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  1. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.)

  2. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma. MRI finding

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    Shimauchi, M.; Wakisaka, S.; Kinoshita, K. (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1989-11-01

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.).

  3. Beyond Dizziness: Virtual Navigation, Spatial Anxiety and Hippocampal Volume in Bilateral Vestibulopathy

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    Kremmyda, Olympia; Hüfner, Katharina; Flanagin, Virginia L.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Linn, Jennifer; Strupp, Michael; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) is defined as the impairment or loss of function of either the labyrinths or the eighth nerves. Patients with total BVP due to bilateral vestibular nerve section exhibit difficulties in spatial memory and navigation and show a loss of hippocampal volume. In clinical practice, most patients do not have a complete loss of function but rather an asymmetrical residual functioning of the vestibular system. The purpose of the current study was to investigate navigational ability and hippocampal atrophy in BVP patients with residual vestibular function. Fifteen patients with BVP and a group of age- and gender- matched healthy controls were examined. Self-reported questionnaires on spatial anxiety and wayfinding were used to assess the applied strategy of wayfinding and quality of life. Spatial memory and navigation were tested directly using a virtual Morris Water Maze Task. The hippocampal volume of these two groups was evaluated by voxel-based morphometry. In the patients, the questionnaire showed a higher spatial anxiety and the Morris Water Maze Task a delayed spatial learning performance. MRI revealed a significant decrease in the gray matter mid-hippocampal volume (Left: p = 0.006, Z = 4.58, Right: p < 0.001, Z = 3.63) and posterior parahippocampal volume (Right: p = 0.005, Z = 4.65, Left: p < 0.001, Z = 3.87) compared to those of healthy controls. In addition, a decrease in hippocampal formation volume correlated with a more dominant route-finding strategy. Our current findings demonstrate that even partial bilateral vestibular loss leads to anatomical and functional changes in the hippocampal formation and objective and subjective behavioral deficits. PMID:27065838

  4. Beyond dizziness: virtual navigation, spatial anxiety and hippocampal volume in bilateral vestibulopathy

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    Olympia eKremmyda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP is defined as the impairment or loss of function of either the labyrinths or the eighth nerves. Patients with total BVP due to bilateral vestibular nerve section exhibit difficulties in spatial memory and navigation and show a loss of hippocampal volume. In clinical practice, most patients do not have a complete loss of function but rather an asymmetrical residual functioning of the vestibular system. The purpose of the current study was to investigate navigational ability and hippocampal atrophy in BVP patients with residual vestibular function. Fifteen patients with BVP and a group of age- and gender- matched healthy controls were examined. Self-reported questionnaires on spatial anxiety and wayfinding were used to assess the applied strategy of wayfinding and quality of life. Spatial memory and navigation were tested directly using a virtual Morris Water Maze Task. The hippocampal volume of these two groups was evaluated by voxel-based morphometry. In the patients, the questionnaire showed a higher spatial anxiety and the Morris Water Maze Task a delayed spatial learning performance. MRI revealed a significant decrease in the gray matter mid-hippocampal volume (Left: p = 0.006, Z = 4.58, Right: p < 0.001, Z = 3.63 and posterior parahippocampal volume (Right: p = 0.005, Z = 4.65, Left: p < 0.001, Z = 3.87 compared to those of healthy controls. In addition, a decrease in hippocampal formation volume correlated with a more dominant route-finding strategy. Our current findings demonstrate that even partial bilateral vestibular loss leads to anatomical and functional

  5. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

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    Mehrabian Shima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer’s disease. Few cases have so far described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer’s disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation The patient presented here is a 33 year old Bulgarian male, whose clinical features include progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes over the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (Mini Mental State Examination score was 16/30 with impaired memory and attention, and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, and extrapyramidal signs, as well as dysarthria and impairment in coordination, were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with noticeable bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test/Treponema pallidum hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High-dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. At 6 month follow up, improvements were noted clinically, on neuropsychological examinations, and in cerebrospinal fluid samples. Conclusion This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition which requires early aggressive antibiotic therapy.

  6. Neurosyphilis with dementia and bilateral hippocampal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: This article reports a rare case of active neurosyphilis in a 33-years-old man with mild to moderate dementia and marked hippocampal atrophy, mimicking early onset Alzheimer's disease. Few number of cases described bilateral hippocampal atrophy mimicking Alzheimer's disease in neurosyphilis. Case presentation: The clinical feature is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and behavioral changes for the last 18 months. Neuropsychological examination revealed mild to moderate dementia (MMSE=16) with impaired memory, attention and executive dysfunction. Pyramidal, extrapyramidal signs, dysarthria and impairment in coordination were documented. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy with marked bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The diagnosis of active neurosyphilis was based on positive results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test - Treponema Pallidum. Hemagglutination reactions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis and elevated protein levels. High dose intravenous penicillin therapy was administered. During the follow up examination at 6 month, the clinical signs, and neuropsychological examinations, and cerebrospinal fluid samples showed improvement. Conclusion: This case underlines the importance of early diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The results suggest that neurosyphilis should be considered when magnetic resonance imaging results indicate mesiotemporal abnormalities and hippocampal atrophy. Neurosyphilis is a treatable condition and needs early aggressive antibiotic therapy

  7. The effects of bilateral hippocampal damage on fMRI regional activations and interactions during memory retrieval.

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    Maguire, E A; Vargha-Khadem, F; Mishkin, M

    2001-06-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined successful retrieval of real-world memories in a patient (Jon) with selective bilateral hippocampal pathology resulting from perinatal hypoxia compared with healthy control subjects. Jon activated the same brain regions during memory retrieval as control subjects, both medial and lateral on the left. In contrast to controls, Jon also activated many homologous regions on the right. In spite of having 50% volume loss bilaterally in his hippocampi, retrieval in Jon was associated with increased activation of the hippocampi. Furthermore, hippocampal activity, as with the controls, was differential, being most responsive to retrieval of autobiographical events compared with other memory types (autobiographical facts, public events, general knowledge). Jon made a distinction between events that the control subjects did not make, namely that some of the autobiographical and public events he clearly remembered, while others he found that he knew about but did not truly remember. His hippocampi and medial frontal cortex were significantly more active during retrieval of events for which he had clear and conscious recollection compared with those he knew as much about, including the context, but could not remember experiencing. Although Jon activates the same network of brain regions as the controls (albeit bilaterally), and with the same pattern of response in the hippocampus, the communication between regions differs from controls with regard to hippocampal-cortical connectivity. In controls there was increased effective connectivity between parahippocampal cortex and hippocampus, specifically during the retrieval of autobiographical events. In contrast, this increase was not apparent in Jon; rather, retrieval of autobiographical events elicited greater interaction between the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex, and also increased interaction between retrosplenial and medial frontal cortex. This study

  8. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia

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    JanelleNBeadle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific investigation of empathy has become a cornerstone in the field of social cognition. Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. Scientific investigations of empathy have focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, pointing to a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate. While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, we propose that there are compelling reasons to inquire about the contribution of the hippocampus to social cognition. We propose that the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity make it well-suited to meet the demands of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. In response to the empathy inductions, unlike healthy comparison participants, hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior from the control condition. Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence for a role of hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  9. Bilateral dacryoadenitis

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    Charlotte Derr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute dacryoadenitis is an uncommon condition that involves inflammation of the lacrimal gland. In rare instances, dacryoadenitis may be bilateral. A delay in proper treatment of an otherwise simple case of dacryoadenitis may lead to significant soft tissue morbidity such as cellulitis, lacrimal gland abscess, or orbital abscess. We report the case of a 24-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with acute bilateral dacryoadenitis. The patient′s symptoms did not respond to oral antibiotics and he subsequently required admission for intravenous antibiotics. During his hospitalization the patient had diagnostic testing to try to determine the etiology for his symptoms. The unique aspects of managing a case of bilateral dacryoadenitis as well as treatment recommendations are discussed in this case report.

  10. Autophagy blockade sensitizes the anticancer activity of CA-4 via JNK-Bcl-2 pathway

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    Li, Yangling; Luo, Peihua; Wang, Jincheng; Dai, Jiabin; Yang, Xiaochun; Wu, Honghai; Yang, Bo, E-mail: yang924@zju.edu.cn; He, Qiaojun, E-mail: qiaojunhe@zju.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) has already entered clinical trials of solid tumors over ten years. However, the limited anticancer activity and dose-dependent toxicity restrict its clinical application. Here, we offered convincing evidence that CA-4 induced autophagy in various cancer cells, which was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the degradation of p62, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence. Interestingly, CA-4-mediated apoptotic cell death was further potentiated by pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) or small interfering RNAs against the autophagic genes (Atg5 and Beclin 1). The enhanced anticancer activity of CA-4 and 3-MA was further confirmed in the SGC-7901 xenograft tumor model. These findings suggested that CA-4-elicited autophagic response played a protective role that impeded the eventual cell death while autophagy inhibition was expected to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy of CA-4. Meanwhile, CA-4 treatment led to phosphorylation/activation of JNK and JNK-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Importantly, JNK inhibitor or JNK siRNA inhibited autophagy but promoted CA-4-induced apoptosis, indicating a key requirement of JNK-Bcl-2 pathway in the activation of autophagy by CA-4. We also identified that pretreatment of Bcl-2 inhibitor (ABT-737) could significantly enhance anticancer activity of CA-4 due to inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, our data suggested that the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway was considered as the critical regulator of CA-4-induced protective autophagy and a potential drug target for chemotherapeutic combination. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibition could be a potential for combretastatin A-4 antitumor efficacy. • The JNK-Bcl-2 pathway plays a critical role in CA-4-induced autophagy. • ABT-737 enhances CA-4 anticancer activity due to inhibition of autophagy.

  11. Autophagy blockade sensitizes the anticancer activity of CA-4 via JNK-Bcl-2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) has already entered clinical trials of solid tumors over ten years. However, the limited anticancer activity and dose-dependent toxicity restrict its clinical application. Here, we offered convincing evidence that CA-4 induced autophagy in various cancer cells, which was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the degradation of p62, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence. Interestingly, CA-4-mediated apoptotic cell death was further potentiated by pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) or small interfering RNAs against the autophagic genes (Atg5 and Beclin 1). The enhanced anticancer activity of CA-4 and 3-MA was further confirmed in the SGC-7901 xenograft tumor model. These findings suggested that CA-4-elicited autophagic response played a protective role that impeded the eventual cell death while autophagy inhibition was expected to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy of CA-4. Meanwhile, CA-4 treatment led to phosphorylation/activation of JNK and JNK-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Importantly, JNK inhibitor or JNK siRNA inhibited autophagy but promoted CA-4-induced apoptosis, indicating a key requirement of JNK-Bcl-2 pathway in the activation of autophagy by CA-4. We also identified that pretreatment of Bcl-2 inhibitor (ABT-737) could significantly enhance anticancer activity of CA-4 due to inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, our data suggested that the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway was considered as the critical regulator of CA-4-induced protective autophagy and a potential drug target for chemotherapeutic combination. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibition could be a potential for combretastatin A-4 antitumor efficacy. • The JNK-Bcl-2 pathway plays a critical role in CA-4-induced autophagy. • ABT-737 enhances CA-4 anticancer activity due to inhibition of autophagy

  12. 双侧海马病变引起的短暂性全面性遗忘一例及文献综述%Transient Global Amnesia Caused by Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions:Case Report and Review of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 王国瑾; 王丽萍; 庄儒鸿; 袁振华; 黄婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnosis, pathological location and the pathophysiology of transient glob-al amnesia(TGA). Methods: The history, clinical presentations, neuropsychological examinations and neuroimaging data of the TGA patient were collected. Results: The patient had no risk factors of cerebrovascular disease and had no the other neurological diseases, had a transient anterograde amnesia, had the disorder in word recognition and the increased signals of the CA1 field of the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) in the DWI and T2FLAIR of brain MRI. Conclusioin: The hippocampal CA1 neurons is the lesion location of TGA. Stress can play a key role in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an acute cytotoxic edema of hippocampal CA1 neurons during TGA.%目的:探讨短暂性全面性遗忘(TGA)的诊断、发病部位、病因及发病机制。方法:收集一例 TGA 患者的病史、临床表现、神经心理学检查和神经影像学资料。结果:该患者无脑血管病的危险因素及神经科疾病的病史,临床表现为一过性顺行性情景记忆障碍,神经心理学检查提示词语再认障碍,头颅 MRI 的液体衰减反转恢复序列、MR 扩散加权成像序列在海马 CA1区显示高信号。结论:TGA 的发病部位在海马 CA1区,其发病机制可能为应激诱发海马 CA1区一系列病理生理的级联反应,导致海马神经元的急性细胞性水肿。

  13. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten bilateral agreements are presented. These are: 1) Co-operation agreement relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and EURATOM (1996); 2) Agreement on co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and Greece (1997); 3) Implementing arrangement for technical exchange and co-operation in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and the United States (1997); 4) Agreement concerning co-operation in nuclear science and technology between Australia and Indonesia (1997); 5) Implementation of the 1985 Agreement for co-operation concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between the People's Republic of China and the United States (1998); 6) Protocol of co-operation between France and Lithuania (1997); 7) Agreement on co-operation in energy research, science and technology, and development between Germany and the United States (1998); 8) Agreement on early notification of a nuclear accident and exchange of information on nuclear facilities between Greece and Romania (1997); 9) Agreement on early notification of nuclear accidents and co-operation in the field of nuclear safety between Hungary and the Ukraine (1997); 10) Agreement in the field of radioactive waste management between Switzerland and the United States (1997). (K.A.)

  14. Hippocampal inactivation with TTX impairs long-term spatial memory retrieval and modifies brain metabolic activity.

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    Conejo, Nélida María; Cimadevilla, José Manuel; González-Pardo, Héctor; Méndez-Couz, Marta; Arias, Jorge Luis

    2013-01-01

    Functional inactivation techniques enable studying the hippocampal involvement in each phase of spatial memory formation in the rat. In this study, we applied tetrodotoxin unilaterally or bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus to evaluate the role of this brain structure in retrieval of memories acquired 28 days before in the Morris water maze. We combined hippocampal inactivation with the assessment of brain metabolism using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Several brain regions were considered, including the hippocampus and other related structures. Results showed that both unilateral and bilateral hippocampal inactivation impaired spatial memory retrieval. Hence, whereas subjects with bilateral hippocampal inactivation showed a circular swim pattern at the side walls of the pool, unilateral inactivation favoured swimming in the quadrants adjacent to the target one. Analysis of cytochrome oxidase activity disclosed regional differences according to the degree of hippocampal functional blockade. In comparison to control group, animals with bilateral inactivation showed increased CO activity in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus during retrieval, while the activity of the dentate gyrus substantially decreased. However, unilateral inactivated animals showed decreased CO activity in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus. This study demonstrated that retrieval recruits differentially the hippocampal subregions and the balance between them is altered with hippocampal functional lesions. PMID:23724089

  15. Hippocampal internal architecture and postoperative seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis

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    Elkommos, Samia; Weber, Bernd; Niehusmann, Pitt; Volmering, Elisa; Richardson, Mark P.; Goh, Yen Y.; Marson, Anthony G.; Elger, Christian; Keller, Simon S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Semi-quantitative analysis of hippocampal internal architecture (HIA) on MRI has been shown to be a reliable predictor of the side of seizure onset in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postoperative seizure outcome and preoperative semi-quantitative measures of HIA. Methods We determined HIA on high in-plane resolution preoperative T2 short tau inversion recovery MR images in 79 patients with presumed unilateral mesial TLE (mTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent amygdalohippocampectomy and postoperative follow up. HIA was investigated with respect to postoperative seizure freedom, neuronal density determined from resected hippocampal specimens, and conventionally acquired hippocampal volume. Results HIA ratings were significantly related to some neuropathological features of the resected hippocampus (e.g. neuronal density of selective CA regions, Wyler grades), and bilaterally with preoperative hippocampal volume. However, there were no significant differences in HIA ratings of the to-be-resected or contralateral hippocampus between patients rendered seizure free (ILAE 1) compared to those continuing to experience seizures (ILAE 2-5). Conclusions This work indicates that semi-quantitative assessment of HIA on high-resolution MRI provides a surrogate marker of underlying histopathology, but cannot prospectively distinguish between patients who will continue to experience postoperative seizures and those who will be rendered seizure free. The predictive power of HIA for postoperative seizure outcome in non-lesional patients with TLE should be explored. PMID:26803053

  16. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

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    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  17. Qualitative and Quantitative Hippocampal MRI Assessments in Intractable Epilepsy

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    Paramdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To acquire normative data of hippocampal volumes and T2 relaxation times, to evaluate and compare qualitative and quantitative assessments in evaluating hippocampi in patients with different durations of intractable epilepsy, and to propose an imaging protocol based on performance of these techniques. Methods. MRI analysis was done in 50 nonepileptic controls and 30 patients with intractable epilepsy on 1.5T scanner. Visual assessment and hippocampal volumetry were done on oblique coronal IR/T2W and T1W MP-RAGE images, respectively. T2 relaxation times were measured using 16-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. Volumetric data was normalized for variation in head size between individuals. Patients were divided into temporal ( and extratemporal ( groups based on clinical and EEG localization. Results. In controls, right hippocampal volume was slightly more than the left with no effect of age or gender. In TLE patients, hippocampal volumetry provided maximum concordance with EEG. Visual assessment of unilateral pathology concurred well with measured quantitative values but poorly in cases with bilateral pathologies. There were no significant differences of mean values between extratemporal group and controls group. Quantitative techniques detected mild abnormalities, undetected on visual assessment. Conclusions. Quantitative techniques are more sensitive to diagnose bilateral and mild unilateral hippocampal abnormalities.

  18. The luminescence of bismuth and europium in Ca4YO(BO3)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of Bi3+/Eu3+ singly and doubly activated Ca4YO(BO3)3 phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction method. The structures and photoluminescent properties of the phosphors were investigated at room temperature. Under UV excitation Bi3+ and Eu3+ show a high light output. Ca4YO(BO3)3:Eu3+ has potential application as a phosphor for fluorescent lamps. The luminescence of Bi3+ and Eu3+ in Ca4YO(BO3)3 resembles more that in the rare earth oxides than that in borates. The free oxygen ion in the host lattice, which is not bonded to any boron ions seems to be responsible for that. In this host lattice energy migration between linear Eu3+ chains occurs. The emission of Bi3+ is completely quenched when Eu3+ is co-doped. A model was proposed to explain it. - Highlights: ► The photoluminescence of Bi3+ and Eu3+ singly/doubly doped Ca4YO(BO3)3 was reported. ► Ca4YO(BO3)3:Eu3+ is a promising lamp phosphor. ► The quenching of Bi3+ at Eu3+ presenting was attributed to electron transfer.

  19. Perceived Stress Is Differentially Related to Hippocampal Subfield Volumes among Older Adults

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    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Michael L.; Brickman, Adam M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic exposure to stress has been shown to impact a wide range of health-related outcomes in older adults. Despite extensive animal literature revealing deleterious effects of biological markers of stress on the dentate gyrus subfield of the hippocampus, links between hippocampal subfields and psychological stress have not been studied in humans. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and hippocampal subfield volumes among racially/ethnically diverse older adults. Methods and Materials Between July 2011 and March 2014, 116 nondemented participants were consecutively drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, an ongoing community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in Bronx, New York. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and underwent 3.0 T MRI. FreeSurfer was used to derive total hippocampal volume, hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2/CA3, CA4/Dentate Gyrus (CA4/DG), and subiculum), entorhinal cortex volume, whole brain volume, and total intracranial volume. Results Linear regression analyses revealed that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with smaller total hippocampal volume (β = -0.20, t = -2.40, p = 0.02), smaller CA2/CA3 volumes (β = -0.18, t = -2.24, p = 0.03) and smaller CA4/DG volumes (β = -0.19, t = -2.28, p = 0.03) after controlling for total intracranial volume, age, gender, and race. These findings remained unchanged after removal of individuals with clinically significant symptoms of depression. Discussion Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between a direct indicator of psychological stress and specific hippocampal subfield volumes in elderly individuals. These results highlight the importance of clinical screening for chronic stress in otherwise healthy older adults. PMID:27144832

  20. Regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions in first-episode schizophrenia.

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    Narr, Katherine L; Thompson, Paul M; Szeszko, Philip; Robinson, Delbert; Jang, Seonah; Woods, Roger P; Kim, Sharon; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Asunction, Dina; Toga, Arthur W; Bilder, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    Hippocampal volume reductions are widely observed in schizophrenia. Some studies suggest anterior hippocampal regions are more susceptible and associated with frontal lobe dysfunctions, while others implicate posterior regions. Using high-resolution MR images and novel computational image analysis methods, we identified the hippocampal subregions most vulnerable to disease processes in 62 (45 m/17 f) first-episode schizophrenia patients compared to 60 (30 m/30 f) healthy controls, similar in age. The hippocampi were traced on coronal brain slices and hemispheric volumes were compared between diagnostic groups. Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual's hippocampal surface model, between groups in 3D. CSF concentrations were also compared statistically at homologous hippocampal surface points to localize corresponding gray matter reductions. Significant bilateral hippocampal volume reductions were observed in schizophrenia irrespective of brain size corrections. Statistical mapping results, confirmed by permutation testing, showed pronounced left hemisphere shape differences in anterior and midbody CA1 and CA2 regions in patients. Significant CSF increases surrounding the hippocampus were observed in a similar spatial pattern in schizophrenia. Results confirm that hippocampal volume reductions are a robust neuroanatomical correlate of schizophrenia and are present by first episode. Mid- to antero-lateral hippocampal regions show pronounced volume changes and complementary increases in peri-hippocampal CSF, suggesting that these hippocampal regions are more susceptible to disease processes in schizophrenia. Targeting regional hippocampal abnormalities may help dissociate schizophrenia patients from other groups exhibiting global hippocampal volume changes, and better focus systems-level pathophysiological hypotheses. PMID:15050580

  1. Tuberous sclerosis complex coexistent with hippocampal sclerosis.

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    Lang, Min; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis are both well-defined entities associated with medically intractable epilepsy. To our knowledge, there has been only one prior case of these two pathologies being co-existent. We report a 7-month-old boy who presented with intractable seizures at 2 months of age. MRI studies showed diffuse volume loss in the brain with bilateral, multiple cortical tubers and subcortical migration abnormalities. Subependymal nodules were noted without subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Genetic testing revealed TSC2 and PRD gene deletions. Histopathology of the hippocampus showed CA1 sclerosis marked by loss of neurons in the CA1 region. Sections from the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes showed multiple cortical tubers characterized by cortical architectural disorganization, gliosis, calcifications and increased number of large balloon cells. Focal white matter balloon cells and spongiform changes were also present. The patient underwent resection of the right fronto-parietal lobe and a subsequent resection of the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. The patient is free of seizures on anti-epileptic medication 69 months after surgery. Although hippocampal sclerosis is well documented to be associated with coexistent focal cortical dysplasia, the specific co-existence of cortical tubers and hippocampal sclerosis appears to be rare. PMID:26498091

  2. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without e...

  3. Moxibustion upregulates hippocampal progranulin expression

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    Tao Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, moxibustion is reported to be useful and has few side effects for chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. More recently, the focus has been on the wealth of information supporting stress as a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome, and largely concerns dysregulation in the stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of moxibustion on behavioral symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome rats and examine possible mechanisms. Rats were subjected to a combination of chronic restraint stress and forced swimming to induce chronic fatigue syndrome. The acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zusanli (ST36, bilateral were simultaneously administered moxibustion. Untreated chronic fatigue syndrome rats and normal rats were used as controls. Results from the forced swimming test, open field test, tail suspension test, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot assay showed that moxibustion treatment decreased mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in plasma, and markedly increased progranulin mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that moxibustion may relieve the behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, at least in part, by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulating hippocampal progranulin.

  4. Sodium calcium orthovanadate, NaCa4(VO4)3.

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    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Gaudin, Etienne; Darriet, Jacques

    2005-07-01

    Single crystals of sodium tetracalcium trivanadium dodecaoxide were prepared by melting a powder sample of NaCa4(VO4)3 at 1673 K, followed by slow cooling to room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the Pnma space group and is isostructural with the mineral silicocarnotite, Ca5(PO4)2SiO4. The structure is composed of isolated VO4 tetrahedra linked by sodium and calcium cations disordered over eight- and seven-coordinated sites. PMID:15997052

  5. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

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    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. PMID:26474741

  6. Bilateral Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Dhua, Anjan K; Aggarwal, Satish K; NB Mathur; GR Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare birth defect, with a poor prognosis. We describe a case of bilateral CDH discovered while repairing the right sided CDH. Diaphragmatic defect was repaired and a silo was applied on the abdominal wound to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome. The patient however died postoperatively due to severe pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Linear optical properties of Ca4EuO(BO3)3 and Eu3+ : Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The title compounds are now intensively studied due to their quadratic nonlinear properties in view of applications, e.g. high power laser frequency conversion. Rare earth calcium oxoborates, Ca4REO(BO3)3 , constitute an isostructural family along the rare earth series with RE = La - Lu, Y included. These compounds crystallize in the monoclinic biaxial crystal system with Cm (N 8) space group. They are isostructural to the calcium fluoroborate Ca5(BO3)3 F which is related to the fluoroapatite structure Ca5(PO4)3 F. The rare earth ions are located in the distorted octahedron with C s point site symmetry in the mirror plane. Two types of distorted octahedral sites exist for calcium ions. The existence of some disorder between calcium and rare earth atoms is suspected from the structural analysis. Good optical quality crystals of europium (or gadolinium) oxoborate, EuCOB (GdCOB) have been grown from the stoichiometric melt by the Czochralski pulling method. From the luminescence of the Eu3+ doped gadolinium or in the europium stoichiometric compound very complex emission spectra have been obtained. It principally depends on the preparation method of studied samples: i) for a monocrystalline sample, a single phase with a single site is observed; ii) for a polycrystalline sample complex feature occurs. It is probably due to an expanded disorder between calcium and rare earth atoms. Practically, there is one principal site corresponding to the low symmetry site of the rare earth as expected from the structural investigation. Other minor sites are attributed to the local distortion created around the active rare earth ion. The intensity of the emission lines of Eu3+ used as a local structural probe related to these minor sites increases when the gadolinium in Ca4GdO(BO0)3 is substituted by lanthanum or yttrium ions. It seems therefore evident that the synthesis of these rare earth calcium oxoborates must be realised carefully. The crystal field analysis is

  8. Hippocampal dosimetry correlates with the change in neurocognitive function after hippocampal sparing during whole brain radiotherapy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    parameters specific to left sided hippocampus exerted an influence on immediate recall of verbal memory (adjusted odds ratio, 4.08; p-value, 0.042, predicting patients’ neurocognitive decline after receiving HS-WBRT). Functional preservation by hippocampal sparing during WBRT is indeed achieved in our study. Providing that modern VMAT techniques can reduce the dose irradiating bilateral hippocampi below dosimetric threshold, patients should be recruited in prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to accomplish neurocognitive preservation while maintaining intracranial control

  9. 海马硬化14例临床病理分型及意义%Clinico-pathological classification and significance of 14 cases hippocampal sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 陈晓东; 王伟; 赖续文; 陈敬文; 曹慧霞

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨海马硬化(hippocampal sclerosis,HS)的组织学特点、病理分型及临床意义.方法 回顾性分析14例因HS所致的慢性颞叶癫痫患者的临床资料,结合免疫组化检测结果观察其海马组织形态学,并对患者术后癫痫发作情况进行随访.结果 患者年龄5 ~42岁(平均20岁),男性9例,女性5例,临床均以慢性颞叶癫痫为主要表现.MRI示12例病变累及单侧海马、2例双侧受累.组织学主要表现为海马CA1-CA4区选择性锥体神经元丢失及胶质细胞增生,同时伴齿状回颗粒细胞数量和分布的异常.根据神经元丢失区域及程度的不同,14例分为经典1a型4例(CA1区神经元严重丢失,除CA2区外其他各区中度丢失)和经典1b型8例(各区神经元均严重丢失),非典变异型2型(仅CA1区神经元严重丢失)和3型(神经元丢失以CA4区为主)各1例,1b型最为多见.免疫组化染色神经元核抗原NeuN可清晰显示海马各区神经元的分布及丢失情况.13例获随访,结果表明经典型患者预后好.结论 HS病理形态学改变简单,规范的取材及熟悉海马正常的组织学形态是HS正确诊断及分型的前提和基础,正确的诊断及分型可为临床判断预后提供依据.%Purpose To investigate the morphological features, pathological classification and clinical significance of hippocampal sclerosis ( HS). Methods Clinical data of 14 HS patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies was analyzed, and hippocampal neuoral cell loss was observed by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The follow-up data after surgery were analyzed. Results The patients' age ranged from 5 to 42 years (mean, 20 years) , among them 9 male and 5 female. All cases displayed symptoms of chronic temporal lobe epilepsies. Unilateral hippocampal were involved in 12 patients, and two cases had bilateral lesions. Pathological changes presented with selective neuronal loss in hippocampal subfields, accompanying

  10. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy was...... unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  11. Growth and properties of GdCa4O(BO3)3 single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Möckel, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die Einkristallzüchtung nach dem Czochralskiverfahren von GdCa4O(BO3)3 (GdCOB) beschrieben. Aus insgesamt 18 Zuchtversuchen, bei denen auch die Ziehgeschwindigkeit zwischen 1 und 3mm/h variiert wurde, wurden erfolgreich nahezu perfekte Einkristalle gewonnen. In einigen Kristallen traten jedoch auch Risse oder Einschlüsse auf. Diese enthielten neben Iridium vom Tiegelmaterial auch andere Phasen des Gd2O3–B2O3–CaO-Systems, sowie P und Yb, deren Herkunft unklar is...

  12. Docencia de cinemática con el simulador de mecanismos ATiCA4b

    OpenAIRE

    López Martínez, Joan Antoni; Font Andreu, Jorge; Hernández Abad, Francisco, 1952-; Hernández Díaz, David

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta un ejemplo de las posibilidades que tenemos los docentes a la hora de generar material didáctico para nuestros alumnos y alumnas: el simulador ATiCA4b, (Aplicación Trazadora e Interactiva de Curvas de Acoplador de mecanismos articulados de Cuatro Barras). Un entorno interactivo desarrollado en las Escuelas de Ingeniería de Manresa y Terrassa(BCN) con la herramienta Mathematica, en el que el usuario puede jugar, familiarizarse e interactuar con conceptos clave de cinemática de meca...

  13. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Karimi; Masoud Soheilian; Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lympho...

  14. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  15. Estrogen intervention in microvascular morphology and choline acetyltransferase expression in rat hippocampal neurons in chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang; Hongwei Yan; Guomin Zhang; Zhihong Chen; Jingfeng Xue

    2011-01-01

    We observed dynamic changes in microvessels and a protective effect of estrogen on chronic cerebral ischemia ovariectomized rat models established through permanent occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries at 7, 14 and 21 days. The results revealed that estrogen improved microvasculature in the hippocampus of chronic cerebral ischemic rats, upregulated Bcl-2 protein expression, downregulated Bax protein expression, increased choline acetyltransferase expression in hippocampal cholinergic neurons, and suppressed hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. These findings indicate that estrogen can protect hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia.

  16. Study on hippocampal volume with quantitative 3T magnetic resonance imaging in Chinese patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Mei-chun; LU Qin-chi; LI Yan-sheng; SHEN Jia-lin

    2012-01-01

    Background It was still rare for the quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research of regional changes in hippocampus sclerosis (HS) in Chinese patients with epilepsy.This study aimed to study the hippocampal volumes (HVs)with quantitative MRI measurement in Chinese patients with epilepsy.Methods Forty-six Chinese patients with epilepsy (intractable epilepsy (IE),n=21; non-intractable epilepsy (NIE),n=25)and 25 normal controls were collected between July 2007 and March 2008.All of the subjects underwent a 3T high-resolution MRI with oblique coronal thin sections oriented perpendicular to the hippocampal long axis.Hippocampal structures were assessed by visual detection,and HVs were quantitatively studied with a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS).Results Our study suggested that there was no significant difference in gender (P >0.05) while the right hippocampal head volume (HHV),hippocampal body volume (HBV),and the whole hippocampal volume (HCV) were greater than the left one (P <0.05),but no significant difference was found in bilateral hippocampal tail volume (HTV) (P >0.05) in normal controls.That unilateral/diffuse (64%/21%) and bilateral/focal (86%/20%) hippocampal atrophy (HA)were significant in IE and NIE patients,respectively.Anterior hippocampus,especially HHV (26% in IE and 20% in NIE) and HBV (29% in IE and 12% in NIE),had more significant atrophy than the HTV (5% in IE and 0% in NIE) in patients with epilepsy.Conclusion By assessing the volumes of the regional hippocampus with 3T MRI,we could better define the range and distribution of HS,since regional or subtle changes in HVs could be detected earlier with 3T MRI.

  17. Structural and functional plasticity of the hippocampal formation in professional dancers and slackliners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, Katharina; Binetti, Carolina; Hamilton, Derek A; Stephan, Thomas; Flanagin, Virginia L; Linn, Jennifer; Labudda, Kirsten; Markowitsch, Hans; Glasauer, Stefan; Jahn, Klaus; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    The acquisition of special skills can induce plastic changes in the human hippocampus, a finding demonstrated in expert navigators (Maguire et al. (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:4,398-403). Conversely, patients with acquired chronic bilateral vestibular loss develop atrophy of the hippocampus, which is associated with impaired spatial memory (Brandt et al. (2005) Brain 128:2,732-741). This suggests that spatial memory relies on vestibular input. In this study 21 professional dancers and slackliners were examined to assess whether balance training with extensive vestibulo-visual stimulation is associated with altered hippocampal formation volumes or spatial memory. Gray matter voxel-based morphometry showed smaller volumes in the anterior hippocampal formation and in parts of the parieto-insular vestibular cortex of the trained subjects but larger volumes in the posterior hippocampal formation and the lingual and fusiform gyri bilaterally. The local volumes in the right anterior hippocampal formation correlated negatively and those in the right posterior hippocampal formation positively with the amount of time spent training ballet/ice dancing or slacklining at the time of the study. There were no differences in general memory or in spatial memory as assessed by the virtual Morris water task. Trained subjects performed significantly better on a hippocampal formation-dependent task of nonspatial memory (transverse patterning). The smaller anterior hippocampal formation volumes of the trained subjects may be the result of a long-term suppression of destabilizing vestibular input. This is supported by the associated volume loss in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex. The larger volumes in the posterior hippocampal formation of the trained subjects might result from their increased utilization of visual cues for balance. This is supported by the concomitant larger volumes in visual areas like the lingual and fusiform gyri. Our findings indicate that there is a

  18. Correlation between volume and morphological changes in the hippocampal formation in Alzheimer's disease: rounding of the outline of the hippocampal body on coronal MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Michito; Sato, Takamichi [Ohshima Clinic, Department of Radiology, Yamagata (Japan); Kawakatsu, Shinobu [Yamagata University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata (Japan); Ohshima, Fumi [Ohshima Clinic, Department of Neurology, Yamagata (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the outline of the hippocampal body becomes rounded on coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the volume of the hippocampal formation decreases in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Institutional review board approval of the study protocol was obtained, and all subjects provided informed consent for the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and MRI. The MRI and MMSE were prospectively performed in all 103 subjects (27 men and 76 women; mean age {+-} standard deviation, 77.7 {+-} 7.8 years) who had AD or were concerned about having of dementia and who consulted our institute over 1 year. The subjects included 14 non-dementia cases (MMSE score {>=} 28) and 89 AD cases (MMSE score {<=} 27). The total volume of the bilateral hippocampal formation (VHF) was assessed with a tracing method, and the ratio of the VHF to the intracranial volume (RVHF) and the rounding ratio (RR) of the hippocampal body (mean ratio of its short dimension to the long dimension in the bilateral hippocampal body) were calculated. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, the correlations between RR and VHF and between RR and RVHF were assessed. Correlation coefficients between RR and VHF and between RR and RVHF were -0.419 (p < 0.01) and -0.418 (p < 0.01), respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between RR and the volume of the hippocampal formation. The outline of the body of the hippocampal formation becomes rounded on coronal images as its volume decreases in AD. (orig.)

  19. Correlation between volume and morphological changes in the hippocampal formation in Alzheimer's disease: rounding of the outline of the hippocampal body on coronal MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the outline of the hippocampal body becomes rounded on coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the volume of the hippocampal formation decreases in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Institutional review board approval of the study protocol was obtained, and all subjects provided informed consent for the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and MRI. The MRI and MMSE were prospectively performed in all 103 subjects (27 men and 76 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 77.7 ± 7.8 years) who had AD or were concerned about having of dementia and who consulted our institute over 1 year. The subjects included 14 non-dementia cases (MMSE score ≥ 28) and 89 AD cases (MMSE score ≤ 27). The total volume of the bilateral hippocampal formation (VHF) was assessed with a tracing method, and the ratio of the VHF to the intracranial volume (RVHF) and the rounding ratio (RR) of the hippocampal body (mean ratio of its short dimension to the long dimension in the bilateral hippocampal body) were calculated. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, the correlations between RR and VHF and between RR and RVHF were assessed. Correlation coefficients between RR and VHF and between RR and RVHF were -0.419 (p < 0.01) and -0.418 (p < 0.01), respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between RR and the volume of the hippocampal formation. The outline of the body of the hippocampal formation becomes rounded on coronal images as its volume decreases in AD. (orig.)

  20. Identification of two novel Chlorotoxin derivatives CA4 and CTX-23 with chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tengfei; Fan, Zheng; Li, Wenxin; Dietel, Barbara; Wu, Yingliang; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wrosch, Jana K; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Cao, Zhijian; Savaskan, Nicolai E

    2016-01-01

    Brain tumors are fast proliferating and destructive within the brain microenvironment. Effective chemotherapeutic strategies are currently lacking which combat this deadly disease curatively. The glioma-specific chloride ion channel represents a specific target for therapy. Chlorotoxin (CTX), a peptide derived from scorpion venom, has been shown to be specific and efficacious in blocking glioma Cl(-) channel activity. Here, we report on two new derivatives (termed CA4 and CTX-23) designed and generated on the basis of the peptide sequence alignments of CTX and BmKCT. The novel peptides CA4 and CTX-23 are both effective in reducing glioma cell proliferation. In addition, CTX, CA4 and CTX-23 impact on cell migration and spheroid migration. These effects are accompanied by diminished cell extensions and increased nuclear sizes. Furthermore, we found that CA4 and CTX-23 are selective with low toxicity against primary neurons and astrocytes. In the ex vivo VOGiM, which maintain the entire brain tumor microenvironment, both CTX and CA4 display anti-tumor activity and reduce tumor volume. Hence, CTX and CA4 reveal anti-angiogenic properties with endothelial and angiogenic hotspots disrupting activities. These data report on the identification of two novel CTX derivatives with multiple anti-glioma properties including anti-angiogenesis. PMID:26831010

  1. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-12-12

    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  2. Rhythms of the hippocampal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgin, Laura Lee

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampal local field potential (LFP) shows three major types of rhythms: theta, sharp wave-ripples and gamma. These rhythms are defined by their frequencies, they have behavioural correlates in several species including rats and humans, and they have been proposed to carry out distinct functions in hippocampal memory processing. However, recent findings have challenged traditional views on these behavioural functions. In this Review, I discuss our current understanding of the origins and the mnemonic functions of hippocampal theta, sharp wave-ripples and gamma rhythms on the basis of findings from rodent studies. In addition, I present an updated synthesis of their roles and interactions within the hippocampal network. PMID:26961163

  3. [Bilateral caudate head infarcts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, N; Yamamoto, Y; Akiguchi, I; Oiwa, K; Nakajima, K

    1997-11-01

    We reported a 67-year-old woman with bilateral caudate head infarcts. She developed sudden mutism followed by abulia. She was admitted to our hospital 2 months after ictus for further examination. She showed prominent abulia and was inactive, slow and apathetic. Spontaneous activity and speech, immediate response to queries, spontaneous word recall and attention and persistence to complex programs were disturbed. Apparent motor disturbance, gait disturbance, motor aphasia, apraxia and remote memory disturbance were not identified. She seemed to be depressed but not sad. Brain CT and MRI revealed bilateral caudate head hemorrhagic infarcts including bilateral anterior internal capsules, in which the left lesion was more extensive than right one and involved the part of the left putamen. These infarct locations were thought to be supplied by the area around the medial striate artery including Heubner's arteries and the A1 perforator. Digital subtraction angiography showed asymptomatic right internal carotid artery occlusion. She bad had hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation and also had a left atrium with a large diameter. The infarcts were thought to be caused by cardioembolic occlusion to the distal portion of the left internal carotid artery. Although some variations of vasculature at the anterior communicating artery might contribute to bilateral medial striate artery infarcts, we could not demonstrate such abnormalities by angiography. Bilateral caudate head infarcts involving the anterior internal capsule may cause prominent abulia. The patient did not improve by drug and rehabilitation therapy and died suddenly a year after discharge. PMID:9503974

  4. Bilateral popliteal arterial dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Liang; Ko, Shih-Yu; Tan, Ken-Hing

    2012-01-01

    A clinical feature of bilateral popliteal arterial dissection without involving the descending aorta, bilateral iliac, as well as femoral arteries has never been reported in the past literature. We report a 56-year-old man with hypertension and coronary artery disease who presented to our emergency department with complaints of bilateral knee pain after long-distance walking. Physical examination was notable for elevated blood pressure, but there was no palpable pulsation over dorsalis pedis arteries on his feet. Laboratory evaluation revealed a d-dimer level of 35.2 mg/L (FEU) on the day of the test and 1.2 mg/L one and a half months ago (normal level, <0.55). These findings were suggestive of a recent-onset peripheral arterial occlusive disorder. Computed tomography of the aorta showed bilateral popliteal arterial dissection with arterial intimal flap. Abdominal aorta, bilateral iliac, and femoral arteries remained intact with only arteriosclerotic change. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafting was then performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:21106320

  5. Escleritis posterior bilateral Bilateral posterior scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zurutuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática.Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

  6. Bilaterally Incarcerated Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Demirhan Yananli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a rare congenital diaphragmatic hernia. It is seen rarely bilaterally. Patients are usually asymptomatic. Therefore, diagnosis may be delayed until adulthood. Significant morbidity can occur in case complications arise and diagnosis is delayed. The patient, a 74 year-old female, presented in this article, was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain, vomiting, and shortness of breath. The plain abdominal radiograph of the patient revealed bowel obstruction and suspicious appearence in favor of the diaphragmatic hernia on both sides of the sternum. Computed tomography revealed bilaterally incarcerated Morgagni hernia with strangulated omentum in the right side of the sternum and a part of colon in the left side of sternum. Incarcerated organs were withdrawn to peritoneal cavity and defects of hernia were sutured primarily on laparatomy. Because bilateral incarcerated Morgagni hernia can be seen rarely, this case was reported.

