Se indicó tratamiento adyuvante con tamoxifeno y radioterapia; en la actualidad está libre de enfermedad. Conclusiones: el carcinoma mamario bilateral sincrónico en el varón es una enfermedad poco frecuente. Su tratamiento principal es la cirugía, de ahí la importancia del diagnóstico temprano. En la mayoría de los casos se requiere quimioterapia y radioterapia adyuvante porque suelen diagnosticarse en un estadio avanzado.

  3. Bilateral Electrical Cataract: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To present a rare complication, such as bilateral cataracts, in a man who sustained a high-voltage electrical injury. A 35- year-old man was admitted with a complaint of decrease in visual acuity. He had a history of a contact with a power line carrying 30.000 volts of electricity while working at a construction site. Examination at a burn center revealed second-degree facial, neck and left foot burns. One month later, the patient underwent amputation of fourth and fifth toes of his left foot. During the next 6 months, he noted decreasing vision in both eyes. Ocular examination 1 year after the accident revealed that the patient’s visual acuity had deteriorated to 1/10 in both eyes. The cornea on the left eye showed superficial punctate opacities. The lenses in both eyes had anterior subcapsular cortical lens opacities and posterior subcapsular opacities. Uncomplicated bilateral phacoemulsification surgery with intraocular lens implantation was performed and the patient’s visual acuity returned to 10/10 in both eyes. We noted that the fundus remained normal in both eyes. Electrical cataracts are still a serious potential complication that may occur after electrical injury. Awareness of this by burn team members is important for providing optimal treatment to those who have suffered an electrical injury. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 197-9

  4. Hiatus Hernia Repair with Bilateral Oesophageal Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Rajith; Cheung, Caran; Martin, David

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite advances in surgical repair of hiatus hernias, there remains a high radiological recurrence rate. We performed a novel technique incorporating bilateral oesophageal fixation and evaluated outcomes, principally symptom improvement and hernia recurrence. Methods. A retrospective study was performed on a prospective database of patients undergoing hiatus hernia repair with bilateral oesophageal fixation. Retrospective and prospective quality of life (QOL), PPI usage, and patient satisfaction data were obtained. Hernia recurrence was assessed by either barium swallow or gastroscopy. Results. 87 patients were identified in the database with a minimum of 3 months followup. There were significant improvements in QOL scores including GERD HRQL (29.13 to 4.38, P < 0.01), Visick (3 to 1), and RSI (17.45 to 5, P < 0.01). PPI usage decreased from a median of daily to none, and there was high patient satisfaction (94%). 57 patients were assessed for recurrence with either gastroscopy or barium swallow, and one patient had evidence of recurrence on barium swallow at 45 months postoperatively. There was an 8% complication rate and no mortality or oesophageal perforation. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that our technique is both safe and effective in symptom control, and our recurrence investigations demonstrate at least short term durability. PMID:26065030

  5. Hiatus Hernia Repair with Bilateral Oesophageal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajith Mendis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite advances in surgical repair of hiatus hernias, there remains a high radiological recurrence rate. We performed a novel technique incorporating bilateral oesophageal fixation and evaluated outcomes, principally symptom improvement and hernia recurrence. Methods. A retrospective study was performed on a prospective database of patients undergoing hiatus hernia repair with bilateral oesophageal fixation. Retrospective and prospective quality of life (QOL, PPI usage, and patient satisfaction data were obtained. Hernia recurrence was assessed by either barium swallow or gastroscopy. Results. 87 patients were identified in the database with a minimum of 3 months followup. There were significant improvements in QOL scores including GERD HRQL (29.13 to 4.38, P<0.01, Visick (3 to 1, and RSI (17.45 to 5, P<0.01. PPI usage decreased from a median of daily to none, and there was high patient satisfaction (94%. 57 patients were assessed for recurrence with either gastroscopy or barium swallow, and one patient had evidence of recurrence on barium swallow at 45 months postoperatively. There was an 8% complication rate and no mortality or oesophageal perforation. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that our technique is both safe and effective in symptom control, and our recurrence investigations demonstrate at least short term durability.

  6. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  7. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  8. A case of bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas differentiated by segmental adrenal venous sampling for bilateral adrenal sparing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, R; Satani, N; Iwakura, Y; Ono, Y; Kudo, M; Nezu, M; Omata, K; Tezuka, Y; Seiji, K; Ota, H; Kawasaki, Y; Ishidoya, S; Nakamura, Y; Arai, Y; Takase, K; Sasano, H; Ito, S; Satoh, F

    2016-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is a surgically curable form of hypertension. Bilateral APA can also be surgically curable in theory but few successful cases can be found in the literature. It has been reported that even using successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) via bilateral adrenal central veins, it is extremely difficult to differentiate bilateral APA from bilateral idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) harbouring computed tomography (CT)-detectable bilateral adrenocortical nodules. We report a case of bilateral APA diagnosed by segmental AVS (S-AVS) and blood sampling via intra-adrenal first-degree tributary veins to localize the sites of intra-adrenal hormone production. A 36-year-old man with marked long-standing hypertension was referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of bilateral APA. He had typical clinical and laboratory profiles of marked hypertension, hypokalaemia, elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of 45.1 ng dl(-1) and aldosterone renin activity ratio of 90.2 (ng dl(-1) per ng ml(-1 )h(-1)), which was still high after 50 mg-captopril loading. CT revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumours of 10 and 12 mm in diameter on the right and left sides, respectively. S-AVS confirmed excess aldosterone secretion from a tumour segment vein and suppressed secretion from a non-tumour segment vein bilaterally, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral APA. The patient underwent simultaneous bilateral sparing adrenalectomy. Histopathological analysis of the resected adrenals together with decreased blood pressure and PAC of 5.2 ng dl(-1) confirmed the removal of bilateral APA. S-AVS was reliable to differentiate bilateral APA from IHA by direct evaluation of intra-adrenal hormone production. PMID:26538381

  9. Cortisol, Cytokines, and Hippocampal Volume in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Daniel Sudheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation.

  10. The bilateral advantage for famous faces: interhemispheric communication or competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lyndsay M; Burton, A Mike

    2008-04-01

    The bilateral advantage for the perception of famous faces was investigated using a redundant target procedure. In experiment 1 we compared simultaneous presentation of stimuli (a) bilaterally and (b) one above the other in the central field. Results showed a redundancy advantage, but only when faces were presented bilaterally. This result lends support to the notion of interhemispheric communication using cross-hemisphere representations. Experiment 2 examined the nature of such communication by comparing bilateral presentation of identical face images, with bilateral presentation of different images of the same person. When asked to make a familiar/unfamiliar face judgement, participants showed evidence for a redundancy advantage under both bilateral conditions. This suggests that the nature of the information shared in interhemispheric communication is abstract, rather than being tied to superficial stimulus properties.

  11. Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with congenital pleuro-pleural communication

    OpenAIRE

    HATA, YOSHINOBU; Suzuki, Takashi; Yokoi, Masahide; Yoshida, Shuji; Takeyama, Teruaki; Nakazaki, Haruhiro; Goto, Hidenori; Sato, Fumitomo; Takagi, Keigo; Otsuka, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    A single pleural space can lead to serious simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax in cases of congenital or acquired pleuro-pleural communication. Here we report a 35-year-old man with bilateral pneumothorax. Chest computed tomography scans revealed a small air space between the esophagus and aorta, suggesting pleuro-pleural communication. Bilateral thoracoscopic bullectomy was performed. Repeated inspection revealed a 2-cm-long pleural window between the aorta and esophagus, which was closed wi...

  12. Bilateral Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder – a rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Yashavantha Kumar C; Nalini K B; Lalit Maini; Prashanth Nagaraj

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Bilateral shoulder dislocation are most commonly posterior type. These are most commonly due to seizure disorder and electrocution. Anterior shoulder dislocations occurring bilaterally without any predisposing factors are very rare. These types of injuries are due to trauma with a unique mechanism of injury. To best of our knowledge there are only few cases of similar kind are reported in literature. We hereby report a interesting case of posttraumatic, bilateral anterior dislo...

  13. Bilateral fat necrosis of the breast: report of a case.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonobe,Hiroshi; SATO, Yasuo; Suzuki,Yoshihide; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kawabata, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral fat necrosis of the breast is reported. The patient was a 50-year-old unmarried woman having no history of trauma, disease or surgery of the breast. In the bilateral breasts, ill-defined, firm masses with skin retraction were noted. Bilateral breast cancer was diagnosed clinically. However, both lesions showed histologically chronic granulomatous inflammation with foci of fatty necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, lipid containing foamy cells, foreign ...

  14. Unilateral versus Bilateral Instrumentation in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Molinari, Robert W.; Saleh, Ahmed; Molinari, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeff; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) What is the comparative efficacy of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? (2) What is the safety of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched up to September 30, 2014, to identify studies reporting the comparative efficacy and safety of unilateral versus bilateral instrume...

  15. Bilateral pneumothoraces complicating reduction mammoplasty: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Stylianos; Gnauk, Hans Georg; Schumacher, Martina; Wagner, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Background Bilateral pneumothoraces after cosmetic breast surgery are rare and sporadically reported in the literature. Case presentation A 65-year-old female patient developed bilateral pneumothoraces after bilateral breast reduction surgery. Emergent chest tube thoracostomy was performed on both sides. The chest drains were removed on the fourth day (left side) and sixth day (right side), and the patient was discharged after 7 days of hospitalization without any further complications. Concl...

  16. Hippocampal abnormalities after prolonged febrile convulsion: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rod C; King, Martin D; Gadian, David G; Neville, Brian G R; Connelly, Alan

    2003-11-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common lesion in patients who require epilepsy surgery, and approximately 50% of patients with MTS have a history of prolonged febrile convulsion (PFC) in childhood. The latter led to the hypothesis that convulsive status epilepticus, including PFC, can cause MTS. Our recently published data on children investigated within 5 days of a PFC showed that children investigated by MRI within 48 h of a PFC had large hippocampal volumes and prolongation of T2 relaxation time. Patients investigated >48 h from a PFC had large hippocampal volumes and normal T2 relaxation time. These data are strongly suggestive of hippocampal oedema that is resolving within 5 days of a PFC, but do not exclude the possibility of a pre-existing hippocampal lesion. Fourteen children from the original study had follow-up investigations carried out 4-8 months after the acute investigations. Of the 14 patients, four have had further seizures. Two had short febrile convulsions, one had PFC and one had non-febrile seizures. There was a significant reduction in hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation time between the first and second investigations, and there is now no difference in hippocampal volume or T2 relaxation time in patients compared with a control population. Moreover, there is a significant increase in hippocampal volume asymmetry in patients at follow-up when compared with initial data. Five out of 14 patients had asymmetry outside the 95th percentile for control subjects and, of these, three had one hippocampal volume outside the lower 95% prediction limit for control subjects. A reduction in hippocampal volume or T2 relaxation time, into or below the normal range between the first and second scans, indicates that the earlier findings are temporary and are strongly suggestive of hippocampal oedema as the abnormality in the initial investigations. The change in hippocampal symmetry in the patient group is consistent with injury and neuronal loss

  17. Bilateral Filtering using Modified Fuzzy Clustering for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Vijaya,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel bilateral filtering using weighed fcm algorithm based on Gaussian kernel unction for image manipulations such as segmentation and denoising . Our proposed bilateral filteringconsists of the standard bilateral filter and the original Euclidean distance is replaced by a kernel – induced distance in the algorithm. We have applied the proposed filtering for image denoising with both the impulse and Gaussian random noise, which achieves better results than the bilateral filtering based denoising approaches, the Perona-Maliks anisotropic diffusion filter, the fuzzy vector median filter and the Non-Local Means filter.

  18. Hippocampal contributions to language: evidence of referential processing deficits in amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczek, Jake; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Duff, Melissa

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of work suggests the hippocampus contributes to a variety of cognitive domains beyond its traditional role in memory. We propose that the hippocampus, in its capacity for relational binding, representational flexibility, and online maintenance and integration of multimodal relational representations, is a key contributor to language processing. Here we test the hypothesis that the online interpretation of pronouns is hippocampus-dependent. We combined eye tracking with neuropsychological methods, where participants (4 patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and severe declarative memory impairment, 4 patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex [vmPFC] damage, and healthy comparison participants) viewed a scene while listening to short dialogues introducing 2 characters; for example, Melissa is playing violin for Debbie/Danny as the sun is shining overhead. She is wearing a blue/purple dress. Consistent with previous work, analysis of eye gaze showed that younger and older healthy comparison participants and the vmPFC patients rapidly identified the intended referent of the pronoun when gender uniquely identified the referent, and when it did not, they showed a preference to interpret the pronoun as referring to the first-mentioned character. By contrast, hippocampal patients, while exhibiting a similar gender effect, exhibited significant disruptions in their ability to use information about which character had been mentioned first to interpret the pronoun. This finding suggests that the hippocampus plays a role in maintaining and integrating information even over a very short discourse history. These observed disruptions in referential processing demonstrate how promiscuously the hallmark processing features of the hippocampus are used in service of a variety of cognitive domains including language. PMID:23937178

  19. Reduced hippocampal and amygdala activity predicts memory distortions for trauma reminders in combat-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet Pannu; LaBar, Kevin S; McCarthy, Gregory; Selgrade, Elizabeth; Nasser, Jessica; Dolcos, Florin; Morey, Rajendra A

    2011-05-01

    Neurobiological models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that altered activity in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during encoding of traumatic memories contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, there is little direct evidence in the PTSD literature to support these models. The goal of the present study was to examine MTL activity during trauma encoding in combat veterans using the subsequent memory paradigm. Fifteen combat veterans diagnosed with PTSD and 14 trauma-exposed control participants viewed trauma-related and neutral pictures while undergoing event-related fMRI. Participants returned one week after scanning for a recognition memory test. Region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-wise whole brain analyses were conducted to examine the neural correlates of successful memory encoding. Patients with PTSD showed greater false alarm rates for novel lures than the trauma-exposed control group, suggesting reliance on gist-based representations in lieu of encoding contextual details. Imaging analyses revealed reduced activity in the amygdala and hippocampus in PTSD patients during successful encoding of trauma-related stimuli. Reduction in left hippocampal activity was associated with high arousal symptoms on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The behavioral false alarm rate for traumatic stimuli co-varied with activity in the bilateral precuneus. These results support neurobiological theories positing reduced hippocampal activity under conditions of high stress and arousal. Reduction in MTL activity for successfully encoded stimuli and increased precuneus activity may underlie reduced stimulus-specific encoding and greater gist memory in patients with PTSD, leading to maintenance of the disorder. PMID:21047644

  20. Prevention of Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Cognitive Function Deficits in Vascular Dementia by Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Kaili; Deng, Jiangshan; Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Zhao, Yuwu

    2016-07-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and a widely used component of cough medicine. Recently, its indication has been extended experimentally to a wide range of disorders including inflammation-mediated central nervous system disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigate whether DM treatment has protective effects on the hippocampal neuron damage induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]), an animal model of vascular dementia (VaD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) (10 weeks of age) rats were subjected to the 2VO, and DM was injected intraperitoneally once per day for 37 days. Neuron death, glial activation, and cognitive function were assessed at 37 days after 2VO (0.2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-0.2" and 2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-2"). DM-2 treatment provided protection against neuronal death and glial activation in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and reduced cognitive impairment induced by 2VO in rats. The study also demonstrates that activation of the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway and upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) play important roles in these effects. These results suggest that DM is effective in treating VaD and protecting against oxidative stress, which is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD. Therefore, the present study suggests that DM treatment may represent a new and promising protective strategy for treating VaD. PMID:26887382

  1. Tramadol state-dependent memory: involvement of dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Jafari-Sabet, Ali-Reza; Dizaji-Ghadim, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The effects on tramadol state-dependent memory of bilateral intradorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) injections of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, were examined in adult male NMRI mice. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. Post-training intra-CA1 administration of an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse), dose dependently impaired memory retention. Pretest injection of tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under the influence of post-training tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). A pretest intra-CA1 injection of physostigmine (1 μg/mouse) reversed the memory impairment induced by post-training administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). Moreover, pretest administration of physostigmine (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) with an ineffective dose of tramadol (0.25 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) also significantly restored retrieval. Pretest administration of physostigmine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. A pretest intra-CA1 injection of the atropine (1 and 2 μg/mouse) 5 min before the administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) dose dependently inhibited tramadol state-dependent memory. Pretest administration of atropine (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. It can be concluded that dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mechanisms play an important role in the modulation of tramadol state-dependent memory.

  2. Hippocampal neurogenesis enhancers promote forgetting of remote fear memory after hippocampal reactivation by retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Rie; Fukushima, Hotaka; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Forgetting of recent fear memory is promoted by treatment with memantine (MEM), which increases hippocampal neurogenesis. The approaches for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using rodent models have focused on the extinction and reconsolidation of recent, but not remote, memories. Here we show that, following prolonged re-exposure to the conditioning context, enhancers of hippocampal neurogenesis, including MEM, promote forgetting of remote contextual fear memory. However, these interventions are ineffective following shorter re-exposures. Importantly, we find that long, but not short re-exposures activate gene expression in the hippocampus and induce hippocampus-dependent reconsolidation of remote contextual fear memory. Furthermore, remote memory retrieval becomes hippocampus-dependent after the long-time recall, suggesting that remote fear memory returns to a hippocampus dependent state after the long-time recall, thereby allowing enhanced forgetting by increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Forgetting of traumatic memory may contribute to the development of PTSD treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17464.001

  3. Bilateral pulmonary emboli after bilateral mastectomy in a 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Piggott, JR; Yazdani, Arjang

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary emboli are rare, yet serious, complications of body contouring surgery. When they occur, they more often follow as complications of long, invasive procedures in adults. The present report details a case of bilateral pulmonary emboli in an obese 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism undergoing bilateral mastectomy for gynecomastia. The diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary emboli was made on the basis of clinical presentation and positive ventilation/perfusion scan. The patient responded well...

