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Sample records for biglobosa species complex

  1. Crown-Stump Diameter Model for Parkia biglobosa Benth. Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

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    O. Chukwu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

  2. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of Parkia biglobosa in Northern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Kourouma; Ganglo, Jean C; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Agbangla, Clément

    2011-12-07

    African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa) is a multipurpose species used widely in arid Africa by local communities. The present study focused on ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of P. biglobosa in Northern Benin, where the species widely grows. The use values according to the various ethnic groups in the study area have been evaluated in detail for P. biglobosa. From 13 ethnic groups, 1587 people were interviewed in the study area using semi-structured questionnaires. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analyze the use value and the use patterns of P. biglobosa for the different ethnic groups. All interviewees in the study area knew at least one use of P. biglobosa. The various uses identified were medicinal (47%), handicraft and domestic (3%), medico-magic (1%), veterinary (1%), cultural (1%), food (25%) and commercial (22%). The various parts involved in these types of uses were: fruits [shell (2%), pulp (22%) and seeds (36%)], bark (17%), leaves (9%), roots (3%), flowers (1%) and branches (10%). The ethnic group consensus values for P. biglobosa parts showed that the seeds are used the most. The interviewees diversity value (ID) and equitability value (IE) indicated that knowledge concerning P. biglobosa use was distributed homogeneously among the ethnic groups. P. biglobosa is well-known and used in different ways by the local populations in the study area. Local knowledge on the species is diversified and influenced by ethnic group. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of the species were evident in this study.

  3. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of Parkia biglobosa in Northern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koura Kourouma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa is a multipurpose species used widely in arid Africa by local communities. The present study focused on ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of P. biglobosa in Northern Benin, where the species widely grows. The use values according to the various ethnic groups in the study area have been evaluated in detail for P. biglobosa. Methods From 13 ethnic groups, 1587 people were interviewed in the study area using semi-structured questionnaires. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analyze the use value and the use patterns of P. biglobosa for the different ethnic groups. Results All interviewees in the study area knew at least one use of P. biglobosa. The various uses identified were medicinal (47%, handicraft and domestic (3%, medico-magic (1%, veterinary (1%, cultural (1%, food (25% and commercial (22%. The various parts involved in these types of uses were: fruits [shell (2%, pulp (22% and seeds (36%], bark (17%, leaves (9%, roots (3%, flowers (1% and branches (10%. The ethnic group consensus values for P. biglobosa parts showed that the seeds are used the most. The interviewees diversity value (ID and equitability value (IE indicated that knowledge concerning P. biglobosa use was distributed homogeneously among the ethnic groups. Conclusions P. biglobosa is well-known and used in different ways by the local populations in the study area. Local knowledge on the species is diversified and influenced by ethnic group. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of the species were evident in this study.

  4. Bats and bees are pollinating Parkia biglobosa in the Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Ræbild, Anders; Hansen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A pollination experiment was conducted with Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae) in The Gambia. P. biglobosa is integrated in the farming systems and produces fruit pulp and seeds used in cooking. The species is bat-pollinated, and in areas with few bats the main pollinators are assumed to be honey bees...... as replicates. The pollinators’ identity, efficiency, and relative effect were determined. Bats, honey bees, and stingless bees were able to pollinate the species. Bat-visited capitula produced more pods, but not significantly more than honey bees. Honey bees were more efficient than stingless bees, resulting...... was analysed and a positive correlation between number of seeds per pod and the sugar content was found. Improved pollination success may thus result in sweeter fruits. We conclude it is important to strive against a pollinator-friendly environment in order to attract bats and bees. Furthermore, we suggest...

  5. Adaptive properties of Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) & Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. (African Locust Bean) to drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouda, Zoewinde Henri-Noel

    been suggested as a strategy to improve local population livelihoods. The present thesis studies the adaptive properties to drought stress of A. digitata and P. biglobosa at nursery level, two species native to African savannas. Nursery trials were established with seeds of seven provenances of each...... of the two species. Three water regimes were applied, corresponding to 100%, 75% and 50% of field capacity. The effects of drought stress on the seedling survival, growth and dry matter partitioning was investigated on both species, and for A. digitata the experiment also included seedling morphology...... and physiology. A. digitata had a much higher survival rate than P. biglobosa. However, both species showed a strong reduction of the relative growth rate (diameter and height) and the total dry weight under the effect of applied water stress. Despite differences between provenances of P. biglobosa...

  6. preservative activities parkia biglobosa ervative activities of aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    extracts of P. biglobosa as plant based food preservatives with. ,Preservative, Ginger ... lf life of 24hrs (Ebewele, is study is aimed at determining the phytochemical, antimi and preservative properties of aqueou ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa drink. MATERIALS .... with 100g of sugar and two (2) fresh lime. No flavor was ...

  7. Density and spatial distribution of Parkia biglobosa pattern in Benin under climate change

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    Fafunkè Titilayo Dotchamou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is an indigenous species which, traditionally contributes to the resilience of the agricultural production system in terms of food security, source of income, poverty reduction and ecosystem stability. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge on its density, current and future spatial distribution. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the tree density, the climate change effects on the spatial distribution of the species in the future for better conservation. The modeling of the current and future geographical distribution of the species is based on the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt on a total of 286 occurrence points from field work and Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF-Data Portal-(www.gbif.org. Two climatic models (HadGEM2_ES and Csiro_mk3_6_0 have been used under two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for the projection of the species distribution at the horizon 2050. The correlation analyses and Jackknife test have helped to identify seven variables which are less correlated (r < 0.80 with highest modeling participation. The soil, annual precipitation (BIO12 and temperature (diurnal average Deviation are the variables which have mostly contributed to performance of the models. Currently, 53% of national territory, spread from north to south is very suitable to the cultivation of P. biglobosa. The scenarios have predicted at the horizon 2050, a loss of the habitats which are currently very suitable for the cultivation and conservation of P. biglobosa, to the benefit of moderate and weak habitats. 51% and 57% are the highest proportion of this lost which will be registered with HadGEM2_ES model under two scenarios. These results revealed that the suitable habitat of the species is threatened by climate change in Benin. In order to limit damage such as decreased productivity, extinction of species, some appropriate solutions must be found.

  8. Adaptive properties of Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) & Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. (African Locust Bean) to drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouda, Zoewinde Henri-Noel

    and physiology. A. digitata had a much higher survival rate than P. biglobosa. However, both species showed a strong reduction of the relative growth rate (diameter and height) and the total dry weight under the effect of applied water stress. Despite differences between provenances of P. biglobosa......, it was not possible to link their geographical position or climatic parameters to growth performance, fresh to dry weight or shoot to root ratios. Although some morphological parameters were correlated with the rainfall for A. digitata, none of the physiological differences between provenances were correlated...

  9. Pseudothecial maturation and ascospore release of Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa in south-east Poland

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    Adam Dawidziuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem canker of brassicas is a severe disease of oilseed rape in Australia, Canada and Europe, including Poland. The disease is caused by Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa - two pathogens belonging to the class Dothideomycetes. The species differ in pathogenicity, but they have identical shape and size of fruiting bodies and spores of the generative and vegetative stages. Both pathogens are often found together in infected tissues of oilseed rape plants. The main goal of the experiments was to measure the rate of pseudothecial maturation and to monitor ascospore concentration of L. maculans and L. biglobosa in air samples. The paper is the first investigation on the generative stage development of these two species in south-east Poland. The studies were done for three consecutive years (2005-2007, for six most important months in pathogen development and plant infection, including 3 months in the spring (March - May and 3 months in the autumn (September - November. The stage of pseudothecial maturation was assessed visually, based on the development of asci and ascospores. Monitoring of spore concentration in the air was performed using a Hirst-type 7-day volumetric trap. It was proved that differences in pseudothecial maturation rate in south-east Poland, encompassing the climatic regions of the Carpathian Foothills and Cracow, do not exceed two weeks within one season. The first and the highest ascospore concentration dates depended on weather conditions in a particular season. The total number of spores during the studied seasons varied from 9 to 12 spores/m3, which was from 70 to 90 times lower than the average from five other monitoring sites around Poland. The short exposition to spore showers and very small concentrations of L. maculans and L. biglobosa ascospores in air samples were the most probable reasons for relatively small damage of oilseed rape crops by stem canker in the south-east part of Poland.

  10. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tanins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars. Keywords: Shigellae – Hydroalcoholic extract – bark – Parkia biglobosa. African Journal of ...

  11. (Sugar Cane) Bagasse and Parkia Biglobosa (Locust Bean)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were formed from the saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) bagasse and parkia biglobosa (locust bean) pods and their effectiveness in the treatment of domestic wastewater were compared. The activated carbons were obtained from carbonised sugarcane bagasse and locust beanpod at a temperature of ...

  12. Improving livelihoods in West Africa through a natural resource - The case of Parkia biglobosa and soumbala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Mette

    In this thesis we bridge the gap between science and international development work by looking into the life improving prospects of the natural resource Parkia biglobosa. Parkia biglobosa is important for economic and subsistence reasons in Burkina Faso. However, P. biglobosa and its associated...... countries. We evaluated the influence of environment, management regimes, and allometric model choice on the outcome of tree biomass estimates and the derived CO2 sequestration potentials. We compared wood biometric data in three P. biglobosa plantations situated in southern Burkina Faso along a distinct...

  13. The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, B S; Johnston, P R; Damm, U

    2012-09-15

    The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity

  14. Nutritional composition of the African locust bean ( Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of the African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) fruit pulp were determined using standard methods. Results showed a moisture content of 8.41%, protein 6.56%, fat 1.80%, crude fibre 11.75%, ash. 4.18% and carbohydrate of 67.30%. Sugar content was found to be 9.00 °Brix; total ...

  15. The first occurrence of stem canker on oilseed rape caused by Leptosphaeria biglobosa in Serbia

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    Mitrović Petar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010 the occurrence of the stem canker symptoms in rapeseed was observed at the locality Rimski Šančevi in Serbia. Several strains of fungi were isolated from the stem. Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied on a PDA medium at 25±1oC: growth rate, colour, shape and appearance of colonies and the edge of the colony, the pigment, size, colour and shape of pycnidiospores and pycnidia in 10 isolates (isolated in Serbia K-111, IK-112, K-113, K-114, K-115, K-116, IK-117, K-118, K-119, and K-120. All tested strains had fast growth, the regular form of colonies and poor sporulation on nutrient medium. Pycnidiospores are unicellular, hyaline, and mostly straight, with or without a drop of oil. Molecular identification was performed by the application the PCR technique using primers PN3/PN10. In addition to these 10 isolates, two reference strains obtained from the Centre for Agricultural Studies, Rothamsted, UK, which are marked with L. m (Leptosphaena maculanS, L. b (Leptosphaeria biglobosa and 7 reference isolates originating from Serbia, which are marked K-7, St-16, GS-25, L-5, C-3, LJ-2, S-1 were used. On the basis of DNA amplification with primers PN3 and PN10 tape length was about 580 bp for isolates (L.b, IK-111, K-112, K-113, K-114, K-115, K-116, K-117, K-118, K-119, K-120 while that was 560 bp for other group of isolates (L.m, K-7, St-16, GS-25, L-5, C-3, LJ- 2, S-1.This study showed that 10 isolates (K-111, K-112, K-113, IK- 114, K-115, K-116, K-117, K-118, K-119, K-120 isolated from the stem of rapeseed belong to the species Leptosphaeria biglobosa.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of acrylated Parkia biglobosa medium oil alkyds

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    E.T. Akintayo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylated Parkia biglobosa medium oil alkyd prepared by the reaction between an acid containing acrylic copolymer and a monoglyceride followed by the addition of polyol and dibasic acid has been investigated for improved properties. The results revealed that acid functional acrylic copolymers containing maleic anhydride as a functional co-monomer can successfully be used to modify alkyd resins yielding acrylated resins with better drying, flexibility, scratch hardness, impact resistance and chemical resistance properties. However there exist optimum levels for modification of alkyds with such copolymers beyond which certain film properties are adversely affected.

  17. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  18. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARUL BANERJEE

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. RESEARCH ARTICLE. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic relationship among different members based on chromosomal variations. PARUL BANERJEE and BASHISTH N. SINGH. ∗. Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi ...

  19. Sequencing the Black Aspergilli species complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf; Zhou, Kemin; Otillar, Robert; Baker, Scott; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The ~15 members of the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex (the "Black Aspergilli") are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as food processing and spoilage agents and agricultural toxigens. Despite their utility and ubiquity, the morphological and metabolic distinctiveness of the complex's members, and thus their taxonomy, is poorly defined. We are using short read pyrosequencing technology (Roche/454 and Illumina/Solexa) to rapidly scale up genomic and transcriptomic analysis of this species complex. To date we predict 11197 genes in Aspergillus niger, 11624 genes in A. carbonarius, and 10845 genes in A. aculeatus. A. aculeatus is our most recent genome, and was assembled primarily from 454-sequenced reads and annotated with the aid of >2 million 454 ESTs and >300 million Solexa ESTs. To most effectively deploy these very large numbers of ESTs we developed 2 novel methods for clustering the ESTs into assemblies. We have also developed a pipeline to propose orthologies and paralogies among genes in the species complex. In the near future we will apply these methods to additional species of Black Aspergilli that are currently in our sequencing pipeline.

  20. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Acad. Sci India 82, 99-115. Tomimura Y., Matsuda, M. and Tobari, Y. N. 2005 Chromosomal phylogeny and geographical divergence in the Drosophila bipectinata complex. Genome 48, 487–502. White M. J. D. 1958 Restriction and recombination in grasshopper populations and species. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol.

  1. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Banerjee P. and Singh B. N. 2017 The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic relationship among different members based on chromosomal variations. J. Genet. 96, 97–107]. Introduction ..... loops touch the chromocenter and in our microphotograph. (depicting both the arms) too, the involvement of chromo-.

  2. Parkia biglobosa as an economic resource for rural women in south-western Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette-Helene Kronborg; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ilboudo, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were in...

  3. Use Of The African Locust Bean, Parkia biglobosa Waste Slurry As ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the nutritive value of the waste slurry of the African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa as an energy source in practical diets for tilapia was carried out in glass aquaria. Five diets (35% crude protein) were formulated in which yellow maize was replaced at varying level with parkia slurry waste as follows: Diet 1, ...

  4. Parkia biglobosa (Leguminosae) en Afrique de l'Ouest : biosystematique et amelioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouedraogo, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to strengthen the scientific and technical basis of biodiversity conservation, and use of Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean, néré ). The approach to this research included the gathering of technical

  5. Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the most effective pre-sowing treatments to break seed dormancy and to stimulate seed germination. Matured seeds of P. biglobosa were collected from farmers at Mbalagh council ward of Makurdi area of Benue, Nigeria. The seeds were dried at room temperature and tested for ...

  6. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Improving livelihoods in West Africa through a natural resource - The case of Parkia biglobosa and soumbala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Mette

    food security, poverty reduction, women empowerment, and sustainable use of natural resources. In Paper I we investigated the determinants of high quality soumbala. We interviewed soumbala producers and expert users in south-west Burkina Faso. We used this data to evaluate the influence of P. biglobosa...... of soumbala quality. Meeting consumers’ quality standards and understanding how to produce high quality products are important prerequisites for a successful commercialisation and for ensuring food security. Paper II addresses the economic potential of climate mitigation projects to rural people in developing...... countries. We evaluated the influence of environment, management regimes, and allometric model choice on the outcome of tree biomass estimates and the derived CO2 sequestration potentials. We compared wood biometric data in three P. biglobosa plantations situated in southern Burkina Faso along a distinct...

  8. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Cultivated on Parkia biglobosa Fruit Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Auta, Helen Shnada; Abidoye, Khadijat Toyin; Tahir, Hauwa; Ibrahim, Aliyu Dabai; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters (pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period) had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced...

  9. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African

  10. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

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    Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo

    Full Text Available The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  11. Species recognition and cryptic species in the Tuber indicum complex.

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    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available Morphological delimitation of Asian black truffles, including Tuber himalayense, T. indicum, T. sinense, T. pseudohimalayense, T. formosanum and T. pseudoexcavatum, has remained problematic and even phylogenetic analyses have been controversial. In this study, we combined five years of field investigation in China with morphological study and DNA sequences analyses (ITS, LSU and β-tubulin of 131 Tuber specimens to show that T. pseudohimalayense and T. pseudoexcavatum are the same species. T. formosanum is a separate species based on its host plants and geographic distribution, combined with minor morphological difference from T. indicum. T. sinense should be treated as a synonym of T. indicum. Our results demonstrate that the present T. indicum, a single described morphological species, should include at least two separate phylogenetic species. These findings are of high importance for truffle taxonomy and reveal and preserve the richness of truffle diversity.

  12. Morphological evolution and genetic differentiation in Daphnia species complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gießer, S.; Mader, E.; Schwenk, K.

    1999-01-01

    Despite many ecological and evolutionary studies, the history of several species complexes within the freshwater crustacean genus Daphnia (Branchiopoda, Anomopoda) is poorly understood. In particular, the Daphnia longispina group, comprising several large-lake species, is characterized by pronounced

  13. Elucidating the Ramularia eucalypti species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videira, S.I.R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Kolecka, A.; Haren, van L.; Boekhout, T.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ramularia includes numerous phytopathogenic species, several of which are economically important. Ramularia eucalypti is currently the only species of this genus known to infect Eucalyptus by causing severe leaf-spotting symptoms on this host. However, several isolates identified as R.

  14. Detection of Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa Causing Blackleg Disease in Canola from Canadian Canola Seed Lots and Dockage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Dilantha Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a major threat to canola production in Canada. With the exception of China, L. maculans is present in areas around the world where cruciferous crops are grown. The pathogen can cause trade barriers in international canola seed export due to its potential risk as a seed contaminant. The most recent example is China restricting canola seeds imported from Canada and Australia in 2009. Therefore, it is important to assess the level of Blackleg infection in Canadian canola seed lots and dockage (seeds and admixture. In this study, canola seed lots and dockage samples collected from Western Canada were tested for the presence of the aggressive L. maculans and the less aggressive L. biglobosa. Results showed that both L. maculans and L. biglobosa were present in seed lots and dockage samples, with L. biglobosa being predominant in infected seeds. Admixture separated from dockage had higher levels of L. maculans and L. biglobosa infection than samples from seed lots. Admixture appears to harbour higher levels of L. maculans infection compared to seeds and is more likely to be a major source of inoculum for the spread of the disease than infected seeds.

  15. Detection of Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa Causing Blackleg Disease in Canola from Canadian Canola Seed Lots and Dockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W G Dilantha; Zhang, Xuehua; Amarasinghe, Chami C

    2016-03-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a major threat to canola production in Canada. With the exception of China, L. maculans is present in areas around the world where cruciferous crops are grown. The pathogen can cause trade barriers in international canola seed export due to its potential risk as a seed contaminant. The most recent example is China restricting canola seeds imported from Canada and Australia in 2009. Therefore, it is important to assess the level of Blackleg infection in Canadian canola seed lots and dockage (seeds and admixture). In this study, canola seed lots and dockage samples collected from Western Canada were tested for the presence of the aggressive L. maculans and the less aggressive L. biglobosa. Results showed that both L. maculans and L. biglobosa were present in seed lots and dockage samples, with L. biglobosa being predominant in infected seeds. Admixture separated from dockage had higher levels of L. maculans and L. biglobosa infection than samples from seed lots. Admixture appears to harbour higher levels of L. maculans infection compared to seeds and is more likely to be a major source of inoculum for the spread of the disease than infected seeds.

  16. Phylogeny of Fomitopsis pinicola: A species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Haight; Gary A. Laursen; Jessie A. Glaeser; D. Lee. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Fungal species with a broad distribution may exhibit considerable genetic variation over their geographic ranges. Variation may develop among populations based on geographic isolation, lack of migration, and genetic drift, though this genetic variation may not always be evident when examining phenotypic characters. Fomitopsis pinicola is an...

  17. New species in the New World Natada complex (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F Corrales

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The following new species in the New World Natada complex are described: Natada minuscula, Natada cecilia, Natada lalogamezi, Natada kokii, Natada monteverdensis, Narosopsis iangauldi, and Euprosterna wemilleri. Natada minuscula is the smallest known species in the complex. Of the new species, only Natada kokii, Natada cecilia and Narosopsis iangauldi are known to occur outside of Costa Rica. Previously the New World Natada complex had 43 species in the neotropics. It is anticipated that the proportion of new species in the complex will exceed other major lineages of Limacodidae found in Costa Rica.Se describe las siguientes especies nuevas del complejo Natada del Nuevo Mundo: Natada minuscula, Natada cecilia, Natada lalogamezi, Natada kokii, Natada monteverdensis, Narosopsis iangauldi, and Euprosterna wemilleri. Natada minuscula es la especie más pequeña del complejo.

  18. Cryptic species in the Terfezia boudieri complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdman, Yael; Sitrit, Yaron; Li, Yong-Fang; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda

    2009-05-01

    Phylogenetic analyses have corroborated the discovery of three internal transcribed spacer (ITS) Types in Terfezia boudieri isolates in the course of earlier studies and have emphasized the divergence of Type 2 from Types 1 and 3. The application of molecular and physiological tools described below, revealed the existence of cryptic species within T. boudieri. The markers used include sequences taken from the 5' end of the ribosomal large subunit gene, a chitin synthase partial sequence, beta-tubulin partial sequence and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based markers. Following initial sequencing of a single PCR amplified sample for each Type, mass analysis of specimens relied on RFLP differences between the Types. Over 100 fruit bodies, 30 or more specimens for each ITS Type, were tested with each of the markers. The markers analysis divided the isolates into three groups, each correlated to a specific ITS Type. Two of the physiological traits examined: mycelial proliferation and mycorrhiza formation, consistently showed responses paralleling the ITS Types; the data presented suggest that T. boudieri is comprised of three cryptic species.

  19. Effect of alternative hormones on the rootability of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to improve the knowledge of vegetative propagation and create a paradigm shift in the attention of farmers and researchers through the introduction of the use of alternative hormones which will help to bypass the juvenile stages of certain species for better field establishment and to improve reforestation of certain ...

  20. Disentangling diatom species complexes: does morphometry suffice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Blanco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate taxonomic resolution in light microscopy analyses of microalgae is essential to achieve high quality, comparable results in both floristic analyses and biomonitoring studies. A number of closely related diatom taxa have been detected to date co-occurring within benthic diatom assemblages, sharing many morphological, morphometrical and ecological characteristics. In this contribution, we analysed the hypothesis that, where a large sample size (number of individuals is available, common morphometrical parameters (valve length, width and stria density are sufficient to achieve a correct identification to the species level. We focused on some common diatom taxa belonging to the genus Gomphonema. More than 400 valves and frustules were photographed in valve view and measured using Fiji software. Several statistical tools (mixture and discriminant analysis, k-means clustering, classification trees, etc. were explored to test whether mere morphometry, independently of other valve features, leads to correct identifications, when compared to identifications made by experts. In view of the results obtained, morphometry-based determination in diatom taxonomy is discouraged.

  1. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Adedeji Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the sixteen iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and Uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR. This further discriminated Bacillus subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality and improved shelf life.

  2. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Gbenga A; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Keisam, Santosh; Romi, Wahengbam; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the 16 iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, S. saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP), and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR). This further discriminated B. subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as B. cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP) for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality, and improved shelf life.

  3. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Cultivated on Parkia biglobosa Fruit Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, Khadijat Toyin; Tahir, Hauwa; Ibrahim, Aliyu Dabai; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters (pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period) had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced. The maximum yield was obtained at the pH of 2 with citric acid of 1.15 g/L and reducing sugar content of 0.541 mMol−1, 3% vegetative inoculum size with citric acid yield of 0.53 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.87 mMol−1, 2% of the substrate concentration with citric acid yield of 0.83 g/L and reducing sugar content of 9.36 mMol−1, incubation temperature of 55°C with citric acid yield of 0.62 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.37 mMol−1, and fermentation period of 5 days with citric acid yield of 0.61 g/L and reducing sugar content of 3.70 mMol−1. The results of this study are encouraging and suggest that Parkia biglobosa pulp can be harnessed at low concentration for large scale citric acid production. PMID:27433535

  4. Determination of protein content in the two types of Parkia biglobosa (fermented and unfermented) seeds and seedlings.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajala, Christiana Adeyinka; Etejere, Emmanuel Obukohwo; Olatunji, Tomi Lois

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the protein content in two types of Parkia biglobosa seeds (dark brown and reddish brown testa), fermented and unfermented seedlings were analyzed. Three stages were used to determine the protein content which was digestion, distillation and titration. The protein content of fermented seeds of reddish brown testa was found to be 43.09%, fermented seeds of dark brown was 33.25% which indicated that the reddish brown has higher crude protein content. The protein content of ...

  5. The Drosophila ananassae species complex: Evolutionary relationships among different members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic structure and historical demography of natural populations is central to understanding how natural selection changes genomes. Drosophila ananassae is a widespread species occurring in geographically isolated or partially isolated populations and provides a unique opportunity to investigate population structure and molecular variation. D. ananassae and its closely related species serve as a widely used model in population and evolutionary genetics. The ananassae subgroup belongs to the melanogaster species group. This subgroup contains 22 described species distributed mainly throughout Southeast Asia, with some species expanding into northeastern Australia, South Pacific and Indian subcontinent and Africa. Within the ananassae subgroup, three species complexes-ananassae, bipectinata and ercepeae have been recognized based on male genital morphology. D. ananassae and its relatives have many advantages as a model of genetic differentiation and speciation. In this review, distribution, phylogenies, hybridization, sexual isolation among D. ananassae complex have been discussed. The complex of several cryptic island species provides a useful model for evolutionary studies dealing with the mechanisms of speciation.

  6. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes: Characidae with comments on the Moenkhausia oligolepis species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C. Benine

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguay, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by characters related to body coloration, the number of lateral line scales, the degree of poring of the lateral line, and number of scales rows above and below the lateral line. Molecular analyses using partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I from specimens of the new species and specimens belonging to morphologically similar species demonstrated that the new species is easily differentiated by their high genetic distance and by their position in the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained through the Maximum Parsimony methodology. The analyses of three samples of M. oligolepis also revealed that they have high genetic distances and belong to different monophyletic groups suggesting that this species corresponds to a species complex rather than a single species.

  7. Cylindrocarpon root rot: multi-gene analysis reveals novel species within the Ilyonectria radicicola species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabral, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Rego, C.; Oliveira, H.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Ilyonectria radicicola and its Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph represent a species complex that is commonly associated with root rot disease symptoms on a range of hosts. During the course of this study, several species could be distinguished from I. radicicola sensu stricto based on morphological and

  8. Oogenesis in the Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Yang; Wan, Fang-Hao; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 species complex has invaded several parts of the world in the past 30 years and replaced native whitefly populations in the invaded regions, including certain areas of China. One of the possible reasons for the invasion is that MEAM1 whiteflies are more fecund than native species. However, the factors that affect the reproduction of the B. tabaci cryptic species are not clearly known. The regulation of oogenesis is thought to be one of the essential processes for egg formation and ovary development and could affect its population dynamics. In this study, the ovariole structure and oogenesis of the MEAM1 species complex was examined using light and transmission electron microscopy. Telotrophic ovarioles were observed in the MEAM1 species complex. Each ovariole had two well defined regions: the tropharium and the vitellarium. The tropharium always had more than ten trophocytes. The development of a single oocyte in the vitellarium has four phases: oocyte formation, previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. Two arrested oocytes, follicular cells and uncompleted oocytes were separated from the tropharium by microtubule and microfilaments. Early previtellogenesis oocytes absorbed nutrients and endosymbiont bacteria through a nutritive cord. However, the vitellogenesis of oocytes transmitted Vg through both the nutritive cord and the space between follicular cells. Each mature oocyte with deposited yolk proteins had only one bacteriocyte and was surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells. The oogenesis in the B. tabaci MEAM1 species complex concluded with the differentiation of oocytes, the transport of yolk and endosymbionts as well as the development and maturation of oocytes. This result provides important information that further defines the regulation of oogenesis in the B. tabaci complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: degree of sterility and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetica 140, 75–81. Banerjee P. and Singh B. N. 2015 Interspecific hybridization does not affect the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the. Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Genetica 143, 459–471. Barbash B. A., Awadalla P. and Parone A. M. 2004 Functional divergence caused by ancient positive selection of ...

  10. Species Diversity and Bird Feed in Residential Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinoto; Suhesti, Eni

    2017-12-01

    Bird is one component of the ecosystem which has an important role in supporting the occurrence of an organism's life cycle. Therefore, the presence of birds in an area is important, because it can affect the existence and distribution of plant species. The purpose of this study is to calculate the diversity of bird species and identify the source of bird feed in the compound. This study was conducted by field surveys in the residential complex. In addition to the birds as a research object vegetation as habitat / foraging birds were also observed. Data were analyzed by using the bird diversity index, richenes index, bundance index, dominance analysis, analysis of bird distribution and analysis of the level of meeting types, while vegetation will be analyzed based on the type and part of what is eaten by birds. In Pandau Jaya housing complex, found as many as 12 species of birds which consists of seven families. Bird species often present is Cucak Kutilang (Pycnonotus aurigaster) of 20 individuals, Bondol Peking (Lonchura punctulata) 14 individuals and Perkutut Jawa (Geopelia striata) 10 individuals. Bird species diversity (H ‘) in Pandau Jaya housing complex is still relatively moderate with a value of 2.27, while the Evenness Index (E) of 0.91 and Richenes Index (R) of 2.45. Types of vegetation as a food source, among others: mango, guava, cherry, jackfruit, ketapang, coconut, areca, palm, banana, papaya, flowers and grasses.

  11. Evolutionary relationships within the Phytophthora cactorum species complex in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Matěj; Fér, Tomáš; Mráček, Jaroslav; Tomšovský, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora cactorum species complex in Europe is composed of P. cactorum, Phytophthora hedraiandra, and a hybrid species Phytophthora × serendipita. Evolutionary analyses using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method were carried out on 133 isolates from 19 countries. The AFLP data were complemented by sequence analysis of three genes (ITS region of ribosomal RNA gene, phenolic acid decarboxylase - Pheca I, and Cytochrome oxidase - Cox I), morphometric analysis and cardinal temperature data. The high proportion of clonal genotypes, low gene flow among groups, which was defined by the structure analysis, and low Nei's gene diversity confirms the homothallic life cycle of the groups. On the other hand, the ITS, Cox I and Pheca I sequence data support occasional hybridization between species. The structure K = 5 grouping revealed two groups of hybrid origin (C2 and F). While the C2 group resembles P. × serendipita, the F group includes Finnish isolates characterized by high oogonial abortion rates and slow growth. The morphological characters routinely used in identification of Phytophthora species are not useful for delimitation of species from the P. cactorum complex. Therefore, we discuss the status of P. hedraiandra as a separate species. The epitypification of P. cactorum is proposed. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf Fescues. Plants belonging to this complex exhibit significant phenotypic plasticity for agriculturally important traits, such as annuality/perenniality, establishment potential, growth speed, nutritional value......, winter hardiness, drought tolerance and resistance to grazing. In this study we have sequenced and assembled the low copy fraction of the genomes of Lolium westerwoldicum, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis and Lolium temulentum. We have also generated de-novo transcriptome assemblies for each species....... Our dataset enabled us to perform comparative gene family analysis for CBF (C-Repeat Binding Factor) proteins, which are key regulators of cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in plants....

  13. Molecular differentiation of sibling species in the Galactomyces geotrichum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, E S; Smith MTh; Boekhout, T; de Hoog, G S; Naumov, G I

    2001-12-01

    PCR-analysis, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and molecular karyotyping were used to characterize 52 strains belonging to the genus Galactomyces. The resultant data revealed that a PCR method employing the universal primer N21 and microsatellite primer (CAC)5 is appropriate for the distinction of four Ga. geotrichum sibling species, Ga. citri-aurantii and Ga. reessii. Better separation was achieved with the UP primer N21; each species displayed a specific pattern with very low intraspecific variation. We propose to use the primer N21 for the differentiation of the six taxa composing the genus Galactomyces. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis revealed genetic homogeneity of each sibling species within the Ga. geotrichum complex. On the other hand, the four sibling species, having from 41 to 59% of nDNA homology and similar phenotypic characteristics, are clearly distinguished based on their electrophoretic profiles using two enzymes: mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (MPI) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM). Despite the same number of chromosomal bands, different karyotype patterns were found in Ga. geotrichum sensu stricto and its two sibling species A and B. Within each sibling species, chromosome length polymorphism was observed, in particular for small bands, allowing discrimination to the strain level.