  7. Efficacy of bilateral pallidotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R; Alterman, R; Kelly, P J; Fazzini, E; Eidelberg, D; Beric, A; Sterio, D

    1997-03-15

    Unilateral pallidotomy is a safe and effective treatment for medically refractory bradykinetic Parkinson's disease, especially in those patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia and severe on-off fluctuations. The efficacy of bilateral pallidotomy is less certain. The authors completed 11 of 12 attempted bilateral pallidotomies among 150 patients undergoing pallidotomy at New York University. In all but one patient, the pallidotomies were separated by at least 9 months. Patients were selected for bilateral pallidotomy if they exhibited bilateral rigidity, bradykinesia, or levodopa-induced dyskinesia prior to treatment or if they exhibited disease progression contralateral to their previously treated side. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and timed upper-extremity tasks of the Core Assessment Protocol for Intracerebral Transplantation (CAPIT) were administered to all 12 patients in the "off" state (12 hours without receiving medications) preoperatively and again at 6 and 12 months after each procedure. The median UPDRS and contralateral CAPIT scores improved 60% following the initial procedure (p = 0.008, Wilcoxon rank sums test). The second pallidotomy generated only an additional 10% improvement in the UPDRS and CAPIT scores ipsilateral to the original procedure (p = 0.05). Worsened speech was observed in two cases. In the 12th case, total speech arrest was noted during test stimulation. Speech returned within minutes after stimulation was halted. Lesioning was not performed. These results indicate that bilateral pallidotomy has a narrow therapeutic window. Motor improvement ipsilateral to the first lesion leaves little room for further improvement from the second lesion and the risk of speech deficit is greatly enhanced. Chronic pallidal stimulation contralateral to a previously successful pallidotomy may prove to be a safer alternative for the subset of patients who require bilateral procedures. PMID:15096015

  8. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  9. Bilateral neck paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumoli, N; Cei, M; Pauletti, M; Ferrito, G; Scazzeri, F

    2009-10-01

    Paragangliomas of the head and neck are rare neoplasms presented as cervical mass, generally bilateral, that arise from chemoreceptors located at the carotid bifurcation (carotid body tumors), along the vagus nerve (vagal paragangliomas), and in the jugular fossa and tympanic cavity (jugulotympanic paragangliomas). They are typically asymptomatic at the beginning, highly vascular, slow-growing and compressing the surrounding anatomic structures. Only radical surgery is the curative treatment for paragangliomas. We present a case of a 62- year-old woman with a diagnosis of bilateral neck paragangliomas where surgical removal was judged burdened by excessive risk because of the size of the tumor. PMID:19622673

  10. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay; Aditya Pratap; Chetan; Ramesh; Rajlaxmi Jaysing

    2014-01-01

    : Immature teratoma (IMT) is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fac...

  11. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : Immature teratoma (IMT is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fact that the patient age is below the average for the occurrence of these tumors.

  12. Bilateral akillesseneruptur hos nyretransplanterede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B F; Nimb, L;

    1996-01-01

    Increased incidence of tendinitis and tendon ruptures is reported in recipients of a kidney transplant. Two cases of bilateral achilles tendon rupture after minimal trauma are described. Tendon ruptures are more frequent in individuals with kidney disease in dialysis or after transplantation comp...

  13. Bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal, Wilczynski; Olena, Wilczynska; Wojciech, Omulecki

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and severe intraocular infection which can be vision-threatening. We describe a case of bilateral fungal endogenous endophthalmitis in a 64-year-old male which was successfully treated with systemic administration of fluconazole followed by pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreous injection of amphotericin B.

  14. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    ) surgery. The overall retreatment rate was 21.6% (57 of 264 patients). Cases treated with unilateral surgery had twice the risk of retreatment compared with cases undergoing bilateral surgery (28.7% vs 14.1%, respectively, p = 0.002). In accordance with previous studies, the data also showed that a...

  15. Bilateral lunate intraosseous ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intraosseous ganglion is a relatively uncommon, benign, cyst-like lesion that occurs in young and middle-aged adults. Most commonly seen adjacent to the hip, ankle, knee, or wrist, they are histologically identical to their soft tissue counterparts. A review of the literature revealed only two previously reported examples of bilateral symmetrical ganglia of the lunate bones. (orig.)

  16. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  17. Deficits in memory and visuospatial learning correlate with regional hippocampal atrophy in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Giulia; Rocca, Maria A; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has a critical role in episodic memory and visuospatial learning and consolidation. We assessed the patterns of whole and regional hippocampal atrophy in a large group of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and their correlations with neuropsychological impairment. From 103 MS patients and 28 healthy controls (HC), brain dual-echo and high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired using a 3.0-Tesla scanner. All patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment of hippocampal-related cognitive functions, including Paired Associate Word Learning, Short Story, delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and Paced Auditory Serial Attention tests. The hippocampi were manually segmented and volumes derived. Regional atrophy distribution was assessed using a radial mapping analysis. Correlations between hippocampal atrophy and clinical, neuropsychological and MRI metrics were also evaluated. Hippocampal volume was reduced in MS patients vs HC (p < 0.001 for both right and hippocampus). In MS patients, radial atrophy affected CA1 subfield and subiculum of posterior hippocampus, bilaterally. The dentate hilus (DG:H) of the right hippocampal head was also affected. Regional hippocampal atrophy correlated with brain T2 and T1 lesion volumes, while no correlation was found with disability. Damage to the CA1 and subiculum was significantly correlated to the performances at hippocampal-targeted neuropsychological tests. These results show that hippocampal subregions have a different vulnerability to MS-related damage, with a relative sparing of the head of the left hippocampus. The assessment of regional hippocampal atrophy may help explain deficits of specific cognitive functions in MS patients, including memory and visuospatial abilities. PMID:24189776

  18. Bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular dirofilariasis mostly presents as a subconjunctival or eyelid lesion. [1] Intraocular dirofilarial infestation is rare. [2],[3] We report a case of a young woman who was accidentally detected to have a live motile worm in the anterior segment in one eye and a cystic lesion on the optic disc in the other eye. To our knowledge, bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis has never been reported.

  19. Bilateral ocular osseous choristomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeung Hee; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Eun Joo; Park, Sang Joon; Seo, Young Lan [Hallym University, Department of Radiology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Byoung Jin [Hallym University, Department of Ophthalmology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-11-01

    Choristoma is a benign tumour defined as normal tissue in an ectopic location. Osseous choristoma, one subtype of this entity, occurring within the orbit has rarely been reported in the world literature. We report a 6-year-old girl with bilateral ocular osseous choristomas who presented with palpable nodules protruding from both upper lids. The radiological and clinical findings are described and previous reports are reviewed. (orig.)

  20. Bilateral Integrative Medicine, Obviously

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Simon J.; Stumpf, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Unstated and unacknowledged bias has a profound impact on the nature and implementation of integrative education models. Integrative education is the process of training conventional biomedical and traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in each tradition such that patient care may be effectively coordinated. A bilateral education model ensures that students in each tradition are cross-taught by experts from the ‘other’ tradition, imparting knowledge and values in unison. Acculturation is ...

  1. Bilateral lunate intraosseous ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablos, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Seville (Spain); Valdes, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Cemedi, Seville (Spain); Gavilan, F. [Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Seville (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    An intraosseous ganglion is a relatively uncommon, benign, cyst-like lesion that occurs in young and middle-aged adults. Most commonly seen adjacent to the hip, ankle, knee, or wrist, they are histologically identical to their soft tissue counterparts. A review of the literature revealed only two previously reported examples of bilateral symmetrical ganglia of the lunate bones. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  2. Compressive Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kenjiro; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient constant-time bilateral filter that produces a near-optimal performance tradeoff between approximate accuracy and computational complexity without any complicated parameter adjustment, called a compressive bilateral filter (CBLF). The constant-time means that the computational complexity is independent of its filter window size. Although many existing constant-time bilateral filters have been proposed step-by-step to pursue a more efficient performance tradeoff, they have less focused on the optimal tradeoff for their own frameworks. It is important to discuss this question, because it can reveal whether or not a constant-time algorithm still has plenty room for improvements of performance tradeoff. This paper tackles the question from a viewpoint of compressibility and highlights the fact that state-of-the-art algorithms have not yet touched the optimal tradeoff. The CBLF achieves a near-optimal performance tradeoff by two key ideas: 1) an approximate Gaussian range kernel through Fourier analysis and 2) a period length optimization. Experiments demonstrate that the CBLF significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of approximate accuracy, computational complexity, and usability. PMID:26068315

  3. Developmental amnesia and its relationship to degree of hippocampal atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, E. B.; Vargha-Khadem, F.; Watkins, K. E.; Lucas, A.; Mishkin, M.; Gadian, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents, one born preterm and one with a diagnosis of developmental amnesia, were compared with age-matched normal controls on measures of hippocampal volume and memory function. Relative to control values, the preterm group values showed a mean bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume of 8–9% (ranging to 23%), whereas the developmental amnesic group values showed a reduction of 40% (ranging from 27% to 56%). Despite equivalent IQ and immediate memory scores in the two study groups, there were marked differences between them on a wide variety of verbal and visual delayed memory tasks. Consistent with their diagnosis, the developmental amnesic group was impaired relative to both other groups on nearly all delayed memory measures. The preterm group, by contrast, was significantly impaired relative to the controls on only a few memory measures, i.e., route following and prospective memory. We suggest that early hippocampal pathology leads to the disabling memory impairments associated with developmental amnesia when the volume of this structure is reduced below normal by ≈20–30% on each side. Whether this is a sufficient condition for the disorder or whether abnormality in other brain regions is also necessary remains to be determined. PMID:14555756

  4. Ketamine administration reduces amygdalo-hippocampal reactivity to emotional stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Milan; Henning, Anke; Walter, Martin; Lehmann, Mick; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Grimm, Simone

    2016-05-01

    Increased amygdala reactivity might lead to negative bias during emotional processing that can be reversed by antidepressant drug treatment. However, little is known on how N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism with ketamine as a novel antidepressant drug target might modulate amygdala reactivity to emotional stimulation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI), we assessed amygdalo-hippocampal reactivity at baseline and during pharmacological stimulation with ketamine (intravenous bolus of 0.12 mg/kg, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25 mg/kg/h) in 23 healthy subjects that were presented with stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). We found that ketamine reduced neural reactivity in the bilateral amygdalo-hippocampal complex during emotional stimulation. Reduced amygdala reactivity to negative pictures was correlated to resting-state connectivity to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. Interestingly, subjects experienced intensity of psychedelic alterations of consciousness during ketamine infusion predicted the reduction in neural responsivity to negative but not to positive or neutral stimuli. Our findings suggest that the pharmacological modulation of glutamate-responsive cerebral circuits, which is associated with a shift in emotional bias and a reduction of amygdalo-hippocampal reactivity to emotional stimuli, represents an early biomechanism to restore parts of the disrupted neurobehavioral homeostasis in MDD patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1941-1952, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26915535

  5. Bilateral Testicular Epidermoid Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Loberant; Shweta Bhatt; Edward Messing; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Testicular epidermoid cysts are the most common benign tumors of the testes, but account for only 1-2% of all testicular tumors. In a young man presenting with a testicular mass, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for the malignant testicular germ cell tumor, which is 50-times more common than testicular epidermoid cyst. Bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts are a very rare condition, with only a few reports in the literature. It is extremely important in this condition to make a co...

  6. Profile of hippocampal volumes and stroke risk varies by neuropsychological definition of mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, Amy J.; URBAN, STEPHANIE; McCAULEY, ASHLEY; Bangen, Katherine J.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bondi, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Wide-ranging conceptual and diagnostic approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have led to highly variable prevalence and progression rates. We sought to examine whether bilateral hippocampal volumes and cerebrovascular risk factors in individuals characterized by two different neuropsychological definitions of MCI subtypes would also differ. Participants were 65 nondemented, community-dwelling, older adults, ages 62–91 years, drawn from a larger group of individuals enrolled i...

  7. Hippocampal histone acetylation regulates object recognition and the estradiol-induced enhancement of object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zaorui; Fan, Lu; Fortress, Ashley M.; Boulware, Marissa I.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetylation has recently been implicated in learning and memory processes, yet necessity of histone acetylation for such processes has not been demonstrated using pharmacological inhibitors of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As such, the present study tested whether garcinol, a potent HAT inhibitor in vitro, could impair hippocampal memory consolidation and block the memory-enhancing effects of the modulatory hormone 17β-estradiol (E2). We first showed that bilateral infusion of ga...

  8. Basolateral amygdala noradrenergic influence enables enhancement of memory consolidation induced by hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor activation

    OpenAIRE

    Roozendaal, Benno; Nguyen, Bichngoc T.; Power, Ann E.; McGaugh, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we reported that bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) block the enhancing effects of posttraining systemic or intrahippocampal glucocorticoid administration on memory for inhibitory avoidance training. The present study further examined the basis of this permissive influence of the BLA on hippocampal memory functioning. Immediate posttraining unilateral infusions of the specific glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU 28362 (11β,17β-dihydroxy-6...

  9. Usefulness of single voxel proton MR spectroscopy in the evaluation of hippocampal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our study was to determine the ability of H-1 MR spectroscopy (MRS) to lateralize the lesion in patients with hippocampal scleros is. Twenty healthy volunteers and 25 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy whose MR imaging diagnosis was unilateral hippocampal sclerosis were included. This diagnosis was based on the presence of unilateral atrophy and/or high T2 signal intensity of the hippocampus. Singlevoxel H-1 MRS was carried out on a 1.5-T unit using PRESS sequence (TE, 136 msec). Spectra were obtained from hippocampal areas bilaterally with volumes of interest (VOIs) of 6.0 cm3 and 2.25 cm3 in healthy volunteers, and of either 6.0 c m3 (n = 14) or 2.25 cm3 (n = 11) in patients. Metabolite ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were calculated from relative peak height measurements. The capability of MRS to lateralize the lesion and to detect bilateral abnormalities was compared with MR imaging diagnosis as a standard of reference. In healthy volunteers, NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios were greater than 0.8 and 1.0, respectively. In patients, the mean values of these ratios were significantly lower on the lesion side than on the contralateral side, and lower than those of healthy volunteers (p 3 than of 2.25 cm3 (64% versus 82%, p <.05). Bilateral abnormalities on MRS were found in 24% (6/25) of cases. Although its rate of correct lateralization is low, single-voxel H-1 MRS is a useful and promising diagnostic tool in the evaluation of hippocampal sclerosis, particularly for the detection of bilateral abnormalities. To improve the diagnostic accuracy of H-1 MRS, further investigation, including the use of a smaller VOI and measurement of the absolute amount of metabolites, are needed

  10. Hippocampal volume and functional connectivity changes during the female menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisofsky, Nina; Mårtensson, Johan; Eckert, Anne; Lindenberger, Ulman; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-09-01

    Hippocampal volume has been shown to be sensitive to variations in estrogen and progesterone levels across rodents' estrous cycle. However, little is known about the covariation of hormone levels and brain structure in the course of the human menstrual cycle. Here, we examine this covariation with a multi-method approach that includes several brain imaging methods and hormonal assessments. We acquired structural and functional scans from 21 naturally cycling women on four time points during their cycles (early follicular phase, late follicular phase, ovulation and luteal phase). Hormone blood concentrations and cognitive performance in different domains were assessed on each of the measurement occasions. Structural MRI images were processed by means of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry and FreeSurfer. With either method, bilateral increases in hippocampal volume were found in the late follicular phase relative to the early follicular phase. The gray matter probability in regions of hippocampal volume increase was associated with lower mean diffusivity in the same region. In addition, we observed higher functional connectivity between the hippocampi and the bilateral superior parietal lobe in the late follicular phase. We did not find any reliable cycle-related performance variations on the cognitive tasks. The present results show that hormonal fluctuations covary with hippocampal structure and function in the course of the human menstrual cycle. PMID:26057590

  11. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1......] and the class of multivariate matrix-exponential distributions of [9]. We prove a characterization theorem stating that a random variable has a bilateral multivariate distribution if and only if all linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate bilateral matrix-exponential distribution. As...... an application we demonstrate that certain multivariate disions, which are governed by the underlying Markov jump process generating a phasetype distribution, have a bilateral matrix-exponential distribution at the time of absorption, see also [4]....

  12. Achondroplasia Associated with Bilateral Keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Samar A. Al-Swailem; Al Bin Ali, Ghada Y.; Al Katan, Hind M.; Al Mahmood, Ammar M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral keratoconus in association with achondroplasia. A 26-year-old male, with a known case of achondroplasia, complained of bilateral gradual deterioration in vision for the past few years. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed bilateral central corneal protrusion and stromal thinning at the apex consistent with keratoconus. a trial of hard contact lens fitting failed to improve VA in the left eye (LE). Right eye (RE) improved to 20/25. The patient underwent penetrating...

  13. Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2 sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3 resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

  14. Hypersensitivity of the hippocampal CA3 region to stress-induced neurodegeneration and amyloidogenesis in a rat model of surgical menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quan-guang; Wang, Rui-Min; Scott, Erin; Han, Dong; Dong, Yan; Tu, Jing-yi; Yang, Fang; Reddy Sareddy, Gangadhara; Ratna K. Vadlamudi; Brann, Darrell W.

    2013-01-01

    Females who enter menopause prematurely via bilateral ovariectomy (surgical menopause) have a significantly increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. To help elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we used an animal model of surgical menopause, long-term (10-week) bilateral ovariectomy in female rats. Herein, we demonstrate that long-term oestrogen deprivation dramatically increases sensitivity of the normally resistant hippocampal CA3 region to ischaemic stress, an effe...

  15. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  16. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  17. Isolated bilateral ectopic microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Godefroy Koki2, Emilienne Epée2, Didier Owono2, Lucienne Bella Asumpta2, Côme Ebana Mvogo21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Douala Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé CameroonSummary: An eight-year-old school girl presented to us with a bilateral ectopic microspherophakia. She was surgically managed in the ophthalmology unit of the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaoundé in Cameroon. The postoperative follow up was uneventful, and the patient returned to school with a best corrected visual acuity of 4/10 in both eyes to the great satisfaction of her parents.Keywords: ectopic, microspherophakia, surgery

  18. Optical features of Ca4NdO(BO3)3:Yb single crystals under CW laser illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical treatment of Ca4NdO(BO3)3:Yb under continuous laser illumination at different wavelengths led to substantial changes of optical absorption and optical second harmonic generation. The treatment was performed successively by infrared (780 nm), red (650 nm), green (532 nm) and blue (405 nm) laser wavelengths with powers varying within the 200-400 mW range. We demonstrated enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation in the Ca4NdO(BO3)3:Yb (1.9% in weighting unit) crystals under the influence of the green cw laser at 532 nm. The principal changes were observed after 15 min of the treatment. A correlation between the occurrence of the hyperfine structure in the absorption spectra and the enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation was found. The additional treatment by the blue laser led to disappearance of appeared photo-induced changes of absorption and decrease of the optical second harmonic generation. It is principal that the effect is non-reversible in time and it does not depend on the photo-inducing light polarization. The principal origin of the observed photo-induced optical second harmonic generation is photo-polarization of the particular rare earth localized levels and formation of the stable polarized states due to the presence of Yb ions, playing crucial role. No such effects were observed in pure Ca4NdO(BO3)3.

  19. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Fotedar Sanjay; Chaudhary Dhruva; Singhla Vikas; Narang Rajat

    2010-01-01

    Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  20. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  1. Differential effect of age on posterior and anterior hippocampal functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damoiseaux, Jessica S; Viviano, Raymond P; Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with declines in cognitive performance and multiple changes in the brain, including reduced default mode functional connectivity (FC). However, conflicting results have been reported regarding age differences in FC between hippocampal and default mode regions. This discrepancy may stem from the variation in selection of hippocampal regions. We therefore examined the effect of age on resting state FC of anterior and posterior hippocampal regions in an adult life-span sample. Advanced age was associated with lower FC between the posterior hippocampus and three regions: the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. In addition, age-related reductions of FC between the left and right posterior hippocampus, and bilaterally along the posterior to anterior hippocampal axis were noted. Age differences in medial prefrontal and inter-hemispheric FC significantly differed between anterior and posterior hippocampus. Older age was associated with lower performance in all cognitive domains, but we observed no associations between FC and cognitive performance after controlling for age. We observed a significant effect of gender and a linear effect of COMT val158met polymorphism on hippocampal FC. Females showed higher FC of anterior and posterior hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex than males, and the dose of val allele was associated with lower posterior hippocampus - posterior cingulate FC, independent of age. Vascular and metabolic factors showed no significant effects on FC. These results suggest differential age-related reduction in the posterior hippocampal FC compared to the anterior hippocampus, and an age-independent effect of gender and COMT on hippocampal FC. PMID:27034025

  2. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originati...... with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery....... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting...

  3. Comparison of Hippocampal Volume in Dementia Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims. To examine the relationship between different types of dementia and hippocampal volume. Methods. Hippocampal volume was measured using FL3D sequence magnetic resonance imaging in 26 Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and 15 healthy controls and also hippocampal ratio, analyzed. Minimental scale was used to stratify patients on cognitive function impairments. Results. Hippocampal volume and ratio was reduced by 25% in Alzheimer's disease, 21% in mixed dementia, 11% in vascular dementia and 5% in normal pressure hydrocephalus in comparison to control. Also an asymmetrical decrease in volume of left hippocampus was noted. The severity of dementia increased in accordance to decreasing hippocampal volume. Conclusion. Measurement in hippocampal volume may facilitate in differentiating different types of dementia and in disease progression. There was a correlation between hippocampal volume and severity of cognitive impairment

  4. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  5. Bilateral support programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Russian Federation, serious consideration is being given to the safety of nuclear facilities and to security of nuclear material. One important factor in ensuring security of nuclear material and facilities is physical protection. The Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation is making great efforts to improve physical protection of nuclear facilities. Some of the measures which are being implemented to improve physical protection are being carried out in the framework of international co-operation in this field. To date, the Russian Federation has established bilateral co-operation with the United States of America, Germany, Belgium, France and Finland, and has studied and taken account of the experience of foreign countries in the field of physical protection and nuclear material accounting and control. At present, over 20 enterprises of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation representing all the main branches of the nuclear activities of the Ministry are involved in international co-operation on physical protection and nuclear material accounting and control. The main branches of this co-operation are as follows: Scientific and technical co-operation; production of a conceptual design to improve physical protection systems directly at nuclear risk facilities; swift improvement of physical protection (without developing design documentation for the nuclear risk facility as a whole); reinforcement of physical protection during the transport of nuclear material; and training of staff at nuclear risk facilities. During this work, many facilities were equipped with modern physical protection and with nuclear material accounting and control equipment. The Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation is pleased with the results of this international co-operation and feels that it should continue. (author)

  6. Bilateral internal laryngoceles mimicking asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Elif A; Elsürer, Cağdaş; Serin, Gediz M; Unal, O Faruk

    2013-05-01

    Laryngocele is an air-filled, abnormal dilation of the laryngeal saccule that extends upward within the false vocal fold, in communication with the laryngeal lumen. A case of 43-year-old male with bilateral internal laryngoceles, who has been treated as asthma for 4 years, is presented. The patient had dyspnea, cough, and excessive phlegm for a month and a late onset stridor. Flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy showed bilateral cystic enlargements of the false vocal folds and true vocal folds could not be visualized. Laryngeal CT without contrast enhancement showed bilateral internal laryngoceles. Submucosal total excision of bilateral cystic masses including parts of false vocal folds was performed. The symptoms resolved immediately after surgery. Although the incidence of internal laryngocele is rare, it should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of upper airway problems and diagnostic flexible nasopharnygolaryngoscopy is routinely indicated for airway evaluation in at-risk patients. PMID:24174956

  7. Bilateral internal laryngoceles mimicking asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif A Aksoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngocele is an air-filled, abnormal dilation of the laryngeal saccule that extends upward within the false vocal fold, in communication with the laryngeal lumen. A case of 43-year-old male with bilateral internal laryngoceles, who has been treated as asthma for 4 years, is presented. The patient had dyspnea, cough, and excessive phlegm for a month and a late onset stridor. Flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy showed bilateral cystic enlargements of the false vocal folds and true vocal folds could not be visualized. Laryngeal CT without contrast enhancement showed bilateral internal laryngoceles. Submucosal total excision of bilateral cystic masses including parts of false vocal folds was performed. The symptoms resolved immediately after surgery. Although the incidence of internal laryngocele is rare, it should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of upper airway problems and diagnostic flexible nasopharnygolaryngoscopy is routinely indicated for airway evaluation in at-risk patients.

  8. Bilateral Polydactyly in a foal

    OpenAIRE

    Carstanjen, Bianca; Abitbol, Marie; Desbois, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The following case report describes the diagnosis and surgery of bilateral polydactyly of unknown origin in a colt. A 7-month-old Berber colt was referred for cosmetic and curative excision of supernumerary digits. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral polydactyly and well-developed first carpal bones. Surgery consisted of an osteotomy of both second metacarpal bones combined with an amputation of the supernumerary digits. The follow-up at 18 months after surgery revealed a sound horse ...

  9. Bilateral Symmetrical Parietal Extradural Hematoma

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of bilateral extradural hematomas (EDH) is an uncommon consequence of craniocerebral trauma, and acute symmetrical bilateral epidural hematomas are extremely rare. We discuss the technique adopted by us for the management of this rare entity. A 55-year-old patient presented with history of fall of branch of tree on her head. She had loss of consciousness since then and had multiple episodes of vomiting. Examination of the scalp was suggestive of diffuse subgaleal hematoma. Her ...

  10. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Arun; Nandini R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the li...

  11. Preserved semantic access in global amnesia and hippocampal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, A R; Erbetta, A; Bugiani, O

    2001-12-01

    C.B., a right-handed 33-year-old man, presented with anterograde amnesia after acute heart block. Cognitive abilities were normal except for serious impairment of long-term episodic memory. The access to semantic information was fully preserved. Magnetic resonance showed high signal intensity and marked volume loss in the hippocampus bilaterally; the left and right parahippocampal gyrus, lateral occipito-temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and lateral temporal cortex were normal. This case underlines that global amnesia associated with hippocampal damage does not affect semantic memory. Although the hippocampus is important in retrieving context-linked information, its role is not so crucial in retrieving semantic contents. Cortical areas surrounding the hippocampus and lateral temporal areas might guide the recall of semantic information. PMID:11935452

  12. Simultaneous Bilateral Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Bilateral Retinoblastoma (Tandem Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David H.; Marr, Brian P.; Francis, Jasmine H.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Fabius, Armida W. M.; Brodie, Scott E.; Mondesire-Crump, Ijah; Gobin, Y. Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective Report on the 7-year experience with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC-Tandem therapy) for bilateral retinoblastoma. Design Retrospective, single institution study. Subjects 120 eyes of 60 children with bilateral retinoblastoma treated since March 2008. Methods Retrospective review of all children treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (Melphalan, Carboplatin, Topotecan, Methotrexate) delivered in the same initial session to both naïve and previously treated eyes. Main Outcome Measures Ocular survival, metastatic disease, patient survival from metastases, second cancers, systemic adverse effects, need for transfusion of blood products, electroretinogram before and after treatment. Results 116 eyes were salvaged (4 eyes were enucleated: 3 because of progressive disease, 1 family choice). Kaplan Meier ocular survival was 99.2% at one year, 96.9% at 2 and 3 years and 94.9% for years 4 through 7. There were no cases of metastatic disease or metastatic deaths with a mean follow-up of 3.01 years. Two children developed second cancers (both pineoblastoma) and one of them died. Transfusion of blood products was required in 3 cases (4 transfusions), 1.9%. Two children developed fever/neutropenia requiring hospitalization (0.95%). ERGs were improved in 21.6% and unchanged after treatment in 52.5% of cases (increase or decrease of less than 25μV). Conclusions Bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery is a safe and effective technique for managing bilateral retinoblastoma-even when eyes are advanced bilaterally, and if both eyes have progressed after systemic chemotherapy. Ocular survival was excellent (94.9% at 8 years), there were no cases of of metastatic disease and no deaths from metastatic disease, but children remain at risk for second cancers. In 21.6% of cases ERG function improved. Despite using chemotherapy in both eyes in the same session, systemic toxicity was low. PMID:27258771

  13. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, J. Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E.; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á.; Olvera-Cortés, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  14. Analysis of parahippocampal gyrus in 115 patients with hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Nelson Fortes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Analysis of the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG involvement in 115 patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS by MR imaging. The simultaneous occurrence of ipsilateral fornix (F and mamillary body (MB volume loss was checked also. These findings were correlated with the side of hippocampal involvement, the sex, patient´s age, and the symptoms onset. METHOD: The MR images of 115 patients with HS were studied retrospectively. All the examinations were performed on 1.5 T units (SIGNA, GE, Milwaukee, WI and included high resolution coronal T2-weighted images (3 mm thickness, 0.6 mm gap. RESULTS: The patient's age ranged between 3.5 and 80 years (mean 34.1; 62 (53.9% were female and 53 (46.1% were male. There were HS on the left side in 53 (46.0%, on the right side in 51 (44.3%, and bilateral in 11 (9.7%. In 43 (37.3% cases there were ipsilateral PHG volume loss and signal hyper intensity on T2-weighted imaging. In 29 (25.2% cases there were ipsilateral fornix volume loss and in 10 (34.5% of this there were also ipsilateral MB changes. In abnormal PHG, 23 (53.4% were on the left side, 17 (39.5% were on the right side, and 3 (7.1% were bilateral. There were fornix changes in 15 (34.8% cases and MB volume loss in 5 (11.6% cases. Pertinent clinical data were obtained in only 18 (41.8% of the PHG lesion cases and 11 (61.1% of these patients had epileptic attacks for more than 20 years before the examination. CONCLUSION: PHG involvement must be investigated in patients with HS and we suggest that the term mesial temporal sclerosis should be used only if there are also changes at this anatomical site.

  15. Hippocampal, parahippocampal and occipital-temporal contributions to associative and item recognition memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonelinas, A P; Hopfinger, J B; Buonocore, M H; Kroll, N E; Baynes, K

    2001-02-12

    The temporal lobe regions involved in memory retrieval were examined using fMRI. During an associative recognition test, participants made memory judgments about the study color of previously presented drawings of objects, and during item recognition tests they made old/new judgments about previously studied objects or new objects. Associative recognition compared with old item recognition led to activations in bilateral hippocampal and parahippocampal regions, as well as in the left middle occipital gyrus. Old item recognition compared with new item recognition led to activation in the left middle occipital gyrus and the left middle temporal gyrus, and relative deactivations in bilateral hippocampal regions. The results indicate that partially distinct temporal lobe regions are involved during recognition memory for item and associative information. PMID:11209950

  16. Hippocampal Sclerosis in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Findings at 7 T

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Thomas R.; Chupin, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Strupp, John P.; Sikora, Michael A.; Sha, Zhiyi Y.; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François

    2011-01-01

    Use of 7-T MR imaging might enable us to fully define a wide range of macroscopically visible findings in patients with hippocampal sclerosis, including atrophy of hippocampal subregions and deformities of the hippocampal head and body.

  17. Hippocampal specialization of food-storing birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, J R; Sherry, D F; Healy, S D; Perry, V.H.; Vaccarino, A L

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 52 individuals belonging to 35 species or subspecies of passerine birds it was shown that the volume of the hippocampal complex relative to brain and body size is significantly larger in species that store food than in species that do not. Retrieval of stored food relies on an accurate and long-lasting spatial memory, and hippocampal damage disrupts memory for storage sites. The results suggest, therefore, that food-storing species of passerines have an enlarged hippocampal comp...

  18. Hippocampal GABA transporter distribution in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, O.; Karaca, U.; Andrade, P.; Nijs, L. de; Kusters, B.; Peeters, A.; Dings, J.; Pannek, H.; Ebner, A.; Rijkers, K.; Hoogland, G.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal expression of neuronal GABA-transporter (GAT-1) and glial GABA-transporter (GAT-3) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: Hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for GABA-transporter 1 and GABA-transpor

  19. A REVIEW AND UPDATE OF THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE VASCULATURE DISABLING AGENT COMBRETASTATIN-A4 PHOSPHATE (CA4P)

    OpenAIRE

    Siemann, Dietmar W; Chaplin, David J.; Walicke, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular disrupting strategies impair a tumor’s blood vessel network which is essential for tumor progression and metastasis. Vascular disrupting agents cause a rapid and selective vascular shutdown in tumors to produce extensive secondary neoplastic cell death due to ischemia. A lead agent in this therapeutic strategy is the tubulin depolymerizing agent combretastatin-A4 phosphate (CA4P). Used alone CA4P induces extensive necrosis in a wide variety of preclinical cancer models and significan...

  20. Modelling the magnetic activity & filtering radial velocity curves of young Suns: the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 4

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, J -F; Hussain, G; Moutou, C; Grankin, K; Boisse, I; Morin, J; Gregory, S G; Vidotto, A A; Bouvier, J; Alencar, S H P; Delfosse, X; Doyon, R; Takami, M; Jardine, M M; Fares, R; Cameron, A C; Menard, F; Dougados, C; Herczeg, G

    2014-01-01

    We report results of a spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa4 within the MaTYSSE programme, involving ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Despite an age of only 2Myr and a similarity with prototypical classical T Tauri stars, LkCa4 shows no evidence for accretion and probes an interesting transition stage for star and planet formation. Large profile distortions and Zeeman signatures are detected in the unpolarized and circularly-polarized lines of LkCa4 using Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD), indicating the presence of brightness inhomogeneities and magnetic fields at the surface of LkCa4. Using tomographic imaging, we reconstruct brightness and magnetic maps of LkCa4 from sets of unpolarized and circularly-polarized LSD profiles. The large-scale field is strong and mainly axisymmetric, featuring a ~2kG poloidal component and a ~1kG toroidal component encircling the star at equatorial latitudes - the latter making LkCa4 markedly different from classical...

  1. Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

  2. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  3. Habitat-Specific Shaping of Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis of Wild Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eCavegn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Daily life of wild mammals is characterized by a multitude of attractive and aversive stimuli. The hippocampus processes complex polymodal information associated with such stimuli and mediates adequate behavioral responses. How newly generated hippocampal neurons in wild animals contribute to hippocampal function is still a subject of debate. Here, we test the relationship between adult hippocampal neurogenesis and habitat types. To this end, we compare wild Muridae species of southern Africa (Namaqua rock mouse (Micaelamys namaquensis, red veld rat (Aethomys chrysophilus, highveld gerbil (Tatera brantsii and spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus with data from wild European Muridae (long-tailed wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, pygmy field mice (Apodemus microps, yellow-necked wood mice (Apodemus flavicollis, and house mice (Mus musculus domesticus from previous studies. The pattern of neurogenesis, expressed in normalized numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells to total granule cells, is similar for the species from a southern African habitat. However, we found low proliferation, but high neuronal differentiation in rodents from the southern African habitat compared to rodents from the European environment. Within the African rodents, we observe additional regulatory and morphological traits in the hippocampus. Namaqua rock mice with previous pregnancies showed lower adult hippocampal neurogenesis compared to males and nulliparous females. The phylogenetically closely related species (Namaqua rock mouse and red veld rat show a CA4, which is not usually observed in murine rodents. The specific features of the southern environment that may be associated with the high number of young neurons in African rodents still remain to be elucidated. This study provides the first evidence that a habitat can shape adult neurogenesis in rodents across phylogenetic groups.

  4. Concomitant bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign germ tumor, comprising 1-2% of all resected benign testicular masses. Approximately 300 cases have been reported to date. Unilateral involvement has often been reported in the English literature. However, bilateral occurrence is very rare and to the best of our knowledge, there only 3 previous reports of bilateral testicular epidermoid cysts. The fact that they are completely benign makes them amenable to treatment by local excision, thereby saving patient from orchidectomy. Recognition of their characteristic ulatrsonographic features is very important to avoid unnecessary intervention. We present here, a case of bilateral epidermoid cyst in which characteristic ultrasound (US) findings allowed testis-sparing enucleation instead of radical orchiectomy. (author)

  5. Rare-Earth Calcium Oxyborate Piezoelectric Crystals ReCa4O(BO33: Growth and Piezoelectric Characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapeng Yu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth calcium oxyborate crystals, ReCa4O(BO33 (ReCOB, Re = Er, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd, Pr, and La , are potential piezoelectric materials for ultrahigh temperature sensor applications, due to their high electrical resistivity at elevated temperature, high piezoelectric sensitivity and temperature stability. In this paper, different techniques for ReCOB single-crystal growth are introduced, including the Bridgman and Czochralski pulling methods. Crystal orientations and the relationships between the crystallographic and physical axes of the monoclinic ReCOB crystals are discussed. The procedures for dielectric, elastic, electromechanical and piezoelectric property characterization, taking advantage of the impedance method, are presented. In addition, the maximum piezoelectric coefficients for different piezoelectric vibration modes are explored, and the optimized crystal cuts free of piezoelectric cross-talk are obtained by rotation calculations.

  6. Muon spin rotation study of magnetism in multilayer HgBa2Ca4Cu5Oy superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero- and longitudinal-field muon-spin rotation (ZF-μSR and LF-μSR) measurements were carried out on a multi-layered HgBa2Ca4Cu5Oy (Hg-1245) superconductor with Tc of 108 K. With decreasing temperature, the observed ZF-μSR function changed from a Gaussian-type to an exponential-type below 60 K and zero field muon precession was also observed below 45 K. These μSR signals are attributed to the development of the antiferromagnetic ordering in inner CuO2 planes with a low carrier concentration. These results seem to indicate clear evidence that antiferromagnetism microscopically coexists with superconductivity in the Hg-1245 superconductor below 60 K

  7. High-frequency electroacupuncture evidently reinforces hippocampal synaptic transmission in Alzheimer's disease rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Kong, Li-hong; Wang, Hui; Shen, Feng; Wang, Ya-wen; Zhou, Hua; Sun, Guo-jie

    2016-01-01

    The frequency range of electroacupuncture in treatment of Alzheimer's disease in rats is commonly 2–5 Hz (low frequency) and 50–100 Hz (high frequency). We established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by injecting β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42) into the bilateral hippocampal dentate gyrus to verify which frequency may be better suited in treatment. Electroacupuncture at 2 Hz or 50 Hz was used to stimulate Baihui (DU20) and Shenshu (BL23) acupoints. The water maze test and electrophysiological studies demonstrated that spatial memory ability was apparently improved, and the ranges of long-term potentiation and long-term depression were increased in Alzheimer's disease rats after electroacupuncture treatment. Moreover, the effects of electroacupuncture at 50 Hz were better than that at 2 Hz. These findings suggest that high-frequency electroacupuncture may enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and potentially improve memory disorders in Alzheimer's disease rats. PMID:27335565

  8. Hippocampal volume predicts fluid intelligence in musically trained people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Descloux, Céline; Croquelois, Alexandre; Chanal, Julien; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; James, Clara E

    2013-07-01

    Recently, age-related hippocampal (HP) volume loss could be associated with a decrease in general fluid intelligence (gF). In the present study we investigated whether and how extensive musical training modulates human HP volume and gF performance. Previously, some studies demonstrated positive effects of musical training on higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory, associated with neural adaptations beyond the auditory domain. In order to detect possible associations between musical training and gF, we bilaterally segmented the HP formation and assessed the individual gF performance of people with different levels of musical expertise. Multiple regression analyses revealed that HP volume predicts gF in musicians but not in nonmusicians; in particular, bilaterally enhanced HP volume is associated with increased gF exclusively in musically trained people (amateurs and experts). This result suggests that musical training facilitates the recruitment of cognitive resources, which are essential for gF and linked to HP functioning. Musical training, even at a moderate level of intensity, can thus be considered as a potential strategy to decelerate age-related effects of cognitive decline. PMID:23519979

  9. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  10. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden); Wang, Chen [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  11. Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Padrón-Pérez N; Aronés JR; Muñoz S; Arias-Barquet L; Arruga J

    2014-01-01

    Noel Padrón-Pérez,1 Janny Rosario Aronés,2 Silvia Muñoz,1 Luis Arias-Barquet,1 Jorge Arruga1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 2Hospital de l'Esperança – Parc de Salut Mar, 3Institut Català de Retina, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic...