  4. Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Chakrabarti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features of Marfan syndrome and was stamped as a case of Marfan syndrome by Ghent criteria . The point to stress upon is that a young male developing spontaneous retinal detachment, a diagnosis of underlying Marfan syndrome should be kept in mind if appropriate clinical stigmata are present. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 104-105

  5. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  6. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  7. CASE OF BILATERAL ANTERIOR SEGMENT TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Kishan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an important cause of uveitis in our country. India has been declared the country with the highest tuberculosis burden with 25 % of the cases . (1 This is especially true in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana which have a high percentage of affected patients. However , tuberculous uveitis is usually a unilateral presen tation. We report a case of bilateral uveitis of tuberculous origin in a 55 year old woman. She presented with different tuberculous manifestations in the two eyes. While the RE showed non granulomatous uveitis with sclerosing keratitis , the LE showed gran ulomatous uveitis with mutton fat keratic precipitates. Systemic examination revealed an enlarged lymph node which was positive for tuberculosis on biopsy. She was hence diagnosed as extra pulmonary tuberculosis and was treated with ATT regimen. In this pa tient , uveitis was the initial manifestation and resulted in a systemic diagnosis.

  8. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shruti; Agito, Katrina; Krug, Esther I

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH) is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support. Despite primary coronary intervention, he remained hypotensive. Random cortisol level was low. He received stress dose hydrocortisone with immediate hemodynamic stability. BAH was highly suspected and was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal computed tomography. Prompt recognition and timely initiated treatment remain crucial to impact the mortality associated with acute adrenal insufficiency. PMID:27609733

  9. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in polycythemia vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Bhandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support. Despite primary coronary intervention, he remained hypotensive. Random cortisol level was low. He received stress dose hydrocortisone with immediate hemodynamic stability. BAH was highly suspected and was confirmed by non-contrast abdominal computed tomography. Prompt recognition and timely initiated treatment remain crucial to impact the mortality associated with acute adrenal insufficiency.

  10. Bilaterally Microstructured Thin Polydimethylsiloxane Film Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager;

    2015-01-01

    /S produces films with a one-sided microstructured surface only. It would be advantageous to produce a film with both surfaces microstructured, as this increases the film’s performance efficiency. The new technique introduced herein produces bilaterally microstructured film by combining an embossing method...... retain an imprint made on it. The preheated film at gel point is embossed between the rolls of a gravure lab coater, which corrugates the top surface of the film. The films are then heated, in order to cure completely. For the LSR systems used in this process, the optimum conditions for preheating...... are 110°C for 4–7 s, while for embossing the temperature is 110°C with 25 psi pressure between the rolls at a speed of 1.4 rpm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images confirm the formation of microstructures on both the surfaces of the film....

  11. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  12. Bilateral Scapulohumeral Ankylosis after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lotten, Manon L; Schreinemakers, J Rieneke; van Noort, Arthur; Rademakers, Maarten V

    2016-09-01

    This case demonstrates a rarely reported bilateral scapulohumeral bony ankylosis. A young woman developed extensive heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in both shoulder joints after being mechanically ventilated for several months at the intensive care unit in a comatose status. She presented with a severe movement restriction of both shoulder joints. Surgical resection of the bony bridges was performed in 2 separate sessions with a significant improvement of shoulder function afterwards. No postoperative complications, pain, or recurrence of HOs were noted at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockage, and prolonged sedation are known risk factors for the development of HOs in the shoulder joints. Relatively early surgical resection of the HOs can be performed safely in contrary to earlier belief. Afterwards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or radiation therapy can be possible treatment modalities to prevent recurrence of HOs. PMID:27583120

  13. Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities ("sandstorm-like") in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with "crazy paving" appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

  14. Spatial relational memory requires hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dupret

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning.

  15. Staining protocol for organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; DePaola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico

    2006-01-01

    This protocol details a method to immunostain organotypic slice cultures from mouse hippocampus. The cultures are based on the interface method, which does not require special equipment, is easy to execute and yields slice cultures that can be imaged repeatedly, from the time of isolation at postnatal day 6-9 up to 6 months in vitro. The preserved tissue architecture facilitates the analysis of defined hippocampal synapses, cells and entire projections. Time-lapse imaging is based on transgenes expressed in the mice or on constructs introduced through transfection or viral vectors; it can reveal processes that develop over periods ranging from seconds to months. Subsequent to imaging, the slices can be processed for immunocytochemistry to collect further information about the imaged structures. This protocol can be completed in 3 d.

  16. Cocaine depresses GABAA current of hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J H; Liu, P L; Wu, W H; McArdle, J J

    1997-10-01

    Although blockade of dopamine re-uptake and the resulting elevation of excitatory agonists is commonly thought the primary mechanism of cocaine-induced seizures, it is possible that other neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are involved. To examine this possibility, the effects of cocaine on the whole cell GABA current (IGABA) of freshly isolated rat hippocampal neurons were investigated with the patch-clamp technique. Preincubation or acute application of cocaine reversibly suppressed IGABA. The IC50 was 127 microM when cocaine was applied before the application of GABA. The concentration-response relations of cocaine in various GABA concentrations revealed that cocaine inhibited IGABA non-competitively. This effect of cocaine appeared to be independent of voltage. The present study suggests that the GABA receptor/channel complex is also a target for cocaine's action. The suppression of IGABA may contribute to cocaine-induced seizures.

  17. [Bilateral ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma. A case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño-Hernández, Andrés Alejandro; Quezada-López, Deissy Roxana; Castañeda-Chávez, Agar; Dassaejv Macías-Amezcua, Michel; Pintor-Belmontes, Julio Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el linfoma de Burkitt es una forma agresiva de los linfomas no Hodgkin de células B que ocurre con mayor frecuencia en niños y adultos jóvenes; el linfoma de ovario puede aparecer como lesión primaria o, más comúnmente, como una metástasis. Las lesiones primarias de ovario son manifestaciones raras que corresponden a 0.5% de los linfomas no Hodgkin y 1.5% de los tumores de ovario. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 31 años de edad, con debilidad generalizada, incapacidad para la marcha, disnea, hiporexia, fiebre, diaforesis, pérdida de 20 kg de peso, abdomen plano, con dolor abdominal; Ca125 610 U/mL. La tomografía computada abdominal mostró un gran tumor de aspecto sólido que afectaba a la cavidad pélvica derecha. Se extirparon los tumores ováricos bilaterales. Desde el punto de vista microscópico ambas lesiones muestran una imagen en "cielo estrellado" compuesta por un patrón de infiltrado monótono de linfocitos mezclada con macrófagos de citoplasma amplio y claro, abundantes mitosis atípicas, zonas de necrosis y hemorragia. La inmunohistoquímica reveló positividad para CDI0 y CD20, negativo con CD3, índice de proliferación Ki67 alto. Se diagnosticó linfoma tipo Burkitt bilateral de ovario. Conclusiones: el linfoma de Burkitt de ovario bilateral es poco frecuente, con variabilidad de presentación; el dolor abdominal y los tumores abdominales son lo más frecuente. El pronóstico a corto plazo de las pacientes es malo, por lo que es necesario conocer esta afección para poder establecer el diagnóstico temprano.

  18. Conscious attention, meditation, and bilateral information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Zimmerman, Elizabeth M; Hamilton, Elizabeth A; Sheftel, Jenna G; Bajo, Stephanie D; Raboch, Jiri; Golla, Megan; Konopka, Lukasz M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that conscious attention is related to large-scale information integration of various brain regions, including both hemispheres, that enables integration of parallel distributed modalities of processed information. There is also evidence that the level of information transference related to integration or splitting among brain regions, and between hemispheres, establishes a certain level of efficiency of the information processing. The level of information transference also may have modulatory influences on attentional capacity that are closely linked to the emotional arousal and autonomic response related to a stimulus. These findings suggest a hypothesis that changes in conscious attention, specifically during meditation could be reflected in the autonomic activity as the left-right information transference calculated from bilateral electrodermal activity (EDA). With the aim to compare conscious attention during meditation with other attentional states (resting state, Stroop task, and memory task), we performed bilateral EDA measurement in 7 healthy persons during resting state, Stroop task, neurofeedback memory test, and meditation. The results indicate that the information transference (ie, transinformation) is able to distinguish those attentional states, and that the highest level of the transinformation has been found during attentional processing related to meditation, indicating higher level of connectivity between left and right sides. Calculations other than pointwise transinformation (PTI) performed on EDA records, such as mean skin conductance level or laterality index, were not able to distinguish attentional states. The results suggest that PTI may present an interesting method useful for the assessment of information flow, related to neural functioning, that in the case of meditation may reflect typical integrative changes in the autonomic nervous system related to brain functions and focused attentional processing.

  19. Glucocorticoid effects on hippocampal protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlatter, L.K.

    1988-01-01

    Following subcutaneous injection of rats with 5 mg corticosterone, hippocampal slices in vitro show increased ({sup 35}S)-methionine labeling of a cytosolic protein with an apparent molecular weight (M{sub r}) of 35,000 and an isoelectric point (IEP) of 6.6. This labeling is temporally consistent with a transcriptional event, and is steroid- and tissue-specific. The pear serum concentration of steroid occurs one hour or less following the injection. Maximal labeling of this protein is reached whenever serum corticosterone values are approximately 100 ng/ml. When endogenous corticosterone levels are elevated to 100 ng/ml through stressors or exogenous ACTH injections the same maximal increase in synthesis of the 35,000 M{sub r} protein is observed. Adrenalectomy prevents the observed response from occurring following stressor application or ACTH injections. Comparison of the increases observed after administration of the type 2 receptor agonist RU 28362 and aldosterone, which has a higher affinity for the type 1 receptor, shows a 50-fold greater sensitivity of the response to the type 2 receptor agonist. Synthesis of this protein following serum increases of steroid possibly correlates to the theorized function of the type 2 receptor feedback regulation. The similar protein in the liver has an IEP of 6.8 and a slightly higher M{sub r}. A second hippocampal protein with an M{sub r} of 46,000 and an IEP of 6.2 is also increased in labeling. Two additional liver proteins, one of Mr 53,000 (IEP of 6.2) and the other with an M{sub r} of 45,000 (IEP of 8.7-7.8) are increased in the liver following glucocorticoid administration.

  20. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  1. Rhinal-hippocampal EEG coherence is reduced during human sleep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fell, J.; Staedtgen, M.; Burr, W.; Kockelmann, E.; Helmstaedter, C.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The deficiency of declarative memory compared with waking state is an often overlooked characteristic of sleep. Here, we investigated whether rhinal-hippocampal coherence, an electrophysiological correlate of declarative memory formation, is significantly altered during sleep as compared with waking

  2. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  3. Removing entorhinal cortex input to the dentate gyrus does not impede low frequency oscillations, an EEG-biomarker of hippocampal epileptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Martin; Kienzler-Norwood, Friederike; Bauer, Sebastian; Rosenow, Felix; Norwood, Braxton A.

    2016-01-01

    Following prolonged perforant pathway stimulation (PPS) in rats, a seizure-free “latent period” is observed that lasts around 3 weeks. During this time, aberrant neuronal activity occurs, which has been hypothesized to contribute to the generation of an “epileptic” network. This study was designed to 1) examine the pathological network activity that occurs in the dentate gyrus during the latent period, and 2) determine whether suppressing this activity by removing the main input to the dentate gyrus could stop or prolong epileptogenesis. Immediately following PPS, continuous video-EEG monitoring was used to record spontaneous neuronal activity and detect seizures. During the latent period, low frequency oscillations (LFOs), occurring at a rate of approximately 1 Hz, were detected in the dentate gyrus of all rats that developed epilepsy. LFO incidence was apparently random, but often decreased in the hour preceding a spontaneous seizure. Bilateral transection of the perforant pathway did not impact the incidence of hippocampal LFOs, the latency to epilepsy, or hippocampal neuropathology. Our main findings are: 1) LFOs are a reliable biomarker of hippocampal epileptogenesis, and 2) removing entorhinal cortex input to the hippocampus neither reduces the occurrence of LFOs nor has a demonstrable antiepileptogenic effect. PMID:27160925

  4. Timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural em potro Bilateral tympany of a guttural pouch in foal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Augusto Araújo Valadão; Júlio Carlos Canola; Roberta Ferro de Godoy

    2004-01-01

    Uma potra da raça Quarto de Milha com dois meses de idade apresentava aumento de volume bilateral na região da parótida desde algumas horas após o nascimento. Por exame radiográfico diagnosticou-se timpanismo bilateral de bolsa gutural. Realizou-se a abertura cirúrgica da bolsa gutural esquerda e fenestrou-se o septo medial das bolsas guturais. Adicionalmente, procedeu-se à ressecção parcial da mucosa na abertura do orifício guturo-faríngeo. A afecção foi debelada, sem recidivas.A 2-month old...

  5. Simultaneous bilateral shoulder and bilateral central acetabular fracture dislocation: What to do?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hardik Sheth; Abhijeet Ashok Salunke; Ramesh Panchal; Jimmy Chokshi; G.I.Nambi; Saranjeet Singh; Amit Patel

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries following seizures have a high morbidity and mortality.These injuries are often missed and the diagnosis is delayed due to a lack of clinical suspicion and appropriate investigations.We report a case of 72 years old male with simultaneous bilateral central acetabular fracture dislocation and bilateral posterior shoulder fracture dislocation secondary to an epileptic seizure.Present study highlights the significance of clinical suspicion and clinico-radiological evaluation for diagnosis of a rare injury following episode of seizures.Simultaneous fracture dislocation of all four limbs treated with a holistic approach can lead to a good functional recovery.Surgical management with open reduction and internal fixation is preferred and replacement arthroplasty should be reserved for cases with implant failure and elderly patients.

  6. Sleep and circadian organization as regulators of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anka

    2012-01-01

    The functions of sleep and hippocampal neurogenesis are topics of current research and remain unresolved. Both are suggested to play a role in hippocampus-dependent memory processes and in the development and symptoms of stress and depression. Total sleep deprivation, sleep fragmentation and rapid-eye-movement sleep deprivation (RSD) have been shown to reduce hippocampal neurogenesis, suggesting a functional link between sleep and neurogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. To...

  7. Preplay of future place cell sequences by hippocampal cellular assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoi, George; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    During spatial exploration, hippocampal neurons show a sequential firing pattern in which individual neurons fire specifically at particular locations along the animal’s trajectory (place cells1, 2). According to the dominant model of hippocampal cell assembly activity, place cell firing order is established for the first time during exploration, to encode the spatial experience, and is subsequently replayed during rest3, 4, 5, 6 or slow-wave sleep7, 8, 9, 10 for consolidation of the encoded ...

  8. Modulating Hippocampal Plasticity with In Vivo Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce G Rohan; Carhuatanta, Kim A.; McInturf, Shawn M.; Miklasevich, Molly K.; Jankord, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in relieving symptoms of neurological disorders and enhancing cognitive or motor performance have exhibited promising results. However, the mechanisms by which tDCS effects brain function remain under scrutiny. We have demonstrated that in vivo tDCS in rats produced a lasting effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as measured using extracellular recordings. Ex vivo preparations of hippocampal slices from rats th...

  9. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress Improves Mood, Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Parihar, Vipan K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kuruba, Ramkumar; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experien...

  10. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis of mammals: evolution and life history

    OpenAIRE

    Amrein, I.; Lipp, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial production of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain is restricted to the olfactory system and the hippocampal formation. Its physiological and behavioural role is still debated. By comparing adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) across many mammalian species, one might recognize a common function. AHN is most prominent in rodents, but shows considerable variability across species, being lowest or missing in primates and bats. The latter finding argues against a critical role of ...

  11. Role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal-cortical memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, Takashi; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Acquired memory is initially dependent on the hippocampus (HPC) for permanent memory formation. This hippocampal dependency of memory recall progressively decays with time, a process that is associated with a gradual increase in dependency upon cortical structures. This process is commonly referred to as systems consolidation theory. In this paper, we first review how memory becomes hippocampal dependent to cortical dependent with an emphasis on the interactions that occur between the HPC and...

  12. Paresia diafragmática bilateral idiopática Idiopathic bilateral diaphragmatic paresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Corso Pereira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de um paciente com dispnéia intensa ao se deitar, em que foram excluídas doenças pulmonares, neuromusculares ou cardíacas, cuja investigação revelou paresia diafragmática bilateral. Um sinal chave para o diagnóstico foi a evidência de respiração paradoxal com o doente em decúbito supino. Havia piora da oxigenação e da capacidade vital forçada com a mudança da posição ortostática para supina. A fluoroscopia ortostática foi normal. A pressão inspiratória máxima estava muito reduzida. A estimulação elétrica transcutânea do diafragma foi normal, e a eletroestimulação do nervo frênico mostrou ausência de resposta, permitindo o diagnóstico de paresia bilateral do diafragma.We report the case of a patient with severe dyspnea upon reclining. Lung disease, neuromuscular disorders and heart disease were ruled out. However, during the course of the investigation, bilateral diaphragmatic paresis was discovered. A key sign leading to the diagnosis was evidence of paradoxical respiration in the dorsal decubitus position. When the patient was moved from the orthostatic position to the dorsal decubitus position, oxygenation and forced vital capacity worsened. The orthostatic fluoroscopy was normal. Maximal inspiratory pressure was severely reduced. The responses to transcutaneous electric stimulation of the diaphragm were normal. However, electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve produced no response, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral diaphragmatic paresis.

  13. [Bilateral anterior uveiopapillitis, suspicious of Lyme disease--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicula, Cristina; Nicula, D; Rusu, Ioana; Popescu, Raluca

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a patient which associated bilateral anterior uveitis manifestations with those of bilateral anterior inflammatory optic neuropathy. We followed the evolution of the case under treatment and we discussed the differential diagnosis and the association of the two ocular pathologies.

  14. Bilateral Occipital Condyle Fracture: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Schrödel, Markus H.; Kestlmeier, Ralph; Trappe, Anna E.

    2002-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures are a rare finding in trauma victims. Bilateral fractures are even more unusual and have typically been reported in autopsy studies. We treated two patients with bilateral occipital condyle fractures who had only minor symptoms. Anderson and Montesano's classification,1 possible cranial nerve palsies, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare fracture are discussed.