  14. A taxonomic revision of the Wallemia sebi species complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jančič, Sašo; Nguyen, Hai D. T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wallemia sebi is a xerophilic food- and air-borne fungus. The name has been used for strains that prevail in cold, temperate and tropical climates. In this study, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, DNA replication licensing factor (MCM7), pre......-rRNA processing protein (TSR1), RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and a new marker 3´-phosphoadenosine-5´-phosphatase (HAL2), confirmed the previous hypothesis that W. sebi presents a complex of at least four species. Here, we confirm and apply...... the phylogenetic analyses based species hypotheses from a companion study to guide phenotypic assessment of W. sebi like strains from a wide range of substrates, climates and continents allowed the recognition of W. sebi sensu stricto and three new species described as W. mellicola, W. Canadensis, and W...

  15. Allopatric Speciation within a Cryptic Species Complex of Australasian Octopuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Michael D.; Norman, Mark D.; Cameron, Hayley E.; Strugnell, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive revisions over recent decades, the taxonomy of benthic octopuses (Family Octopodidae) remains in a considerable flux. Among groups of unresolved status is a species complex of morphologically similar shallow-water octopods from subtropical Australasia, including: Allopatric populations of Octopus tetricus on the eastern and western coasts of Australia, of which the Western Australian form is speculated to be a distinct or sub-species; and Octopus gibbsi from New Zealand, a proposed synonym of Australian forms. This study employed a combination of molecular and morphological techniques to resolve the taxonomic status of the ‘tetricus complex’. Phylogenetic analyses (based on five mitochondrial genes: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COI, COIII and Cytb) and Generalised Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis (based on COI, COIII and Cytb) distinguished eastern and Western Australian O. tetricus as distinct species, while O. gibbsi was found to be synonymous with the east Australian form (BS = >97, PP = 1; GMYC p = 0.01). Discrete morphological differences in mature male octopuses (based on sixteen morphological traits) provided further evidence of cryptic speciation between east (including New Zealand) and west coast populations; although females proved less useful in morphological distinction among members of the tetricus complex. In addition, phylogenetic analyses suggested populations of octopuses currently treated under the name Octopus vulgaris are paraphyletic; providing evidence of cryptic speciation among global populations of O. vulgaris, the most commercially valuable octopus species worldwide. PMID:24964133

  16. A Taxonomic Revision of the Wallemia sebi Species Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sašo Jančič

    Full Text Available Wallemia sebi is a xerophilic food- and air-borne fungus. The name has been used for strains that prevail in cold, temperate and tropical climates. In this study, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions, DNA replication licensing factor (MCM7, pre-rRNA processing protein (TSR1, RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2 and a new marker 3´-phosphoadenosine-5´-phosphatase (HAL2, confirmed the previous hypothesis that W. sebi presents a complex of at least four species. Here, we confirm and apply the phylogenetic analyses based species hypotheses from a companion study to guide phenotypic assessment of W. sebi like strains from a wide range of substrates, climates and continents allowed the recognition of W. sebi sensu stricto and three new species described as W. mellicola, W. Canadensis, and W. tropicalis. The species differ in their conidial size, xerotolerance, halotolerance, chaotolerance, growth temperature regimes, extracellular enzyme activity profiles, and secondary metabolite patterns. A key to all currently accepted Wallemia species is provided that allow their identification on the basis of physiological, micromorphological and culture characters.

  17. A Taxonomic Revision of the Wallemia sebi Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančič, Sašo; Nguyen, Hai D T; Frisvad, Jens C; Zalar, Polona; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Seifert, Keith A; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Wallemia sebi is a xerophilic food- and air-borne fungus. The name has been used for strains that prevail in cold, temperate and tropical climates. In this study, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, DNA replication licensing factor (MCM7), pre-rRNA processing protein (TSR1), RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and a new marker 3´-phosphoadenosine-5´-phosphatase (HAL2), confirmed the previous hypothesis that W. sebi presents a complex of at least four species. Here, we confirm and apply the phylogenetic analyses based species hypotheses from a companion study to guide phenotypic assessment of W. sebi like strains from a wide range of substrates, climates and continents allowed the recognition of W. sebi sensu stricto and three new species described as W. mellicola, W. Canadensis, and W. tropicalis. The species differ in their conidial size, xerotolerance, halotolerance, chaotolerance, growth temperature regimes, extracellular enzyme activity profiles, and secondary metabolite patterns. A key to all currently accepted Wallemia species is provided that allow their identification on the basis of physiological, micromorphological and culture characters.

  18. Two new Geosmithia species in G. pallida species complex from bark beetles in eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y-T; Kolařík, M; Kasson, M T; Hulcr, J

    2017-01-01

    Species of Geosmithia are cosmopolitan but understudied fungi, and most are associated with phloem-feeding bark beetles on various woody hosts. We surveyed 207 bark and ambrosia beetles from 37 species in the eastern USA for associated fungi. The community is dominated by species in the G. pallida species complex (GPSC) and included several Geosmithia isolates that appear to be new to science. The new Geosmithia isolates exhibited the characteristic brownish-colored colonies typical for the G. pallida species complex and were phylogenetically resolved as two genealogically exclusive lineages based on a concatenated multilocus data set based on the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the nuc rDNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS), and the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1-α), β-tubulin (TUB2), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) genes. Two new Geosmithia species, G. brunnea and G. proliferans, are proposed, and their morphological traits and phylogenetic placements are presented.

  19. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three non-human primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Hélène; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-01-01

    Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in non-human primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza's monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus), six Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most "despotic" of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species' social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure) called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza's monkeys (simplest social structure) displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell's monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in different animal taxa.

  20. Phylogeny and taxonomy of species in the Grosmannia serpens complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Grosmannia serpens was first described from pine in Italy in 1936 and it has been recorded subsequently from many countries in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The fungus is vectored primarily by root-infesting bark beetles and has been reported to contribute to pine-root diseases in Italy and South Africa. The objective of this study was to consider the identity of a global collection of isolates not previously available and using DNA sequence-based comparisons not previously applied to most of these isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS2-LSU, actin, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor-1 alpha sequences revealed that these morphologically similar isolates represent a complex of five cryptic species. Grosmannia serpens sensu stricto thus is redefined and comprises only isolates from Italy including the ex-type isolate. The ex-type isolate of Verticicladiella alacris was shown to be distinct from G. serpens, and a new holomorphic species, G. alacris, is described. The teleomorph state of G. alacris was obtained through mating studies in the laboratory, confirming that this species is heterothallic. Most of the available isolates, including those from South Africa, USA, France, Portugal and some from Spain, represent G. alacris. The remaining three taxa, known only in their anamorph states, are described as the new species Leptographium gibbsii for isolates from the UK, L. yamaokae for isolates from Japan and L. castellanum for isolates from Spain and the Dominican Republic.

  1. Exotic plant species around Jeongeup Research Complex and RFT industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cha, Min Kyoung; Ryu, Tae Ho; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Jin Hong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In Shinjeong-dong of Jeongeup, there are three government-supported research institutes and an RFT industrial complex which is currently being established. Increased human activities can affect flora and fauna as a man-made pressure onto the region. As a baseline study, status of exotic plants was investigated prior to a full operation of the RFT industrial complex. A total of 54 species and 1 variety of naturalized or introduced plants were found in the study area. Among them, three species (Ambrosia artemisifolia var. elatior, Rumex acetocella and Aster pilosus) belong to 'nuisance species', and four species (Phytolacca americana, Iopomoea hederacea, Ereechtites hieracifolia and Rudbeckia laciniata) to ‘monitor species’ designated by the ministry of Environment. Some of naturalized trees and plants were intentionally introduced in this area, while others naturally immigrated. Physalis angulata seems to immigrate in the study area in the form of mixture with animal feeds as its distribution coincided with the transportation route of the animal feeds. Liquidambar styraciflua is amenable to the ecological investigation on the possible expansion of the species to the nearby Naejang National Park as its leave shape and autumn color are very similar to those of maple trees. The number of naturalized plants around the RFT industrial complex will increase with an increase in floating population, in human activities in association with constructions of factories and operations of the complex. The result of this study provides baseline data for assessing the ecological change of the region according to the operation of the RFT industrial complex.

  2. Exotic plant species around Jeongeup Research Complex and RFT industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cha, Min Kyoung; Ryu, Tae Ho; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Jin Hong

    2015-01-01

    In Shinjeong-dong of Jeongeup, there are three government-supported research institutes and an RFT industrial complex which is currently being established. Increased human activities can affect flora and fauna as a man-made pressure onto the region. As a baseline study, status of exotic plants was investigated prior to a full operation of the RFT industrial complex. A total of 54 species and 1 variety of naturalized or introduced plants were found in the study area. Among them, three species (Ambrosia artemisifolia var. elatior, Rumex acetocella and Aster pilosus) belong to 'nuisance species', and four species (Phytolacca americana, Iopomoea hederacea, Ereechtites hieracifolia and Rudbeckia laciniata) to ‘monitor species’ designated by the ministry of Environment. Some of naturalized trees and plants were intentionally introduced in this area, while others naturally immigrated. Physalis angulata seems to immigrate in the study area in the form of mixture with animal feeds as its distribution coincided with the transportation route of the animal feeds. Liquidambar styraciflua is amenable to the ecological investigation on the possible expansion of the species to the nearby Naejang National Park as its leave shape and autumn color are very similar to those of maple trees. The number of naturalized plants around the RFT industrial complex will increase with an increase in floating population, in human activities in association with constructions of factories and operations of the complex. The result of this study provides baseline data for assessing the ecological change of the region according to the operation of the RFT industrial complex

  3. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three nonhuman primate species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eBOUCHET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in nonhuman primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza’s monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus, six Campbell’s monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most ‘despotic’ of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species’ social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza’s monkeys (simplest social structure displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell’s monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in

  4. Mosaic genome architecture of the Anopheles gambiae species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang-Sattler

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Attempts over the last three decades to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the Anopheles gambiae species complex have been important for developing better strategies to control malaria transmission.We used fingerprint genotyping data from 414 field-collected female mosquitoes at 42 microsatellite loci to infer the evolutionary relationships of four species in the A. gambiae complex, the two major malaria vectors A. gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae s.s. and A. arabiensis, as well as two minor vectors, A. merus and A. melas.We identify six taxonomic units, including a clear separation of West and East Africa A. gambiae s.s. S molecular forms. We show that the phylogenetic relationships vary widely between different genomic regions, thus demonstrating the mosaic nature of the genome of these species. The two major malaria vectors are closely related and closer to A. merus than to A. melas at the genome-wide level, which is also true if only autosomes are considered. However, within the Xag inversion region of the X chromosome, the M and two S molecular forms are most similar to A. merus. Near the X centromere, outside the Xag region, the two S forms are highly dissimilar to the other taxa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the centromeric region of chromosome 3 is a strong discriminator between the major and minor malaria vectors.Although further studies are needed to elucidate the basis of the phylogenetic variation among the different regions of the genome, the preponderance of sympatric admixtures among taxa strongly favor introgression of different genomic regions between species, rather than lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphism, as a possible mechanism.

  5. Microsatellite Primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) Reveal that a Single Plant Sires All Seeds Per Pod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod.  Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched...

  6. Managing Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa prunings for crop production and improved soil properties in the sub-Sudanian zone of Burkina-Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayala, J.; Mando, A.; Ouédraogo, E.; Teklehaimanot, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Tree pruning generates organic resources whose nitrogen content is not always recycled appropriately. A field experiment was conducted in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to test the possibilities of improving soil properties and crop production through the application of Parkia biglobosa (néré)

  7. Ancestral polymorphism at the major histocompatibility complex (MHCIIß in the Nesospiza bunting species complex and its sister species (Rowettia goughensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rensburg Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is an important component of the vertebrate immune system and is frequently used to characterise adaptive variation in wild populations due to its co-evolution with pathogens. Passerine birds have an exceptionally diverse MHC with multiple gene copies and large numbers of alleles compared to other avian taxa. The Nesospiza bunting species complex (two species on Nightingale Island; one species with three sub-species on Inaccessible Island represents a rapid adaptive radiation at a small, isolated archipelago, and is thus an excellent model for the study of adaptation and speciation. In this first study of MHC in Nesospiza buntings, we aim to characterize MHCIIß variation, determine the strength of selection acting at this gene region and assess the level of shared polymorphism between the Nesospiza species complex and its putative sister taxon, Rowettia goughensis, from Gough Island. Results In total, 23 unique alleles were found in 14 Nesospiza and 2 R. goughensis individuals encoding at least four presumably functional loci and two pseudogenes. There was no evidence of ongoing selection on the peptide binding region (PBR. Of the 23 alleles, 15 were found on both the islands inhabited by Nesospiza species, and seven in both Nesospiza and Rowettia; indications of shared, ancestral polymorphism. A gene tree of Nesospiza MHCIIß alleles with several other passerine birds shows three highly supported Nesospiza-specific groups. All R. goughensis alleles were shared with Nesospiza, and these alleles were found in all three Nesospiza sequence groups in the gene tree, suggesting that most of the observed variation predates their phylogenetic split. Conclusions Lack of evidence of selection on the PBR, together with shared polymorphism across the gene tree, suggests that population variation of MHCIIß among Nesospiza and Rowettia is due to ancestral polymorphism rather than local selective

  8. Delimiting Species Boundaries within a Paraphyletic Species Complex: Insights from Morphological, Genetic, and Molecular Data on Paramecium sonneborni (Paramecium aurelia species complex, Ciliophora, Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria; Sawka, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    The demarcation of boundaries between protist species is often problematic because of the absence of a uniform species definition, the abundance of cryptic diversity, and the occurrence of convergent morphology. The ciliates belonging to the Paramecium aurelia complex, consisting of 15 species, are a good model for such systematic and evolutionary studies. One member of the complex is P. sonneborni, previously known only from one stand in Texas (USA), but recently found in two new sampling sites in Cyprus (creeks running to Salt Lake and Oroklini Lake near Larnaca). The studied Paramecium sonneborni strains (from the USA and Cyprus) reveal low viability in the F1 and F2 generations of interstrain hybrids and may be an example of ongoing allopatric speciation. Despite its molecular distinctiveness, we postulate that P. sonneborni should remain in the P. aurelia complex, making it a paraphyletic taxon. Morphological studies have revealed that some features of the nuclear apparatus of P. sonneborni correspond to the P. aurelia spp. complex, while others are similar to P. jenningsi and P. schewiakoffi. The observed discordance indicates rapid splitting of the P. aurelia-P. jenningsi-P. schewiakoffi group, in which genetic, morphological, and molecular boundaries between species are not congruent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro photodynamic inactivation of Sporothrix schenckii complex species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Mario, Débora Alves; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2014-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been applied successfully against cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses. We applied methylene blue as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (InGaAlP) against Sporothrix schenckii complex species in an in vitro assay. The viability of the conidia was determined by counting colony-forming units. Methylene blue in conjunction with laser irradiation was able to inhibit the growth of all tested samples. The in vitro inhibition of Sporothrix spp. isolates by laser light deserves in vivo experimental and clinical studies since it may be a promising treatment for cutaneous and subcutaneous sporotrichosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Multifaceted roles of metabolic enzymes of the Paracoccidioides species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Maria Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi, and are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a serious disease of multiple organs. The large number of tissues colonized by this fungus suggests the presence of a variety of surface molecules involved in adhesion. A surprising finding is that the majority of enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and glyoxylate cycle in Paracoccidioides spp. has adhesive properties that aid in the interaction with the host extracellular matrix, and so act as ‘moonlighting’ proteins. Moonlighting proteins have multiple functions and add another dimension to cellular complexity, while benefiting cells in several ways. This phenomenon occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. For example, moonlighting proteins from the glycolytic pathway or TCA cycle can play roles in bacterial pathogens, either by acting as proteins secreted in a conventional pathway or not and/or as cell surface component that facilitate adhesion or adherence . This review outlines the multifuncionality exposed by a variety of Paracoccidioides spp. enzymes including aconitase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, triose phosphate isomerase, fumarase and enolase. The roles that moonlighting activities play in the virulence characteristics of this fungus and several other human pathogens during their interactions with the host are discussed.

  11. Origin of Boundary Populations in Medaka (Oryzias latipes Species Complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehana, Yusuke; Sakai, Masato; Narita, Takanori; Sato, Tadashi; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-01

    The Japanese wild population of the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes species complex) comprises two genetically distinct groups, the Northern and the Southern Populations, with boundary populations having a unique genotype. It is thought that the boundary populations have been formed through introgressive hybridization between the two groups, because they are fixed with the Northern alleles at two allozymic loci, with the Southern alleles at two other loci, and have a unique allele at one locus. In this study, we examined the genetic population structure of the boundary populations using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. Most SNPs of the Toyooka population, a typical boundary population, were shared with the Northern Population, some were shared with the Southern Population, and the remaining SNPs were unique to this population, suggesting that the boundary populations originated and diverged from the Northern Population. Further analyses of different populations using SNPs at eight genomic loci indicated that the boundary populations at different locations share similar genomic constitutions, and can be genetically distinguished from typical Northern Populations by unique SNPs. In addition, the boundary populations in the Maruyama River Basin had Northern mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), while others, from the Fukuda and Kishida River Basins and from the Kumihama Bay area, had Southern mtDNA. These findings suggested that the boundary populations originated from the Northern Population, and then their genomes diverged as a result of geographical isolation, followed by mtDNA introgression from the Southern Population that occurred independently in some populations.

  12. The Tetramorium tortuosum species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae revisited - taxonomic revision of the Afrotropical T. capillosum species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we revise the taxonomy of the Tetramorium tortuosum species group members encountered in the Afrotropical region, which we have placed in its own subgroup: the T. capillosum species complex. We re-describe the two previously known species T. capillosum Bolton and T. tabarum Bolton, and describe the new species T. hecate sp. n. The geographic distribution of the three species appears to be restricted to the equatorial rainforests of Central Africa. We provide a diagnosis of the T. capillosum species complex, an illustrated identification key to species level, and worker-based species descriptions, which include diagnoses, discussions, high-quality montage images, and distribution maps. Furthermore, we discuss biogeography and composition of the globally distributed T. tortuosum group.

  13. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Lindstrom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Py. montereyensis sp. nov., Py. columbiensis sp. nov., and Py. protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Py. columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Py. lanceolata or Py. pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Py. nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Py. lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  14. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  15. Existence of species complex largely reduced barcoding success for invasive species of Tephritidae: a case study in Bactrocera spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F; Jin, Q; Liang, L; Zhang, A B; Li, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Fruit flies in the family Tephritidae are the economically important pests that have many species complexes. DNA barcoding has gradually been verified as an effective tool for identifying species in a wide range of taxonomic groups, and there are several publications on rapid and accurate identification of fruit flies based on this technique; however, comprehensive analyses of large and new taxa for the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for fruit flies identification have been rare. In this study, we evaluated the COI barcode sequences for the diagnosis of fruit flies using 1426 sequences for 73 species of Bactrocera distributed worldwide. Tree-based [neighbour-joining (NJ)]; distance-based, such as Best Match (BM), Best Close Match (BCM) and Minimum Distance (MD); and character-based methods were used to evaluate the barcoding success rates obtained with maintaining the species complex in the data set, treating a species complex as a single taxon unit, and removing the species complex. Our results indicate that the average divergence between species was 14.04% (0.00-25.16%), whereas within a species this was 0.81% (0.00-9.71%); the existence of species complexes largely reduced the barcoding success for Tephritidae, for example relatively low success rates (74.4% based on BM and BCM and 84.8% based on MD) were obtained when the sequences from species complexes were included in the analysis, whereas significantly higher success rates were achieved if the species complexes were treated as a single taxon or removed from the data set - BM (98.9%), BCM (98.5%) and MD (97.5%), or BM (98.1%), BCM (97.4%) and MD (98.2%). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Recuero, E.; Canestrelli, D.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like

  17. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chromosomal evidence for a putative cryptic species in the Gymnotus carapo species-complex (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Souza Augusto CP

    2008-11-01

    represent cryptic sympatric species in the G. carapo species complex. We speculate that the chromosomal speciation occurred recently, allowing insufficient time for the fixation of other differences following post-zygotic isolation.

  19. Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R; Haddad, N M

    1993-01-01

    Species in a Colorado subalpine ecosystem show subtle interdependences. Red-naped sapsuckers play two distinct keystone roles. They excavate nest cavities in fungus-infected aspens that are required as nest sites by two species of swallows, and they drill sap wells into willows that provide abundant nourishment for themselves, hummingbirds, orange-crowned warblers, chipmunks, and an array of other sap robbers. The swallows thus depend on, and the sap robbers benefit from, a keystone species c...

  20. Review of the Trifolium amabile Complex in Peru, with the Description of a New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari-Novoa, Eduardo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe Trifolium absconditum sp. nov., a new species of the T. amabile complex from South America. It differs from other Peruvian Trifolia of the complex by having smaller stipules, leaves, inflorescences, and floral pieces. A key for Peruvian species of the complex is presented, and typifications for them are made when necessary and material is available in Peruvian herbaria. Thus, the number of Peruvian species in the complex is elevated to three: T. amabile, T. absconditum, and a resurrected T. peruvianum. Finally, it is suggested that Chile must be excluded from the distribution of this complex.

  1. Review of the Trifolium amabile Complex in Peru, with the Description of a New Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio Molinari-Novoa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe Trifolium absconditum sp. nov., a new species of the T. amabile complex from South America. It differs from other Peruvian Trifolia of the complex by having smaller stipules, leaves, inflorescences, and floral pieces. A key for Peruvian species of the complex is presented, and typifications for them are made when necessary and material is available in Peruvian herbaria. Thus, the number of Peruvian species in the complex is elevated to three: T. amabile, T. absconditum, and a resurrected T. peruvianum. Finally, it is suggested that Chile must be excluded from the distribution of this complex.

  2. Evidence of tree species' range shifts in a complex landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J Monleon

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to change the distribution of species. For long-lived, sessile species such as trees, tracking the warming climate depends on seedling colonization of newly favorable areas. We compare the distribution of seedlings and mature trees for all but the rarest tree species in California, Oregon and Washington, United States of America, a large, environmentally diverse region. Across 46 species, the mean annual temperature of the range of seedlings was 0.120°C colder than that of the range of trees (95% confidence interval from 0.096 to 0.144°C. The extremes of the seedling distributions also shifted towards colder temperature than those of mature trees, but the change was less pronounced. Although the mean elevation and mean latitude of the range of seedlings was higher than and north of those of the range of mature trees, elevational and latitudinal shifts run in opposite directions for the majority of the species, reflecting the lack of a direct biological relationship between species' distributions and those variables. The broad scale, environmental diversity and variety of disturbance regimes and land uses of the study area, the large number and exhaustive sampling of tree species, and the direct causal relationship between the temperature response and a warming climate, provide strong evidence to attribute the observed shifts to climate change.

  3. Ichthyobodo necator (Kinetoplastida)--a complex of sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todal, Jan Arvid; Karlsbakk, Egil; Isaksen, Trond E; Plarre, Heidrun; Urawa, Shigehiko; Mouton, Anna; Hoel, Erik; Koren, Christian W R; Nylund, Are

    2004-01-28

    Ichthyobodo necator is a parasitic flagellate that attacks fishes, causing disease problems in freshwater worldwide. Findings of similar flagellates in strictly marine fishes have indicated that ichthyobodiosis may be caused by more than 1 flagellate species. We obtained partial small subunit rDNA (ssu rDNA) sequences of 14 Ichthyobodo isolates originating from fishes in Norway, Japan, Singapore, South Africa and Brazil, and identified 8 strains or species, including 2 species infecting cultured salmon in Norway. An Ichthyobodo species isolated from the skin of Atlantic salmon parr in freshwater is suggested to represent L. necator sensu stricto, while another species, showing particular affinity for the gills, infects salmon in both fresh- and seawater. Atlantic cod is infected with a marine Ichthyobodo species unrelated to those infecting salmonids; 2 cyprinids originating from different parts of the world had related Ichthyobodo strains/species, and 2 isolates from unrelated North and South American fishes were also closely related. The phylogenetic relationships of the Ichthyobodo isolates is described, and the implications of the molecular findings on past and future morphological studies of Ichthyobodo spp. are discussed.

  4. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus) and two Leptosphaeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rohan G T; Cassin, Andrew; Grandaubert, Jonathan; Clark, Bethany L; Van de Wouw, Angela P; Rouxel, Thierry; Howlett, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus), causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys) and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  5. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  6. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Jan W; Recuero, Ernesto; Canestrelli, Daniele; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

    2013-12-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like ecology and conservation biology. We here review molecular genetic evidence relevant to the systematics of toads in the Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae). Two studies recently published in this journal (Recuero et al., MPE 62: 71-86 and García-Porta et al., MPE 63: 113-130) addressed this issue but reached opposing conclusions on the taxonomy of the group (four versus two species). In particular, allozyme data in the latter paper were interpreted as evidence for hybridization across species (between B. bufo-B. spinosus and B. bufo-B. verrucosissimus). We tested claims for hybridization through re-analysis of allozyme data for individuals instead of populations, to be able to distinguish between sympatry with and without admixture, and found no evidence of hybridization across taxa. We propose alternative explanations for the observed patterns that García-Porta et al. (2012) failed to consider. In the absence of unequivocal evidence for hybridization and introgression, we reject the proposal to downgrade Bufo spinosus and Bufo verrucosissimus to the subspecies level. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae.

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    Justin C Bagley

    Full Text Available Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the

  8. Scorpions from Mexico: From Species Diversity to Venom Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibáñez-López, Carlos E.; Francke, Oscar F.; Ureta, Carolina; Possani, Lourival D.

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods, which are distributed worldwide, except for Antarctica and some Pacific islands. Scorpion envenomation represents a public health problem in several parts of the world. Mexico harbors the highest diversity of scorpions in the world, including some of the world’s medically important scorpion species. The systematics and diversity of Mexican scorpion fauna has not been revised in the past decade; and due to recent and exhaustive collection efforts as part of different ongoing major revisionary systematic projects, our understanding of this diversity has changed compared with previous assessments. Given the presence of several medically important scorpion species, the study of their venom in the country is also important. In the present contribution, the diversity of scorpion species in Mexico is revised and updated based on several new systematic contributions; 281 different species are recorded. Commentaries on recent venomic, ecological and behavioral studies of Mexican scorpions are also provided. A list containing the most important peptides identified from 16 different species is included. A graphical representation of the different types of components found in these venoms is also revised. A map with hotspots showing the current knowledge on scorpion distribution and areas explored in Mexico is also provided. PMID:26712787

  9. On the dangers of model complexity without ecological justification in species distribution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Bell; Daniel R. Schlaepfer

    2016-01-01

    Although biogeographic patterns are the product of complex ecological processes, the increasing com-plexity of correlative species distribution models (SDMs) is not always motivated by ecological theory,but by model fit. The validity of model projections, such as shifts in a species’ climatic niche, becomesquestionable particularly during extrapolations, such as for...

  10. Distribution of Burkholderia cepacia complex species among isolates recovered from persons with or without cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reik, Rebecca; Spilker, Theodore; Lipuma, John J

    2005-06-01

    We analyzed Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates recovered from 1,218 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and 90 patients without CF. Although all B. cepacia complex species were found, some were rarely identified. The distribution of species differed between the CF and non-CF populations and appears to be changing over time among CF patients.

  11. A newly recognized species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Puerto Carreno, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochero, Helena H L; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2007-06-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mosquito species from eastern Colombia belonging to the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis complex. We provisionally name this taxon An. albitarsis species "F." Until now, the only members of the Albitarsis Complex recorded from north of the Amazon River have been An. marajoara and a putative phylogenetic species, An. albitarsis "E." As with the other largely monomorphic species in the complex, we were able to detect its presence using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2) and partial white gene sequences. Unlike An. marajoara, but in common with other species in the complex, An. albitarsis F lacks the white gene fourth intron. This species is sympatric with An. marajoara in a malaria-endemic area in Puerto Carreño, Vichada Department, Colombia. It could be an important current and/or historical vector of human malaria parasites at this locality and, depending on its actual distribution, elsewhere in Colombia and Venezuela.

  12. Diversification in species complexes: tests of species origin and delimitation in the Bursera simaruba clade of tropical trees (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Weeks, Andrea; De-Nova, J Arturo; Lemos, Rosalinda Medina; Camacho, Jacqueline Pérez; Feria, Teresa P; Gómez-Bermejo, Roberto; Montero, Juan C; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-11-01

    Molecular phylogenies are invaluable for testing morphology-based species delimitation in species complexes, as well as for examining hypotheses regarding the origination of species in these groups. Using five nucleotide markers, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Bursera simaruba species complex of neotropical trees to test the notion that four "satellite" species originated from populations of the most widely distributed member of the genus, B. simaruba, which the satellites strongly resemble. In addition to molecular phylogenetic reconstruction, we tested species delimitation of B. simaruba and the satellites using multivariate analyses of morphological and ecological characters. The analyses evaluated the taxonomic value of these traditional characters and pinpointed those in need of further study, such as the expression of pubescence. Phylogenetic data rejected the origin of three satellite species from their purported ancestor, B. simaruba, and we ascribe their morphological similarity to convergence or parallelism. The fourth satellite species likely represents one end of a spectrum of inflorescence length variation within B. simaruba and is conspecific. Despite its marked morphological variability, we recovered B. simaruba as a single valid species, which implies that it maintains genetic cohesion among distant populations throughout its vast range. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: degree of sterility and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haldane (1922) said that, in general, when one sex of hybrids between species is sterile or inviable, it is more frequently the heterogametic one. As suggested by numerous workers, the reason behind this phenomenon is attributed to the X chromosome, which occurs in hemizygous condition in the heterogametic sex.

  14. Comparative "Omics" of the Fusarium fujikuroi Species Complex Highlights Differences in Genetic Potential and Metabolite Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehaus, E.-M.; Münsterkötter, M.; Proctor, R.H.; Brown, D.W.; Sharon, A.; Idan, Y.; Oren-Young, L.; Sieber, C.M.; Novák, O.; Pěnčík, A.; Tarkowská, D.; Hromadová, K.; Freeman, S.; Maymon, M.; Elazar, M.; Youssef, S.A.; El-Shabrawy, E.S.M.; Shalaby, A.B.A.; Houterman, P.; Brock, N.L.; Burkhardt, I.; Tsavkelova, E.A.; Dickschat, J.S.; Galuszka, P.; Güldener, U.; Tudzynski, B.

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share

  15. Molecular approaches to identify cryptic species and polymorphic species within a complex community of fig wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Xiao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic and polymorphic species can complicate traditional taxonomic research and both of these concerns are common in fig wasp communities. Species identification is very difficult, despite great effort and the ecological importance of fig wasps. Herein, we try to identify all chalcidoid wasp species hosted by one species of fig, using both morphological and molecular methods. We compare the efficiency of four different DNA regions and find that ITS2 is highly effective for species identification, while mitochondrial COI and Cytb regions appear less reliable, possibly due to the interference signals from either nuclear copies of mtDNA, i.e. NUMTs, or the effects of Wolbachia infections. The analyses suggest that combining multiple markers is the best choice for inferring species identifications as any one marker may be unsuitable in a given case.

  16. Composition chimique du netetu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines de caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathelet B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of netetu, a food condiment from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g per kg. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9-46.8/ of the total fatty acids, oleic (12.6-14.6/, palmitic (10.2-11.3/, stearic (10.0-13.4/, and behenic (12.6-13.4/ predominate. Significant differences were observed between fermented and non-fermented seeds as well as between netetu of different origins. The tocopherol content was found very low (17.7 to 30.6 mg per 100g fat. The total amino acid patterns showed that beside high level of proteins (331 a 540 g per kg and interesting levels of essential constituents, there is an important deficiency of tryptophane, cysteine, methionine and threonine.

  17. Synergistic Effects of n-Hexane Fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Bark Extract and Selected Antibiotics on Bacterial Isolates

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    Oluwatayo E. Abioye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents by microbial pathogens demands increased effort in the development of effective ways of treating infections and diseases. The n-hexane fraction of lyophilized crude bark extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. was prepared and, in combination with selected antibiotics, assayed for antimicrobial activity against some selected bacterial pathogens using time-kill assay. Protein leakage analysis of the combined agents was performed using Bradford protein quantification method. Determination of active compounds present in the n-hexane fraction was done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. While time-kill assay detected 43.33% synergy; 56.67% indifference and no antagonism at 1/2 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 1 × MIC exhibited 55% synergy, 45% indifference and no antagonism. Protein leakages from the cells of selected bacteria ranged from 1.20 µg/mL to 256.93 µg/mL. The presence of a phenyl group, an aromatic ring and phenolic compounds in the n-hexane fraction was confirmed at 2162 cm−1–2020 cm−1, 1605 cm−1–1533 cm−1 and 1438 cm−1–1444 cm−1 spectra peaks, respectively. The observed antibiotic−n-hexane fraction synergistic interaction revealed the improved antibacterial activity of the selected antibiotics. Hence, exploration of a combination of antibiotics with plant secondary metabolites is hereby advocated in the global quest for means of combating infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  18. Environmental Screening for the Scedosporium apiospermum Species Complex in Public Parks in Bangkok, Thailand.