  12. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, G. N.; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of...

  13. Epigenetics, estradiol, and hippocampal memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations of histone proteins and DNA are essential for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function, and contribute to the etiology of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hippocampal memory formation depends on histone alterations and DNA methylation, and increasing evidence suggests that regulation of these epigenetic processes by modulatory factors such as environmental enrichment, stress, and hormones substantially influences memory function. Recen...

  14. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA

  15. Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer (PSBBC is a rare clinical entity. The reported incidence ranges between 0.3% and 12%. There are several controversial issues regarding PSBBC pertaining to the diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, and management policies. Materials and Methods: Fourteen cases of PSBBC treated between 2001 to 2010 at our institute were retrospectively analysed in regards to demographic data, management and follow up. Results: PSBBC constituted 0.19% of total breast cancer patients at our institute. Age ranged from 28 to 78 years. PSBBC were detected by clinical examination in eight cases and by mammography in six cases. Twelve patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy, one had unilateral mastectomy on one side and breast conservation on the other side and one patient has bilateral breast conservation. Majority of patients belonged to stage 2 and stage 3. All patients were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma. Five cases were ER/PR positive and 8 patients were triple hormone receptor negative. Eight patients received unilateral and six received bilateral adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median follow up of patients was 15.4 months. Conclusion: PSBBC is a rare event warranting awareness and screening of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral breast cancer. These patients require individualized treatment planning based on the tumor factors of the index lesion. Further multi institutional prospective studies are needed for adequate understanding of management of PSBBC.

  16. Changes of evoked potential in different hippocampal regions induced by electrostimulation at medial mamillary nucleus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Li; Lihong Shang; Liang Zhang; Fengzhi Cui

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphological data have shown that the most important afferent fibers of papillary body come from hippocampal structure.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of evoked potential in hippocampus and the significance after electrostimulation at medial mamillary nucleus.DESIGN: An observational control experiment.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Shenyang Medical College.MATERIALS: Twenty-three male or female Wistar rats, 3-4 months old, weighing 270-350 g, were provided by bhe animal room of Shenyang Medical College [the license number was scxk(Liao)2003-0016].METHODS: The Wistar rats were anaesthetized by intraperintoneal injection of 20% urethane (1 g/kg), tracheal intubation was also given. The self-made double-pole metal stimulating electrode with the point diameter of 1 mm was inserted into medial mamillary nucleus, the wanted hippocampal guidance spot was found within the rang of the hippocampal region at the same side of tee mamillary body range (CA1-CA4),inserted with same-core guidance electrode, a sole square-wave stimulation of wave wide 0.2 ms stimulated with electrodes at the applied intensity of 7-9 V, the evoked potential was induced through guidance electrodes, and then input to the ATAC-350 data-processing machine for memory showing wave processing, the memory recorded wave recording graph was separately drawn up by the X-Y recording instrument to observe the latency, time procedure and amplitude of the evoked potential in each hippocampal region of the rats and calculate the percentage of the evoked potential in each hippocampal region, Totally 78 guidance spots in hippocampus were recorded, including 30 positive reaction spots and 48 negative ones.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:① Latency,time procedure and amplitude of the evoked potentials in each hippocampal region of rats;② percentage of the evoked potentials in each hippocampal region;③ the wave shapes of the evoked potentials in each hippocampal region from different arrangement in the

  17. Modelling the magnetic activity and filtering radial velocity curves of young Suns : the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, J.-F.; Hébrard, E.; Hussain, G.; Moutou, C.; Grankin, K.; Boisse, I.; Morin, J.; Gregory, S. G.; Vidotto, A. A.; Bouvier, J.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Delfosse, X.; Doyon, R.; Takami, M.; Jardine, M. M.; Fares, R.; Cameron, A. C.; Ménard, F.; Dougados, C.; Herczeg, G.; Matysse Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We report results of a spectropolarimetric and photometric monitoring of the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 4 within the Magnetic Topologies of Young Stars and the Survival of close-in giant Exoplanets (MaTYSSE) programme, involving ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Despite an age of only 2 Myr and a similarity with prototypical classical T Tauri stars, LkCa 4 shows no evidence for accretion and probes an interesting transition stage for star and planet formation. Large profile distortions and Zeeman signatures are detected in the unpolarized and circularly polarized lines of LkCa 4 using Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD), indicating the presence of brightness inhomogeneities and magnetic fields at the surface of LkCa 4. Using tomographic imaging, we reconstruct brightness and magnetic maps of LkCa 4 from sets of unpolarized and circularly polarized LSD profiles. The large-scale field is strong and mainly axisymmetric, featuring a ≃2 kG poloidal component and a ≃1 kG toroidal component encircling the star at equatorial latitudes - the latter making LkCa 4 markedly different from classical T Tauri stars of similar mass and age. The brightness map includes a dark spot overlapping the magnetic pole and a bright region at mid-latitudes - providing a good match to the contemporaneous photometry. We also find that differential rotation at the surface of LkCa 4 is small, typically ≃5.5 times weaker than that of the Sun, and compatible with solid-body rotation. Using our tomographic modelling, we are able to filter out the activity jitter in the radial velocity curve of LkCa 4 (of full amplitude 4.3 km s-1) down to an rms precision of 0.055 km s-1. Looking for hot Jupiters around young Sun-like stars thus appears feasible, even though we find no evidence for such planets around LkCa 4.

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of hippocampal butyrylcholinesterase: Implications for regional vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Abrahamson, Eric E; Mi, Zhiping; Ikonomovic, Milos D

    2016-04-01

    Studies of acetylcholine degrading enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested their potential role in the development of fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques (amyloid plaques). A recent genome-wide association study analysis identified a novel association between genetic variations in the BCHE locus and amyloid burden. We studied BChE immunoreactivity in hippocampal tissue sections from AD and control cases, and examined its relationship with amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), dystrophic neurites (DN) and neuropil threads (NT). Compared to controls, AD cases had greater BChE immunoreactivity in hippocampal neurons and neuropils in CA2/3, but not in the CA1, CA4 and dentate gyrus. The majority of amyloid plaques (> 80%, using a pan-amyloid marker X-34) contained discrete neuritic clusters which were dual-labeled with antibodies against BChE and phosphorylated tau (clone AT8). There was no association between overall regional BChE immunoreaction intensity and amyloid plaque burden. In contrast to previous reports, BChE was localized in only a fraction (~10%) of classic NFT (positive for X-34). A similar proportion of BChE-immunoreactive pyramidal cells were AT8 immunoreactive. Greater NFT and DN loads were associated with greater BChE immunoreaction intensity in CA2/3, but not in CA1, CA4 and dentate gyrus. Our results demonstrate that in AD hippocampus, BChE accumulates in neurons and plaque-associated neuritic clusters, but only in a small proportion of NFT. The association between greater neurofibrillary pathology burden and markedly increased BChE immunoreactivity, observed selectively in CA2/3 region, could reflect a novel compensatory mechanism. Since CA2/3 is generally considered more resistant to AD pathology, BChE upregulation could impact the cholinergic modulation of glutamate neurotransmission to prevent/reduce neuronal excitotoxicity in AD hippocampus. PMID:26293308

  19. Determination of Gibbs Free Energy of Formation from Elements for Ca4Fe9O17 by Solid-state Galvanic Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Yu; Guo, Xing-Min

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to fill the thermodynamic blank in CaO-FeO-Fe2O3 system, the determination of the Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for ternary Ca4Fe9O17 was carried out using a solid-state galvanic cell with air and calcium zirconate material, respectively, as the reference electrode and electrolyte. The ternary system Ca2Fe2O5-CaFe2O4-Ca4Fe9O17 was selected as the measuring electrode and its equilibrium was confirmed. The essential thermodynamic data of Ca2Fe2O5 and CaFe2O4 were cited from the reassessed data from a previous investigation. The reversible electromotive forces of the cell were determined from 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 was derived and given by: The increment of enthalpy and entropy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 at 298 K (25 °C) are calculated to be and . The Ellingham diagram was developed in temperature range 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The oxygen potential of Ca4Fe9O17 was found to be slightly higher than CaFe2O4 and much higher than Ca2Fe2O5.

  20. Infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, P L; Ansons, A M; Patterson, A.

    1990-01-01

    A case of infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis in a 7-year-old girl is reported. Acute dacryocystitis is uncommon in this age group, and an underlying systemic illness should be suspected particularly when it is bilateral.

  1. Protective roles of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunxu; WANG Hanxing

    2007-01-01

    The effects of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of brain ischemia/reperfusion were explored.The mice were pretreated with heat stress followed by ischemia/reperfusion by clipping bilateral cervical common arteries for 7 min.Mice were divided randomly into four groups as follows:(1)normal control group;(2)heat stress pretreated subsequent to ischemia/reperfusion group (HS/IR);(3)ischemia/reperfusion group(IR);and(4)heat stress group(HS).Animals in the last three groups were subdivided into three subgroups:1 d,4 d,14 d respectively.The Morris water maze was used to test the ability of learning and memorizing,Nissl staining was used to count the average number of survived neurons in hippocampal CA1 region,and immunohistochemistry combined with image analysis system to detect the changes of Microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2)expression.The results showed that mice in IR group exhibited increased escape latency when compared with that of normal,HS and HS/IR groups(P<0.01),and the mice in IR group adopted an inefficient search strategy,major in circling and restricted searching manners.Nissl staining results showed a significant reduction in the number of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 regions in HS/IR and IR groups,with a decrease in IR group(P<0.01).Compared with normal group,the expression of MAP-2 in hippocampal CA1 region obviously decreased in IR group(P<0.05).The present results indicate that heat stress pretreatment can improve the spatial learning and memorizing function through protection to hippocampal neurons.

  2. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal supplementation is unavoidable. We report a case of bilateral ovarian masses in a young girl, which on histopathological examination showed mature teratoma with aggregates of pr...

  3. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Metachronous Aldosteronomas

    OpenAIRE

    Rizek, Philippe; Gorecki, Piotr; Lindenmayer, Aristid; Moktan, Sabita

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Primary aldosteronism affects 5% to 13% of patients with hypertension. Idiopathic bilateral hyperplasia (IHA) and unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) are the most common types of primary aldosteronism. Bilateral APA is a very rare entity with only a few reports in the literature. We present the case of a patient with metachronous bilateral APA treated with metachronous bilateral total and near total adrenalectomy. Case Report: A 66-year-old female was evaluated for hy...

  4. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Suárez; Mabel C. Ospina; Sandra A. Arias; González, María E

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT) o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicen...

  5. Simultaneous and staged bilateral total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Joergensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA) and bilateral simultaneous total hip arthroplasty (BSTHA) are done increasingly. Previous studies evaluating outcomes after bilateral procedures have found different results. The aim of this study was to investigate length of hospital stay (LOS), 30 days...

  6. A longitudinal study of alterations of hippocampal volumes and serum BDNF levels in association to atypical antipsychotics in a sample of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Rizos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, which have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and emergence of schizophrenia syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction and progressive hippocampal volume decrease in first-episode patients with schizophrenia has been shown in many neuroimaging studies. Dysfunction of the neurotrophic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The initiation of antipsychotic medication alters the levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels. However it is unclear whether treatment with antipsychotics is associated with alterations of hippocampal volume and BDNF levels. METHODS: In the present longitudinal study we investigated the association between serum BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes in a sample of fourteen first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FEP. MRI scans, BDNF and clinical measurements were performed twice: at baseline before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment and 8 months later, while the patients were receiving monotherapy with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. RESULTS: We found that left hippocampal volume was decreased (corrected left HV [t = 2.977, df = 13, p = .011] at follow-up; We also found that the higher the BDNF levels change the higher were the differences of corrected left hippocampus after 8 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotics (Pearson r = 0.597, p = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: The association of BDNF with hippocampal volume alterations in schizophrenia merits further investigation and replication in larger longitudinal studies.

  7. Synthesis and luminescence properties of Eu2+-activated Ca4Mg5(PO4)6 for blue-emitting phosphor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liu Min; Tang Wanjun; Deng Kejian

    2012-02-01

    Ca4Mg5(PO4)6:Eu2+ blue-emitting phosphor was synthesized by the combustion-assisted synthesis method under reductive atmosphere. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of Ca4Mg5(PO4)6 pure phase. Photoluminescence results showed that the phosphor can be excited efficiently by UV light range from 230–400 nm, and then exhibited bright blue light with peak wavelength at 431 nm. It is a very promising candidate as a blue-emitting phosphor for potential applications in display devices.

  8. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA infarction, no aetiological cause was identified. Unlike the transient nature of symptoms in some cases following unilateral infarction, his deficits persisted on 2-month follow-up. PMID:22798298

  9. China's Bilateral Currency Swap Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhitao, Lin; Wenjie, Zhan; Cheung, Yin-Wong

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of China’s bilateral local currency swap lines that were established since the recent global finance crisis. It is found that economic factors, political considerations, and institutional characteristics including trade intensity, economic size, strategic partnership, free trade agreement, corruption, and stability affect the decision of signing a swap line agreement. Once a swap line agreement decision is made, the size of the swap line is then mainly affected by tr...

  10. Bilateral monopolies and location choice

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt R.; Straume, Odd Rune

    2002-01-01

    We analyse how equilibrium locations in location-price games à la Hotelling are affected when firms acquire inputs through bilateral monopoly relations with suppliers. Assuming a duopoly downstream market, we consider the case of two independent input suppliers bargaining with both downstream firms. We find that the presence of input suppliers changes the locational incentives of downstream firms in several ways, compared with the case of exogenous production costs. Bargaining induces downstr...

  11. Bilateral Molariform Mandibular Second Premolars

    OpenAIRE

    Sonu Acharya; Pradip Kumar Mandal; Chiranjit Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side ...

  12. Simultaneous Registration and Parcellation of Bilateral Hippocampal Surface Pairs for Local Asymmetry Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Nicholas A.; Ho, Jeffrey; Vemuri, Baba C.; Eisenschenk, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    In clinical applications where structural asymmetries between homologous shapes have been correlated with pathology, the questions of definition and quantification of “asymmetry” arise naturally. When not only the degree but the position of deformity is thought relevant, asymmetry localization must also be addressed. Asymmetries between paired shapes have already been formulated in terms of (nonrigid) diffeomorphisms between the shapes. For the infinity of such maps possible for a given pair,...

  13. Ubiquitous L1 Mosaicism in Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Kyle R.; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Jesuadian, J. Samuel; Richardson, Sandra R.; Sánchez-Luque, Francisco J.; Bodea, Gabriela O.; Ewing, Adam D.; Salvador-Palomeque, Carmen; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Brennan, Paul M.; Vanderver, Adeline; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition during neurogenesis is a potential source of genotypic variation among neurons. As a neurogenic niche, the hippocampus supports pronounced L1 activity. However, the basal parameters and biological impact of L1-driven mosaicism remain unclear. Here, we performed single-cell retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) on individual human hippocampal neurons and glia, as well as cortical neurons. An estimated 13.7 somatic L1 insertions occurred per hippocampal neuron and carried the sequence hallmarks of target-primed reverse transcription. Notably, hippocampal neuron L1 insertions were specifically enriched in transcribed neuronal stem cell enhancers and hippocampus genes, increasing their probability of functional relevance. In addition, bias against intronic L1 insertions sense oriented relative to their host gene was observed, perhaps indicating moderate selection against this configuration in vivo. These experiments demonstrate pervasive L1 mosaicism at genomic loci expressed in hippocampal neurons. PMID:25860606

  14. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Gebara; Florian Udry; Sébastien Sultan; Nicolas Toni

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the d...

  15. Hippocampal theta oscillations are travelling waves

    OpenAIRE

    Lubenov, Evgueniy V.; Siapas, Athanassios G.

    2009-01-01

    Theta oscillations clock hippocampal activity during awake behaviour and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These oscillations are prominent in the local field potential, and they also reflect the subthreshold membrane potential and strongly modulate the spiking of hippocampal neurons. The prevailing view is that theta oscillations are synchronized throughout the hippocampus, despite the lack of conclusive experimental evidence. In contrast, here we show that in freely behaving rats, theta oscil...

  16. Altered prefrontal and hippocampal function during verbal encoding and recognition in people with prodromal symptoms of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul; Seal, Marc L; Valli, Isabel; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Perlini, Cinzia; Day, Fern; Wood, Stephen J; Williams, Steven C; McGuire, Philip K

    2011-07-01

    Despite robust evidence of hippocampal abnormalities in schizophrenia, it is unclear whether hippocampal dysfunction predates the onset of psychosis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate hippocampal function in subjects with an at-risk mental state (ARMS). Eighteen subjects meeting criteria for an ARMS and 22 healthy controls, matched for age, gender, and premorbid IQ, were scanned while performing a version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task. During an encoding phase, subjects read lists of words aloud. Following a delay, they were presented with 24 target words, 24 semantically related lure words, and 24 novel words and required to indicate if each had been presented before. Behaviorally, the ARMS group made more false alarm responses for novel words than controls (P = .04) and had a lower discrimination accuracy for target words (P = .02). During encoding, ARMS subjects showed less activation than healthy controls in the left middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral medial frontal gyri, and the left parahippocampal gyrus. Correct recognition relative to false alarms was associated with differential engagement of the hippocampus bilaterally in healthy controls, but this difference was absent in the ARMS group. The ARMS was associated with altered function in the medial temporal cortex, as well as in the prefrontal regions, during both verbal encoding and recognition. These neurofunctional differences were associated with diminished recognition performance and may reflect the greatly increased risk of psychosis associated with the ARMS. PMID:19933712

  17. Neonatal hypoxia, hippocampal atrophy, and memory impairment: evidence of a causal sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-06-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life. PMID:24343890

  18. Profile of hippocampal volumes and stroke risk varies by neuropsychological definition of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Amy J; Urban, Stephanie; McCauley, Ashley; Bangen, Katherine J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bondi, Mark W

    2009-11-01

    Wide-ranging conceptual and diagnostic approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have led to highly variable prevalence and progression rates. We sought to examine whether bilateral hippocampal volumes and cerebrovascular risk factors in individuals characterized by two different neuropsychological definitions of MCI subtypes would also differ. Participants were 65 nondemented, community-dwelling, older adults, ages 62-91 years, drawn from a larger group of individuals enrolled in a longitudinal study of normal aging. A comprehensive neuropsychological definition of MCI that required the presence of more than one impaired score in a cognitive domain resulted in expected anatomical results; hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller in the aMCI group as compared to cognitively normal or nonamnestic MCI participants. However, a typical definitional scheme for classifying MCI based only on the presence of one impaired score within a cognitive domain did not result in hippocampal differences between groups. Global stroke risk factors did not differ between the two definitional schemes, although the relationship between stroke risk variables and neuropsychological performance did vary by diagnostic approach. The comprehensive approach demonstrated associations between stroke risk and cognition, whereas the typical approach did not. Use of more sophisticated clinical decision-making and diagnostic approaches that incorporate comprehensive neuropsychological assessment techniques is supported by this convergence of neuropsychological, neuropathological, and stroke risk findings. PMID:19570306

  19. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  20. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  1. BILATERAL OVARIAN MASS COMPLICATING PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Arjumand; Triveni

    2015-01-01

    A 22 years old patient with 9 months of Amenorrhoea with a abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an Ultrasonography report of Bilateral ovarian mass (14.3x5.9cm in left ovary) and (9.5x7cm in right ovary) with internal vascularity with septations along with single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered by elective caesarean section in V/O breech presenta tion. Left side ovarian cystectomy done Right side ovarian puncture done. Histopathology showed left sid...

  2. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte; Flesner, Per; Tendal, Britta; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...

  3. Bilateral molariform mandibular second premolars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sonu; Kumar Mandal, Pradip; Ghosh, Chiranjit

    2015-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth that appear larger than normal. Generalised macrodontia can be associated with certain medical conditions and syndromes. This case report presents clinical and radiographic findings of isolated bilateral macrodontia in a 14-year-old child. The patient was referred to the clinic with local crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Radiographic findings revealed the presence of impacted macrodont mandibular second premolar on one side and erupted macrodontic premolar on the other side and their distinct morphological appearance, characterized by large, multitubercular, and molariform crowns and tapering, single roots. PMID:25685564

  4. BILATERAL OVARIAN MASS COMPLICATING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjumand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 22 years old patient with 9 months of Amenorrhoea with a abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an Ultrasonography report of Bilateral ovarian mass (14.3x5.9cm in left ovary and (9.5x7cm in right ovary with internal vascularity with septations along with single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered by elective caesarean section in V/O breech presenta tion. Left side ovarian cystectomy done Right side ovarian puncture done. Histopathology showed left side – Mucinous cystadenoma. Right Side – Follicular cyst. Mucinous cystadenomas are benign epithelial ovarian tumors which tend to be unilateral, bilateral a nd multilocular with smooth surface and contain mucinous fluid, 75% of all mucinous tumors are benign, while 10% are borderline and 15% are invasive carcinomas. Benign mucinous tumors are most common in the third to fifth decades of life and may be 20 - 30 c ms in size. The incidence of ovarian cysts during pregnancy is less than 5% and most of them are benign in nature. G i ant cysts found in less than 1% of the cases of ovarian cysts with pregnancy.

  5. [Simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, A; Caminiti, F; Tosato, F; Ruggieri, M; Paolini, G; Carnevale, L; Corsini, F; Marano, S; Monsellato, I

    2001-04-01

    A case report of a 44 year-old white man admitted to the surgical unit for a bilateral simultaneous pneumothorax is presented. The pneumothorax occurred on day one after a surgical operation for discal hernia; in the past the patient already presented a right spontaneous pneumothorax at 32 years of age and a left pneumothorax at 37 years of age, both treated with a pleural drainage. A thoracic drain was bilaterally positioned with a good result only in the right side. The persistence of the left pneumothorax induced the authors to perform a postero-lateral thoracotomy bullae excision and pleurectomy with a good postoperative course. After a few months a new right pneumothorax occurred and the patient was treated with a right postero-lateral thoracotomy, bullae resection and pleurectomy. On the basis of the case reported, the authors consider the different opportunities in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax in relation to the present knowledges and technologies. Surgical procedure is to be preferred in case of persistence of pneumothorax despite a pleural drain and in case of pneumothorax in high risk subjects. Even if thoracoscopy seems to give better results regarding postoperative pain, it is not always possible with such a method to perform a careful pleurectomy neither to obtain it in all cases (above all in secondary pneumothorax). Every case must then be carefully studied to choose the best treatment at present available. PMID:11353349

  6. Multiresolution Bilateral Filtering for Image Denoising

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming; Gunturk, Bahadir K.

    2008-01-01

    The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that does spatial averaging without smoothing edges; it has shown to be an effective image denoising technique. An important issue with the application of the bilateral filter is the selection of the filter parameters, which affect the results significantly. There are two main contributions of this paper. The first contribution is an empirical study of the optimal bilateral filter parameter selection in image denoising applications. The second contri...

  7. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal supplementation is unavoidable. We report a case of bilateral ovarian masses in a young girl, which on histopathological examination showed mature teratoma with aggregates of proliferating capillary and cavernous sized vessels in the tumour wall. Such associations are rare and must be differentiated from a vascular neoplasm.

  8. Bilateral Clavicle Fracture in two Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kanik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fracture of clavicle is the most frequently observed bone fracture as birth trauma and it is usually unilateral. It is seen following shoulder dystocia deliveries or breech presentation of macrosomic newborns.Case Presentation: We report two macrosomic newborns with bilateral clavicle fracture and brachial plexus palsy due to birth trauma. Chest X-rays confirmed bilateral fracture of clavicles. Both patients were recovered without any sequel.Conclusion: Bilateral clavicular fracture should be considered in any neonate with bilateral absent Moro reflexes.

  9. Bilateral Clavicle Fracture in Two Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Arun Ozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fracture of clavicle is the most frequently observed bone fracture as birth trauma and it is usually unilateral. It is seen following shoulder dystocia deliveries or breech presentation of macrosomic newborns.Case Presentation: We report two macrosomic newborns with bilateral clavicle fracture and brachial plexus palsy due to birth trauma. Chest X-rays confirmed bilateral fracture of clavicles. Both patients were recovered without any sequel.Conclusion: Bilateral clavicular fracture should be considered in any neonate with bilateral absent Moro reflexes.

  10. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  11. A Case Report of Bilateral Mirror Clubfeet and Bilateral Hand Polydactyly

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Mai P; Lawler, Ericka A.; Morcuende, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with bilateral mirror clubfeet and bilateral hand polydactyly. The patient presented to our orthopaedic clinic with bilateral mirror clubfeet, each with eight toes, and bilateral hands with six fingers and a hypoplastic thumb. The pattern does not fit any described syndrome such as Martin or Laurin-Sandrow syndrome. Treatments by an orthopaedic pediatric surgeon and an orthopaedic pediatric hand surgeon are described. The patient achieved excellent functiona...

  12. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Nehete; Anita Nehete; Sandeep Singla; Harshad Adhav

    2012-01-01

    In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally s...

  13. Bilateral metachronous breast cancer with bilateral recurrences: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The incidence of bilateral breast cancer has been reported to range from 0.4% to 14%, and it increases gradually as a result of improved early detection capabilities and longer survival times. We report a rare case where the bilateral breast cancers occurred as a metachronous bilateral breast cancer with bilateral recurrences, detected by mammography, and the rapid growth of tumor that manifested as microcalcification and skin thickening within 3 months.

  14. Bilateral Auricular Milia en Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Milia en plaque (MEP is an extremely rare form of milia that is characterized by a number of milia-like cysts on an erythematous base and histologically exhibits features of keratin cysts. The etiology is not exactly known. MEP is generally seen among middle-aged women and especially on the head and neck region. Many of the diagnosed cases are localized in the retroauricular region, eyelids and the nose region. To date, no case of MEP in the auricula has been reported in the literature. In this article, we present the case of a 71-year-old female patient clinically and histologically diagnosed with bilateral auricular milia en plaque (in the external ear canal in the light of current literature. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 216-8

  15. Relationship between Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: evidence for differential susceptibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Vasu Kalmady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various lines of evidence including epidemiological, genetic and foetal pathogenetic models suggest a compelling role for Interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. IL-6 mediated inflammatory response triggered by maternal infection or stress induces disruption of prenatal hippocampal development which might contribute towards psychopathology during adulthood. There is a substantial lack of knowledge on how genetic predisposition to elevated IL-6 expression effects hippocampal structure in schizophrenia patients. In this first-time study, we evaluated the relationship between functional polymorphism rs1800795 of IL-6 and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients in comparison with healthy controls. METHODOLOGY: We examined antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients [N = 28] in comparison with healthy controls [N = 37] group matched on age, sex and handedness. Using 3 Tesla - MRI, bilateral hippocampi were manually segmented by blinded raters with good inter-rater reliability using a valid method. Additionally, Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM analysis was performed using hippocampal mask. The IL-6 level was measured in blood plasma using ELISA technique. SNP rs1800795 was genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms. RESULTS: Schizophrenia patients had significantly deficient left and right hippocampal volumes after controlling for the potential confounding effects of age, sex and total brain volume. Plasma IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients than controls. There was a significant diagnosis by rs1800795 genotype interaction involving both right and left hippocampal volumes. Interestingly, this effect was significant only in men but not in women. CONCLUSION: Our first time observations suggest a significant relationship between IL-6 rs1800795 and reduced

  16. Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padrón-Pérez N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noel Padrón-Pérez,1 Janny Rosario Aronés,2 Silvia Muñoz,1 Luis Arias-Barquet,1 Jorge Arruga1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 2Hospital de l'Esperança – Parc de Salut Mar, 3Institut Català de Retina, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic embolic event. Initially, she presented a superior branch retinal artery occlusion in her right eye followed by a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in her left eye. Some conservative maneuvers performed did not improve visual acuity in the left eye. Supra-aortic Doppler ultrasonography revealed mild right internal carotid artery stenosis and moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis with a small, smooth, and homogeneous plaque. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe calcification of the mitral valve with a mild-moderate rim of stenosis. Central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are characterized by painless monocular loss of vision. Clinical approach and management attempt to treat the acute event, find the source of the vascular occlusion, and prevent further vascular events from occurring. Giant cell arteritis is a potentially treatable cause of central retinal artery occlusion and should be excluded in every single patient over 50 years old.Keywords: loss of vision, branch retinal artery occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, Hollenhorst plaque

  17. Bilateral failure of adduction following orbital decompression.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsella, F; Kyle, P.; Stansfield, A

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral complete failure of adduction following bilateral translid antralethmoidal orbital decompression. We believe the probable mechanism is neuropraxia (temporary dysfunction) of the third cranial nerves' supply to the medial recti, owing to these nerves' occupying an anatomically abnormal position. Partial recovery of adduction occurred over the ensuing six months.

  18. Bilateral breast involvement in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakeem A, Mandakini BT, Asif K, Firdaus, Shagufta RC

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast involvement by leukemic infiltration is usually bilateral, but may be unilateral. Clinically patients can present with either single or multiple masses, or with diffuse breast engorgement, with or without nodularity. The affected patients are predominantly young adults. We present a case of an adolescent girl with acute myeloid leukemia having bilateral breast infiltration by leukemic cells.

  19. BILATERAL OVARIAN TORSION: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Manohar; Gopalakrishna; Kavyashree; Kala; Karthik

    2014-01-01

    : Bilateral ovarian torsion is a rare event with only a few cases reported in literature in women using ovarian stimulation drugs and in pre-menarchal age group with synchronous and asynchronous ovarian tumors. We hereby present a case of bilateral ovarian torsion in a 16 year old girl who presented as an acute pain abdomen and was diagnosed intra operatively.

  20. Marfan's syndrome presenting as bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax.

    OpenAIRE

    Gawkrodger, D J

    1981-01-01

    A case of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in a 14-year-old girl with previously undiagnosed Marfan's syndrome is described. The pulmonary abnormalities of Marfan's syndrome are not commonly encountered and bilateral pneumothorax is itself a rare event which, in most instances, has been reported following invasive procedures.

  1. Acral osteolysis in bilateral compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Saeed

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common neurological condition with rare yet potentially serious cutaneous and skeletal complications. We present a case of mutilating/ulcerating bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a 63 year old female. Radiographs showed symmetrical acral osteolysis in the index and middle fingers distal phalanges bilaterally. Carpal tunnel decompressions provided symptomatic relief.

  2. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  3. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Evrim Coşkun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin. PMID:22561379

  4. Bilateral microperc in a severe kyphoscoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağgülli, Mansur; Penbegül, Necmettin; Dede, Onur; Utanğaç, Mehmet Mazhar

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the standard modality for large renal calculi in normal and abnormal renal anatomic situations. This case report describes a 57-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral kidney stones and severe kyphoscoliosis. He had successfully been treated with a bilateral microperc technique. PMID:27011881

  5. Secondary polycythaemia associated with bilateral renal lymphocoeles.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, I E; Sambrook, P.; McWilliam, L J

    1994-01-01

    A patient with a 15 year history of secondary polycythaemia due to renal erythropoietin hypersecretion is presented. Subsequent spontaneous development of bilateral renal lymphocoeles, which contained high erythropoietin levels, was shown by computerized tomography. The lymphocoeles were successfully treated by bilateral peritoneal marsupialization. No cause for the persistent polycythaemia or lymphocoeles was found at laparotomy or on renal biopsy.

  6. Improvement in the microwave dielectric properties of SrCa4Nb4TiO17 ceramics by Ba substitution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Manan; Yaseen Iqbal

    2014-10-01

    Microwave dielectric ceramics in the Sr1–BaCa4Nb4TiO17 (0 ≤ ≤ 0.75) composition series were fabricated via a solid-state mixed oxide route. All the compositions formed single phase in Sr1–BaCa4Nb4TiO17 (0 ≤ ≤ 0.75) solid solutions within the detection limit of in-house X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sintered microstructure of these ceramics comprised densely packed elongated and plate-like grains. The dielectric properties varied linearly with . Relative permittivity (r) increased from 47.2 to 54.5, unloaded quality factor multiplying the resonant frequency (u o) decreased from 11,984 to 9345 GHz and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (f) increased from –78.6 to 20 ppm/°C with an increase in x from 0 to 0.75. In the present study, r ≈ 51.6, u o ≈ 10,160 GHz (5.37 GHz) and f ≈ –13.5 ppm/°C were achieved for Sr0.5Ba0.5Ca4Nb4TiO17 ( = 0.5) ceramics.

  7. Photo-luminescent properties of Eu3+ ion-doped Ca4REO(BO3)3 (RE=La,Y,Gd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europium-doped materials Ca4REO(BO3)3 (RE=La,Y,Gd) were first synthesized by a sol-gel process technique. The reaction temperature of the sol-gel process was 300 deg C lower than that of solid-state reaction and the reaction time of sol-gel process was shorter. The photo-luminescence characteristics of Eu-doped Ca4REO(BO3)3 (RE=La,Y,Gd) indicated that all compounds exhibited strong luminescence of 5D0-7F2 at 608 nm under excitation at 242 nm. The emission intensity of phosphors prepared by sol-gel process was higher than those prepared by solid-state reaction; particularly the compound Ca4La0.9Eu0.1O(BO3)3 prepared by sol-gel process presented the highest brightness. SEM images showed that particles prepared by sol-gel process had more regular morphology and smaller grain size

  8. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  9. The Guided Bilateral Filter: When the Joint/Cross Bilateral Filter Becomes Robust

    OpenAIRE

    Caraffa, Laurent; Tarel, Jean Philippe; Charbonnier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The bilateral filter and its variants such as the Joint/Cross bilateral filter are well known edge-preserving image smoothing tools used in many applications. The reason of this success is its simple definition and the possibility of many adaptations. The bilateral filter is known to be related to robust estimation. This link is lost by the ad hoc introduction of the guide image in the Joint/Cross bilateral filter. We here propose a new way to derive the Joint/Cross bilateral filter as a part...

  10. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Darío Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a normal developmental process associated with neurobiological changes leading to cognitive alterations with preserved, impaired, and enhanced functions. Evidence from animal and human studies is reviewed to explore the potential role of hippocampal plasticity on age-related cognitive changes with special attention to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Results from lesion and stimulation strategies, as well as correlation data, support either a direct or modulatory role for adult newborn neurons in cognition at advanced ages. Further research on this topic may help to develop new treatments and to improve the quality of life of older people.

  11. Multimodal assessments of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Evidences from neurobehavioral measures and functional and structural MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Knöchel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential clinical and etiological overlap between schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD has long been a subject of discussion. Imaging studies imply functional and structural alterations of the hippocampus in both diseases. Thus, imaging this core memory region could provide insight into the pathophysiology of these disorders and the associated cognitive deficits. To examine possible shared alterations in the hippocampus, we conducted a multi-modal assessment, including functional and structural imaging as well as neurobehavioral measures of memory performance in BD and SZ patients compared with healthy controls. We assessed episodic memory performance, using tests of verbal and visual learning (HVLT, BVMT in three groups of participants: BD patients (n = 21, SZ patients (n = 21 and matched (age, gender, education healthy control subjects (n = 21. In addition, we examined hippocampal resting state functional connectivity, hippocampal volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and fibre integrity of hippocampal connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We found memory deficits, changes in functional connectivity within the hippocampal network as well as volumetric reductions and altered white matter fibre integrity across patient groups in comparison with controls. However, SZ patients when directly compared with BD patients were more severely affected in several of the assessed parameters (verbal learning, left hippocampal volumes, mean diffusivity of bilateral cingulum and right uncinated fasciculus. The results of our study suggest a graded expression of verbal learning deficits accompanied by structural alterations within the hippocampus in BD patients and SZ patients, with SZ patients being more strongly affected. Our findings imply that these two disorders may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. The results could thus help to further advance and integrate current pathophysiological models of SZ and BD.

  12. Volume of hippocampal substructures in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, Stefan Henner; Labudda, Kirsten; Kurlandchikov, Oleg; Beblo, Thomas; Mertens, Markus; Thomas, Christine; Rullkötter, Nina; Wingenfeld, Katja; Mensebach, Christoph; Woermann, Friedrich G; Driessen, Martin

    2015-03-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be associated with smaller hippocampi in comparison to hippocampal size in controls. However, specific pathology in hippocampal substructures (i.e., head, body and tail) has not been sufficiently investigated. To address hippocampal structure in greater detail, we studied 39 psychiatric inpatients and outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BPD and 39 healthy controls. The hippocampus and its substructures were segmented manually on magnetic resonance imaging scans. The volumes of hippocampal substructures (and total hippocampal volume) did not differ between BPD patients and controls. Exploratory analysis suggests that patients with a lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a significantly smaller hippocampus - affecting both the hippocampal head and body - in comparison to BPD patients without comorbid PTSD (difference in total hippocampal volume: -10.5%, 95%CI -2.6 to -18.5, significant). Also, patients fulfilling seven or more DSM-IV BPD criteria showed a hippocampal volume reduction, limited to the hippocampal head (difference in volume of the hippocampal head: -16.5%, 95%CI -6.1 to -26.8, significant). Disease heterogeneity in respect to, for example, symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidities may limit direct comparability between studies; the results presented here may reflect hippocampal volumes in patients who are "less" affected or they may simply be a chance finding. However, there is also the possibility that global effects of BPD on the hippocampus may have previously been overestimated. PMID:25624067

  13. Bilateral panophthalmitis in dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral panophthalmitis as the initial ocular manifestation of dengue fever. The diagnosis was a little confusing as he initially presented with features suggestive of retrobulbar hemorrhage secondary to his very low platelet count, which is a common feature of dengue fever. Ophthalmic complications are usually seen in young adults who often present at the nadir of thrombocytopenia. Ocular findings may include anterior uveitis, vitritis, retinal hemorrhages, retinal vascular sheathing, yellow subretinal dots, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling, foveolitis that is clinically seen as a round subretinal yellowish lesion at the fovea, retinochoroiditis, choroidal effusion, optic disc swelling, optic neuritis, neuroretinitis, and oculomotor nerve palsy. [1] There is only one reported case of unilateral endogenous panophthalmitis due to dengue fever. Hence, clinicians and ophthalmologists have to be aware of this vision-threatening complication of dengue for early recognition and prompt treatment to save the vision of these young patients and prevent morbidity.

  14. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra

  15. Changes in fitness are associated with changes in hippocampal microstructure and hippocampal volume among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemeyer, Maike Margarethe; Kühn, Simone; Prindle, John; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Brechtel, Lars; Garthe, Alexander; Kempermann, Gerd; Schaefer, Sabine; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of fitness changes on hippocampal microstructure and hippocampal volume. Fifty-two healthy participants aged 59-74years with a sedentary lifestyle were randomly assigned to either of two levels of exercise intensity. Training lasted for six months. Physical fitness, hippocampal volumes, and hippocampal microstructure were measured before and after training. Hippocampal microstructure was assessed by mean diffusivity, which inversely reflects tissue density; hence, mean diffusivity is lower for more densely packed tissue. Mean changes in fitness did not differ reliably across intensity levels of training, so data were collapsed across groups. Multivariate modeling of pretest-posttest differences using structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that individual differences in latent change were reliable for all three constructs. More positive changes in fitness were associated with more positive changes in tissue density (i.e., more negative changes in mean diffusivity), and more positive changes in tissue density were associated with more positive changes in volume. We conclude that fitness-related changes in hippocampal volume may be brought about by changes in tissue density. The relative contributions of angiogenesis, gliogenesis, and/or neurogenesis to changes in tissue density remain to be identified. PMID:26584869

  16. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma and on exploration it turned out to be rarest extra peritoneal bilateral Petit’s trianglehernia, fat as contents.

  17. Bilateral facial palsy associated with leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Alves da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide occurrence caused by the spirochete Leptospira interrogans. It is an acute feverish disease with a broad clinical spectrum and follows a characteristic biphasic course. Bilateral facial palsy is a rare clinical condition and the differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive. The objective of this exploratory study, presented as a case report, is to describe the occurrence of bilateral facial palsy as an unusual manifestation of leptospirosis. This suggestion should not be overlooked when analyzing the causes for bilateral facial palsy, and should be considered with other possible differential diagnoses, some of which are potentially fatal.

  18. Resveratrol: A Potential Hippocampal Plasticity Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Pereira Dias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for molecules capable of restoring altered hippocampal plasticity in psychiatric and neurological conditions is one of the most important tasks of modern neuroscience. It is well established that neural plasticity, such as the ability of the postnatal hippocampus to continuously generate newly functional neurons throughout life, a process called adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN, can be modulated not only by pharmacological agents, physical exercise, and environmental enrichment, but also by “nutraceutical” agents. In this review we focus on resveratrol, a phenol and phytoalexin found in the skin of grapes and red berries, as well as in nuts. Resveratrol has been reported to have antioxidant and antitumor properties, but its effects as a neural plasticity inducer are still debated. The current review examines recent evidence implicating resveratrol in regulating hippocampal neural plasticity and in mitigating the effects of various disorders and diseases on this important brain structure. Overall, findings show that resveratrol can improve cognition and mood and enhance hippocampal plasticity and AHN; however, some studies report opposite effects, with resveratrol inhibiting aspects of AHN. Therefore, further investigation is needed to resolve these controversies before resveratrol can be established as a safe coadjuvant in preventing and treating neuropsychiatric conditions.