  15. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar;

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  16. Hierarchical bilateral filtering based disparity estimation for view synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hong-Chang; Lee, Gwangsoon; Cheong, Won-Sik; Hur, Namho

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a high efficient and practical disparity estimation using hierarchical bilateral filtering for real-time view synthesis. The proposed method is based on hierarchical stereo matching with hardware-efficient bilateral filtering. Hardware-efficient bilateral filtering is different from the exact bilateral filter. The purpose of the method is to design an edge-preserving filter that can be efficiently parallelized on hardware. The proposed hierarchical bilateral filtering based disparity estimation is essentially a coarse-to-fine use of stereo matching with bilateral filtering. It works as follows: firstly, the hierarchical image pyramid are constructed; the multi-scale algorithm then starts by applying a local stereo matching to the downsampled images at the coarsest level of the hierarchy. After the local stereo matching, the estimated disparity map is refined with the bilateral filtering. And then the refined disparity map will be adaptively upsampled to the next finer level. The upsampled disparity map used as a prior of the corresponding local stereo matching at the next level, and filtered and so on. The method we propose is essentially a combination of hierarchical stereo matching and hardware-efficient bilateral filtering. As a result, visual comparison using real-world stereoscopic video clips shows that the method gives better results than one of state-of-art methods in terms of robustness and computation time.

  17. Hansen′s disease with bilateral tarsal disorganisation

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Pradeep; Vijayadharan M; Yogirajan K; Suprakasan S; Rajasree P

    1999-01-01

    A 37-year old male patient with Hansen′s disease midborderline spectrum, presented with bilateral pedal edema. X-ray examination of the feet showed disorganisation and disintegration of the tarsal bones. Bilateral tarsal disorganisation which can develop in Hansen′s disease is usually not recognised by the clinician.

  18. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  19. Religious factors and hippocampal atrophy in late life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D Owen

    Full Text Available Despite a growing interest in the ways spiritual beliefs and practices are reflected in brain activity, there have been relatively few studies using neuroimaging data to assess potential relationships between religious factors and structural neuroanatomy. This study examined prospective relationships between religious factors and hippocampal volume change using high-resolution MRI data of a sample of 268 older adults. Religious factors assessed included life-changing religious experiences, spiritual practices, and religious group membership. Hippocampal volumes were analyzed using the GRID program, which is based on a manual point-counting method and allows for semi-automated determination of region of interest volumes. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was observed for participants reporting a life-changing religious experience. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was also observed from baseline to final assessment among born-again Protestants, Catholics, and those with no religious affiliation, compared with Protestants not identifying as born-again. These associations were not explained by psychosocial or demographic factors, or baseline cerebral volume. Hippocampal volume has been linked to clinical outcomes, such as depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease. The findings of this study indicate that hippocampal atrophy in late life may be uniquely influenced by certain types of religious factors.

  20. Sleep-stage correlates of hippocampal electroencephalogram in primates.

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    Ryoi Tamura

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated in the rodent hippocampus that rhythmic slow activity (theta predominantly occurs during rapid eye movement (REM sleep, while sharp waves and associated ripples occur mainly during non-REM sleep. However, evidence is lacking for correlates of sleep stages with electroencephalogram (EEG in the hippocampus of monkeys. In the present study, we recorded hippocampal EEG from the dentate gyrus in monkeys overnight under conditions of polysomnographical monitoring. As result, the hippocampal EEG changed in a manner similar to that of the surface EEG: during wakefulness, the hippocampal EEG showed fast, desynchronized waves, which were partly replaced with slower waves of intermediate amplitudes during the shallow stages of non-REM sleep. During the deep stages of non-REM sleep, continuous, slower oscillations (0.5-8 Hz with high amplitudes were predominant. During REM sleep, the hippocampal EEG again showed fast, desynchronized waves similar to those found during wakefulness. These results indicate that in the monkey, hippocampal rhythmic slow activity rarely occurs during REM sleep, which is in clear contrast to that of rodents. In addition, the increase in the slower oscillations of hippocampal EEG during non-REM sleep, which resembled that of the surface EEG, may at least partly reflect cortical inputs to the dentate gyrus during this behavioral state.

  1. Rare cause of paraparesis: bilateral obturator neuropathy after hysterosalpingectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Roberto; Mejía-Jiménez, Inmaculada; de Fuenmayor-Fernández de la Hoz, Carlos Pablo; Ruiz-Morales, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral obturator nerve injury during pelvic surgery is an infrequent cause of lower limb paraparesis. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with a large uterine leiomyoma who underwent simple total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy. At 24 h after the surgery, the patient noticed loss of muscle strength when adducting both legs. She had no problem with other movements and no sensory or sphincter abnormalities. Neurological examination confirmed that there was loss of strength only in the adductor muscles, with preserved sensory function and reflexes, suggesting bilateral obturator nerve involvement. Pelvic MRI showed a small postsurgical haematoma in the Douglas recess, but far from the obturator nerves. 2 weeks later, electromyography showed positive sharp waves and low motor unit recruitment in the adductor magnus muscles, confirming acute, bilateral obturator nerve neuropathy. The few cases of bilateral obturator neuropathy that have been reported were mostly related to abdominopelvic interventions. PMID:26689250

  2. Bilateral Clavicle Fractures: A Report of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhotia, Devendra; Khatri, Kavin; Sharma, Vijay; Farooque, Kamran; Sharma, Swati

    2016-06-01

    Bilateral clavicle fractures are uncommonly reported in the literature with the incidence being less than 0.5% of all the clavicle fractures. Bilateral clavicle fractures are caused either by high-energy transfer of compression forces across both shoulder girdles or by a direct trauma to one clavicle followed by that to the other clavicle. These fractures could be missed due to their association with more severe chest injuries or a more symptomatically displaced fracture on one side or due to inadequate chest radiographs. We report three cases of traumatic bilateral clavicle fractures with three modes of injuries in different age groups. All the fractures were treated conservatively with good functional outcomes without any sequelae. Bilateral clavicle fractures should be actively sought by every trauma team with proper clinical examination and chest radiographs including both shoulder joints in high-energy trauma cases or with bilateral shoulder compression injuries. PMID:27504365

  3. MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Jadwat, Saaleeha [Institute of Child Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, 7700, Cape Town (South Africa); McHugh, Kieran; Linward, Jane [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy and highlight the diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI especially with regard to those lesions that may cause respiratory compromise. Retrospective review of MRI scans in six infants with bilateral parotid haemangiomas. The bilateral haemangiomas were symmetrical in all but one patient. On T1-weighted images the masses were isointense to muscle and on T2 they were hyperintense with numerous small vessels giving a septated appearance. There was vivid enhancement with gadolinium in all cases. In three patients, deep bilateral extensions were demonstrated involving the parapharyngeal spaces resulting in respiratory compromise which required tracheostomy. Bilateral parotid haemangiomas are rare, but when present may have deep extensions, which can result in respiratory compromise requiring tracheostomy. (orig.)

  4. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with megalencephaly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yu; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Tanaka, Soichiro; Inui, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kunishima, Shinji; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by gray matter cellular rests in the periventricular regions. Megalencephaly has not been reported in children with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia. No other disorder with a similar phenotype has been reported. Here we report the case of a 5-year-old Japanese boy with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and megalencephaly. Relative macrocephaly was evident at birth, and bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and megalencephaly were noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, no hydrocephalus or indication of cerebral cortical dysplasia was seen. A mild intellectual disability was present, but the patient had no history of seizures. Genetic analysis revealed no mutation on the capillary sequences for FLNA, and no pathogenic abnormalities were evident on array comparative genomic hybridization. This case could represent a new disease entity: bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with megalencephaly. PMID:23439715

  5. Bilateral Tubal Gestation Associated with Schistosomiasis in an African Woman

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    K. H. Odubamowo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The incidence of tubal ectopic gestation caused by schistosomiasis induced tubal pathology is undocumented in this environment, which may be due to rarity of this pathology. Bilateral tubal gestation is common in patients that have undergone in vitro fertilization. We report a hitherto undocumented case of spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation following tubal schistosomiasis. Case Report. Mrs. OB was a 32-year-old G4P3+0 (3 alive woman who complained of abdominal pain and bleeding per vaginam of 4 and 2 days’ duration respectively following 8 weeks of amenorrhea. A clinical impression of ruptured ectopic gestation was confirmed by ultrasound scanning. She had bilateral salpingectomy with histology of specimens showing bilateral ectopic gestation with Schistosoma haematobium induced salpingitis (findings of Schistosoma haematobium ova noted on slide. Conclusion. Schistosoma induced salpingitis is a rare but possible cause of bilateral tubal gestation.

  6. Comparative gait initiation kinematics between simulated unilateral and bilateral ankle hypomobility: Does bilateral constraint improve speed performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafontaine, A; Honeine, J-L; Do, M-C; Gagey, O; Chong, R K

    2015-08-31

    Improvement of motor performance in unilateral upper limb motor disability has been shown when utilizing inter-limb coupling strategies during physical rehabilitation. This suggests that 'default' bilateral central motor commands are facilitated. Here, we tested whether this bilateral motor control principle may be generalized to the lower limbs during gait initiation, which involves alternate bilateral actions. Disability was simulated by strapping to produce ankle hypomobility. Healthy adult subjects initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint (control), or with the stance, swing or bilateral ankles strapped. The duration of the anticipatory postural adjustments lengthened and the center of mass instantaneous progression velocity at foot-off decreased when the ankle was strapped. During the step execution phase, progression velocity at foot-contact was higher when both ankles were strapped compared to unilateral strapping of the stance ankle. These findings suggest that bilateral central motor commands are favored during walking tasks. Indeed, unilateral constraint of the stance ankle should compel the central nervous system to adapt specific commands to the constraint and normal sides whereas the 'default' bilateral motor commands would be utilized when both ankles are strapped leading to better kinematics performance. Bilateral in-phase upper limb coordination and bilateral alternating lower limb locomotor movements may share similar control mechanisms. PMID:26197055

  7. Neonatal bilateral lidocaine administration into the ventral hippocampus caused postpubertal behavioral changes: An animal model of neurodevelopmental psychopathological disorders

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    Vanessa Blas-Valdivia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Edgar Cano-Europa, Adelaida Hernández-García, Rocio Ortiz-ButrónDepartamento de Fisiología “Mauricio Russek Berman”, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, I.P.N., Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: Our aim was to investigate if neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus would cause behavioral changes related to schizophrenia. A neonatal ventral-hippocampal lesion (nVH lesion was made with lidocaine in Wistar male pups. Two groups were formed, the first received lidocaine (4 μg/0.3 μL and the second an equal volume of vehicle. At day 35 and 56, both groups were tested for social contact, immobility caused by clamping the neck and dorsal immobility, locomotor activity in an open field, and tail flick (TF latency after a painful heat stimulus. All animals were then killed. Coronal cuts (7 μm of the brain were obtained and each brain section was stained with cresyl violet-eosin. The animals which received the nVH lesion with lidocaine had decreased social interaction at both ages. The rats with lesions, only at day 58 postnatal, increased their distance traveled and ambulatory time, with a decrease in their nonambulatory and reset time. The rats with lesions had a longer duration of immobility caused by clamping the neck and a longer dorsal immobility at both days 34 and 57 compared to control rats. The lidocaine-treated group spent less time to deflect the tail compared to the control group at postpubertal age. The neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus caused some alterations, such as chromatin condensation, nucleolus loss, and cell shrinkage, but glial proliferation was not seen. Neonatal bilateral lidocaine administration into the ventral hippocampus caused postpubertal behavioral changes.Keywords: lidocaine, hippocampus, neonatal lesion, behavior, animal model, psychopathological disorders

  8. Frequent seizures are associated with a network of gray matter atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis.

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    Ana C Coan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS have diffuse subtle gray matter (GM atrophy detectable by MRI quantification analyses. However, it is not clear whether the etiology and seizure frequency are associated with this atrophy. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of GM atrophy and the influence of seizure frequency in patients with TLE and either normal MRI (TLE-NL or MRI signs of HS (TLE-HS. METHODS: We evaluated a group of 172 consecutive patients with unilateral TLE-HS or TLE-NL as defined by hippocampal volumetry and signal quantification (122 TLE-HS and 50 TLE-NL plus a group of 82 healthy individuals. Voxel-based morphometry was performed with VBM8/SPM8 in 3T MRIs. Patients with up to three complex partial seizures and no generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the previous year were considered to have infrequent seizures. Those who did not fulfill these criteria were considered to have frequent seizures. RESULTS: Patients with TLE-HS had more pronounced GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral mesial temporal structures, temporal lobe, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Patients with TLE-NL had more subtle GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Both TLE-HS and TLE-NL showed increased GM volume in the contralateral pons. TLE-HS patients with frequent seizures had more pronounced GM atrophy in extra-temporal regions than TLE-HS with infrequent seizures. Patients with TLE-NL and infrequent seizures had no detectable GM atrophy. In both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, the duration of epilepsy correlated with GM atrophy in extra-hippocampal regions. CONCLUSION: Although a diffuse network GM atrophy occurs in both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, this is strikingly more evident in TLE-HS and in patients with frequent seizures. These findings suggest that neocortical atrophy in TLE is related to the ongoing seizures and epilepsy duration, while thalamic

  9. Bilateral Psoas Haematomata Complicating Renal Transplantation

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    Jacob A. Akoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The challenge in managing patients undergoing renal transplantation is how to achieve optimum levels of anticoagulation to avoid both clotting and postoperative bleeding. We report a rare case of severe postoperative retroperitoneal bleeding including psoas haematomata complicating renal transplantation. Case Report. SM, a 55-year-old female, had a past history of aortic valve replacement, cerebrovascular event, and thoracic aortic aneurysm and was on long-term warfarin that was switched to enoxaparin 60 mg daily a week prior to her living donor transplantation. Postoperatively, she was started on a heparin infusion, but this was complicated by a large retroperitoneal bleed requiring surgical evacuation on the first postoperative day. Four weeks later, she developed features compatible with acute femoral neuropathy and a CT scan revealed bilateral psoas haematomata. Following conservative management, she made steady progress and was discharged home via a community hospital 94 days after transplantation. At her last visit 18 months after transplantation, she had returned to full fitness with excellent transplant function. Conclusion. Patients in established renal failure who require significant anticoagulation are at increased risk of bleeding that may involve prolonged hospitalisation and more protracted recovery and patients should be carefully counselled about this.

  10. BILATERAL OSSIFIED STYLOHYOID COMPLEX: A CASE REPORT

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    Sarada Devi S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Mineralisation of all components of stylohyoid complex or chain, a 2nd branchial arch derivative is frequently reported. But bilateral occurrence of continuous bands of ossified tissue involving stylohyoid complex, are less commonly encountered. An adult skull specimen presented abnormally long osseous bands extending from base of skull in place of styloid process. On left side a band of 6.5cm long x1cm wide and 0.3cm in thickness, and on right side an irregularly rounded elongated structure of 7.5cm length were noticed. Lower end of the left process was fused to hyoid bone. Either abnormally long styloid process or this type of ossified stylohyoid complex may be a causative factor for severe pharyngeal pain, dysphagia, may be a cause for occasional swelling in submandibular region or may be associated with Eagle syndrome. Due to its close proximity to tonsillar bed, if elongated it may be felt during tonsillectomy in tonsillar fossa. In this backdrop reports of this type may be of interest to clinicians.

  11. Outcome of bilateral ureteroscopic retrieval of stones in a single session

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    Majid Mushtaque

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Bilateral same-session ureteroscopy is a safe and effective procedure in the management of bilateral ureteral stones. The results are comparable to unilateral or staged bilateral procedures.

  12. Associative reinstatement memory measures hippocampal function in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melanie; Giannoylis, Irene; De Belder, Maya; Saint-Cyr, Jean A; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2016-09-01

    In Parkinson's Disease (PD), hippocampal atrophy is associated with rapid cognitive decline. Hippocampal function is typically assessed using memory tests but current clinical tools (e.g., free recall) also rely on executive functions or use material that is not optimally engaging hippocampal memory networks. Because of the ubiquity of executive dysfunction in PD, our ability to detect true memory deficits is suboptimal. Our previous behavioural and neuroimaging work in other populations suggests that an experimental memory task - Associative Reinstatement Memory (ARM) - may prove useful in investigating hippocampal function in PD. In this study, we investigated whether ARM is compromised in PD and we assessed its convergent and divergent validity by comparing it to standardized measures of memory and of attention and executive functioning in PD, respectively. Using fMRI, we also investigated whether performance in PD relates to degree of hippocampal engagement. Fifteen participants with PD and 13 age-matched healthy controls completed neuropsychological testing as well as an ARM fMRI recognition paradigm in which they were instructed to identify word pairs comprised of two studied words (intact or rearranged pairs) and those containing at least one new word (new or half new pairs). ARM is measured by the differences in hit rates between intact and rearranged pairs. Behaviourally, ARM was poorer in PD relative to controls and was correlated with verbal memory measures, but not with attention or executive functioning in the PD group. Hippocampal activation associated with ARM was reduced in PD relative to controls and covaried with ARM scores in both groups. To conclude, ARM is a sensitive measure of hippocampal memory function that is unaffected by attention or executive dysfunction in PD. Our study highlights the benefit of integrating cognitive neuroscience frameworks and novel experimental tasks to improve the practice of clinical neuropsychology in PD. PMID

  13. Nonlinear dynamical analysis of carbachol induced hippocampal oscillations in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin AKAY; Kui WANG; Yasemin M AKAY; Andrei DRAGOMIR; Jie WU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Hippocampal neuronal network and synaptic impairment underlie learning and memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and animal models. In this paper, we analyzed the dynamics and complexity of hippocampal neuronal network synchronization induced by acute exposure to carbachol, a nicotinic and muscarinic receptor co-agonist, using the nonlinear dynamical model based on the Lempel-Ziv estimator. We compared the dynamics of hippocampal oscillations between wild-type (WT) and triple-transgenic (3xTg) mice, as an AD animal model. We also compared these dynamic alterations between different age groups (5 and 10 months). We hypothesize that there is an impairment of complexity of CCh-induced hippocampal oscillations in 3xTg AD mice compared to WT mice, and that this impairment is age-dependent. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we used electrophysiological recordings (field potential) in hippocampal slices. Results: Acute exposure to 100 nmol/L CCh induced field potential oscillations in hippocampal CA1 region, which exhibited three distinct patterns: (1) continuous neural firing, (2) repeated burst neural firing and (3) the mixed (continuous and burst) pattern in both WT and 3xTg AD mice. Based on Lempel-Ziv estimator, pattern (2) was significantly lower than patterns (1) and (3) in 3xTg AD mice compared to WT mice (P<0.001), and also in 10-month old WT mice compared to those in 5-month old WT mice (P<0.01).Conclusion: These results suggest that the burst pattern (theta oscillation) of hippocampal network is selectively impaired in 3xTg AD mouse model, which may reflect a learning and memory deficit in the AD patients.