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    Natthanej Luplertlop

    Full Text Available The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex, comprising filamentous fungal species S. apiospermum sensu stricto, S. boydii, S. aurantiacum, S. dehoogii and S. minutispora, are important pathogens that cause a wide variety of infections. Although some species (S. boydii and S. apiospermum have been isolated from patients in Thailand, no environmental surveys of these fungi have been performed in Thailand or surrounding countries. In this study, we isolated and identified species of these fungi from 68 soil and 16 water samples randomly collected from 10 parks in Bangkok. After filtration and subsequent inoculation of samples on Scedo-Select III medium, colony morphological examinations and microscopic observations were performed. Scedosporium species were isolated from soil in 8 of the 10 parks, but were only detected in one water sample. Colony morphologies of isolates from 41 of 68 soil samples (60.29% and 1 of 15 water samples (6.67% were consistent with that of the S. apiospermum species complex. Each morphological type was selected for species identification based on DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the β-tubulin gene. Three species of the S. apiospermum species complex were identified: S. apiospermum (71 isolates, S. aurantiacum (6 isolates and S. dehoogii (5 isolates. In addition, 16 sequences could not be assigned to an exact Scedosporium species. According to our environmental survey, the S. apiospermum species complex is widespread in soil in Bangkok, Thailand.

  19. Genome-wide analyses of the Bemisia tabaci species complex reveal contrasting patterns of admixture and complex demographic histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Elfekih

    Full Text Available Once considered a single species, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a complex of numerous morphologically indistinguishable species. Within the last three decades, two of its members (MED and MEAM1 have become some of the world's most damaging agricultural pests invading countries across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas and affecting a vast range of agriculturally important food and fiber crops through both feeding-related damage and the transmission of numerous plant viruses. For some time now, researchers have relied on a single mitochondrial gene and/or a handful of nuclear markers to study this species complex. Here, we move beyond this by using 38,041 genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and show that the two invasive members of the complex are closely related species with signatures of introgression with a third species (IO. Gene flow patterns were traced between contemporary invasive populations within MED and MEAM1 species and these were best explained by recent international trade. These findings have profound implications for delineating the B. tabaci species status and will impact quarantine measures and future management strategies of this global pest.

  20. The complex biogeographic history of a widespread tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Heuertz, Myriam

    2008-11-01

    Many tropical forest tree species have broad geographic ranges, and fossil records indicate that population disjunctions in some species were established millions of years ago. Here we relate biogeographic history to patterns of population differentiation, mutational and demographic processes in the widespread rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera using ribosomal (ITS) and chloroplast DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite (nSSR) loci. Fossil records document sweepstakes dispersal origins of Neotropical S. globulifera populations from Africa during the Miocene. Despite historical long-distance gene flow, nSSR differentiation across 13 populations from Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador (east and west of Andes) and French Guiana was pronounced (F(ST)= 0.14, R(ST)= 0.39, P F(ST)) to the divergences between cis- and trans-Andean populations. Both DNA sequence and nSSR data reflect contrasting demographic histories in lower Mesoamerica and Amazonia. Amazon populations show weak phylogeographic structure and deviation from drift-mutation equilibrium indicating recent population expansion. In Mesoamerica, genetic drift was strong and contributed to marked differentiation among populations. The genetic structure of S. globulifera contains fingerprints of drift-dispersal processes and phylogeographic footprints of geological uplifts and sweepstakes dispersal.

  1. Delimitating cryptic species in the Gracilaria domingensis complex (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) using molecular and morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Goia de M; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Costa, Emmanuelle da S; de Jesus, Priscila B; Oliveira, Mariana C; Oliveira, Eurico C; Davis, Charles C; Nunes, José Marcos de Castro

    2016-12-01

    Species in the genus Gracilaria that display conspicuously flattened vegetative morphologies are a taxonomically challenging group of marine benthic red algae. This is a result of their species richness, morphological similarity, and broad phenotypic plasticity. Within this group, the Gracilaria domingensis complex is one of the most common, conspicuous, and morphologically variable species along the tropical western Atlantic Ocean. Previous research has identified that members of this complex belong to two distantly related clades. However, despite this increased phylogentic resolution, species delimitations within each of these clades remain unclear. Our study assessed the species diversity within this difficult complex using morphological and molecular data from three genetic markers (cox1, UPA, and rbcL). We additionally applied six single-marker species delimitation methods (SDM: ABGD, GMYCs, GMYCm, SPN, bPTP, and PTP) to rbcL, which were largely in agreement regarding species delimitation. These results, combined with our analysis of morphology, indicate that the G. domingensis complex includes seven distinct species, each of which are not all most closely related: G. cervicornis; a ressurected G. ferox; G. apiculata subsp. apiculata; a new species, Gracilaria baiana sp. nov.; G. intermedia subsp. intermedia; G. venezuelensis; and G. domingensis sensu stricto, which includes the later heterotypic synonym, G. yoneshigueana. Our study demonstrates the value of multipronged strategies, including the use of both molecular and morphological approaches, to decipher cryptic species of red algae. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Systematics of the Platyrrhinus helleri species complex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), with descriptions of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Patterson, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Platyrrhinus is a diverse genus of small to large phyllostomid bats characterized by a comparatively narrow uropatagium thickly fringed with hair, a white dorsal stripe, comparatively large inner upper incisors that are convergent at the tips, and three upper and three lower molars. Eighteen species are currently recognized, the majority occurring in the Andes. Molecular, morphological, and morphometric analyses of specimens formerly identified as Platyrrhinus helleri support recognition of Platyrrhinus incarum as a separate species and reveal the presence of two species from western and northern South America that we describe herein as new (Platyrrhinus angustirostris sp. nov. from eastern Colombia and Ecuador, north-eastern Peru, and Venezuela and Platyrrhinus fusciventris sp. nov. from Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago, northern Brazil, eastern Ecuador, and southern Venezuela). These two new species are sister taxa and, in turn, sister to Platyrrhinus incarum.

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen L; Spannagl, Manuel; Mayer, Klaus F X; Asp, Torben

    2015-03-28

    The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf fescues, both belonging to the subfamily Pooideae. This subfamily also includes wheat, barley, oat and rye, making it extremely important to world agriculture. Species within the Lolium-Festuca complex show very diverse phenotypes, and many of them are related to agronomically important traits. Analysis of sequenced transcriptomes of these non-model species may shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic diversity. We have generated de novo transcriptome assemblies for four species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family clusters for the four species using OrthoMCL and analyzed their inferred phylogenetic relationships. Our results indicate that VRN2 is a candidate gene for differentiating vernalization and non-vernalization types in the Lolium-Festuca complex. Grouping of the gene families based on their BLAST identity enabled us to divide ortholog groups into those that are very conserved and those that are more evolutionarily relaxed. The ratio of the non-synonumous to synonymous substitutions enabled us to pinpoint protein sequences evolving in response to positive selection. These proteins may explain some of the differences between the more stress tolerant Festuca, and the less stress tolerant Lolium species. Our data presents a comprehensive transcriptome sequence comparison between species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, with the identification of potential candidate genes underlying some important phenotypical differences within the complex (such as VRN2). The orthologous genes between the species have a very high %id (91,61%) and the majority of gene families were shared for all of them. It is

  4. Molecular evidence for convergent evolution and allopolyploid speciation within the Physcomitrium-Physcomitrella species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beike, Anna K; von Stackelberg, Mark; Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Hanke, Sebastian T; Follo, Marie; Quandt, Dietmar; McDaniel, Stuart F; Reski, Ralf; Tan, Benito C; Rensing, Stefan A

    2014-07-11

    The moss Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp. is an important experimental model system for evolutionary-developmental studies. In order to shed light on the evolutionary history of Physcomitrella and related species within the Funariaceae, we analyzed the natural genetic diversity of the Physcomitrium-Physcomitrella species complex. Molecular analysis of the nuclear single copy gene BRK1 reveals that three Physcomitrium species feature larger genome sizes than Physcomitrella patens and encode two expressed BRK1 homeologs (polyploidization-derived paralogs), indicating that they may be allopolyploid hybrids. Phylogenetic analyses of BRK1 as well as microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR) data confirm a polyphyletic origin for three Physcomitrella lineages. Differences in the conservation of mitochondrial editing sites further support hybridization and cryptic speciation within the Physcomitrium-Physcomitrella species complex. We propose a revised classification of the previously described four subspecies of Physcomitrella patens into three distinct species, namely Physcomitrella patens, Physcomitrella readeri and Physcomitrella magdalenae. We argue that secondary reduction of sporophyte complexity in these species is due to the establishment of an ecological niche, namely spores resting in mud and possible spore dispersal by migratory birds. Besides the Physcomitrium-Physcomitrella species complex, the Funariaceae are host to their type species, Funaria hygrometrica, featuring a sporophyte morphology which is more complex. Their considerable developmental variation among closely related lineages and remarkable trait evolution render the Funariaceae an interesting group for evolutionary and genetic research.

  5. Adding complexity to the complex: new insights into the phylogeny, diversification and origin of parthenogenesis in the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Almodóvar, Ana; Novo, Marta; Simancas, Bárbara; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2012-08-01

    The importance of the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex lies in the great abundance and wide distribution of the species which exist within it. For more than a century, chaos has surrounded this complex; morphological criteria has failed to solve the taxonomic status of these species. This present body of work aims to study the phylogeny of this complex by increasing the number of samples used in previous molecular works and by including morphologically-similar species that were never studied using molecular tools (A. giardi, Nicodrilus monticola, N. carochensis and N. tetramammalis). Two basal clades were obtained: one formed by A. caliginosa and A. tuberculata and the other by the rest of the species. This second clade was divided into two more: one with Eurosiberian and another with Mediterranean forms. A. caliginosa and A. longa were divided into two paraphyletic groups. Both A. giardi and A. nocturna showed characteristics consistent with monophyletic groups. Each of the two recovered lineages of A. trapezoides were phylogenetically related to different sexual species. While lineage I of A. trapezoides was monophyletic, lineage II resulted to be paraphyletic, as well as the three Nicodrilus 'species'. The diversification of the complex occurred during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene (6.92-11.09 Mya). The parthenogenetic forms within the Mediterranean clade would have diversified before the ones in the Eurosiberian clade (3.13-4.64 Mya and 1.05-3.48 Mya, respectively), thus implying the existence not only of at least two different moments in which parthenogenesis arose within this complex of species, but also of two different and independent evolutionary lines. Neither the 4× rule nor the GMYC method for species delimitation were successful for distinguishing taxonomically-distinct species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Defining species boundaries in the Merodon avidus complex (Diptera, Syrphidae using integrative taxonomy, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ačanski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have detected and described complexes of cryptic and sibling species in the genus Merodon (Diptera, Syrphidae. One representative of these complexes is the Merodon avidus complex that contains four sibling species, which have proven difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological characters. In the present study, we use two geometric morphometric approaches, as well as molecular characters of the 5’-end of the mtDNA COI gene, to delimit sibling taxa. Analyses based on these data were used to strengthen species boundaries within the complex, and to validate the status of a previously-recognized cryptic taxon from Lesvos Island (Greece, here described as Merodon megavidus Vujić & Radenković sp. nov. Geometric morphometric results of both wing and surstylus shape confirm the present classification for three sibling species-M. avidus (Rossi, 1790, M. moenium Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822 and M. ibericus Vujić, 2015-and, importantly, clearly discriminate the newly-described taxon Merodon megavidus sp. nov. In addition to our geometric morphometric results, supporting characters were obtained from molecular analyses of mtDNA COI sequences, which clearly differentiated M. megavidus sp. nov. from the other members of the M. avidus complex. Molecular analyses revealed that the earliest divergence of M. ibericus occurred around 800 ky BP, while the most recent separation happened between M. avidus and M. moenium around 87 ky BP.

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    -Festuca complex show very diverse phenotypes, including for many agronomically important traits. Analysis of sequenced transcriptomes of these non-model species may shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic diversity. Results We have generated de novo transcriptome assemblies for four......Background The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf fescues, both belonging to the subfamily Pooideae. This subfamily also includes wheat, barley, oat and rye, making it extremely important to world agriculture. Species within the Lolium...... species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family...

  8. Molecular data reveal a cryptic species within the Culex pipiens mosquito complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, E; Atyame, C M; Malcolm, C A; Le Goff, G; Unal, S; Makoundou, P; Pasteur, N; Weill, M; Duron, O

    2016-12-01

    The Culex pipiens mosquito complex is a group of evolutionarily closely related species including C. pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus, both infected by the cytoplasmically inherited Wolbachia symbiont. A Wolbachia-uninfected population of C. pipiens was however described in South Africa and was recently proposed to represent a cryptic species. In this study, we reconsidered the existence of this species by undertaking an extensive screening for the presence of Wolbachia-uninfected C. pipiens specimens and by characterizing their genetic relatedness with known members of the complex. We first report on the presence of Wolbachia-uninfected specimens in several breeding sites. We next confirm that these uninfected specimens unambiguously belong to the C. pipiens complex. Remarkably, all uninfected specimens harbour mitochondrial haplotypes that are either novel or identical to those previously found in South Africa. In all cases, these mitochondrial haplotypes are closely related, but different, to those found in other C. pipiens complex members known to be infected by Wolbachia. Altogether, these results corroborate the presence of a widespread cryptic species within the C. pipiens species complex. The potential role of this cryptic C. pipiens species in the transmission of pathogens remains however to be determined. The designation 'Culex juppi nov. sp.' is proposed for this mosquito species. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Evidence for the robustness of protein complexes to inter-species hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Leducq

    Full Text Available Despite the tremendous efforts devoted to the identification of genetic incompatibilities underlying hybrid sterility and inviability, little is known about the effect of inter-species hybridization at the protein interactome level. Here, we develop a screening platform for the comparison of protein-protein interactions (PPIs among closely related species and their hybrids. We examine in vivo the architecture of protein complexes in two yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii that diverged 5-20 million years ago and in their F1 hybrids. We focus on 24 proteins of two large complexes: the RNA polymerase II and the nuclear pore complex (NPC, which show contrasting patterns of molecular evolution. We found that, with the exception of one PPI in the NPC sub-complex, PPIs were highly conserved between species, regardless of protein divergence. Unexpectedly, we found that the architecture of the complexes in F1 hybrids could not be distinguished from that of the parental species. Our results suggest that the conservation of PPIs in hybrids likely results from the slow evolution taking place on the very few protein residues involved in the interaction or that protein complexes are inherently robust and may accommodate protein divergence up to the level that is observed among closely related species.

  10. Good species behaving badly: Non-monophyly of black fly sibling species in the Simulium arcticum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conflitti, Ida M; Kratochvil, Michael J; Spironello, Michael; Shields, Gerald F; Currie, Douglas C

    2010-10-01

    Mitochondrial based phylogenetic reconstructions often show deviations from species-level monophyly. We used the Simulium arcticum species complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) as a model system for interpreting non-monophyly in light of chromosomal data supporting species status of siblings. For cytogenetic identification of morphologically indistinguishable black fly sibling species, larvae must be preserved in Carnoy's solution, a fixative known to degrade DNA. Consequently, we reconstructed phylogenetic relationships based on 12S, COII, cyt b, and ITS-1 gene sequences obtained from larvae sampled from presumed taxon-pure localities. As species composition at 'taxon-pure' sites may have changed at the time of sampling, we performed a second study that aimed to: (1) assess phylogenetic relationships among cytologically verified members of the S. arcticum species complex using COI and COII gene sequences; (2) determine whether useable genetic information could be gleaned from Carnoy's fixed specimens; and (3) determine the extent to which Carnoy's fixative degrades DNA over time. We consistently obtained genetic data from material stored in Carnoy's solution for two to three months. Genetic analysis of samples fixed in Carnoy's solution for up to six years indicates that larvae preserved for a maximum of five years can provide useable information for molecular analysis. Our preliminary and cytologically confirmed phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA fails to resolve species-level monophyly of chromosomally distinct S. arcticum taxa. As results of analyses based on cytologically verified larvae mirror those of our preliminary study, we rule out imperfect taxonomy as the reason for species-level non-monophyly. Although we cannot confidently reject either inadequate phylogenetic information or incomplete lineage sorting as the cause of non-monophyly, the sharing of alleles between sympatric siblings suggests introgressive hybridization between taxa. We

  11. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Pluteus glaucotinctus sensu lato (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), a multicontinental species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson Menolli; Alfredo Justo; Pedro Arrillaga; C.K. Pradeep; Andrew M. Minnis; Marina. Capelari

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand species delimitation in the Pluteus glaucotinctus species complex, we present a detailed study based on morphological and DNA sequence (nrITS + tef1) data. Pluteus glaucotinctus sensu stricto is known only from the type collection (Democratic Republic of the Congo), which is re-...

  12. Species of the Colletotrichum acutatum complex associated with anthracnose diseases of fruit in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragança, Carlos A.D.; Damm, Ulrike; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Massola Júnior, Nelson S.; Crous, Pedro W.

    Abstract Although Colletotrichum acutatum was recently investigated and shown to be a species complex comprising about 30 species, the name is still used in its broad sense for anthracnose pathogens of fruits in Brazil. In this study, a multilocus molecular analysis was carried out based on a

  13. Genetic population structure of Fusarium graminearum species complex in Korean cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small grain cereals are frequently contaminated with toxigenic Fusarium species. Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are known as a head blight pathogens and mycotoxin producers. In order to characterize the FGSC populations associated with cereals in Korea, barley, corn, maiz...

  14. A spider species complex revealed high cryptic diversity in South China caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2014-10-01

    Cryptic species, which are an important component of biodiversity, have rarely been studied in South China karst. We investigated cryptic diversity in the cave species complex Telema cucurbitina, which has a narrow niche but widespread distribution among multiple caves. We sampled another 15 populations (caves) in addition to the population from the type locality. Phylogenetic results indicated that individuals from the same cave constituted well-supported clades. Species diversity within this species complex was assessed in a coalescent framework, first with a Bayesian extension of the general mixed Yule coalescent (bGMYC) model and a Bayesian species delimitation method (BPP). Both species delimitation methods identified each cave population as a separate species. We propose that each cave population within this species complex was a separate evolving lineage and therefore 16 OTUs were recovered based on our molecular data despite their high morphological similarities. We also propose that the unrecognized organism's diversity within South China caves might be extremely large considering our case. Furthermore, our work reveals that species discovery of cave organisms by morphological data has a high probability of underestimating hidden diversity. Our work also highlights the need for conservation strategies to protect this largely neglected diversity of cave organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Continental Drift and Speciation of the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Species Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Freij, Joudeh B; Hann-Soden, Christopher; Taylor, John

    2017-01-01

    Genomic analysis has placed the origins of two human-pathogenic fungi, the Cryptococcus gattii species complex and the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, in South America and Africa, respectively. Molecular clock calculations suggest that the two species separated ~80 to 100 million years ago. This time closely approximates the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea, which gave rise to South America and Africa. On the basis of the geographic distribution of these two species complexes and the coincidence of the evolutionary divergence and Pangea breakup times, we propose that a spatial separation caused by continental drift resulted in the emergence of the C. gattii and C. neoformans species complexes from a Pangean ancestor. We note that, despite the spatial and temporal separation that occurred approximately 100 million years ago, these two species complexes are morphologically similar, share virulence factors, and cause very similar diseases. Continuation of these phenotypic characteristics despite ancient separation suggests the maintenance of similar selection pressures throughout geologic ages.

  16. Continental Drift and Speciation of the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Species Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Casadevall

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genomic analysis has placed the origins of two human-pathogenic fungi, the Cryptococcus gattii species complex and the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, in South America and Africa, respectively. Molecular clock calculations suggest that the two species separated ~80 to 100 million years ago. This time closely approximates the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea, which gave rise to South America and Africa. On the basis of the geographic distribution of these two species complexes and the coincidence of the evolutionary divergence and Pangea breakup times, we propose that a spatial separation caused by continental drift resulted in the emergence of the C. gattii and C. neoformans species complexes from a Pangean ancestor. We note that, despite the spatial and temporal separation that occurred approximately 100 million years ago, these two species complexes are morphologically similar, share virulence factors, and cause very similar diseases. Continuation of these phenotypic characteristics despite ancient separation suggests the maintenance of similar selection pressures throughout geologic ages.

  17. EFFECT OF SOAKED AND FERMENTED AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN (Parkia biglobosa SEED MEAL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE AND NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Tamburawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa seed is rich in protein and has recently found its way into the feed industry. This research was conducted to determine the growth performance, haematological profile and nutrient digestibility by broiler chickens fed diets containing soaked and fermented African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa seed meal (SFALBSM. Five diets were formulated in which SFALSBM was included at graded levels of 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30% designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Two hundred and twenty five (225 day old broiler chickens (Marshall Strain were fed these diets in a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted 8 weeks (4week starter phase and 4week finisher phase. The results of performance of broiler chicks at starter phase showed there were differences (P0.05 on digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ash. The crude fibre, ether extract and nitrogen free extract digestibility were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Birds fed T3 had highest crude fibre digestibility value (P<0.05. It was concluded that soaked and fermented African locust bean seed meal can be included in broiler chickens diets up to 15% dietary level at the starter phase and 22.5% at the finisher phase without any adverse effect on performance, haematological profile and nutrient digestibility.

  18. Molecular systematics of new world gopher, bull, and pinesnakes (Pituophis: Colubridae), a transcontinental species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, J A; De Jesús-Escobar, J M

    2000-01-01

    Pituophis melanoleucus (gopher, bull, and pinesnakes) is among the most widely distributed polytypic species complexes in North America, with most authors recognizing from a single transcontinental species (the melanoleucus complex, composed of 15 subspecies) to four (monotypic and polytypic) species. We used mitochondrial gene sequences from the two middle American species, P. deppei and P. lineaticollis, and from 13 subspecies from most of the range of the melanoleucus complex to test various phylogenetic hypotheses for Pituophis. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods identified the same major clades within Pituophis and indicated that two segments of the melanoleucus complex, the lodingi-melanoleucus-mugitus eastern pinesnake clade and the affinis-annectens-bimaris-catenifer-deserticola- sayi-ruthveni-vertebr alis clade from central and western United States and northern Mexico, represent divergent, allopatric lineages with no known intergradation zone. We recognize each of these two groupings as a different species. Our data also indicate that some ruthveni are more closely related to sayi than to other ruthveni. Nonetheless, ruthveni is an allopatric taxon diagnosable from its closest relatives by a combination of morphometric characters, and because it is likely that at least some of these traits are independent and genetically inherited, we interpret this as evidence that ruthveni has attained the status of independent evolutionary lineage, despite the fact that it retains strong genetic affinities with sayi. The endemic Baja Californian gopher snakes (bimaris and vertebralis) are considered by some taxonomists as a different species, P. vertebralis, but we discovered that these serpents belong to two different clades and hence we do not agree with the recognition of P. vertebralis as presently defined. In summary, we believe that three distinct species are included in the melanoleucus complex, Pituophis melanoleucus (sensu stricto), P. catenifer

  19. Historical perspective on the synonymization of the four major pest species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K W; Wee, Suk-Ling; Nishida, Ritsuo; Ono, Hajime; Hendrichs, Jorge; Haymer, David S; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA-sponsored coordinated research project on integrative taxonomy, involving close to 50 researchers from at least 20 countries, culminated in a significant breakthrough in the recognition that four major pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera invadens, belong to the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. The successful conclusion of this initiative is expected to significantly facilitate global agricultural trade, primarily through the lifting of quarantine restrictions that have long affected many countries, especially those in regions such as Asia and Africa that have large potential for fresh fruit and vegetable commodity exports. This work stems from two taxonomic studies: a revision in 1994 that significantly increased the number of described species in the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex; and the description in 2005 of Bactrocera invadens, then newly incursive in Africa. While taxonomically valid species, many biologists considered that these were different names for one biological species. Many disagreements confounded attempts to develop a solution for resolving this taxonomic issue, before the FAO/IAEA project commenced. Crucial to understanding the success of that initiative is an accounting of the historical events and perspectives leading up to the international, multidisciplinary collaborative efforts that successfully achieved the final synonymization. This review highlights the 21 year journey taken to achieve this outcome.

  20. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. Further insight into reproductive incompatibility between putative cryptic species of the Bemisia tabaci whitefly complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with its global distribution and extensive genetic diversity, is now known to be a complex of over 35 cryptic species. However, a satisfactory resolution of the systematics of this species complex is yet to be achieved. Here, we designed experiments to examine reproductive compatibility among species with different levels of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) divergence. The data show that putative species with mtCOI divergence of >8% between them consistently exhibited complete reproductive isolation. However, two of the putative species, Asia II 9 and Asia II 3, with mtCOI divergence of 4.47% between them, exhibited near complete reproductive compatibility in one direction of their cross, and partial reproductive compatibility in the other direction. Together with some recent reports on this topic from the literature, our data indicates that, while divergence in the mtCOI sequences provides a valid molecular marker for species delimitation in most clades, more genetic markers and more sophisticated molecular phylogeny will be required to achieve adequate delimitation of all species in this whitefly complex. While many attempts have been made to examine the reproductive compatibility among genetic groups of the B. tabaci complex, our study represents the first effort to conduct crossing experiments with putative species that were chosen with considerations of their genetic divergence. In light of the new data, we discuss the best strategy and protocols to conduct further molecular phylogenetic analysis and crossing trials, in order to reveal the overall pattern of reproductive incompatibility among species of this whitefly complex. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Echinostoma 'revolutum' (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) species complex revisited: species delimitation based on novel molecular and morphological data gathered in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Brown, Rebecca; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Soldánová, Miroslava; Sitko, J.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 27 2014 (2014), s. 520 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Echinostoma 'revolutum' species complex * Molecular and morphological data * nad1 * 28S rDNA * Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  3. Epiverta Dieke (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Epilachnini): A Complex of Species, Not a Monotypic Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Huo, Lizhi; Szawaryn, Karol; Wang, Xingmin

    2017-01-01

    Rich sampling and modern research techniques, including SEM, revealed that rarely collected epilachnine species Epiverta chelonia is a complex of four closely related species: E. chelonia (Mader, 1933), E. albopilosa, E. angusta, and E. supinata spp. nov. All Epiverta species are described and illustrated, a key to the species and a distribution map are provided. Lectotype of Solanophila cheloniaMader, 1933 is designated and its type locality delimited to Yunnan Province, Deqin County (China). © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae) from Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Santiago R.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Toral, Eduardo; Morley Read; Diego A. Ortiz; Manzano, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1) a basal position of Osteocephalus taurinus + Osteocephalus oophagus, (2) a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3) a clade that corresponds to the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, Osteocephalus buckleyi. Individuals assignable to Osteocephalus buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to Osteocephalus verruciger and Osteocephalus cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is Osteocephalus buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (Osteocephalus vilmae sp. n. and Osteocephalus cannatellai sp. n.) and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (Osteocephalus germani sp. n.) We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them. PMID:23166473

  5. More species of the Agononida incerta complex revealed by molecules and morphology (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Munididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Gary C B; Andreakis, Nikos

    2014-09-05

    Squat lobsters from Madagascar, Vanuatu, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, eastern Australia and French Polynesia belonging to the Agononida incerta (Henderson, 1888) species complex are described as four new species: A. madagascerta, A. polycerta, A. tasmancerta and A. vanuacerta. This brings to ten the number of species in this complex. All species are morphologically distinguishable only on the basis of the shape of the anterolateral margin of the telson and setation of the dactyli of pereopods 2-4. The morphological delineation of nine of the species and their taxonomic status are robustly supported by phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rDNA gene and the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 genes, and in some cases by colour. A phylogenetic analysis of the nine species for which molecular data are available grouped the species in two clades, one of four species with facial spines on the upper surface of pereopod 4 and the other of five species lacking facial spines. 

  6. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae from Ecuador and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1 a basal position of O. taurinus + O. oophagus, (2 a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3 a clade that corresponds to the O. buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, O. buckleyi. Individuals assignable to O. buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to O. verruciger and O. cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is O. buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (O. vilmae sp. n. and O. cannatellai sp. n. and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (O. germani sp. n.. We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them.

  7. Pheromones of three ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex: ratios and preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam F. Cooperband

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Three cryptic species in the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex were reared in laboratory colonies and investigated for the presence of pheromones. Collections of volatiles from combinations of diet, fungus, beetles, and galleries from polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp. #1 revealed the presence of 2-heneicosanone and 2-tricosanone only in the presence of beetles, regardless of sex. Subsequent examination of volatiles from the other two species, tea shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp. #2 and Kuroshio shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp. #5, revealed these two ketones were present in all three species but in different ratios. In dual choice olfactometer behavioral bioassays, mature mated females were strongly attracted to a synthetic binary blend of ketones matching their own natural ratios. However, females in each species were repelled by ketone blends in ratios corresponding to the other two species. Males of each species responded similarly to females when presented with ratios matching their own or the other two species. The presence of these compounds in the three beetle species, in ratios unique to each species, and their strong species-specific attraction and repellency, suggests they are pheromones. The ecological function of these pheromones is discussed. In addition to the pheromones, the previously known attractant (1S,4R-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (also known as quercivorol was discovered in the presence of the fungal symbionts, but not in association with the beetles. Quercivorol was tested in a dual-choice olfactometer and was strongly attractive to all three species. This evidence suggests quercivorol functions as a kairomone for members of the E. fornicatus species complex, likely produced by the symbiotic fungi.

  8. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida glabrata species complex, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis species complex and Candida tropicalis causing invasive candidiasis in China: 3 year national surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Fan, Xin; Chen, Sharon C-A; Wang, He; Sun, Zi-Yong; Liao, Kang; Chen, Shu-Lan; Yan, Yan; Kang, Mei; Hu, Zhi-Dong; Chu, Yun-Zhuo; Hu, Tie-Shi; Ni, Yu-Xing; Zou, Gui-Ling; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To define the antifungal susceptibility patterns of the most common non-albicans Candida spp. in China. We evaluated the susceptibilities to nine antifungal drugs of Candida parapsilosis species complex, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata species complex and Candida krusei isolates from patients with invasive candidiasis at 11 hospitals over 3 years. Isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS supplemented by DNA sequencing. MICs were determined by Sensititre YeastOne(TM) using current clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cut-off values to assign susceptibility (or WT), and by CLSI M44-A2 disc diffusion for fluconazole and voriconazole. Of 1072 isolates, 392 (36.6%) were C. parapsilosis species complex. C. tropicalis, C. glabrata species complex and C. krusei comprised 35.4%, 24.3% and 3.7% of the isolates, respectively. Over 99.3% of the isolates were of WT phenotype to amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine. Susceptibility/WT rates to azoles among C. parapsilosis species complex were ≥97.5%. However, 11.6% and 9.5% of C. tropicalis isolates were non-susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively (7.1% were resistant to both). Approximately 14.3% of C. glabrata sensu stricto isolates (n = 258) were fluconazole resistant, and 11.6% of C. glabrata sensu stricto isolates were cross-resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. All C. krusei isolates were susceptible/WT to voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole. Overall, 97.7%-100% of isolates were susceptible to caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin, but 2.3% of C. glabrata were non-susceptible to anidulafungin. There was no azole/echinocandin co-resistance. Disc diffusion and Sensititre YeastOne(TM) methods showed >95% categorical agreement for fluconazole and voriconazole. In summary, reduced azole susceptibility was seen among C. tropicalis. Resistance to echinocandins was uncommon. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  9. Review of the Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae) with the description of a new species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    The Neotropical Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex is reviewed and includes A. bifidus La Rivers & Nieser, A. scolius La Rivers, A. stali La Rivers, and A. tricuspis La Rivers. Ambrysus oblongulus Montandon is removed as a member of this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and associated structures. Ambrysus maya n. sp. is the fifth species in the complex and is described from Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico based on specimens from recent collecting and museum collections.