  19. Stress, hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition: functional correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Lucassen; C.A. Oomen

    2016-01-01

    The brain of many species including humans, harbors stem cells that continue to generate new neurons up into adulthood. This form of structural plasticity occurs in a limited number of brain regions, i.e. the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus and is regulated by environmental and

  20. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  1. FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Moreaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S BILATERAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The EU is a world economic power and a major trading partner for most countries. All the time, this region has been interested and has acted towards a free and fair trade. The decrease and even the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers in the world trade are among the main objectives of the EU strategy for international trade. At the moment, the elusive outcome of the WTO Doha Round has led to the proliferation of bilateral trade agreements worldwide. Although the EU remains committed to further development of the multilateral trading system, however, the EU still has appealed also to the development of bilateral trade relations. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the current bilateral dimension of the common commercial policy of the EU. In conclusion, to describe this bilateral approach of the EU we are using one word, namely “diversity”.

  3. An unusual cause of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, A; Kalra, S.; Woodcock, A

    1992-01-01

    In a patient who had a sudden onset of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after forceful neck manipulation complete, though gradual, recovery in lung function and transdiaphragmatic pressures was seen over three years. This is a previously unrecognised risk of neck osteopathy.

  4. Lumbar discal cyst causing bilateral radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Jun, Kwak; Dae-Yong, Kim; Tae-Ho, Kim; Ho-Sang, Park; Jae-Sung, Kim; Jae-Won, Jang; Jung-Kil, Lee; Pawl, Ron; Nancy E Epstein; Bydon, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Discal cyst is a rare lesion that can result in clinical symptoms typical of disc herniation manifesting as a unilateral single nerve root lesion. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of discal cyst resulting in bilateral radiculopathy. Case Description: A 48-year-old female presented with bilateral sciatica and neurogenic claudication for 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extradural cystic lesion compressing the ventral aspect of t...

  5. Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar Parwani; Simran Parwani; Sangeeta Wanjari

    2013-01-01

    Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid...

  6. Accounting Relations in Bilateral Value Added Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Stehrer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The increasing international fragmentation of production has triggered the development of a number of widely used indicators accounting for value added flows in the world economy. This paper generalises these measures by simultaneously considering the import side and focusing on bilateral gross and value added trade flows. It discusses how these indicators relate to each other, the role of double counting in bilateral value added trade, and aggregation issues in global value added flows...

  7. Bilateral Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration in Wilson Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Josephin; Guenther, Peter; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic olivary degeneration resulting from lesions of the dento-rubro-olivary pathway, also called Guillain-Mollaret-triangle, has been described previously in a number of cases. Reports about bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration of the inferior olivary nuclei are very limited, and the magnetic resonance imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease have not yet been described to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we present the first report of bilateral...

  8. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Geetha; Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V

    2016-04-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  9. Superpixel Convolutional Networks using Bilateral Inceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Gadde, Raghudeep; Jampani, Varun; Kiefel, Martin; Gehler, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a CNN architecture for image segmentation. We introduce a new "bilateral inception" layer that is used on top of a convolutional architecture. The bilateral inception performs a filtering between superpixels in an image. This addresses two problems that arise with CNN segmentation architectures. First, this layer propagates information between (super) pixels while respecting image edges, thus using the structured information of the problem for improved results. Second...

  10. Bilateral lipoma arborescens associated with early osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ismail, Khalid; Torreggiani, William C.; Keogh, Ciaran; Munk, Peter L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, 855 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1M9 (Canada); Al-Sheikh, Fahad [Department of Radiology, Riyadh Military Hospital (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-11-01

    Lipoma arborescens is a rare disease that has generally been considered to be unilateral. We report a case of bilateral disease in a patient with associated marked premature osteoarthritis of the knees. We postulate a possible association between these two conditions and explain a possible underlying mechanism. We suggest that lipoma arborescens be considered as a rare underlying cause of young patients with bilateral premature osteoarthritis, and recommend MRI as the definitive imaging modality. (orig.)

  11. Complementarity between Bilateral Trade and Financial Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kwanho; Yang, Doo Yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the complementarities between bilateral trade in goods and financial assets. By utilizing a gravity model specification with an extended dataset in terms of time span and asset classification as well as alternative instrumental variables, we confirm the existence of positive evidence for complementarities. We find that common factors such as bilateral distance and other economic size variables that determine both cross-border trade and financial flows contribute to complem...

  12. Hippocampal volume MRI and 1H-MRS study in chronic alcohol dependent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the changes of the bilateral hippocampal volume (BHV) and 1H- MRS appearance of chronic alcohol dependent (CAD) patients and to provide quantitative information for the clinical diagnosis of CAD. Methods: The conventional MR imaging including three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D-FSPGR) and 1H-MRS were performed on 16 patients with CAD (CAD group) and 18 cases of volunteer (control group). The BHV were measured in both groups and the standardized BHV in CAD group and control group were compared. 1H-MRS metabolites including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline compounds (Cho), Creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) of the bilateral cephalic hippocampus were acquired. The ratios of Cho/Ci, Cho/NAA, NAA/Cr and mI/Ci within the bilateral cephalic hippocampus of the two groups were compared. The t test was used to compare the BHV and the ratios of 1H-MRS in the bilateral cephalic hippocampus between the two groups. Results: In CAD group, the left and the right hippocampal volume were 1.881±0.292, 2.139±0.328 respectively while they were 2.106±0.245 and 2.267±0.271 respectively in the control group. The BHV had no significant difference between the left and the right in either the CAD group or the control group (t=0.232, 0.147 respectively, P>0.05). The BHV had no significant difference between the CAD group and control group (t=0.424, 0.131 respectively, P>0.05). The Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr in the right cephalic hippocampus of the CAD group were 1.225±0.210 and 1.145±0.034 respectively, while they were 1.429±0.286, 1.612±0.444 respectively in the control group (t=0.321, 0.408, P1H-MRS could potentially provide early diagnostic evidence for CAD patients before the onset of cerebral morphological changes. (authors)

  13. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  14. Bilateral Keratectasia 34 Years after Corneal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Valldeperas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 µm in the right eye and of 710 µm in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 µm in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus.

  15. A Case Report of Bilateral Mirror Clubfeet and Bilateral Hand Polydactyly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mai P; Lawler, Ericka A; Morcuende, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with bilateral mirror clubfeet and bilateral hand polydactyly. The patient presented to our orthopaedic clinic with bilateral mirror clubfeet, each with eight toes, and bilateral hands with six fingers and a hypoplastic thumb. The pattern does not fit any described syndrome such as Martin or Laurin-Sandrow syndrome. Treatments by an orthopaedic pediatric surgeon and an orthopaedic pediatric hand surgeon are described. The patient achieved excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes at four year follow-up. PMID:25328478

  16. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nehete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.

  17. Functional MRI during Hippocampal Deep Brain Stimulation in the Healthy Rat Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Van Den Berge

    Full Text Available Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS is a promising treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action and the effects of electrical fields administered to the brain by means of an electrode remain to be elucidated. The effects of DBS have been investigated primarily by electrophysiological and neurochemical studies, which lack the ability to investigate DBS-related responses on a whole-brain scale. Visualization of whole-brain effects of DBS requires functional imaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, which reflects changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD responses throughout the entire brain volume. In order to visualize BOLD responses induced by DBS, we have developed an MRI-compatible electrode and an acquisition protocol to perform DBS during BOLD fMRI. In this study, we investigate whether DBS during fMRI is valuable to study local and whole-brain effects of hippocampal DBS and to investigate the changes induced by different stimulation intensities. Seven rats were stereotactically implanted with a custom-made MRI-compatible DBS-electrode in the right hippocampus. High frequency Poisson distributed stimulation was applied using a block-design paradigm. Data were processed by means of Independent Component Analysis. Clusters were considered significant when p-values were <0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Our data indicate that real-time hippocampal DBS evokes a bilateral BOLD response in hippocampal and other mesolimbic structures, depending on the applied stimulation intensity. We conclude that simultaneous DBS and fMRI can be used to detect local and whole-brain responses to circuit activation with different stimulation intensities, making this technique potentially powerful for exploration of cerebral changes in response to DBS for both preclinical and clinical DBS.

  18. New Learning of Music after Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobe Damage: Evidence from an Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi eValtonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly-identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ’s rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed, closely matched for factors contributing to a piece’s musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ’s complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance.

  19. Identification of common variants associated with human hippocampal and intracranial volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jason L; Medland, Sarah E; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Hibar, Derrek P; Senstad, Rudy E; Winkler, Anderson M; Toro, Roberto; Appel, Katja; Bartecek, Richard; Bergmann, Ørjan; Bernard, Manon; Brown, Andrew A; Cannon, Dara M; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Christoforou, Andrea; Domin, Martin; Grimm, Oliver; Hollinshead, Marisa; Holmes, Avram J; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Langan, Camilla; Lopez, Lorna M; Hansell, Narelle K; Hwang, Kristy S; Kim, Sungeun; Laje, Gonzalo; Lee, Phil H; Liu, Xinmin; Loth, Eva; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Mattingsdal, Morten; Mohnke, Sebastian; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; O'Brien, Carol; Papmeyer, Martina; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rasmussen, Jerod; Rijpkema, Mark; Risacher, Shannon L; Roddey, J Cooper; Rose, Emma J; Ryten, Mina; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Strengman, Eric; Teumer, Alexander; Trabzuni, Daniah; Turner, Jessica; van Eijk, Kristel; van Erp, Theo G M; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolf, Christiane; Woudstra, Saskia; Aleman, Andre; Alhusaini, Saud; Almasy, Laura; Binder, Elisabeth B; Brohawn, David G; Cantor, Rita M; Carless, Melanie A; Corvin, Aiden; Czisch, Michael; Curran, Joanne E; Davies, Gail; de Almeida, Marcio A A; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fagerness, Jesen; Fox, Peter T; Freimer, Nelson B; Gill, Michael; Göring, Harald H H; Hagler, Donald J; Hoehn, David; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogman, Martine; Hosten, Norbert; Jahanshad, Neda; Johnson, Matthew P; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Lancaster, Jack L; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liewald, David C; Mandl, René; Matarin, Mar; Mattheisen, Manuel; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Moses, Eric K; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nauck, Matthias; Nöthen, Markus M; Olvera, Rene L; Pandolfo, Massimo; Pike, G Bruce; Puls, Ralf; Reinvang, Ivar; Rentería, Miguel E; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Royle, Natalie A; Rujescu, Dan; Savitz, Jonathan; Schnack, Hugo G; Schnell, Knut; Seiferth, Nina; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Van den Heuvel, Martijn; van der Wee, Nic J; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Joris A; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Robert; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Agartz, Ingrid; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Dale, Anders M; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Hagoort, Peter; Hall, Jeremy; Heinz, Andreas; Jack, Clifford R; Foroud, Tatiana M; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Macciardi, Fabio; Montgomery, Grant W; Poline, Jean Baptiste; Porteous, David J; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Starr, John M; Sussmann, Jessika; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Bis, Joshua C; Ikram, M Arfan; Smith, Albert V; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tzourio, Christophe; Vernooij, Meike W; Launer, Lenore J; DeCarli, Charles; Seshadri, Sudha; Andreassen, Ole A; Apostolova, Liana G; Bastin, Mark E; Blangero, John; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Cichon, Sven; Coppola, Giovanni; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; de Geus, Eco J C; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Hardy, John; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jenkinson, Mark; Kahn, René S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Morris, Derek W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nichols, Thomas E; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W; Potkin, Steven G; Sämann, Philipp G; Saykin, Andrew J; Schumann, Gunter; Smoller, Jordan W; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Weale, Michael E; Martin, Nicholas G; Franke, Barbara; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2012-05-01

    Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are highly heritable, identifying and replicating genetic influences has been difficult, as small effects and the high costs of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have led to underpowered studies. Here we report genome-wide association meta-analyses and replication for mean bilateral hippocampal, total brain and intracranial volumes from a large multinational consortium. The intergenic variant rs7294919 was associated with hippocampal volume (12q24.22; N = 21,151; P = 6.70 × 10(-16)) and the expression levels of the positional candidate gene TESC in brain tissue. Additionally, rs10784502, located within HMGA2, was associated with intracranial volume (12q14.3; N = 15,782; P = 1.12 × 10(-12)). We also identified a suggestive association with total brain volume at rs10494373 within DDR2 (1q23.3; N = 6,500; P = 5.81 × 10(-7)). PMID:22504417

  20. Impairment on a self-ordered working memory task in patients with early-acquired hippocampal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Sharon; Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2016-08-01

    One of the features of both adult-onset and developmental forms of amnesia resulting from bilateral medial temporal lobe damage, or even from relatively selective damage to the hippocampus, is the sparing of working memory. Recently, however, a number of studies have reported deficits on working memory tasks in patients with damage to the hippocampus and in macaque monkeys with neonatal hippocampal lesions. These studies suggest that successful performance on working memory tasks with high memory load require the contribution of the hippocampus. Here we compared performance on a working memory task (the Self-ordered Pointing Task), between patients with early onset hippocampal damage and a group of healthy controls. Consistent with the findings in the monkeys with neonatal lesions, we found that the patients were impaired on the task, but only on blocks of trials with intermediate memory load. Importantly, only intermediate to high memory load blocks yielded significant correlations between task performance and hippocampal volume. Additionally, we found no evidence of proactive interference in either group, and no evidence of an effect of time since injury on performance. We discuss the role of the hippocampus and its interactions with the prefrontal cortex in serving working memory. PMID:27288821

  1. N-acetylaspartate, choline and myoinositol concentration changes in MR spectroscopy (1H MRS) of hippocampal formation in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) - preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognitive and memory impairment are very common problems in elderly patients. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is known as a transitional clinical state between normal ('successful') aging and dementia. In some cases MCI may be a precursor to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early neuronal loss and metabolic changes have been documented in previous studies in AD patients in some 'strategic ' regions of the brain, mainly in hippocampal formation. Our goal was to determine whether there are statistically significant changes in hippocampal N-acetylaspartate, choline and myoinositol levels obtained by single-voxel spectroscopy in MCI patients and normal aging and to evaluate its clinical diagnostic utility. 30 patients with MCI and 15 cognitively normal elderly subjects underwent proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 T system. MR spectra were obtained from anterior and posterior part of hippocampal formation bilaterally, using the point-resolved spectroscopy sequence. Metabolite ratios of NAA/H2O, Cho/H2O and mI/H2O were calculated from the peak height measurements. Relative to the control group, patients with MCI demonstrated elevated mI/H2O and Cho/H2O ratios in both hippocampal formations. The most significant increase was observed in mI/H2O ratio in anterior part of left hippocampus and in Cho/H2O ratio in posterior part of right hippocampus, in MCI patients vs.cognitively normal elderly. There were no significant differences between mean NAA/H2O ratios measured in hippocampal formation in both groups. Proton MRS may be used as valuable additional tool in the evaluation of regional metabolic changes in patients with MCI. Increase of mI and Cho levels in hippocampal formation may be an early sign of cognitive impairment in elderly subjects that can be measured using MRS. (author)

  2. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoya, Maria A.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McGraw, Michael H. [Hospitalof theUniversityof Pennsylvania, Divisionof Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed. (orig.)

  3. Prediction of Dementia by Hippocampal Shape Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, H.C.; Lijn, F. van der; Heijer, T. den;

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of predicting future onset of dementia in subjects who are cognitively normal, using hippocampal shape and volume information extracted from MRI scans. A group of 47 subjects who were non-demented normal at the time of the MRI acquisition, but were diagnosed...... with dementia during a 9 year follow-up period, was selected from a large population based cohort study. 47 Age and gender matched subjects who stayed cognitively intact were selected from the same cohort study as a control group. The hippocampi were automatically segmented and all segmentations were...... inspected and, if necessary, manually corrected by a trained observer. From this data a statistical model of hippocampal shape was constructed, using an entropy-based particle system. This shape model provided the input for a Support Vector Machine classifier to predict dementia. Cross validation...

  4. Hippocampal culture stimulus with 4-megahertz ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Robert; LaManna, Justine K.; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Morrison, Barclay, III

    2012-10-01

    Among current modalities, ultrasound uniquely offers both millisecond and millimeter accuracy in noninvasively stimulating brain tissue. In addition, by sweeping the ultrasound beam within the refractory period of the neuronal tissue, ultrasonic neuromodulation can be adapted to target extended or multiply connected regions with quasi-simultaneity. Towards the development of this safe brain stimulus technique, the response of rat hippocampal cultures to ultrasound was investigated. Hippocampal slices, 0.4-mm thick, were obtained from 8-day old Sprague Dawley rats and cultured for 6 days. The in vitro cultures were exposed to multiple 100-ms 4.04-MHz ultrasound pulses from a 42-mm diameter, 90-mm spherical cap transducer. Peak pressure ranged from 0 through about 77 kPa. Responses in the form of electrical potentials from a sixty channel electrode array were digitized and recorded. The DG and CA1 regions of the hippocampus exhibited similar ultrasonically-evoked field potentials.

  5. Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Depressive Disorders, and Antidepressant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Paizanis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that neural stem cells reside in the adult central nervous system where neurogenesis occurs throughout lifespan. Neurogenesis concerns mainly two areas in the brain: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, where it is controlled by several trophic factors and neuroactive molecules. Neurogenesis is involved in processes such as learning and memory and accumulating evidence implicates hippocampal neurogenesis in the physiopathology of depression. We herein review experimental and clinical data demonstrating that stress and antidepressant treatments affect neurogenesis in opposite direction in rodents. In particular, the stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by all types of antidepressant drugs supports the view that neuroplastic phenomena are involved in the physiopathology of depression and underlie—at least partly—antidepressant therapy.

  6. Paradoxical influence of hippocampal neurogenesis on working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Saxe, Michael D.; Malleret, Gaël; Vronskaya, Svetlana; Mendez, Indira; Garcia, A. Denise; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Kandel, Eric R.; Hen, René

    2007-01-01

    To explore the function of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we ablated cell proliferation by using two independent and complementary methods: (i) a focal hippocampal irradiation and (ii) an inducible and reversible genetic elimination of neural progenitor cells. Previous studies using these methods found a weakening of contextual fear conditioning but no change in spatial reference memory, suggesting a supportive role for neurogenesis in some, but not all, hippocampal-dependent memory tasks. I...

  7. The Hippocampal Rate Code: Anatomy, Physiology and Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Omar J.; Mehta, Mayank R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the days of Cajal, the CA1 pyramidal cell has arguably received more attention than any other neuron in the mammalian brain. Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells fire spikes with remarkable spatial and temporal precision, giving rise to the hippocampal rate and temporal codes. However, little is known about how different inputs interact during spatial behavior to generate such robust firing patterns. Here, we review the properties of the rodent hippocampal rate code, and synthesize work from...

  8. Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Depressive Disorders, and Antidepressant Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Lanfumey; Michel Hamon; Eleni Paizanis

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that neural stem cells reside in the adult central nervous system where neurogenesis occurs throughout lifespan. Neurogenesis concerns mainly two areas in the brain: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, where it is controlled by several trophic factors and neuroactive molecules. Neurogenesis is involved in processes such as learning and memory and accumulating evidence implicates hippocampal neurogen...

  9. Adiponectin protects rat hippocampal neurons against excitotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Guang; Wan, Ruiqian; Hu, Jingping; Mattson, Mark P.; Spangler, Edward; Liu, Shan; Yau, Suk-yu; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Gleichmann, Marc; Ingram, Donald K.; So, Kwok-Fai; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin exerts multiple regulatory functions in the body and in the hypothalamus primarily through activation of its two receptors, adiponectin receptor1 and adiponectin receptor 2. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin receptors are widely expressed in other areas of the brain including the hippocampus. However, the functions of adiponectin in brain regions other than the hypothalamus are not clear. Here, we report that adiponectin can protect cultured hippocampal neurons against ka...

  10. Estrogen and Hippocampal Plasticity in Rodent Models

    OpenAIRE

    Foy, Michael R.; Baudry, Michel; Brinton, Roberta Diaz; Thompson, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that ovarian hormones regulate a wide variety of non-reproductive functions in the central nervous system by interacting with several molecular and cellular processes. A growing animal literature using both adult and aged rodent models indicates that 17β-estradiol, the most potent of the biologically relevant estrogens, facilitates some forms of learning and memory, in particular those that involve hippocampal-dependent tasks. A recently developed triple-transg...

  11. Bilateral ovarian cystic teratomata mimicking bilateral pure ovarian hemangiomata: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, I M; Aronson, B L; McCarthy, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral, benign cystic ovarian teratomata which were composed predominantly of cavernous hemangiomatous elements. The right-sided lesion, in particular, mimicked a pure ovarian hemangioma. The clinical presentation, bilaterality of the lesions, the sizes of the hemangiomata, and the subsequent hemangioma of the leg are all of interest in this very rare lesion. PMID:6511164

  12. Hippocampal subfield volumes: Age, vascular risk, and correlation with associative memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lee eShing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging and age-related diseases have negative impact on the hippocampus (HC, which is crucial for such age-sensitive functions as memory formation, maintenance, and retrieval. We examined age differences in hippocampal subfield volumes in 10 younger and 19 older adults, and association of those volumes with memory performance in the older participants. We manually measured volumes of HC regions CA1 and CA2 (CA1-2, sectors CA3 and CA4 plus dentate gyrus (CA3-4/DG, subiculum and the entorhinal cortex using a contrast-optimized high-resolution PD-weighted MRI sequence. Although, as in previous reports, the volume of one region (CA1-2 was larger in the young, the difference was due to the presence of hypertensive subjects among the older adults. Among older participants, increased false alarm (FA rate in an associative recognition memory task was linked to reduced CA3-4/DG volume. We discuss the role of the dentate gyrus in pattern separation and the formation of discrete memory representations.

  13. Inhibitory control of hippocampal inhibitory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Topolnik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Information processing within neuronal networks is determined by a dynamic partnership between principal neurons and local circuit inhibitory interneurons. The population of GABAergic interneurons is extremely heterogeneous and comprises, in many brain regions, cells with divergent morphological and physiological properties, distinct molecular expression profiles, and highly specialized functions. GABAergic interneurons have been studied extensively during the past two decades, especially in the hippocampus, which is a relatively simple cortical structure. Different types of hippocampal inhibitory interneurons control spike initiation (e.g., axo-axonic and basket cells and synaptic integration (e.g., bistratified and oriens–lacunosum moleculare interneurons within pyramidal neurons and synchronize local network activity, providing a means for functional segregation of neuronal ensembles and proper routing of hippocampal information. Thus, it is thought that, at least in the hippocampus, GABAergic inhibitory interneurons represent critical regulating elements at all stages of information processing, from synaptic integration and spike generation to large-scale network activity. However, this raises an important question: if inhibitory interneurons are fundamental for network computations, what are the mechanisms that control the activity of the interneurons themselves? Given the essential role of synaptic inhibition in the regulation of neuronal activity, it would be logical to expect that specific inhibitory mechanisms have evolved to control the operation of interneurons. Here, we review the mechanisms of synaptic inhibition of interneurons and discuss their role in the operation of hippocampal inhibitory circuits.

  14. Coexistent arteriovenous malformation and hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayson, Richard A; O'Toole, Elizabeth E

    2016-06-01

    Cavernous angiomas or cavernomas have been occasionally described in patients presenting with medically intractable epilepsy. Reports of cavernomas associated with a second pathology potentially causative of seizures have rarely been documented; most commonly, the second pathology is focal cortical dysplasia or less frequently, hippocampal sclerosis. To our knowledge, cases of arteriovenous malformation arising in this clinical setting and associated with hippocampal sclerosis have not been previously described. We report a 56-year-old woman who initially presented at age 24years with staring spells. Imaging studies revealed an arteriovenous malformation in the right parietal lobe. At age 51years, she represented with signs and symptoms related to a hemorrhage from the malformation. The patient underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) of the lesion. She subsequently developed seizures, refractory to medical management. MRI studies showed atrophy in the right hippocampus. She underwent resection of the right parietal lobe and hippocampus. Histopathologic examination of the right parietal lesion revealed an arteriovenous malformation marked by focally prominent vascular sclerosis, calcification and adjacent hemosiderin deposition. The hippocampus was marked by prominent neuronal loss and gliosis in the CA1 region, consistent with CA1 sclerosis or hippocampal sclerosis International League Against Epilepsy type 2. PMID:26899356

  15. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Shen, H;

    1993-01-01

    Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector...... effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts...... or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions....

  16. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv;

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change in...... hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  17. Bilateral electric energy contracts: return and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, Laura K.; Silva, Elisa B.; Correia, Paulo B. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). College of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil electricity is traded through three segments: the spot market that balances offer and demand, with prices calculated by a cost-based computational model; the regulated market , where prices are settled in public auctions, and the free market for bilateral contracts. As spot and regulated market prices are public information, a seller is able to calculate his opportunity price to trade a bilateral contract in the free market by using the non-arbitrage principle. Thus, the seller searches the price of a bilateral contract in the free market that balances his/her revenues with the value expected in case it were negotiated in the regulated and the spot market. Besides the expected revenue, the seller may also consider the CVaR to measure the risk of her/his bilateral contract in the free market. So this paper develops a binomial lattice approach to price bilateral contracts in the free market, considering the seller's opportunity of negotiations in both regulated and spot markets, and measuring the contract risk directly. (author)

  18. Synthesis of HgBa2Ca3Cu4O10+δ(Hg-1234) and HgBa2Ca4Cu5O12+δ(Hg-1245) from oxygen controlled precursors under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of oxygen content in the precursor have been investigated on the synthesis of HgBa2Ca4Cu5O12+δ(Hg-1245) under high pressure. The superconducting phases continuously changed from Hg-1234 to Hg-1245 with reducing the oxygen content in the precursor of Ba2Ca4Cu5O11+δ. Samples of Hg- 1245 have been synthesized by optimizing the oxygen content of the precursor with the stoichiometric composition. (author)

  19. Agmatine increases proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis in chronically stressed mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-feng LI; Hong-xia CHEN; Ying LIU; You-zhi ZHANG; Yan-qin LIU; Jin LI

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To explore the mechanism of agmatine's antidepressant action.Methods: Male mice were subjected to a variety of unpredictable stressors on a daily basis over a 24-d period.The open-field behaviors of the mice were displayed and recorded using a Videomex-V image analytic system automatically.For bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU;thymidine analog as a marker for dividing cells) labeling,the mice were injected with BrdU (100 mg/kg,ip,twice per d for 2 d),and the hippocampal neurogenesis in stressed mice was measured by immunohistochemistry.The proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells from neonatal rats was determined by colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8) and 3H-thymidine incorporation assay.Results:After the onset of chronic stress,the locomotor activity of the mice in the open field significantly decreased,while coadministration of agmatine 10 mg/kg (po) blocked it.Furthermore,the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus significantly decreased in chronically stressed mice, which was also blocked by chronic coadministration with agmatine 10 mg/kg (po). Four weeks after the BrdU injection, some of the new born cells matured and became neurons, as determined by double labeling for BrdU and neuron specific enolase (NSE), a marker for mature neurons.In vitro treatment with agmatine 0.1-10 μmo1/L for 3 d significantly increased the proliferation of the cultured hippocampal progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion:We have found that agmatine increases proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro and the hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo in chronically stressed mice.This may be one of the important mechanisms involved in agmatine's antidepressant action.

  20. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Dailey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. Keywords: Bilateral intramedullary nailing, bilateral tibial stress fractures, valgus

  1. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  2. Prognosis of synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Tjønneland, Anne; Balslev, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    Currently, no consistent evidence-based guidelines for the management of synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) exist and it is uncertain how presenting with SBBC affects patients' prognosis. We conducted a review of studies analyzing the association between SBBC and prognosis. The studies that...... reported adjusted effect measures were included in meta-analyses of effect of bilaterality on breast cancer mortality. From 57 initially identified records 17 studies from 11 different countries including 8,050 SBBC patients were included. The quality of the studies varied but was generally low with small...... sample sizes, and lack of consistent, detailed histo-pathological information. When doing meta-analysis on the subgroup of studies that provided adjusted effect estimates on breast cancer mortality (nine studies including 3,631 SBBC cases), we found that bilaterality in itself had a negative impact on...

  3. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Bilateral Mastoid Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım Bozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of headache, dizziness, nausea, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus, and hearing loss in both ears for 3 weeks. Physical examination revealed edema in the tympanic membrane and external ear canal, and pain by palpation in the mastoid area bilaterally. There was no nystagmus, and the rest of the physical examination was otherwise normal. Temporal bone high resolution computed tomography (CT showed a lesion causing erosion in the mastoid cortex, tegmen tympani, ossicles, and in the bone covering the sigmoid sinus bilaterally. There was also erosion in the superior semicircular canal and petrous bone on the left side. Cortical mastoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic examination of the tissue revealed Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH. In this paper a case with LCH, presenting with bilateral mastoid involvement which has been rarely reported in the literature, is discussed with the existing literature.

  4. Bilateral Supernumerary Kidney: A Very Rare Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare renal abnormality and there are five cases presented in the literature. It is difficult to diagnose supernumerary kidney and clinicians have not detected most cases preoperatively. Laboratory and imaging studies were acquired and carefully examined. The normal laboratory tests were found. Emergency ultrasonography was performed and they revealed no signs of parenchymal abnormality in both kidneys. Serial imaging study including enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. An imaging study identified bilateral supernumerary kidney with expanded collecting systems. On each side, significant rotation anomaly was found. In addition, there were two different renal arteries originating from the aorta. This report presents radiological determinations of supernumerary kidney bilaterally in a young man. We think that CT commonly appears to be enough for the diagnosis of supernumerary kidneys

  5. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    was much higher in the 1980s compared to in particular the most recent decade. This may be related to factors such as untying of aid in the same period. The econometric analysis has two important limitations. First of all, the model can only give information about marginal changes in aid. As a...... trade policies. The main result of the study is that Danish bilateral aid has a positive and statistically significant impact on Danish exports to the recipient countries. Bilateral development assistance may affect exports through several channels. Three of the main channels are direct aid tying......; increasing recipient income where higher income leads to higher imports, and decreased trade costs, say due to improved information about cultural and administrative customs and practices. Thus, as for preferential trade arrangements, bilateral aid has two potential economic effects; trade creation working...

  6. Amount of lifetime video gaming is positively associated with entorhinal, hippocampal and occipital volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, S; Gallinat, J

    2014-07-01

    Playing video games is a popular leisure activity among children and adults, and may therefore potentially influence brain structure. We have previously shown a positive association between probability of gray matter (GM) volume in the ventral striatum and frequent video gaming in adolescence. Here we set out to investigate structural correlates of video gaming in adulthood, as the effects observed in adolescents may reflect only a fraction of the potential neural long-term effects seen in adults. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 62 male adults, we computed voxel-based morphometry to explore the correlation of GM with the lifetime amount of video gaming (termed joystick years). We found a significant positive association between GM in bilateral parahippocamal region (entorhinal cortex) and left occipital cortex/inferior parietal lobe and joystick years (Pvideo game genres played, such as logic/puzzle games and platform games contributing positively, and action-based role-playing games contributing negatively. Furthermore, joystick years were positively correlated with hippocampus volume. The association of lifetime amount of video game playing with bilateral entorhinal cortex, hippocampal and occipital GM volume could reflect adaptive neural plasticity related to navigation and visual attention. PMID:23958958

  7. Bilateral subepidermal calcified nodules of the eyelid

    OpenAIRE

    Malki, Salem Al; Al-Faky, Yasser H.; Al-Rikabi, Ammar C

    2010-01-01

    A subepidermal calcified nodule (SCN) is an uncommon benign lesion, which usually develops in early childhood and is typically solitary. A rare form of this lesion has been reported in the eyelid. We report here a case of a 12-year-old girl with bilateral nodules of the right upper eyelid and a left lower eyelid simulating epidermal cyst. The histopathologic examination of the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this may be the first bilateral case of eyelid SCN reported...

  8. Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome with hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Hattapoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS, whichis seen by indications of mental retardasyon, epilepsi,speech disorder and pseudobulbar palsy, is a diseasewhich comes up with genetic and non-genetic reasons.Revealing characteristic indications (like polymicrogyriawith MR imaging and clinic indications contributes makingdiagnosis. In present paper, we aimed to present 18month girl case report who diagnosed as CBPS with hydrocephaliindication. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4: 552-554Key words: Epilepsy, congenital bilateral perisylviansyndrome, polymicrogyria, hydrocephalus, pseudobulbarpalsy

  9. Bilateral hydronephrosis caused by vaginal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begliomini Helio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Even though it is uncommon, uterine prolapse can cause compression of ureters and bilateral hydronephrosis, predisposing to arterial hypertension and renal failure. Hydronephrosis consequent to cystocele and to vaginal prolapse is even rarer. CASE REPORT: This paper reports on a 59 year-old patient, Caucasian, obese and hysterectomized who presented complete vaginal prolapse with bilateral hydronephrosis and slight alteration in serum urea and creatinine. Patient underwent correction of vaginal prolapse by endoscopic suspension technique with improvement of hydronephrosis and normalization of renal function. This work emphasizes the rarity of such case and the requirement of surgical approach.

  10. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma a...

  11. Bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Josephin; Guenther, Pete; Hoffmann, Karl Titus [Leipzig University Hospital, Leipzig (Greece)

    2013-04-15

    Hypertrophic olivary degeneration resulting from lesions of the dento-rubro-olivary pathway, also called Guillain-Mollaret-triangle, has been described previously in a number of cases. Reports about bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration of the inferior olivary nuclei are very limited, and the magnetic resonance imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration in Wilson disease have not yet been described to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we present the first report of bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging in a patient suffering from Wilson disease.

  12. Bilateral Diabetic Papillopathy and Metabolic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit; Hvidt-Nielsen, Ditte; Larsen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    -six patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Review of clinical, photographic, and clinical chemistry records from a large diabetology and ophthalmology unit between 2001 and 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simultaneous, bilateral diabetic papillopathy. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 4.9 years. During 10 020...... patient-years of observation, bilateral diabetic papillopathy developed in 5 patients. During the year preceding this incident, all 5 patients had experienced a decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1C)) at a maximum rate of -2.5 (mean) percentage points per quarter year, which was significantly...

  13. Zero temperature coefficient of frequency crystal cuts in monoclinic NdCa4O(BO3)3 piezoelectric crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) was investigated in monoclinic NdCa4O(BO3)3 (NdCOB) piezoelectric crystals over the temperature range of -140 C to 200 C. A zero TCF characteristic was achieved for the (ZXw) 15 crystal cut, with turnover point at 20 C. The electromechanical coupling k26 and piezoelectric coefficient d26, in shear vibration mode, were determined to be 25% and 13.5 pC/N, respectively. The zero TCF crystal cut, large coupling factor and high piezoelectric coefficient, together with a high mechanical quality factor (Q > 10,000), demonstrate NdCOB crystals promising candidates for bulk acoustic wave resonators over a wide temperature range. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. The Neuropsychology of Down Syndrome: Evidence for Hippocampal Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.; Moon, Jennifer; Edgin, Jamie; Stedron, Jennifer; Nadel, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Tested prefrontal and hippocampal functions in school-aged individuals with Down syndrome (DS) compared functions with those of typically developing children individually matched on mental age. Found that hippocampal and prefrontal composite scores contributed unique variance to the prediction of mental age and adaptive behavior. Noted a…

  15. The Impact of Sleep Loss on Hippocampal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal cellular and molecular processes critical for memory consolidation are affected by the amount and quality of sleep attained. Questions remain with regard to how sleep enhances memory, what parameters of sleep after learning are optimal for memory consolidation, and what underlying hippocampal molecular players are targeted by sleep…

  16. Bilateral Pulmonary Cyst in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder K Gupta, Ritu Gupta

    2008-01-01

    A four year old male child presented with history of cough for last six months. Chest skiagram and CTscan of mediastinum revealed bilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst. Serology did authenticate diagnosis. Thechild was prescribed albendazole for 6 months and was advised to come for follow up. The case ofbilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst is being presentated because of rarity.

  17. Bilateral Odontogenic Keratocyst of the Mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Hari; Mohammad, Shadab; Husain, Nuzhat; Gupta, Shalini; Kumar, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a cyst of dental origin with an aggressive clinical behavior, having high recurrence rate. Multiple cysts are associated with bifid-rib basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). We present a case of bilateral odontogenic keratocyst in a cleft lip patient.

  18. Bilateral Pulmonary Cyst in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder K Gupta, Ritu Gupta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A four year old male child presented with history of cough for last six months. Chest skiagram and CTscan of mediastinum revealed bilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst. Serology did authenticate diagnosis. Thechild was prescribed albendazole for 6 months and was advised to come for follow up. The case ofbilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst is being presentated because of rarity.

  19. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer.

  20. Problems in severe bilateral urinary tract anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1989-01-01

    Management of children with severe infravesical or bilateral ureterovesical obstruction with or without reflux is difficult. Our experience over 10 years includes 29 such children, 19 of whom presented in the first 3 months of life. At the time of diagnosis, 13 had severe disturbance of renal...

  1. A Bilateral Traumatic Hip Obturator Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Karci, Tolga; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    A case of a bilateral simultaneous traumatic obturator dislocation of both hip joints in an 18-year-old young man following a traffic accident is presented. We reduced the dislocated femoral heads immediately under general anesthesia followed by passive and active exercises and early full-weight bearing mobilization. After 5 years, the result was excellent. PMID:26977327

  2. Fast and Provably Accurate Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Dabhade, Swapnil D

    2016-06-01

    The bilateral filter is a non-linear filter that uses a range filter along with a spatial filter to perform edge-preserving smoothing of images. A direct computation of the bilateral filter requires O(S) operations per pixel, where S is the size of the support of the spatial filter. In this paper, we present a fast and provably accurate algorithm for approximating the bilateral filter when the range kernel is Gaussian. In particular, for box and Gaussian spatial filters, the proposed algorithm can cut down the complexity to O(1) per pixel for any arbitrary S . The algorithm has a simple implementation involving N+1 spatial filterings, where N is the approximation order. We give a detailed analysis of the filtering accuracy that can be achieved by the proposed approximation in relation to the target bilateral filter. This allows us to estimate the order N required to obtain a given accuracy. We also present comprehensive numerical results to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of speed and accuracy. PMID:27093722

  3. Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis diagnosed during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Cid, P; Sendagorta Cudós, E; Noguera Morel, L; Beato Merino, M J

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare subtype of neurofibromatosis type 1 defined by lesions affecting a single segment of the body and crossing the midline, with no systemic involvement. We present a case diagnosed during pregnancy because of the characteristic increase in size of the lesions during this period. PMID:21635828

  4. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  5. Occipital seizures presenting with bilateral visual loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjikoutis S; Sawhney I

    2003-01-01

    Transient visual loss may occur with occipital seizures as an ictal or post-ictal phenomenon. Its duration varies from less than one minute to days, or can be permanent. We describe a 61-year-old man presenting with headache, vomiting and bilateral visual loss. EEG revealed persistent spike discharge in the occipital lobes suggesting occipital seizures. His vision improved with carbamazepine.

  6. A RARE CASE OF BILATERAL MICROSPHEREPHAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Pandu; Arunkumar B.; Sujatha; Srinivas; Muthukumaran

    2015-01-01

    Microspherophakia is rare bilateral congenital anamoly of the crystalline lens. The condition may be isolated , familial or it may be associated with systemic affections like Marfan's syndrome , Weil - Marchesani syndrome , hyperlysinemia and congenital rubella. Microspherophakia results in lenticular myopia , lens dislocation , usually inferiorly and inverse glaucoma. We present a case in a 8 year old child who presented with bil...

  7. Simulations of bilateral energy markets using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents simulation results of energy bilateral markets using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The algorithm for congestion management and transmission pricing is implemented by means of DC load flow. The simulation results show how elasticity of market participants to transmission usage charges can affect the overall network usage and its cost. (Author)

  8. Bilateral median nerve palsy in a cyclist.

    OpenAIRE

    Braithwaite, I J

    1992-01-01

    Cyclists are prone to a number of sport-related musculoskeletal injuries, mainly of the lower limb. Nerve compression injuries are relatively rare, though in the hand ulnar nerve compression is well described. We describe a case of bilateral median nerve compression caused by cycling.

  9. Bilateral eyelid edema : Cutis laxa or blepharochalasis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakenburg, A; Nicolai, JPA

    2000-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman with massive bilateral edema of the upper and lower eyelids is presented. The edema occurred suddenly and without provocation. No cause could be identified despite a multitude of examinations. Initially the patient was diagnosed as having blepharochalasis, but later skin biopsy s

  10. Spontan bilateral ekstrauterin graviditet efter kejsersnit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper Friis; Ekelund, Charlotte; Settnes, Annette

    2015-01-01

    We describe a rare case of bilateral tubal pregnancy following natural conception in a woman with no other known risk factor than two former caesarean sections. Intraabdominal adhesions following the caesarean sections complicated the salpingectomy thus diminishing certainty of a healthy...