  14. Synchronous Bilateral Solid Papillary Carcinomas of the Breast

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    Noriko Yoshimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a case of synchronous bilateral solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. A 73-year-old female had a mass that was detected in the right breast on mammography. An ultrasound examination revealed one intracystic tumor in the right breast and two tumors in the left breast. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy of these three tumors was performed, which revealed a diagnosis of malignancy. A magnetic resonance imaging examination of the breasts showed diffuse small nodules surrounding these tumors bilaterally. Bilateral partial mastectomy and a sentinel lymph node biopsy were performed. Lymph node metastasis was detected in the right axilla, and additional lymph node dissection was performed. The pathological diagnosis was synchronous bilateral breast cancer, invasive ductal carcinoma NOS of the right breast, mucinous carcinomas of the left breast, and bilateral SPCs. A wide range of surgical margins were positive for SPCs, and additional bilateral total mastectomy was then performed. To the best of our knowledge, little is known about synchronous bilateral SPCs. Our case indicates that some SPCs can be widely scattered and make up a variety of invasive carcinomas. It is difficult to make a correct preoperative evaluation in such cases.

  15. Hippocampal hypertrophy and sleep apnea: a role for the ischemic preconditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Kempton, Matthew J; Crum, William R; Glasser, Martin; Milosevic, Milan; Beniczky, Sandor; Corfield, Douglas R; Williams, Steven C; Morrell, Mary J

    2013-01-01

    The full impact of multisystem disease such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on regions of the central nervous system is debated, as the subsequent neurocognitive sequelae are unclear. Several preclinical studies suggest that its purported major culprits, intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, can differentially affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Although the prospective biphasic nature of chronic intermittent hypoxia in animal models of OSA has been acknowledged, so far the evidence for increased 'compensatory' neurogenesis in humans is uncertain. In a cross-sectional study of 32 patients with mixed severity OSA and 32 non-apnoeic matched controls inferential analysis showed bilateral enlargement of hippocampi in the OSA group. Conversely, a trend for smaller thalami in the OSA group was noted. Furthermore, aberrant connectivity between the hippocampus and the cerebellum in the OSA group was also suggested by the correlation analysis. The role for the ischemia/hypoxia preconditioning in the neuropathology of OSA is herein indicated, with possible further reaching clinical implications. PMID:24349453

  16. Hippocampal hypertrophy and sleep apnea: a role for the ischemic preconditioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rosenzweig

    Full Text Available The full impact of multisystem disease such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA on regions of the central nervous system is debated, as the subsequent neurocognitive sequelae are unclear. Several preclinical studies suggest that its purported major culprits, intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, can differentially affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Although the prospective biphasic nature of chronic intermittent hypoxia in animal models of OSA has been acknowledged, so far the evidence for increased 'compensatory' neurogenesis in humans is uncertain. In a cross-sectional study of 32 patients with mixed severity OSA and 32 non-apnoeic matched controls inferential analysis showed bilateral enlargement of hippocampi in the OSA group. Conversely, a trend for smaller thalami in the OSA group was noted. Furthermore, aberrant connectivity between the hippocampus and the cerebellum in the OSA group was also suggested by the correlation analysis. The role for the ischemia/hypoxia preconditioning in the neuropathology of OSA is herein indicated, with possible further reaching clinical implications.

  17. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Paola; Krishnan, Giri P; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network. PMID:27093059

  18. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

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    Paola Malerba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network.

  19. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  20. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  1. D-serine increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Sebastien eSultan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the continuous formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The neurogenic niche regulates the stem cell proliferation and the differentiation and survival of new neurons and a major contributor to the neurogenic niche are astrocytes. Among the molecules secreted by astrocytes, D-serine is an important gliotransmitter and is a co-agonist of the glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. D-serine has been shown to enhance the proliferation of neural stem cells in vitro, but its effect on adult neurogenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we tested the effect of exogenous administration of D-serine on adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus. We found that 1 week of treatment with D-serine increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro and increased the density of neural stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors. Furthermore, D-serine increased the survival of newborn neurons. Together, these results indicate that D-serine treatment resulted in the improvement of several steps of adult neurogenesis in vivo.

  2. Effect of Opioid on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

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    Yue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the study of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis has significantly progressed. Many studies focus on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells, including addictive drugs such as opioid. Here, we review the most recent works on opiate drugs’ effect on different developmental stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. We conclude that opiate drugs in general cause a loss of newly born neural progenitors in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus, by either modulating proliferation or interfering with differentiation and maturation. We also discuss the consequent impact of regulation of adult neurogenesis in animal’s opioid addiction behavior. We further look into the future directions in studying the convergence between the adult neurogenesis field and opioid addiction field, since the adult-born granular cells were shown to play a role in neuroplasticity and may help to reduce the vulnerability to drug craving and relapse.

  3. A 72-year-old patient with bilateral Maisonneuve fractures

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    Thomas Dienstknecht

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maisonneuve fractures result from a disruption of the medial ankle structures and a proximal fibular fracture. Patient complaints can be misleading and there is a significant rate of delayed diagnosed injuries. We present a case of bilateral Maisonneuve fractures after a fall due to a syncopal collapse. A precise clinical examination led to this rare diagnosis. The injuries were treated with syndesmotic screw fixation, removal of hardware followed after 6 weeks. The patient was asymptomatic at threemonths follow up. Patients with bilateral injuries undergoing standard surgical treatment can gain full recovery, but high suspicion in clinical examination is needed to detect this uncommon bilateral injury.

  4. Geleophysic dysplasia associated with bilateral angle closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sinan Saricaoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we present occurrence of bilateral angle closure glaucoma in a 9-year-old girl with geleophysic dysplasia. Bilateral YAG laser iridotomy was applied, but intraocular pressure (IOP remained at high levels, necessitating bilateral trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. On her follow-up examinations for 3 years, IOP remained in the mid-20s with no need for further intervention or antiglaucoma medication. There are few reports describing the ocular findings of geleophysic dysplasia in literature. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing an application of glaucoma surgery and its results at geleophysic dysplasia.

  5. Bilateral Ota nevus in a 15 years old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Öztürk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a dermal melanocytosis, clinically localizedon skin that is innervated by the first and secondbranches of the trigeminal nerve. It occurs almost entirelyin Asian people. The clinical manifestations are usuallyunilateral; only 5% of cases are bilateral. In this article,due to rarity of the case, a 15-year-old patient, who was diagnosedwith bilateral ota nevus, without having any dermatologicalcomplaints other than cosmetic appearenceand stains in her eyes and around was presented.Key words: Bilateral ota nevus, child, melanocytosis

  6. Bilateral Tibial Tubercle Sleeve Fractures in a Skeletally Immature Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasesh R. Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibial tubercle sleeve fracture is a rare injury. In concept, it is similar to the patellar sleeve fracture in a skeletally immature patient. We describe a unique case of simultaneous bilateral tibial tubercle sleeve fractures in a 12-year-old boy. Radiographs and MRI confirmed the injury. The patient underwent open surgical repair of bilateral sleeve fractures with suture anchor fixation. At the final followup, 3 years after his initial injury, the patient demonstrated full knee function bilaterally without radiographic evidence of growth disturbances.

  7. Early morbidity after simultaneous and staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to investigate the early morbidity after bilateral simultaneous and staged total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in order to clarify potential benefits of a well-established fast-track regime. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was searched for all...... with 14 % (CI 11.5-20.1) after bilateral staged TKA within 7-18 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this nationwide study indicate that bilateral simultaneous TKA can safely be performed in a fast-track set-up....

  8. Haptic Manipulation of Deformable Objects in Hybrid Bilateral Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ibarra-Zannatha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the integration of a virtual environment containing a deformable object, manipulated by an open kinematical chain virtual slave robot, to a bilateral teleoperation scheme based on a real haptic device. The virtual environment of this hybrid bilateral teleoperation system combines collision detection algorithms, dynamical, kinematical and geometrical models with a position–position and/or force–position bilateral control algorithm, to produce on the operator side the reflected forces corresponding to the virtual mechanical interactions, through a haptic device. Contact teleoperation task over the virtual environment with a flexible object is implemented and analysed.

  9. BILATERAL ANOMALOUS MUSCLE IN THE POPLITEAL FOSSA & ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variation may occur due to genetic or developmental causes. Some variations may compromise the vascular, muscular or nervous system in the region. Bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa is very rare. In present study an instance of bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa, arising from different muscles like gastrocnemius and from biceps femoris is recorded. There is no report of such variations. These observations are rare of its kind because of bilateral asymmetrical presence and difference in the origins in different legs. This is the first report as for the literatures available. Clinical and functional importance of such variation is discussed with the morphological aspects of this anomalous muscle.

  10. Luxatio erecta bilateral: um relato de caso Bilateral luxatio erecta, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    César Augusto Xavier Acosta; Elemar da Silva Resch; Rafael Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    O deslocamento inferior do ombro (luxatio erecta) é uma lesão rara, acometendo aproximadamente 0,5% dos deslocamentos dessa articulação. A grande maioria desses casos ocorre unilateralmente. Em setembro de 2004, um homem de 43 anos chegou ao pronto-socorro do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (HUSM) com queixa de dor bilateral no ombro e incapacidade de abaixar os braços, em consequência de uma queda com os braços abduzidos, enquanto desempenhava sua atividade laboral. Após o exame físico...

  11. Luxatio erecta bilateral: um relato de caso Bilateral luxatio erecta, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Xavier Acosta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O deslocamento inferior do ombro (luxatio erecta é uma lesão rara, acometendo aproximadamente 0,5% dos deslocamentos dessa articulação. A grande maioria desses casos ocorre unilateralmente. Em setembro de 2004, um homem de 43 anos chegou ao pronto-socorro do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (HUSM com queixa de dor bilateral no ombro e incapacidade de abaixar os braços, em consequência de uma queda com os braços abduzidos, enquanto desempenhava sua atividade laboral. Após o exame físico e radiológico constatou- se que o indivíduo apresentava uma luxação inferior bilateral dos ombros. O paciente foi então encaminhado ao bloco cirúrgico onde foi realizada redução incruenta das luxações sob anestesia através da técnica de tração e contra-tração. No dia seguinte recebeu alta com imobilização tipo Velpeau mantendo os ombros totalmente aduzidos e rotados internamente, com orientação de manter a imobilização por três semanas. Foi orientado também a realizar fisioterapia.Inferior shoulder dislocation (luxactio erecta is a rare lesion affecting approximately 0.5% of dislocations of this joint. The vast majority of these cases occur unilaterally. In September 2004, a 43 year old man was brought to the emergency room of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM complaining of bilateral shoulder pain and inability to lower the arms, as a result of a fall with the arms abducted, while carrying out work activities. After physical examination and radiological exams, it was found that the patient had a bilateral inferior shoulder dislocation. He was referred to the surgical ward and after intravenous sedation, both shoulders were reduced by closed reduction using the traction-countertraction maneuver. The patient was discharged the day after the reduction. Both arms were immobilized with a velpeau sling in total adduction and intrarotation, with instructions to maintain immobilization for three weeks. The patient was

  12. Point Climat no. 11 'Japan's Bilateral Offset Crediting Mechanism: A Bilateral Solution to a Global Issue?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: In order to achieve its long-term emission reduction target following the Fukushima incident, Japan would rely more heavily on international offsetting activities. Concurrent to vigorous proposals to reform the CDM, Japan is also promoting an offset crediting scheme through bilateral agreements with developing countries as a post-2012 market mechanism. Despite potential benefits, issues relating to the accounting rules, environmental integrity and implications to carbon markets warrant further consideration prior to international recognition

  13. Bilateral Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Due To Bilateral Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eren CANSÜ, İstemi YÜCEL, Kutay ÖZTURAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tarsal tunnel syndrome is an entrapment neuropathy of posterior tibial nerve under the flexorretinaculum. Patients generally present with paresthesias on the plantar side of foot and fingersand in the distal kruris.The causes of tarsal tunnel syndrome are space occupying lesions within or around the tunnelwhich exert pressure to the nerve, ankle deformities, systemic illnesses, trauma or lesions ofthe nerve itself.In this study a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome due to bilateral lipoma which was treated surgicallyis presented.

  14. Hippocampal sclerosis: correlation of MR imaging findings with surgical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Sung Ho; Nam, Hyun Woo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Cho, Woo Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Atrophy and a high T2 signal of the hippocampus are known to be the principal MR imaging findings of hippocampal sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not individual MRI findings correlate with surgical outcome in patients with this condition. Preoperative MR imaging findings in 57 consecutive patients with pathologically-proven hippocampal sclerosis who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were followed-up for 24 months or more were retrospectively reviewed, and the results were compared with the postsurgical outcome (Engel classification). The MR images included routine sagittal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted spin-echo images, and oblique coronal T1-weighted 3D gradient-echo and T2-weighted 2D fast spin-echo images obtained on either a 1.5 T or 1.0 T unit. The images were visually evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to the outcome; their focus was the presence or absence of atrophy and a high T2 hippocampal signal. Hippocampal atrophy was seen in 96% of cases (55/57) [100% (53/53) of the good outcome group (Engel class I and II), and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group (class III and IV)]. A high T2 hippocampal signal was seen in 61% of cases (35/57) [62% (33/53) of the good outcome group and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group]. All 35 patients with a high T2 signal had hippocampal atrophy. 'Normal' hippocampus, as revealed by MR imaging, occurred in 4% of patients (2/57), both of whom showed a poor outcome (Engel class III). The presence or absence of hippocampal atrophy correlated well with surgical outcome (p<0.01). High T2 signal intensity did not, however, significantly correlate with surgical outcome (p>0.05). Compared with a high T2 hippocampal signal, hippocampal atrophy is more common and correlates better with surgical outcome. For the prediction of this, it thus appears to be the more useful indicator.

  15. Amyloid Beta Peptide Slows Down Sensory-Induced Hippocampal Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peña-Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD progresses with a deterioration of hippocampal function that is likely induced by amyloid beta (Aβ oligomers. Hippocampal function is strongly dependent on theta rhythm, and disruptions in this rhythm have been related to the reduction of cognitive performance in AD. Accordingly, both AD patients and AD-transgenic mice show an increase in theta rhythm at rest but a reduction in cognitive-induced theta rhythm. We have previously found that monomers of the short sequence of Aβ (peptide 25–35 reduce sensory-induced theta oscillations. However, considering on the one hand that different Aβ sequences differentially affect hippocampal oscillations and on the other hand that Aβ oligomers seem to be responsible for the cognitive decline observed in AD, here we aimed to explore the effect of Aβ oligomers on sensory-induced theta rhythm. Our results show that intracisternal injection of Aβ1–42 oligomers, which has no significant effect on spontaneous hippocampal activity, disrupts the induction of theta rhythm upon sensory stimulation. Instead of increasing the power in the theta band, the hippocampus of Aβ-treated animals responds to sensory stimulation (tail pinch with an increase in lower frequencies. These findings demonstrate that Aβ alters induced theta rhythm, providing an in vivo model to test for therapeutic approaches to overcome Aβ-induced hippocampal and cognitive dysfunctions.

  16. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Blankenship, Sarah L; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n=40). Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4) regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability. PMID:26900967

  17. Altered hippocampal morphology in unmedicated patients with major depressive illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie E Bearden

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite converging evidence that major depressive illness is associated with both memory impairment and hippocampal pathology, findings vary widely across studies and it is not known whether these changes are regionally specific. In the present study we acquired brain MRIs (magnetic resonance images from 31 unmedicated patients with MDD (major depressive disorder; mean age 39.2±11.9 years; 77% female and 31 demographically comparable controls. Three-dimensional parametric mesh models were created to examine localized alterations of hippocampal morphology. Although global volumes did not differ between groups, statistical mapping results revealed that in MDD patients, more severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater left hippocampal atrophy, particularly in CA1 (cornu ammonis 1 subfields and the subiculum. However, previous treatment with atypical antipsychotics was associated with a trend towards larger left hippocampal volume. Our findings suggest effects of illness severity on hippocampal size, as well as a possible effect of past history of atypical antipsychotic treatment, which may reflect prolonged neuroprotective effects. This possibility awaits confirmation in longitudinal studies.

  18. Bilateral versus unilateral thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to compare demographics, clinical manifestations, associated systemic and ocular factors, severity and activity of patients with unilateral thyroid eye disease (U-TED versus bilateral thyroid eye disease (B-TED. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all patients with Graves′ hyperthyroidism and primary hypothyroidism seen in an endocrinology clinic were included from September 2003 to July 2006. Demographics, complete eye examination, severity score (NOSPECS, total eye score, and clinical activity score were recorded and compared in the B-TED and U-TED groups of patients. Results: From 851 patients with thyroid disorders, 303 (35.6% had TED. Thirty-two patients (32/ 303, 10.56% were found to have U-TED. Patients with U-TED (mean age 31.6 ± 11.6 years were significantly younger than patients with B-TED (mean age 37.7 ± 14.7 years. Monovariate analysis (Chi-square and independent sample t-test showed a significantly higher severity score in B-TED (U-TED 4.09±4.05, B-TED: 6.7±6.3; P= 0.002 and more activity score in B-TED (U-TED= 1.03±0.96, B-TED: 1.74±1.6, P= 0.001. However, multivariate analysis did not show any significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gender, type of thyroid disease, duration of thyroid disease and TED, severity and activity of TED, smoking habit, and presentation of TED before or after the presentation of thyroid disease (0.1

  19. Prospective and Episodic Memory in Relation to Hippocampal Volume in Adults with Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    OpenAIRE

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla K.; CIRINO, PAUL T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined prospective and episodic memory in relation to age, functional independence, and hippocampal volume in younger to middle-aged adults with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) and typically developing (TD) adults. Prospective and episodic memory, as well as hippocampal volume, were reduced in adults with SBM relative to TD adults. Neither memory performance nor hippocampal volume showed greater decrements in older adults. Lower hippocampal volume was associated with r...

  20. Epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis and febrile seizures linked by common genetic variation around SCN1A

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperaviciute, D; Catarino, C. B.; Matarin, M.; Leu, C.; Novy, J.; Tostevin, A; Leal, B.; Hessel, E.V.S.; Hallmann, K.; Hildebrand, M. S.; Dahl, H.-H. M.; Ryten, M.; Trabzuni, D.; Ramasamy, A.; Alhusaini, S.

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy comprises several syndromes, amongst the most common being mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis are typically drug-resistant, and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is frequently associated with important co-morbidities, mandating the search for better understanding and treatment. The cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is unknown, but there is...