  10. What do we gain from simplicity versus complexity in species distribution models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merow, Cory; Smith, Matthew J.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Guisan, Antoine; McMahon, Sean M.; Normand, Signe; Thuiller, Wilfried; Wuest, Rafael O.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Elith, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to explain and predict species ranges and environmental niches. They are most commonly constructed by inferring species' occurrence–environment relationships using statistical and machine-learning methods. The variety of methods that can be used to construct SDMs (e.g. generalized linear/additive models, tree-based models, maximum entropy, etc.), and the variety of ways that such models can be implemented, permits substantial flexibility in SDM complexity. Building models with an appropriate amount of complexity for the study objectives is critical for robust inference. We characterize complexity as the shape of the inferred occurrence–environment relationships and the number of parameters used to describe them, and search for insights into whether additional complexity is informative or superfluous. By building ‘under fit’ models, having insufficient flexibility to describe observed occurrence–environment relationships, we risk misunderstanding the factors shaping species distributions. By building ‘over fit’ models, with excessive flexibility, we risk inadvertently ascribing pattern to noise or building opaque models. However, model selection can be challenging, especially when comparing models constructed under different modeling approaches. Here we argue for a more pragmatic approach: researchers should constrain the complexity of their models based on study objective, attributes of the data, and an understanding of how these interact with the underlying biological processes. We discuss guidelines for balancing under fitting with over fitting and consequently how complexity affects decisions made during model building. Although some generalities are possible, our discussion reflects differences in opinions that favor simpler versus more complex models. We conclude that combining insights from both simple and complex SDM building approaches best advances our knowledge of current and future species

  11. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Margosan, D; Michailides, T J; Xiao, C L

    2016-01-01

    The Botrytis cinerea species complex comprises two cryptic species, originally referred to Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping. Group I was described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea During a survey of Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Valley of California, six isolates, three from blueberries and three from table grapes, were placed in Group I but had a distinct morphological character with conidiophores significantly longer than those of B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea We compared these with B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea by examining morphological and physiological characters, sensitivity to fenhexamid and phylogenetic analysis inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the three partial gene sequences encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) supported the proposal of a new Botrytis species, B. californica, which is closely related genetically to B. cinerea, B. pseudocinerea and B. sinoviticola, all known as causal agents of gray mold of grapes. Botrytis californica caused decay on blueberry and table grape fruit inoculated with the fungus. This study suggests that B. californica is a cryptic species sympatric with B. cinerea on blueberries and table grapes in California. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  12. Pollination Strategies to Increase Productivity of the African Fruit Trees Vitellaria paradoxa subsp. paradoxa & Parkia biglobosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie

    The PhD thesis has studied the pollination ecology of two popular fruit trees used in agro-forestry parklands in The Gambia and Burkina Faso. Both species are economically and nutritionally important. The methods used have been a combination of size-based exclusion trials and direct observations...

  13. The current status of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Araki, Alejandra S

    2017-03-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is a complex of sibling species and is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. The present review summarises the diversity of efforts that have been undertaken to elucidate the number of unnamed species in this species complex and the phylogenetic relationships among them. A wide variety of evidence, including chemical, behavioral and molecular traits, suggests very recent speciation events and complex population structure in this group. Although significant advances have been achieved to date, differential vector capacity and the correlation between structure of parasite and vector populations have yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, increased knowledge about recent epidemiological changes, such as urbanisation, is essential for pursuing effective strategies for sandfly control in the New World.

  14. Colour patterns do not diagnose species: quantitative evaluation of a DNA barcoded cryptic bumblebee complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Carolan

    Full Text Available Cryptic diversity within bumblebees (Bombus has the potential to undermine crucial conservation efforts designed to reverse the observed decline in many bumblebee species worldwide. Central to such efforts is the ability to correctly recognise and diagnose species. The B. lucorum complex (Bombus lucorum, B. cryptarum and B. magnus comprises one of the most abundant and important group of wild plant and crop pollinators in northern Europe. Although the workers of these species are notoriously difficult to diagnose morphologically, it has been claimed that queens are readily diagnosable from morphological characters. Here we assess the value of colour-pattern characters in species identification of DNA-barcoded queens from the B. lucorum complex. Three distinct molecular operational taxonomic units were identified each representing one species. However, no uniquely diagnostic colour-pattern character state was found for any of these three molecular units and most colour-pattern characters showed continuous variation among the units. All characters previously deemed to be unique and diagnostic for one species were displayed by specimens molecularly identified as a different species. These results presented here raise questions on the reliability of species determinations in previous studies and highlights the benefits of implementing DNA barcoding prior to ecological, taxonomic and conservation studies of these important key pollinators.

  15. A New Species of the Fejervarya limnocharis Complex from Japan (Anura, Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Djong, Hon Tjong; Matsui, Masafumi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Nishioka, Midori; Sumida, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new species of dicroglossid frog of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from western Honshu, Japan Mainland. The new species, Fejervarya kawamurai, is genetically closer to F. sakishimensis than to F. limnocharis. It differs from F. sakishimensis by smaller tympanum, head, forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia lengths, all relative to snout-vent length, and from F. multistriata by relatively shorter forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia. From F. limnocharis and F. iskandari, it is di...

  16. Evolutionary scenarios associated with the Pteronotus parnellii cryptic species-complex (Chiroptera: Mormoopidae).

    OpenAIRE

    López-Wilchis, Ricardo; Flores-Romero, Mayela; Guevara-Chumacero, Luis M.; Serrato-Díaz, Alejandra; Díaz-Larrea, Jhoana; Salgado-Mejía, Fernando; Ibáñez, Carlos; Salles, Leandro O.; Juste, Javier

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges to understanding the evolution of Neotropical bats concerns our capacity to successfully scrutinize phylogenetic patterns associated with cases of cryptic species complexes. In this study Pteronotus parnellii is examined as a selected example of a known lineage of mormoopid bat that potentially contains several cryptic species. A samples of 452 individuals from 83 different localities, essentially covering its entire mainland distribution, was evaluated using two g...

  17. Discrimination of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex species by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C; Silva, L; Grosso, F; Nemec, A; Lopes, J; Peixe, L

    2014-08-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the ability of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) to discriminate between the species of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb) complex, i.e. A. baumannii, A. nosocomialis, A. pittii, A. calcoaceticus, genomic species "Between 1 and 3" and genomic species "Close to 13TU". A total of 122 clinical isolates of the Acb complex previously identified by rpoB sequencing were studied. FTIR-ATR spectra was analysed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and the model scores were presented in a dendrogram form. This spectroscopic technique proved to be effective in the discrimination of the Acb complex species, with sensitivities from 90 to 100%. Moreover, a flowchart aiming to help with species identification was developed and tested with 100% correct predictions for A. baumannii, A. nosocomialis and A. pittii test isolates. This rapid, low cost and environmentally friendly technique proved to be a reliable alternative for the identification of these closely related Acinetobacter species that share many clinical and epidemiological characteristics and are often difficult to distinguish. Its validation towards application on a routine basis could revolutionise high-throughput bacterial identification.

  18. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  19. Species-specific detection and identification of fusarium species complex, the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyue Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pokkah boeng disease caused by the Fusarium species complex results in significant yield losses in sugarcane. Thus, the rapid and accurate detection and identification of the pathogen is urgently required to manage and prevent the spreading of sugarcane pokkah boeng. METHODS: A total of 101 isolates were recovered from the pokkah boeng samples collected from five major sugarcane production areas in China throughout 2012 and 2013. The causal pathogen was identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis based on the fungus-conserved rDNA-ITS. Species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR and conventional PCR methods were developed for rapid and accurate detection of the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR assay were also evaluated on a total of 84 isolates of Fusarium from China and several isolates from other fungal pathogens of Sporisorium scitamineum and Phoma sp. and sugarcane endophyte of Acremonium sp. RESULT: Two Fusarium species (F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum that caused sugarcane pokahh boeng were identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific TaqMan PCR and conventional PCR were designed and optimized to target their rDNA-ITS regions. The sensitivity of the TaqMan PCR was approximately 10 pg of fungal DNA input, which was 1,000-fold over conventional PCR, and successfully detected pokkah boeng in the field-grown sugarcane. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study was the first to identify two species, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, that were causal pathogens of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China. It also described the development of a species-specific PCR assay to detect and confirm these pathogens in sugarcane plants from mainland China. This method will be very useful for a broad range of research endeavors as well as the regulatory response and management of sugarcane pokkah boeng.

  20. Species from within the Phytophthora cryptogea complex and related species, P. erythroseptica and P. sansomeana, readily hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaiefarahani, Banafsheh; Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, Reza; Hardy, Giles E St J; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-08-01

    During a study on the phylogenetic relationships between species in the Phytophthora cryptogea complex and related species, Phytophthora erythroseptica and Phytophthora sansomeana, 19 hybrid isolates with multiple polymorphisms in the nuclear sequences were observed. Molecular characterization of hybrids was achieved by sequencing three nuclear (internal transcribed spacers, β-tubulin (TUB), heat shock protein 90) and two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI), NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NADH)) gene regions and cloning of the single-copy nuclear gene, TUB. Based on the molecular studies the hybrid isolates belonged to six distinct groups between P. cryptogea, P. erythroseptica, Phytophthora pseudocryptogea, P. sansomeana, and Phytophthora sp. kelmania. In all cases, only a single coxI and NADH allele was detected and nuclear genes were biparentally inherited, suggesting that the hybrids arose from sexual recombination events. Colony morphology, growth rate, cardinal temperatures, breeding system, and morphology of sporangia, oogonia, oospores, and antheridia were also determined. Some morphological differences between the hybrids and the parental species were noted; however, they were not sufficient to reliably distinguish the taxa and DNA markers from nuclear and mitochondrial genes will to be necessary for their identification. The parental species are all important pathogens of agricultural fields that have been transported globally. With the apparent ease of hybridization within this group there is ample opportunity for virulent hybrids to form, perhaps with extended host ranges. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Alwan

    Full Text Available Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103 and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2 of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65. Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  2. Genetic networking of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex reveals pattern of biological invasions.

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    Paul De Barro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A challenge within the context of cryptic species is the delimitation of individual species within the complex. Statistical parsimony network analytics offers the opportunity to explore limits in situations where there are insufficient species-specific morphological characters to separate taxa. The results also enable us to explore the spread in taxa that have invaded globally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a 657 bp portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 from 352 unique haplotypes belonging to the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex, the analysis revealed 28 networks plus 7 unconnected individual haplotypes. Of the networks, 24 corresponded to the putative species identified using the rule set devised by Dinsdale et al. (2010. Only two species proposed in Dinsdale et al. (2010 departed substantially from the structure suggested by the analysis. The analysis of the two invasive members of the complex, Mediterranean (MED and Middle East - Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1, showed that in both cases only a small number of haplotypes represent the majority that have spread beyond the home range; one MEAM1 and three MED haplotypes account for >80% of the GenBank records. Israel is a possible source of the globally invasive MEAM1 whereas MED has two possible sources. The first is the eastern Mediterranean which has invaded only the USA, primarily Florida and to a lesser extent California. The second are western Mediterranean haplotypes that have spread to the USA, Asia and South America. The structure for MED supports two home range distributions, a Sub-Saharan range and a Mediterranean range. The MEAM1 network supports the Middle East - Asia Minor region. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The network analyses show a high level of congruence with the species identified in a previous phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of the two globally invasive members of the complex support the view that global invasion often involve very small portions of

  3. The Syllis gracilis species complex: A molecular approach to a difficult taxonomic problem (Annelida, Syllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Giribet, Gonzalo; Riesgo, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Syllis gracilis is an emblematic member of the subfamily Syllinae (Syllidae, Annelida), which inhabits shallow, temperate coastal waters and can be found on algae, coral rubble, and sponges. Their distinctive ypsiloid chaetae, usually found in specimens from populations all around the world, led to the consideration of the species as cosmopolitan, even though four other species have similar chaetae: Syllis magellanica, S. picta, S. mayeri and S. ypsiloides. The discovery of deeply divergent lineages in the Mediterranean Sea, that were morphologically similar, questioned the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis and suggested the possibility of it being a species complex. In order to assess the speciation patterns within the putative S. gracilis complex, we undertook species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses on 61 specimens morphologically ascribed to Syllis gracilis and closely related species using a multilocus molecular dataset (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). Our results suggest high levels of genetic differentiation between the S. gracilis populations analyzed, some of which have morphologically distinctive features. Five to eight distinct lineages (depending on the analysis) were identified, all with geographically restricted distributions. Although the presence of ypsiloid chaetae has been traditionally considered the main character to identify S. gracilis, we conclude that this feature is homoplastic. Instead, we propose that characters such as the degree of fusion of blades and shafts in chaetae, the morphology of the posterior chaetae or the animal color pattern should be considered to differentiate lineages within the S. gracilis species complex. Our study does not support the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis, and instead provides morphological and molecular evidence of the existence of a complex of pseudo-cryptic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum mechanical calculation of aqueuous uranium complexes: carbonate, phosphate, organic and biomolecular species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Prashant

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantum mechanical calculations were performed on a variety of uranium species representing U(VI, U(V, U(IV, U-carbonates, U-phosphates, U-oxalates, U-catecholates, U-phosphodiesters, U-phosphorylated N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG, and U-2-Keto-3-doxyoctanoate (KDO with explicit solvation by H2O molecules. These models represent major U species in natural waters and complexes on bacterial surfaces. The model results are compared to observed EXAFS, IR, Raman and NMR spectra. Results Agreement between experiment and theory is acceptable in most cases, and the reasons for discrepancies are discussed. Calculated Gibbs free energies are used to constrain which configurations are most likely to be stable under circumneutral pH conditions. Reduction of U(VI to U(IV is examined for the U-carbonate and U-catechol complexes. Conclusion Results on the potential energy differences between U(V- and U(IV-carbonate complexes suggest that the cause of slower disproportionation in this system is electrostatic repulsion between UO2 [CO3]35- ions that must approach one another to form U(VI and U(IV rather than a change in thermodynamic stability. Calculations on U-catechol species are consistent with the observation that UO22+ can oxidize catechol and form quinone-like species. In addition, outer-sphere complexation is predicted to be the most stable for U-catechol interactions based on calculated energies and comparison to 13C NMR spectra. Outer-sphere complexes (i.e., ion pairs bridged by water molecules are predicted to be comparable in Gibbs free energy to inner-sphere complexes for a model carboxylic acid. Complexation of uranyl to phosphorus-containing groups in extracellular polymeric substances is predicted to favor phosphonate groups, such as that found in phosphorylated NAG, rather than phosphodiesters, such as those in nucleic acids.

  5. Geographically predominant genotypes of Aspergillus terreus species complex in Austria: s microsatellite typing study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lackner, M.; Coassin, S.; Haun, M.; Binder, U.; Kronenberg, F.; Haas, H. de; Jank, M.; Maurer, E.; Meis, J.F.; Hagen, F.; Lass-Florl, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus species complex is recognized as a frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis in Tyrol. The reason for this specific epidemiological situation is unclear. Aspergillus terreus strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources were genotyped using a novel panel of short tandem

  6. Comparison of the cattle leukocyte receptor complex with related livestock species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural killer (NK) cell receptor gene complexes are highly variable between species, and their repetitive nature makes genomic assembly and characterization problematic. As a result, most reference genome assemblies are heavily fragmented and/or misassembled over these regions. However, new lon...

  7. Proposals for treating four species complexes in Ficus subgenus Urostigma section Americanae (Moraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Four species complexes of Ficus subg. Urostigma sect. Americanae (Moraceae) are discussed. Four new combinations are made in Ficus americana Aubl.: subsp. andicola (Standl.) C.C. Berg, subsp. greiffiana (Dugand) C.C. Berg, subsp. guianensis (Desv.) C.C. Berg, and subsp. subapiculata (Miq.) C.C.

  8. An unrecognized species of the Culicoides obsoletus complex feeding on livestock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiswinkel, R.; Bree, de F.M.; Vries, de Ruth; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2015-01-01

    In studies on Culicoides attacking livestock in the Netherlands, we chanced upon a species of the Obsoletus complex that we do not recognize, but whose dark wing pattern is distinctive. Nine cytochrome c oxidase (CO1) sequences of our so-called ‘dark obsoletus’ support its status as a separate

  9. Delineation of a New Species of the Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Complex, Borrelia americana sp. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Lin, T.; Gao, L.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2009), s. 3875-3880 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : multilocus sequence analysis * B. burgdorferi sl complex * new borrelia species * Borrelia americana Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  10. Method of analysis of polymerizable monomeric species in a complex mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Robert E

    2014-03-18

    Method of selective quantitation of a polymerizable monomeric species in a well spacer fluid, said method comprising the steps of adding at least one solvent having a refractive index of less than about 1.33 to a sample of the complex mixture to produce a solvent phase, and measuring the refractive index of the solvent phase.

  11. Differential triazole sensitivity among members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex infecting barley grains in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of small grains and is caused mainly by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC). Barley growers in Brazil rely on fungicides, especially triazoles, to suppress the disease and limit mycotoxin contamination of grain. Information on...

  12. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear, T. spiralis (horses and humans, T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  13. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Iftikhar

    Full Text Available Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5' (DNA barcode region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27% at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%. BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci, and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips.

  14. Species identification within Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex using MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Benjamin E W; Paterson, David L; Kamolvit, Witchuda; Zowawi, Hosam; Kvaskoff, David; Sidjabat, Hanna; Wailan, Alexander; Peleg, Anton Y; Huber, Charlotte A

    2015-11-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, one of the more clinically relevant species in the Acinetobacter genus is well known to be multi-drug resistant and associated with bacteremia, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, wound infection and meningitis. However, it cannot be differentiated from closely related species such as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis by most phenotypic tests and can only be differentiated by specific, time consuming genotypic tests with very limited use in clinical microbiological laboratories. As a result, these species are grouped into the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii (Acb) complex. Herein we investigated the mass spectra of 73 Acinetobacter spp., representing ten different species, using an AB SCIEX 5800 MALDI-TOF MS to differentiate members of the Acinetobacter genus, including the species of the Acb complex. RpoB gene sequencing, 16S rRNA sequencing, and gyrB multiplex PCR were also evaluated as orthogonal methods to identify the organisms used in this study. We found that whilst 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing could not differentiate A. pittii or A. calcoaceticus, they can be differentiated using gyrB multiplex PCR and MALDI-TOF MS. All ten Acinetobacter species investigated could be differentiated by their MALDI-TOF mass spectra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of the non-pertechnetate species in Hanford waste tanks, Tc(I) carbonyl complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Shuh, David K.; Schroeder, Norman C.; Ashley, Kenneth R.

    2003-10-16

    Immobilization of the high-level nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Reservation has been complicated by the presence of soluble, lower-valent technetium species. Previous work by Schroeder and Blanchard has shown that these species cannot be removed by ion-exchange and are difficult to oxidize. The Tc-K edge XANES spectra of the species in Tanks SY-101 and SY-103 were reported by Blanchard, but they could not be assigned to any known technetium complex. We report that the XANES spectra are most likely those of Tc(I) carbonyl species, especially fac-Tc(CO){sub 3}(gluconate){sup 2-}. This is further supported by EXAFS and {sup 99}Tc-NMR studies in nonradioactive simulants of these tank wastes.

  16. Ecological speciation in anemone-associated snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus species complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C; Silliman, K; Anker, A; Knowlton, N

    2013-09-01

    Divergent natural selection driven by competition for limited resources can promote speciation, even in the presence of gene flow. Reproductive isolation is more likely to result from divergent selection when the partitioned resource is closely linked to mating. Obligate symbiosis and host fidelity (mating on or near the host) can provide this link, creating ideal conditions for speciation in the absence of physical barriers to dispersal. Symbiotic organisms often experience competition for hosts, and host fidelity ensures that divergent selection for a specific host or host habitat can lead to speciation and strengthen pre-existing reproductive barriers. Here, we present evidence that diversification of a sympatric species complex occurred despite the potential for gene flow and that partitioning of host resources (both by species and by host habitat) has contributed to this diversification. Four species of snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus, A. immaculatus, A. polystictus and A. roquensis) are distributed mainly sympatrically in the Caribbean, while the fifth species (A. rudolphi) is restricted to Brazil. All five species are obligate commensals of sea anemones with a high degree of fidelity and ecological specificity for host species and habitat. We analysed sequence data from 10 nuclear genes and the mitochondrial COI gene in 11-16 individuals from each of the Caribbean taxa and from the only available specimen of the Brazilian taxon. Phylogenetic analyses support morphology-based species assignments and a well-supported Caribbean clade. The Brazilian A. rudolphi is recovered as an outgroup to the Caribbean taxa. Isolation-migration coalescent analysis provides evidence for historical gene flow among sympatric sister species. Our data suggest that both selection for a novel host and selection for host microhabitat may have promoted diversification of this complex despite gene flow. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Epicuticular chemistry reinforces the new taxonomic classification of the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae.

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    Lucie Vaníčková

    Full Text Available Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, have been recently synonymized under the name Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel. The closely related Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock remains as a discrete taxonomic entity. Although the synonymizations have been accepted by most researchers, debate about the species limits remains. Because of the economic importance of this group of taxa, any new information available to support or deny the synonymizations is valuable. We investigated the chemical epicuticle composition of males and females of B. dorsalis, B. invadens, B. papayae, B. philippinensis, and B. carambolae by means of one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multiple factor analyses and principal component analysis. Clear segregation of complex cuticule profiles of both B. carambolae sexes from B. dorsalis (Hendel was observed. In addition to cuticular hydrocarbons, abundant complex mixtures of sex-specific oxygenated lipids (three fatty acids and 22 fatty acid esters with so far unknown function were identified in epicuticle extracts from females of all species. The data obtained supports both taxonomic synonymization of B. invadens, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis with B. dorsalis, as well as the exclusion of B. carambolae from B. dorsalis.

  18. Epicuticular chemistry reinforces the new taxonomic classification of the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Nagy, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Kalinová, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, have been recently synonymized under the name Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The closely related Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock remains as a discrete taxonomic entity. Although the synonymizations have been accepted by most researchers, debate about the species limits remains. Because of the economic importance of this group of taxa, any new information available to support or deny the synonymizations is valuable. We investigated the chemical epicuticle composition of males and females of B. dorsalis, B. invadens, B. papayae, B. philippinensis, and B. carambolae by means of one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multiple factor analyses and principal component analysis. Clear segregation of complex cuticule profiles of both B. carambolae sexes from B. dorsalis (Hendel) was observed. In addition to cuticular hydrocarbons, abundant complex mixtures of sex-specific oxygenated lipids (three fatty acids and 22 fatty acid esters) with so far unknown function were identified in epicuticle extracts from females of all species. The data obtained supports both taxonomic synonymization of B. invadens, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis with B. dorsalis, as well as the exclusion of B. carambolae from B. dorsalis.

  19. Of Least Concern? Systematics of a cryptic species complex: Limnonectes kuhlii (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David S

    2010-09-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that a tremendous amount of biological diversity can be masked by phenotypic similarity in a cryptic species complex. It has been speculated that the widely distributed and relatively common Southeast Asian frog Limnonectes kuhlii represents a complex of multiple species. The phylogeny within the L. kuhlii Complex is estimated in this study based on approximately 2400bp of mtDNA data (tRNA(Phe), 12S, tRNA(Val), and 16S genes) from 244 individuals representing multiple populations from throughout the known distribution of this anuran. Analyses are conducted using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The results suggest that what has been recognized historically as a single species is a complex of more than 22 distinct evolutionary lineages, 16 of which are currently subsumed under the nominal L. kuhlii. Several cases of sympatric lineages were detected, and in all cases co-occurring lineages were not each other's closest relatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae with descriptions of three new species from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Aguilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within known species, and now deserve species status. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that L. walkeri, L. tacnae and the three new species are strongly separated from other species assigned to the alticolor-bibronii group. Few conventional morphological characters distinguish the new species from closely related taxa and this highlights the need to integrate other sources of data to erect strong hypothesis of species limits. A taxonomic key for known Peruvian species of the subgenus Lioalemus is provided.

  1. The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Jankowiak, Robert; Villari, Caterina; Kirisits, Thomas; Solheim, Halvor; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus.

  2. A new species of Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) collected from Okinawa, southwestern Japan, with establishment of five Indo-West Pacific species groups in the L.detruncata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Labidocerachuraumi sp. n. is described from Okinawa, southwestern Japan. The female of the new species differs from other congeners in genital compound somite with right postero-lateral and left antero-lateral processes. The male is distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the fifth leg. This new species is assigned to a newly proposed species group, the Labidoceramadurae species group, within the Labidoceradetruncata species complex. In this species complex five Indo-West Pacific species groups are recognized (cervi, detruncata, gangetica, madurae, and pavo) and defined on the basis of difference in sexual dimorphism.

  3. Microsatellite markers for Grosmannia alacris (Ophiostomataceae, Ascomycota) and other species in the G. serpens complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Zanzot, James W; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2012-05-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the pine-infecting fungus, Grosmannia alacris. Sixteen microsatellite markers were developed by using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)-PCRs and 454 sequencing methods. Seven of these markers showed polymorphisms for a South African population of G. alacris, and 13 markers showed polymorphism when European isolates were included. Most of the primer pairs also amplified four closely related species: G. serpens, Leptographium gibbsii, L. castellanum, and L. yamaokae. These new markers will be useful for population studies of G. alacris and other species in the G. serpens complex.

  4. A new species of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from Japan (Anura, Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djong, Hon Tjong; Matsui, Masafumi; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Nishioka, Midori; Sumida, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    We describe a new species of dicroglossid frog of the Fejervarya limnocharis complex from western Honshu, Japan Mainland. The new species, Fejervarya kawamurai, is genetically closer to F. sakishimensis than to F. limnocharis. It differs from F. sakishimensis by smaller tympanum, head, forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia lengths, all relative to snout-vent length, and from F. multistriata by relatively shorter forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia. From F. limnocharis and F. iskandari, it is differentiated by relatively smaller forelimb, hindlimb, foot, and tibia lengths. Taxonomic problems of Fejervarya populations occurring in Central Ryukyus, continental China, and Taiwan are discussed.

  5. Lineage diversification and hybridization in the Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Naoko; Ikeda, Hajime; Yi, Ting-shuang; Takabe-Ito, Eriko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-06-01

    The Cayratia japonica-Cayratia tenuifolia species complex (Vitaceae) is distributed from temperate to tropical East Asia, Southeast Asia, India, and Australia. The spatiotemporal diversification history of this complex was assessed through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. Maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods were used to analyze sequences of one nuclear (AS1) and two plastid regions (trnL-F and trnC-petN). Bayesian dating analysis was conducted to estimate the divergence times of clades. The likelihood method LAGRANGE was used to infer ancestral areas. The Asian C. japonica and C. tenuifolia should be treated as an unresolved complex, and Australian C. japonica is distinct from the Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex and should be treated as separate taxa. The Asian C. japonica-C. tenuifolia species complex was estimated to have diverged from its closest relatives during the Late Eocene (35.1 million years ago [Ma], 95% highest posterior densities [HPD]=23.3-47.3Ma) and most likely first diverged in mid-continental Asia. This complex was first divided into a northern clade and a southern clade during the middle Oligocene (27.3Ma; 95% HPD=17.4-38.1Ma), which is consistent with a large southeastward extrusion of the Indochina region relative to South China along the Red River. Each of the northern and southern clades then further diverged into multiple subclades through a series of dispersal and divergence events following significant geological and climatic changes in East and Southeast Asia during the Miocene. Multiple inter-lineage hybridizations among four lineages were inferred to have occurred following this diversification process, which caused some Asian lineages to be morphologically cryptic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EVALUATING THE NOVEL METHODS ON SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELING IN COMPLEX FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Tu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of species distribution has become a focus in ecology. For predicting a result more effectively and accurately, some novel methods have been proposed recently, like support vector machine (SVM and maximum entropy (MAXENT. However, high complexity in the forest, like that in Taiwan, will make the modeling become even harder. In this study, we aim to explore which method is more applicable to species distribution modeling in the complex forest. Castanopsis carlesii (long-leaf chinkapin, LLC, growing widely in Taiwan, was chosen as the target species because its seeds are an important food source for animals. We overlaid the tree samples on the layers of altitude, slope, aspect, terrain position, and vegetation index derived from SOPT-5 images, and developed three models, MAXENT, SVM, and decision tree (DT, to predict the potential habitat of LLCs. We evaluated these models by two sets of independent samples in different site and the effect on the complexity of forest by changing the background sample size (BSZ. In the forest with low complex (small BSZ, the accuracies of SVM (kappa = 0.87 and DT (0.86 models were slightly higher than that of MAXENT (0.84. In the more complex situation (large BSZ, MAXENT kept high kappa value (0.85, whereas SVM (0.61 and DT (0.57 models dropped significantly due to limiting the habitat close to samples. Therefore, MAXENT model was more applicable to predict species’ potential habitat in the complex forest; whereas SVM and DT models would tend to underestimate the potential habitat of LLCs.

  7. The Noah's Ark experiment: species dependent biodistributions of cationic 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, Edward; Ketring, A.R.; Libson, Karen; Vanderheyden, J.-L.; Hirth, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    The time dependent biodistributions of three related 99m Tc complexes of 1, 2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (DMPE) were evaluated in several animal species including humans: trans-[ 99m Tc v (DMPE) 2 O 2 ] + , trans-[ 99m Tc III (DMPE) 2 Cl 2 ] + and [ 99m Tc I (DMPE) 3 ] + . Imaging studies were performed in 10 animal species to evaluate these complexes as myocardial perfusion imaging agents. Animal models adequately predict the uninteresting behaviour of the Tc(V) cation in humans, predict to only a very limited extent the behaviour of the Tc(III) cation in humans and totally fail to predict the behaviour of the Tc(I) cation in humans. (U.K.)

  8. Identity effects dominate the impacts of multiple species extinctions on the functioning of complex food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Eric; Séguin, Annie; Nozais, Christian; Archambault, Philippe; Gravel, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of species extinctions on the functioning of food webs is a challenging task because of the complexity of ecological interactions. We report the impacts of experimental species extinctions on the functioning of two food webs of freshwater and marine systems. We used a linear model to partition the variance among the multiple components of the diversity effect (linear group richness, nonlinear group richness, and identity). The identity of each functional group was the best explaining variable of ecosystem functioning for both systems. We assessed the contribution of each functional group in multifunctional space and found that, although the effect of functional group varied across ecosystem functions, some functional groups shared common effects on functions. This study is the first experimental demonstration that functional identity dominates the effects of extinctions on ecosystem functioning, suggesting that generalizations are possible despite the inherent complexity of interactions.

  9. Evidence of constrained phenotypic evolution in a cryptic species complex of agamid lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katie L; Harmon, Luke J; Shoo, Luke P; Melville, Jane

    2011-04-01

    Lineages that exhibit little morphological change over time provide a unique opportunity to explore whether nonadaptive or adaptive processes explain the conservation of morphology over evolutionary time scales. We provide the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the evolutionary processes leading to morphological similarity among species in a cryptic species complex, incorporating two agamid lizard species (Diporiphora magna and D. bilineata). Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear (RAG-1) gene regions revealed the existence of eight deeply divergent clades. Analysis of morphological data confirmed the presence of cryptic species among these clades. Alternative evolutionary hypotheses for the morphological similarity of species were tested using a combination of phylogenetic, morphological, and ecological data. Likelihood model testing of morphological data suggested a history of constrained phenotypic evolution where lineages have a tendency to return to their medial state, whereas ecological data showed support for both Brownian motion and constrained evolution. Thus, there was an overriding signature of constrained evolution influencing morphological divergence between clades. Our study illustrates the utility of using a combination of phylogenetic, morphological, and ecological data to investigate evolutionary mechanisms maintaining cryptic species. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Origin and Dispersal History of Two Colonial Ascidian Clades in the Botryllus schlosseri Species Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L Nydam

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming and species introductions are rapidly altering the composition and functioning of Earth's marine ecosystems. Ascidians (Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Tunicata, Class Ascidiacea are likely to play an increasingly greater role in marine communities. The colonial ascidian B. schlosseri is a cryptic species complex comprising five genetically divergent clades (A-E. Clade A is a global species, and Clade E has so far been identified in European waters only. Using the largest mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I datasets yet assembled, we determine the origin and dispersal history of these species. Nucleotide diversity and Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses support a Pacific origin for Clade A, with two likely dispersal scenarios that both show the northwestern Atlantic populations establishing early in the history of the species. Both Discrete Phylogeographic Analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation support an origin of Clade E on the French side of the English Channel. An unsampled lineage evolved from the French lineage, which reflects the conclusion from the median joining network that not all Clade E lineages have been sampled. This unsampled lineage gave rise to the haplotypes on the English side of the English Channel, which were the ancestors to the Mediterranean and Bay of Biscay populations. Clade E has a wider geographic range than previously thought, and shows evidence of recent range expansion. Both Clade A and Clade E should be considered widespread species: Clade A globally and Clade E within Europe.

  11. Decrypting the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex: European species of Hebeloma section Denudata subsection Denudata (Agaricales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, U; Beker, H J; Vesterholt, J

    2015-12-01

    Hebeloma subsection Denudata includes the type of H. section Denudata, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, as well as the majority of the taxa commonly included in the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex. Complementing the work of D.K. Aanen and co-workers, and using refined morphological and molecular methods we were able to recognize further individual taxa within the section. Fifteen species occurring in Europe are assigned to H. subsect. Denudata. Of these, we describe eight species as new, namely H. aanenii, H. aurantioumbrinum, H. geminatum, H. louiseae, H. luteicystidiatum, H. pallidolabiatum, H. perexiguum and H. salicicola. Naucoria bellotiana, a species very similar to H. alpinum is recombined into Hebeloma. A key to Hebeloma subsect. Denudata is provided. We demonstrate that within this subsection there is good overall consistency between morphological, phylogenetic and biological species concepts. In contrast to current opinion, in this group there is little species overlap, particularly when also considering species frequencies, between arctic and alpine floras on one hand and temperate on the other.