  11. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer.

  12. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold

  13. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test–retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score ≤−1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose–volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) assuming an α/β ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose–response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD2 to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in

  14. Hippocampal sclerosis in children younger than 2 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Tsuchida, Tammy; Gaillard, William D. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is rarely considered as a diagnosis in children younger than 2 years. To describe imaging features in conjunction with clinical information in patients with hippocampal sclerosis who are younger than 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed MR brain imaging and clinical information in five children in whom the diagnosis of HS was made both clinically and by MRI prior to 2 years of age. Imaging features establishing the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis were bright T2 signal and volume loss, while the internal architecture of the hippocampal formation was preserved in almost all children. Clinically, all children had an infectious trigger. It is necessary for radiologists to consider HS in children with certain clinical features to plan an MRI protocol that is appropriate for detection of hippocampal pathology. (orig.)

  15. Modeling Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-03-01

    Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation. We considered four compartments to model hippocampal neurogenesis and, consequently, the effects of radiation treatment in altering neurogenesis: (1) neural stem cells (NSCs), (2) neuronal progenitor cells or neuroblasts (NB), (3) immature neurons (ImN) and (4) glioblasts (GB). Because neurogenesis is decreasing with increasing mouse age, a description of the age-related dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis is considered in the model, which is shown to be an important factor in comparisons to experimental data. A key feature of the model is the description of negative feedback regulation on early and late neuronal proliferation after radiation exposure. The model is augmented with parametric descriptions of the dose and time after irradiation dependences of activation of microglial cells and a possible shift of NSC proliferation from neurogenesis to gliogenesis reported at higher doses (∼10 Gy). Predictions for dose-fractionation regimes and for different mouse ages, and prospects for future work are then discussed. PMID:26943452

  16. Scintigraphy of incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of iodine-131 6β-iodomethylnorcholesterol (NP-59) imaging and the correlation with CT-guided adrenal biopsy and follow-up in patients with bilateral adrenal masses. To this end we investigated a consecutive sample of 29 euadrenal patients with bilateral adrenal masses discovered on CT for reasons other than suspected adrenal disease. Adrenal scintigraphy was performed using 1 mCi of NP-59 injected i.v., with gamma camera imaging 5-7 d later. In 13 of the 29 patients bilateral adrenal masses were the result of metastatic involvement from lung carcinoma (5), lymphoma (3), adrenocarcinoma of the colon (3), squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (1), and anaplastic carcinoma of unknown primary (1). Among these cases the NP-59 scan demonstrated either bilaterally absent tracer accumulation (8, all with bilateral metastases) or marked asymmetry of adrenocortical NP-59 uptake (5). Biopsy of the adrenal demonstrating the least NP-59 uptake documented malignant involvement of that gland in five of five patients. In two patients an adenoma was found simultaneously in one adrenal with a contralateral malignant adrenal mass. In each of these cases, the adenoma demonstrated the greatest NP-59 uptake. In 16 patients diagnosis of adenoma was made on the basis of CT-guided adrenal biopsy of the gland with the greatest NP-59 uptake of the pair (n=4), or adrenalectomy (n=2), or absence of change in the size of the adrenal mass on follow-up CT scanning performed 6 months to 3 years later (n=10). (orig./MG)

  17. Involvement of dopamine D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, P; Wang, S; Zhang, Y; Lv, J; Jin, Q H

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the involvement of dopamine (DA) and its D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD) established by permanent bilateral carotid occlusion. Spatial learning and memory abilities of rats were measured by Morris water maze, and extracellular concentrations of DA in the DG were determined by in vivo microdialysis. The DA concentrations in the DG decreased in the VD rats compared with sham-operated group. Microinjection of SFK38393 (D1 receptor agonist) into the DG attenuates spatial learning and memory deficits in the VD rats. PMID:25272945

  18. Gene-environment effects on hippocampal neurodevelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    Mental disorders like schizophrenia and autism put a heavy load on today’s societies, creating a steady call for revealing underlying disease mechanisms and the development of effective treatments. The etiology of major psychiatric illnesses is complex involving gene by environment susceptibility...... disrupt the normal function of neurodevelopmental genes. Here, the transcriptional repressor Zbtb20, which we and others have shown is a master regulator of hippocampal neurodevelopment, deserves special interest. We study the possibility that environmental factors such as steroid hormones, cytokines and...

  19. Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of preoperatively diagnosed bilateral obturator and incidental bilateral femoral herniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Usman; Connelly, Tara M; Hamid, Mustafa; Pretorius, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Obturator hernia (OH), a rare type of hernia, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often delayed as clinical symptoms are typically non-specific. OH is frequently associated with other occult inguinopelvic herniae. Early diagnosis is vital to decrease morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented to the surgical outpatients' department with non-specific bilateral groin pain radiating to the thighs. CT of the pelvis demonstrated bilateral OH with no radiological evidence of bowel obstruction. Semiurgent elective laparoscopic total extraperitoneal mesh repair was performed. Intraoperative findings confirmed bilateral obturator herniae as well as incidental bilateral femoral herniae. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for such concomitant hernias that, in the presence of OH, may only be identified intraoperatively. PMID:27113790

  20. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Şevik Eliçora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis.

  1. The role of the rat hippocampal cellular electrophysiology in electrogenic cortical epileptic network reorganization%电刺激构建大鼠皮层网络癫痫的海马细胞电生理特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪胜; 刘青; 邹祖玉; 韩丹

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study hippocampal cellular electrophysiology involved in cortical epileptic networks reorganized by acute tetanization (60 Hz, 2 s, 0.4-0.6 mA) of the right posterior dorsal hippocampus (ATPDH). Experiments were performed on 35 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The ATPDH was used to establish epilepsy model. Four-channel recordings were done simultaneously, two channels for single unit recordings from bilateral hippocampi and other two channels for electrocorticogram (ECoG) or hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings on the bilateral sides. The ATPDH bilaterally induced: (1) Epileptic ECoG activities that were originated from single unit afterdischarges of ipsilateral hippocampal neuron, followed by single unit afterdischarges of contralateral hippocampal neuron, finally produced seizure-like oscillations in the contralateral and ipsilateral ECoG. (2) 4-10 Hz rhythmic ECoG oscillations and 100-250 Hz hippocampal EEG oscillations, and asymmetric electrical activities of bilateral hippocampal neurons. (3) The hippocampal neuronal bursting that appeared its interspike interval (ISI) spot distribution in an irregular circular shape. The ipsilateral circular shape ISI distribution was more regular and occurred often, which was time-locked with the sinusoidal pattern of maximum peaks of hippocampal oscillatory trains. The results imply that the epileptic networks are reorganized bilaterally between ECoG and hippocarnpal EEG by the ATPDH. The hippocampal neuronal firing temporally encodes its information, in particular, the irregular circular shape ISI distribution during epileptic network reorganization.%本文旨在探讨急性强直电刺激右后背海马(hippocampus,HPC)诱导出现双侧皮层网络癫痫的前背HPC神经元电生理机制.实验共用雄性SD大鼠35只,急性强直电刺激(60 Hz,2s,0.4-0.6 mA)大鼠右侧后背HPC(a-cute tetanization of the right posterior dorsal hippocampus,ATPDH)诱发癫痫模

  2. A review of bilateral training for upper extremity hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Upper extremity hemiparesis is the most common post-stroke disability. Longitudinal studies have indicated that 30-66% of stroke survivors do not have full arm function 6 months post-stroke. The current gold standard for treatment of mild post-stroke upper limb impairment is constraint-induced therapy but, because of the inclusion criteria, alternative treatments are needed which target more impaired subjects. Bilateral arm training has been investigated as a potential rehabilitation intervention. Bilateral arm training encompasses a number of methods including: (1) bilateral isokinematic training; (2) mirror therapy using bilateral training; (3) device-driven bilateral training; and (4) bilateral motor priming. Neural mechanisms mediating bilateral training are first reviewed. The key bilateral training studies that have demonstrated evidence of efficacy will then be discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning clinical implications based on the reviewed literature. PMID:19517519

  3. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary metastases of synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary tumor is uncommon and with pulmonary metastases is rare. The clinical and radiological features of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax from a synovial sarcoma in a 14 years old boy are described. (author)

  4. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Broersma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results expand on previous findings of bilateral cerebellar involvement in ET. We have identified specific areas in the bilateral somatomotor regions of the cerebellum: lobules V, VI and VIII.

  5. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  6. Effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-o-Tang, a polyherbal medicine on the hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of global ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Woo Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been well characterized as a common pathological status contributing to vascular dementia (VD. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of modified Bo yang Hwan O Tang (mBHT, a polyherbal medicine for ischemic stroke, was investigated in a rat model for global ischemia. Materials and Methods: Global ischemia model was prepared in Sprague Dawley rats by the permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (two vessel occlusion [2VO] induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was orally administrated for 4 weeks once a day, 24 h after 2VO. Histopathological change of the hippocampal region was observed by hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and Fluoro Jade B staining and immunohistochemistry with anti glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti neuronal nuclei antibodies. The expression of Bax, Bcl 2, and caspase 3 was investigated in the hippocampus by Western blot. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF κB expression was also analyzed in hippocampal CA1 region using immunofluorescence staining. Results: The administration of mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced neuronal damage and astroglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region in 2VO rats. mBHT increased the NF κB expression in the CA1 neuronal cells but decreased in activated astrocytes. In addition, mBHT significantly decreased the hippocampal expression of Bax and caspase 3 and increased the Bcl 2 expression in 2VO rats. Conclusions: Our data indicate that mBHT has a neuroprotective property in VD induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through inhibiting the hippocampal neuronal damage and astrogliosis.

  7. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A. [Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Disability Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sekita, Y. [Tohoku University Graduate School of Economics, Sendai (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  8. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  9. Bilateral Thoracic Ganglion Cyst : A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kazanci, Burak; Tehli, Ozkan; Türkoglu, Erhan; Guclu, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts usually arise from the tissues around the facet joints. It is usually associated with degenerative cahanges in facet joints. Bilateral thoracic ganglion cysts are very rare and there is no previous case that located in bilateral intervertebral foramen compressing the L1 nerve root associated with severe radiculopathy. We report a 53 years old woman who presented with bilateral groin pain and severe numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cystic mass in the inter...

  10. Acute bilateral isolated foot drop: Report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Kertmen, H.; Gürer, B.; Yimaz, E. R.; Sekerci, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop is defined as the weakness of the foot and ankle dorsiflexion. Acute unilateral foot drop is a well-documented entity, whereas bilateral foot drop is rarely documented. Slowly progressing bilateral foot drop may occur with various metabolic causes, parasagittal intracranial pathologies, and cauda equina syndrome. Acute onset of bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of acute bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation. The first patien...

  11. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Suárez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre 1997 y 2007. MÉTODO: se hizo enucleación del ojo con el tumor de mayor tamaño. En el otro ojo se hizo tratamiento con TTT, con el láser diodo (810 nm, spot amplio, solo o combinado con otras terapias. RESULTADOS: se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: 16 pacientes (32 ojos en el grupo 1 tratados conservadoramente y 4 pacientes (8 ojos en el grupo 2 con tratamiento convencional. El rango de edad fue de 1-72 meses en el grupo 1 y de 1-12 meses en el grupo 2. El tiempo de seguimiento fue de 7-67 meses para el grupo 1 y de 13-73 meses para el grupo 2. En el grupo 1 se hizo enucleación de 16 ojos (50%, radioterapia externa de uno (3,1%, quimioterapia más termoterapia de 5 (15,6% y quimioterapia más termoterapia más crioterapia de 10 (31,3%. En todos los pacientes se logró preservar al menos un ojo. En el grupo 2, se enuclearon 7 ojos (87,5% y se hizo radioterapia externa más enucleación en un paciente (12.5%. Además, todos los pacientes recibieron quimioterapia. CONCLUSIÓN: la terapia conservadora actual consistente en tratamiento local (termoterapia, crioterapia o braquiterapia y quimiorreducción permite preservar al menos un ojo y en algunos casos de los dos, muchas veces con buena agudeza visual, en niños con retinoblastoma bilateral; se evitan así la enucleación bilateral y la radioterapia externa usada en el tratamiento convencional con todos sus efectos secundarios. La enucleación contin

  12. Aklimaite, Ca4[Si2O5(OH)2](OH)4 · 5H2O, a new natural hydrosilicate from Mount Lakargi, the Northern Caucasus, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadov, A. E.; Pekov, I. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Gazeev, V. M.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Kartasheov, P. M.; Galuskin, E. V.; Galuskina, I. O.; Pertsev, N. N.; Gurbanov, A. G.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral aklimaite, Ca4[Si2O5(OH)2](OH)4 · 5H2O, has been found near Mount Lakargi, Upper Chegem caldera, Kabardino-Balkaria, the Northern Caucasus, Russia, in the skarnified limestone xenolith in ignimbrite. This hydrothermal mineral occurs in a cavity of altered larnite skarn and is associated with larnite, calcium humite-group members, hydrogarnets, bultfonteinite, afwillite, and ettringite. Aklimaite forms transparent, colorless (or occasionally with pinkish tint) columnar or lath-shaped crystals up 3 × 0.1 × 0.01 mm in size, flattened on {001} and elongated along {010}; they are combined in spherulites. The luster is vitreous; the cleavage parallel to the {001} is perfect. D calc = 2.274 g/cm3. The Mohs' hardness is 3-4. Aklimaite is optically biaxial, negative, 2 V meas > 70°, 2 V calc = 78°, α = 1.548(2), β = 1.551(3), γ = 1.553(2). The IR and Raman spectra are given. The chemical composition (wt %, electron microprobe) is as follows: 0.06 Na2O, 0.02 K2O, 45.39 CaO, 0.01 MnO, 0.02 FeO, 24.23 SiO2, 0.04 SO3, 3.22 F, 27.40 H2O(calc.), -1.36 -O=F2; the total is 99.03. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 2Si apfu with O + OH + F = 16 is as follows: (Ca4.02Na0.01)Σ4.03[Si2.00O5.07(OH)1.93][(OH)3.16F0.84] Σ4.00 · 5H2O. The mineral is monoclinic, space group C2/ m, a = 16.907(5), b = 3.6528(8), c = 13.068(4) Å, β = 117.25(4)·, V= 717.5(4) Å3, Z = 2. Aklimaite is representative of the new structural type, the sorosilicate with disilicate groups [Si2O5(OH)2]. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder patterns [ d, Å ( hkl)] are: 11.64(100)(001), 2.948(32)(310, 203), 3.073(20) (, ), 2.320(12)(005, 510), 2.901 (11)(004), 8.30(10). The type specimen is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  13. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Hasan; Tokur, Mahmut; Hamide SAYAR; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Cryptogenic organising pneumonia is not considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. We submitted a patient presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. We suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis, but the patient was diagnosed as cryptogenic organising pneumonia with the histological result. This is the second case report of cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

  14. Nocturnal seizure and simultaneous bilateral shoulder fracture-dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbudin, Ilfita; Filer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    An otherwise fit and well 27-year-old man presented with acute onset unexplained bilateral shoulder pain, and was found to have bilateral shoulder fractures and dislocations on imaging. Although features were atypical, a nocturnal seizure causing the bilateral shoulder fractures was suspected and EEG showed features compatible with epilepsy. PMID:26838296

  15. HORSE SHOE KIDNEY WITH BILATERAL STAGHORN CALCULUS: A RARE PRESENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid,; Mahendra; Sangeeta; Vijoy; Ahsan; Vijayanand,

    2014-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common renal anomalies. Bilateral staghorn calculi in HSK are rare and management is challenging. Anatomic consideration is important in choosing treatment modality. We report a case of bilateral staghorn calculus and its management. We report a case of bilateral staghorn calculus due to its rarity and challenge associated with its management.

  16. HORSE SHOE KIDNEY WITH BILATERAL STAGHORN CALCULUS: A RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney (HSK is the most common renal anomalies. Bilateral staghorn calculi in HSK are rare and management is challenging. Anatomic consideration is important in choosing treatment modality. We report a case of bilateral staghorn calculus and its management. We report a case of bilateral staghorn calculus due to its rarity and challenge associated with its management.

  17. Cortisol, Cytokines, and Hippocampal Volume in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Daniel Sudheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation.

  18. Bilateral Diabetic Papillopathy and Metabolic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit; Hvidt-Nielsen, Ditte; Larsen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of diabetic papillopathy largely is unknown, but case reports suggest that it may follow rapidly improved metabolic control. The present study was designed to investigate this hypothesis. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand sixty......-six patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Review of clinical, photographic, and clinical chemistry records from a large diabetology and ophthalmology unit between 2001 and 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simultaneous, bilateral diabetic papillopathy. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 4.9 years. During 10 020...... patient-years of observation, bilateral diabetic papillopathy developed in 5 patients. During the year preceding this incident, all 5 patients had experienced a decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1C)) at a maximum rate of -2.5 (mean) percentage points per quarter year, which was significantly...

  19. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  20. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Faramarzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of Nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Case Report: A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response.

  1. Bilateral Nocardia Keratitis after Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Amir; Feizi, Sepehr; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical, confocal scan, and histopathologic features of nocardia keratitis in a patient who developed bilateral infection following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Case Report A 23-year-old woman underwent bilateral PRK for low myopia. On postoperative day 3, dense central stromal infiltrates were noticed in both eyes. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated which was converted into specific therapy after a definite diagnosis was made based on clinical features and confirmed by confocal scan and histopathologic findings. Clinical and confocal scan features were consistent with the diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis, and topical 2% amikacin eye drops were started. Because of poor response to medical therapy, lamellar keratectomy was performed in both eyes which shortened the treatment course. Histopathologic examination reconfirmed the initial diagnosis. Conclusion Familiarity with clinical and confocal scan features facilitates early diagnosis of Nocardia keratitis leading to proper management and hence a rapid therapeutic response. PMID:23275825

  2. Bilateral Pial siderosis and hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven adult patients with bilateral progressive hearing loss (six male, one female; aged 40-74 years) were studied with a high-field strength (1.5-T) magnetic resonance (MR) system after previous negative workup with either air contrast or intravenous contrast medium-enhanced computed tomography (CT). In all instances, the patients showed extensive evidence of pial siderosis outlining the posterior fossa subarachnoid space. The siderosis was manifested (on long repetition time images) as an increasing susceptibility effect (hypointensity) with a prolongation of echo time. The results of this study indicate that a negative CT examination is inadequate in patients with bilateral hearing loss and that when evidence of siderosis is found on MR images, an etiology for prior subarachnoid hemorrhage must be pursued

  3. Bilateral breast cancer after cured Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients developed bilateral breast cancer at 10 to 24 years after mantle irradiation for locally or systemically advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD). Four of the six cancers in the three patients were detected only by mammography. Pathologically, five of the cancers were intraductal carcinomas (four with an invasive component) with one being a lobular carcinoma. Five of the six lesions were Stage I pathologically without evidence of axillary nodal involvement. It is recommended that female patients with Hodgkin's disease who have received mantle irradiation as part of the therapy for their Hodgkin's disease and who are observed for 10 or more years after completion of mantle irradiation be considered at risk for the development of breast cancer. Such patients should be monitored appropriately by routine bilateral mammograms to increase the early detection of early stage lesions

  4. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  5. Bilateral Parotid Swelling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, Yakov; Mandel, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is recognized by the presence of polycystic ovaries, irregular menstruation, and increased androgen levels. Many patients have insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance and an associated development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A patient with PCOS is presented whose cosmetic concerns centered on the prolonged existence of substantial bilateral parotid swelling. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of sialosis are discussed. PMID:26657398

  6. Frequency and causes of bilateral ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and causes of bilateral ocular trauma. All patients coming to the hospital with bilateral eye trauma and requiring admission were recruited into the study. The details of patients demographics, risk factors, ocular examination, treatment offered and final visual acuity were noted and described as frequency and percentages. Out of a total of 1551 patients of hospitalized ocular trauma, 46 (2.9%, 92 eyes) had bilateral ocular trauma. The majority (54.3%) were due to landmine blast injuries followed by dynamite blast in 10.8%, coalmine blast and firearm injury in 6.5% each. Pressure cooker explosion and road traffic accident was the cause in 4.3% each. Gas cylinder and automobile battery explosion, alkali and acid burn, assault and incidental trauma occurred in 2.1%. Sixty three percent were between 16 and 40 years of age. Males were affected in 93.4%. Corneal and / or scleral repair was done in 58.6%, conjunctival and or corneal foreign body removal in 26% and extracapular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation in 16.3%. The visual acuity was in the range of 6/60 and perception of light in 54.3%, while in 21.7%, there was no perception of light at the time of admission. Due to severity of injury, the final visual acuity was poor and only 28.2% regained vision between 6/18 and 6/60. In this series, landmine, dynamite and coalmine blasts were the major causes of bilateral ocular trauma. Victims were usually young males. Due to severity of ocular trauma, majority had poor visual outcome. (author)

  7. BILATERAL LUXATIO ERECTA, A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, César Augusto Xavier; da Silva Resch, Elemar; Rodrigues, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Inferior shoulder dislocation (luxactio erecta) is a rare lesion affecting approximately 0.5% of dislocations of this joint. The vast majority of these cases occur unilaterally. In September 2004, a 43 year old man was brought to the emergency room of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) complaining of bilateral shoulder pain and inability to lower the arms, as a result of a fall with the arms abducted, while carrying out work activities. After physical examination and radiological e...

  8. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterio...

  9. Bilateral Globus Pallidus Ischemia: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizir Akdemir

    2014-03-01

    Karbonmonoksit zehirlenmesi ile iliskili serebral lezyonlar BT ve MRG ile tespit edilebilir. Karbonmonoksit zehirlenmesi sonrasi serebral korteks, derin beyaz cevher, bazal gangliyonlar ve hipokampal bölgede lezyonlar ortaya çikabilir. Radyolojik bulgularin ortaya çikisi farkli zamanlarda olabilir. Karbonmonoksit zehirlenmelerinde en sik beyaz cevher degisiklikleri görülür. Siklikla derin beyaz cevher ve sentrum semiovale düzeyinde bilateral diffüz radyolojik etkilenim saptanir.

  10. Bilateral Filter Evaluation Based on Exponential Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ismaeil, Kassem; Aouada, Djamila; Mirbach, Bruno; Ottersten, Björn

    2012-01-01

    The well-known bilateral filter is used to smooth noisy images while keeping their edges. This filter is commonly used with Gaussian kernel functions without real justification. The choice of the kernel functions has a major effect on the filter behavior. We propose to use exponential kernels with L1 distances instead of Gaussian ones. We derive Stein's Unbiased Risk Estimate to find the optimal parameters of the new filter and compare its performance with the conventional one. We show that t...

  11. Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Chakrabarti; Koushik Pan

    2014-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features...

  12. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes - right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  13. Expectation Damages and Bilateral Cooperative Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Göller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We examine the efficiency of the standard breach remedy expectation damages in a setting of bilateral cooperative investment by a buyer and a seller. Contracts may specify a required quality level and an upper bound to the cost of production. We find that it is optimal to write an augmented Cadillac contract that sets one threshold such that it cannot be met with positive probability together with an extreme price. Then, one of the parties becomes a residual claimant of the trade relationship...

  14. Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Lik Thai; Blum, Robert Alexander; Cheng, Chee Peng; Hanifudin, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib phone: +44-784-3617788 (Lim, Lik Thai) (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Blum, Robert Alexander) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - G...

  15. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  16. Characteristics of immigrants and bilateral trade

    OpenAIRE

    José Vicente Blanes-Cristóbal

    2008-01-01

    This paper tests the impact of immigration on bilateral trade using Spanish data from 1995 to 2003. It also explores some possible mechanisms behind this link. It uses a gravity equation for trade augmented with an immigrant’s stock variable and a set of control variables. The immigrants variable enters the estimated equation in different ways depending on immigrant relevant characteristics both individual and non individualspecific. Results show that there is a positive link between immigrat...

  17. Methanol intoxication with bilateral basal ganglia infarct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol is a toxic agent that affects the central nervous system, especially the optic nerves and basal ganglia. Symmetrical hypodense lesions in the basal ganglia, which can be demonstrated by CT or MRI, is accepted as the most characteristic radiological feature of the disease. A case of a patient with bilateral putaminal hypodense infarcts due tomethanol intoxication is presented. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Bilateral Ossiculoplasty in 1 Case of Achondroplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jongyoon; Yang, Chulwon; Lee, Sunkyu; Choi, June

    2013-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia and it combines various complications with normal longevity. Hearing disturbance due to otitis media or an ossicular anomaly is one of the most common complications. Conductive hearing loss is suggested as the most common form of hearing loss. Temporal bone and middle ear structures are distorted in achondroplasia because of rotational change of the skull base. Authors experienced a case of an achondroplastic patient with bilateral hearing ...

  19. Psychosocial Outcomes after Bilateral Hand Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Mansher; Oser, Megan; Zinser, Jennifer; Sisk, Geoffroy; Carty, Matthew J; Sampson, Christian; Pribaz, Julian J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Talbot, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the first successful hand transplantation in 1998, there have been multiple reports about surgical technique, transplant survival, and immunosuppression. However, very limited published data exist on psychosocial outcomes following hand transplantation. Methods: We report psychosocial outcomes in a patient with bilateral hand transplants at the midforearm level with serial follow-ups over 3.5 years. Different metrics used to study psychosocial outcomes included the following...

  20. Surgical treatment of patients with bilateral cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Ioshin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Determination of the tactics for surgical cataract treatment in the fellow eye in patients with bilateral cataracts did not received any unambiguous solution till now and the periods of operation performance are interpreted differently. The authors analyzed the results of treatment in 486 patients with bilateral cataracts. The authors identified a possible favorable interval between first and second operations in case of bilateral cataract, which was based on the clinical, functional and immunological parameters. Phacoemulsifications with peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis were carried out not later than 4 days after the operation on the first eye, if there were no complications intra-operatively and in post-operative period in the first eye. Recommended time of surgery in the fellow eye in 114 patients of the main group allowed to reveal high functional results (0.7-1.0 in 90.4% in the first eye and in 85.1% of cases in the fellow eye, that promoted the restoration of binocular functions in 98 % of cases after surgery in the shortest possible time. In all patients of the main group the clear vision at different distances were achieved after surgery with bilateral implantation of multifocal IOLs in both eyes in the maximum shortest time. Selected dates of cataract surgery in both eyes taking into account the general and associated ocular pathology allows to reduce the emotional cost, time and organizational problems in preparation for the operation, adding the benefits of quality of early rehabilitation after surgery in both eyes.

  1. Bilateral Pregnancy Luteoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Annu Nanda; Uday A. Gokhale; G Rajasekharan Pillai

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy luteoma is a non-neoplastic lesion of the ovary occurring during pregnancy and is usually discovered incidentally at the time of a cesarean section or during postpartum tubal ligation. An accurate diagnosis is important for the mother and the fetus as it can be confused with ovarian malignancy leading to unnecessary surgery. We report a case of a pregnant female who was discovered to have bilateral enlarged ovaries at the time of emergency cesarean section.

  2. Bilateral exposures and systemic solvency risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gouriéroux, Christian; Héam, Jean-Cyprien; Monfort, Alain

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a structure of the balance sheets of the banks, which takes into account their bilateral exposures in terms of stocks or lendings, we get a structural model for default analysis. This model allows us to distinguish the exogenous and endogenous default dependence. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the liquidation equilibrium, we study the consequences of exogenous shocks on the banking system and we measure contagion phenomena. This approach is illustrated by an applicati...

  3. China-Pakistan Strengthen Bilateral Custom Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mr.Abdullah Yusuf,Secretary General/Chairman,Central Board Of Revenue of Pakistan,arrived Shenzhen on April 22 to meet with Mr.Sheng Guangzu,the Chinese Minister for Customs Administration for discussing the bilateral customs issues.During his two-day visit,China's Foreign Trade Magazine interviewed to Mr.Abdullah Yusuf in Beijing,he gave the high evaluation on this visit and China's great development in the recent years.

  4. High efficiency angular non-critical phase matching for Ti:sapphire laser realized on LaCa4O(BO3)3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular non-critical phase-matching (A-NCPM) second harmonic generation (SHG) for a Ti:sapphire laser was realized on LaCa4O(BO3)3 (LaCOB) single crystals, grown by the Czochralski pulling method. Properties including the wavelength, bandwidth, effective nonlinear optical (NLO) coefficient (deff), and acceptance angle were evaluated. At ambient temperature of 20 °C, the type-I NCPM (808 nm wavelength) was obtained along the y axis of LaCOB crystals, where the effective nonlinear optical coefficient (deff), PM waveband, and angular acceptance were found to be of the order of 0.59 pm/V, 803∼818 nm and 50.6 mrad cm1/2 (ΔϕL), respectively. Moreover, high single-pass SHG conversion efficiency (44.6%) was achieved for 24.8 mm long Y-cut samples at 808 nm, using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire fundamental laser. (letter)

  5. Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel link-bridge and B-Ring Modified Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) Analogues as Potent Antitubulin Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yong-Tao; Man, Ruo-Jun; Tang, Dan-Jie; Yao, Yong-Fang; Tao, Xiang-Xiang; Yu, Chen; Liang, Xin-Yi; Makawana, Jigar A.; Zou, Mei-Juan; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    A series of 12 novel acylhydrazone, chalcone and amide–bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 were designed and synthesized toward tubulin. All these compounds were determined by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, and MS. Among them, compound 7 with acylhydrazone-bridge, bearing a benzyl at the indole-N position, was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to 35.6 μM. In contrast, its cytotoxic effects on three normal human cells were minimal. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by compound 7 was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2, P21) and some apoptosis-related proteins (Bax, PARP, Bcl-2, Caspase3). The docking mode showed the binding posture of CA-4 and compound 7 are similar in the colchicine-binding pocket of tubulin, as confirmed by colchicine-tubulin competitive binding assay, tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity, extracellular protein expression determination assay and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In vivo study, compound 7 effectively inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth without causing significant loss of body weight suggesting that compound 7 is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:27138035

  6. High-power CW and passively Q-switched laser operation of Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Lisha; Liu, Junhai; Guo, Yunfeng; Han, Wenjuan; Xu, Honghao; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate efficient high-power CW and passively Q-switched operations of Yb:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers. An output power of 18.2 W is generated at 1031.5 nm in CW mode, with optical-to-optical and slope efficiencies being respectively 55% and 70%, with respect to incident pump power. In passively Q-switched operation with a Cr4+:YAG crystal as saturable absorber, a maximum average output power of 15.6 W is produced at a pulse repetition rate of 91 kHz, with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 44%. Low-repetition-rate Q-switched action is also realized, generating an average output power of 4.2 W at 5.7 kHz, the resulting pulse energy and duration are 737 μJ and 3.6 ns, leading to a peak power amounting to 205 kW.

  7. Sol-gel synthesis of Na0.4K0.6Ca4Nb5O17 microwave ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Raz; Iqbal, Yaseen; Rambo, Carlos Renato

    2015-07-01

    The sol-gel method was developed to synthesize A5B5O17-type Na0.4K0.6Ca4Nb5O17 layered perovskite ceramics, using NaNO3, KNO3, CaNO3ṡ4H2O and NbCl5 precursors. Samples were calcined at 950°C and sintered at 1200-1350°C. The phase and microstructural analyses of samples were carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed single phase monoclinic symmetry, within the detection limit of in-house XRD facility. Microstructural analysis shows 10 μm elongated rod-like grains. The microwave dielectric properties of the sintered composition at 1300°C were: relative permittivity (ɛr) = 42, quality factor (Q × f0) = 8270 GHz and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) = -10.1 ppm/°C.

  8. Design, Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Novel link-bridge and B-Ring Modified Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) Analogues as Potent Antitubulin Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yong-Tao; Man, Ruo-Jun; Tang, Dan-Jie; Yao, Yong-Fang; Tao, Xiang-Xiang; Yu, Chen; Liang, Xin-Yi; Makawana, Jigar A; Zou, Mei-Juan; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-01-01

    A series of 12 novel acylhydrazone, chalcone and amide-bridged analogues of combretastatin A-4 were designed and synthesized toward tubulin. All these compounds were determined by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and MS. Among them, compound 7 with acylhydrazone-bridge, bearing a benzyl at the indole-N position, was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against a panel of cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 to 35.6 μM. In contrast, its cytotoxic effects on three normal human cells were minimal. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by compound 7 was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2, P21) and some apoptosis-related proteins (Bax, PARP, Bcl-2, Caspase3). The docking mode showed the binding posture of CA-4 and compound 7 are similar in the colchicine-binding pocket of tubulin, as confirmed by colchicine-tubulin competitive binding assay, tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity, extracellular protein expression determination assay and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In vivo study, compound 7 effectively inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth without causing significant loss of body weight suggesting that compound 7 is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:27138035

  9. Effect of Strontium Ion on the Growth and Second-Harmonic Generation Properties of GdCa4O(BO3)3 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树君; 程振祥; 刘均海; 韩建儒; 王继扬; 邵宗书; 陈焕矗

    2001-01-01

    Large sized and optical quality GdCa4O(BO3)3 (GdCOB) crystal with calcium partially substituted by strontium (Sr) ions was grown for the first time. The x-ray powder diffraction shows that the Sr ion has an effect on the cell parameters of the GdCOB crystal Second-harmonic generation (SHG) experiments were performed on the Sr:GdCOB and GdCOB crystals along the spatial phase-matching direction. The results show that the cw green laser output power is 1.04 W when the laser diode pump power is 10 W in the Nd:YVO4/Sr:GdCOB intracavity laser. Considering the slope efficiency of Nd:YVO4 and the fundamental laser in cavity, the intracavity SHG conversion efficiency of the GdCOB crystal is 21% while it is 24% for the Sr:GdCOB crystal, the SHG conversion efficiency is improved by 14%. The effect of the Sr ions on the nonlinearity of the GdCOB crystal is also discussed by using the anion group theory.

  10. Bilateral femoral head dysplasia and osteochondritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia tarda (MEDT) and spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasisa tarda (SEDT) are genetically transmitted conditions affecting the hips, which may resemble bilateral Legg-Perthes disease (LPD). Misdiagnoses are not uncommon, with serious implications for treatment, prognosis and genetic counseling. An epidemiologic study of MEDT and SEDT in a well-defined population of 453 921 persons in Denmark was performed. A population prevalence of 0.7 per 100 000 inhabitants with SEDT and 4.0 per 100 000 inhabitants with MEDT was found. Distinguishing features between MEDT, SEDT and bilateral LPD based on radiologic findings in the hips, other joints, and spine were ascertained. Bilateral LPD is always asymmetric, exhibits patches of increased density in the epiphyses and often metaphyseal cyst-like changes. No spinal lesion or affection of other joints is present, and the acetabula are normal. In MEDT and SEDT the capital femoral epiphyses are symmetrically flattened, fragmented and uniformly slightly sclerotic. Generalised platyspondyly is a constant finding in SEDT. (orig.)

  11. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  12. Medical Image Denoising Using Bilateral Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Bhonsle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical image processing is used for the diagnosis of diseases by the physicians or radiologists. Noise is introduced to the medical images due to various factors in medical imaging. Noise corrupts the medical images and the quality of the images degrades. This degradation includes suppression of edges, structural details, blurring boundaries etc. To diagnose diseases edge and details preservation are very important. Medical image denoising can help the physicians to diagnose the diseases. Medical images include MRI, CT scan, x-ray images, ultrasound images etc. In this paper we implemented bilateral filtering for medical image denoising. Its formulation & implementation are easy but the performance of bilateral filter depends upon its parameter. Therefore for obtaining the optimum result parameter must be estimated. We have applied bilateral filtering on medical images which are corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise with different values of variances. It is a nonlinear and local technique that preserves the features while smoothing the images. It removes the additive white Gaussian noise effectively but its performance is poor in removing salt and pepper noise.

  13. Bilateral caudate infarct--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J K; Yap, K B

    1999-07-01

    Caudate strokes comprise only a small proportion of all subtypes of strokes. Bilateral caudate infarcts are even rarer and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report an 86-year-old woman with bilateral caudate infarcts. She had no past medical history of note. She presented with headache for several days and drowsiness on day of admission. Clinical examination revealed abulia, inability to comprehend or verbalize (acute mutism), right-sided neglect and right-sided hemiparesis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan brain revealed decreased attenuation in both heads of both caudate nuclei with extension across the anterior limb of both internal capsules to involve the lentiform nuclei. Echocardiography showed aortic valve sclerosis, mild mitral and aortic regurgitation and normal left ventricular function. Carotid ultrasound revealed mild stenosis of proximal right internal carotid and left distal common carotid and adjacent proximal internal carotid arteries. She showed initial improvement in the first week, but subsequently had a progressive downward course despite rehabilitation and died 44 days after her stroke. A patient with bilateral caudate infarcts is likely to have poor prognosis for rehabilitation and survival. PMID:10561773

  14. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  15. Bilateral femoral neck fractures following pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 300 cases of femoral neck fractures following radiotherapy for intrapelvic malignant tumor have been reported in various countries since Baensch reported this disease in 1927. In Japan, 40 cases or so have been reported, and cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures have not reached to ten cases. The authors experienced a case of 75 year-old female who received radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, and suffered from right femoral neck fracture 3 months after and left femoral neck fracture one year and half after. As clinical symptoms, she had not previous history of trauma in bilateral femurs, but she complained of a pain in a hip joint and of gait disturbance. The pain in left femoral neck continued for about one month before fracture was recognized with roentgenogram. As histopathological findings, increase of fat marrow, decrease of bone trabeculae, and its marked degeneration were recognized. Proliferation of some blood vessels was found out, but thickness of the internal membrane and thrombogenesis were not recognized. Treatment should be performed according to degree of displacement of fractures. In this case, artificial joint replacement surgery was performed to the side of fracture of this time, because this case was bilateral femoral neck fractures and the patient had received artificial head replacement surgery in the other side of fracture formerly. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  17. Diagnosis and management of bilateral nasolabial cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Parwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial cysts are painless, submucosal, non-odontogenic jaw cysts presenting as soft tissue swellings in the maxillary anterior mucolabial fold lateral to midline, leading to elevation of nasal ala. Present case documents bilateral nasolabial cysts in a 69-year-old Asian female patient. In the present case, extraoral swelling of maxillary lip and elevation of nasal ala was observed on right side of the face. Intraorally, soft and fluctuant bilateral cysts were observed. Straw-colored fluid was aspirated from the right cyst. Radiographically, erosion of bone in a "cupping" fashion was observed in the region of left cyst. The cysts were enucleated using intraoral approach. Histopathology of the right-sided cyst revealed a cystic cavity lined by stratified squamous cells along with a few mucosal cells. At few places, stratified squamous and pseudostratified columnar epithelia with many cilia and goblet cells were also evident. Capsule was loosely arranged with fibrous tissue and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Left-sided cystic specimen showed two or more layered stratified squamous lining epithelium with thin capsule. Diagnosis of bilateral nasolabial/nasoalveolar cysts was confirmed.