  1. Photoperiod is associated with hippocampal volume in a large community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Megan A.; Leckie, Regina L.; Donofry, Shannon D.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Kirk I Erickson; Manuck, Stephen B.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Although animal research has demonstrated seasonal changes in hippocampal volume, reflecting seasonal neuroplasticity, seasonal differences in human hippocampal volume have yet to be documented. Hippocampal volume has also been linked to depressed mood, a seasonally varying phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that seasonal differences in day-length (i.e., photoperiod) would predict differences in hippocampal volume, and that this association would be linked to low mood. Healthy participants...

  2. Luxação lateral bilateral isolada do cotovelo Elbow bilateral lateral dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Reckers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de luxação lateral bilateral isolada de cotovelo em uma paciente do sexo feminino de 48 anos. Optou-se pelo tratamento conservador através de redução fechada sob anestesia geral. Ambos os cotovelos foram imobilizados com gesso axilo-palmar e mantidos a 90º de flexão por três semanas, quando se iniciou a reabilitação. No seguimento de dezoito meses observou-se boa estabilidade e recuperação do arco de movimento de ambos os cotovelos.The authors present an isolated case of bilateral lateral dislocation of the elbow joint in a 48-year old female patient. The conservative treatment was chosen, through closed reduction under general anesthesia. Both elbows were placed in an axillopalmar splint cast and held at a 90 degree angle of flexion for three weeks when rehabilitation began. In the eighteen-month follow-up period, good stability as well as the recovery of the range of motion was observed in both elbows

  3. Mielolipoma adrenal bilateral em um cão Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Araújo França

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato descreve um caso de mielolipoma adrenal bilateral em uma cadela Poodle de 13 anos de idade. O cão morreu por peritonite séptica aguda, decorrente de ulceração e perfuração intestinal por corpo estranho linear. O neoplasma foi achado incidentalmente durante a necropsia. Macroscopicamente, as adrenais estavam redondas e com volume e aumentados. Ao corte elas eram friáveis, vermelho-amarronzadas, intercaladas por áreas branco-amareladas levemente proeminentes. Histologicamente, extensas áreas do parênquima continham adipócitos bem diferenciados, células hematopoéticas e macrófagos com hemossiderina, achados característicos de mielolipoma adrenal.A case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in a 13-year-old female Poodle is reported. Acute septic peritonitis due to intestinal ulceration and perforation caused by a linear foreign body was the cause of death. The adrenal neoplasm was an incidental necropsy finding. The adrenal glands were grossly rounded, enlarged and friable, and had red-brownish parenchyma interwoven by slightly prominent white-yellowish foci. Histologically, the findings of differentiated adipocytes in large areas of the parenchyma, in association to hematopoietic cells and macrophages with hemosiderin were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.

  4. Delayed-onset bilateral abducens paresis after head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Salunke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral sixth nerve paresis following closed head injury, though rare, is a known entity. However, delayed-onset post-traumatic bilateral abducens paresis is extremely rare. We present two cases. The first patient had onset of bilateral abducens paresis 2 weeks after closed head injury and the second patient after 3 days. The cause in the former was detected to be chronic subdural hematoma and in the latter is speculated to be edema/ischemia due to injury to soft tissue structures housing these nerves. The delayed onset of bilateral abducens paresis following head injury may vary according to the cause. There may be another mechanism of injury apart from direct trauma. Though rare, it needs to be evaluated and may have a treatable cause like elevated intracranial pressure.

  5. Bilateral Teleoperation in Cartesian Space with Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral control of a teleoperator in Cartesian space with time‐varying delay is studied in this paper. Compared with the traditional joint‐space teleoperation mode, bilateral control in Cartesian space has advantages when dealing with the kinematically dissimilar (KDS teleoperation systems. A Cartesian space‐based PD‐like bilateral controller with dissipation factors is designed. Considering the fact that attitude errors derived by rotation matrix cannot be directly used for PD control, a quaternion‐based approach is adopted to calculate the attitude errors in Cartesian space. In order to overcome the instability brought about by communication delay, local damping components are employed at both ends of the teleoperator system. The variation of time delay may generate extra energy and influence the stability of the system, thus dissipation factors are introduced into the controller. The stability of the proposed bilateral controller is proved and the simulations show the effectiveness of the approach.

  6. A case of bilateral primary fallopian tube carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 60 years old postmenopausal woman was presented with complaints of intermittent watery discharge from vagina, and of cramping pain at the lower abdomen. On pelvic examination, blood tinged watery discharge was seen coming out of os. But, ultrasonography revealed bilateral adenexal masses and pyometra. The serum CA-125 level in blood was raised. Cervical smear showed inflammatory changes, but endometrial histopathology was negative for malignant cells. Suspecting ovarian malignancy, laparotomy was done that revealed the bilateral tubal growth with normal ovaries; the right adenexal mass was of the size (6.8×4.8 cm while, the left adenexal mass was the size of (4.2×2.6 cm. Histopathology study revealed bilateral serous cyst adenocarcinoma of fallopian tubes. The case of bilateral primary fallopian tube carcinoma was presented here for its rarity.

  7. Surgical Management of Bilateral Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirani, Jayesh; Mariappan, Indumathi; Ramamurthy, Shreyas; Fatima, Saba; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S

    2016-07-01

    Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is now established as a distinct entity with a spectrum of clinical manifestations. Bilateral LSCD presents a unique set of challenges to the clinician dealing with ocular surface disease, due to the underlying causes, clinical presentation, and adnexal status, as well as lack of a source of autologous limbal stem cells. Various surgical modalities have been described to achieve visual rehabilitation in patients with bilateral LSCD. These can primarily be divided into cell-based therapies and implantation of keratoprostheses. In this review, the surgical options for management of bilateral LSCD, including autologous and allogeneic cell-based therapies and different types of keratoprostheses are described and classified. The indications, prerequisites, technique, results and complications of each modality are discussed. Based on the status of the ocular surface, an algorithm for choosing appropriate surgical management for vision restoration in bilateral LSCD has been proposed. PMID:27151421

  8. Pneumomediastinum, simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema following burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema following burn is unreported in the literature. We de-scribe such case in an 18-year-old male patient with possible mechanism of such presentation.

  9. Bilateral hematoma of sternocleidomastoid muscles. A case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Quintero Delgado

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the case of an infant with bilateral congenital torticollis which development was followed by ultrasound. Homeopathy and physiotherapy were used for its treatment. This is an infrequent disease scarcely reported in medical literature.

  10. Australia and China: A Joint Report on the Bilateral Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junhong; Guo Chunmei; Richard Rigby; Sang Ye

    2012-01-01

    After China and Australia established diplomatic ties in 1972, bilateral relations developed rapidly. People-to-people links, politicalexchanges and trade and economic cooperation played an increasingly larger part in the foreign policies of the two countries. In the post global financial crisis era, bilateral relations have remained positive and played an imPortant role in ensuring the stability and prosperity of the Pacific region. There have been several unavoidable misunderstandings and even disagreements between the two countries, which has influenced mutual trust and policies. This article will aim to analyze the history and current situation of the Sino-Australian relationship in an objective and comprehensive way; to look ahead to future bilateral relations, and make policy recommendations for the further development of bilateral ties to increase mutual understanding and promote a more positive future for Sino-Australian relations.

  11. Bilateral Efforts in Seizing Opportunities for Better Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ General improvement of the Japan-ROK relations started after the end of the Cold War. Although the Japanese wrongdoings over the history-related issues have caused fluctuations in the bilateral relations, no substantial damage has occurred.

  12. Unilateral and bilateral dental transpositions in the maxilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Jakob Christian; Karimian, K; Ciarlantini, R;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: This was to elucidate dental and skeletal findings in individuals with unilateral and bilateral maxillary dental transpositions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample comprised of radiographic materials from 63 individuals with maxillary dental transpositions from the Departments of Odontology at...

  13. Bilateral SMAS rhytidectomy in parotid recurrent pleomorphic adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baj; BELTRAMINI, G.A.; Demarchi, M; V.A. Combi; A. Giannì

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A case is presented of a young female with parotid recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and skin infiltration treated with subtotal parotidectomy combined with a bilateral superficial muscular aponeurotic system rhytidectomy.

  14. Effect of pediatric bilateral cochlear implantation on language development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boons, Tinne; Brokx, Jan; Frijns, Johan; Peeraer, Louis; Philips, Birgit; Vermeulen,; Wouters,; Wieringen, van

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine spoken language outcomes in children undergoing bilateral cochlear implantation compared with matched peers undergoing unilateral implantation. Design: Case-control, frequency-matched, retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study. Setting: Two Belgian and 3 Dutch cochlear im

  15. Neonatal bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis caused by brain stem haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Blazer, S; Hemli, J A; Sujov, P O; Braun, J

    1989-01-01

    We describe a neonate with severe bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis caused by haemorrhage in the lower brain stem. To our knowledge this association has not been previously reported in the English medical literature.

  16. Osteochondritis dissecans in bilateral lateral femoral condyle in knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Zekcer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The osteochondritis dissecans (OCD is a disease of unknown cause that classically affects the knee lateral border of the medial femoral condyle. We present a rare case of OCD in bilateral lateral femoral condyle.

  17. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R;

    2015-01-01

    of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally...... late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume....

  18. Bilateral compared with unilateral sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund-Jakobsen, J; Buntzen, S; Lundby, L;

    2015-01-01

    % improvement were eligible. Twenty-seven patients who accepted to enter the trial were bilaterally implanted with two permanent leads and pacemakers. Patients were randomized into three periods of four weeks stimulation including unilateral right, unilateral left and bilateral. Symptoms scores and bowel habit...... incontinence is not superior to standard unilateral stimulation in the short term. Equal functional results can be obtained regardless the side of implantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  19. Bilateral Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder – a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashavantha Kumar C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bilateral shoulder dislocation are most commonly posterior type. These are most commonly due to seizure disorder and electrocution. Anterior shoulder dislocations occurring bilaterally without any predisposing factors are very rare. These types of injuries are due to trauma with a unique mechanism of injury. To best of our knowledge there are only few cases of similar kind are reported in literature. We hereby report a interesting case of posttraumatic, bilateral anterior dislocation of shoulder without associated fracture in a 45 old women without any predisposing pathoanatomy.Case Report: A 45-year-old women presented to casualty with sudden onset of pain and restriction of movement in both shoulders fallowing trauma. Immediately post trauma she had severe pain and restriction of both shoulders. On examination arms were abducted and externally rotated. Bilateral shoulder movements were painful and restricted . There was loss of round contour of shoulder with increased vertical diameter of axilla anteriorly. Radiological examination revealed bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders without any associated fractures. Closed reduction done by Milch technique after intraraticular lignocaine injection. MRI of bilateral shoulder showed no pathological lesion. Both shoulders were immobilized with a shoulder immobilizer for three weeks.Conclusion: Most of the bilateral shoulder dislocations are posterior type seen in seizure disorders. Bilateral traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations are rare and are seen as a result of unique mechanism of injury. In our case patient had a fall on her elbows causing forced extension. If diagnosed and treated promptly completely normal function of the shoulders can be restored.

  20. Bilateral thecoma presenting as premenopausal hirsutism: Laproscopic removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar, S; V P Jyotsna; Mallick, S.; Garima Kachhawa; Kandasamy, D; A Kriplani; Ammini, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is a common disorder among women in the reproductive age group. One of the rare causes for androgen excess is sex cord- stromal tumors of the ovary. These are usually unilateral. Here we report case of a 48 year old woman who presented with hyperandrogenism due to bilateral ovarian thecoma. Androgen levels normalized following resection of the tumor. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first case of bilateral thecoma presenting as hirsutism in a premenopausal woman.

  1. Bilateral thecoma presenting as premenopausal hirsutism: Laproscopic removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperandrogenism is a common disorder among women in the reproductive age group. One of the rare causes for androgen excess is sex cord- stromal tumors of the ovary. These are usually unilateral. Here we report case of a 48 year old woman who presented with hyperandrogenism due to bilateral ovarian thecoma. Androgen levels normalized following resection of the tumor. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first case of bilateral thecoma presenting as hirsutism in a premenopausal woman.

  2. Stage 4S Bilateral Adrenal Neuroblastoma in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stage 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma presenting in the neonatal period is extremely rare. A 1-day-old male with 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma complicated by marked hepatomegaly managed by chemotherapy is being reported. The provisional diagnosis of neuroblastoma was made in the fetal life during the last trimester of pregnancy. Cardiomyopathy due to doxorubicin cytotoxicity developed over ensuing years, which is being treated.

  3. Amyad's hernia while reparing the bilateral inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Aslaner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyand's hernia is the term used for inguinal hernia containing appendix. It is a rare condition and found in 1% of inguinal hernia repairs. Here we report a case of Amyand's hernia in a 61 years old male who was diagnosed with bilateral inguinal hernia. He underwent surgery and bilateral inguinal hernia repair with prosthetic meshes and without appendectomy. The patient was discharged uneventfully. 

  4. Bilateral FTAs in South Asia: Recasting the Regionalism Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Dushni Weerakoon

    2009-01-01

    The slow pace of progress of the South Asian regional trade integration process under SAARC has prompted many countries to seek bilateral agreements. Sri Lanka is a casein point with bilateral agreements with both India and Pakistan. While the former is acknowledged to have yielded positive results, the latter hasremained of limited interest. Given that India remains the single most important trading partner for almost all other South Asian countries, regionalism in South Asia essentially ent...

  5. A Case of Simultaneous Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Mallanagouda N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anterior dislocation of shoulder is commonest dislocation one encounters in day to day Orthopaedic practice. But bilateral shoulder dislocations are relatively uncommon frequently posterior and secondary to violent muscle contraction. Simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocations of shoulder following trauma is rare occurrence. Case Report: 35 year old male presented to emergency department with history fall by tripping on a stone (fall on outstretched hand). He complained of...

  6. Bilateral fracture dislocation of the shoulder (Presentation of a Case)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzgun, Unal; Baskir, Orhan; Temelli, Yener; Yazicioglu, Onder; Temocin, Bahattin O.; Kokino, Misel

    2004-01-01

    The largest portion of the dislocations encountered in the adults comprises shoulder dislocations and 2.16% of these dislocations constitute posterior dislocations. It is possible to detect that a dislocation develops secondary to convulsions due to immediate loss of consciousness in the history of most of the posterior dislocations of the shoulder. Approximately 20 cases have been so far reported in literature regurding bilateral dislocations of the shoulder. Bilateral dislocation associated...

  7. Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Bilateral Greater Occipital Neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany Vu; Akhil Chhatre

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the subocci...

  8. Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation: a management dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Alrashidi, Salah; Aziz, Ayman A; Krema, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    A female patient suffered from gradual decline of vision for few months. She presented with bilateral multiple pigmented choroidal tumours, associated with overlying retinal changes. The clinical presentation suggested bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) syndrome, which is a paraneoplastic disease, although there was no evidence of any concurrent malignancy. The periodic systemic surveillance that was undertaken for the following 4 years failed to reveal any occult cance...

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, Wilma; Roebroeck, Marij; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah; Bergen, Michael; Stam, Henk; Burdorf, Alex; Berg-Emons, Rita

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To explore: (i) cardiovascular disease risk factors and the 10-year clustered risk of a fatal cardiovascular event in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy; and (ii) relationships between the 10-year risk and body fat, aerobic fitness and physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Forty-three adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy without severe cognitive impairment (mean age 36.6 years (standard deviation 6); 27 men). Methods: Biological a...

  10. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is an uncommon entity that is difficult to diagnose given the ambiquity of the clinical signs. Computerized tomography plays a major role in the diagnosis, disclosing enlarged adrenal glands presenting the hyperdense aspect that characterizes this disorders. We present a case of bilateral adrenal hemoorrhage in a patient diagnosed as having primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, which is a less common cause of adrenal hemorrhage than those classically reported, such as anticoagulant therapy, sepsis, shock and abdominal injury. (Author) 8 refs

  11. Reversible tobramycin-induced bilateral high-frequency vestibular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R M; Bath, A P; Bance, M L

    2000-01-01

    We report an unusual case of tobramycin-induced bilateral high-frequency vestibular toxicity with subsequent clinical and objective evidence of functional recovery. In those patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of aminoglycoside-induced bilateral vestibular toxicity (ataxia and oscillopsia) and normal low-frequency (ENG-caloric) responses, high-frequency rotation chair testing should be performed to exclude a high-frequency vestibular deficit. PMID:10810261

  12. Fast and Accurate Bilateral Filtering using Gauss-Polynomial Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Kunal N.

    2015-01-01

    The bilateral filter is a versatile non-linear filter that has found diverse applications in image processing, computer vision, computer graphics, and computational photography. A widely-used form of the filter is the Gaussian bilateral filter in which both the spatial and range kernels are Gaussian. A direct implementation of this filter requires $O(\\sigma^2)$ operations per pixel, where $\\sigma$ is the standard deviation of the spatial Gaussian. In this paper, we propose an accurate approxi...

  13. An unusual triad: Bilateral dilated odontoma, hypodontia and peg laterals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphy Alphonsa Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of bilateral dilated odontoma affecting a microdontic permanent lateral incisor in a 30 year old female patient with hypodontia and peglateral teeth with its clinical, radiological and histological features, which has yet been not reported. Bilateral presence of dilated odontoma is not a common occurrence, although a single tooth involvement in each case has been reported in the literature.

  14. A Bilateral Advantage for Storage in Visual Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Umemoto, Akina; Drew, Trafton; Ester, Edward F.; Awh, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated enhanced visual processing when information is presented across both visual hemifields rather than in a single hemifield (the bilateral advantage). For example, reported that observers were able to track twice as many moving visual stimuli when the tracked items were presented bilaterally rather than unilaterally, suggesting that independent resources enable tracking in the two visual fields. Motivated by similarities in the apparent capacity and neural subst...