  12. Origin and Dispersal History of Two Colonial Ascidian Clades in the Botryllus schlosseri Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydam, Marie L; Giesbrecht, Kirsten B; Stephenson, Emily E

    2017-01-01

    Human-induced global warming and species introductions are rapidly altering the composition and functioning of Earth's marine ecosystems. Ascidians (Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Tunicata, Class Ascidiacea) are likely to play an increasingly greater role in marine communities. The colonial ascidian B. schlosseri is a cryptic species complex comprising five genetically divergent clades (A-E). Clade A is a global species, and Clade E has so far been identified in European waters only. Using the largest mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I datasets yet assembled, we determine the origin and dispersal history of these species. Nucleotide diversity and Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses support a Pacific origin for Clade A, with two likely dispersal scenarios that both show the northwestern Atlantic populations establishing early in the history of the species. Both Discrete Phylogeographic Analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation support an origin of Clade E on the French side of the English Channel. An unsampled lineage evolved from the French lineage, which reflects the conclusion from the median joining network that not all Clade E lineages have been sampled. This unsampled lineage gave rise to the haplotypes on the English side of the English Channel, which were the ancestors to the Mediterranean and Bay of Biscay populations. Clade E has a wider geographic range than previously thought, and shows evidence of recent range expansion. Both Clade A and Clade E should be considered widespread species: Clade A globally and Clade E within Europe.

  13. Biological and genetic aspects of experimental hybrids from species of the Phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Ventura-Rodríguez, Luz Verónica; Meillon-Isais, Karla; Barajas-Martínez, Héctor; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Lupercio-Coronel, Patricia; Rocha-Chávez, Gonzalo; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2008-05-01

    The present work is a thorough investigation of the degree of reproductive isolation between Meccus mazzottii and Meccus longipennis, Meccus picturatus, Meccus pallidipennis and Meccus bassolsae, as well as between M. longipennis and M. picturatus. We examined fertility and segregation of morphological characteristics in two generations of hybrids derived from crosses between these species. The percentage of pairs with (fertile) offspring was highest in the set of crosses between M. longipennis and M. picturatus, and lowest between M. mazzottii and M. picturatus. Most first-generation (F1) individuals from crosses involving M. mazzottii were morphologically similar to this species, while only F1 x F1 progeny of parental crosses between M. mazzottii and M. longipennis had offspring second generation that looked like M. mazzottii. The results indicate that different degrees of reproductive isolation apparently exist among the species of the Phyllosoma complex examined in this study. The biological evidence obtained in this study does not support the proposal that M. longipennis and M. picturatus are full species. It could indicate on the contrary, that both could be considered as subspecies of a single polytypic species. On the other hand, biological evidence supports the proposal that M. mazzottii is a full species.

  14. Delimiting species in the Phacus longicauda complex (Euglenida) through morphological and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukomska-Kowalczyk, Maja; Karnkowska, Anna; Milanowski, Rafał; Łach, Łukasz; Zakryś, Bożena

    2015-12-01

    Although Phacus longicauda is the type species of the genus Phacus and one of the most common species among autotrophic euglenids, its correct identification is nearly impossible. Over 30 morphologically similar taxa appear in the literature, but there are no good diagnostic features to distinguish them. Using environmental sampling and whole genome amplification, we delimited species within the Phacus longicauda complex. Morphological and molecular characters were analyzed for 36 strains isolated from environmental samples (mainly from Poland). DNA was obtained from a small number of cells (20-30) isolated with a micropipette from every sample (i.e., without setting up laboratory cultures), and phylogenetic analyses were based on variation in nSSU rDNA. Apart from Phacus longicauda, three other species (Phacus circumflexus, Phacus helikoides, and Phacus tortus) were distinguished. Phacus cordata comb. nov. Zakryś et M. Łukomska and Phacus rotunda comb. nov. Zakryś et M. Łukomska had their taxonomic ranks changed and two species new to science, Phacus cristatus sp. nov. Zakryś et M. Łukomska and Phacus crassus sp. nov. Zakryś et M. Łukomska, were described. For all verified species, diagnostic descriptions were amended and epitypes designated. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  15. Hybrid sterility in crosses between two Brazilian sibling species of the Anopheles albitarsis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, Nathalia Giglio; Araki, Alejandra Saori; Van Der Maas Azevedo, Renata; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2014-12-04

    Complexes of cryptic species are common in several taxa and this is also the case in the Anopheles genus, a group including all known human malaria vectors. The Anopheles albitarsis complex comprises at least nine cryptic species, some of which are implicated as vectors of human malaria. Several different types of data have been generated for this species complex such as cytogenetics, alloenzymes, morphological and feeding behavioral, hybridization experiments, RAPD-PCR and RFLP and mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Studies focused on its postzygotic isolation are still somewhat rare in the literature despite their importance to understand the speciation process and the level of gene flow potentially occurring among the different sibling species. Hybridization experiments between Anopheles albitarsis s.s. and Anopheles marajoara, as well as backcrosses between hybrids and Anopheles albitarsis s.s., were performed using the induced mating technique. Results were compared to intraspecific crosses. Larva-to-adult viability and sex ratio were also assessed. Male hybrids show very low insemination rates and nearly complete sterility, apparently due to abnormalities in their reproductive organs. Evidence of partial sterility among the hybrid females was also observed. Our data indicated that Anopheles albitarsis s.s. and Anopheles marajoara show a high level of postzygotic isolation with a strong hybrid male sterility. This result is consistent with the Haldane's rule which states that in interspecific crosses the heterogametic sex is the first to be affected. However, the fact that the females are not completely sterile raises the possibility of introgression between these two siblings species.

  16. Phenotypic differentiation in love song traits among sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoder, Felipe M; Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Bruno, Rafaela V; Costa, Pietra L; Ritchie, Michael G; Klaczko, Louis B; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2015-05-28

    Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis may constitute a complex of cryptic species, and this report investigates the distribution and number of potential sibling species. One of the main differences observed among Brazilian populations is the type of acoustic signal produced by males during copulation. These copulation song differences seem to be evolving faster than neutral molecular markers and have been suggested to contribute to insemination failure observed in crosses between these sibling species. In previous studies, two main types of copulation songs were found, burst-type and pulse-type. The latter type can, in turn, be further subdivided into five different patterns. We recorded male song from 13 new populations of the L. longipalpis complex from Brazil and compared the songs with 12 already available. Out of these 25 populations, 16 produce burst-type and 9 produce pulse-type songs. We performed a principal component analysis in these two main groups separately and an additional discriminant analysis in the pulse-type group. The pulse-type populations showed a clear separation between the five known patterns with a high correspondence of individuals to their correct group, confirming the differentiation between them. The distinctiveness of the burst-type subgroups was much lower than that observed among the pulse-type groups and no clear population structure was observed. This suggests that the burst-type populations represent a single species. Overall, our results are consistent with the existence in Brazil of at least six species of the L. longipalpis complex, one with a wide distribution comprising all the populations with burst-type songs, and five more closely related allopatric siblings with different pulse-type song patterns and more restricted distribution ranges.

  17. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex species from Colombian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, María Teresa; Medina, Olga Esther; Hernández, María Andrea; Flórez, Diana Vanessa; Valenzuela, Emilia María; Mantilla, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    Only automated phenotypic methods are currently used in Colombian hospitals for identifying isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex (ACB). The phenotypical similarities in these species mean that they cannot be differentiated by manual or automated methods, thereby leading to their identification as A. baumannii, or ACB complex in clinical settings. Our objective was to identify to the species level 60 isolates, from four hospitals, evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility, and detect resistance-related genes. 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and rpoB gene partial sequences were amplified. Resistance genes for cephalosporin, carbapenem and aminoglycoside were detected by PCR. Possible mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) were evaluated. The association of ISAba-1 with blaOXA and blaADC genes was determined by PCR. Amplification products of ITS region, rpoB gene and some resistance genes were sequenced and compared using the BLAST tool. 16S-23S rRNA ITS region and partial rpoB gene sequence analysis allowed 51isolates to be identified as A. baumannii, 8 as A. nosocomialis, and 1 isolate as A. pitti. A. baumannii isolates were highly resistant to all antibiotics tested, while the others were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin/sulbactam. Quinolone resistance, found only in A. baumannii, was associated with mutations in the QRDR region of gyrA and parC genes. This is the first investigation in Colombia that has identified ACB complex species using molecular methods, and determined differences in antibiotic resistance and resistance genes among the species. It is of the highest importance to identify isolates to the species level for future resistance and epidemiology studies in our region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Insights on the identities of sharks of the Rhizoprionodon acutus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhiniformes) species complex based on three new species of Phoreiobothrium (Cestoda: Onchoproteocephalidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, J N; Jensen, K

    2015-12-22

    Recent molecular work on milk sharks (Rhizoprionodon acutus [Rüppell]) suggests that, rather than a single widely distributed species, R. acutus represents a complex of four narrowly distributed cryptic species. Examination of the cestodes in three of the four members of that complex globally led to the discovery and description of three new species in the onchoproteocephalidean genus Phoreiobothrium Linton, 1889. The host associations and geographic distributions of the new species are fully congruent with the geographic distributions and species boundaries inferred for the sharks from molecular data: Phoreiobothrium jahki n. sp. parasitizes Rhizoprionodon cf. acutus 3 off Borneo, P. nadiae n. sp. parasitizes R. cf. acutus 1 off Senegal, and P. swaki n. sp. parasitizes R. cf. acutus 2 off northern Australia. The new cestodes differ from one another and from their 11 valid congeners in morphological features such as sublocular configuration and number, hook size, and testis number. Given the notoriously oioxenous nature of elasmobranch-hosted onchoproteocephalidean cestodes, these results provide further support for recognition of the milk shark species complex. This work also raises questions about the Phoreiobothrium species reported in cursory descriptions from India; further examination of these cestodes is key because they are potentially hosted by the fourth member of the R. acutus complex. To encourage future taxonomic work on the morphology of sharks in this complex, comparative photographs of representatives of the four potential host species are provided.

  19. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.

  20. Post-Embryonic Development and Genital-Complex Formation in Three Species of Polyclad Flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Nozomi; Inaba, Kazuo; Saito, Yasunori

    2018-02-01

    Without the establishment of effective culturing systems, little can be known about the late developmental stages of polyclad flatworms. Here, we report a laboratory culturing system for three polyclad species: Comoplana pusilla, Notocomplana koreana, and Pseudostylochus obscurus, and we describe changes in their morphology from hatching to reproductive maturity. These species hatch out as lobe-less larvae with four eyespots, but the number of eyespots increases in later development. Cross-like and triangularly shaped larvae are observed in N. koreana and P. obscurus, respectively. After settlement, a pale area appears on the body of juveniles and then develops into the copulatory complexes. All three species could be successfully reared on brine shrimp, but only C. pusilla and N. koreana achieved reproductive maturation in such a culturing system. In P. obscurus, switching the food to the gastropod Monodonta labio induced sexual maturation.

  1. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made. PMID:25931973

  2. Species and ecological diversity within the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex (Davidiellaceae, Capnodiales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensch, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2010-01-01

    shape, width and arrangement. Many of the treated species, e.g., C. acalyphae, C. angustisporum, C. australiense, C. basiinflatum, C. chalastosporoides, C. colocasiae, C. cucumerinum, C. exasperatum, C. exile, C. flabelliforme, C. gamsianum, and C. globisporum are currently known only from specific......The genus Cladosporium is one of the largest genera of dematiaceous hyphomycetes, and is characterised by a coronate scar structure, conidia in acropetal chains and Davidiella teleomorphs. Based on morphology and DNA phylogeny, the species complexes of C. herbarum and C. sphaerospermum have been...... regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences. For the saprobic, widely distributed species Cladosporium cladosporioides, both a neotype and epitype are designated in order to specify a well established circumscription and concept...

  3. Implementing the European policies for alien species – networking, science, and partnership in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission has recognized the need for more stringent action to manage biological invasions and has committed to develop adedicated legislative instrument. Under this upcoming legislation, European countries and their relevant institutions will have additional obligations and commitments in respect to invasive alien species. In September 2012, the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC launched the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN to facilitate the exploration of existing alien species information from distributed sources and to assist the implementation of European policies on biological invasions. Subsequent to the launching of EASIN, there was an evident need to define its niche within a complex environment of global, European, regional and national information systems. Herein we propose an organizational chart clearly defining the role of each actor in this framework, and we emphasize the need for collaboration in order to effectively support EU policies.

  4. Global population structure and taxonomy of the wandering albatross species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, T M; Croxall, J P

    2004-08-01

    A recent taxonomic revision of wandering albatross elevated each of the four subspecies to species. We used mitochondrial DNA and nine microsatellite markers to study the phylogenetic relationships of three species (Diomedea antipodensis, D. exulans and D. gibsoni) in the wandering albatross complex. A small number of samples from a fourth species, D. dabbenena, were analysed using mitochondrial DNA only. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analyses indicated the presence of three distinct groups within the wandering albatross complex: D. exulans, D. dabbenena and D. antipodensis/D. gibsoni. Although no fixed differences were found between D. antipodensis and D. gibsoni, a significant difference in the frequency of a single restriction site was detected using random fragment length polymorphism. Microsatellite analyses using nine variable loci, showed that D. exulans, D. antipodensis and D. gibsoni were genetically differentiated. Despite the widespread distribution of D. exulans, we did not detect any genetic differentiation among populations breeding on different island groups. The lower level of genetic differentiation between D. antipodensis and D. gibsoni should be reclassified as D. antipodensis. Within the context of the current taxonomy, these combined data support three species: D. dabbenena, D. exulans and D. antipodensis. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  5. Using Google Earth Surface Metrics to Predict Plant Species Richness in a Complex Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Block

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Google Earth provides a freely available, global mosaic of high-resolution imagery from different sensors that has become popular in environmental and ecological studies. However, such imagery lacks the near-infrared band often used in studying vegetation, thus its potential for estimating vegetation properties remains unclear. In this study, we assess the potential of Google Earth imagery to describe and predict vegetation attributes. Further, we compare it to the potential of SPOT imagery, which has additional spectral information. We measured basal area, vegetation height, crown cover, density of individuals, and species richness in 60 plots in the oak forests of a complex volcanic landscape in central Mexico. We modelled each vegetation attribute as a function of surface metrics derived from Google Earth and SPOT images, and selected the best-supported linear models from each source. Total species richness was the best-described and predicted variable: the best Google Earth-based model explained nearly as much variation in species richness as its SPOT counterpart (R2 = 0.44 and 0.51, respectively. However, Google Earth metrics emerged as poor predictors of all remaining vegetation attributes, whilst SPOT metrics showed potential for predicting vegetation height. We conclude that Google Earth imagery can be used to estimate species richness in complex landscapes. As it is freely available, Google Earth can broaden the use of remote sensing by researchers and managers in low-income tropical countries where most biodiversity hotspots are found.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of Glossodoris (Ehrenberg, 1831) nudibranchs and related genera reveals cryptic and pseudocryptic species complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuda, Shayle B.

    2017-03-01

    Chromodorid nudibranchs (Chromodorididae) are brightly coloured sea slugs that live in some of the most biodiverse and threatened coral reefs on the planet. However, the evolutionary relationships within this family have not been well understood, especially in the genus Glossodoris. Members of Glossodoris have experienced large-scale taxonomic instability over the last century and have been the subject of repeated taxonomic changes, in part due to morphological characters being the sole traditional taxonomic sources of data. Changing concepts of traditional generic boundaries based on morphology also have contributed to this instability. Despite recent advances in molecular systematics, many aspects of chromodorid taxonomy remain poorly understood, particularly at the traditional species and generic levels. In this study, 77 individuals comprising 32 previously defined species were used to build the most robust phylogenetic tree of Glossodoris and related genera using mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S, and the nuclear gene 28S. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses verify the most recent hypothesized evolutionary relationships within Glossodoris. Additionally, a pseudocryptic and cryptic species complex within Glossodoris cincta and a pseudocryptic complex within Glossodoris pallida emerged, and three new species of Doriprismatica are identified.

  7. Mitochondrial sequence data expose the putative cosmopolitan polychaete Scoloplos armiger (Annelida, Orbiniidae as a species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Sylvia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychaetes assigned as Scoloplos armiger (Orbiniidae show a cosmopolitan distribution and have been encountered in all zoogeographic regions. Sibling S. armiger-like species have been revealed by recent studies using RAPDs and AFLP genetic data. We sequenced a ~12 kb fragment of the Scoloplos cf. armiger mitochondrial genome and developed primers for variable regions including the 3' end of the cox3 gene, trnQ, and most of nad6. A phylogenetic analysis of this 528-nucleotide fragment was carried out for S. armiger-like individuals from the Eastern North Atlantic as well as Pacific regions. The aim of this study is to test the cosmopolitan status, as well as to clarify the systematics of this species complex in the Eastern North Atlantic, while using a few specimens from the Pacific Ocean for comparision. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the cox3-trnQ-nad6 data set recovered five different clades of Scoloplos cf. armiger. The fragment of the mitochondrial genome of Scoloplos cf. armiger is 12,042 bp long and contains 13 protein coding genes, 15 of the 22 expected tRNAs, and the large ribosomal subunit (rrnl. Conclusion The sequenced cox3-trnQ-nad6 fragment proved to be very useful in phylogenetic analyses of Scoloplos cf. armiger. Due to its larger sampling scale this study goes beyond previous analyses which used RAPD and AFLP markers. The results of this study clearly supports that Scoloplos armiger represents a species complex and not a cosmopolitan species. We find at least two S. armiger-like species within the Pacific region and three different S. armiger-like species in the North Atlantic. Implications for the taxonomy and the impact on ecological studies are discussed.

  8. Reticulate evolution in the apogamous Dryopteris varia complex (Dryopteridaceae, subg. Erythrovariae, sect. Variae) and its related sexual species in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kiyotaka; Tono, Akitaka; Fujimoto, Kazuto; Kato, Juntaro; Ebihara, Atsushi; Watano, Yasuyuki; Murakami, Noriaki

    2014-11-01

    Apogamous fern species are often difficult to distinguish from related species because of their continuous morphological variations. To clarify the genetic relationships among the members of the Dryopteris varia complex, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL and the nuclear gene PgiC. We also analyzed the diploid sexual species D. caudipinna and D. chinensis, which have not been included in the complex, but were recently shown to be closely related to the complex in a molecular phylogenetic study. The PgiC sequences of the diploid sexual species, D. varia, D. saxifraga, D. sp. 'protobissetiana' (undescribed diploid sexual species), D. caudipinna, and D. chinensis, were well differentiated and hence designated A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Thus, the PgiC constitution of apogamous species in the complex was as follows: D. bissetiana, B + C; D. kobayashii, B + C + E); D. pacifica, A + C, A + B + C, or A + C + D; D. sacrosancta, A + C + E; and D. saxifragivaria, B + C. These results suggest that these apogamous species are formed by hybridizations of species including not only the three diploid sexual species of the D. varia complex (A, B, and C) but also the two diploid sexual species D. caudipinna (D) and D. chinensis (E), which do not belong to the complex.

  9. A stable gold(i)-enyne species obtained by alkyne carboauration in a complex rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Jéssica; Blanco, M Carmen; Laguna, Antonio; Naumov, Panče; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2017-08-15

    An unprecedented tetranuclear gold derivative with unusual gold-enyne moieties is prepared by a mild and neat rearrangement of a dinuclear gold complex with a bridging bis(diphenylphosphino)alkyne and terminal alkynyl ligands. The complex originates as a consequence of an intramolecular addition of the AuC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CTol fragment to the internal diphosphine triple bond Ph 2 PC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPPh 2 . The crystal structure of the tetranuclear complex shows a dinuclear metallacycle with a very short AuAu bond interaction and bridging phosphino-enyne ligands. This disposition clearly stabilises the elusive vinyl gold species omnipresent as intermediates in gold-catalysed reactions.

  10. (parkia biglobosa) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Fermentation also resulted in the release and detection of some bioactive phytochemicals. (flavonoids and total phenolics) while ... chloride solution using 0.3% ammonium thiocyanate as indicator until a brownish yellow colour .... oxidized to carbon dioxide and water by potassium permanganate in H2SO4 solution.

  11. Using hand proportions to test taxonomic boundaries within the Tupaia glis species complex (Scandentia, Tupaiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargos, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2013-01-01

    Treeshrews (order Scandentia) comprise 2 families of squirrel-sized terrestrial, arboreal, and scansorial mammals distributed throughout much of tropical South and Southeast Asia. The last comprehensive taxonomic revision of treeshrews was published in 1913, and a well-supported phylogeny clarifying relationships among all currently recognized extant species within the order has only recently been published. Within the family Tupaiidae, 2 widely distributed species, the northern treeshrew, Tupaia belangeri (Wagner, 1841), and the common treeshrew, T. glis (Diard, 1820), represent a particularly vexing taxonomic complex. These 2 species are currently distinguished primarily based on their respective distributions north and south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula and on their different mammae counts. This problematic species complex includes 54 published synonyms, many of which represent putative island endemics. The widespread T. glis and T. belangeri collectively comprise a monophyletic assemblage representing the sister lineage to a clade composed of the golden-bellied treeshrew, T. chrysogaster Miller, 1903 (Mentawai Islands), and the long-footed treeshrew, T. longipes (Thomas, 1893) (Borneo). As part of a morphological investigation of the T. glis–T. belangeri complex, we studied the proportions of hand bones, which have previously been shown to be useful in discriminating species of soricids (true shrews). We measured 38 variables from digital X-ray images of 148 museum study skins representing several subspecies of T. glis, T. belangeri, T. chrysogaster, and T. longipes and analyzed these data using principal components and cluster analyses. Manus proportions among these 4 species readily distinguish them, particularly in the cases of T. chrysogaster and T. longipes. We then tested the distinctiveness of several of the populations comprising T. glis and T. longipes. T. longipes longipes and T. l. salatana Lyon, 1913, are distinguishable from each

  12. Mating compatibility among four pest members of the Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, M K; Jessup, A; Ul-Haq, I; Vreysen, M J B; Wornoayporn, V; Vera, M T; Clarke, A R

    2013-04-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock are pest members within the B. dorsalis species complex of tropical fruit flies. The species status of these taxa is unclear and this confounds quarantine, pest management, and general research. Mating studies carried out under uniform experimental conditions are required as part of resolving their species limits. These four taxa were collected from the wild and established as laboratory cultures for which we subsequently determined levels of prezygotic compatibility, assessed by field cage mating trials for all pair-wise combinations. We demonstrate random mating among all pair-wise combinations involving B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis. B. carambolae was relatively incompatible with each of these species as evidenced by nonrandom mating for all crosses. Reasons for incompatibility involving B. carambolae remain unclear; however, we observed differences in the location of couples in the field cage for some comparisons. Alongside other factors such as pheromone composition or other courtship signals, this may lead to reduced interspecific mating compatibility with B. carambolae. These data add to evidence that B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis represent the same biological species, while B. carambolae remains sufficiently different to maintain its current taxonomic identity. This poses significant implications for this group's systematics, impacting on pest management, and international trade.

  13. More of the same: a diminutive new species of the Limnonectes kuhlii complex from northern Vietnam (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, David S; Kurlbaum, Scuyler; Hoang, Ngoc Van

    2015-04-15

    A new species in the dicroglossid genus Limnonectes known only from Ha Giang province, Vietnam is described. Analysis of DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial 12S and 16S gene regions places the species within the Limnonectes kuhlii Complex and demonstrates it to be the sister taxon to an Indochinese clade containing L. isanensis, L. jarujini, L. megastomias, and L. taylori. The new species occurs in syntopy with L. bannaensis. Both molecular and morphological data support the recognition of this lineage as a new species. Notably, the relatively diminutive size of this species distinguishes Limnonectes nguyenorum sp. nov. from all other members of the L. kuhlii Complex.

  14. Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Alexander; Morillo, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) are described from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil: Matelea brevistipitata Krings & Morillo, sp. nov. and Matelea trichopedicellataKrings & Morillo, sp. nov. The new species belong to a small group of adaxially-pubescent-flowered taxa within the complex, including Matelea hildegardiana and Matelea pakaraimensis. The new species are described and a dichotomous key is provided. PMID:23233816

  15. A new species of Meligethes Stephens from China and additional data on members of the M. chinensis species-complex (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, Meligethinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Meligethes (Odontogethes inexpectatus sp. n. is described from China, Sichuan Province. The new species is based on a female specimen previously incorrectly referred to as Meligethes scrobescens Chen, Lin, Huang & Yang, 2015, which was recently described from a series of male specimens collected in the same area. Both species belong to the taxonomically difficult species-group related to M. chinensis Kirejtshuk, 1979, including a dozen closely related species distributed throughout Nepal and SW and Central China. The true female of Meligethes scrobescens is also described, based on recently collected material from China (Hubei and Chongqing, including a series of male and female specimens. Diagnostic characters distinguishing the new species from all other known members of the M. chinensis species-group and species-complex are discussed, and their overall range distribution are depicted. Additional data on geographic distribution and larval ecology of some of the closely related species are also reported.

  16. DNA Barcoding of Bemisia tabaci Complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Reveals Southerly Expansion of the Dominant Whitefly Species on Cotton in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Khan, Arif M.; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S.; Zafar, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Background Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Methods/Principal Findings Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5′) ...

  17. Diversity and Distribution of Cryptic Species of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) complex in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mariyam; Amin, Imran; Hassan, Ishtiaq; Mansoor, Shahid; Brown, Judith K; Briddon, Rob W

    2017-12-05

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius; Hempitera: Aleyrodidae) is considered to be a cryptic (sibling) species complex, the members of which exhibit morphological invariability while being genetically and behaviorally distinct. Members of the complex are agricultural pests that cause direct damage by feeding on plants, and indirectly by transmitting viruses that cause diseases leading to reduced crop yield and quality. In Pakistan, cotton leaf curl disease, caused by multiple begomovirus species, is the most economically important viral disease of cotton. In the study outlined here, the diversity and geographic distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species was investigated by analyzing a taxonomically informative fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (mtCOI-3'). The mtCOI-3' sequence was determined for 285 adult whiteflies and found to represent six cryptic species, the most numerous being Asia II-1 and Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM-1), the later also referred to as the B-biotype, which was previously thought to be confined to Sindh province but herein, was also found to be present in the Punjab province. The endemic Asia I was restricted to Sindh province, while an individual in the Asia II-8 was identified in Pakistan for the first time. Also for the first time, samples were collected from northwestern Pakistan and Asia II-1 was identified. Results indicate that in Pakistan the overall diversity of B. tabaci cryptic species is high and, based on comparisons with findings from previous studies, the distribution is dynamic. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Multiple evolutionary processes drive the patterns of genetic differentiation in a forest tree species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Lavery, Martyn; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2013-01-01

    Forest trees frequently form species complexes, complicating taxonomic classification and gene pool management. This is certainly the case in Eucalyptus, and well exemplified by the Eucalyptus globulus complex. This ecologically and economically significant complex comprises four taxa (sspp. bicostata, globulus, maidenii, pseudoglobulus) that are geographically and morphologically distinct, but linked by extensive “intergrade” populations. To resolve their genetic affinities, nine microsatellites were used to genotype 1200 trees from throughout the natural range of the complex in Australia, representing 33 morphological core and intergrade populations. There was significant spatial genetic structure (FST = 0.10), but variation was continuous. High genetic diversity in southern ssp. maidenii indicates that this region is the center of origin. Genetic diversity decreases and population differentiation increases with distance from this area, suggesting that drift is a major evolutionary process. Many of the intergrade populations, along with other populations morphologically classified as ssp. pseudoglobulus or ssp. globulus, belong to a “cryptic genetic entity” that is genetically and geographically intermediate between core ssp. bicostata, ssp. maidenii, and ssp. globulus. Geography, rather than morphology, therefore, is the best predictor of overall genetic affinities within the complex and should be used to classify germplasm into management units for conservation and breeding purposes. PMID:23403692

  19. Species delimitation of the Hyphydrus ovatus complex in western Palaearctic with an update of species distributions (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bergsten

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The species status of Hyphydrus anatolicus Guignot, 1957 and H. sanctus Sharp, 1882, previously often confused with the widespread H. ovatus (Linnaeus, 1760, are tested with molecular and morphological characters. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 was sequenced for 32 specimens of all three species. Gene-trees were inferred with parsimony, time-free bayesian and strict clock bayesian analyses. The GMYC model was used to estimate species limits. All three species were reciprocally monophyletic with CO1 and highly supported. The GMYC species delimitation analysis unequivocally delimited the three species with no other than the three species solution included in the confidence interval. A likelihood ratio test rejected the one-species null model. Important morphological characters distinguishing the species are provided and illustrated. New distributional data are given for the following species: Hyphydrus anatolicus from Slovakia and Ukraine, and H. aubei Ganglbauer, 1891, and H. sanctus from Turkey.

  20. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex species in clinical specimens in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, T H; Tan, T T; Khoo, C T; Ng, S Y; Tan, T Y; Hsu, L-Y; Ooi, E E; Van Der Reijden, T J K; Dijkshoorn, L

    2012-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence, distribution of specimen sources, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb) species complex in Singapore. One hundred and ninety-three non-replicate Acb species complex clinical isolates were collected from six hospitals over a 1-month period in 2006. Of these, 152 (78·7%) were identified as A. baumannii, 18 (9·3%) as 'Acinetobacter pittii' [genomic species (gen. sp.) 3], and 23 (11·9%) as 'Acinetobacter nosocomialis' (gen. sp. 13TU). Carbapenem resistance was highest in A. baumannii (72·4%), followed by A. pittii (38·9%), and A. nosocomialis (34·8%). Most carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and A. nosocomialis possessed the bla(OXA-23-like) gene whereas carbapenem-resistant A. pittii possessed the bla(OXA-58-like) gene. Two imipenem-resistant strains (A. baumannii and A. pittii) had the bla(IMP-like) gene. Representatives of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were related to European clones I and II.

  1. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Burkholderia cepacia complex: significance of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Felicity K; Milne, Kathleen E N; Stead, David A; Gould, Ian M

    2016-11-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is notorious for the life-threatening pulmonary infections it causes in patients with cystic fibrosis. The multidrug-resistant nature of Bcc and differing infective Bcc species make the design of appropriate treatment regimens challenging. Previous synergy studies have failed to take account of the species of Bcc isolates. Etest methodology was used to facilitate minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial combination testing on 258 isolates of Bcc, identified to species level by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The most active antimicrobials were trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline and minocycline (52.5%, 46.4% and 45.9% of isolates susceptible, respectively). Synergy was observed in 9.2% of the 1799 combinations tested; the most common synergistic combinations were tobramycin + ceftazidime, meropenem + tobramycin and levofloxacin + piperacillin/tazobactam (35.4%, 32.3% and 22.2% synergy, respectively). Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis revealed differences between Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans. Disparity in clinical outcome during infection with these two micro-organisms necessitates further investigation into the clinical outcomes of treatment regimens in light of species identification and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Biology, ecology and control of the Penthaleus species complex (Acari: Penthaleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Weeks, Andrew R

    2004-01-01

    Blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp. (Acari: Penthaleidae), are major agricultural pests in southern Australia and other parts of the world, attacking various pasture, vegetable and crop plants. Management of these mites has been complicated by the recent discovery of three cryptic pest species of Penthaleus, whereas prior research had assumed a single species. The taxonomy, population genetics, ecology, biology and control of the Penthaleus spp. complex are reviewed. Adult Penthaleus have a dark blue-black body approximately 1 mm in length, and eight red-orange legs. Within Australia, they are winter pests completing two or three generations a season, depending on conditions. The summer is passed as diapausing eggs, when long-distance dispersal is thought to occur. The Penthaleus spp. reproduce by thelytokous parthenogenesis, with populations comprising clones that differ ecologically. The three pest Penthaleus spp. differ markedly in their distributions, plant hosts, timing of diapause egg production and response to pesticides, highlighting the need to develop control strategies that consider each species separately. Chemicals are the main weapons used in current control programs, however research continues into alternative more sustainable management options. Host plant resistance, crop rotations, conservation of natural enemies, and improved timing of pesticide application would improve the management of these pests. The most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable means of control will result from the integration of these practices combined with the development of a simple field-based kit to distinguish the different mite species.