  18. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  19. A case misdiagnosed as bilateral abducens palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 66-year-old male was admitted to our neurosurgical floor because of double vision and gait disturbance. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral 6th nerve palsy with both eyes pointing toward the midline. Initially, using a tentative diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions, especially localized at the base of the skull, computerized tomography of the head, cerebral angiography, orbital venography, and metrizamide CT cisternography were performed; the findings were normal. An orbital CT scan showed an enlargement of the bilateral medial rectus muscles, and the thyroid functions of T3 and T4 and the T3 uptake were all elevated, which was compatible with the diagnosis of Graves' disease. The limitations of both eyeballs were considered to be due not to the 6th nerve palsy, but to the hypertrophy of the bilateral medial rectus muscles. We neurosurgeons should recall Graves' disease as well as intracranial lesions, cerebrovascular disease, and post-traumatic sequelae when examining a patient who presents limitations of external ocular movement. (author)

  20. Hippocampal abnormalities after prolonged febrile convulsion: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rod C; King, Martin D; Gadian, David G; Neville, Brian G R; Connelly, Alan

    2003-11-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common lesion in patients who require epilepsy surgery, and approximately 50% of patients with MTS have a history of prolonged febrile convulsion (PFC) in childhood. The latter led to the hypothesis that convulsive status epilepticus, including PFC, can cause MTS. Our recently published data on children investigated within 5 days of a PFC showed that children investigated by MRI within 48 h of a PFC had large hippocampal volumes and prolongation of T2 relaxation time. Patients investigated >48 h from a PFC had large hippocampal volumes and normal T2 relaxation time. These data are strongly suggestive of hippocampal oedema that is resolving within 5 days of a PFC, but do not exclude the possibility of a pre-existing hippocampal lesion. Fourteen children from the original study had follow-up investigations carried out 4-8 months after the acute investigations. Of the 14 patients, four have had further seizures. Two had short febrile convulsions, one had PFC and one had non-febrile seizures. There was a significant reduction in hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation time between the first and second investigations, and there is now no difference in hippocampal volume or T2 relaxation time in patients compared with a control population. Moreover, there is a significant increase in hippocampal volume asymmetry in patients at follow-up when compared with initial data. Five out of 14 patients had asymmetry outside the 95th percentile for control subjects and, of these, three had one hippocampal volume outside the lower 95% prediction limit for control subjects. A reduction in hippocampal volume or T2 relaxation time, into or below the normal range between the first and second scans, indicates that the earlier findings are temporary and are strongly suggestive of hippocampal oedema as the abnormality in the initial investigations. The change in hippocampal symmetry in the patient group is consistent with injury and neuronal loss

  1. FEATURES OF BILATERAL BREAST CANCER NODAL METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on issues related to the identification and investigation of the lymph node metastases with bilateral breast cancer. The presence of metastases in the lymph nodes determines the stage of the disease, and introducing a form of tumor progression, characterizes the course and prognosis for the future in a specific patient. Thus, the identification of possible morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor tissue and their comparison with the frequency and severity of regional lymph nodes would help to solve the problem of the identification of prognostic factors and markers associated with the risk of nodal metastasis in bilateral breast cancer. This work is relevant due to the fact that the literature on this issue to date are treated ambiguously, and answers to many questions, unfortunately, no.The authors performed a morphological study of the tumor tissue from 600 patients suffering from unilateral and bilateral breast cancer. To avoid false results were studied only cases corresponding to the histological type of invasive carcinoma of non-specific type. The study found that a greater number and a greater percentage of the affected lymph node metastases were observed in patients with bilaterally synchronous tumors. The patients of this group of metastatic lymph nodes was detected more frequently in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the presence of these discrete groups of tumor cells, and the observed maximum degree of inflammatory infiltration of the tumor stroma. In the group of patients with unilateral breast cancer nodal metastasis often detects when triple negative molecular genetic type of the lesion, with large amounts of tumor site, in the presence of infiltrative component of three or more types of structures with the obligatory presence of these microalveolar structures and discretely spaced groups of tumor cells and the highest severity of

  2. Prevention of Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Cognitive Function Deficits in Vascular Dementia by Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Kaili; Deng, Jiangshan; Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Zhao, Yuwu

    2016-07-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and a widely used component of cough medicine. Recently, its indication has been extended experimentally to a wide range of disorders including inflammation-mediated central nervous system disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigate whether DM treatment has protective effects on the hippocampal neuron damage induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]), an animal model of vascular dementia (VaD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) (10 weeks of age) rats were subjected to the 2VO, and DM was injected intraperitoneally once per day for 37 days. Neuron death, glial activation, and cognitive function were assessed at 37 days after 2VO (0.2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-0.2" and 2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-2"). DM-2 treatment provided protection against neuronal death and glial activation in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and reduced cognitive impairment induced by 2VO in rats. The study also demonstrates that activation of the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway and upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) play important roles in these effects. These results suggest that DM is effective in treating VaD and protecting against oxidative stress, which is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD. Therefore, the present study suggests that DM treatment may represent a new and promising protective strategy for treating VaD. PMID:26887382

  3. Reduced hippocampal and amygdala activity predicts memory distortions for trauma reminders in combat-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet Pannu; LaBar, Kevin S; McCarthy, Gregory; Selgrade, Elizabeth; Nasser, Jessica; Dolcos, Florin; Morey, Rajendra A

    2011-05-01

    Neurobiological models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that altered activity in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during encoding of traumatic memories contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, there is little direct evidence in the PTSD literature to support these models. The goal of the present study was to examine MTL activity during trauma encoding in combat veterans using the subsequent memory paradigm. Fifteen combat veterans diagnosed with PTSD and 14 trauma-exposed control participants viewed trauma-related and neutral pictures while undergoing event-related fMRI. Participants returned one week after scanning for a recognition memory test. Region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-wise whole brain analyses were conducted to examine the neural correlates of successful memory encoding. Patients with PTSD showed greater false alarm rates for novel lures than the trauma-exposed control group, suggesting reliance on gist-based representations in lieu of encoding contextual details. Imaging analyses revealed reduced activity in the amygdala and hippocampus in PTSD patients during successful encoding of trauma-related stimuli. Reduction in left hippocampal activity was associated with high arousal symptoms on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The behavioral false alarm rate for traumatic stimuli co-varied with activity in the bilateral precuneus. These results support neurobiological theories positing reduced hippocampal activity under conditions of high stress and arousal. Reduction in MTL activity for successfully encoded stimuli and increased precuneus activity may underlie reduced stimulus-specific encoding and greater gist memory in patients with PTSD, leading to maintenance of the disorder. PMID:21047644

  4. Iatrogenic “buffalo chest” bilateral pneumothoraces following unilateral transbronchial lung biopsies in a bilateral lung transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leith Sawalha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 54 year old male patient who had a bilateral lung transplant sixteen years ago for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency-related emphysema. He was referred for flexible bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies to evaluate new mild exertional dyspnea and worsening of his FEV1. Eight transbronchial biopsies were done from the right middle lobe and the right lower lobe. Post procedure he developed bilateral pneumothoces that required emergent bilateral pleural ‘pigtail’ catheters. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral pneumothoraces that developed after a unilateral procedure in a bilateral lung transplant recipient relatively late after the transplant.

  5. Spatial relational memory requires hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dupret

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning.

  6. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  7. Physical Activity and Alzheimer's-Related Hippocampal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Physical activity and Alzheimer’s-related hippocampal atrophy August 4, 2014 Physical activity may help prevent atrophy of the hippocampus, a ...

  8. Rhinal-hippocampal EEG coherence is reduced during human sleep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fell, J.; Staedtgen, M.; Burr, W.; Kockelmann, E.; Helmstaedter, C.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The deficiency of declarative memory compared with waking state is an often overlooked characteristic of sleep. Here, we investigated whether rhinal-hippocampal coherence, an electrophysiological correlate of declarative memory formation, is significantly altered during sleep as compared with waking

  9. Mnemonic Functions for Nonlinear Dendritic Integration in Hippocampal Pyramidal Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifosh, Patrick; Losonczy, Attila

    2016-05-01

    We present a model for neural circuit mechanisms underlying hippocampal memory. Central to this model are nonlinear interactions between anatomically and functionally segregated inputs onto dendrites of pyramidal cells in hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1. We study the consequences of such interactions using model neurons in which somatic burst-firing and synaptic plasticity are controlled by conjunctive processing of these separately integrated input pathways. We find that nonlinear dendritic input processing enhances the model's capacity to store and retrieve large numbers of similar memories. During memory encoding, CA3 stores heavily decorrelated engrams to prevent interference between similar memories, while CA1 pairs these engrams with information-rich memory representations that will later provide meaningful output signals during memory recall. While maintaining mathematical tractability, this model brings theoretical study of memory operations closer to the hippocampal circuit's anatomical and physiological properties, thus providing a framework for future experimental and theoretical study of hippocampal function. PMID:27146266

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD (PB) CHANGES AND IN HIPPOCAMPAL FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood lead (Pb) exposure has long been associated with reduced IQ, impaired cognitive function, and more recently increases in violence and aggression. We have studied the disruptive effects of developmental Pb exposure on an electrophysiological model of memory, hippocampal...

  11. Rolipram improves cognition, reduces anxiety- and despair-like behaviors and impacts hippocampal neuroplasticity after transient global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Lígia Mendes; De Vry, Jochen; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Milani, Humberto; Prickaerts, Jos; Weffort de Oliveira, Rúbia M

    2016-06-21

    Cognitive impairment, anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms are well recognized outcome of cerebral ischemia in clinical and preclinical settings. Rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitor, improves cognition and produces anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Rolipram also exerts anti-inflammatory effects and enhances survival of newborn hippocampal neurons in mice subjected to transient global cerebral ischemia. Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic rolipram treatment in mice subjected to transient global brain ischemia. C56B6/7 mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and were then tested in a multi-tiered behavioral battery including the elevated zero maze (EZM), open field (OF), object location test (OLT), and forced swim test (FST). We also investigated the effects of rolipram on hippocampal neurodegeneration and the expression of the neuronal plasticity markers doublecortin (DCX) and microtubule-associated protein (MAP-2). Ischemic mice exhibited memory deficits OLT, higher levels of anxiety EZM and behavioral despair FST. BCCAO caused neuronal loss in the CA3 hippocampal subfield and basolateral amygdala (BLA). In the hippocampus of BCCAO mice, a disrupted neuronal plasticity was evidenced by decreased DCX expression. Chronic treatment with rolipram attenuated the behavioral effects of BCCAO. Rolipram also decreased neurodegeneration in the CA3 while it increased dendritic arborization of DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-IR) neurons and microtubule associate MAP-2 expression in the hippocampus of BCCAO mice. These data suggest that chronic inhibition of PDE-4 can be a useful therapeutic strategy to improve the emotional and cognitive outcomes of transient global cerebral ischemia. PMID:27058148

  12. Assessing hippocampal development and language in early childhood: Evidence from a new application of the Automatic Segmentation Adapter Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joshua K; Nordahl, Christine W; Amaral, David G; Lee, Aaron; Solomon, Marjorie; Ghetti, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Volumetric assessments of the hippocampus and other brain structures during childhood provide useful indices of brain development and correlates of cognitive functioning in typically and atypically developing children. Automated methods such as FreeSurfer promise efficient and replicable segmentation, but may include errors which are avoided by trained manual tracers. A recently devised automated correction tool that uses a machine learning algorithm to remove systematic errors, the Automatic Segmentation Adapter Tool (ASAT), was capable of substantially improving the accuracy of FreeSurfer segmentations in an adult sample [Wang et al., 2011], but the utility of ASAT has not been examined in pediatric samples. In Study 1, the validity of FreeSurfer and ASAT corrected hippocampal segmentations were examined in 20 typically developing children and 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 2 and 3 years. We showed that while neither FreeSurfer nor ASAT accuracy differed by disorder or age, the accuracy of ASAT corrected segmentations were substantially better than FreeSurfer segmentations in every case, using as few as 10 training examples. In Study 2, we applied ASAT to 89 typically developing children aged 2 to 4 years to examine relations between hippocampal volume, age, sex, and expressive language. Girls had smaller hippocampi overall, and in left hippocampus this difference was larger in older than younger girls. Expressive language ability was greater in older children, and this difference was larger in those with larger hippocampi, bilaterally. Overall, this research shows that ASAT is highly reliable and useful to examinations relating behavior to hippocampal structure. PMID:26279309

  13. Sleep and circadian organization as regulators of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anka

    2012-01-01

    The functions of sleep and hippocampal neurogenesis are topics of current research and remain unresolved. Both are suggested to play a role in hippocampus-dependent memory processes and in the development and symptoms of stress and depression. Total sleep deprivation, sleep fragmentation and rapid-eye-movement sleep deprivation (RSD) have been shown to reduce hippocampal neurogenesis, suggesting a functional link between sleep and neurogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. To...

  14. Preplay of future place cell sequences by hippocampal cellular assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoi, George; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    During spatial exploration, hippocampal neurons show a sequential firing pattern in which individual neurons fire specifically at particular locations along the animal’s trajectory (place cells1, 2). According to the dominant model of hippocampal cell assembly activity, place cell firing order is established for the first time during exploration, to encode the spatial experience, and is subsequently replayed during rest3, 4, 5, 6 or slow-wave sleep7, 8, 9, 10 for consolidation of the encoded ...

  15. The role of microglia in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Carmelina Gemma; Bachstetter, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Our view of microglia has dramatically changed in the last decade. From cells being “silent” in the healthy brain, microglia have emerged to be actively involved in several brain physiological functions, including adult hippocampal neurogenesis, cognitive and behavioral function. In light of recent discoveries revealing a role of microglia as important effectors of neuronal circuit reorganization, considerable attention has been focused on how microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis could be...

  16. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress Improves Mood, Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Parihar, Vipan K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Kuruba, Ramkumar; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is important for functions such as mood and memory. As exposure to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) results in decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, enhanced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and memory dysfunction, it is believed that declined hippocampal neurogenesis mainly underlies the behavioral and cognitive abnormalities after UCS. However, the effects of predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) such as the routine stress experien...

  17. Modulating Hippocampal Plasticity with In Vivo Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce G Rohan; Carhuatanta, Kim A.; McInturf, Shawn M.; Miklasevich, Molly K.; Jankord, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in relieving symptoms of neurological disorders and enhancing cognitive or motor performance have exhibited promising results. However, the mechanisms by which tDCS effects brain function remain under scrutiny. We have demonstrated that in vivo tDCS in rats produced a lasting effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as measured using extracellular recordings. Ex vivo preparations of hippocampal slices from rats th...

  18. Ceratite bilateral por Acanthamoeba: relato de caso Bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nahmatallah Obeid

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A ceratite por Acanthamoeba é uma infecção ocular grave que, apesar dos recentes progressos no diagnóstico e tratamento, ainda provoca prolongada morbidade e perda da acuidade visual. Relatamos um caso de ceratite bilateral por Acanthamoeba em usuário de lentes de contato, que é o primeiro caso descrito na literatura brasileira.Acanthamoeba keratitis is a severe ocular infection which even with recent progress in diagnosis and treatment still causes long morbidity and loss of visual acuity. We describe a case of bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis in a user of contact lenses, which is the first case discussed in Brazilian literature.

  19. Interaction of Rydberg atoms in circular states with the alkaline-earth Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironchuk, E. S.; Narits, A. A.; Lebedev, V. S., E-mail: vlebedev@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The resonant mechanism of interaction of alkaline-earth atoms having a low electron affinity to Rydberg atoms in circular (l = vertical bar m vertical bar = n–1) and near-circular states has been studied. To describe the dynamics of resonant processes accompanied by nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule, an approach based on the integration of coupled equations for the probability amplitudes has been developed taking into account the possibility of the decay of an anion in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core of a highly excited atom. The approach involves the specific features of the problem associated with the structure of the wavefunction of a Rydberg electron in states with high orbital angular momenta l ∼ n–1. This approach provides a much more accurate description of the dynamics of electronic transitions at collisions between atoms than that within the modified semiclassical Landau–Zener model. In addition, this approach makes it possible to effectively take into account many channels of the problem. The cross sections for resonant quenching of Rydberg states of the Li(nlm) atom with given principal n, orbital l = n–1, and magnetic m quantum numbers at thermal collisions with the Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms have been calculated. The dependences of the results on n, m, and angle α between the relative velocity of the atoms and the normal to the plane of the orbit of the Rydberg electron have been obtained. The influence of orientational effects on the efficiency of the collisional destruction of circular and near-circular states has been studied. The results indicate a higher stability of such states to their perturbations by neutral particles as compared to usually studied nl states with low values of l (l ≪ n)

  20. Interaction of Rydberg atoms in circular states with the alkaline-earth Ca(4s2) and Sr(5s2) atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonant mechanism of interaction of alkaline-earth atoms having a low electron affinity to Rydberg atoms in circular (l = vertical bar m vertical bar = n–1) and near-circular states has been studied. To describe the dynamics of resonant processes accompanied by nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule, an approach based on the integration of coupled equations for the probability amplitudes has been developed taking into account the possibility of the decay of an anion in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core of a highly excited atom. The approach involves the specific features of the problem associated with the structure of the wavefunction of a Rydberg electron in states with high orbital angular momenta l ∼ n–1. This approach provides a much more accurate description of the dynamics of electronic transitions at collisions between atoms than that within the modified semiclassical Landau–Zener model. In addition, this approach makes it possible to effectively take into account many channels of the problem. The cross sections for resonant quenching of Rydberg states of the Li(nlm) atom with given principal n, orbital l = n–1, and magnetic m quantum numbers at thermal collisions with the Ca(4s2) and Sr(5s2) atoms have been calculated. The dependences of the results on n, m, and angle α between the relative velocity of the atoms and the normal to the plane of the orbit of the Rydberg electron have been obtained. The influence of orientational effects on the efficiency of the collisional destruction of circular and near-circular states has been studied. The results indicate a higher stability of such states to their perturbations by neutral particles as compared to usually studied nl states with low values of l (l ≪ n)

  1. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  2. Religious factors and hippocampal atrophy in late life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D Owen

    Full Text Available Despite a growing interest in the ways spiritual beliefs and practices are reflected in brain activity, there have been relatively few studies using neuroimaging data to assess potential relationships between religious factors and structural neuroanatomy. This study examined prospective relationships between religious factors and hippocampal volume change using high-resolution MRI data of a sample of 268 older adults. Religious factors assessed included life-changing religious experiences, spiritual practices, and religious group membership. Hippocampal volumes were analyzed using the GRID program, which is based on a manual point-counting method and allows for semi-automated determination of region of interest volumes. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was observed for participants reporting a life-changing religious experience. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was also observed from baseline to final assessment among born-again Protestants, Catholics, and those with no religious affiliation, compared with Protestants not identifying as born-again. These associations were not explained by psychosocial or demographic factors, or baseline cerebral volume. Hippocampal volume has been linked to clinical outcomes, such as depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease. The findings of this study indicate that hippocampal atrophy in late life may be uniquely influenced by certain types of religious factors.

  3. Sleep-stage correlates of hippocampal electroencephalogram in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoi Tamura

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated in the rodent hippocampus that rhythmic slow activity (theta predominantly occurs during rapid eye movement (REM sleep, while sharp waves and associated ripples occur mainly during non-REM sleep. However, evidence is lacking for correlates of sleep stages with electroencephalogram (EEG in the hippocampus of monkeys. In the present study, we recorded hippocampal EEG from the dentate gyrus in monkeys overnight under conditions of polysomnographical monitoring. As result, the hippocampal EEG changed in a manner similar to that of the surface EEG: during wakefulness, the hippocampal EEG showed fast, desynchronized waves, which were partly replaced with slower waves of intermediate amplitudes during the shallow stages of non-REM sleep. During the deep stages of non-REM sleep, continuous, slower oscillations (0.5-8 Hz with high amplitudes were predominant. During REM sleep, the hippocampal EEG again showed fast, desynchronized waves similar to those found during wakefulness. These results indicate that in the monkey, hippocampal rhythmic slow activity rarely occurs during REM sleep, which is in clear contrast to that of rodents. In addition, the increase in the slower oscillations of hippocampal EEG during non-REM sleep, which resembled that of the surface EEG, may at least partly reflect cortical inputs to the dentate gyrus during this behavioral state.

  4. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS.

  5. Primary Amenorrhea with Bilateral Endometriotic Cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary amenorrhea is a common problem. Diagnosis is usually by going through systematic approach of history, examination and investigations. This case had bilateral large endometriotic cysts in the adnexal region. Uterus was normal sized with well-formed endometrium. She underwent laparotomy followed by drainage of endometriotic cysts, stripping and reconstruction of ovaries was performed. Patient was given a trial of combined oral contraceptive pills for two consecutive cycles to observe withdrawal bleeding, but it failed. Till now we are unable to find out such case in literature. Exact case of primary amenorrhea could not be found. (author)

  6. Bilateral lipoma arborescens of the subdeltoid bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipoma arborescens is a rare cause of chronic monoarticular arthritis. It is most commonly seen in the knees, but only a few cases involving other joints, especially the subdeltoid bursa, have been described. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of lipoma arborescens involving bilateral subdeltoid bursae. Although it is associated with joint effusion, synovial cysts and erosions, the presence of reactive bone formation has not been reported. Magnetic resonance imaging is a very effective method for the diagnosis of this rare condition because of its ability to do tissue characterization

  7. Bilateral pulmonary sequestration: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 21-year-old woman presented with productive cough and hemoptysis. Chest radiograph shows a large thin-walled cystic lesion with an air-fluid level in medial portion of the left lower lung zone and opacity in paravertebral area of the right lower lung zone. Chest CT scan shows a thin-walled cavitary lesion in the posterior basal segment of left lower lobe with an air-fluid level. Area of consolidation containing air-filled cysts was also observed in medial aspect of right lower lobe. Selective angiogram obtained from aberrant artery arising from descending abdominal aorta showed two main branches of the artery supplying bilateral pulmonary lesions

  8. Familial extensive idiopathic bilateral pleural fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, E; Paugam, B; Heymann, M F; Kambouchner, M; Haloun, A; Valeyre, D; Battesti, J P; Tazi, A

    1999-10-01

    The authors report three sisters with bilateral isolated apical pleural fibrosis of unknown origin, which did not respond to empirical antituberculosis therapy and oral corticosteroids. The disease evolved in an unrelenting fashion producing pleural fibrosis at the lung bases and leading to the death of two sisters and to lung transplantation in the other one. There was no history of other familial disease or consanguinity. The particular features of these cases and the differences from other reports of apparently cryptogenic pleural fibrosis are outlined. PMID:10573252

  9. Bilateral Supernumerary Breast. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Yudey Rodríguez Pino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of polymastia in the general population ranges from 0.4 to 6%. Accessory breasts are often considered a purely cosmetic problem; however various benign and malignant alterations may occur in these structures, as in any other breast tissue. A case of a patient who developed a painless mass in both axillary regions during pregnancy is presented. Her family physician interpreted it as lymphadenopathy. During the immediate puerperium, a greater enlargement in the axillary regions and pain, evident on physical examination, were found. Hence, a mammography and ultrasound were performed. Bilateral supernumerary breast and duct ectasia of the left breast were diagnosed.

  10. Bilateral Kimura's disease of the eyelids.

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, S.M.; Pitts, J F; Lee, W. R.; Gibbons, D C

    1992-01-01

    A case of Kimura's disease affecting the eyelids bilaterally is reported in a 5-year-old boy of Afro-Caribbean extraction who has been followed for 12 years with repeat biopsies. He initially presented at 5 years of age with swelling of the left upper eyelid, left cervical lymphadenopathy, and eosinophilia. One year later he developed swelling of the right upper eyelid. There has been no change in the clinical appearance over the next 12 years. Repeated biopsies of the eyelids showed a diffus...

  11. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia following mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, N; Veerarajkumar, N; Madeswaran, K

    2001-05-01

    A 7-year-old child presented with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) following a trivial head injury. CT was normal. MRI revealed a pontine lesion. Two months after the injury the patient was neurologically normal. INO following head injury is rare. Rarer still is INO following mild head injury. To date, only four cases of INO had been reported following mild head injury; the present case is the fifth and the first in which the lesion was documented using MRI. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:11417420

  12. Bilateral akillesseneruptur efter behandling med ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attarzadeh, Amir Pasha; Ryge, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons following ciprofloxacin treatment. A 54-year-old man presented with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture on the left side, tendinitis and partial tear on the right side following few days of treatment with...... ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily and long-term treatment with prednisolon 10 mg once daily. This rare side effect caused by concurrent treatment with steroids and ciprofloxacin should be kept in mind. Any signs of tendinitis following this treatment should arouse the physicians' suspicion towards ciprofloxacin....

  13. Bilateral sequential Propionibacterium acnes exogenous endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffra, Norman; Moriarty, Emily; Milman, Tatyana

    2016-12-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent uncomplicated sequential cataract extractions performed more than a year apart. He presented 6 months after the second surgery with persistent intraocular inflammation in both eyes. Cultures from both eyes grew Propionibacterium acnes and he responded well to treatment. Suspicion for delayed-onset post-operative endophthalmitis must remain high in uveitis cases that fail to resolve with anti-inflammatory treatments. The authors believe this is the first reported case of bilateral sequential P. acnes exogenous endophthalmitis. PMID:27220771

  14. Hippocampal histone acetylation regulates object recognition and the estradiol-induced enhancement of object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zaorui; Fan, Lu; Fortress, Ashley M; Boulware, Marissa I; Frick, Karyn M

    2012-02-15

    Histone acetylation has recently been implicated in learning and memory processes, yet necessity of histone acetylation for such processes has not been demonstrated using pharmacological inhibitors of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As such, the present study tested whether garcinol, a potent HAT inhibitor in vitro, could impair hippocampal memory consolidation and block the memory-enhancing effects of the modulatory hormone 17β-estradiol E2. We first showed that bilateral infusion of garcinol (0.1, 1, or 10 μg/side) into the dorsal hippocampus (DH) immediately after training impaired object recognition memory consolidation in ovariectomized female mice. A behaviorally effective dose of garcinol (10 μg/side) also significantly decreased DH HAT activity. We next examined whether DH infusion of a behaviorally subeffective dose of garcinol (1 ng/side) could block the effects of DH E2 infusion on object recognition and epigenetic processes. Immediately after training, ovariectomized female mice received bilateral DH infusions of vehicle, E2 (5 μg/side), garcinol (1 ng/side), or E2 plus garcinol. Forty-eight hours later, garcinol blocked the memory-enhancing effects of E2. Garcinol also reversed the E2-induced increase in DH histone H3 acetylation, HAT activity, and levels of the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3B, as well as the E2-induced decrease in levels of the memory repressor protein histone deacetylase 2. Collectively, these findings suggest that histone acetylation is critical for object recognition memory consolidation and the beneficial effects of E2 on object recognition. Importantly, this work demonstrates that the role of histone acetylation in memory processes can be studied using a HAT inhibitor. PMID:22396409

  15. A case of bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas differentiated by segmental adrenal venous sampling for bilateral adrenal sparing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, R; Satani, N; Iwakura, Y; Ono, Y; Kudo, M; Nezu, M; Omata, K; Tezuka, Y; Seiji, K; Ota, H; Kawasaki, Y; Ishidoya, S; Nakamura, Y; Arai, Y; Takase, K; Sasano, H; Ito, S; Satoh, F

    2016-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is a surgically curable form of hypertension. Bilateral APA can also be surgically curable in theory but few successful cases can be found in the literature. It has been reported that even using successful adrenal venous sampling (AVS) via bilateral adrenal central veins, it is extremely difficult to differentiate bilateral APA from bilateral idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) harbouring computed tomography (CT)-detectable bilateral adrenocortical nodules. We report a case of bilateral APA diagnosed by segmental AVS (S-AVS) and blood sampling via intra-adrenal first-degree tributary veins to localize the sites of intra-adrenal hormone production. A 36-year-old man with marked long-standing hypertension was referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of bilateral APA. He had typical clinical and laboratory profiles of marked hypertension, hypokalaemia, elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) of 45.1 ng dl(-1) and aldosterone renin activity ratio of 90.2 (ng dl(-1) per ng ml(-1 )h(-1)), which was still high after 50 mg-captopril loading. CT revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumours of 10 and 12 mm in diameter on the right and left sides, respectively. S-AVS confirmed excess aldosterone secretion from a tumour segment vein and suppressed secretion from a non-tumour segment vein bilaterally, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral APA. The patient underwent simultaneous bilateral sparing adrenalectomy. Histopathological analysis of the resected adrenals together with decreased blood pressure and PAC of 5.2 ng dl(-1) confirmed the removal of bilateral APA. S-AVS was reliable to differentiate bilateral APA from IHA by direct evaluation of intra-adrenal hormone production. PMID:26538381

  16. Bilateral based robust load frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Load frequency control (Lc) has been one of the major subjects in electric power system design/operation and is becoming much more significant today in accordance with increasing size and the changing structure and complexity of interconnected power systems. In practice, power systems use simple proportional-integral (PI) controllers for frequency regulation and load tracking. However, since the PI controller parameters are usually tuned based on classical or trial and error approaches, they are incapable of obtaining good dynamical performance for a wide range of operating conditions and various load changes scenarios in a restructured power system. This paper addresses a new decentralized robust Lc design in a deregulated power system under a bilateral based policy scheme. In each control area, the effect of bilateral contracts is taken into account as a set of new input signals in a modified traditional dynamical model. The Lc problem is formulated as a multi-objective control problem via a mixed H2/H∞ control technique. In order to design a robust PI controller, the control problem is reduced to a static output feedback control synthesis, and then, it is solved using a developed iterative linear matrix inequalities algorithm to get a robust performance index close to a specified optimal one. The proposed method is applied to a 3 control area power system with possible contract scenarios and a wide range of load changes. The results of the proposed multi-objective PI controllers are compared with H2/H∞ dynamic controllers

  17. Bilateral high division of sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shwetha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sciatic nerve is the thickest nerve in the body formed by the sacral plexus from L4 to S3 in the lesser pelvis. It emerges through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis and enter the gluteal region. Then the nerve passes on the back of the thigh and at the level of superior angle of popliteal fossa it terminates by dividing into tibial and common peroneal nerve. The knowledge of anatomical variations in the division of nerve is important for various surgical and anaesthetic procedures. During routine dissection in the department of anatomy, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore, a rare bilateral high division of sciatic nerve was observed in a female cadaver aged about 40 years. In the present case there was bilateral high division of sciatic nerve. The nerve was seen dividing into two branches before it emerges through the greater sciatic foramen. The tibial nerve was entering the gluteal region below the piriformis muscle and common peroneal nerve was entering by piercing the piriformis. The knowledge of this variation is important as the nerve may get compressed with surrounding anatomical structures resulting in non discogenic sciatica. The awareness of variations is important for surgeons during various procedures like fracture, posterior dislocation of hip joint and hip joint replacement. The anatomical variations are important during deep intramuscular injections in gluteal region and also for anaesthetists during sciatic nerve block. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1785-1787

  18. A RARE CASE OF BILATERAL MICROSPHEREPHAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microspherophakia is rare bilateral congenital anamoly of the crystalline lens. The condition may be isolated , familial or it may be associated with systemic affections like Marfan's syndrome , Weil - Marchesani syndrome , hyperlysinemia and congenital rubella. Microspherophakia results in lenticular myopia , lens dislocation , usually inferiorly and inverse glaucoma. We present a case in a 8 year old child who presented with bilateral microspherophakia and anterior dislocation of lens of right eye. visual acuity in right eye was counting fingers close to face and i n left eye 6/60.IOP with perkins applanation tonometer was 30mmHg in right eye 22mmHg in left eye , cornea was hazy due to edema , anterior chamber was shallow in both eye patient was managed with emergency lens extraction of right eye and secondary ACIOL im plantation. Left eye was managed by laser peripheral iridotomy. IOP was within normal limits postoperatively in both eyes without any antiglaucoma medications. Postoperatively best corrected visual acuity in right was 6/18 and 6/9 in left eye.

  19. Unusual Bilateral Rim Fracture in Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of one case of bilateral acetabular rim fracture in association with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI, which was treated with a hip arthroscopic procedure, performing a partial resection, a labral reinsertion, and a subsequential internal fixation with cannulated screws. Up to date, there are in the literature only two reports of rim fracture and “os acetabuli” in association with FAI. In the case we present, the pincer and cam resection were performed without complications; the technique used was published previously. With this technique the head of the screw lays hidden by the reattached labrum. We removed partially the fractured rim fragment and the internal fixation of the remaining portion was achieved with a screw. In the event of a complete resection of the fragment, it would have ended with a LCE angle of 18° and a high probability of hip instability. We believe that this bilateral case helps establish the efficacy and reproducibility of the technique described by Larson.

  20. Bilateral tension pneumothorax following equipment improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambricki, Christine; Schmidt, Carol; Vos, Karen

    2014-02-01

    This case report describes an unexpected event that took place as a result of using improvised equipment. The patient, a 16-year-old female undergoing complex oral surgery, suffered bilateral pneumothorax following the improper use of an airway support device. During the immediate postoperative period with the patient still intubated, oxygen tubing was attached to a right angle elbow connector with the port closed and 10 L/minute oxygen flow was administered to the patient in a manner that did not allow the patient to exhale. Within seconds, pneumothorax was apparent as the patient's vital signs deteriorated, visible swelling was noted in the shoulders and neck, and there was an absence of breath sounds on auscultation. This case study has application beyond the immediate discussion of bilateral pneumothorax, serving as a caution about the unintended consequences of equipment improvisation. In addition to highlighting the hazards of providing patient care with a non-standard device, this study also provides a powerful example of the human factors that can contribute to medical errors in the healthcare setting. PMID:24654348

  1. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  2. Bilateral Single-Session Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for the Treatment of Bilateral Renal Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Atis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bilateral single-session retrograde intrarenal surgery in the treatment of bilateral renal stones. Materials and Methods From December 2008 to February 2012, 42 patients who had undergone bilateral single-session retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS and laser lithotripsy were included in the study. The procedures were performed in the lithotomy position on an endoscopy table under general anesthesia, beginning on the side in which the stone size was smaller. Plain abdominal radiography, intravenous urograms (IVU, renal ultrasonography (USG and / or non-contrast tomography (CT scans were conducted for all patients. The success rate was defined as patients who were stone-free or only had residual fragment less than 4 mm. Results A total of 42 patients (28 male, 14 female with a mean age 39.2 ± 14.2 were included in the present study. The mean stone size was 24.09 ± 6.37 mm with a mean operative time of 51.08 ± 15.22 minutes. The stone-free rates (SFR were 92.8% and 97.6% after the first and second procedures, respectively. The average hospital stay was 1.37 ± 0.72 days. In two patients (4.7%, minor complications (Clavien I or II were observed, whereas no major complications (Clavien III-V or blood transfusions were noted in the studied group. Conclusions Bilateral single-session RIRS and laser lithotripsy can be performed safely and effectively with a high success rate and low complication rate in patients with bilateral renal stones.

  3. Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with congenital pleuro-pleural communication

    OpenAIRE

    HATA, YOSHINOBU; Suzuki, Takashi; Yokoi, Masahide; Yoshida, Shuji; Takeyama, Teruaki; Nakazaki, Haruhiro; Goto, Hidenori; Sato, Fumitomo; Takagi, Keigo; Otsuka, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    A single pleural space can lead to serious simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax in cases of congenital or acquired pleuro-pleural communication. Here we report a 35-year-old man with bilateral pneumothorax. Chest computed tomography scans revealed a small air space between the esophagus and aorta, suggesting pleuro-pleural communication. Bilateral thoracoscopic bullectomy was performed. Repeated inspection revealed a 2-cm-long pleural window between the aorta and esophagus, which was closed wi...

  4. Bilateral Foot Pain in a Collegiate Distance Runner

    OpenAIRE

    Denegar, Craig R.; Siple, Bonnie J.

    1996-01-01

    A 19-year-old, white female, college freshman cross-country runner presented to the athletic training center complaining of bilateral plantar foot pain 1 week into the cross-country season. She had been treated for bilateral plantar fasciitis twice in the previous 3 years, and initial evaluation suggested a recurrence. A failure to respond to treatment led us to suspect other causes. Subsequent diagnostic imaging (bone scan, CT scan) revealed bilateral navicular stress fractures. Navicular st...

  5. Bilateral leukocoria in a patient with homozygous protein C deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a bilateral leukocoria and neonatal purpura fulminans in a male infant, born at full term after an unremarkable pregnancy to a healthy consanguineous married couple. Multiple hemorrhagic skin bullae were found at birth on various parts of the body with bilateral leukocoria, organized vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and intracranial hemorrhage with undetectable levels of protein C activity. We report a clinical case of homozygous protein-C deficiency with severe purpura fulminans and bilateral leukocoria. (author)

  6. Bilateral fat necrosis of the breast: report of a case.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonobe,Hiroshi; SATO, Yasuo; Suzuki,Yoshihide; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kawabata, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral fat necrosis of the breast is reported. The patient was a 50-year-old unmarried woman having no history of trauma, disease or surgery of the breast. In the bilateral breasts, ill-defined, firm masses with skin retraction were noted. Bilateral breast cancer was diagnosed clinically. However, both lesions showed histologically chronic granulomatous inflammation with foci of fatty necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, lipid containing foamy cells, foreign ...

  7. Unilateral versus Bilateral Instrumentation in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Molinari, Robert W.; Saleh, Ahmed; Molinari, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeff; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) What is the comparative efficacy of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? (2) What is the safety of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched up to September 30, 2014, to identify studies reporting the comparative efficacy and safety of unilateral versus bilateral instrume...

  8. Successful Reconstruction of Asymptomatic Bilateral External Carotid Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loja, Melissa N; Pevec, William C

    2016-04-01

    True aneurysms of the external carotid artery (ECA) are extremely rare with an unknown incidence and natural history. We present the successful operative management of an asymptomatic 65-year-old man found to have bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis and bilateral ECA aneurysms. His bilateral carotid arteries were reconstructed with bifurcated interposition grafts in a staged fashion. The patient recovered without sequelae and continues to be asymptomatic 1 year after reconstruction. We present the operative management of this rare case. PMID:26802292

  9. Complete bilateral horizontal gaze paralysis disclosing multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    MILEA, D; Napolitano, M.; Dechy, H; Le Hoang, P.; Delattre, J.; Pierrot-Deseillig..., C

    2001-01-01

    Two women presented with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia evolving in a few days to complete bilateral horizontal gaze paralysis. Convergence and vertical eye movements were normal. Cerebral MRI showed a few small white matter lesions in the lateral ventricle regions, and, at the brainstem level, a single, small, bilateral lesion affecting the posterior part of the medial pontine tegmentum and responsible for the clinical syndrome. The condition gradually improved in b...

  10. Bilateral panuveitis associated with Whipple disease – case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Maria; Domingues, Isabel; Pamplona, Jaime; Barata, Pedro; Morgado, Joana; Brotas, Vítor

    2014-01-01

    [english] Purpose: To describe a clinical case and literature review of Whipple disease.Methods: A 65-year-old male with bilateral decreased visual acuity for 3 weeks as well as bilateral hypoacusia, vertigo, disequilibrium, headache and decreased strength in the right upper limb for 4 months. The clinical work-up revealed a bilateral panuveitis and an ischemic cerebellar stroke.Result: The diagnosis of Whipple disease was confirmed by histopathological analysis of adenopathy. The patient was...

  11. Bilateral inverted and impacted maxillary third molars: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Mostafa, Nedal; Barakat, Ali; Al Turkmani, Tareq; Al Yousef, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral inverted third molar impaction is an extremely rare condition. We reported the case of a 50-year-old female patient with bilateral inverted and impacted maxillary third molars. Both were asymptomatic and pathology free clinically and radiographically. Surgical extraction of these inverted third molars with inaccessible positions requires an aggressive bone removal on the tuberosity bilaterally. Moreover, it contains a high risk of displacement of the inverted third molar into the ma...

  12. Bilateral pneumothoraces complicating reduction mammoplasty: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Stylianos; Gnauk, Hans Georg; Schumacher, Martina; Wagner, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Background Bilateral pneumothoraces after cosmetic breast surgery are rare and sporadically reported in the literature. Case presentation A 65-year-old female patient developed bilateral pneumothoraces after bilateral breast reduction surgery. Emergent chest tube thoracostomy was performed on both sides. The chest drains were removed on the fourth day (left side) and sixth day (right side), and the patient was discharged after 7 days of hospitalization without any further complications. Concl...

  13. Bilateral Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder – a rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Yashavantha Kumar C; Nalini K B; Lalit Maini; Prashanth Nagaraj

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Bilateral shoulder dislocation are most commonly posterior type. These are most commonly due to seizure disorder and electrocution. Anterior shoulder dislocations occurring bilaterally without any predisposing factors are very rare. These types of injuries are due to trauma with a unique mechanism of injury. To best of our knowledge there are only few cases of similar kind are reported in literature. We hereby report a interesting case of posttraumatic, bilateral anterior dislo...

  14. Bilateral angiosarcoma of breast in a young lady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a young lady with bilateral angiosarcoma of breast because of its rarity. A 29 year old unmarried female presented with bilateral breast lump. She underwent bilateral mastectomy with axillary dissection histopathology of which showed low grade angiosarcoma of left breast and high grade angiosarcoma of right breast. CT Thorax revealed right hilar and right mediastenal lymph nodes. She was treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy postoperatively.