  15. Binaural integration abilities in bilateral cochlear implant user

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chie Obuchi; Masae Shiroma; Sayaka Ogane; Kimitaka Kaga

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Cochlear implants (CIs) improved speech intelligibility, speech perception in background noise, and sound localization in quiet and noisy situations. However, it is unclear whether these advantages essentially result in binaural integration of acoustic stimuli from each ear. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of binaural integration by bilateral CIs placement using binaural hearing tests and subjective auditory perceptual assessment. A 61-year-old bilateral CIs subject underwent the following four tests:the Japanese Hearing in Noise Test (HINT-J), the dichotic listening test (DLT), the Rapidly Alternating Speech Perception (RASP) test, and subjective auditory perceptual assessment. The HINT-J score was significantly higher for bilateral CIs than for a unilateral CI. However, DLT and the RASP test revealed contradictory results. Subjective auditory perceptual assessment revealed active and bright impressions for bilateral hearing, which were also noisy and strong compared with those for unilateral hearing. The results of this study revealed that bilateral CIs improved speech perception in background noise and an improved auditory impression, although the bilateral integration abilities were not improved. This was probably because the patient was required to combine information from the two ears into a single perception in DLT and the RASP test. More longitudinal data should be collected and analyzed in future studies to evaluate the long-term effects of bilateral CIs. Copyright © 2016, PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. Production and hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  16. Prolapsed bilateral ureteroceles leading to intermittent outflow obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stunell, H

    2012-02-01

    A ureterocele refers to a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter. It may be unilateral or bilateral and may be associated with a duplex system in some cases. We present an unusual case where a young patient was found to have large bilateral ureteroceles which prolapsed into the urethra, causing intermittent incontinence and obstruction. We discuss the case and review the literature concerning this rare anomaly.

  17. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesselroade, Ryan D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors.The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(4:306-309.

  18. Bilateral practice improves dominant leg performance in long jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Anne; Spancken, Sina; Stockinger, Christian; Thürer, Benjamin; Stein, Thorsten

    2016-10-01

    Benefits of bilateral practice both for the non-dominant and for the dominant body side have been shown in several studies. Thereby, most of the studies included movement tasks of the upper extremity or investigated sports games in which the ability of acting bilaterally is an essential basis for success and, thus, a bilateral practice is reasonable anyway. Individual unilaterally performed sports including movement tasks of the lower extremity are rarely investigated. Therefore, the aim of our study was to test if contralateral transfer due to bilateral practice can be found in an unilaterally performed sport including the lower extremity. We trained and tested 61 adolescent athletes in long jump to compare the jumping performance of the dominant leg after a 12-week practice period between two groups: a bilateral practice group that practiced specific long jump exercises with both the dominant and non-dominant leg and an unilateral practice group that practiced specific long jump exercises only with the dominant leg. Results showed a superior effect of bilateral practice compared to unilateral practice regarding the jumping performance of the dominant leg. The performance increase at post-test and retention-test for the dominant limb was significantly higher for the bilateral practice group (pre-to-post: 5.2%, pre-to-retention: 7.4%) compared to the unilateral practice group (pre-to-post: 3.4%, pre-to-retention: 4.5%). Thus, bilateral practice should be established in the early practice programmes of track and field athletes to improve the performance of the dominant take-off leg. PMID:26864045

  19. Bilateral intramuscular pseudotumor in a body-builder.

    OpenAIRE

    Ardies, L; Beule, T.; Degroote, T; Vanhoenacker, F M; Vanhoenacker, P K

    2012-01-01

    A 29-year-old bodybuilder presented with a bilateral palpable and painful soft tissue mass in the deltoid region. CT scan showed a bilateral intramuscular mass within the deltoid muscle with intralesional fat (not shown). For further differentiation and exclusion of a fat-containing sarcomatous lesion, MRI of both shoulders was performed. Axial T1-weighted images (WI) of the right shoulder showed a heterogeneous mass lesion containing multiple fatty components (Fig. A, arrows). Axial T1-WI of...

  20. Amyad's hernia while reparing the bilateral inguinal hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Aslaner; Tuğrul Çakır; Umut Rıza Gündüz; Burhan Mayir; Nurullah Bülbüller

    2015-01-01

    Amyand's hernia is the term used for inguinal hernia containing appendix. It is a rare condition and found in 1% of inguinal hernia repairs. Here we report a case of Amyand's hernia in a 61 years old male who was diagnosed with bilateral inguinal hernia. He underwent surgery and bilateral inguinal hernia repair with prosthetic meshes and without appendectomy. The patient was discharged uneventfully. 

  1. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, K S; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation "keratocyst" was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately.

  2. Greater hippocampal volume is associated with PTSD treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mikael; Shvil, Erel; Papini, Santiago; Chhetry, Binod T; Helpman, Liat; Markowitz, John C; Mann, J John; Neria, Yuval

    2016-06-30

    Previous research associates smaller hippocampal volume with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear, however, whether treatment affects hippocampal volume or vice versa. Seventy-six subjects, 40 PTSD patients and 36 matched trauma-exposed healthy resilient controls, underwent clinical assessments and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, and 10 weeks later, during which PTSD patients completed ten weeks of Prolonged Exposure (PE) treatment. The resilient controls and treatment responders (n=23) had greater baseline hippocampal volume than treatment non-responders (n=17) (p=0.012 and p=0.050, respectively), perhaps due to more robust fear-extinction capacity in both the initial phase after exposure to trauma and during treatment. PMID:27179314

  3. VTA neurons coordinate with the hippocampal reactivation of spatial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomperts, Stephen N; Kloosterman, Fabian; Wilson, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial learning requires the hippocampus, and the replay of spatial sequences during hippocampal sharp wave-ripple (SPW-R) events of quiet wakefulness and sleep is believed to play a crucial role. To test whether the coordination of VTA reward prediction error signals with these replayed spatial sequences could contribute to this process, we recorded from neuronal ensembles of the hippocampus and VTA as rats performed appetitive spatial tasks and subsequently slept. We found that many reward responsive (RR) VTA neurons coordinated with quiet wakefulness-associated hippocampal SPW-R events that replayed recent experience. In contrast, coordination between RR neurons and SPW-R events in subsequent slow wave sleep was diminished. Together, these results indicate distinct contributions of VTA reinforcement activity associated with hippocampal spatial replay to the processing of wake and SWS-associated spatial memory. PMID:26465113

  4. Hippocampal unit activity during classical aversive and appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M; Disterhoft, J F; Olds, J

    1972-02-18

    Rats were trained with a tone being followed by either food or electric shock, on alternate days. Unit activity during application of the conditioned stimulus was recorded from the dorsal hippocampus. The results indicate differentiation of the hippocampal system. Dentate units respond by augmentation to a conditioned stimulus which leads to food and by inhibition to the same stimulus when it precedes electric shock. The hippocampus proper responds by augmentation in both situations. The intensity of the hippocampal response to the conditioned stimulus on the first day of training is higher if the unconditioned stimulus is food than if it is electric shock. These data cast light on the functions of the dorsal dentate-hippocampal connections and the hippocampus proper during aversive and appetitive conditioning.

  5. Role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal-cortical memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Takashi; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Acquired memory is initially dependent on the hippocampus (HPC) for permanent memory formation. This hippocampal dependency of memory recall progressively decays with time, a process that is associated with a gradual increase in dependency upon cortical structures. This process is commonly referred to as systems consolidation theory. In this paper, we first review how memory becomes hippocampal dependent to cortical dependent with an emphasis on the interactions that occur between the HPC and cortex during systems consolidation. We also review the mechanisms underlying the gradual decay of HPC dependency during systems consolidation from the perspective of memory erasures by adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, we discuss the relationship between systems consolidation and memory precision. PMID:24552281

  6. A Case of Simultaneous Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallanagouda N Patil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior dislocation of shoulder is commonest dislocation one encounters in day to day Orthopaedic practice. But bilateral shoulder dislocations are relatively uncommon frequently posterior and secondary to violent muscle contraction. Simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocations of shoulder following trauma is rare occurrence. Case Report: 35 year old male presented to emergency department with history fall by tripping on a stone (fall on outstretched hand. He complained of pain and difficulty in moving both the shoulders. On clinical examination, patient’s both upper limbs were abducted and externally rotated. Bilaterally shoulder contour was lost with flattening. Other classical signs of shoulder dislocation viz, Bryants test, Callway sign, Hamilton’s ruler test were positive. Diagnosis was confirmed on X rays. Both shoulders were reduced in emergency operation theater under general anaesthesia by Kocher’s method and were immobilised in sling. Conclusion: Though bilateral shoulder dislocations are commonly posterior, usually either secondary to convulsions or electric shock, anterior dislocation has to be kept in mind , especially in post traumatic injuries. This bilateral dislocation also presents with practical problems immobilization and day to day care of patients. Keywords: Simultaneous, bilateral, shoulder dislocation, traumatic.

  7. Sense of smell in patients with bilateral nasal polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savović Slobodan N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sense of smell is susceptible to various changes, both in physiological and in numerous pathological conditions. Of quantitative disorders of smell, hyposmia and anosmia are quite common, whereas of qualitative disorders parosmia is most frequent. The aim of this paper was to examine impact of bilateral nasal polyposis on olfactory function. Material and methods The research was carried out at the Nose, Ear and Throat Clinic in Novi Sad. It included 80 examinees, 40 (20 male, 20 female with bilateral nasal polyposis, while 40 examinees belonged to the control group (20 male, 20 female without symptoms of nasal polyposes. Fortunato-Niccolini olfactometer was used for this examination. Results and discussion In patients with bilateral nasal polyposis the average perception threshold values for examined odors were 15.50 ccm of odorous air, while in the control group they were 10,20 ccm of odorous air. The average identification threshold values for examined odors in patients with bilateral nasal polyposis were 18.80 ccm of odorous air, while in the control group they were 13.55 ccm of scented air. T-test showed that values of both tresholds were statistically significantly higher (p< 0,01 in patients with bilateral nasal polyposis in relation to the control group. Conclusion Olfactory deficit in patients with bilateral nasal polyposis is explained by difficult or impossible passage of odors into the olfactory region.

  8. Simultaneous vs staged bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, A P

    1996-10-01

    It is generally thought that simultaneous bilateral chest surgery carries a high morbidity. We reviewed the results of simultaneous (under one anesthesia) vs staged bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) from a single institution over a 35-month period. From September 1992 to July 1995, we performed simultaneous bilateral VATS on 37 patients (31 males, six females, age ranging from 15 to 55 years) with spontaneous pneumothorax (20) for bleb resections and pleurodesis; thoracodorsal sympathectomy (12) for palmar hyperhidrosis and vasospastic disease; and metastatic sarcomas (five) for wedge lung resections. During the same period, nine patients with metachronous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax had staged procedures, as did two with digital ischemic ulcers for sympathectomy and three with metastatic pulmonary osteosarcomas for resection. Mean postoperative hospital stays in days for the simultaneous groups were 3.3 for spontaneous pneumothorax, 2.1 for sympathectomy, and 1.5 for wedge resection, compared to 2.9, 2.5, and 2.2 for the staged groups, respectively (p > 0.05 by Mann-Whitney U tests). Likewise, pain assessment by visual analogue scale as well as analgesic requirement showed no significant difference between the simultaneous and the staged groups. We conclude that simultaneous VATS is not associated with increased morbidity or prolonged hospital stay compared to the staged counterparts and provides an attractive alternative to the median sternotomy, bilateral posterolateral thoracotomy, or transternal (clam-shell) thoracotomy for selected cases of simultaneous bilateral lung surgery. PMID:8864102

  9. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  10. Neuralgia do trigêmeo bilateral: relato de caso Neuralgia del trigémino bilateral: relato de caso Bilateral trigeminal neuralgia: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Marcio Barros de Oliveira; Luis Gustavo Baaklini; Adriana Machado Issy; Rioko Kimiko Sakata

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A neuralgia do nervo trigêmeo é uma condição intensamente dolorosa, caracterizada por surtos de dor lancinante e súbita, tipo choque, com duração de poucos segundos a dois minutos e geralmente unilateral. Sua incidência anual é de cerca de 4,3 em 100.000 na população geral, tendo manifestação bilateral em apenas 3% desses casos. O objetivo deste artigo foi descrever um caso raro de neuralgia do trigêmeo primário bilateral. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente de 61 anos, maranh...

  11. Mixed neurotransmission in the hippocampal mossy fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eMuenster-Wandowski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs, the axons of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, innervate mossy cells and interneurons in the hilus on its way to CA3 where they innervate interneurons and pyramidal cells. Synapses on each target cell have distinct anatomical and functional characteristics. In recent years, the paradigmatic view of the MF synapses being only glutamatergic and, thus, excitatory has been questioned. Several laboratories have provided data supporting the hypothesis that the MFs can transiently release GABA during development and, in the adult, after periods of enhanced excitability. This transient glutamate-GABA co-transmission coincides with the transient expression of the machinery for the synthesis and release of GABA in the glutamatergic granule cells. Although some investigators have deemed this evidence controversial, new data has appeared with direct evidence of co-release of glutamate and GABA from single, identified MF boutons. However, this must still be confirmed by other groups and with other methodologies. A second, intriguing observation is that MF activation produced fast spikelets followed by excitatory postsynaptic potentials in a number of pyramidal cells, which, unlike the spikelets, underwent frequency potentiation and were strongly depressed by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. The spikelets persisted during blockade of chemical transmission and were suppressed by the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone. These data is consistent with the hypothesis of mixed electrical-chemical synapses between MFs and some pyramidal cells. Dye coupling between these types of principal cells and ultrastructural studies showing the co-existence of AMPA receptors and connexin 36 in this synapse corroborate their presence. A deeper consideration of mixed neurotransmission taking place in this synapse may expand our search and understanding of communication channels between different regions of the mammalian CNS.

  12. Les oxoborates de calcium et de terres rares (TR) Ca4TRO(BO3)3. Une nouvelle famille de matériaux à fonctions multiples pour l'optique : croissance cristalline, propriétés non linéaires et laser

    OpenAIRE

    Mougel, Frédéric

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study a new family of non linear compounds Ca4REO(BO3)3 (where RE is set for lanthanide or yttrium). The second order non linear properties for the GdCOB (Ca4GdO(BO3)3) and YCOB (Ca4YO(BO3)3) compounds were characterised. These materials favorably compare with commercialised non linear borates such as LBO and BBO. Crystal growth was performed by using the Czochralski method, allowing large size single crystals (diameter 50 mm and length 100 to 120 mm) with good opti...

  13. Impact of PICALM and CLU on hippocampal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Jin; Liu, Bing; Li, Yonghui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-07-01

    PICALM and CLU are two major risk genes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), and there is strong molecular evidence suggesting their interaction on amyloid-beta deposition, hence finding functional dependency between their risk genotypes may lead to better understanding of their roles in LOAD development and greater clinical utility. In this study, we mainly investigated interaction effects of risk loci PICALM rs3581179 and CLU rs11136000 on hippocampal degeneration in both young and elderly adults in order to understand their neural mechanism on aging process, which may help identify robust biomarkers for early diagnosis and intervention. Besides volume we also assessed hippocampal shape phenotypes derived from diffeomorphic metric mapping and nonlinear dimensionality reduction. In elderly individuals (75.6 ± 6.7 years) significant interaction effects existed on hippocampal volume (P < 0.001), whereas in young healthy adults (19.4 ± 1.1 years) such effects existed on a shape phenotype (P = 0.01) indicating significant variation at hippocampal head and tail that mirror most AD vulnerable regions. Voxel-wise analysis also pointed to the same regions but lacked statistical power. In both cohorts, PICALM protective genotype AA only exhibited protective effects on hippocampal degeneration and cognitive performance when combined with CLU protective T allele, but adverse effects with CLU risk CC. This study revealed novel PICALM and CLU interaction effects on hippocampal degeneration along aging, and validated effectiveness of diffeomorphometry in imaging genetics study. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2419-2430, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27017968

  14. Technical recommendations for bilateral comparison in diagnosis radiology: part 1; Protocolo tecnico da comparacao bilateral em radiologia diagnostica: parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: guilherm@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, C.E.V. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/IBRAG/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2015-07-01

    By data from www.datasus.gov.br, then need each diagnostic quality dissemination should be periodically verify, therefore the bilateral comparison between calibration laboratory will be mandatory to quality services guarantee. (author)

  15. Differential Conditioning of Associative Synaptic Enhancement in Hippocampal Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Stephen R.; Brown, Thomas H.

    1986-04-01

    An electrophysiological stimulation paradigm similar to one that produces Pavlovian conditioning was applied to synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons of hippocampal brain slices. Persistent synaptic enhancement was induced in one of two weak synaptic inputs by pairing high-frequency electrical stimulation of the weak input with stimulation of a third, stronger input to the same region. Forward (temporally overlapping) but not backward (temporally separate) pairings caused this enhancement. Thus hippocampal synapses in vitro can undergo the conditional and selective type of associative modification that could provide the substrate for some of the mnemonic functions in which the hippocampus is thought to participate.

  16. Bilateral type emphysematous pyelonephritis: imaging evaluation; Pielonefritis enfisematosa bilateral tipo I. Evaluacion por la imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador Cueto-Alvarez, L.; Piriz-Campos, E.; Ruiz-Garcia, T.; Roldan-Lora, F. [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a serious infectious disease that occurs more frequently in diabetic patients. Radiological studies are indispensable for distinguishing between the two types since each is associated with a markedly different prognosis. We present a case of bilateral EPN diagnosed as type I on the basis of computed tomography findings, differentiating it from type II EPN, taking into account the prognostic value of this distinction. Type I EPN is characterized by the destruction of the renal parenchyma, a mottled or linear gas pattern and the absence of renal and perirenal fluid collection. Type II EPN is characterized by a loculated or bubbly gas pattern, the existence of fluid collection and less marked renal destruction. Type I is more aggressive and is associated with high rate of mortality. (Author) 7 refs.