  3. Integrative taxonomy and phylogeny-based species delimitation of Philippine water monitor lizards (Varanus salvator Complex) with descriptions of two new cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Luke J; Travers, Scott L; Siler, Cameron D; Brown, Rafe M

    2014-11-05

    We describe two new species of morphologically cryptic monitor lizards (genus Varanus) from the Philippine Archipelago:  Varanus dalubhasa sp. nov. and V. bangonorum sp. nov. These two distinct evolutionary lineages are members of the V. salvator species complex, and historically have been considered conspecific with the widespread, northern Philippine V. marmoratus. However, the new species each share closer phylogenetic affinities with V. nuchalis (and potentially V. palawanensis), than either does to one another or to V. marmoratus. Divergent from other recognized species within the V. salvator Complex of water monitors by as much as 3.5% pairwise genetic distance, these lineages are also distinguished by unique gular coloration, metrics of body size and scalation, their non-monophyly with "true" V. marmoratus, and insular allopatric distributions, suggesting biogeographically distinct and unique evolutionary histories. We compare the new species with the most geographically proximate and phenotypically relevant lineages.  Although we show that these new taxa are nearly indistinguishable morphologically from V. marmoratus, both species can be readily distinguished from their closest relatives (each's respective sister taxon, V. palawanensis and V. nuchalis) by traditional morphological characters.  Our findings underscore the high herpetological diversity and biogeographical complexity of vertebrates in the Philippines, and further emphasize the need for detailed study of species-level diversity, mechanisms of reproductive isolation, gene flow, and biologically relevant boundaries between taxa within the V. salvator Complex.

  4. Antifungal susceptibilities and identification of species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottonelli Stopiglia, Cheila Denise; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Castrillón, Mauricio Ramírez; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Heidrich, Daiane; Valente, Patricia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused worldwide by the dimorphic species complex, Sporothrix schenckii. We studied 85 isolates recovered in Brazil to verify their identification and evaluate their in vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns. Based on phenotypic tests (microscopic features, ability to grow at 30°C and 37°C, colony diameters, as well as assimilation of sucrose and raffinose) and molecular assays (amplification of a fragment of the calmodulin gene), the strains were identified as S. schenckii, S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, with a predominance of S. schenckii isolates. There was 37.7% disagreement between the phenotypic and genotypic identification methodologies. In general, terbinafine was the most active drug, followed by ketoconazole and itraconazole, and the less active fluconazole and voriconazole. Five isolates (one S. globosa and four S. schenckii) were found to be itraconazole-resistant strains but, in general, there were no differences in the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles among the Sporothrix species.

  5. Tephritid Integrative Taxonomy: Where We Are Now, with a Focus on the Resolution of Three Tropical Fruit Fly Species Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, Mark K; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Norrbom, Allen; Clarke, Anthony R

    2017-01-31

    Accurate species delimitation underpins good taxonomy. Formalization of integrative taxonomy in the past decade has provided a framework for using multidisciplinary data to make species delimitation hypotheses more rigorous. We address the current state of integrative taxonomy by using as a case study an international project targeted at resolving three important tephritid species complexes: Bactrocera dorsalis complex, Anastrepha fraterculus complex, and Ceratitis FAR (C. fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa) complex. The integrative taxonomic approach has helped deliver significant advances in resolving these complexes: It has been used to identify some taxa as belonging to the same biological species as well as to confirm hidden cryptic diversity under a single taxonomic name. Nevertheless, the general application of integrative taxonomy has not been without issue, revealing challenges that must be considered when undertaking an integrative taxonomy project. Scrutiny of this international case study provides a unique opportunity to document lessons learned for the benefit of not only tephritid taxonomists, but also the wider taxonomic community.

  6. Enhanced reactive oxygen species through direct copper sulfide nanoparticle-doxorubicin complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajuan; Cupo, Michela; Guo, Liangran; Scott, Julie; Chen, Yi-Tzai; Yan, Bingfang; Lu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    CuS-based nanostructures loading the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) exerted excellent cancer photothermal chemotherapy under multi-external stimuli. The DOX loading was generally designed through electrostatic interaction or chemical linkers. However, the interaction between DOX molecules and CuS nanoparticles has not been investigated. In this work, we use PEGylated hollow copper sulfide nanoparticles (HCuSNPs) to directly load DOX through the DOX/Cu2+ chelation process. Distinctively, the synthesized PEG–HCuSNPs–DOX release the DOX/Cu2+ complexes into surrounding environment, which generate significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a controlled manner by near-infrared laser. The CuS nanoparticle-mediated photothermal ablation facilitates the ROS-induced cancer cell killing effect. Our current work reveals a DOX/Cu2+-mediated ROS-enhanced cell-killing effect in addition to conventional photothermal chemotherapy through the direct CuS nanoparticle-DOX complexation.

  7. Screening of complex fucoidans from four brown algae species as procoagulant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Till, Susanne; Knappe, Sabine; Quinn, Catherine; Catarello, James; Ray, G Joseph; Scheiflinger, Friedrich; Szabo, Christina M; Dockal, Michael

    2015-01-22

    Fucoidans are complex sulfated polysaccharides extracted from brown algae. Depending on the concentration, they have been shown to stimulate and inhibit blood coagulation in vitro. Promotion of coagulation is mediated by blocking tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). We screened fucoidan extracts from four brown algae species in vitro with respect to their potential to improve coagulation in bleeding disorders. The fucoidans' pro- and anticoagulant activities were assessed by global hemostatic and standard clotting assays. Results showed that fucoidans improved coagulation parameters. Some fucoidans also activated the contact pathway of coagulation, an undesired property reported for sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Chemical evaluation of fucoidans' complex and variable structure included molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity (polyD), structural heterogeneity, and organic and inorganic impurities. Herewith, we describe a screening strategy that facilitates the identification of crude fucoidan extracts with desired biological and structural properties for improvement of compromised coagulation like in hemophilia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  9. Separation and Species Characterization of Complex Compound of Yttrium-90 and Strontium-90 by Paper Electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman; Adang Hardi G; Noor Anis Kundari

    2007-01-01

    The research for species characterization of 90 Y and 90 Sr complex compound have been conducted using variation of buffer, concentration of HCl, electrophoresis operation voltage, time of electrophoresis, and electrophoresis migration media. From many trials, the conclusions are the applicable buffer are tartrate buffer and citrate buffer. These buffers can make a complex compound of 90 Y and there is migration to the anode. But, 90 Sr can’t make any complex compound and migration to the cathode. The optimum concentration of hydrochloride acid is 8 M with tartrate buffer but for citrate buffer, the concentration HCl is 2 M. The hydrochloric acid is used to dissolved the both elements as the mentioned above, but also for making complex ligand. The optimum electrophoresis operation voltage is 200 Volt for the both buffer solution and the duration of electrophoresis operation is 2.5 hours with using tartrate buffer but for citrate buffer the duration is 2 hours. The media of migration which can be used for replacing paper is silica. (author)

  10. Comparison of Phylogeny, Venom Composition and Neutralization by Antivenom in Diverse Species of Bothrops Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Pedro S.; Bernardoni, Juliana L.; Oliveira, Sâmella S.; Portes-Junior, José Antonio; Mourão, Rosa Helena V.; Lima-dos-Santos, Isa; Sano-Martins, Ida S.; Chalkidis, Hipócrates M.; Valente, Richard H.; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, Bothrops snakes account for most snake bites in humans, and the recommended treatment is administration of multispecific Bothrops antivenom (SAB – soro antibotrópico). However, Bothrops snakes are very diverse with regard to their venom composition, which raises the issue of which venoms should be used as immunizing antigens for the production of pan-specific Bothrops antivenoms. In this study, we simultaneously compared the composition and reactivity with SAB of venoms collected from six species of snakes, distributed in pairs from three distinct phylogenetic clades: Bothrops, Bothropoides and Rhinocerophis. We also evaluated the neutralization of Bothrops atrox venom, which is the species responsible for most snake bites in the Amazon region, but not included in the immunization antigen mixture used to produce SAB. Using mass spectrometric and chromatographic approaches, we observed a lack of similarity in protein composition between the venoms from closely related snakes and a high similarity between the venoms of phylogenetically more distant snakes, suggesting little connection between taxonomic position and venom composition. P-III snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are the most antigenic toxins in the venoms of snakes from the Bothrops complex, whereas class P-I SVMPs, snake venom serine proteinases and phospholipases A2 reacted with antibodies in lower levels. Low molecular size toxins, such as disintegrins and bradykinin-potentiating peptides, were poorly antigenic. Toxins from the same protein family showed antigenic cross-reactivity among venoms from different species; SAB was efficient in neutralizing the B. atrox venom major toxins. Thus, we suggest that it is possible to obtain pan-specific effective antivenoms for Bothrops envenomations through immunization with venoms from only a few species of snakes, if these venoms contain protein classes that are representative of all species to which the antivenom is targeted. PMID

  11. Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of viruses included in the Manzanilla and Oropouche species complexes of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Jason T; Savji, Nazir; Lofts, Loreen; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Wiley, Michael R; Gestole, Marie C; Rosen, Gail E; Guzman, Hilda; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Nunes, Marcio R T; J Kochel, Tadeusz; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2014-05-01

    A thorough characterization of the genetic diversity of viruses present in vector and vertebrate host populations is essential for the early detection of and response to emerging pathogenic viruses, yet genetic characterization of many important viral groups remains incomplete. The Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an example. The Simbu serogroup currently consists of a highly diverse group of related arboviruses that infect both humans and economically important livestock species. Here, we report complete genome sequences for 11 viruses within this group, with a focus on the large and poorly characterized Manzanilla and Oropouche species complexes. Phylogenetic and pairwise divergence analyses indicated the presence of high levels of genetic diversity within these two species complexes, on a par with that seen among the five other species complexes in the Simbu serogroup. Based on previously reported divergence thresholds between species, the data suggested that these two complexes should actually be divided into at least five species. Together these five species formed a distinct phylogenetic clade apart from the rest of the Simbu serogroup. Pairwise sequence divergences among viruses of this clade and viruses in other Simbu serogroup species complexes were similar to levels of divergence among the other orthobunyavirus serogroups. The genetic data also suggested relatively high levels of natural reassortment, with three potential reassortment events present, including two well-supported events involving viruses known to infect humans.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel RNA Viruses from Anopheles gambiae Species Complex Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissimo, Guillaume; Eiglmeier, Karin; Reveillaud, Julie; Holm, Inge; Diallo, Mawlouth; Diallo, Diawo; Vantaux, Amélie; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier; Siv, Sovannaroth; Belda, Eugeni; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O'nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An. gambiae taxa using small-RNA deep sequencing. Sequence analysis was done with Metavisitor, an open-source bioinformatic pipeline for virus discovery and de novo genome assembly. Wild-collected Anopheles from Senegal and Cambodia were positive for the Dicistrovirus and Cypovirus, displaying high sequence identity to the laboratory-derived virus. Thus, the Dicistrovirus (Anopheles C virus, AnCV) and Cypovirus (Anopheles Cypovirus, AnCPV) are components of the natural virome of at least some anopheline species. Their possible influence on mosquito immunity or transmission of other pathogens is unknown. These natural viruses could be developed as models for the study of Anopheles-RNA virus interactions in low security laboratory settings, in an analogous manner to the use of rodent malaria parasites for studies of mosquito anti-parasite immunity.

  13. MALDI-TOF MS and chemometric based identification of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Clara; Botelho, João; Silva, Liliana; Grosso, Filipa; Nemec, Alexandr; Lopes, João; Peixe, Luísa

    2014-07-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is becoming the technique of choice for rapid bacterial identification at species level in routine diagnostics. However, some drawbacks concerning the identification of closely related species such as those belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb) complex lead to high rates of misidentifications. In this work we successfully developed an approach that combines MALDI-TOF MS and chemometric tools to discriminate the six Acb complex species (A. baumannii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter pittii, A. calcoaceticus, genomic species "Close to 13TU" and genomic species "Between 1 and 3"). Mass spectra of 83 taxonomically well characterized clinical strains, reflecting the breadth of currently known phenetic diversity within the Acb complex, were achieved from intact cells and cell extracts and analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). This combined approach lead to 100% of correct species identification using mass spectra obtained from intact cells. Moreover, it was possible to discriminate two Acb complex species (genomic species "Close to 13TU" and genomic species "Between 1 and 3") not included in the MALDI Biotyper database. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in cerebrospinal fluid: comparison of primer sets for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena dos Anjos Martins

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These data suggest that the CN4/CN5 primer set was highly sensitive for the identification of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinical suspicion of cryptococcal meningitis.

  15. Sperm dimorphism in the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffa, A F; Camara, D C P; Santos-Mallet, J R; DA Silva, E R; Costa, J; Freitas, S P C

    2017-06-01

    Morphological and structural features of the sperm of the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) species complex were examined in this first study investigating the sperm of Heteroptera and the genus Triatoma. Males were dissected and their seminal vesicles removed. For measurement, seminal vesicles were squashed on glass slides, spread, fixed and observed under a photomicroscope. The images were analysed and measures of sperm were made. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test to detect differentiation among taxa. Furthermore, seminal vesicles were prepared for studies of transmission electron microscopy. All taxa studied showed polymorphic (short and long) sperm. The sperm of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma was significantly longer (in total length) than that of the other four members of the complex, which supports the hypothesis of hybrid speciation of this member of the complex as an increase in the size of typical hybrids under heterosis was previously shown. The sperm cells of the five taxa have similar ultrastructural morphology. The ultrastructural features observed confirm the hypothesis, raised by previous studies, that they are synapomorphic to the suborder Heteroptera. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. The influence of climatic niche preferences on the population genetic structure of a mistletoe species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; González, Clementina; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2017-06-01

    The prevalent view on genetic structuring in parasitic plants is that host-race formation is caused by varying degrees of host specificity. However, the relative importance of ecological niche divergence and host specificity to population differentiation remains poorly understood. We evaluated the factors associated with population differentiation in mistletoes of the Psittacanthus schiedeanus complex (Loranthaceae) in Mexico. We used genetic data from chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites to study population genetic structure and tested its association with host preferences and climatic niche variables. Pairwise genetic differentiation was associated with environmental and host preferences, independent of geography. However, environmental predictors appeared to be more important than host preferences to explain genetic structure, supporting the hypothesis that the occurrence of the parasite is largely determined by its own climatic niche and, to a lesser degree, by host specificity. Genetic structure is significant within this mistletoe species complex, but the processes associated with this structure appear to be more complex than previously thought. Although host specificity was not supported as the major determinant of population differentiation, we consider this to be part of a more comprehensive ecological model of mistletoe host-race formation that incorporates the effects of climatic niche evolution. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Susceptibility of species within the Sporothrix schenckii complex to a panel of killer yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Heidrich, Daiane; Sorrentino, Julia Medeiros; Vieira, Fabiane Jamono; Landell, Melissa Fontes; Valente, Patrícia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2014-06-01

    The Sporothrix schenckii complex is the etiologic agent of sporotrichosis, a subacute or chronic mycosis which can affect humans and animals. Killer yeasts have been used in the medical field for development of novel antimycotics and biotyping of pathogenic fungi. The action of 18 killer yeasts on the growth of 88 characterized S. schenckii, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and Sporothrix mexicana clinical and environmental isolates was evaluated. Killer studies were performed on Petri dishes containing cheese black starch agar. The yeasts Candida catenulata (QU26, QU31, QU127, LV102); Trichosporon faecale (QU100); Trichosporon japonicum (QU139); Kluyveromyces lactis (QU30, QU99, QU73); Kazachstania unispora (QU49), Trichosporon insectorum (QU89), and Kluyveromyces marxianus (QU103) showed activity against all strains of the S. schenckii complex tested. Observation by optical microscopy of S. brasiliensis 61 within the inhibition haloes around the colonies of the killer yeasts QU100, QU139, and LV102 showed that there was no conidiation, but there was hyphal proliferation. The toxins were fungistatic against S. brasiliensis 61. There was no difference in susceptibility to the toxins among the S. schenckii species complex. Further investigations are necessary to clearly establish the mechanism of action of the toxins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. No Evidence for Temporal Variation in a Cryptic Species Community of Freshwater Amphipods of the Hyalella azteca Species Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Dionne, Kaven; Vergilino, Roland; Dufresne, France; Charles, François; Nozais, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The co-occurrence of cryptic species of Hyalella amphipods is a challenge to our traditional views of how species assemble. Since these species have similar morphologies, it is not evident that they have developed phenotypic differences that would allow them to occupy different ecological niches. We examined the structure of a community of Hyalella amphipods in the littoral zone of a boreal lake to verify if temporal variation was present in relative abundances. Morphological and molecular an...

  19. Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium heraklionense, and a Newly Proposed Species, "Mycobacterium virginiense" sp. nov., but Not Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, as Species of the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Causing Tenosynovitis and Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wengenack, Nancy L; Eke, Uzoamaka A; Benwill, Jeana L; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Mycobacterium terrae complex has been recognized as a cause of tenosynovitis, with M. terrae and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum reported as the primary etiologic pathogens. The molecular taxonomy of the M. terrae complex causing tenosynovitis has not been established despite approximately 50 previously reported cases. We evaluated 26 isolates of the M. terrae complex associated with tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis recovered between 1984 and 2014 from 13 states, including 5 isolates reported in 1991 as M. nonchromogenicum by nonmolecular methods. The isolates belonged to three validated species, one new proposed species, and two novel related strains. The majority of isolates (20/26, or 77%) belonged to two recently described species: Mycobacterium arupense (10 isolates, or 38%) and Mycobacterium heraklionense (10 isolates, or 38%). Three isolates (12%) had 100% sequence identity to each other by 16S rRNA and 99.3 to 100% identity by rpoB gene region V sequencing and represent a previously undescribed species within the M. terrae complex. There were no isolates of M. terrae or M. nonchromogenicum, including among the five isolates reported in 1991. The 26 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin (100%), rifabutin (100%), ethambutol (92%), and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70%). The current study suggests that M. arupense, M. heraklionense, and a newly proposed species ("M. virginiense" sp. nov.; proposed type strain MO-233 [DSM 100883, CIP 110918]) within the M. terrae complex are the major causes of tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis in the United States, with little change over 20 years. Species identification within this complex requires sequencing methods. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Cross-mating experiments detect reproductive compatibility between Triatoma sherlocki and other members of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Nathália; Almeida, Carlos E; Lima-Neiva, Vanessa; Gumiel, Márcia; Dornak, L Lynnette; Lima, Marli M; Medeiros, Lívia M O; Mendonça, Vagner J; da Rosa, João A; Costa, Jane

    2013-10-01

    Phylogenetic approaches based on mitochondrial DNA variation (fragments of Cyt B and 16S ribosomal RNA) have revealed Triatoma sherlocki as the most recent species addition to the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex; a monophyletic group which includes T. brasiliensis, Triatoma melanica, and Triatoma juazeirensis. T. sherlocki is the most differentiated among all species of this complex: it is unable to fly, possesses longer legs than the other members, and has reddish tonality in some parts of its exochorion. We question whether these species are reproductively compatible because of this pronounced morphological differentiation, and therefore, we present a series of cross breeding experiments that test compatibility between T. sherlocki and other members of the T. brasiliensis complex. We extended our analyses to include crosses between T. sherlocki and Triatoma lenti, because the latter has been suggested as a possible member of this complex. T. sherlocki male×T. lenti female pairs failed to produce hybrids. All other crosses of T. sherlocki and members of T. brasiliensis species complex, as well as backcrosses, produced viable offspring through the third generation. This study stresses the importance of searching for the features that may isolate members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Strong Genomic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in the Aeromonas sobria Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Gauthier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas sobria is a mesophilic motile aeromonad currently depicted as an opportunistic pathogen, despite increasing evidence of mutualistic interactions in salmonid fish. However, the determinants of its host-microbe associations, either mutualistic or pathogenic, remain less understood than for other aeromonad species. On one side, there is an over-representation of pathogenic interactions in the A. sobria literature, of which only three articles to date report mutualistic interactions; on the other side, genomic characterization of this species is still fairly incomplete as only two draft genomes were published prior to the present work. Consequently, no study specifically investigated the biodiversity of A. sobria. In fact, the investigation of A. sobria as a species complex may have been clouded by: (i confusion with A. veronii biovar sobria because of their similar biochemical profiles, and (ii the intrinsic low resolution of previous studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and multilocus sequence typing. So far, the only high-resolution, phylogenomic studies of the genus Aeromonas included one A. sobria strain (CECT 4245 / Popoff 208, making it impossible to robustly conclude on the phylogenetic intra-species diversity and the positioning among other Aeromonas species. To further understand the biodiversity and the spectrum of host-microbe interactions in A. sobria as well as its potential genomic diversity, we assessed the genomic and phenotypic heterogeneity among five A. sobria strains: two clinical isolates recovered from infected fish (JF2635 and CECT 4245, one from an infected amphibian (08005 and two recently isolated brook charr probionts (TM12 and TM18 which inhibit in vitro growth of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (a salmonid fish pathogen. A phylogenomic assessment including 2,154 softcore genes corresponding to 946,687 variable sites from 33 Aeromonas genomes confirms the status of A. sobria as a distinct species divided

  2. Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génier, François; Moretto, Philippe

    2017-03-31

    The taxonomy and systematics of the genus Digitonthophagus Balthasar (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Onthophagini) is revised. A detailed study of the male genitalia combined with external morphology suggests that the variability, previously recognized, for D. gazella is hiding a species complex within the Afrotropical region and the Arabian Peninsula. The current study recognizes 16 species; 13 from the Afrotropical region and Arabian Peninsula and three from the eastern portion of the Saharo-Arabian region and the continental Indomalayan region. Species are organized into six species groups based on the results of the morphology-based phylogenetic analysis. The following 12 species are described as new: D. aksumensis Génier new species; D. biflagellatus Génier new species; D. dilatatus Génier new species; D. eucatta Génier new species; D. falciger Génier new species; D. fimator Génier new species; D. namaquensis Génier new species; D. petilus Génier new species; D. sahelicus Moretto new species; D. uks Génier new species; D. ulcerosus Génier new species; and D. viridicollis Génier new species. In order to stabilize nomenclature, lectotypes are designated for Scarabaeus bonasus Fabricius, 1775; Scarabaeus catta Fabricius, 1787, and Onthophagus gazella lusinganus d'Orbigny. A neotype is designated for Scarabaeus dorcas Olivier, 1789 whose status and synonymy need to be altered in order to clarify the status of Scarabaeus gazella auctorum, the widely introduced species with economic importance. A naming scheme is presented for the sclerites of the internal sac. External and male genitalia are illustrated and distribution maps are provided for each species.

  3. No Evidence for Temporal Variation in a Cryptic Species Community of Freshwater Amphipods of the Hyalella azteca Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nozais

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of cryptic species of Hyalella amphipods is a challenge to our traditional views of how species assemble. Since these species have similar morphologies, it is not evident that they have developed phenotypic differences that would allow them to occupy different ecological niches. We examined the structure of a community of Hyalella amphipods in the littoral zone of a boreal lake to verify if temporal variation was present in relative abundances. Morphological and molecular analyses using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene enabled us to detect three cryptic species at the study site. No temporal variation was observed in the community, as one cryptic species was always more abundant than the two others. The relative abundances of each species in the community appeared constant at least for the open-water season, both for adult and juvenile amphipods. Niche differences are still to be found among these species, but it is suggested that migration from nearby sites may be an important factor explaining the species co-occurrence.

  4. Echinostoma 'revolutum' (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) species complex revisited: species delimitation based on novel molecular and morphological data gathered in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Brown, Rebecca; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Soldánová, Miroslava; Sitko, Jiljí; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-11-27

    The systematics of echinostomes within the so-called 'revolutum' group of the genus Echinostoma, which encompasses the type-species E. revolutum and a number of morphologically similar species, has long been controversial. Recent molecular studies indicate the existence of more species than previously considered valid, thus stressing the need for wider taxon sampling from natural host populations. This is especially true for Europe where morphological evidence indicates higher species diversity than previously thought, but where molecular data are virtually lacking. This gap in our knowledge was addressed in the present study through an integration of morphological and molecular approaches in the investigation of a dataset with larger taxonomic and geographical coverage. More than 20,000 freshwater snails belonging to 16 species were collected during 1998-2012 from various localities in eight countries in Europe. Snail screening provided representative larval isolates for five species of the 'revolutum' group, identified by their morphology. Adult isolates for four species recovered from natural and experimental infections were also identified. Partial fragments of the mitochondrial nad1 and 28S rRNA genes were amplified for 74 and 16 isolates, respectively; these were analysed together with the sequences of Echinostoma spp. available on GenBank. Delineation of the European Echinostoma spp. was carried out based on molecular, morphological and ecological data. The large-scale screening revealed infections with five Echinostoma spp., including one new species: E. revolutum (sensu stricto), E. miyagawai, E. paraulum, E. bolschewense and Echinostoma n. sp. The newly-generated nad1 sequences from Europe fall into six distinct, well-supported, reciprocally monophyletic lineages corresponding to the species identifications based on morphology; this was corroborated by the 28S rDNA sequences. The analyses of the total nad1 dataset provided evidence for 12 monophyletic

  5. Recurrent evolution of host and vector association in bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Noémie S; Margos, Gabriele; Blum, Helmut; Krebs, Stefan; Graf, Alexander; Lane, Robert S; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-09-15

    The Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) species complex consists of tick-transmitted bacteria and currently comprises approximately 20 named and proposed genospecies some of which are known to cause Lyme Borreliosis. Species have been defined via genetic distances and ecological niches they occupy. Understanding the evolutionary relationship of species of the complex is fundamental to explaining patterns of speciation. This in turn forms a crucial basis to frame testable hypotheses concerning the underlying processes including host and vector adaptations. Illumina Technology was used to obtain genome-wide sequence data for 93 strains of 14 named genospecies of the B. burgdorferi species complex and genomic data already published for 18 additional strain (including one new species) was added. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 114 orthologous single copy genes shows that the genospecies represent clearly distinguishable taxa with recent and still ongoing speciation events apparent in Europe and Asia. The position of Borrelia species in the phylogeny is consistent with host associations constituting a major driver for speciation. Interestingly, the data also demonstrate that vector associations are an additional driver for diversification in this tick-borne species complex. This is particularly obvious in B. bavariensis, a rodent adapted species that has diverged from the bird-associated B. garinii most likely in Asia. It now consists of two populations one of which most probably invaded Europe following adaptation to a new vector (Ixodes ricinus) and currently expands its distribution range. The results imply that genotypes/species with novel properties regarding host or vector associations have evolved recurrently during the history of the species complex and may emerge at any time. We suggest that the finding of vector associations as a driver for diversification may be a general pattern for tick-borne pathogens. The core genome analysis presented here

  6. Evidence of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism, but not of parallel evolution, despite high levels of concerted evolution in the major histocompatibility complex of flamingo species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, M A F; Courtiol, A; Teixeira, M; Galan, M; Bechet, A; Cezilly, F

    2016-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cornerstone in the study of adaptive genetic diversity. Intriguingly, highly polymorphic MHC sequences are often not more similar within species than between closely related species. Divergent selection of gene duplicates, balancing selection maintaining trans-species polymorphism (TSP) that predate speciation and parallel evolution of species sharing similar selection pressures can all lead to higher sequence similarity between species. In contrast, high rates of concerted evolution increase sequence similarity of duplicated loci within species. Assessing these evolutionary models remains difficult as relatedness and ecological similarities are often confounded. As sympatric species of flamingos are more distantly related than allopatric species, flamingos represent an ideal model to disentangle these evolutionary models. We characterized MHC Class I exon 3, Class IIB exon 2 and exon 3 of the six extant flamingo species. We found up to six MHC Class I loci and two MHC Class IIB loci. As all six species shared the same number of MHC Class IIB loci, duplication appears to predate flamingo speciation. However, the high rate of concerted evolution has prevented the divergence of duplicated loci. We found high sequence similarity between all species regardless of codon position. The latter is consistent with balancing selection maintaining TSP, as under this mechanism amino acid sites under pathogen-mediated selection should be characterized by fewer synonymous codons (due to their common ancestry) than under parallel evolution. Overall, balancing selection maintaining TSP appears to result in high MHC similarity between species regardless of species relatedness and geographical distribution. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Growth response of four freshwater algal species to dissolved organic nitrogen of different concentration and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiedler, Dorothea; Graeber, Daniel; Badrian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    1. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compounds dominate the nitrogen pool of many lakes, but their importance as nitrogen sources for freshwater phytoplankton is not fully understood. Previous growth experiments demonstrated the availability of urea and amino acids but often at unnaturally high...... cases matched by nitrate. 4. Urea was also utilised over a longer time period than any other compound, including nitrate. The assumed delay in availability with increasing compound complexity was not supported by this experiment. 5. The studied species differed in their temporal response...... and their compound preferences. Therefore, DON composition can influence biomass and structure of phytoplankton communities. 6. These experiments demonstrate the importance of the main DON compounds for phytoplankton growth when no inorganic nitrogen is available. DON should in future be included in nitrogen budget...

  8. The diversity of Terfezia desert truffles: new species and a highly variable species complex with intrasporocarpic nrDNA ITS heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Gábor M; Balázs, Tímea K; Calonge, Francisco D; Martín, María P

    2011-01-01

    Desert truffles belonging to Terfezia are well known mycorrhizal members of the mycota of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. We aimed to test (i) whether the morphological criteria of Terfezia species regularly collected in Spain enable their separation and (ii) whether the previously hypothesized edaphic/biotic specificity of one group could be confirmed by study of a larger number of specimens. The species T. arenaria and T. claveryi can be identified unambiguously by morphological characters. We consider T. leptoderma as a distinct species while several lineages of similar spiny spored Terfezia truffles with cellular peridium were detected that have no obvious anatomical differences. Several species treated generally as synonyms of T. olbiensis have been described in this group, and because they cannot be unambiguously assigned to separate lineages we propose to consider the group as the T. olbiensis species complex. A high level of intrasporocarpic variation of the nrDNA ITS was detected in the T. olbiensis species complex, especially in one of its lineages. We detected no exclusive specificity to either plant associates or soil, except in T. leptoderma, which was associated with Quercus spp. and cistaceous plants on acidic soils. Nevertheless the clades showed a tendency either to associate with Quercus/Helianthemum/Cistus or Pinus hosts. Specimens having distinct anatomical features, reticulate spores and cellular peridium formed a separate group in the molecular phylogenetic analyses of nrDNA ITS and LSU regions; for these specimens we propose a new species, Terfezia alsheikhii sp. nov.

  9. The molecular evolution of four anti-malarial immune genes in the Anopheles gambiae species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simard Frederic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If the insect innate immune system is to be used as a potential blocking step in transmission of malaria, then it will require targeting one or a few genes with highest relevance and ease of manipulation. The problem is to identify and manipulate those of most importance to malaria infection without the risk of decreasing the mosquito's ability to stave off infections by microbes in general. Molecular evolution methodologies and concepts can help identify such genes. Within the setting of a comparative molecular population genetic and phylogenetic framework, involving six species of the Anopheles gambiae complex, we investigated whether a set of four pre-selected immunity genes (gambicin, NOS, Rel2 and FBN9 might have evolved under selection pressure imposed by the malaria parasite. Results We document varying levels of polymorphism within and divergence between the species, in all four genes. Introgression and the sharing of ancestral polymorphisms, two processes that have been documented in the past, were verified in this study in all four studied genes. These processes appear to affect each gene in different ways and to different degrees. However, there is no evidence of positive selection acting on these genes. Conclusion Considering the results presented here in concert with previous studies, genes that interact directly with the Plasmodium parasite, and play little or no role in defense against other microbes, are probably the most likely candidates for a specific adaptive response against P. falciparum. Furthermore, since it is hard to establish direct evidence linking the adaptation of any candidate gene to P. falciparum infection, a comparative framework allowing at least an indirect link should be provided. Such a framework could be achieved, if a similar approach like the one involved here, was applied to all other anopheline complexes that transmit P. falciparum malaria.