  15. Frequent seizures are associated with a network of gray matter atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Coan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS have diffuse subtle gray matter (GM atrophy detectable by MRI quantification analyses. However, it is not clear whether the etiology and seizure frequency are associated with this atrophy. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of GM atrophy and the influence of seizure frequency in patients with TLE and either normal MRI (TLE-NL or MRI signs of HS (TLE-HS. METHODS: We evaluated a group of 172 consecutive patients with unilateral TLE-HS or TLE-NL as defined by hippocampal volumetry and signal quantification (122 TLE-HS and 50 TLE-NL plus a group of 82 healthy individuals. Voxel-based morphometry was performed with VBM8/SPM8 in 3T MRIs. Patients with up to three complex partial seizures and no generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the previous year were considered to have infrequent seizures. Those who did not fulfill these criteria were considered to have frequent seizures. RESULTS: Patients with TLE-HS had more pronounced GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral mesial temporal structures, temporal lobe, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Patients with TLE-NL had more subtle GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Both TLE-HS and TLE-NL showed increased GM volume in the contralateral pons. TLE-HS patients with frequent seizures had more pronounced GM atrophy in extra-temporal regions than TLE-HS with infrequent seizures. Patients with TLE-NL and infrequent seizures had no detectable GM atrophy. In both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, the duration of epilepsy correlated with GM atrophy in extra-hippocampal regions. CONCLUSION: Although a diffuse network GM atrophy occurs in both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, this is strikingly more evident in TLE-HS and in patients with frequent seizures. These findings suggest that neocortical atrophy in TLE is related to the ongoing seizures and epilepsy duration, while thalamic

  16. Bilateral cystic neuroblastoma: imaging features and differential diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common malignant tumors of childhood, with 40 % arising in the adrenal glands. Bilateral adrenal involvement from synchronous development or metastatic spread of the tumor is seen in less than 10 % of children with neuroblastoma [1[. Neuroblastoma rarely presents as a cystic suprarenal mass that is difficult to differentiate from adrenal hemorrhage, extralobar sequestration, or dilated upper-pole renal calyces. To our knowledge, bilateral cystic neuroblastoma has not been previously reported. We present a case of bilateral cystic adrenal neuroblastoma to demonstrate the imaging features of this unusual entity, and to expand the differential diagnosis of bilateral cystic suprarenal masses in an infant. (orig.). With 2 figs

  17. Hippocampal hypertrophy and sleep apnea: a role for the ischemic preconditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Kempton, Matthew J; Crum, William R; Glasser, Martin; Milosevic, Milan; Beniczky, Sandor; Corfield, Douglas R; Williams, Steven C; Morrell, Mary J

    2013-01-01

    The full impact of multisystem disease such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on regions of the central nervous system is debated, as the subsequent neurocognitive sequelae are unclear. Several preclinical studies suggest that its purported major culprits, intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, can differentially affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Although the prospective biphasic nature of chronic intermittent hypoxia in animal models of OSA has been acknowledged, so far the evidence for increased 'compensatory' neurogenesis in humans is uncertain. In a cross-sectional study of 32 patients with mixed severity OSA and 32 non-apnoeic matched controls inferential analysis showed bilateral enlargement of hippocampi in the OSA group. Conversely, a trend for smaller thalami in the OSA group was noted. Furthermore, aberrant connectivity between the hippocampus and the cerebellum in the OSA group was also suggested by the correlation analysis. The role for the ischemia/hypoxia preconditioning in the neuropathology of OSA is herein indicated, with possible further reaching clinical implications. PMID:24349453

  18. Hippocampal hypertrophy and sleep apnea: a role for the ischemic preconditioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rosenzweig

    Full Text Available The full impact of multisystem disease such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA on regions of the central nervous system is debated, as the subsequent neurocognitive sequelae are unclear. Several preclinical studies suggest that its purported major culprits, intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, can differentially affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Although the prospective biphasic nature of chronic intermittent hypoxia in animal models of OSA has been acknowledged, so far the evidence for increased 'compensatory' neurogenesis in humans is uncertain. In a cross-sectional study of 32 patients with mixed severity OSA and 32 non-apnoeic matched controls inferential analysis showed bilateral enlargement of hippocampi in the OSA group. Conversely, a trend for smaller thalami in the OSA group was noted. Furthermore, aberrant connectivity between the hippocampus and the cerebellum in the OSA group was also suggested by the correlation analysis. The role for the ischemia/hypoxia preconditioning in the neuropathology of OSA is herein indicated, with possible further reaching clinical implications.

  19. Bilateral pulmonary emboli after bilateral mastectomy in a 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Piggott, JR; Yazdani, Arjang

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary emboli are rare, yet serious, complications of body contouring surgery. When they occur, they more often follow as complications of long, invasive procedures in adults. The present report details a case of bilateral pulmonary emboli in an obese 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism undergoing bilateral mastectomy for gynecomastia. The diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary emboli was made on the basis of clinical presentation and positive ventilation/perfusion scan. The patient responded well...

  20. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Paola; Krishnan, Giri P; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network. PMID:27093059

  1. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Malerba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network.

  2. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Fear Generalization, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Antoine; Sahay, Amar

    2016-01-01

    The generalization of fear is an adaptive, behavioral, and physiological response to the likelihood of threat in the environment. In contrast, the overgeneralization of fear, a cardinal feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), manifests as inappropriate, uncontrollable expression of fear in neutral and safe environments. Overgeneralization of fear stems from impaired discrimination of safe from aversive environments or discernment of unlikely threats from those that are highly probable. In addition, the time-dependent erosion of episodic details of traumatic memories might contribute to their generalization. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the overgeneralization of fear will guide development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat PTSD. Here, we conceptualize generalization of fear in terms of resolution of interference between similar memories. We propose a role for a fundamental encoding mechanism, pattern separation, in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 circuit in resolving interference between ambiguous or uncertain threats and in preserving episodic content of remote aversive memories in hippocampal-cortical networks. We invoke cellular-, circuit-, and systems-based mechanisms by which adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) modulate pattern separation to influence resolution of interference and maintain precision of remote aversive memories. We discuss evidence for how these mechanisms are affected by stress, a risk factor for PTSD, to increase memory interference and decrease precision. Using this scaffold we ideate strategies to curb overgeneralization of fear in PTSD. PMID:26068726

  3. Effect of Opioid on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Loh, Horace H.; Law, Ping-Yee

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, the study of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis has significantly progressed. Many studies focus on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells, including addictive drugs such as opioid. Here, we review the most recent works on opiate drugs' effect on different developmental stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. We conclude that opiate drugs in general cause a loss of newly born neural progenitors in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus, by either modulating proliferation or interfering with differentiation and maturation. We also discuss the consequent impact of regulation of adult neurogenesis in animal's opioid addiction behavior. We further look into the future directions in studying the convergence between the adult neurogenesis field and opioid addiction field, since the adult-born granular cells were shown to play a role in neuroplasticity and may help to reduce the vulnerability to drug craving and relapse. PMID:27127799

  4. Functional importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Petrov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is crucial for memory formation and spatial processing. It is no surprise that the discovery of postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus has inspired an extensive amount of research on its functional contribution to the adult brain. Correlational evidence reveals that neurogenesis is a dynamic process subject to modulation by a variety of factors, such as environmental enrichment and learning. Electrophysiological experiments show that young neurons constitute a distinct neuronal population within the dentate gyrus. Unlike mature neurons, they are not inhibited by gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA and require less stimulation to induce long-term potentiation. Furthermore, there is now strong evidence that new neurons can be functionally integrated into memory networks. However, significant debate still persists about the functional necessity of neurogenesis. To resolve this issue, several techniques have been used to ablate neurogenesis, such as X-ray irradiation, administration of anti-proliferative drugs and genetic knockdowns. Unfortunately, these methods are not equally effective, are invasive and can cause adverse physiological effects. This article offers an overview of the functional significance of hippocampal neurogenesis and presents a critical review of current research methodology. Methods of improving traditional techniques of neurogenesis ablation are also explored.

  5. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  6. Effect of Opioid on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, the study of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis has significantly progressed. Many studies focus on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells, including addictive drugs such as opioid. Here, we review the most recent works on opiate drugs' effect on different developmental stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. We conclude that opiate drugs in general cause a loss of newly born neural progenitors in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus, by either modulating proliferation or interfering with differentiation and maturation. We also discuss the consequent impact of regulation of adult neurogenesis in animal's opioid addiction behavior. We further look into the future directions in studying the convergence between the adult neurogenesis field and opioid addiction field, since the adult-born granular cells were shown to play a role in neuroplasticity and may help to reduce the vulnerability to drug craving and relapse. PMID:27127799

  7. D-serine increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eSultan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the continuous formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The neurogenic niche regulates the stem cell proliferation and the differentiation and survival of new neurons and a major contributor to the neurogenic niche are astrocytes. Among the molecules secreted by astrocytes, D-serine is an important gliotransmitter and is a co-agonist of the glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. D-serine has been shown to enhance the proliferation of neural stem cells in vitro, but its effect on adult neurogenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we tested the effect of exogenous administration of D-serine on adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus. We found that 1 week of treatment with D-serine increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro and increased the density of neural stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors. Furthermore, D-serine increased the survival of newborn neurons. Together, these results indicate that D-serine treatment resulted in the improvement of several steps of adult neurogenesis in vivo.

  8. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  9. Hippocampal sclerosis: correlation of MR imaging findings with surgical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Sung Ho; Nam, Hyun Woo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Cho, Woo Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Atrophy and a high T2 signal of the hippocampus are known to be the principal MR imaging findings of hippocampal sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not individual MRI findings correlate with surgical outcome in patients with this condition. Preoperative MR imaging findings in 57 consecutive patients with pathologically-proven hippocampal sclerosis who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were followed-up for 24 months or more were retrospectively reviewed, and the results were compared with the postsurgical outcome (Engel classification). The MR images included routine sagittal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted spin-echo images, and oblique coronal T1-weighted 3D gradient-echo and T2-weighted 2D fast spin-echo images obtained on either a 1.5 T or 1.0 T unit. The images were visually evaluated by two neuroradiologists blinded to the outcome; their focus was the presence or absence of atrophy and a high T2 hippocampal signal. Hippocampal atrophy was seen in 96% of cases (55/57) [100% (53/53) of the good outcome group (Engel class I and II), and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group (class III and IV)]. A high T2 hippocampal signal was seen in 61% of cases (35/57) [62% (33/53) of the good outcome group and 50% (2/4) of the poor outcome group]. All 35 patients with a high T2 signal had hippocampal atrophy. 'Normal' hippocampus, as revealed by MR imaging, occurred in 4% of patients (2/57), both of whom showed a poor outcome (Engel class III). The presence or absence of hippocampal atrophy correlated well with surgical outcome (p<0.01). High T2 signal intensity did not, however, significantly correlate with surgical outcome (p>0.05). Compared with a high T2 hippocampal signal, hippocampal atrophy is more common and correlates better with surgical outcome. For the prediction of this, it thus appears to be the more useful indicator.

  10. Altered hippocampal morphology in unmedicated patients with major depressive illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Carrie E; Thompson, Paul M; Avedissian, Christina; Klunder, Andrea D; Nicoletti, Mark; Dierschke, Nicole; Brambilla, Paolo; Soares, Jair C

    2009-01-01

    Despite converging evidence that major depressive illness is associated with both memory impairment and hippocampal pathology, findings vary widely across studies and it is not known whether these changes are regionally specific. In the present study we acquired brain MRIs (magnetic resonance images) from 31 unmedicated patients with MDD (major depressive disorder; mean age 39.2+/-11.9 years; 77% female) and 31 demographically comparable controls. Three-dimensional parametric mesh models were created to examine localized alterations of hippocampal morphology. Although global volumes did not differ between groups, statistical mapping results revealed that in MDD patients, more severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater left hippocampal atrophy, particularly in CA1 (cornu ammonis 1) subfields and the subiculum. However, previous treatment with atypical antipsychotics was associated with a trend towards larger left hippocampal volume. Our findings suggest effects of illness severity on hippocampal size, as well as a possible effect of past history of atypical antipsychotic treatment, which may reflect prolonged neuroprotective effects. This possibility awaits confirmation in longitudinal studies. PMID:19843010

  11. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Blankenship, Sarah L; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n=40). Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4) regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability. PMID:26900967

  12. Altered hippocampal morphology in unmedicated patients with major depressive illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie E Bearden

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite converging evidence that major depressive illness is associated with both memory impairment and hippocampal pathology, findings vary widely across studies and it is not known whether these changes are regionally specific. In the present study we acquired brain MRIs (magnetic resonance images from 31 unmedicated patients with MDD (major depressive disorder; mean age 39.2±11.9 years; 77% female and 31 demographically comparable controls. Three-dimensional parametric mesh models were created to examine localized alterations of hippocampal morphology. Although global volumes did not differ between groups, statistical mapping results revealed that in MDD patients, more severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater left hippocampal atrophy, particularly in CA1 (cornu ammonis 1 subfields and the subiculum. However, previous treatment with atypical antipsychotics was associated with a trend towards larger left hippocampal volume. Our findings suggest effects of illness severity on hippocampal size, as well as a possible effect of past history of atypical antipsychotic treatment, which may reflect prolonged neuroprotective effects. This possibility awaits confirmation in longitudinal studies.

  13. Hippocampal degeneration in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Susanne; Machts, Judith; Kaufmann, Jörn; Patrick, Karina; Kollewe, Katja; Dengler, Reinhard; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Petri, Susanne; Vielhaber, Stefan; Nestor, Peter J

    2014-11-01

    There is increasing appreciation of non-motor system involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), although its full extent and clinical significance remains to be established. This study tested the hypothesis that memory impairment in patients with ALS is related to hippocampal degeneration. Consecutive patients with ALS (58) and 29 matched controls participated in standardized neuropsychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with ALS performed worse in global cognitive functioning and executive and verbal memory tests (p segmented in each hemisphere, and volumes were calculated with correction for intracranial volume. Analysis of covariance, controlled for the effect of age and education years, showed significantly smaller hippocampal volume on the right (p = 0.004) in patients with ALS. Verbal memory test performance correlated with the left hippocampal volume in patients with ALS (p variables underscoring the specificity of the present findings. Hippocampal volume loss and its correlation with the severity of verbal memory impairment highlight significant hippocampal involvement which can occur as a non-motor deficit in patients with ALS. PMID:25004891

  14. [Unilateral to bilateral pleurisy: Pleural tuberculosis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ameur, S; Smaoui, S; Kamoun, F; Chabchoub, I; Kamoun, T; Messaadi, F; Aloulou, H; Hachicha, M

    2016-04-01

    Pleural tuberculosis is the first or second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis as well as the main cause of pleural effusion in many countries. It is rare in young infants and is more common in children over 10 years of age. We report the case of a 19-month-old girl admitted for prolonged fever with unilateral pleural effusion. The mother reported a history of lymph node tuberculosis 6 years previously. Intravenous antibiotics with cefotaxime and vancomycin were started. Thoracocentesis yielded a serosanguinous exudate fluid with a lymphocyte predominance. The tuberculin skin test and PCR GeneXpert(©) on pleural fluid were negative. The initial outcome was favorable, but the chest X-rays 10 days after discharge showed bilateral pleural effusion. Pleural biopsy was proposed but the culture of pleural fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The child was put under standard treatment for tuberculosis. The outcome was favorable. PMID:26922570

  15. Rare case of bilateral carotic chemodectoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomus tumor (chemodectomy, paraganglion) is a rarely occurring tumor built of paraganglia, most often located in the common carotid artery division. This slowly increasing tumor develops mostly between the ages of 45 and 50, and more or less evenly in male and female patients. This article describes the characteristics of tumors such as chemodectomy, diagnostic methods, and procedures for medical treatment. The article describes a case of tumor in the common carotid artery bifurcation diagnosed as chemodectomy with a very rare bilateral locus. The tumor was accidentally discovered during ultrasonography, and confirmed in computer tomography examination. The first examination should be ultrasonography, complemented with color Doppler. A standard angiographic examination should be performed in the case of planned surgery, with one-time-only embolization of tumor vascularization. Computer tomography examination in the angio-CT option with RT3D reconstruction is an adequate method of imaging a tumour such as chemodectomy. (author)

  16. Computed tomography findings in bilateral perinephric lymphangiomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakeem Aijaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinephric lymphangioma is rare disorder that may be confused with various forms of renal cystic diseases and urinomas. In this disorder a developmental malformation results in failure of developing lymphatic tissue to establish normal communication with the rest of lymphatic system. Once there is restricted drainage of lymphatic fluid the lymphatic channels dilate to form cystic masses that may be unilocular or multilocular and may be seen unilaterally or bilaterally .This condition presents with various signs and symptoms or can be just an incidental finding which in presence of misleading clinical history may be confused with other diseases. CT scan with delayed cuts and USG guided aspiration with biochemical analysis of fluid will help us in arriving to final diagnosis.

  17. Patient with bilateral breast enlargement and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A A; Ahmed, T; Rashid, M M

    2009-01-01

    A 20 year old man was admitted in the surgical unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital on August 2007 presented with Hypospadias & underdeveloped penis from childhood, gradual enlargement of both breasts for the last 10 years, absence of axillary and pubic hair from puberty & painful swelling of both testes for the last 3 years. The patient was regarded as a female upto the age of 10 years. He has got no voice change since puberty. On examination he had average body built, there was bilateral gynaecomastia, hypospadias, rudimentary penis & absence of pubic and axillary hair. His testosterone level, serum prolactin level, serum progesterone level, serum estradiol level was done. Cytology on buccal smear done and ultrasonography revealed no ovary and uterus. Ultimately patient was diagnosed as a case of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience. PMID:19182761

  18. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  19. Bilaterally Microstructured Thin Polydimethylsiloxane Film Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager;

    2015-01-01

    Thin PDMS films with complex microstructures are used in the manufacturing of dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuators, sensors and generators, to protect the metal electrode from large strains and to assure controlled actuation. The current manufacturing process at Danfoss Polypower A...... with the existing manufacturing process. In employing the new technique, films with microstructures on both surfaces are successfully made with two different liquid silicone rubber (LSR) formulations: 1) pure XLR630 and 2) XLR630 with titanium dioxide (TiO2). The LSR films (∼70 μm) are cast on a....../S produces films with a one-sided microstructured surface only. It would be advantageous to produce a film with both surfaces microstructured, as this increases the film’s performance efficiency. The new technique introduced herein produces bilaterally microstructured film by combining an embossing method...

  20. Bilateral Scapulohumeral Ankylosis after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lotten, Manon L; Schreinemakers, J Rieneke; van Noort, Arthur; Rademakers, Maarten V

    2016-09-01

    This case demonstrates a rarely reported bilateral scapulohumeral bony ankylosis. A young woman developed extensive heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in both shoulder joints after being mechanically ventilated for several months at the intensive care unit in a comatose status. She presented with a severe movement restriction of both shoulder joints. Surgical resection of the bony bridges was performed in 2 separate sessions with a significant improvement of shoulder function afterwards. No postoperative complications, pain, or recurrence of HOs were noted at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockage, and prolonged sedation are known risk factors for the development of HOs in the shoulder joints. Relatively early surgical resection of the HOs can be performed safely in contrary to earlier belief. Afterwards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or radiation therapy can be possible treatment modalities to prevent recurrence of HOs. PMID:27583120

  1. Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Chakrabarti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features of Marfan syndrome and was stamped as a case of Marfan syndrome by Ghent criteria . The point to stress upon is that a young male developing spontaneous retinal detachment, a diagnosis of underlying Marfan syndrome should be kept in mind if appropriate clinical stigmata are present. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 104-105

  2. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders; Skibsted, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations of...... each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10. The...... thyroid gland appeared normal in size, and cord blood TSH and free T 4 were both within normal limits. At ultrasound control6 days later, the right ovarian cyst was not visible, while the left cyst was still present. Thus, our report supports previous findings that fetal goiter can be treated successfully...

  3. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders; Skibsted, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations of...... each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10. The...... thyroid gland appeared normal in size, and cord blood TSH and free T 4 were both within normal limits. At ultrasound control 6 days later, the right ovarian cyst was not visible, while the left cyst was still present. Thus, our report supports previous findings that fetal goiter can be treated...

  4. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  5. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in bilateral retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for retinoblastoma has traditionally been done with conventional radiotherapy techniques which resulted high doses to the surrounding normal tissues. A 20 month-old girl with group D bilateral retinoblastoma underwent intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to both eyes after failing chemoreduction and focal therapies including cryotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. In this report, we discuss the use of IMRT as a method for reducing doses to adjacent normal tissues while delivering therapeutic doses to the tumour tissues compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). At one year follow-up, the patient remained free of any obvious radiation complications. Image guided IMRT provides better dose distribution than 3DCRT in retinoblastoma eyes, delivering the therapeutic dose to the tumours and minimizing adjacent tissue damage

  6. Bilateral type emphysematous pyelonephritis: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a serious infectious disease that occurs more frequently in diabetic patients. Radiological studies are indispensable for distinguishing between the two types since each is associated with a markedly different prognosis. We present a case of bilateral EPN diagnosed as type I on the basis of computed tomography findings, differentiating it from type II EPN, taking into account the prognostic value of this distinction. Type I EPN is characterized by the destruction of the renal parenchyma, a mottled or linear gas pattern and the absence of renal and perirenal fluid collection. Type II EPN is characterized by a loculated or bubbly gas pattern, the existence of fluid collection and less marked renal destruction. Type I is more aggressive and is associated with high rate of mortality. (Author) 7 refs

  7. Bilateral mandibular fracture related to osteoradionecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Shikha; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan

    2015-01-01

    Mandible is the most frequently affected bone during head and neck irradiation. Late changes in the mandible may manifest in the form of reduced bone density, dental caries, loss of spongiosa trabeculations, delayed healing following dental extraction, pathologic fractures, osteoradionecrosis, trismus, growth defects in children or second malignancies. Pathologic fractures of mandibular bone are rare and may be spontaneous or traumatic (following dental extraction). We report the case of a 55-year lady, who had undergone surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for carcinoma oral tongue T2N0M0 on a cobalt-60 unit and was disease-free. After a follow-up of 8 years post-irradiation, she presented with sudden onset oral pain and inability to open mouth. Pantomogram showed fracture at the junction of body and ramus of the mandible bilaterally. PMID:26097342

  8. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  9. Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities ("sandstorm-like") in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with "crazy paving" appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

  10. Bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Kocak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a rare hereditary retinal disease characterized by a tangential splitting of the neurosensory retina which may cause early-onset visual impairment. Existence of the retinal neurosensory layer splitting on cross-sectional images of optical coherance tomography (OCT and the absence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA help confirming the diagnosis. Such diagnostic tests are also helpful in determining the management of the disease. However, most of the retinoschisis cavities remain stable and rarely extend to the posterior pole, many authors suggest laser prophylaxis to avoid the potential risk of retinal detachment due to holes in the outer retinal layer. Herein, we report a case with bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis who was evaluated with detailed ophthalmologic examination. Visual acuity, fundoscopy, OCT, and FA remained stable in the second year of follow-up after prophylactic argon laser treatment.

  11. Photoperiod is associated with hippocampal volume in a large community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Megan A.; Leckie, Regina L.; Donofry, Shannon D.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Kirk I Erickson; Manuck, Stephen B.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Although animal research has demonstrated seasonal changes in hippocampal volume, reflecting seasonal neuroplasticity, seasonal differences in human hippocampal volume have yet to be documented. Hippocampal volume has also been linked to depressed mood, a seasonally varying phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that seasonal differences in day-length (i.e., photoperiod) would predict differences in hippocampal volume, and that this association would be linked to low mood. Healthy participants...

  12. Hippocampal neurogenesis is not required for behavioral effects of environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshi, Dar; Drew, Michael R; Saxe, Michael; Ansorge, Mark S; David, Denis; Santarelli, Luca; Malapani, Chariklia; Moore, Holly; Hen, René

    2006-06-01

    Environmental enrichment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and alters hippocampal-dependent behavior in rodents. To investigate a causal link between these two observations, we analyzed the effect of enrichment on spatial learning and anxiety-like behavior while blocking adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We report that environmental enrichment alters behavior in mice regardless of their hippocampal neurogenic capability, providing evidence that the newborn cells do not mediate these effects of enrichment. PMID:16648847

  13. Epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis and febrile seizures linked by common genetic variation around SCN1A

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperaviciute, D; Catarino, C. B.; Matarin, M.; Leu, C.; Novy, J.; Tostevin, A; Leal, B.; Hessel, E.V.S.; Hallmann, K.; Hildebrand, M. S.; Dahl, H.-H. M.; Ryten, M.; Trabzuni, D.; Ramasamy, A.; Alhusaini, S.

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy comprises several syndromes, amongst the most common being mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis are typically drug-resistant, and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is frequently associated with important co-morbidities, mandating the search for better understanding and treatment. The cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is unknown, but there is...

  14. Inter-relationships among Diet, Obesity and Hippocampal-dependent Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Terry L.; Hargrave, Sara L.; Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Fu, Xue; Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Intake of a Western diet (WD), which is high in saturated fat and sugar, is associated with deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes as well as with markers of hippocampal pathology. In the present study, rats were trained to asymptote on hippocampal-dependent serial feature negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. Performance was then assessed following 7 days on ad libitum chow and after 10, 24, 40, 60, and 90 days of maintenance on WD...

  15. Prospective and Episodic Memory in Relation to Hippocampal Volume in Adults with Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    OpenAIRE

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla K.; CIRINO, PAUL T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined prospective and episodic memory in relation to age, functional independence, and hippocampal volume in younger to middle-aged adults with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) and typically developing (TD) adults. Prospective and episodic memory, as well as hippocampal volume, were reduced in adults with SBM relative to TD adults. Neither memory performance nor hippocampal volume showed greater decrements in older adults. Lower hippocampal volume was associated with r...

  16. Bilateral adrenal histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent man Histoplasmose adrenal bilateral em um homem imunocompetente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Lopes Benevides

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease that is endemic in Brazil. It may present as chronic pulmonary infection or in disseminated form. Disseminated histoplasmosis frequently affects the adrenal gland; however, unilateral involvement in immunosuppressed patients is the usual presentation. We report a case of an elderly immunocompetent male with history of weight loss, fever and bilateral adrenal mass who was successfully treated with itraconazole.Histoplasmose é uma doença fúngica endêmica no Brasil que pode se apresentar como infecção pulmonar crônica ou na forma disseminada. A histoplasmose disseminada freqüentemente acomete a glândula adrenal; entretanto, ocorre mais em pacientes imunossuprimidos e de forma unilateral. Relatamos um caso de um homem idoso imunocompetente com história de perda de peso, febre e massa adrenal bilateral que foi tratada com itraconazol, com sucesso.

  17. Simultaneous bilateral shoulder and bilateral central acetabular fracture dislocation: What to do?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hardik Sheth; Abhijeet Ashok Salunke; Ramesh Panchal; Jimmy Chokshi; G.I.Nambi; Saranjeet Singh; Amit Patel

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries following seizures have a high morbidity and mortality.These injuries are often missed and the diagnosis is delayed due to a lack of clinical suspicion and appropriate investigations.We report a case of 72 years old male with simultaneous bilateral central acetabular fracture dislocation and bilateral posterior shoulder fracture dislocation secondary to an epileptic seizure.Present study highlights the significance of clinical suspicion and clinico-radiological evaluation for diagnosis of a rare injury following episode of seizures.Simultaneous fracture dislocation of all four limbs treated with a holistic approach can lead to a good functional recovery.Surgical management with open reduction and internal fixation is preferred and replacement arthroplasty should be reserved for cases with implant failure and elderly patients.

  18. Paresia diafragmática bilateral idiopática Idiopathic bilateral diaphragmatic paresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Corso Pereira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de um paciente com dispnéia intensa ao se deitar, em que foram excluídas doenças pulmonares, neuromusculares ou cardíacas, cuja investigação revelou paresia diafragmática bilateral. Um sinal chave para o diagnóstico foi a evidência de respiração paradoxal com o doente em decúbito supino. Havia piora da oxigenação e da capacidade vital forçada com a mudança da posição ortostática para supina. A fluoroscopia ortostática foi normal. A pressão inspiratória máxima estava muito reduzida. A estimulação elétrica transcutânea do diafragma foi normal, e a eletroestimulação do nervo frênico mostrou ausência de resposta, permitindo o diagnóstico de paresia bilateral do diafragma.We report the case of a patient with severe dyspnea upon reclining. Lung disease, neuromuscular disorders and heart disease were ruled out. However, during the course of the investigation, bilateral diaphragmatic paresis was discovered. A key sign leading to the diagnosis was evidence of paradoxical respiration in the dorsal decubitus position. When the patient was moved from the orthostatic position to the dorsal decubitus position, oxygenation and forced vital capacity worsened. The orthostatic fluoroscopy was normal. Maximal inspiratory pressure was severely reduced. The responses to transcutaneous electric stimulation of the diaphragm were normal. However, electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve produced no response, leading to the diagnosis of bilateral diaphragmatic paresis.

  19. Neonatal bilateral lidocaine administration into the ventral hippocampus caused postpubertal behavioral changes: An animal model of neurodevelopmental psychopathological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Blas-Valdivia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Edgar Cano-Europa, Adelaida Hernández-García, Rocio Ortiz-ButrónDepartamento de Fisiología “Mauricio Russek Berman”, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, I.P.N., Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: Our aim was to investigate if neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus would cause behavioral changes related to schizophrenia. A neonatal ventral-hippocampal lesion (nVH lesion was made with lidocaine in Wistar male pups. Two groups were formed, the first received lidocaine (4 μg/0.3 μL and the second an equal volume of vehicle. At day 35 and 56, both groups were tested for social contact, immobility caused by clamping the neck and dorsal immobility, locomotor activity in an open field, and tail flick (TF latency after a painful heat stimulus. All animals were then killed. Coronal cuts (7 μm of the brain were obtained and each brain section was stained with cresyl violet-eosin. The animals which received the nVH lesion with lidocaine had decreased social interaction at both ages. The rats with lesions, only at day 58 postnatal, increased their distance traveled and ambulatory time, with a decrease in their nonambulatory and reset time. The rats with lesions had a longer duration of immobility caused by clamping the neck and a longer dorsal immobility at both days 34 and 57 compared to control rats. The lidocaine-treated group spent less time to deflect the tail compared to the control group at postpubertal age. The neonatal bilateral administration of lidocaine into the ventral hippocampus caused some alterations, such as chromatin condensation, nucleolus loss, and cell shrinkage, but glial proliferation was not seen. Neonatal bilateral lidocaine administration into the ventral hippocampus caused postpubertal behavioral changes.Keywords: lidocaine, hippocampus, neonatal lesion, behavior, animal model, psychopathological disorders

  20. Bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldau, Niels Christian; Brorson, Stig; Jensen, Poul Einar;

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis.......We present a case of bilateral polymicrobial osteomyelitis with Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei, and review the literature on Candida osteomyelitis....

  1. Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Şenel; Rıfat Rasier; Alper Şengül; Erdal Yüzbaşıoğlu; Özgür Artunay; Halil Bahçecioğlu

    2011-01-01

    Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

  2. Bilateral Occipital Condyle Fracture: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Schrödel, Markus H.; Kestlmeier, Ralph; Trappe, Anna E.

    2002-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures are a rare finding in trauma victims. Bilateral fractures are even more unusual and have typically been reported in autopsy studies. We treated two patients with bilateral occipital condyle fractures who had only minor symptoms. Anderson and Montesano's classification,1 possible cranial nerve palsies, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare fracture are discussed.

  3. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  4. Unilateral Breast Reconstruction Using Bilateral Inferior Gluteal Artery Perforator Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Satake, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Use of bilateral IGAP flaps for breast reconstruction helps to avoid asymmetry of the inferior buttock volume and shape. Bilateral flaps provide sufficient tissue volume and allow for reconstruction of a breast comparable to the unaffected side. In patients with moderate-to-high projection breast whose abdominal tissue cannot be used for reconstruction, IGAP flaps may be a suitable alternative.

  5. Bilateral ganglion cyst of the common peroneal nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganglion cysts of the common peroneal nerve are rarely described in the literature and a bilateral lesion has not been previously reported. We present a case of a 41-year-old man with a bilateral cyst of the common peroneal nerve diagnosed with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  6. Bilateral ganglion cyst of the common peroneal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrazzini, Massimo; Cusmano, Ferdinando; Armaroli, Sara; Pavone, Paolo [Institute of Radiology, University of Parma, Viale Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Pogliacomi, Francesco; Rinaldi, Elio [Institute of Clinical Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of Parma, Viale Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2002-11-01

    Ganglion cysts of the common peroneal nerve are rarely described in the literature and a bilateral lesion has not been previously reported. We present a case of a 41-year-old man with a bilateral cyst of the common peroneal nerve diagnosed with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  7. Bilateral symmetric autosomal dominant sector chorioretinopathy with late maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To describe the long-term course of bilateral symmetric autosomal dominant sector chorioretinopathy in a 79-year-old man who was diagnosed at age 31.......To describe the long-term course of bilateral symmetric autosomal dominant sector chorioretinopathy in a 79-year-old man who was diagnosed at age 31....

  8. Hansen′s disease with bilateral tarsal disorganisation

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Pradeep; Vijayadharan M; Yogirajan K; Suprakasan S; Rajasree P

    1999-01-01

    A 37-year old male patient with Hansen′s disease midborderline spectrum, presented with bilateral pedal edema. X-ray examination of the feet showed disorganisation and disintegration of the tarsal bones. Bilateral tarsal disorganisation which can develop in Hansen′s disease is usually not recognised by the clinician.

  9. Bilateral Very Late Onset Cystoid Macular Edema after Uncomplicated Phacoemulsification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the occurrence of a very rare type of bilateral pseudophakic cystoids macular edema 16 years after uncomplicated phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in a 55 year old patient. To our knowledge this is the first case report of a bilateral very late onset cystoids macular edema following uncomplicated phacomulsification with posterior intraocular lens implantation. (author)

  10. VTA neurons coordinate with the hippocampal reactivation of spatial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomperts, Stephen N; Kloosterman, Fabian; Wilson, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial learning requires the hippocampus, and the replay of spatial sequences during hippocampal sharp wave-ripple (SPW-R) events of quiet wakefulness and sleep is believed to play a crucial role. To test whether the coordination of VTA reward prediction error signals with these replayed spatial sequences could contribute to this process, we recorded from neuronal ensembles of the hippocampus and VTA as rats performed appetitive spatial tasks and subsequently slept. We found that many reward responsive (RR) VTA neurons coordinated with quiet wakefulness-associated hippocampal SPW-R events that replayed recent experience. In contrast, coordination between RR neurons and SPW-R events in subsequent slow wave sleep was diminished. Together, these results indicate distinct contributions of VTA reinforcement activity associated with hippocampal spatial replay to the processing of wake and SWS-associated spatial memory. PMID:26465113

  11. Effects of Bilateralism and the MFN Clause on International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Markus

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to a revised picture of nineteenth-century bilateralism. Employing a new disaggregated data set, it argues that bilateral treaties did not implement general free trade, but instead reduced tariffs unevenly through commodity-specific preferences, especially favoring manufact......This study contributes to a revised picture of nineteenth-century bilateralism. Employing a new disaggregated data set, it argues that bilateral treaties did not implement general free trade, but instead reduced tariffs unevenly through commodity-specific preferences, especially favoring...... manufactured goods. Gravity model estimates show that specific liberalizations increased exports of corresponding items, but not overall trade. Exporters from countries whose governments used bilateralism strategically to bring down partner tariffs benefitted most. Hence, the network in form and outcome is...... more properly identified with reciprocal liberalization practiced by the French than with British free-trade ideology....

  12. MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Jadwat, Saaleeha [Institute of Child Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, 7700, Cape Town (South Africa); McHugh, Kieran; Linward, Jane [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy and highlight the diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI especially with regard to those lesions that may cause respiratory compromise. Retrospective review of MRI scans in six infants with bilateral parotid haemangiomas. The bilateral haemangiomas were symmetrical in all but one patient. On T1-weighted images the masses were isointense to muscle and on T2 they were hyperintense with numerous small vessels giving a septated appearance. There was vivid enhancement with gadolinium in all cases. In three patients, deep bilateral extensions were demonstrated involving the parapharyngeal spaces resulting in respiratory compromise which required tracheostomy. Bilateral parotid haemangiomas are rare, but when present may have deep extensions, which can result in respiratory compromise requiring tracheostomy. (orig.)

  13. Mixed neurotransmission in the hippocampal mossy fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eMuenster-Wandowski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs, the axons of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, innervate mossy cells and interneurons in the hilus on its way to CA3 where they innervate interneurons and pyramidal cells. Synapses on each target cell have distinct anatomical and functional characteristics. In recent years, the paradigmatic view of the MF synapses being only glutamatergic and, thus, excitatory has been questioned. Several laboratories have provided data supporting the hypothesis that the MFs can transiently release GABA during development and, in the adult, after periods of enhanced excitability. This transient glutamate-GABA co-transmission coincides with the transient expression of the machinery for the synthesis and release of GABA in the glutamatergic granule cells. Although some investigators have deemed this evidence controversial, new data has appeared with direct evidence of co-release of glutamate and GABA from single, identified MF boutons. However, this must still be confirmed by other groups and with other methodologies. A second, intriguing observation is that MF activation produced fast spikelets followed by excitatory postsynaptic potentials in a number of pyramidal cells, which, unlike the spikelets, underwent frequency potentiation and were strongly depressed by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. The spikelets persisted during blockade of chemical transmission and were suppressed by the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone. These data is consistent with the hypothesis of mixed electrical-chemical synapses between MFs and some pyramidal cells. Dye coupling between these types of principal cells and ultrastructural studies showing the co-existence of AMPA receptors and connexin 36 in this synapse corroborate their presence. A deeper consideration of mixed neurotransmission taking place in this synapse may expand our search and understanding of communication channels between different regions of the mammalian CNS.

  14. Impact of PICALM and CLU on hippocampal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Jin; Liu, Bing; Li, Yonghui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-07-01

    PICALM and CLU are two major risk genes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), and there is strong molecular evidence suggesting their interaction on amyloid-beta deposition, hence finding functional dependency between their risk genotypes may lead to better understanding of their roles in LOAD development and greater clinical utility. In this study, we mainly investigated interaction effects of risk loci PICALM rs3581179 and CLU rs11136000 on hippocampal degeneration in both young and elderly adults in order to understand their neural mechanism on aging process, which may help identify robust biomarkers for early diagnosis and intervention. Besides volume we also assessed hippocampal shape phenotypes derived from diffeomorphic metric mapping and nonlinear dimensionality reduction. In elderly individuals (75.6 ± 6.7 years) significant interaction effects existed on hippocampal volume (P < 0.001), whereas in young healthy adults (19.4 ± 1.1 years) such effects existed on a shape phenotype (P = 0.01) indicating significant variation at hippocampal head and tail that mirror most AD vulnerable regions. Voxel-wise analysis also pointed to the same regions but lacked statistical power. In both cohorts, PICALM protective genotype AA only exhibited protective effects on hippocampal degeneration and cognitive performance when combined with CLU protective T allele, but adverse effects with CLU risk CC. This study revealed novel PICALM and CLU interaction effects on hippocampal degeneration along aging, and validated effectiveness of diffeomorphometry in imaging genetics study. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2419-2430, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27017968

  15. Ataxin-1 regulates proliferation of hippocampal neural precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, M; Johnson, A; Zecevic, B; Pease, D; Cvetanovic, M

    2016-05-13

    Polyglutamine expansion in the protein ATAXIN-1 (ATXN1) causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor deficits, cognitive impairment and depression. Although ubiquitously expressed, mutant ATXN1 causes neurodegeneration primarily in the cerebellum, which is responsible for the observed motor deficits. The role of ATXN1 outside of the cerebellum and the causes of cognitive deficits and depression in SCA1 are less understood. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role of ATXN1 in the hippocampus as a regulator of adult neurogenesis. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process of generating new hippocampal neurons and is linked to cognition and mood. We found that loss of ATXN1 causes a decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis in ATXN1 null (Atxn1(-/-)) mice. This decrease was caused by reduced proliferation of neural precursors in the hippocampus of Atxn1(-/-) mice, and persisted even when Atxn1(-/-) hippocampal neural precursors were removed from their natural environment and grown in vitro, suggesting that ATXN1 affects proliferation in a cell-autonomous manner. Moreover, expression of ATXN1 with a pathological polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in wild-type neural precursor cells inhibited their proliferation. Our data establish a novel role for ATXN1 in the hippocampus as an intrinsic regulator of precursor cell proliferation, and suggest a mechanism by which polyQ expansion and loss of ATXN1 affect hippocampal function, potentially contributing to cognitive deficits and depression. These results indicate that while depletion of ATXN1 is a promising therapeutic approach to treat the cerebellar aspects of SCA1, this approach should be employed with caution given the potential for side effects on hippocampal function with loss of wild-type ATXN1. PMID:26876606

  16. Comparative gait initiation kinematics between simulated unilateral and bilateral ankle hypomobility: Does bilateral constraint improve speed performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafontaine, A; Honeine, J-L; Do, M-C; Gagey, O; Chong, R K

    2015-08-31

    Improvement of motor performance in unilateral upper limb motor disability has been shown when utilizing inter-limb coupling strategies during physical rehabilitation. This suggests that 'default' bilateral central motor commands are facilitated. Here, we tested whether this bilateral motor control principle may be generalized to the lower limbs during gait initiation, which involves alternate bilateral actions. Disability was simulated by strapping to produce ankle hypomobility. Healthy adult subjects initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint (control), or with the stance, swing or bilateral ankles strapped. The duration of the anticipatory postural adjustments lengthened and the center of mass instantaneous progression velocity at foot-off decreased when the ankle was strapped. During the step execution phase, progression velocity at foot-contact was higher when both ankles were strapped compared to unilateral strapping of the stance ankle. These findings suggest that bilateral central motor commands are favored during walking tasks. Indeed, unilateral constraint of the stance ankle should compel the central nervous system to adapt specific commands to the constraint and normal sides whereas the 'default' bilateral motor commands would be utilized when both ankles are strapped leading to better kinematics performance. Bilateral in-phase upper limb coordination and bilateral alternating lower limb locomotor movements may share similar control mechanisms. PMID:26197055

  17. Photoperiod is associated with hippocampal volume in a large community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Megan A; Leckie, Regina L; Donofry, Shannon D; Gianaros, Peter J; Erickson, Kirk I; Manuck, Stephen B; Roecklein, Kathryn A

    2015-04-01

    Although animal research has demonstrated seasonal changes in hippocampal volume, reflecting seasonal neuroplasticity, seasonal differences in human hippocampal volume have yet to be documented. Hippocampal volume has also been linked to depressed mood, a seasonally varying phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that seasonal differences in day-length (i.e., photoperiod) would predict differences in hippocampal volume, and that this association would be linked to low mood. Healthy participants aged 30-54 (M=43; SD=7.32) from the University of Pittsburgh Adult Health and Behavior II project (n=404; 53% female) were scanned in a 3T MRI scanner. Hippocampal volumes were determined using an automated segmentation algorithm using FreeSurfer. A mediation model tested whether hippocampal volume mediated the relationship between photoperiod and mood. Secondary analyses included seasonally fluctuating variables (i.e., sleep and physical activity) which have been shown to influence hippocampal volume. Shorter photoperiods were significantly associated with higher BDI scores (R(2)=0.01, β=-0.12, P=0.02) and smaller hippocampal volumes (R(2)=0.40, β=0.08, P=0.04). However, due to the lack of an association between hippocampal volume and Beck Depression Inventory scores in the current sample, the mediation hypothesis was not supported. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between season and hippocampal volume. These data offer preliminary evidence that human hippocampal plasticity could be associated with photoperiod and indicates a need for longitudinal studies. PMID:25394737

  18. Synchronous Bilateral Solid Papillary Carcinomas of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Yoshimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a case of synchronous bilateral solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. A 73-year-old female had a mass that was detected in the right breast on mammography. An ultrasound examination revealed one intracystic tumor in the right breast and two tumors in the left breast. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy of these three tumors was performed, which revealed a diagnosis of malignancy. A magnetic resonance imaging examination of the breasts showed diffuse small nodules surrounding these tumors bilaterally. Bilateral partial mastectomy and a sentinel lymph node biopsy were performed. Lymph node metastasis was detected in the right axilla, and additional lymph node dissection was performed. The pathological diagnosis was synchronous bilateral breast cancer, invasive ductal carcinoma NOS of the right breast, mucinous carcinomas of the left breast, and bilateral SPCs. A wide range of surgical margins were positive for SPCs, and additional bilateral total mastectomy was then performed. To the best of our knowledge, little is known about synchronous bilateral SPCs. Our case indicates that some SPCs can be widely scattered and make up a variety of invasive carcinomas. It is difficult to make a correct preoperative evaluation in such cases.