  17. Bilateral naso labial cyst: report of two cases; Cisto nasolabial bilateral: relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo de; Haetinger, Rainer Guilherme [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Med Imagem; Sales, Marcelo Augusto Oliveira [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Lauro Wanderley; Fonseca, Luciana Cardoso [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Estomatologia]. E-mail: mgpcaval@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The nasolabial cyst is defined as nonodontogenic soft tissue lesion, rare and with occurrence in sagittal plane, between midline and nasal cartilage. Because its soft tissue composition, there is no radiographic presentation in conventional radiographic examination, being indicated evaluation through computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In the present study, two cases are discussed, being one in white female subject, 72-year-old, and other in a black male subject, 24-year-old. The authors discuss about relevant aspects related to differential diagnosis through computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as atypical features founded in one of the cases, like bilateral occurrence with different signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging and determinant factors for differential diagnosis of soft tissues pathologies of maxillofacial complex, as fissure cysts with central occurrence (sagittal cysts), as dermoid cysts, palatine and nasopalatine and lateral fissure cysts. (author)

  18. Simultaneous Bilateral Carotid Stenting for Symptomatic Bilateral High-Grade Carotid Stenosis: A Retrospective Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziming; Liu, Ying; Deng, Xiao; Chen, Xiangren; Lin, Cuiting; Tang, Yanyan; Su, Ying; Fang, Lanji; Wu, Yuan; Qin, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background This retrospective clinical investigation aimed to evaluate the short-term effectiveness and safety of SBCAS for symptomatic bilateral high-grade CS. Material/Methods From 2009 to 2014, 145 patients were recruited. Among them, 70 underwent SBCAS, and other 75 patients underwent SAMM and served as controls. The immediate postprocedural complications and postprocedural neurological evaluation, as well as restenosis at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups in the SBCAS group are reported. Additionally, baseline risk factors for ischemic stroke, adverse effects of drugs, and outcomes at 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year follow-ups were compared between the 2 groups. Results Our data did not reveal significant differences between the 2 groups in baseline risk factors for ischemic stroke. In the SBCAS group, both HPS (5.7%) and HD (40%) occurred, but they were not very severe, and no patients had postprocedural neurological deficit. Moreover, restenosis only occurred in 3 patients at 3 stent placement sites (4.3%) at 1-year follow-up. Adverse effects of drugs did not occur in SBCAS group, but adverse effects of Bayer aspirin and Lipitor occurred in 4 patients (5.4%) and 18 patients (24.3%), respectively, at 6-month follow-up in the control group. Furthermore, there were significant differences in outcomes between the 2 groups at 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year follow-ups, in that NIHSS, CS ratio, and incidence of endpoint events, as well as 1-year cumulative probability of endpoint events, were all lower in the SBCAS group than in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions Compared to SAMM, we found that SBCAS was more effective and safer for symptomatic bilateral high-grade CS. PMID:27542158

  19. Bilateral anterior shoulder fracture-dislocation : A case report and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dinopoulos, H. T.; Giannoudis, P. V.; Smith, R. M.; Matthews, S.J.

    1999-01-01

     We report an unusual case of bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following trauma. Previously reported cases were either of bilateral dislocations or bilateral fracture dislocations. In our case the patient suffered bilateral anterior dislocation with a three part fracture dislocation on the right. A review of the literature is presented.

  20. Single-Session Radiofrequency Ablation of Bilateral Lung Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palussiere, Jean, E-mail: palussiere@bergonie.org; Gomez, Fernando; Cannella, Matthieu; Ferron, Stephane; Descat, Edouard [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology, Regional Cancer Centre (France); Fonck, Marianne [Institut Bergonie, Department of Digestive Oncology (France); Brouste, Veronique [Institut Bergonie, Clinical and Epidemiological Research Unit (France); Avril, Antoine [Institut Bergonie, Department of Surgery (France)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study examined the feasibility and efficacy of bilateral lung radiofrequency ablation (RFA) performed in a single session. Methods: From 2002-2009, patients with bilateral lung metastases were treated by RFA, where possible in a single session under general anesthesia with CT guidance. The second lung was punctured only if no complications occurred after treatment of the first lung. Five lung metastases maximum per patient were treated by RFA and prospectively followed. The primary endpoint was the evaluation of acute and delayed complications. Secondary endpoints were calculation of hospitalization duration, local efficacy, median survival, and median time to tumor progression. Local efficacy was evaluated on CT or positron emission tomography (PET) CT. Results: Sixty-seven patients were treated for bilateral lung metastases with RFA (mean age, 62 years). Single-session treatment was not possible in 40 due to severe pneumothoraces (n = 24), bilateral pleural contact (n = 14), and operational exclusions (n = 2). Twenty-seven (41%) received single-session RFA of lesions in both lungs for 66 metastases overall. Fourteen unilateral and four bilateral pneumothoraces occurred (18 overall, 66.7%). Unilateral (n = 13) and bilateral (n = 2) chest tube drainage was required. Median hospitalization was 3 (range, 2-8) days. Median survival was 26 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 19-33). Four recurrences on RFA sites were observed (4 patients). Median time to tumor progression was 9.5 months (95% CI, 4.2-23.5). Conclusions: Although performing single-session bilateral lung RFA is not always possible due to pneumothoraces after RFA of first lung, when it is performed, this technique is safe and effective.

  1. Bilateral adrenal masses: a single-centre experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandgar, Tushar; Khare, Shruti; Jadhav, Swati; Lila, Anurag; Goroshi, Manjunath; Kasaliwal, Rajeev; Khadilkar, Kranti; Shah, Nalini S

    2016-01-01

    Background Bilateral adrenal masses may have aetiologies like hyperplasia and infiltrative lesions, besides tumours. Hyperplastic and infiltrative lesions may have coexisting hypocortisolism. Bilateral tumours are likely to have hereditary/syndromic associations. The data on clinical profile of bilateral adrenal masses are limited. Aims To analyse clinical, biochemical and radiological features, and management outcomes in patients with bilateral adrenal masses. Methods Retrospective analysis of 70 patients with bilateral adrenal masses presenting to a single tertiary care endocrine centre from western India (2002–2015). Results The most common aetiology was pheochromocytoma (40%), followed by tuberculosis (27.1%), primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) (10%), metastases (5.7%), non-functioning adenomas (4.3%), primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (4.3%), and others (8.6%). Age at presentation was less in patients with pheochromocytoma (33 years) and tuberculosis (41 years) compared with PAL (48 years) and metastases (61 years) (PAI) (95%). The presenting symptoms for PAL were AI (57%) and abdominal pain (43%), whereas all cases of metastasis had abdominal pain. Mean size of adrenal masses was the largest in lymphoma (5.5cm) followed by pheochromocytoma (4.8cm), metastasis (4cm) and tuberculosis (2.1cm) (P<0.001). Biochemically, most patients with pheochromocytoma (92.8%) had catecholamine excess. Hypocortisolism was common in tuberculosis (100%) and PAL (71.4%) and absent with metastases (P<0.001). Conclusion In evaluation of bilateral adrenal masses, age at presentation, presenting symptoms, lesion size, and biochemical features are helpful in delineating varied underlying aetiologies. PMID:27037294

  2. US findings of bilateral primary breast cancer: Retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: For women with breast cancer, the contralateral breast is at high risk. The bilateral cancers may be synchronous or metachronous. If the bilateral breast cancers have similar ultrasonography (US) appearances, the US findings of the first breast cancer (index cancer) might lead to early detection of the contralateral cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the US characteristics of bilateral breast cancer and to determine whether bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances and whether the US findings for one breast cancer might be predictive of the contralateral breast cancer. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the US manifestations of 58 patients with surgically proven bilateral primary breast cancer and compared the contralateral cancer with the index cancer by evaluation the margin, shape, inside echoes, posterior attenuation, calcification and color flow signals of 58 lesion pairs to investigate whether the bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances. Results: Bilateral primary breast cancers were more located in upper outer quadrant, frequently spiculation, taller than wide shape, with irregular margin, heterogeneous internal echo and acoustic shadowing, containing microcalcification and abundant color flow signals. The most common US appearances were taller than wide shape (75.0%, 87/116), irregular margins (79.3%, 92/116) and heterogeneous internal echo (86.2%, 100/116). Of the total 58 lesion pairs, 18 (31.0%) pairs had similar US characteristics, whereas 40 (69.0%) pairs had different US characteristics. Conclusions: US signs of the index cancer do not indicate the most likely appearance of the second cancer in the contralateral breast. Evaluation of the contralateral cancer should be performed without regard for the US findings for the index cancer

  3. Architecture of spatial circuits in the hippocampal region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Witter (Menno); M.I. Canto (Marcia Irene); J.J. Couey (Jonathan J); N. Koganezawa (Noriko); K.C. O'Reilly (Kally)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal region contains several principal neuron types, some of which show distinct spatial firing patterns. The region is also known for its diversity in neural circuits and many have attempted to causally relate network architecture within and between these unique circuits to f

  4. Architecture of spatial circuits in the hippocampal region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, Menno P; Canto, Cathrin B; Couey, Jonathan J; Koganezawa, Noriko; O'Reilly, Kally C

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampal region contains several principal neuron types, some of which show distinct spatial firing patterns. The region is also known for its diversity in neural circuits and many have attempted to causally relate network architecture within and between these unique circuits to functional ou

  5. Modeling hippocampal neurogenesis using human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Diana Xuan; Di Giorgio, Francesco Paolo; Yao, Jun; Marchetto, Maria Carolina; Brennand, Kristen; Wright, Rebecca; Mei, Arianna; McHenry, Lauren; Lisuk, David; Grasmick, Jaeson Michael; Silberman, Pedro; Silberman, Giovanna; Jappelli, Roberto; Gage, Fred H

    2014-03-11

    The availability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers the opportunity to generate lineage-specific cells to investigate mechanisms of human diseases specific to brain regions. Here, we report a differentiation paradigm for hPSCs that enriches for hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons. This differentiation paradigm recapitulates the expression patterns of key developmental genes during hippocampal neurogenesis, exhibits characteristics of neuronal network maturation, and produces PROX1+ neurons that functionally integrate into the DG. Because hippocampal neurogenesis has been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZD), we applied our protocol to SCZD patient-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). We found deficits in the generation of DG granule neurons from SCZD hiPSC-derived hippocampal NPCs with lowered levels of NEUROD1, PROX1, and TBR1, reduced neuronal activity, and reduced levels of spontaneous neurotransmitter release. Our approach offers important insights into the neurodevelopmental aspects of SCZD and may be a promising tool for drug screening and personalized medicine.

  6. Modeling Hippocampal Neurogenesis Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Xuan Yu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs offers the opportunity to generate lineage-specific cells to investigate mechanisms of human diseases specific to brain regions. Here, we report a differentiation paradigm for hPSCs that enriches for hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG granule neurons. This differentiation paradigm recapitulates the expression patterns of key developmental genes during hippocampal neurogenesis, exhibits characteristics of neuronal network maturation, and produces PROX1+ neurons that functionally integrate into the DG. Because hippocampal neurogenesis has been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZD, we applied our protocol to SCZD patient-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. We found deficits in the generation of DG granule neurons from SCZD hiPSC-derived hippocampal NPCs with lowered levels of NEUROD1, PROX1, and TBR1, reduced neuronal activity, and reduced levels of spontaneous neurotransmitter release. Our approach offers important insights into the neurodevelopmental aspects of SCZD and may be a promising tool for drug screening and personalized medicine.

  7. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  8. Wnt signaling in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eVarela-Nallar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain new neurons are continuously generated mainly in two regions, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the SGZ, radial neural stem cells give rise to granule cells that integrate into the hippocampal circuitry and are relevant for the plasticity of the hippocampus. Loss of neurogenesis impairs learning and memory, suggesting that this process is important for adult hippocampal function. Adult neurogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple signaling pathways, including the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. This pathway plays important roles during the development of neuronal circuits and in the adult brain it modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we review current knowledge on the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade and the potential mechanisms involved in this regulation. Also we discuss the evidence supporting that the canonical Wnt pathway is part of the signaling mechanisms involved in the regulation of neurogenesis in different physiological conditions. Finally, some unsolved questions regarding the Wnt-mediated regulation of neurogenesis are discussed.

  9. Sleep restriction by forced activity reduces hippocampal cell proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Viktor; Van der Borght, K; Leemburg, SA; Van der Zee, EA; Meerlo, P

    2005-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that sleep loss negatively affects learning and memory processes through disruption of hippocampal function. In the present study, we examined whether sleep loss alters the generation, differentiation, and survival of new cells in the dentate gyrus. Rats were sleep restric

  10. The subiculum: the heart of the extended hippocampal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, John P; Christiansen, Kat

    2015-01-01

    While descriptions of the subiculum often emphasize its role as a recipient of hippocampal inputs, the area also has particular importance as a source of hippocampal projections. The extrinsic projections from the subiculum not only parallel those from hippocampal fields CA1-4 but also terminate in sites that do not receive direct inputs from the rest of the hippocampus. Both electrophysiological and lesion studies reveal how, despite its very dense CA1 inputs, the subiculum has functional properties seemingly independent from the rest of the hippocampus. In understanding the subiculum, it is necessary to appreciate that its connections are topographically organized along all three planes (longitudinal, transverse, and depth). These topographies may enable the subiculum to separate multiple information types and, hence, support multiple functions. The particular significance of the subiculum for learning and memory is underlined by its importance as a source of hippocampal projections to nuclei in the medial diencephalon, which are themselves vital for human memory and rodent spatial learning. Of particular note are its reciprocal connections with the anterior thalamic nuclei, which are not shared by the rest of the hippocampus (CA1-4). These thalamosubiculum connections may be of especial significance for resolving memory problems that suffer high interference and require the flexible use of stimulus representations. PMID:26072234

  11. HIPPOCAMPAL MESSY FIBER DISTRIBUTIONS IN MICE SELECTED FOR AGGRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLUYTER, F; JAMOT, L; VANOORTMERSSEN, GA; CRUSIO, WE

    1994-01-01

    The sizes of the hippocampal intra- and infrapyramidal messy fiber terminal fields (IIPMF) of mice from two lines bidirectionally selected for attack latency were measured. Aggressive males possess smaller IIPMF than do non-aggressive ones. We hypothesize that both differences in aggression and size

  12. Neuropeptide Y inhibits hippocampal seizures and wet dog shakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Larsen, P J;

    1996-01-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular neuropeptide Y (NPY) or somatostatin were studied upon hippocampal EEG seizures elicited by electrical stimulation of the rat dentate gyrus or subiculum. At doses of 6 and 12 nmol, the latter dose being more effective, NPY reduced the primary afterdischarge...

  13. The effect of estrogen synthesis inhibition on hippocampal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Janine; Rune, Gabriele; Schultz, Heidrun; Tobia, Michael J; Mebes, Imke; Katzler, Olaf; Sommer, Tobias

    2015-06-01

    17-Beta-estradiol (E2) facilitates long term-potentiation (LTP) and increases spine synapse density in hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rodents. Consistent with these beneficial effects on the cellular level, E2 improves hippocampus-dependent memory. A prominent approach to study E2 effects in rodents is the inhibition of its synthesis by letrozole, which reduces LTPs and spine synapse density. In the current longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we translated this approach to humans and compared the impact of E2 synthesis inhibition on memory performance and hippocampal activity in post-menopausal women taking letrozole (n = 21) to controls (n = 24). In particular, we employed various behavioral memory paradigms that allow the disentanglement of hippocampus-dependent and -independent memory. Consistent with the literature on rodents, E2 synthesis inhibition specifically impaired hippocampus-dependent memory, however, this did not apply to the same degree to all of the employed paradigms. On the neuronal level, E2 depletion tended to decrease hippocampal activity during encoding, whereas it increased activity in the anterior cingulate and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We thus infer that the inhibition of E2 synthesis specifically impairs hippocampal functioning in humans, whereas the increased prefrontal activity presumably reflects a compensatory mechanism, which is already known from studies on cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25863445

  14. Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers in aged rhesus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, J.I.H.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Fuchs, E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether or not aging of nonhuman primates is accompanied by a region-specific neuron loss in the hippocampal formation, we used the optical fractionator technique to obtain stereological estimates of unilateral neuron numbers of the hippocampi of eight young (0-4 years) and five aged

  15. Necroptosis Mediates TNF-Induced Toxicity of Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α is a critical proinflammatory cytokine regulating neuroinflammation. Elevated levels of TNF-α have been associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the signaling events that lead to TNF-α-initiated neurotoxicity are still unclear. Here, we report that RIP3-mediated necroptosis, a form of regulated necrosis, is activated in the mouse hippocampus after intracerebroventricular injection of TNF-α. RIP3 deficiency attenuates TNF-α-initiated loss of hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we characterized the molecular mechanism of TNF-α-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells. HT-22 cells are sensitive to TNF-α only upon caspase blockage and subsequently undergo necrosis. The cell death is suppressed by knockdown of CYLD or RIP1 or RIP3 or MLKL, suggesting that this necrosis is necroptosis and mediated by CYLD-RIP1-RIP3-MLKL signaling pathway. TNF-α-induced necroptosis of HT-22 cells is largely independent of both ROS accumulation and calcium influx although these events have been shown to be critical for necroptosis in certain cell lines. Taken together, these data not only provide the first in vivo evidence for a role of RIP3 in TNF-α-induced toxicity of hippocampal neurons, but also demonstrate that TNF-α promotes CYLD-RIP1-RIP3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis of hippocampal neurons largely bypassing ROS accumulation and calcium influx.

  16. Predictable chronic mild stress improves mood, hippocampal neurogenesis and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, V K; Hattiangady, B; Kuruba, R; Shuai, B; Shetty, A K

    2011-02-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experienced in day-to-day life on functions such as mood, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis are unknown. Using FST and EPM tests on a prototype of adult rats, we demonstrate that PCMS (comprising 5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) decreases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors for prolonged periods. Moreover, we illustrate that decreased depression and anxiety scores after PCMS are associated with ~1.8-fold increase in the production and growth of new neurons in the hippocampus. Additionally, we found that PCMS leads to enhanced memory function in WMT as well as NORT. Collectively, these findings reveal that PCMS is beneficial to adult brain function, which is exemplified by increased hippocampal neurogenesis and improved mood and cognitive function.