  10. Reticulate Speciation and Barriers to Introgression in the Anopheles gambiae Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E.; Riehle, Michelle M.; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Gneme, Awa; Sagnon, N'Fale; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Lazzaro, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Speciation as a process remains a central focus of evolutionary biology, but our understanding of the genomic architecture and prevalence of speciation in the face of gene flow remains incomplete. The Anopheles gambiae species complex of malaria mosquitoes is a radiation of ecologically diverse taxa. This complex is well-suited for testing for evidence of a speciation continuum and genomic barriers to introgression because its members exhibit partially overlapping geographic distributions as well as varying levels of divergence and reproductive isolation. We sequenced 20 genomes from wild A. gambiae s.s., Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis, and compared these with 12 genomes from the “GOUNDRY” subgroup of A. gambiae s.l. Amidst a backdrop of strong reproductive isolation, we find strong evidence for a speciation continuum with introgression of autosomal chromosomal regions among species and subgroups. The X chromosome, however, is strongly differentiated among all taxa, pointing to a disproportionately large effect of X chromosome genes in driving speciation among anophelines. Strikingly, we find that autosomal introgression has occurred from contemporary hybridization between A. gambiae and A. arabiensis despite strong divergence (∼5× higher than autosomal divergence) and isolation on the X chromosome. In addition to the X, we find strong evidence that lowly recombining autosomal regions, especially pericentromeric regions, serve as barriers to introgression secondarily to the X. We show that speciation with gene flow results in genomic mosaicism of divergence and introgression. Such a reticulate gene pool connecting vector taxa across the speciation continuum has important implications for malaria control efforts. PMID:26615027

  11. Molecular typing of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex isolates from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gleica Soyan Barbosa; Freire, Ana Karla Lima; Bentes, Amaury Dos Santos; Pinheiro, José Felipe de Souza; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Jackisch-Matsuura, Ani Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. The Petrolisthes galathinus complex: species boundaries based on color pattern, morphology and molecules, and evolutionary interrelationships between this complex and other Porcellanidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Alexandra; Kraus, Holger; Almon, Marc; Werding, Bernd

    2006-08-01

    While the amphi-American porcellanid crab Petrolistes galathinus has been traditionally viewed as a highly variable species containing several different color forms, we consider it to be a complex of at least 6 morphologically similar species with similar ecological requirements, but diagnosable through coloration. Here we surveyed sequence variation of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, compared the morphology of adults and of the first larval stage (Zoea I), and explored shape variation of the sternal plate using geometric morphometric methods, to investigate boundaries among the species in the complex, and to confirm the validity of color and color pattern for distinguishing them. Sequences and larval morphological characters of other porcellanids were included to investigate the correspondence between genetic divergence and morphology of adults and larvae. The molecular and morphometric results support the validity of the species in the complex, and of color pattern for their distinction. The close relationship between the complex and the putative ancenstral porcellanid Parapetrolisthes tortugensis was indicated by the molecular and larval-morphology results. The adult morphology of this species is interpreted as a result of convergent evolution driven by a relatively rapid ecological adaptation to conditions in deeper waters. The nesting position in the phylogenetic trees of Petrocheles australiensis outside the Porcellanidae clade questions the monophyly of this family.

  13. New species of Hermanella complex (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Nascimento, Jeane M C; Salles, Frederico F

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, based on material from Brazilian Atlantic Forest, four new species of the Hermanella complex are described. The main characteristics that distinguish the new species from its congeners are, in Hermanella amere sp. nov.: (1) subgenital plate yellow, with wide projection near base of forceps; (2) penis lobe with ventral, robust, posterioly directed spine; in Hermanella nigra sp. nov.: (1) subgenital plate brown washed with gray, with wide projection near inner base of forceps; (2) penis lobe with a distomedial membranous projection and ventral, robust, posteriorly directed spine; in Hylister obliquus sp. nov.: (1) subgenital plate yellowish brown, with pointed projection near inner base of forceps; (2) penis lobe with ventral, short, narrow, posteromedially directed spine; in Traverella insolita sp. nov.: (1) subgenital plate strongly projected posteriorly, forming three broad and short projections; (2) penis lobe laterally sinuous and apically rounded, with a ventral, long, narrow spine curved toward the midline of the body. Modified keys of male imagos are provided for the three genera, whereas comments regarding their taxonomy are presented. Additionally, Hermanella mazama (Nascimento, Mariano & Salles 2012 in Lima et al. 2012), comb. nov., is proposed.

  14. Delineation of a new species of the Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Complex, Borrelia americana sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, Nataliia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Lin, Tao; Gao, Lihui; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, James H

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of borrelia isolates collected from ticks, birds, and rodents from the southeastern United States revealed the presence of well-established populations of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia carolinensis, and Borrelia sp. nov. Multilocus sequence analysis of five genomic loci from seven samples representing Borrelia sp. nov. isolated from nymphal Ixodes minor collected in South Carolina showed their close relatedness to California strains known as genomospecies 1 and separation from any other known species of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. One nucleotide difference in the size of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region, one substitution in 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides, and silent nucleotide substitutions in sequences of the gene encoding flagellin and the gene p66 clearly separate Borrelia sp. nov. isolates from South Carolina into two subgroups. The sequences of isolates of each subgroup share the same restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and contain unique signature nucleotides in the 16S rRNA gene. We propose that seven Borrelia sp. nov. isolates from South Carolina and two California isolates designated as genomospecies 1 comprise a single species, which we name Borrelia americana sp. nov. The currently recognized geographic distribution of B. americana is South Carolina and California. All strains are associated with Ixodes pacificus or Ixodes minor and their rodent and bird hosts.

  15. Lutzomyia umbratilis, the main vector of Leishmania guyanensis, represents a novel species complex?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lutzomyia umbratilis is an important Leishmania guyanensis vector in South America. Previous studies have suggested differences in the vector competence between L. umbratilis populations situated on opposite banks of the Amazonas and Negro Rivers in the central Amazonian Brazil region, likely indicating a species complex. However, few studies have been performed on these populations and the taxonomic status of L. umbratilis remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phylogeographic structure was estimated for six L. umbratilis samples from the central Amazonian region in Brazil by analyzing mtDNA using 1181 bp of the COI gene to assess whether the populations on opposite banks of these rivers consist of incipient or distinct species. The genetic diversity was fairly high and the results revealed two distinct clades ( = lineages with 1% sequence divergence. Clade I consisted of four samples from the left bank of the Amazonas and Negro Rivers, whereas clade II comprised two samples from the right bank of Negro River. No haplotypes were shared between samples of two clades. Samples within clades exhibited low to moderate genetic differentiation (F(ST = -0.0390-0.1841, whereas samples between clades exhibited very high differentiation (F(ST = 0.7100-0.8497 and fixed differences. These lineages have diverged approximately 0.22 Mya in the middle Pleistocene. Demographic expansion was detected for the lineages I and II approximately 30,448 and 15,859 years ago, respectively, in the late Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The two genetic lineages may represent an advanced speciation stage suggestive of incipient or distinct species within L. umbratilis. These findings suggest that the Amazonas and Negro Rivers may be acting as effective barriers, thus preventing gene flow between populations on opposite sides. Such findings have important implications for epidemiological studies, especially those related to vector

  16. Evolutionary factors affecting Lactate dehydrogenase A and B variation in the Daphnia pulex species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristescu Melania E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for historical, demographic and selective factors affecting enzyme evolution can be obtained by examining nucleotide sequence variation in candidate genes such as Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh. Two closely related Daphnia species can be distinguished by their electrophoretic Ldh genotype and habitat. Daphnia pulex populations are fixed for the S allele and inhabit temporary ponds, while D. pulicaria populations are fixed for the F allele and inhabit large stratified lakes. One locus is detected in most allozyme surveys, but genome sequencing has revealed two genes, LdhA and LdhB. Results We sequenced both Ldh genes from 70 isolates of these two species from North America to determine if the association between Ldh genotype and habitat shows evidence for selection, and to elucidate the evolutionary history of the two genes. We found that alleles in the pond-dwelling D. pulex and in the lake-dwelling D. pulicaria form distinct groups at both loci, and the substitution of Glutamine (S for Glutamic acid (F at amino acid 229 likely causes the electrophoretic mobility shift in the LDHA protein. Nucleotide diversity in both Ldh genes is much lower in D. pulicaria than in D. pulex. Moreover, the lack of spatial structuring of the variation in both genes over a wide geographic area is consistent with a recent demographic expansion of lake populations. Neutrality tests indicate that both genes are under purifying selection, but the intensity is much stronger on LdhA. Conclusions Although lake-dwelling D. pulicaria hybridizes with the other lineages in the pulex species complex, it remains distinct ecologically and genetically. This ecological divergence, coupled with the intensity of purifying selection on LdhA and the strong association between its genotype and habitat, suggests that experimental studies would be useful to determine if variation in molecular function provides evidence that LDHA variants are adaptive.

  17. Lutzomyia umbratilis, the main vector of Leishmania guyanensis, represents a novel species complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpassa, Vera Margarete; Alencar, Ronildo Baiatone

    2012-01-01

    Lutzomyia umbratilis is an important Leishmania guyanensis vector in South America. Previous studies have suggested differences in the vector competence between L. umbratilis populations situated on opposite banks of the Amazonas and Negro Rivers in the central Amazonian Brazil region, likely indicating a species complex. However, few studies have been performed on these populations and the taxonomic status of L. umbratilis remains unclear. Phylogeographic structure was estimated for six L. umbratilis samples from the central Amazonian region in Brazil by analyzing mtDNA using 1181 bp of the COI gene to assess whether the populations on opposite banks of these rivers consist of incipient or distinct species. The genetic diversity was fairly high and the results revealed two distinct clades ( = lineages) with 1% sequence divergence. Clade I consisted of four samples from the left bank of the Amazonas and Negro Rivers, whereas clade II comprised two samples from the right bank of Negro River. No haplotypes were shared between samples of two clades. Samples within clades exhibited low to moderate genetic differentiation (F(ST) = -0.0390-0.1841), whereas samples between clades exhibited very high differentiation (F(ST) = 0.7100-0.8497) and fixed differences. These lineages have diverged approximately 0.22 Mya in the middle Pleistocene. Demographic expansion was detected for the lineages I and II approximately 30,448 and 15,859 years ago, respectively, in the late Pleistocene. The two genetic lineages may represent an advanced speciation stage suggestive of incipient or distinct species within L. umbratilis. These findings suggest that the Amazonas and Negro Rivers may be acting as effective barriers, thus preventing gene flow between populations on opposite sides. Such findings have important implications for epidemiological studies, especially those related to vector competence and anthropophily, and for vector control strategies. In addition, L

  18. Contrasting morphology with molecular data: an approach to revision of species complexes based on the example of European Phoxinus (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandačić, Anja; Naseka, Alexander; Ramler, David; Ahnelt, Harald

    2017-08-09

    Molecular taxonomy studies and barcoding projects can provide rapid means of detecting cryptic diversity. Nevertheless, the use of molecular data for species delimitation should be undertaken with caution. Especially the single-gene approaches are linked with certain pitfalls for taxonomical inference. In the present study, recent and historical species descriptions based upon morphology were used as primary species hypotheses, which were then evaluated with molecular data (including in type and historical museum material) to form secondary species hypotheses. As an example of cryptic diversity and taxonomic controversy, the European Phoxinus phoxinus species complex was used. The results of the revision showed that of the fourteen primary species hypotheses, three were rejected, namely P. ketmaieri, P. likai, and P. apollonicus. For three species (P. strandjae, P. strymonicus, P. morella), further investigation with increased data sampling was suggested, while two primary hypotheses, P. bigerri and P. colchicus, were supported as secondary species hypotheses. Finally, six of the primary species hypotheses (P. phoxinus, P. lumaireul, P. karsticus, P. septimanae, P. marsilii and P. csikii) were well supported by mitochondrial but only limitedly corroborated by nuclear data analysis. The approach has proven useful for revision of species complexes, and the study can serve as an overview of the Phoxinus genus in Europe, as well as a solid basis for further work.

  19. Evidence of diversity and recombination in Arsenophonus symbionts of the Bemisia tabaci species complex

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    Mouton Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternally inherited bacterial symbionts infecting arthropods have major implications on host ecology and evolution. Among them, the genus Arsenophonus is particularly characterized by a large host spectrum and a wide range of symbiotic relationships (from mutualism to parasitism, making it a good model to study the evolution of host-symbiont associations. However, few data are available on the diversity and distribution of Arsenophonus within host lineages. Here, we propose a survey on Arsenophonus diversity in whitefly species (Hemiptera, in particular the Bemisia tabaci species complex. This polyphagous insect pest is composed of genetic groups that differ in many ecological aspects. They harbor specific bacterial communities, among them several lineages of Arsenophonus, enabling a study of the evolutionary history of these bacteria at a fine host taxonomic level, in association to host geographical range and ecology. Results Among 152 individuals, our analysis identified 19 allelic profiles and 6 phylogenetic groups, demonstrating this bacterium's high diversity. These groups, based on Arsenophonus phylogeny, correlated with B. tabaci genetic groups with two exceptions reflecting horizontal transfers. None of three genes analyzed provided evidence of intragenic recombination, but intergenic recombination events were detected. A mutation inducing a STOP codon on one gene in a strain infecting one B. tabaci genetic group was also found. Phylogenetic analyses of the three concatenated loci revealed the existence of two clades of Arsenophonus. One, composed of strains found in other Hemiptera, could be the ancestral clade in whiteflies. The other, which regroups strains found in Hymenoptera and Diptera, may have been acquired more recently by whiteflies through lateral transfers. Conclusions This analysis of the genus Arsenophonus revealed a diversity within the B. tabaci species complex which resembles that reported on the

  20. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alicia Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1 A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2 A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America; and (3 A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses

  1. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

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    Jiménez, Rosa Alicia

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA) supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1) A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2) A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America); and (3) A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses found evidence

  2. DNA barcoding, MALDI-TOF and AFLP data support Fusarium ficicrescens as a distinct species within the F. fujikuroi species complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.; van Diepeningen, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of the most common group of fusaria associated with plant diseases, mycotoxins production and traumatic and disseminated human infections. Here we present the description and taxonomy of a new taxon, Fusarium ficicrescens sp. nov., collected from

  3. Development and optimization of a new MALDI-TOF protocol for identification of the Sporothrix species complex.

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    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Santos, Cledir; Sampaio, Paula; Romeo, Orazio; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Pais, Célia; Lima, Nelson; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2015-01-01

    Accurate species identification of the Sporothrix schenckii complex is essential, since identification based only on phenotypic characteristics is often inconclusive due to phenotypic variability within the species. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for species identification of 70 environmental and clinical isolates of the Sporothrix complex. A reference database was established for MALDI-TOF MS-based species identification according to minor adjustments in the manufacturer's guidelines. The MALDI-TOF MS clearly distinguished strains of Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana, S. schenckii, Sporothrix luriei and Sporothrix pallida, enabling identification of all isolates at the species level, as confirmed by partial calmodulin gene sequence analyses. The present methodology is simple, reliable, rapid and highly suitable for routine identification in clinical mycology laboratories and culture collections, particularly for updating and reclassifying of deposited Sporothrix isolates. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The purification and characterization of ATP synthase complexes from the mitochondria of four fungal species.

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    Liu, Sidong; Charlesworth, Thomas J; Bason, John V; Montgomery, Martin G; Harbour, Michael E; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2015-05-15

    The ATP synthases have been isolated by affinity chromatography from the mitochondria of the fungal species Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia pastoris, Pichia angusta and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The subunit compositions of the purified enzyme complexes depended on the detergent used to solubilize and purify the complex, and the presence or absence of exogenous phospholipids. All four enzymes purified in the presence of n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside had a complete complement of core subunits involved directly in the synthesis of ATP, but they were deficient to different extents in their supernumerary membrane subunits. In contrast, the enzymes from P. angusta and S. cerevisiae purified in the presence of n-decyl-β-maltose neopentyl glycol and the phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] had a complete complement of core subunits and also contained all of the known supernumerary membrane subunits, e, f, g, j, k and ATP8 (or Aap1), plus an additional new membrane component named subunit l, related in sequence to subunit k. The catalytic domain of the enzyme from P. angusta was more resistant to thermal denaturation than the enzyme from S. cerevisiae, but less stable than the catalytic domain of the bovine enzyme, but the stator and the integrity of the transmembrane proton pathway were most stable in the enzyme from P. angusta. The P. angusta enzyme provides a suitable source of enzyme for studying the structure of the membrane domain and properties associated with that sector of the enzyme complex.

  5. rDNA-ITS2-PCR assay for grouping the cryptic species of Anopheles culicifacies complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Manonmani, A M; Sadanandane, C; Sahu, S S; Mathivanan, A; Jambulingam, P

    2007-10-01

    Anopheles culicifacies, a predominant vector of malaria in India exists as a complex of five sibling species A, B, C, D and E, of which, except species B, all the rest are vectors with varying vectorial capacities. With a combination of PCR assays, it is possible to identify all the five members of this species complex. These assays include amplification of the rDNA-ITS2 region followed by digestion of the ITS2 amplicon using restriction enzyme, Rsa I which groups the five members of the An. culicifacies complex into two categories: species A and D forming one category and species B, C and E forming another. The samples grouped thus are then subjected to two allele-specific PCR assays (AD-PCR and BCE-PCR), which has been designed using sequence differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (CO II) subunit. The AD-PCR assay distinguishes species A and D, whereas the BCE-PCR assay distinguishes species B, C and E. In the present study, the differences in the ITS2 region of the five species was used to design a PCR assay which groups the five members into the same two categories as obtained after digestion of the ITS2-PCR product. This assay uses a common forward primer based on the 5.8S region and two reverse primers, which is specific for the two categories. Amplification of a PCR product of size 253bp indicates the presence of species A/D, while a product of size 409bp indicates the presence of species B/C/E. By using this ITS2 PCR assay, the three-step procedure is reduced to two cutting down the time and cost involved. The ITS2 PCR assay has been validated on specimens collected from different regions of India and the results confirm to the earlier reports on the distribution of the members of the An. culicifacies complex.

  6. The Trouble with MEAM2: Implications of Pseudogenes on Species Delimitation in the Globally Invasive Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species Complex.

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    Tay, Wee Tek; Elfekih, Samia; Court, Leon N; Gordon, Karl H J; Delatte, Hélène; De Barro, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Molecular species identification using suboptimal PCR primers can over-estimate species diversity due to coamplification of nuclear mitochondrial (NUMT) DNA/pseudogenes. For the agriculturally important whitefly Bemisia tabaci cryptic pest species complex, species identification depends primarily on characterization of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA COI) gene. The lack of robust PCR primers for the mtDNA COI gene can undermine correct species identification which in turn compromises management strategies. This problem is identified in the B. tabaci Africa/Middle East/Asia Minor clade which comprises the globally invasive Mediterranean (MED) and Middle East Asia Minor I (MEAM1) species, Middle East Asia Minor 2 (MEAM2), and the Indian Ocean (IO) species. Initially identified from the Indian Ocean island of Réunion, MEAM2 has since been reported from Japan, Peru, Turkey and Iraq. We identified MEAM2 individuals from a Peruvian population via Sanger sequencing of the mtDNA COI gene. In attempting to characterize the MEAM2 mitogenome, we instead characterized mitogenomes of MEAM1. We also report on the mitogenomes of MED, AUS, and IO thereby increasing genomic resources for members of this complex. Gene synteny (i.e., same gene composition and orientation) was observed with published B. tabaci cryptic species mitogenomes. Pseudogene fragments matching MEAM2 partial mtDNA COI gene exhibited low frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms that matched low copy number DNA fragments (species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Phylogeny and Haplotype Analysis of Fungi Within the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti Species Complex.

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    Ramdial, H; Latchoo, R K; Hosein, F N; Rampersad, S N

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium spp. are ranked among the top 10 most economically and scientifically important plant-pathogenic fungi in the world and are associated with plant diseases that include fruit decay of a number of crops. Fusarium isolates infecting bell pepper in Trinidad were identified based on sequence comparisons of the translation elongation factor gene (EF-1a) with sequences of Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) verified in the FUSARIUM-ID database. Eighty-two isolates were identified as belonging to one of four phylogenetic species within the subclades FIESC-1, FIESC-15, FIESC-16, and FIESC-26, with the majority of isolates belonging to FIESC-15. A comparison of the level of DNA polymorphism and phylogenetic inference for sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and EF-1a sequences for Trinidad and FUSARIUM-ID type species was carried out. The ITS sequences were less informative, had lower haplotype diversity and restricted haplotype distribution, and resulted in poor resolution and taxa placement in the consensus maximum-likelihood tree. EF-1a sequences enabled strongly supported phylogenetic inference with highly resolved branching patterns of the 30 phylogenetic species within the FIESC and placement of representative Trinidad isolates. Therefore, global phylogeny was inferred from EF-1a sequences representing 11 countries, and separation into distinct Incarnatum and Equiseti clades was again evident. In total, 42 haplotypes were identified: 12 were shared and the remaining were unique haplotypes. The most diverse haplotype was represented by sequences from China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Trinidad and consisted exclusively of F. incarnatum isolates. Spain had the highest haplotype diversity, perhaps because both F. equiseti and F. incarnatum sequences were represented; followed by the United States, which contributed both F. equiseti and F. incarnatum sequences to the data set; then by countries representing Southeast

  8. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species - further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K W; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world's most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species' positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males' sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis.

  9. Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa

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    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Carpenter, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Caranx hippos species complex comprises three extant species: crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) (Linnaeus, 1766) from both the western and eastern Atlantic oceans; Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus) Gu??nther, 1868 from the eastern Pacific Ocean; and longfin crevalle jack (Caranx fischeri) new species, from the eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation. Each species has a different pattern of hyperostotic bone development and anal-fin color. The two sympatric eastern Atlantic species also differ from each other in number of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and in large adults of C. fischeri the lobes of these fins are longer and the body is deeper. Caranx hippos from opposite sides of the Atlantic are virtually indistinguishable externally but differ consistently in the expression of hyperostosis of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore. The fossil species Caranx carangopsis Steindachner 1859 appears to have been based on composite material of Trachurus sp. and a fourth species of the Caranx hippos complex. Patterns of hyperostotic bone development are compared in the nine (of 15 total) species of Caranx sensu stricto that exhibit hyperostosis.

  10. Evidence for homoploid speciation in Phytophthora alni supports taxonomic reclassification in this species complex.

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    Husson, C; Aguayo, J; Revellin, C; Frey, P; Ioos, R; Marçais, B

    2015-04-01

    Alder decline has been a problem along European watercourses since the early 1990s. Hybridization was identified as the main cause of this emerging disease. Indeed, the causal agent, a soil-borne pathogen named Phytophthora alni subsp. alni (Paa) is the result of interspecific hybridization between two taxa, Phytophthora alni subsp. multiformis (Pam) and Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis (Pau), initially identified as subspecies of Paa. The aim of this work was to characterize the ploidy level within the P. alni complex that is presently poorly understood. For that, we used two complementary approaches for a set of 31 isolates of Paa, Pam and Pau: (i) quantification of allele copy number of three single-copy nuclear genes using allele-specific real-time PCR and (ii) comparison of the genome size estimated by flow cytometry. Relative quantification of alleles of the three single-copy genes showed that the copy number of a given allele in Paa was systematically half that of its parents Pau or Pam. Moreover, DNA content estimated by flow cytometry in Paa was equal to half the sum of those in Pam and Pau. Our results therefore suggest that the hybrid Paa is an allotriploid species, containing half of the genome of each of its parents Pam and Pau, which in turn are considered to be allotetraploid and diploid, respectively. Paa thus results from a homoploid speciation process. Based on published data and on results from this study, a new formal taxonomic name is proposed for the three taxa Paa, Pam and Pau which are raised to species status and renamed P. ×alni, P. ×multiformis and P. uniformis, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Ciona intestinalis Species Complex: Hints for a Valid Taxonomic Definition of Distinct Species.

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    Roberta Pennati

    Full Text Available The cosmopolitan ascidian Ciona intestinalis is the most common model species of Tunicata, the sister-group of Vertebrata, and widely used in developmental biology, genomics and evolutionary studies. Recently, molecular studies suggested the presence of cryptic species hidden within the C. intestinalis species, namely C. intestinalis type A and type B. So far, no substantial morphological differences have been identified between individuals belonging to the two types. Here we present morphometric, immunohistochemical, and histological analyses, as well as 3-D reconstructions, of late larvae obtained by cross-fertilization experiments of molecularly determined type A and type B adults, sampled in different seasons and in four different localities. Our data point to quantitative and qualitative differences in the trunk shape of larvae belonging to the two types. In particular, type B larvae exhibit a longer pre-oral lobe, longer and relatively narrower total body length, and a shorter ocellus-tail distance than type A larvae. All these differences were found to be statistically significant in a Discriminant Analysis. Depending on the number of analyzed parameters, the obtained discriminant function was able to correctly classify > 93% of the larvae, with the remaining misclassified larvae attributable to the existence of intra-type seasonal variability. No larval differences were observed at the level of histology and immunohistochemical localization of peripheral sensory neurons. We conclude that type A and type B are two distinct species that can be distinguished on the basis of larval morphology and molecular data. Since the identified larval differences appear to be valid diagnostic characters, we suggest to raise both types to the rank of species and to assign them distinct names.

  12. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

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    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA barcoding, MALDI-TOF, and AFLP data support Fusarium ficicrescens as a distinct species within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex.

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    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Mirabolfathy, Mansoureh; Hagen, Ferry; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Stielow, J Benjamin; Karami-Osbo, Rouhollah; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-02-01

    The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of the most common groups of fusaria associated with plant diseases, mycotoxin production and traumatic and disseminated human infections. Here we present the description and taxonomy of a new taxon, Fusarium ficicrescens sp. nov., collected from contaminated fig fruits in Iran. Initially this species was identified as Fusarium andiyazi by morphology. In the present study the species was studied by multilocus sequence analysis, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and phenotypic characters. Multilocus analyses were based on translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1), RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) and beta-tubulin (BT2) and proved F. ficicrescens as a member of the FFSC. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the fungus is closely related to Fusarium lactis, Fusarium ramigenum, and Fusarium napiforme; known plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and occasionally occurring multidrug resistant opportunists. The new species differed by being able to grow at 37 °C and by the absence of mycotoxin production. TEF1 was confirmed as an essential barcode for identifying Fusarium species. In addition to TEF1, we evaluated BT2 and RPB2 in order to provide sufficient genetic and species boundaries information for recognition of the novel species. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) III: a new species from Tablas Island.

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    Davis, Drew R; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Feller, Kathryn D; Ashford, Alissa; Kouri, Josh; Nguyen, Daniel; Shauberger, Kathryn; Sheatsley, Kyra; Winfrey, Claire; Wong, Rachel; Sanguila, Marites B; Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D

    2016-06-28

    Studies of the diversity of Philippine amphibians and reptiles have resulted in the continued description of cryptic species. Species formerly thought to range across multiple recognized faunal regions are now considered to be assemblages of multiple unique species, each restricted to a single faunal region. This pattern continues to hold true when considering Philippine skinks of the genus Brachymeles. Recent studies have resulted in the description of numerous unique species with many exhibiting various degrees of digit loss or limb reduction, as well as suggesting that unique lineages are still present in the B. bonitae Complex. In this paper, we describe a new species of fossorial skink within this species complex from Tablas Island based on collections made nearly 50 years ago. Although no genetic data are available for the new species, examinations of morphological data (qualitative traits, meristic counts, and mensural measurements) support its distinction from all other members of the genus. Brachymeles dalawangdaliri sp. nov. is differentiated from other members of the genus based on a suite of unique phenotypic characteristics, including a small body size (SVL 66.0-80.9 mm), bidactyl fore-limbs, digitless, unidactyl, or bidactyl hind limbs, a high number of presacral vertebrae (49), the absence of auricular openings, and distinct dorsal head scale patterns. The description of the new species increases the diversity of endemic vertebrates recognized to occur in the Romblon Island Group in the central Philippines.

  15. DNA barcoding of Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) reveals southerly expansion of the dominant whitefly species on cotton in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D N; Mirza, M Sajjad; Khan, Arif M; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S; Zafar, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5') was examined in 593 whiteflies from Pakistan to determine the number of whitefly species and their distributions in the cotton-growing areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new records were integrated with another 173 barcode sequences for B. tabaci, most from India, to better understand regional whitefly diversity. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System assigned the 766 sequences to 15 BINs, including nine from Pakistan. Representative specimens of each Pakistan BIN were analyzed for mtCOI-3' to allow their assignment to one of the putative species in the B. tabaci complex recognized on the basis of sequence variation in this gene region. This analysis revealed the presence of Asia II 1, Middle East-Asia Minor 1, Asia 1, Asia II 5, Asia II 7, and a new lineage "Pakistan". The first two taxa were found in both Punjab and Sindh, but Asia 1 was only detected in Sindh, while Asia II 5, Asia II 7 and "Pakistan" were only present in Punjab. The haplotype networks showed that most haplotypes of Asia II 1, a species implicated in transmission of the cotton leaf curl virus, occurred in both India and Pakistan. DNA barcodes successfully discriminated cryptic species in B. tabaci complex. The dominant haplotypes in the B. tabaci complex were shared by India and Pakistan. Asia II 1 was previously restricted to Punjab, but is now the dominant lineage in southern Sindh; its southward spread may have serious implications for cotton plantations in this region.

  16. DNA barcoding of Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae reveals southerly expansion of the dominant whitefly species on cotton in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq

    Full Text Available Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan.Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5' was examined in 593 whiteflies from Pakistan to determine the number of whitefly species and their distributions in the cotton-growing areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new records were integrated with another 173 barcode sequences for B. tabaci, most from India, to better understand regional whitefly diversity. The Barcode Index Number (BIN System assigned the 766 sequences to 15 BINs, including nine from Pakistan. Representative specimens of each Pakistan BIN were analyzed for mtCOI-3' to allow their assignment to one of the putative species in the B. tabaci complex recognized on the basis of sequence variation in this gene region. This analysis revealed the presence of Asia II 1, Middle East-Asia Minor 1, Asia 1, Asia II 5, Asia II 7, and a new lineage "Pakistan". The first two taxa were found in both Punjab and Sindh, but Asia 1 was only detected in Sindh, while Asia II 5, Asia II 7 and "Pakistan" were only present in Punjab. The haplotype networks showed that most haplotypes of Asia II 1, a species implicated in transmission of the cotton leaf curl virus, occurred in both India and Pakistan.DNA barcodes successfully discriminated cryptic species in B. tabaci complex. The dominant haplotypes in the B. tabaci complex were shared by India and Pakistan. Asia II 1 was previously restricted to Punjab, but is now the dominant lineage in southern Sindh; its southward spread may have serious implications for cotton plantations in this region.

  17. Molecular phylogeny and plumage signal evolution in a trans Andean and circum Amazonian avian species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, Irby J

    2004-08-01

    Species with fragmented distributions are particularly useful models for investigating processes underlying biological diversification in the Neotropics. The Phaeothlypis wood-warbler complex (Aves: Parulidae) is comprised of six disjunct or parapatric populations. The geographic distribution of these six populations mirrors the classic map of Neotropical areas of endemism that were originally proposed as putative Pleistocene forest refugia, but the magnitude of mitochondrial DNA divergence between these populations suggests that they are each substantially older, with origins in the late Pliocene. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on long mtDNA coding sequences show that the Guiana Shield and Atlantic Forest populations are sister lineages, and group this combined lineage and the remaining four population-specific lineages in a five-way hard polytomy. MtDNA-based phylogenetic reconstructions provide no evidence that the three populations with conspicuous yellow rump and tail feathers currently grouped as the Buff-rumped Warbler (P. fulvicauda) form a monophyletic group. Furthermore, there is a broad discordance between mtDNA and plumage along a transect just east of the Andes, where the contact zone between highly divergent mtDNA clades is more than 1000 km north of the phenotypic hybrid zone between the bright and dark plumage forms. This discordance between mtDNA genotype and plumage phenotype is similar to patterns seen on a finer geographic scale in other avian hybrid zones and may result from asymmetric introgression of the bright plumage trait.

  18. DNA-fingerprinting (AFLP and RFLP) for genotypic identification in species of the Pleurotus eryngii complex.

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    Urbanelli, S; Della Rosa, V; Punelli, F; Porretta, D; Reverberi, M; Fabbri, A A; Fanelli, C

    2007-03-01

    Wild populations of edible species are important source of genetic variability for cultivated lines that can undergo a drastic loss of diversity resulting from man's selection. The development of tools aimed at the clear-cut and safe identification and assessment of genetic variability of the wild and cultivated strains is thus a fundamental goal of molecular genetic research. In this study, we used two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based fingerprinting methods-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of laccase and manganese peroxidase genes-to assess genetic differences among strains and independently evolving lineages belonging to the Pleurotus eryngii complex. Both laccase RFLP and AFLP have been proved to distinguish unambiguously the three taxa studied: Pleurotus ferulae, P. eryngii, and P. eryngii var. nebrodensis. AFLP also showed enough sensitivity to detect polymorphisms among the strains, proving to be an efficient DNA fingerprinting tool in studies of strain assignment. The divergent RFLP laccase and manganese peroxidase patterns are also discussed in relation to the role played by these genes in the interaction between these fungi and their host plants.