  19. Rehabilitation for bilateral amputation of fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Stapanian, Adrienne M.P.; Staley, Keith E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe reconstructive surgeries, therapy, prostheses, and adaptations for a patient who experienced bilateral amputation of all five fingers of both hands through the proximal phalanges in January 1992. The patient made considerable progress in the use of his hands in the 10 mo after amputation, including nearly a 120% increase in the active range of flexion of metacarpophalangeal joints. In late 1992 and early 1993, the patient had "on-top plasty" surgeries, in which the index finger remnants were transferred onto the thumb stumps, performed on both hands. The increased web space and functional pinch resulting from these procedures made many tasks much easier. The patient and occupational therapists set challenging goals at all times. Moreover, the patient was actively involved in the design and fabrication of all prostheses and adaptations or he developed them himself. Although he was discharged from occupational therapy in 1997, the patient continues to actively find new solutions for prehension and grip strength 18 yr after amputation.

  20. BILATERAL OSSIFIED STYLOHYOID COMPLEX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Devi S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Mineralisation of all components of stylohyoid complex or chain, a 2nd branchial arch derivative is frequently reported. But bilateral occurrence of continuous bands of ossified tissue involving stylohyoid complex, are less commonly encountered. An adult skull specimen presented abnormally long osseous bands extending from base of skull in place of styloid process. On left side a band of 6.5cm long x1cm wide and 0.3cm in thickness, and on right side an irregularly rounded elongated structure of 7.5cm length were noticed. Lower end of the left process was fused to hyoid bone. Either abnormally long styloid process or this type of ossified stylohyoid complex may be a causative factor for severe pharyngeal pain, dysphagia, may be a cause for occasional swelling in submandibular region or may be associated with Eagle syndrome. Due to its close proximity to tonsillar bed, if elongated it may be felt during tonsillectomy in tonsillar fossa. In this backdrop reports of this type may be of interest to clinicians.

  1. Haptic Manipulation of Deformable Objects in Hybrid Bilateral Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ibarra-Zannatha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the integration of a virtual environment containing a deformable object, manipulated by an open kinematical chain virtual slave robot, to a bilateral teleoperation scheme based on a real haptic device. The virtual environment of this hybrid bilateral teleoperation system combines collision detection algorithms, dynamical, kinematical and geometrical models with a position–position and/or force–position bilateral control algorithm, to produce on the operator side the reflected forces corresponding to the virtual mechanical interactions, through a haptic device. Contact teleoperation task over the virtual environment with a flexible object is implemented and analysed.

  2. Pycnodysostosis associated with bilateral congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Lokman; Yilmaz, Erhan; Belhan, Oktay; Serin, Erhan

    2003-04-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old woman with pycnodysostosis associated with bilateral congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle. The patient was first seen at the age of 19 years and had no symptoms during the 3-year follow-up period. The diagnosis of pycnodysostosis was made by typical clinical and radiological findings. Bilateral painless mid-clavicular mass and plain radiograms confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle. Surgery was not performed for pseudarthrosis of the clavicles, just observation was preferred. PMID:12721693

  3. Bilateral Tibial Tubercle Sleeve Fractures in a Skeletally Immature Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasesh R. Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibial tubercle sleeve fracture is a rare injury. In concept, it is similar to the patellar sleeve fracture in a skeletally immature patient. We describe a unique case of simultaneous bilateral tibial tubercle sleeve fractures in a 12-year-old boy. Radiographs and MRI confirmed the injury. The patient underwent open surgical repair of bilateral sleeve fractures with suture anchor fixation. At the final followup, 3 years after his initial injury, the patient demonstrated full knee function bilaterally without radiographic evidence of growth disturbances.

  4. Geleophysic dysplasia associated with bilateral angle closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sinan Saricaoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we present occurrence of bilateral angle closure glaucoma in a 9-year-old girl with geleophysic dysplasia. Bilateral YAG laser iridotomy was applied, but intraocular pressure (IOP remained at high levels, necessitating bilateral trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. On her follow-up examinations for 3 years, IOP remained in the mid-20s with no need for further intervention or antiglaucoma medication. There are few reports describing the ocular findings of geleophysic dysplasia in literature. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing an application of glaucoma surgery and its results at geleophysic dysplasia.

  5. Reduced 123I Ioflupane Binding in Bilateral Diabetic Chorea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenichiro; Hida, Ayumi; Kameyama, Masashi; Morooka, Miyako; Takeuchi, Sousuke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report a 64-year-old man with diabetic chorea whom we investigated with dopamine transporter SPECT, 18F FDG PET, 99mTc ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT, and 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Dopamine transporter SPECT revealed reduced 123I ioflupane binding in the bilateral striatum. 18F FDG PET showed metabolic dysfunction in the bilateral striatum, as shown in earlier studies. 99mTc ECD SPECT revealed reduced brain perfusion in the bilateral caudate nucleus and putamen. 123I MIBG scintigraphy revealed no cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction. Our case suggests a possible nigrostriatal presynaptic dopaminergic involvement in diabetic chorea. PMID:26975011

  6. Bilateral Ota nevus in a 15 years old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Öztürk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a dermal melanocytosis, clinically localizedon skin that is innervated by the first and secondbranches of the trigeminal nerve. It occurs almost entirelyin Asian people. The clinical manifestations are usuallyunilateral; only 5% of cases are bilateral. In this article,due to rarity of the case, a 15-year-old patient, who was diagnosedwith bilateral ota nevus, without having any dermatologicalcomplaints other than cosmetic appearenceand stains in her eyes and around was presented.Key words: Bilateral ota nevus, child, melanocytosis

  7. A 72-year-old patient with bilateral Maisonneuve fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dienstknecht

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maisonneuve fractures result from a disruption of the medial ankle structures and a proximal fibular fracture. Patient complaints can be misleading and there is a significant rate of delayed diagnosed injuries. We present a case of bilateral Maisonneuve fractures after a fall due to a syncopal collapse. A precise clinical examination led to this rare diagnosis. The injuries were treated with syndesmotic screw fixation, removal of hardware followed after 6 weeks. The patient was asymptomatic at threemonths follow up. Patients with bilateral injuries undergoing standard surgical treatment can gain full recovery, but high suspicion in clinical examination is needed to detect this uncommon bilateral injury.

  8. Spheniodal mucocele causing bilateral optic neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Selvakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphenoid sinus mucocele comprises only 2% of all paranasal sinus mucoceles. In literature, there is a case report on sphenoidal mucocele causing bilateral optic neuropathy, with unilateral partial recovery and cranial nerve palsy, but we did not come across any literature with bilateral optic neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia together caused by spheno-ethmoidal mucocele. We present such a rare case of spheno-ethmoidal mucocele causing bilateral optic neuropathy and unilateral sixth nerve palsy who had postsurgery, unilateral good vision recovery, and complete resolution of sixth nerve palsy.

  9. BILATERAL ANOMALOUS MUSCLE IN THE POPLITEAL FOSSA & ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variation may occur due to genetic or developmental causes. Some variations may compromise the vascular, muscular or nervous system in the region. Bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa is very rare. In present study an instance of bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa, arising from different muscles like gastrocnemius and from biceps femoris is recorded. There is no report of such variations. These observations are rare of its kind because of bilateral asymmetrical presence and difference in the origins in different legs. This is the first report as for the literatures available. Clinical and functional importance of such variation is discussed with the morphological aspects of this anomalous muscle.

  10. Architecture of spatial circuits in the hippocampal region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Witter (Menno); M.I. Canto (Marcia Irene); J.J. Couey (Jonathan J); N. Koganezawa (Noriko); K.C. O'Reilly (Kally)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal region contains several principal neuron types, some of which show distinct spatial firing patterns. The region is also known for its diversity in neural circuits and many have attempted to causally relate network architecture within and between these unique circuits to f

  11. Architecture of spatial circuits in the hippocampal region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, Menno P; Canto, Cathrin B; Couey, Jonathan J; Koganezawa, Noriko; O'Reilly, Kally C

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampal region contains several principal neuron types, some of which show distinct spatial firing patterns. The region is also known for its diversity in neural circuits and many have attempted to causally relate network architecture within and between these unique circuits to functional ou

  12. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  13. Necroptosis Mediates TNF-Induced Toxicity of Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α is a critical proinflammatory cytokine regulating neuroinflammation. Elevated levels of TNF-α have been associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the signaling events that lead to TNF-α-initiated neurotoxicity are still unclear. Here, we report that RIP3-mediated necroptosis, a form of regulated necrosis, is activated in the mouse hippocampus after intracerebroventricular injection of TNF-α. RIP3 deficiency attenuates TNF-α-initiated loss of hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we characterized the molecular mechanism of TNF-α-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells. HT-22 cells are sensitive to TNF-α only upon caspase blockage and subsequently undergo necrosis. The cell death is suppressed by knockdown of CYLD or RIP1 or RIP3 or MLKL, suggesting that this necrosis is necroptosis and mediated by CYLD-RIP1-RIP3-MLKL signaling pathway. TNF-α-induced necroptosis of HT-22 cells is largely independent of both ROS accumulation and calcium influx although these events have been shown to be critical for necroptosis in certain cell lines. Taken together, these data not only provide the first in vivo evidence for a role of RIP3 in TNF-α-induced toxicity of hippocampal neurons, but also demonstrate that TNF-α promotes CYLD-RIP1-RIP3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis of hippocampal neurons largely bypassing ROS accumulation and calcium influx.

  14. Hippocampal neurogenesis, neurotrophic factors and depression: possible therapeutic targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Hayley, Shawn; Pompili, Maurizio; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Brahmachari, Goutam; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability and psychosocial impairment worldwide. Although many advances have been made in the neurobiology of this complex disorder, the pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. Among the proposed theories, impaired neuroplasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis have received considerable attention. The possible association between hippocampal neurogenesis, neurotrophic factors, major depression, and antidepressant responses was critically analyzed using a comprehensive search of articles/book chapters in English language between 1980 and 2014. One common emerging theme was that chronic stress and major depression are associated with structural brain changes such as a loss of dendritic spines and synapses, as well as reduced dendritic arborisation, together with diminished glial cells in the hippocampus. Both central monoamines and neurotrophic factors were associated with a modulation of hippocampal progenitor proliferation and cell survival. Accordingly, antidepressants are generally suggested to reverse stress-induced structural changes augmenting dendritic arborisation and synaptogenesis. Such antidepressant consequences are supposed to stem from their stimulatory effects on neurotrophic factors, and possibly modulation of glial cells. Of course, accumulating evidence also suggested that glutamatergic systems are implicated in not only basic neuroplastic processes, but also in the core features of depression. Hence, it is critical that antidepressant strategies focus on links between the various neurotransmitter systems, neurotrophic processes of hippocampal neurogenesis, and neurotrophic factors with regards to depressive symptomology. The identification of novel alternative antidepressant medications that target these systems is discussed in this review. PMID:25470403

  15. Wnt signaling in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Lorena eVarela-Nallar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain new neurons are continuously generated mainly in two regions, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the SGZ, radial neural stem cells give rise to granule cells that integrate into the hippocampal circuitry and are relevant for the plasticity of the hippocampus. Loss of neurogenesis impairs learning and memory, suggesting that this process is important for adult hippocampal function. Adult neurogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple signaling pathways, including the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. This pathway plays important roles during the development of neuronal circuits and in the adult brain it modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we review current knowledge on the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade and the potential mechanisms involved in this regulation. Also we discuss the evidence supporting that the canonical Wnt pathway is part of the signaling mechanisms involved in the regulation of neurogenesis in different physiological conditions. Finally, some unsolved questions regarding the Wnt-mediated regulation of neurogenesis are discussed.

  16. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  17. Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers in aged rhesus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, J.I.H.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Fuchs, E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether or not aging of nonhuman primates is accompanied by a region-specific neuron loss in the hippocampal formation, we used the optical fractionator technique to obtain stereological estimates of unilateral neuron numbers of the hippocampi of eight young (0-4 years) and five aged

  18. The effect of estrogen synthesis inhibition on hippocampal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Janine; Rune, Gabriele; Schultz, Heidrun; Tobia, Michael J; Mebes, Imke; Katzler, Olaf; Sommer, Tobias

    2015-06-01

    17-Beta-estradiol (E2) facilitates long term-potentiation (LTP) and increases spine synapse density in hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rodents. Consistent with these beneficial effects on the cellular level, E2 improves hippocampus-dependent memory. A prominent approach to study E2 effects in rodents is the inhibition of its synthesis by letrozole, which reduces LTPs and spine synapse density. In the current longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we translated this approach to humans and compared the impact of E2 synthesis inhibition on memory performance and hippocampal activity in post-menopausal women taking letrozole (n = 21) to controls (n = 24). In particular, we employed various behavioral memory paradigms that allow the disentanglement of hippocampus-dependent and -independent memory. Consistent with the literature on rodents, E2 synthesis inhibition specifically impaired hippocampus-dependent memory, however, this did not apply to the same degree to all of the employed paradigms. On the neuronal level, E2 depletion tended to decrease hippocampal activity during encoding, whereas it increased activity in the anterior cingulate and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We thus infer that the inhibition of E2 synthesis specifically impairs hippocampal functioning in humans, whereas the increased prefrontal activity presumably reflects a compensatory mechanism, which is already known from studies on cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25863445

  19. Ethanol induces MAP2 changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific protein (NeuN) immunostains were used to demonstrate neurotoxic effects in mature hippocampal slice cultures exposed to ethanol (50, 100, 200 mM) for 4 weeks. At the low dose the density of MAP2 immunostaining in the dentate molecular la...

  20. Luxatio erecta bilateral: um relato de caso Bilateral luxatio erecta, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    César Augusto Xavier Acosta; Elemar da Silva Resch; Rafael Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    O deslocamento inferior do ombro (luxatio erecta) é uma lesão rara, acometendo aproximadamente 0,5% dos deslocamentos dessa articulação. A grande maioria desses casos ocorre unilateralmente. Em setembro de 2004, um homem de 43 anos chegou ao pronto-socorro do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (HUSM) com queixa de dor bilateral no ombro e incapacidade de abaixar os braços, em consequência de uma queda com os braços abduzidos, enquanto desempenhava sua atividade laboral. Após o exame físico...

  1. Point Climat no. 11 'Japan's Bilateral Offset Crediting Mechanism: A Bilateral Solution to a Global Issue?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: In order to achieve its long-term emission reduction target following the Fukushima incident, Japan would rely more heavily on international offsetting activities. Concurrent to vigorous proposals to reform the CDM, Japan is also promoting an offset crediting scheme through bilateral agreements with developing countries as a post-2012 market mechanism. Despite potential benefits, issues relating to the accounting rules, environmental integrity and implications to carbon markets warrant further consideration prior to international recognition

  2. Bilateral Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Due To Bilateral Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eren CANSÜ, İstemi YÜCEL, Kutay ÖZTURAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tarsal tunnel syndrome is an entrapment neuropathy of posterior tibial nerve under the flexorretinaculum. Patients generally present with paresthesias on the plantar side of foot and fingersand in the distal kruris.The causes of tarsal tunnel syndrome are space occupying lesions within or around the tunnelwhich exert pressure to the nerve, ankle deformities, systemic illnesses, trauma or lesions ofthe nerve itself.In this study a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome due to bilateral lipoma which was treated surgicallyis presented.

  3. Luxatio erecta bilateral: um relato de caso Bilateral luxatio erecta, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Xavier Acosta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O deslocamento inferior do ombro (luxatio erecta é uma lesão rara, acometendo aproximadamente 0,5% dos deslocamentos dessa articulação. A grande maioria desses casos ocorre unilateralmente. Em setembro de 2004, um homem de 43 anos chegou ao pronto-socorro do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (HUSM com queixa de dor bilateral no ombro e incapacidade de abaixar os braços, em consequência de uma queda com os braços abduzidos, enquanto desempenhava sua atividade laboral. Após o exame físico e radiológico constatou- se que o indivíduo apresentava uma luxação inferior bilateral dos ombros. O paciente foi então encaminhado ao bloco cirúrgico onde foi realizada redução incruenta das luxações sob anestesia através da técnica de tração e contra-tração. No dia seguinte recebeu alta com imobilização tipo Velpeau mantendo os ombros totalmente aduzidos e rotados internamente, com orientação de manter a imobilização por três semanas. Foi orientado também a realizar fisioterapia.Inferior shoulder dislocation (luxactio erecta is a rare lesion affecting approximately 0.5% of dislocations of this joint. The vast majority of these cases occur unilaterally. In September 2004, a 43 year old man was brought to the emergency room of the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM complaining of bilateral shoulder pain and inability to lower the arms, as a result of a fall with the arms abducted, while carrying out work activities. After physical examination and radiological exams, it was found that the patient had a bilateral inferior shoulder dislocation. He was referred to the surgical ward and after intravenous sedation, both shoulders were reduced by closed reduction using the traction-countertraction maneuver. The patient was discharged the day after the reduction. Both arms were immobilized with a velpeau sling in total adduction and intrarotation, with instructions to maintain immobilization for three weeks. The patient was

  4. CT-guided once-through bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing sclerotic therapy for bilateral multiple renal cysts: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT-guided once-through bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing, aspiration and injection of sclerotic agents (ethanol) in treating bilateral multiple renal cysts. Methods: CT-guided once-through bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing sclerotic therapy was performed in 19 patients with bilateral multiple renal cysts. First, under CT guidance the puncture points and puncture routs were decided, then, puncturing, aspiration, rinsing and ethanol injection of the cysts were taken place by turn. The clinical results were analyzed. Results: bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing sclerotic therapy was successfully completed in all 19 cases. The whole procedure was well tolerated by all patients. The mean operative time was 23 minutes with a range of 20-35 minutes. No severe complications occurred. Conclusion: With proficient manipulation, CT-guided bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing sclerotic therapy for bilateral multiple renal cysts can be smoothly carried out. The technique can reduced the number of sclerotherapy times, cut down the medical expenses and, therefore, get twofold results with half the effort. (authors)

  5. Hippocampal sleep features: relations to human memory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eFerrara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of intracranial EEG recordings techniques for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients is providing new information on the activity of different brain structures during both wakefulness and sleep. The interest has been mainly focused on the medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampal formation, whose peculiar local sleep features have been recently described, providing support to the idea that sleep is not a spatially global phenomenon. The study of the hippocampal sleep electrophysiology is particularly interesting because of its central role in the declarative memory formation. Recent data indicate that sleep contributes to memory formation. Therefore, it is relevant to understand whether specific pattern of activity taking place during sleep are related to memory consolidation processes. Fascinating similarities between different states of consciousness (wakefulness, REM sleep, NREM sleep in some electrophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes have been reported. For instance, large-scale synchrony in gamma activity is important for waking memory and perception processes, and its changes during sleep may be the neurophysiological substrate of sleep-related deficits of declarative memory. Hippocampal activity seems to specifically support memory consolidation during sleep, through specific coordinated neurophysiological events (slow waves, spindles, ripples that would facilitate the integration of new information into the pre-existing cortical networks. A few studies indeed provided direct evidence that rhinal ripples as well as slow hippocampal oscillations are correlated with memory consolidation in humans. More detailed electrophysiological investigations assessing the specific relations between different types of memory consolidation and hippocampal EEG features are in order. These studies will add an important piece of knowledge to the elucidation of the ultimate sleep

  6. Increased neuroplasticity and hippocampal microglia activation in a mice model of rapid antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Luca; Brambilla, Valentina; Calcaterra, Lorenza; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Martino, Gianvito; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-09-15

    The search for biomarkers of antidepressant effects focused on pathways regulating synaptic plasticity, and on activated inflammatory markers. Repeated Sleep Deprivation (SD) provides a model treatment to reverse-translate antidepressant effects from in vivo clinical psychiatry to model organisms. We studied the effects of repeated SD alone (ASD) or combined with exercise on a slow spinning wheel (SSW), in 116 C57BL/6J male mice divided in three groups (ASD, SSW, untreated). Forced Swimming Test (FST) was used to detect antidepressant-like effects. Unbiased evaluation of the transcriptional responses were obtained in the hippocampus by Illumina Bead Chip Array system, then confirmed with real time PCR. Spine densities in granular neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG) were assayed by standard Golgi staining. Activation of Microglial/Macrophages cells was evaluated by immunufluorescence analysis for Iba1. Rates of cell proliferation was estimated pulsing mice with the S-phase tracer 5-Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU). All SD procedures caused a decreasing of floating time at FST, and increased expression of the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1. In addition, SSW also increased expression of the Microglia/Macrophages genes Iba-1 and chemokine receptors Cx3cR1 and CxcR4, of the canonical Wnt signaling gene Wnt7a, and of dendritic spines in CA4 neurons of the DG. SSW up-regulated both the number of Iba1+ cells and rates of cell proliferation in the subgranular region of the DG. The antidepressant-like effects of SD dissociated both, from hippocampal neuroplasticity in the DG (not occurring after ASD), and from microglial activation (not preventing behavioral response when occurring). The increase in dendritic spine density in the DG after SD and exercise was associated with an up-regulation of Wnt 7a, and with activation of the innate immune system of the brain. Increased Arc/Arg3.1 suggests however increased neuroplasticity, which could be common to all fast-acting antidepressants

  7. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. III. Hippocampal EEG correlates of stimulus-response tasks and of sexual behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    1979-01-01

    A dog was trained to perform a spatial sound discrimination. The hippocampal EEG correlates and the movement correlates of correct trials were compared with those of incorrect trials and of ‘pressings in between’. Correct and wrong responses on a place learning task were compared both with respect

  8. Australia and China: A Joint Report on the Bilateral Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junhong; Guo Chunmei; Richard Rigby; Sang Ye

    2012-01-01

    After China and Australia established diplomatic ties in 1972, bilateral relations developed rapidly. People-to-people links, politicalexchanges and trade and economic cooperation played an increasingly larger part in the foreign policies of the two countries. In the post global financial crisis era, bilateral relations have remained positive and played an imPortant role in ensuring the stability and prosperity of the Pacific region. There have been several unavoidable misunderstandings and even disagreements between the two countries, which has influenced mutual trust and policies. This article will aim to analyze the history and current situation of the Sino-Australian relationship in an objective and comprehensive way; to look ahead to future bilateral relations, and make policy recommendations for the further development of bilateral ties to increase mutual understanding and promote a more positive future for Sino-Australian relations.

  9. Delayed-onset bilateral abducens paresis after head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Salunke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral sixth nerve paresis following closed head injury, though rare, is a known entity. However, delayed-onset post-traumatic bilateral abducens paresis is extremely rare. We present two cases. The first patient had onset of bilateral abducens paresis 2 weeks after closed head injury and the second patient after 3 days. The cause in the former was detected to be chronic subdural hematoma and in the latter is speculated to be edema/ischemia due to injury to soft tissue structures housing these nerves. The delayed onset of bilateral abducens paresis following head injury may vary according to the cause. There may be another mechanism of injury apart from direct trauma. Though rare, it needs to be evaluated and may have a treatable cause like elevated intracranial pressure.

  10. Surgical Management of Bilateral Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirani, Jayesh; Mariappan, Indumathi; Ramamurthy, Shreyas; Fatima, Saba; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S

    2016-07-01

    Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is now established as a distinct entity with a spectrum of clinical manifestations. Bilateral LSCD presents a unique set of challenges to the clinician dealing with ocular surface disease, due to the underlying causes, clinical presentation, and adnexal status, as well as lack of a source of autologous limbal stem cells. Various surgical modalities have been described to achieve visual rehabilitation in patients with bilateral LSCD. These can primarily be divided into cell-based therapies and implantation of keratoprostheses. In this review, the surgical options for management of bilateral LSCD, including autologous and allogeneic cell-based therapies and different types of keratoprostheses are described and classified. The indications, prerequisites, technique, results and complications of each modality are discussed. Based on the status of the ocular surface, an algorithm for choosing appropriate surgical management for vision restoration in bilateral LSCD has been proposed. PMID:27151421

  11. Spontaneous Unruptured Bilateral Tubal Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Ghomian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral spontaneous tubal ectopic pregnancy is the rarest form of extra uterine pregnancy. The diagnosis is usually made intraoperatively and levels of serum BHCG and ultrasound has not been useful in the diagnosis of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy. A 33-year-old woman with 8 weeks amenorrhea and sever lower abdominal pain was admitted. A transvaginal pelvic ultrasound revealed left adnexal mass and massive fluid collection in the pelvis and abdomen. The serum BHCG was 5,700 mIU/ml and in laparotomy bilateral unruptured tubal pregnancy was noted. Left salpingectomy and right salpingostomy were performed. The diagnosis of bilateral spontaneous tubal ectopic pregnancy is usually made intraoperatively. Both tubes at the time of surgery should be closely examined in order to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality.

  12. Pneumomediastinum, simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema following burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema following burn is unreported in the literature. We de-scribe such case in an 18-year-old male patient with possible mechanism of such presentation.

  13. Riesz's and Bessel's Operators in Bilateral Grand Lebesgue Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ostrovsky, E; Sirota, L

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we obtain the non - asymptotic estimations for Riesz's and Bessel's potential integral operators in the so - called Bilateral Grand Lebesgue Spaces. We also give examples to show the sharpness of these inequalities.

  14. Bilateral SMAS rhytidectomy in parotid recurrent pleomorphic adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baj; BELTRAMINI, G.A.; Demarchi, M; V.A. Combi; A. Giannì

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY A case is presented of a young female with parotid recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and skin infiltration treated with subtotal parotidectomy combined with a bilateral superficial muscular aponeurotic system rhytidectomy.

  15. Simultaneous bilateral ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircay, Emre; Ofluoglu, Demet; Ozel, Omer; Oztop, Pinar

    2015-04-01

    Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are rare, and bilateral ganglion cysts are even rarer. These cysts may cause intermittent or chronic nonspecific knee discomfort. Although three cases of bilateral ganglion cysts have been reported in the literature, the knees were not simultaneously affected in those cases. Herein, we report the case of a 56-year-old woman who presented with simultaneous bilateral ganglion cysts of the ACL that were symptomatic. She was successfully treated with arthroscopic resection and debridement. We also present a brief review of the literature, highlighting the aetiology, diagnosis and management of ganglion cysts of the ACL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous bilateral intra-articular ganglion cysts of the ACL. PMID:25917477

  16. Bilateral Efforts in Seizing Opportunities for Better Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ General improvement of the Japan-ROK relations started after the end of the Cold War. Although the Japanese wrongdoings over the history-related issues have caused fluctuations in the bilateral relations, no substantial damage has occurred.

  17. Neonatal bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis caused by brain stem haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Blazer, S; Hemli, J A; Sujov, P O; Braun, J

    1989-01-01

    We describe a neonate with severe bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis caused by haemorrhage in the lower brain stem. To our knowledge this association has not been previously reported in the English medical literature.

  18. Synchronous bilateral male breast cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Woo-Young; Lee, Ki-Hyeong; Lee, Ho-Chang; Ryu, Dong-Hee; Park, Jin-Woo; Yun, Hyo-Young; Song, Young-Jin

    2012-06-01

    Synchronous bilateral breast cancer is extremely rare in men and has not, up to date, been reported in Korea. A 54-year-old man presented with a palpable mass in the right breast. The right nipple was retracted and bilateral axillary accessory breasts and nipples were present. On physical examination, a 2 cm-sized mass was palpated directly under the right nipple, and, with squeezing, bloody discharge developed in a single duct of the left nipple. There was no palpable mass in the left breast, and axillary lymph nodes were not palpable. Physical examination of external genitalia revealed a unilateral undescended testis on the left side. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer was diagnosed using mammography, ultrasonography, and core-needle biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed invasive ductal carcinoma in the right breast and ductal carcinoma in situ in the left breast. Bilateral total mastectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and excision of accessory breasts in the axilla were performed. PMID:22807945

  19. Bilateral hematoma of sternocleidomastoid muscles. A case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Quintero Delgado

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the case of an infant with bilateral congenital torticollis which development was followed by ultrasound. Homeopathy and physiotherapy were used for its treatment. This is an infrequent disease scarcely reported in medical literature.

  20. Bilateral Teleoperation in Cartesian Space with Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral control of a teleoperator in Cartesian space with time‐varying delay is studied in this paper. Compared with the traditional joint‐space teleoperation mode, bilateral control in Cartesian space has advantages when dealing with the kinematically dissimilar (KDS teleoperation systems. A Cartesian space‐based PD‐like bilateral controller with dissipation factors is designed. Considering the fact that attitude errors derived by rotation matrix cannot be directly used for PD control, a quaternion‐based approach is adopted to calculate the attitude errors in Cartesian space. In order to overcome the instability brought about by communication delay, local damping components are employed at both ends of the teleoperator system. The variation of time delay may generate extra energy and influence the stability of the system, thus dissipation factors are introduced into the controller. The stability of the proposed bilateral controller is proved and the simulations show the effectiveness of the approach.

  1. A case of bilateral primary fallopian tube carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 60 years old postmenopausal woman was presented with complaints of intermittent watery discharge from vagina, and of cramping pain at the lower abdomen. On pelvic examination, blood tinged watery discharge was seen coming out of os. But, ultrasonography revealed bilateral adenexal masses and pyometra. The serum CA-125 level in blood was raised. Cervical smear showed inflammatory changes, but endometrial histopathology was negative for malignant cells. Suspecting ovarian malignancy, laparotomy was done that revealed the bilateral tubal growth with normal ovaries; the right adenexal mass was of the size (6.8×4.8 cm while, the left adenexal mass was the size of (4.2×2.6 cm. Histopathology study revealed bilateral serous cyst adenocarcinoma of fallopian tubes. The case of bilateral primary fallopian tube carcinoma was presented here for its rarity.

  2. Bilateral same day phacoemulsification: 220 cases retrospectively reviewed

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, B A; Lundh, B L

    2003-01-01

    Background/aims: The relative frequency, basic patient data, results, and complications of planned same day bilateral phacoemulsification were studied from April 1999 to May 2001 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.

  3. Mielolipoma adrenal bilateral em um cão Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Araújo França

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato descreve um caso de mielolipoma adrenal bilateral em uma cadela Poodle de 13 anos de idade. O cão morreu por peritonite séptica aguda, decorrente de ulceração e perfuração intestinal por corpo estranho linear. O neoplasma foi achado incidentalmente durante a necropsia. Macroscopicamente, as adrenais estavam redondas e com volume e aumentados. Ao corte elas eram friáveis, vermelho-amarronzadas, intercaladas por áreas branco-amareladas levemente proeminentes. Histologicamente, extensas áreas do parênquima continham adipócitos bem diferenciados, células hematopoéticas e macrófagos com hemossiderina, achados característicos de mielolipoma adrenal.A case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in a 13-year-old female Poodle is reported. Acute septic peritonitis due to intestinal ulceration and perforation caused by a linear foreign body was the cause of death. The adrenal neoplasm was an incidental necropsy finding. The adrenal glands were grossly rounded, enlarged and friable, and had red-brownish parenchyma interwoven by slightly prominent white-yellowish foci. Histologically, the findings of differentiated adipocytes in large areas of the parenchyma, in association to hematopoietic cells and macrophages with hemosiderin were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.

  4. An Investigation of Bilateral Symmetry During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Soltau, Shelby L.; Slowik, Jonathan S.; Requejo, Philip S.; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of manual wheelchair propulsion often assume bilateral symmetry to simplify data collection, processing, and analysis. However, the validity of this assumption is unclear. Most investigations of wheelchair propulsion symmetry have been limited by a relatively small sample size and a focus on a single propulsion condition (e.g., level propulsion at self-selected speed). The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion in a large group of ...

  5. Prolapsed bilateral ureteroceles leading to intermittent outflow obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stunell, H

    2012-02-01

    A ureterocele refers to a cystic dilatation of the distal ureter. It may be unilateral or bilateral and may be associated with a duplex system in some cases. We present an unusual case where a young patient was found to have large bilateral ureteroceles which prolapsed into the urethra, causing intermittent incontinence and obstruction. We discuss the case and review the literature concerning this rare anomaly.

  6. Bilateral Traumatic Anterior Dislocation of Shoulder – a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashavantha Kumar C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bilateral shoulder dislocation are most commonly posterior type. These are most commonly due to seizure disorder and electrocution. Anterior shoulder dislocations occurring bilaterally without any predisposing factors are very rare. These types of injuries are due to trauma with a unique mechanism of injury. To best of our knowledge there are only few cases of similar kind are reported in literature. We hereby report a interesting case of posttraumatic, bilateral anterior dislocation of shoulder without associated fracture in a 45 old women without any predisposing pathoanatomy.Case Report: A 45-year-old women presented to casualty with sudden onset of pain and restriction of movement in both shoulders fallowing trauma. Immediately post trauma she had severe pain and restriction of both shoulders. On examination arms were abducted and externally rotated. Bilateral shoulder movements were painful and restricted . There was loss of round contour of shoulder with increased vertical diameter of axilla anteriorly. Radiological examination revealed bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders without any associated fractures. Closed reduction done by Milch technique after intraraticular lignocaine injection. MRI of bilateral shoulder showed no pathological lesion. Both shoulders were immobilized with a shoulder immobilizer for three weeks.Conclusion: Most of the bilateral shoulder dislocations are posterior type seen in seizure disorders. Bilateral traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations are rare and are seen as a result of unique mechanism of injury. In our case patient had a fall on her elbows causing forced extension. If diagnosed and treated promptly completely normal function of the shoulders can be restored.

  7. An unusual triad: Bilateral dilated odontoma, hypodontia and peg laterals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphy Alphonsa Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to present a rare case of bilateral dilated odontoma affecting a microdontic permanent lateral incisor in a 30 year old female patient with hypodontia and peglateral teeth with its clinical, radiological and histological features, which has yet been not reported. Bilateral presence of dilated odontoma is not a common occurrence, although a single tooth involvement in each case has been reported in the literature.

  8. Bilateral thecoma presenting as premenopausal hirsutism: Laproscopic removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperandrogenism is a common disorder among women in the reproductive age group. One of the rare causes for androgen excess is sex cord- stromal tumors of the ovary. These are usually unilateral. Here we report case of a 48 year old woman who presented with hyperandrogenism due to bilateral ovarian thecoma. Androgen levels normalized following resection of the tumor. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first case of bilateral thecoma presenting as hirsutism in a premenopausal woman.

  9. Bilateral thecoma presenting as premenopausal hirsutism: Laproscopic removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar, S; V P Jyotsna; Mallick, S.; Garima Kachhawa; Kandasamy, D; A Kriplani; Ammini, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is a common disorder among women in the reproductive age group. One of the rare causes for androgen excess is sex cord- stromal tumors of the ovary. These are usually unilateral. Here we report case of a 48 year old woman who presented with hyperandrogenism due to bilateral ovarian thecoma. Androgen levels normalized following resection of the tumor. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first case of bilateral thecoma presenting as hirsutism in a premenopausal woman.

  10. Presentation of a Rare Case of Bilateral Lumbar Synovial Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Violaris; Maria Karakyriou

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report a quite rare case of bilateral symptomatic synovial cysts of the lumbar spine. Surgical resection is usually the cure for this condition. Methods: A 65 year old female patient came to our department, complaining for severe lumbar and sciatic pain. MRI and CT were used to diagnose bilateral synovial cysts. Because of the intensity of symptoms, she was subjected to surgery. Laminectomy and cyst resection were performed. Results: The patient showed complete resolution of pain ...

  11. Bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Srivatsan, K. S.; Kumar, Vikas; Mahendra, Ashish; Singh, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    The designation “keratocyst” was used to describe any jaw cyst in which keratin was formed to a large extent. A rare incidence of bilateral mandibular cysts (odontogenic keratocysts) was related to third molar teeth. Herein, we report two cases of bilateral keratocystic odontogenic tumor in a 22-year-old male and 15-year-old female, which was diagnosed by a series of investigations and treated appropriately.

  12. Reversible tobramycin-induced bilateral high-frequency vestibular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R M; Bath, A P; Bance, M L

    2000-01-01

    We report an unusual case of tobramycin-induced bilateral high-frequency vestibular toxicity with subsequent clinical and objective evidence of functional recovery. In those patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of aminoglycoside-induced bilateral vestibular toxicity (ataxia and oscillopsia) and normal low-frequency (ENG-caloric) responses, high-frequency rotation chair testing should be performed to exclude a high-frequency vestibular deficit. PMID:10810261

  13. Stage 4S Bilateral Adrenal Neuroblastoma in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stage 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma presenting in the neonatal period is extremely rare. A 1-day-old male with 4S bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma complicated by marked hepatomegaly managed by chemotherapy is being reported. The provisional diagnosis of neuroblastoma was made in the fetal life during the last trimester of pregnancy. Cardiomyopathy due to doxorubicin cytotoxicity developed over ensuing years, which is being treated.

  14. Fast and Accurate Bilateral Filtering using Gauss-Polynomial Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, Kunal N.

    2015-01-01

    The bilateral filter is a versatile non-linear filter that has found diverse applications in image processing, computer vision, computer graphics, and computational photography. A widely-used form of the filter is the Gaussian bilateral filter in which both the spatial and range kernels are Gaussian. A direct implementation of this filter requires $O(\\sigma^2)$ operations per pixel, where $\\sigma$ is the standard deviation of the spatial Gaussian. In this paper, we propose an accurate approxi...

  15. Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Bilateral Greater Occipital Neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany Vu; Akhil Chhatre

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the subocci...

  16. Amyad's hernia while reparing the bilateral inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Aslaner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyand's hernia is the term used for inguinal hernia containing appendix. It is a rare condition and found in 1% of inguinal hernia repairs. Here we report a case of Amyand's hernia in a 61 years old male who was diagnosed with bilateral inguinal hernia. He underwent surgery and bilateral inguinal hernia repair with prosthetic meshes and without appendectomy. The patient was discharged uneventfully. 

  17. Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation: a management dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Alrashidi, Salah; Aziz, Ayman A; Krema, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    A female patient suffered from gradual decline of vision for few months. She presented with bilateral multiple pigmented choroidal tumours, associated with overlying retinal changes. The clinical presentation suggested bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) syndrome, which is a paraneoplastic disease, although there was no evidence of any concurrent malignancy. The periodic systemic surveillance that was undertaken for the following 4 years failed to reveal any occult cance...

  18. Misdiagnosis of bilateral tubal pregnancy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Weifeng; Wang, Gang; Lin, Tiecheng; Sun, Wenwen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of bilateral tubal pregnancy is rising due to the increase of pelvic inflammatory disease and assisted reproductive techniques. Because the clinical manifestations of bilateral tubal pregnancy are not specific, we often ignore inspection of the other fallopian tube when focusing on the lesions, which may cause misdiagnosis. Case presentation A 33-year-old Chinese woman presented with vaginal bleeding after menopause and with an abnormality found by transvaginal ultr...

  19. Association of Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia in Bilateral Anterior Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Kaori; Hiraoka, Miki; Inatomi, Shuichiro; Ohguro, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Two female patients with histories of cancer who showed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) complications and bilateral anterior uveitis with hypopyon were examined. Both patients had suffered from COP and received intermitted systemic corticosteroid administration (SCA). The first patient, a 65-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer, showed bilateral uveitis with hypopyon. The topical corticosteroid treatment was ineffective. After SCA for the treatment of COP was started, the hyp...

  20. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is an uncommon entity that is difficult to diagnose given the ambiquity of the clinical signs. Computerized tomography plays a major role in the diagnosis, disclosing enlarged adrenal glands presenting the hyperdense aspect that characterizes this disorders. We present a case of bilateral adrenal hemoorrhage in a patient diagnosed as having primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, which is a less common cause of adrenal hemorrhage than those classically reported, such as anticoagulant therapy, sepsis, shock and abdominal injury. (Author) 8 refs