  17. Functional connectivity of the entorhinal - Hippocampal space circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.-J. Zhang (Sheng-Jia); J. Ye (Jian); J.J. Couey (Jonathan J); M.P. Witter (Menno); E.I. Moser (Edvard); M.-B. Moser (May-Britt)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe mammalian space circuit is known to contain several functionally specialized cell types, such as place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells, head-direction cells and border cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). The interaction between the entorhinal and hippocampal spatial

  18. Increased neuroplasticity and hippocampal microglia activation in a mice model of rapid antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Luca; Brambilla, Valentina; Calcaterra, Lorenza; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Martino, Gianvito; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-09-15

    The search for biomarkers of antidepressant effects focused on pathways regulating synaptic plasticity, and on activated inflammatory markers. Repeated Sleep Deprivation (SD) provides a model treatment to reverse-translate antidepressant effects from in vivo clinical psychiatry to model organisms. We studied the effects of repeated SD alone (ASD) or combined with exercise on a slow spinning wheel (SSW), in 116 C57BL/6J male mice divided in three groups (ASD, SSW, untreated). Forced Swimming Test (FST) was used to detect antidepressant-like effects. Unbiased evaluation of the transcriptional responses were obtained in the hippocampus by Illumina Bead Chip Array system, then confirmed with real time PCR. Spine densities in granular neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG) were assayed by standard Golgi staining. Activation of Microglial/Macrophages cells was evaluated by immunufluorescence analysis for Iba1. Rates of cell proliferation was estimated pulsing mice with the S-phase tracer 5-Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU). All SD procedures caused a decreasing of floating time at FST, and increased expression of the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1. In addition, SSW also increased expression of the Microglia/Macrophages genes Iba-1 and chemokine receptors Cx3cR1 and CxcR4, of the canonical Wnt signaling gene Wnt7a, and of dendritic spines in CA4 neurons of the DG. SSW up-regulated both the number of Iba1+ cells and rates of cell proliferation in the subgranular region of the DG. The antidepressant-like effects of SD dissociated both, from hippocampal neuroplasticity in the DG (not occurring after ASD), and from microglial activation (not preventing behavioral response when occurring). The increase in dendritic spine density in the DG after SD and exercise was associated with an up-regulation of Wnt 7a, and with activation of the innate immune system of the brain. Increased Arc/Arg3.1 suggests however increased neuroplasticity, which could be common to all fast-acting antidepressants

  19. Bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome in a diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Amit

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 10% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. Bilateral herpes zoster oticus can sometime occur in immunocompromised patients, though incidence is very rare. Case presentation Diabetic male, 57 year old presented to us with bilateral facial palsy due to herpes zoster oticus. Patient was having bilateral mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Patient was treated with appropriate metabolic control, anti-inflammatory drugs and intravenous acyclovir. Due to uncontrolled diabetes, glucocorticoids were not used in this patient. Significant improvement in hearing status and facial nerve functions were seen in this patient. Conclusions Herpes zoster causes severe infections in diabetic patients and can be a cause of bilateral facial palsy and bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herpes zoster in diabetic patients should be treated with appropriate metabolic control, NSAIDS and intravenous acyclovir, which we feel should be started at the earliest. Glucocorticoids should be avoided in diabetic patients.

  20. Breast MRI after bilateral mastectomy: is it indicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwalde, Lindi H; Dang, Catherine M; Tabrizi, Robert; Saouaf, Rola; Phillips, Edward H

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the use of breast MRI as a diagnostic or surveillance tool in patients after bilateral mastectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate breast MRI after bilateral mastectomy. Participants consisted of 48 women with prior bilateral mastectomy who underwent breast MRI between 2003 and 2009. Seventy-nine breast MRIs were obtained. The median time between mastectomy and first MRI was 36 months. MRI was ordered most often by a medical oncologist (71%). Median age at bilateral mastectomy was 49 years (range, 33 to 72 years). Reasons for obtaining MRI included surveillance in 60 (76%), mass in eight (10%), lymph nodes in four (5%), pain in three (4%), and abscess in one (1%). Overall, 68 (86%) MRIs showed benign imaging findings only. Within the surveillance group, six patients had MRIs with findings that changed management; four patients had some residual breast tissue, and two patients had findings outside the breast that were better evaluated by CT or bone scan and were ultimately benign. MRI confirmed locoregional recurrence in two patients with highly suspicious physical findings. Overall, postmastectomy breast MRI had limited use, finding no unsuspected recurrences within our study group. Although MRI can be helpful to establish the presence of residual breast tissue after bilateral mastectomy, subsequent routine screening breast MRI should be questioned if no residual breast tissue is identified. PMID:21337876

  1. Successful management of bilateral patellar tendon rupture in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipov, A; Shahar, R; Joseph, R; Milgram, J

    2008-01-01

    A seven-year-old, 41 kg, intact, cross breed dog, was presented with a history of bilateral hind limb lameness after falling from a height of 1 m. Clinical and radiographic findings were consistent with bilateral patellar tendon rupture. Surgical repair was performed bilaterally. The tendons were sutured primarily, and an internal splint of nylon leader was added. Good apposition of the severed tendon ends had been achieved intraoperatively; however, post operative radiographs showed supra-trochlear displacement of both patellae. The casts used to immobilize the stifle joints slipped distally and three days post operatively the tendon repair had broken down, bilaterally. Revision surgery was undertaken and the tendons were re-sutured. Nylon leader was placed through holes that had been drilled in the patellae and tibiae. The stifle joints were immobilized with type I external skeletal fixators (ESFs). Both freeform polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) connecting bars were found to be broken at the level of the stifle joints two days later, without any disruption of the primary tendon repair. Each connecting bar was replaced with two connecting bars of PMMA reinforced with 3 mm steel wire. The dog was fully weight-bearing with a reduced range of motion in flexion immediately after removal of the ESFs at six weeks and was still sound 18 months post-operatively. Primary tendon repair in combination with adequate immobilization allowed for an excellent outcome in a complicated bilateral pathology. PMID:18545725

  2. Association of Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia in Bilateral Anterior Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fujimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Two female patients with histories of cancer who showed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP complications and bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon were examined. Both patients had suffered from COP and received intermitted systemic corticosteroid administration (SCA. The first patient, a 65-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer, showed bilateral uveitis with hypopyon. The topical corticosteroid treatment was ineffective. After SCA for the treatment of COP was started, the hypopyon gradually dissipated. Upon termination of SCA, uveitis relapses were controlled by renewed SCA. The other patient, a 69-year-old woman with a history of ovarian cancer, showed bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon. Her intraocular outcome did not improve by the topical corticosteroid administration, but SCA that was applied to treat COP led to remission of uveitis. Imaging examinations, biochemical analysis, symptoms or HLA-B27 antigen screenings in either patient did not explain the development of uveitis. Bilateral anterior uveitis is commonly related to autoimmune disease or systemic syndrome. We report two cases with COP that developed bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon resistant to topical administration but responsive to systemic administration of corticosteroid. These findings suggest that COP can be associated with the etiology of anterior uveitis.

  3. Bilateral persistent trigeminal artery variants diagnosed by MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira

    2011-12-01

    A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common anastomosis between the carotid and vertebrobasilar system. A PTA variant (PTAV) is a rare anomaly in which the cerebellar artery arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA) without connection with the basilar artery (BA). I present what I believe is the first report of bilateral PTAVs diagnosed using magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and briefly discuss the embryology of this rare anomaly. An 81-year-old woman with small infarctions underwent cerebral MR imaging and MR angiography with a 1.5-tesla imager for the evaluation of brain lesions. An MR angiography was obtained using the standard noncontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight technique. The MR angiographic demonstration of bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar arteries arising from the precavernous segment of the ICA without anastomosis to the BA indicated bilateral PTAVs. This is the first report of bilateral PTAVs diagnosed by MR angiography. The literature review indicates that an estimated prevalence of bilateral PTAVs is about 0.0012%. PMID:21544587

  4. Hippocampal sleep features: relations to human memory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eFerrara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of intracranial EEG recordings techniques for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients is providing new information on the activity of different brain structures during both wakefulness and sleep. The interest has been mainly focused on the medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampal formation, whose peculiar local sleep features have been recently described, providing support to the idea that sleep is not a spatially global phenomenon. The study of the hippocampal sleep electrophysiology is particularly interesting because of its central role in the declarative memory formation. Recent data indicate that sleep contributes to memory formation. Therefore, it is relevant to understand whether specific pattern of activity taking place during sleep are related to memory consolidation processes. Fascinating similarities between different states of consciousness (wakefulness, REM sleep, NREM sleep in some electrophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes have been reported. For instance, large-scale synchrony in gamma activity is important for waking memory and perception processes, and its changes during sleep may be the neurophysiological substrate of sleep-related deficits of declarative memory. Hippocampal activity seems to specifically support memory consolidation during sleep, through specific coordinated neurophysiological events (slow waves, spindles, ripples that would facilitate the integration of new information into the pre-existing cortical networks. A few studies indeed provided direct evidence that rhinal ripples as well as slow hippocampal oscillations are correlated with memory consolidation in humans. More detailed electrophysiological investigations assessing the specific relations between different types of memory consolidation and hippocampal EEG features are in order. These studies will add an important piece of knowledge to the elucidation of the ultimate sleep

  5. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. III. Hippocampal EEG correlates of stimulus-response tasks and of sexual behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    1979-01-01

    A dog was trained to perform a spatial sound discrimination. The hippocampal EEG correlates and the movement correlates of correct trials were compared with those of incorrect trials and of ‘pressings in between’. Correct and wrong responses on a place learning task were compared both with respect

  6. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joanne Wai Ling; Ceranic, Borka; Harris, Robert; Timehin, Elwina

    2015-09-14

    This case highlights the diagnostic challenges in patients presenting with bilateral sudden sensorinueral hearing loss (SNHL). The aetiology of bilateral sudden SNHL may span several medical disciplines. Therefore, clinicians should be mindful of such presentations, and consider aetiologies beyond otological and neurological causes. We present a case of a previously healthy 51-year-old woman who presented with coryzal symptoms and sudden audiovestibular failure. Examination revealed fever, tachycardia, bilateral profound hearing loss and nystagmus. Following investigations, an initial working diagnosis of vasculitis was made. Later, blood cultures revealed methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and a transoesophageal echocardiogram confirmed endocarditis. The patient made a good recovery, but the hearing loss was permanent and managed with a cochlear implant.

  7. Empirical Analysis of Xinjiang's Bilateral Trade: Gravity Model Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xuegang; YANG Zhaoping; LIU Xuling

    2008-01-01

    Based on the basic trade gravity model and Xinjiang's practical situation, new explanatory variables (GDP,GDPpc and SCO) are introduced to build an extended trade gravity model fitting for Xinjiang's bilateral trade. Fromthe empirical analysis of this model, it is proposed that those three variables affect the Xinjiang's bilateral trade posi-tively. Whereas, geographic distance is found to be a significant factor influencing Xinjiang's bilateral trade negatively.Then, by the extended trade gravity model, this article analyzes the present trade situation between Xinjiang and itsmain trade partners quantitatively in 2004. The results indicate that Xinjiang cooperates with its most trade partnerssuccessfully in terms of present economic scale and developing revel. Xinjiang has established successfully trade part-nership with Central Asia, Central Europe and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, East Asia and South Asia. However,the foreign trade development with West Asia is much slower. Finally, some suggestions on developing Xinjiang's for-eign trade are put forward.

  8. Bilateral fat necrosis of the breast: report of a case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonobe,Hiroshi

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of bilateral fat necrosis of the breast is reported. The patient was a 50-year-old unmarried woman having no history of trauma, disease or surgery of the breast. In the bilateral breasts, ill-defined, firm masses with skin retraction were noted. Bilateral breast cancer was diagnosed clinically. However, both lesions showed histologically chronic granulomatous inflammation with foci of fatty necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, lipid containing foamy cells, foreign body giant cells engurfing choresterol-crystals, and calcification. "Paraffinoma" was thus suspected, but there was no history of cosmetic mammoplasty and histochemical studies failed to demonstrate saturated lipid indicating paraffin or other mineral oils

  9. Constipation following bilateral of internal iliac artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Morita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old man presented with constipation. He was hypertensive and suffered from chronic constipation. On arrival, the patient was fully conscious, and his vital signs were stable. He requested an enema because this treatment had proved effective in the past. On physical examination, a hard palpable mass was detected in the lower abdomen. Computed tomography was performed with contrast media. It revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA and bilateral internal iliac artery aneurysms (IIAAs; the latter obstructing the sigmoid colon. We believe that this obstruction was the cause of constipation. The patient underwent Y-graft replacement for the treatment of the AAA and bilateral IIAAs. The surgery was successful, and constipation has not recurred since. As constipation is the most common digestive disorder in the general population, all physicians should be aware that chronic constipation can be caused by bilateral IIAAs.

  10. CETA - BILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EU AND CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Borta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The international trade for wide world countries in the means more growth, more jobs and access on more products at competitive prices. The European Union is a major economy and an important trading partner for many countries and regions in the world. To stimulate growth and to create jobs in the Union, this economy has concluded multilateral trade agreement (under the World Trade Organisation and a number of bilateral (preferential trade agreements. The aim of this paper is to present an example of fully elimination of tariffs and tariff lines under a bilateral trade agreement. In this case, we have analysed Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA negotiated by the European Union and Canada. For both sides of Atlantic, the CETA is supposed to bring the solution for today's issues concerning the important trading aspects and, also, to facilitate the EU-Canada bilateral trade by creating competition.

  11. Bilateral macular injury from a green laser pointer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirani A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali Dirani,1,2 Elias Chelala,2 Ali Fadlallah,1,2 Rafic Antonios,1 George Cherfan11Beirut Eye Specialist Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who had a bilateral macular injury after playing with a green laser pointer for a duration of 1 minute. Clinical examination revealed a decrease in visual acuity and macular injury in both eyes, and imaging investigations revealed a bilateral macular lesion due to exposure to the laser pointer. At 3 months' follow up, visual function had improved but remained partially impaired. This case emphasizes the importance of cautious and appropriate use of laser pointer devices because of the potential vision-threatening hazards induced by mishandling of these devices. Keywords: green laser pointer, bilateral, macular injury

  12. Introduction of a Case of Bilateral Pheochromocytoma Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Pheochromocytoma is an adrenal tumor characterized by symptoms of hypertension, headache, increased sweating, and tachycardia .In one third of patients, the tumor is discovered incidentally during radiological evaluation of the abdomen. In this article a case of bilateral pheochromocytoma is reported. The patient, a twelve years old boy, referred with complaints of headache, flushing, palpitation and blurring of vision. He had a blood pressure of 200/120 mmHg and after investigation, coarctation of aorta was excluded. On abdominal ultrasound, bilateral adrenal mass was diagnosed, followed by serial measurements of urinary vanillyl mandellic acid (VMA which was found to be elevated. Meta- Iodio benzyl glunidin (MIBG scan showed increased uptake in both adrenals. Patient underwent laparotomy and bilateral adrenalectomy with the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Pathologic report confirmed the diagnosis

  13. International bilateral and multilateral arrangements in energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, the second report in the series, outlines current DOE international commitments under bilateral and multilateral arrangements, as of January 1, 1978. Included are bilateral agreements for cooperation in the civil uses of atomic energy with countries and international organizations, bilateral and multilateral technical exchanges in all energy technology areas, and multilateral agreements under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In addition to outlining the terms, scope, and status of these agreements, this document describes DOE's participation in the work of the major international energy organizations. IEA, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Future reports will update the status of ongoing cooperative projects and provide information on new energy R and D activities

  14. High-energy passively Q-switched operation of Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser with a GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Lisha; Han, Wenjuan; Guo, Yunfeng; Xu, Honghao; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liu, Junhai

    2015-11-16

    High-energy passively Q-switched operation of a Yb:GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) laser is demonstrated, with a GaAs crystal plate acting as saturable absorber. An average output power of 1.31 W at 1027 nm is produced at a pulse repetition rate of 1.92 kHz, the resulting pulse energy, duration, and peak power being respectively 0.68 mJ, 9.0 ns, and 75.6 kW. The shortest pulse duration obtained is 4.9 ns; whereas the maximum pulse energy achievable amounts to 0.83 mJ, which proves to be nearly one order of magnitude higher than ever generated from Yb or Nd lasers passively Q-switched by a GaAs saturable absorber. PMID:26698515

  15. Spectroscopic properties and high-power laser operation of Yb0.14:Y0.77Gd0.09Ca4O(BO3)3 mixed crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Xu, Honghao; Han, Wenjuan; Wang, Lisha; Liu, Junhai; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-05-01

    We report, for the first time to our knowledge, on the spectroscopic properties and continuous-wave laser performance of Yb0.14:Y0.77Gd0.09Ca4O(BO3)3, a mixed rare earth calcium oxyborate Yb-ion crystal. Under simple end-pumping conditions with a 976-nm diode, efficient CW laser operation was demonstrated at room temperature, producing an output power of 14.1 W at 1084.4 nm with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 48%; while operating around 1045 nm, the laser could generate an output power as high as 23.0 W, with optical-to-optical and slope efficiencies amounting, respectively, to 57% and 70% with respect to incident pump power. The polarized absorption and emission cross sections are also presented. The impressive results demonstrated reveal the great potential of these mixed oxyborates in developing new promising Yb-ion laser crystals.

  16. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-01

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  17. Bilateral macrostomia associated with aqueductal stenosis and glial heterotopias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Ernesto; Petricig, Paola; Peretta, Paola; Cinalli, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    We report on an Italian boy, born to normal and nonconsanguineous parents with a prenatal diagnosis of ventriculomegaly and subependymal glial heterotopias. At birth bilateral macrostomia was diagnosed without other evident facial anomalies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed triventricular hydrocephalus and aqueductal stenosis and confirmed the nodules of glial heterotopia. The bilateral macrostomia was surgically corrected with the vermilion square flap method and W-plasty technique and follow up MRI at 6 months showed mild increase of ventricular dilatation without signs of active hydrocephalus. The association between macrostomia and hydrocephalus has been reported only in rare cases of complex malformative syndromes but never with isolated macrostomia.

  18. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  19. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with basilar aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briganti, F.; Tortora, F.; Elefante, A. [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Cattedra di Neuroradiologia, 80131, Napoli (Italy); Maiuri, F. [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery Service, Napoli (Italy)

    2004-10-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries with an associated aneurysm of the basilar tip, studied by CT angiography, MR angiography and digital angiography. The patient became symptomatic with an episode of loss of consciousness, likely due to reduced blood perfusion. The other 20 reported cases of bilateral carotid hypoplasia (only four of which with an associated aneurysm) are reviewed. The findings of noninvasive procedures (including narrowing of the carotid canals on CT) may lead to a correct diagnosis before angiography is performed; they may also help to differentiate angiographic narrowing of the hypoplastic internal carotids from the string sign often observed in some acquired conditions. (orig.)

  20. Bilateral Control Using Master/Slave Simulator for Haptic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokura, Yuki; Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    A bilateral controller is used to transmit and share haptic information between a master system and a slave system. In a transmission system, the bilateral controller encounters problems in the event of data packet loss and/or disconnections. In this study, a master/slave simulator and environmental data memory are used to solve the problems. In the case of normal operation, the environmental data memory stores force data in a remote side. The control system is operated by the environmental data memory and master/slave simulator when the communication lines are disconnected.