  19. A revision of the history of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the Nordic countries based on herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Strømeng, Gunn Mari; Gjærum, Halvor B; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Ørstad, Kari; Jensen, Birgit; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Stensvand, Arne

    2015-08-01

    Herbaria collections containing plants with disease symptoms are highly valuable, and they are often the only way to investigate outbreaks and epidemics from the past as the number of viable isolates in culture collections is often limited. Species belonging to the Colletotrichum acutatum complex infect a range of important crops. As members of the C. acutatum complex are easily confused with other Colletotrichum species, molecular methods are central for the correct identification. We performed molecular analyses on 21 herbaria specimens, displaying anthracnose symptoms, collected in Norway and Denmark before the first confirmed findings of C. acutatum complex members in this region. Sequencing parts of the fungal ITS regions showed that members of the species complex were present in 13 of the 21 specimens collected in different parts of Norway and Denmark between 1948 and 1991, representing seven plant hosts (three cherry species, apple, raspberry and rhododendron). This is the first time herbarium specimens have been used to study these pathogens under Nordic conditions. Differences in the ITS sequences suggest the presence of different genotypes within the complex, indicating a well-established population. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Otolith shape analysis and mitochondrial DNA markers distinguish three sand smelt species in the Atherina boyeri species complex in western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinar, A. S.; Chaoui, L.; Quignard, J. P.; Aurelle, D.; Kara, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Atherina boyeri is a common euryhaline teleost fish in the Mediterranean and adjacent areas, which inhabits coastal and estuarine waters, including coastal lagoons and more rarely inland waters. Several recent studies have pointed the possible existence of three distinct groups or species, one lagoon/freshwater group and two 'punctuated and unpunctuated on the flanks' marine groups, within an A. boyeri species complex. This study is a combined approach using otolith shape and molecular markers to better define the structure of the species in the western Mediterranean. Genetic differentiation and species delimitation among nine Atherina boyeri populations from several marine and lagoon/brakish habitat sites in Algeria, Tunisia and France were investigated using three mitochondrial (control region, Cyt b and 16S) and one nuclear markers (2nd intron of S7). For further phylogenetic and phylogeographic study, we added sequences from Genbank covering more areas (Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic). Five groups were found. Two of them perfectly corresponded to two species already recognized Atherina presbyter and Atherina hepsetus, both living in marine waters; and three additional, including Atherina boyeri (brackish and freshwater environments) and two independent groups of marine punctated and unpunctated individuals. Those findings are corroborated by the study of the otolith contour shape of 362 individuals of seven populations from different habitats using Fourier analysis. Individuals could be discriminated into five groups based on the first two functions (Wilk's lambda = 0.07, p < 0.001). Samples from Ziama inlet, marine punctuated individuals and unpunctuated marine specimens from Annaba's Gulf formed three well separated groups. Specimens from Mellah and Mauguio lagoons formed another group. The last one includes individuals from Bizerte and Thau lagoons. The divergences between them strongly support the potential species within the

  1. Fractal dimension does not adequately describe the complexity of leaf margin in seedlings of Quercus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarero, Jesús Julio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We quantified the complexity of leaf margin in a set of Quercus tree species using fractal dimension estimated by the box-counting method (FDb. Leaves were sampled from seedlings in a set of 15 Quercus species with a wide range of leaf morphology (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q.faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber, and Q. velutina. To describe leaf-edge roughness, we used simple indices: P/L - the ratio of leaf perimeter (P to maximum leaf length (L along the main nerve; P/A - the ratio of leaf perimeter to leaf-blade area (A and its dimensionless version (P/A0'; and WM/Wm -the ratio of maximum distance from the lobe tip to the main nerve (WM to minimum distance from the lobe incision to the main nerve (Wm. There was a strong positive relationship between FDb and P/A. Clustering analysis revealed the existence of three groups of leaves, namely those with: smooth or spiny margins (e.g., Q. coccifera, Q. velutina, shallow lobes (e.g., Q. petraea, and deep lobes (e.g., Q. pyrenaica. In the studied Quercus species, the ratio WM/Wm is a simple and suitable leaflobation index. It is suggested that the flux rate along the leaf edge is related to the complexity of this boundary.Se ha cuantificado la complejidad del margen de las hojas de varias especies arboreas del genero Quercus utilizando la dimension fractal estimada mediante el modo del recuento de cajas (FDb. Se tomaron hojas procedentes de plantulas pertenecientes a 15 especies de Quercus con un amplio rango de morfologfa foliar (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q. faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber y Q. velutina. Se usaron varios Indices sencillos para describir la complejidad del borde de la hoja: P/L, la relation entre el perimetro foliar (P y la longitud

  2. Combined phylogenetic and morphometric information to delimit and unify the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex and the Brasiliensis subcomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jader; Marcet, Paula L; Takiya, Daniela M; Mendonça, Vagner J; Belintani, Tiago; Bargues, Maria D; Mateo, Lucia; Chagas, Vivian; Folly-Ramos, Elaine; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Costa, Jane; da Rosa, João A; Almeida, Carlos E

    2017-06-01

    "Triatoma brasiliensis species complex" was defined as a monophyletic group of the species: T. brasiliensis, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica, and T. sherlocki. An alternative grouping scheme proposed the concept of "Brasiliensis subcomplex" which included the former species together with T. melanocephala, T. petrocchiae, T. lenti, T. tibiamaculata, and T. vitticeps. To evaluate the relationship among these taxa we combined the results obtained with four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, COI and Cytb, adding to 1811bp) and geometric morphometric analysis of wings and heads. Panstrongylus megistus was included in the analysis as it was previously found related to T. tibiamaculata, T. melanocephala and T. vitticeps. The results of both molecular and morphometric approaches clearly grouped the species analyzed into two monophyletic units, supported by both genetic and wing variability. The first one (G1) comprises the four species originally included in the T. brasiliensis species complex plus T. lenti and T. petrocchiae. The second group (G2) was composed by T. melanocephala, T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps, and remarkably, P. megistus if considering wing variability and phylogenetic results. Nevertheless, geometric morphometrics of heads provided a quantitative measurement that discriminates Panstrongylus from the Triatoma species based on the position of the antennal insertion relative to eyes, as it is used as the generic distinctive character. The discrepancy among approaches questions the validity of this character to define Panstrongylus genus. Independently of the chosen group definition -"T. brasiliensis species complex" or "Brasiliensis subcomplex"-we propose to delimit it to species of G1 that are all associated with the Caatinga biome in the Brazilian Northeast. G2 are the ones associated with the Atlantic Forest biome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Borrelia kurtenbachii sp. nov., a widely distributed member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Piesman, Joseph; Lane, Robert S; Ogden, Nicholas H; Sing, Andreas; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis group spirochaetes are parasitic bacteria transmitted by vector ticks of the genus Ixodes and distributed mainly between 40° and 60° northern latitudes. Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter, B. burgdorferi) was described in the north-eastern USA during the early 1980s, an increasing diversity has been noted within the species complex. Here, we describe a novel genomic species, Borrelia kurtenbachii sp. nov. (type strain 25015(T) = ATCC BAA-2495(T) =  DSM 26572(T)), that is prevalent in transmission cycles among vector ticks and reservoir hosts in North America. Confirmation of the presence of this species in Europe awaits further investigation.

  4. Ag(I camphorimine complexes with antimicrobial activity towards clinically important bacteria and species of the Candida genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M S Cardoso

    Full Text Available The present work follows a previous report describing the antibacterial activity of silver camphorimine complexes of general formula [Ag(NO3L]. The synthesis and demonstration of the antifungal and antibacterial activity of three novel [Ag(NO3L] complexes (named 1, 2 and 3 is herein demonstrated. This work also shows for the first time that the previously studied complexes (named 4 to 8 also exert antifungal activity. The antibacterial activity of complexes was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia contaminans and Escherichia coli strains, while antifungal activity was tested against the Candida species C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes ranged from very high (complex 4 to moderate (complex 6 or low (complex 8, depending on the structural and electronic characteristics of the camphorimine ligands. Notably, the highest antibacterial and anti-Candida activities do not coincide in the same complex and in some cases they were even opposite, as is the case of complex 4 which exhibits a high anti-bacterial and low antifungal activity. These distinct results suggest that the complexes may have different mechanisms against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The antifungal activity of the Ag(I camphorimine complexes (in particular of complex 1 was found to be very high (MIC = 2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis, being also registered a prominent activity against C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. None of the tested compounds inhibited C. albicans growth, being this attributed to the ability of these yeast cells to mediate the formation of less toxic Ag nanoparticles, as confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy images. The high antibacterial and anti-Candida activities of the here studied camphorimine complexes, especially of complexes 1 and 7, suggests a potential therapeutic application for these compounds.

  5. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  6. Species limits, interspecific hybridization and phylogeny in the cryptic land snail complex Pyramidula: The power of RADseq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razkin, Oihana; Sonet, Gontran; Breugelmans, Karin; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín Juan; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) was used to jointly assess phylogenetic relationships, interspecific hybridization and species delimitation in the cryptic, non-model land snail complex Pyramidula. A robust phylogeny was inferred using a matrix of concatenated sequences of almost 1,500,000bp long, containing >97,000 polymorphic sites. Maximum likelihood analyses fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among species and drastically improved phylogenetic trees obtained from mtDNA and nDNA gene trees (COI, 16S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2 and 28S rRNA sequence data). The best species delimitation scenario was selected on the basis of 875 unlinked single nucleotide polymorphisms, showing that nine Pyramidula species should be distinguished in Europe. Applying D-statistics provided no or weak evidence of interspecific hybridization among Pyramidula, except for some evidence of gene flow between two species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variation in a tropical tree species influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytynska, Sharon E.; Fay, Michael F.; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals. PMID:21444307

  8. Defining Genetic, Taxonomic, and Geographic Boundaries Among Species of the Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzaro, Gregory C; Collier, Travis C; Lee, Yoosook

    2015-09-01

    The Psorophora confinnis complex is currently composed of three species--Psorophora confinnis sensu stricto (Lynch Arribalzaga) in South America, Psorophora columbiae (Dyar and Knab) in North America, and Psorophora jamaicensis (Theobald) in the Caribbean. Members of the complex are of considerable importance as vectors of arboviruses, for example, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and are significant biting pests throughout their range. The biological and geographic boundaries of Ps. confinnis and Ps. columbiae are unclear. In fact, the name Ps. columbiae is presently designated as "provisional." In this article, we aim to clarify the taxonomy and geographic distributions of species within the Ps. confinnis complex. A population genetics approach was employed using gene and genotypic frequency data at 26 isozyme loci. The results suggest that the Ps. confinnis complex in North and South America is composed of four species. Ps. confinnis s.s. and Ps. columbiae are distinct species in South and North America, respectively. Populations in Colombia, South America, formally designated as Ps. funiculus (Dyar) and populations in the southwestern United States and western Mexico, formally designated Ps. toltecum (Dyar and Knab), are distinct species. Psorophora toltecum and Psorophora funiculus species names should be resurrected from synonymy. In addition we identified a Ps. columbiae and Ps. toltecum hybrid zone in central Texas in a region described as being one of 13 North American suture zones, being geographical areas in which closely related species occur in sympatry and frequently hybridize. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Estimation of isolation times of the island species in the Drosophila simulans complex from multilocus DNA sequence data.

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    Shannon R McDermott

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila simulans species complex continues to serve as an important model system for the study of new species formation. The complex is comprised of the cosmopolitan species, D. simulans, and two island endemics, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. A substantial amount of effort has gone into reconstructing the natural history of the complex, in part to infer the context in which functional divergence among the species has arisen. In this regard, a key parameter to be estimated is the initial isolation time (t of each island species. Loci in regions of low recombination have lower divergence within the complex than do other loci, yet divergence from D. melanogaster is similar for both classes. This might reflect gene flow of the low-recombination loci subsequent to initial isolation, but it might also reflect differential effects of changing population size on the two recombination classes of loci when the low-recombination loci are subject to genetic hitchhiking or pseudohitchhikingNew DNA sequence variation data for 17 loci corroborate the prior observation from 13 loci that DNA sequence divergence is reduced in genes of low recombination. Two models are presented to estimate t and other relevant parameters (substitution rate correction factors in lineages leading to the island species and, in the case of the 4-parameter model, the ratio of ancestral to extant effective population size from the multilocus DNA sequence data.In general, it appears that both island species were isolated at about the same time, here estimated at approximately 250,000 years ago. It also appears that the difference in divergence patterns of genes in regions of low and higher recombination can be reconciled by allowing a modestly larger effective population size for the ancestral population than for extant D. simulans.

  10. A comparison of the application of a biological and morphological species concept in the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex within a phylogenetic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented to derive an operational phenetic species concept for the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex in northwestern Europe. The complex was found to consist of at least 22 biological species (intercompatibility groups; ICGs). Almost none of these biological species could be recognised

  11. Onchocerciasis transmission in Ghana: the human blood index of sibling species of the Simulium damnosum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberton, Poppy H L; Cheke, Robert A; Walker, Martin; Winskill, Peter; Crainey, J Lee; Boakye, Daniel A; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Tirados, Iñaki; Wilson, Michael D; Tetteh-Kumah, Anthony; Otoo, Sampson; Post, Rory J; Basañez, María-Gloria

    2016-08-05

    Vector-biting behaviour is important for vector-borne disease (VBD) epidemiology. The proportion of blood meals taken on humans (the human blood index, HBI), is a component of the biting rate per vector on humans in VBD transmission models. Humans are the definitive host of Onchocerca volvulus, but the simuliid vectors feed on a range of animals and HBI is a key indicator of the potential for human onchocerciasis transmission. Ghana has a diversity of Simulium damnosum complex members, which are likely to vary in their HBIs, an important consideration for parameterization of onchocerciasis control and elimination models. Host-seeking and ovipositing S. damnosum (sensu lato) (s.l.) were collected from seven villages in four Ghanaian regions. Taxa were morphologically and molecularly identified. Blood meals from individually stored blackfly abdomens were used for DNA profiling, to identify previous host choice. Household, domestic animal, wild mammal and bird surveys were performed to estimate the density and diversity of potential blood hosts of blackflies. A total of 11,107 abdomens of simuliid females (which would have obtained blood meal(s) previously) were tested, with blood meals successfully amplified in 3,772 (34 %). A single-host species was identified in 2,857 (75.7 %) of the blood meals, of which 2,162 (75.7 %) were human. Simulium soubrense Beffa form, S. squamosum C and S. sanctipauli Pra form were the most anthropophagic (HBI = 0.92, 0.86 and 0.70, respectively); S. squamosum E, S. yahense and S. damnosum (sensu stricto) (s.s.)/S. sirbanum were the most zoophagic (HBI = 0.44, 0.53 and 0.63, respectively). The degree of anthropophagy decreased (but not statistically significantly) with increasing ratio of non-human/human blood hosts. Vector to human ratios ranged from 139 to 1,198 blackflies/person. DNA profiling can successfully identify blood meals from host-seeking and ovipositing blackflies. Host choice varies according to sibling

  12. Limnephilid taxa revised by speciation traits: Rhadicoleptus, Isogamus, Melampophylax genera, Chaetopteryx rugulosa, Psilopteryx psorosa species groups, Drusus bolivari, Annitella kosciuszkii species complexes (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Speciation traits of paramere, paraproct and aedeagus were applied to find initial split criteria with fine structure analysis in order to prepare diverged trait matrices for delimiting phylogenetic incipient species of unsettled limnephilid taxa in the early stages of reproductive isolation. A brief history is presented how this phenotypic taxonomic tool of the speciation traits was discovered and applied in caddisfly taxonomy. The theoretical basis was elaborated for the phenotypic speciation trait by reviewing several relevant topics in the sciences of taxonomy, molecular genetics and phylogenetics. Perspectives of integrative taxonomy is discussed in context of phenotype versus genotype, immensely complex phenotype versus phenomic challenge, taxonomic impediment versus genetic expedient, taxonomic adaptation of genetic vocabulary versus genetic sophistication and virtualization, New Systematics of Huxley and Mayr versus New Taxonomy of Wheeler. Debates on magic trait, speciation phenotype, speciation trait and super traits are discussed concluding that evolution works with phenotype and why the cryptic species concept is irrelevant. Briefly summarized how speciation traits evolve in sexual selection, through accelerated reproductive isolation with genital evolution through sex-limited speciation traits, including minor sex chromosomes. Why neutral molecular markers are blind compared to the adaptive speciation traits sensitized by fine structure analysis and backed by the potential of high-tech and high-throughput phenotyping and cyber-infrastructure broadly accessible and fed by computable phenotype descriptions. What sort of genetics could really help taxonomy to describe biodiversity of the over 100 million unknown taxa? Collecting new and re-examining old type materials deposited in various collections, the following taxonomic actions were elaborated by speciation traits. Drusus bolivari new species complex has been erected with

  13. Temporal changes in the genetic structure of the Daphnia species complex in Tjeukemeer, with evidence for backcrossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaak, P.

    1996-01-01

    Temporal genetic variation was studied within the cyclic parthenogenetic Daphnia galeata-cucullata species complex in Lake Tjeukemeer (The Netherlands). During three successive years, three allozyme loci were studied in order to compare: the level of genetic variation in D. galeata (G), D. cucullata

  14. A revision of the history of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the Nordic countries based on herbarium specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Strømeng, Gunn Mari; Gjærum, Halvor B.

    2015-01-01

    seven plant hosts (three cherry species, apple, raspberry and rhododendron). This is the first time herbarium specimens have been used to study these pathogens under Nordic conditions. Differences in the ITS sequences suggest the presence of different genotypes within the complex, indicating a well...

  15. Comparative Cytogenetics of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Agassiz, 1829) (Characiformes, Erythrinidae) Species Complex from Different Brazilian Hydrographic Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Juliana F; Lui, Roberto L; Traldi, Josiane B; Blanco, Daniel R; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal characteristics of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus populations from 5 Brazilian river basins, namely Arinos (Amazonas basin), Araguaia, Paraguai, Alto Paraná, and São Francisco were analyzed by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding, silver nitrate impregnation, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S and 5S rDNA and telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n probes. The diploid chromosome number was 2n = 48 in representatives of the populations from Paraguai and Alto Paraná River basins and 2n = 52 for those from the Arinos and Araguaia River basins. The São Francisco population had individuals with 2n = 50 and 52 occurring in sympatry. C-banding showed heterochromatic blocks mainly located at interstitial and pericentromeric positions in most of the chromosomes. Silver nitrate impregnation demonstrated simple NORs for representatives from Arinos and Araguaia River populations and multiple NORs for specimens from Paraguai, Alto Paraná, and São Francisco River populations. FISH with 18S and 5S rDNA probes revealed many chromosomes carrying these cistrons, with up to 21 chromosomes bearing 18S rDNA sites (Alto Rio Paraná basin) and up to 12 chromosomes with 5S rDNA sites (Paraguai basin), besides the occurrence of colocalization in all populations. FISH with telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n detected sites in the terminal portion of the chromosomes in all populations. These data reinforce the idea that H. unitaeniatus is a species complex. Evolutionary and biogeographical aspects of the group in the Neotropical region are discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaoman; Yu, Lin; Lan, Guobing; Tang, Yafei; He, Zifu

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum . The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies for C. maxima wilt

  17. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman She

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum. The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies

  18. Identifying designatable units for intraspecific conservation prioritization: a hierarchical approach applied to the lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Bernatchez, Louis; Reist, Jim D; Rogers, Sean M; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    The concept of the designatable unit (DU) affords a practical approach to identifying diversity below the species level for conservation prioritization. However, its suitability for defining conservation units in ecologically diverse, geographically widespread and taxonomically challenging species complexes has not been broadly evaluated. The lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.) is geographically widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains a great deal of variability in ecology and evolutionary legacy within and among populations, as well as a great deal of taxonomic ambiguity. Here, we employ a set of hierarchical criteria to identify DUs within the Canadian distribution of the lake whitefish species complex. We identified 36 DUs based on (i) reproductive isolation, (ii) phylogeographic groupings, (iii) local adaptation and (iv) biogeographic regions. The identification of DUs is required for clear discussion regarding the conservation prioritization of lake whitefish populations. We suggest conservation priorities among lake whitefish DUs based on biological consequences of extinction, risk of extinction and distinctiveness. Our results exemplify the need for extensive genetic and biogeographic analyses for any species with broad geographic distributions and the need for detailed evaluation of evolutionary history and adaptive ecological divergence when defining intraspecific conservation units.

  19. Development and validation of a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method to identify endangered species in complex samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J.; Staats, Martijn; Hagelaar, Rico; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Prins, Theo W.; Scholtens, Ingrid; Costessi, Adalberto; Duijsings, Danny; Rechenmann, François; Gaspar, Frédéric B.; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Birck, Matthew; Burns, Malcolm; Haynes, Edward; Hochegger, Rupert; Klingl, Alexander; Lundberg, Lisa; Natale, Chiara; Niekamp, Hauke; Perri, Elena; Barbante, Alessandra; Rosec, Jean-Philippe; Seyfarth, Ralf; Sovová, Tereza; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; van Ruth, Saskia; Peelen, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Abstract DNA metabarcoding provides great potential for species identification in complex samples such as food supplements and traditional medicines. Such a method would aid Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) enforcement officers to combat wildlife crime by preventing illegal trade of endangered plant and animal species. The objective of this research was to develop a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method for forensic wildlife species identification and to evaluate the applicability and reproducibility of this approach across different laboratories. A DNA metabarcoding method was developed that makes use of 12 DNA barcode markers that have demonstrated universal applicability across a wide range of plant and animal taxa and that facilitate the identification of species in samples containing degraded DNA. The DNA metabarcoding method was developed based on Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing of well-defined experimental mixtures, for which a bioinformatics pipeline with user-friendly web-interface was developed. The performance of the DNA metabarcoding method was assessed in an international validation trial by 16 laboratories, in which the method was found to be highly reproducible and sensitive enough to identify species present in a mixture at 1% dry weight content. The advanced multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method assessed in this study provides reliable and detailed data on the composition of complex food products, including information on the presence of CITES-listed species. The method can provide improved resolution for species identification, while verifying species with multiple DNA barcodes contributes to an enhanced quality assurance. PMID:29020743

  20. Development and validation of a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method to identify endangered species in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; Staats, Martijn; Hagelaar, Rico; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid; Costessi, Adalberto; Duijsings, Danny; Rechenmann, François; Gaspar, Frédéric B; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Birck, Matthew; Burns, Malcolm; Haynes, Edward; Hochegger, Rupert; Klingl, Alexander; Lundberg, Lisa; Natale, Chiara; Niekamp, Hauke; Perri, Elena; Barbante, Alessandra; Rosec, Jean-Philippe; Seyfarth, Ralf; Sovová, Tereza; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; van Ruth, Saskia; Peelen, Tamara; Kok, Esther

    2017-10-01

    DNA metabarcoding provides great potential for species identification in complex samples such as food supplements and traditional medicines. Such a method would aid Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) enforcement officers to combat wildlife crime by preventing illegal trade of endangered plant and animal species. The objective of this research was to develop a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method for forensic wildlife species identification and to evaluate the applicability and reproducibility of this approach across different laboratories. A DNA metabarcoding method was developed that makes use of 12 DNA barcode markers that have demonstrated universal applicability across a wide range of plant and animal taxa and that facilitate the identification of species in samples containing degraded DNA. The DNA metabarcoding method was developed based on Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing of well-defined experimental mixtures, for which a bioinformatics pipeline with user-friendly web-interface was developed. The performance of the DNA metabarcoding method was assessed in an international validation trial by 16 laboratories, in which the method was found to be highly reproducible and sensitive enough to identify species present in a mixture at 1% dry weight content. The advanced multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method assessed in this study provides reliable and detailed data on the composition of complex food products, including information on the presence of CITES-listed species. The method can provide improved resolution for species identification, while verifying species with multiple DNA barcodes contributes to an enhanced quality assurance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Comparative “Omics” of the Fusarium fujikuroi Species Complex Highlights Differences in Genetic Potential and Metabolite Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Münsterkötter, Martin; Proctor, Robert H.; Brown, Daren W.; Sharon, Amir; Idan, Yifat; Oren-Young, Liat; Sieber, Christian M.; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Tarkowská, Danuše; Hromadová, Kristýna; Freeman, Stanley; Maymon, Marcel; Elazar, Meirav; Youssef, Sahar A.; El-Shabrawy, El Said M.; Shalaby, Abdel Baset A.; Houterman, Petra; Brock, Nelson L.; Burkhardt, Immo; Tsavkelova, Elena A.; Dickschat, Jeroen S.; Galuszka, Petr; Güldener, Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share 90% sequence similarity, they can differ in host plant specificity and life style. FFC species can also produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including the mycotoxins fumonisins, fusarins, fusaric acid, and beauvericin, and the phytohormones gibberellins, auxins, and cytokinins. The spectrum of SMs produced can differ among closely related species, suggesting that SMs might be determinants of host specificity. To date, genomes of only a limited number of FFC species have been sequenced. Here, we provide draft genome sequences of three more members of the FFC: a single isolate of F. mangiferae, the cause of mango malformation, and two isolates of F. proliferatum, one a pathogen of maize and the other an orchid endophyte. We compared these genomes to publicly available genome sequences of three other FFC species. The comparisons revealed species-specific and isolate-specific differences in the composition and expression (in vitro and in planta) of genes involved in SM production including those for phytohormome biosynthesis. Such differences have the potential to impact host specificity and, as in the case of F. proliferatum, the pathogenic versus endophytic life style. PMID:28040774

  2. Is agriculture driving the diversification of the Bemisia tabaci species complex (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae)?: Dating, diversification and biogeographic evidence revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Laura M; Bell, Charles D; Evans, Gregory; Small, Ian; De Barro, Paul J

    2013-10-18

    Humans and insect herbivores are competing for the same food crops and have been for thousands of years. Despite considerable advances in crop pest management, losses due to insects remain considerable. The global homogenisation of agriculture has supported the range expansion of numerous insect pests and has been driven in part by human-assisted dispersal supported through rapid global trade and low-cost air passenger transport. One of these pests, is the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a cryptic species complex that contains some of the world's most damaging pests of agriculture. The complex shows considerable genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic relationships. One consequence of the considerable impact that members of the B. tabaci complex have on agriculture, is the view that human activity, particularly in relation to agricultural practices, such as use of insecticides, has driven the diversification found within the species complex. This has been particularly so in the case of two members of the complex, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), which have become globally distributed invasive species. An alternative hypothesis is that diversification is due to paleogeographic and paleoclimatological changes. The idea that human activity is driving speciation within the B. tabaci complex has never been tested, but the increased interest in fossil whiteflies and the growth in molecular data have enabled us to apply a relaxed molecular clock and so estimate divergence dates for the major lineages within the B. tabaci species complex. The divergence estimates do not support the view that human activity has been a major driver of diversification. Our analysis suggests that the major lineages within the complex arose approximately 60-30 mya and the highly invasive MED and MEAM1 split from the rest of the species complex around 12 mya well before the evolution of Homo sapiens and agriculture. Furthermore, the divergence dates coincide with a period

  3. Speciation on the rocks: integrated systematics of the Heteronotia spelea species complex (Gekkota; Reptilia from Western and Central Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzy Pepper

    Full Text Available The isolated uplands of the Australian arid zone are known to provide mesic refuges in an otherwise xeric landscape, and divergent lineages of largely arid zone taxa have persisted in these regions following the onset of Miocene aridification. Geckos of the genus Heteronotia are one such group, and have been the subject of many genetic studies, including H. spelea, a strongly banded form that occurs in the uplands of the Pilbara and Central Ranges regions of the Australian arid zone. Here we assess the systematics of these geckos based on detailed examination of morphological and genetic variation. The H. spelea species complex is a monophyletic lineage to the exclusion of the H. binoei and H. planiceps species complexes. Within the H. spelea complex, our previous studies based on mtDNA and nine nDNA loci found populations from the Central Ranges to be genetically divergent from Pilbara populations. Here we supplement our published molecular data with additional data gathered from central Australian samples. In the spirit of integrative species delimitation, we combine multi-locus, coalescent-based lineage delimitation with extensive morphological analyses to test species boundaries, and we describe the central populations as a new species, H. fasciolatus sp. nov. In addition, within the Pilbara there is strong genetic evidence for three lineages corresponding to northeastern (type, southern, and a large-bodied melanic population isolated in the northwest. Due to its genetic distinctiveness and extreme morphological divergence from all other Heteronotia, we describe the melanic form as a new species, H. atra sp. nov. The northeastern and southern Pilbara populations are morphologically indistinguishable with the exception of a morpho-type in the southeast that has a banding pattern resembling H. planiceps from the northern monsoonal tropics. Pending more extensive analyses, we therefore treat Pilbara H. spelea as a single species with

  4. Integrative taxonomy: Combining morphological, molecular and chemical data for species delineation in the parthenogenetic Trhypochthonius tectorum complex (Acari, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigmann Gerd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a long-standing controversial about how parthenogenetic species can be defined in absence of a generally accepted species concept for this reproductive mode. An integrative approach was suggested, combining molecular and morphological data to identify distinct monophyletic entities. Using this approach, speciation of parthenogenetic lineages was recently demonstrated for groups of bdelloid rotifers and oribatid mites. Trhypochthonius tectorum, an oribatid mite from the entirely parthenogenetic desmonomatan family Trhypochthoniidae, is traditionally treated as a single species in Central Europe. However, two new morphological lineages were recently proposed for some Austrian populations of T. tectorum, and were described as novel subspecies (T. silvestris europaeus or form (T. japonicus forma occidentalis. We used the morphological and morphometrical data which led to this separation, and added mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences and the chemical composition of complex exocrine oil gland secretions to test this taxonomical hypothesis. This is the first attempt to combine these three types of data for integrative taxonomical investigations of oribatid mites. Results We show that the previous European species T. tectorum represents a species complex consisting of three distinct lineages in Austria (T.tectorum, T. silvestris europaeus and T. japonicus forma occidentalis, each clearly separated by morphology, oil gland secretion profiles and mitochondrial cox1 sequences. This diversification happened in the last ten million years. In contrast to these results, no variation among the lineages was found in the nuclear 18S rDNA. Conclusions Our approach combined morphological, molecular and chemical data to investigate diversity and species delineation in a parthenogenetic oribatid mite species complex. To date, hypotheses of a general oribatid mite phylogeny are manifold, and mostly based on single-method approaches

  5. Integrative taxonomy: Combining morphological, molecular and chemical data for species delineation in the parthenogenetic Trhypochthonius tectorum complex (Acari, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a long-standing controversial about how parthenogenetic species can be defined in absence of a generally accepted species concept for this reproductive mode. An integrative approach was suggested, combining molecular and morphological data to identify distinct monophyletic entities. Using this approach, speciation of parthenogenetic lineages was recently demonstrated for groups of bdelloid rotifers and oribatid mites. Trhypochthonius tectorum, an oribatid mite from the entirely parthenogenetic desmonomatan family Trhypochthoniidae, is traditionally treated as a single species in Central Europe. However, two new morphological lineages were recently proposed for some Austrian populations of T. tectorum, and were described as novel subspecies (T. silvestris europaeus) or form (T. japonicus forma occidentalis). We used the morphological and morphometrical data which led to this separation, and added mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences and the chemical composition of complex exocrine oil gland secretions to test this taxonomical hypothesis. This is the first attempt to combine these three types of data for integrative taxonomical investigations of oribatid mites. Results We show that the previous European species T. tectorum represents a species complex consisting of three distinct lineages in Austria (T.tectorum, T. silvestris europaeus and T. japonicus forma occidentalis), each clearly separated by morphology, oil gland secretion profiles and mitochondrial cox1 sequences. This diversification happened in the last ten million years. In contrast to these results, no variation among the lineages was found in the nuclear 18S rDNA. Conclusions Our approach combined morphological, molecular and chemical data to investigate diversity and species delineation in a parthenogenetic oribatid mite species complex. To date, hypotheses of a general oribatid mite phylogeny are manifold, and mostly based on single-method approaches. Probably, the integrative

  6. Insight into genome variability in the Fusarium Incarnatum-equiseti species complex through comparative analysis of secondary metabolic biosynthetic gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Fusarium comprises 22 species complexes that together include approximately 300 phylogenetically distinct species. A major focus in Fusarium literature is to understand the genetic basis of niche specialization, secondary metabolites (SM) production, and host interactions in closely relate...

  7. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus rothi complex and a new species of lizard from Auca Mahuida Volcano (Squamata: Liolaemini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciano Javier; Olave, Melisa; Perez, Cristian Hernan Fulvio; Perez, Daniel Roberto; Morando, Mariana

    2013-01-21

    A new species of lizard of the genus Liolaemus from Neuquén Province, western Argentina, is described. The new species is a member of the Liolaemus rothi species complex, and mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data show it as sister taxon of the clade composed of (L. hermannunezi (L. tromen + L. loboi)), differing in size, squamation, coloration, and sexual dimorphism from the other species of this group. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. has a dark body coloration with series of notched blotches on the dorsum, with bright spots, and a very iridescent yellow-green coloration in natural light. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. is found only in the Auca Mahuida volcano and is terrestrial, dwelling on the stony slopes with sandy soil between 1300 m and the volcano summit.

  8. Evaluation of Molecular Species of Prostate-Specific Antigen Complexed with Immunoglobulin M in Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Goč

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at defining molecular species of prostate-specific antigen (PSA in immune complexes with immunoglobulin M (IgM. Having in mind the oligoreactivity of IgM and its preference for carbohydrate antigens, there is the possibility that it can selectively recognize known PSA glycoisoforms. PSA-IgM complexes and free PSA fractions were separated from the sera of subjects with prostate cancer (PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by gel filtration and subjected to on-chip immunoaffinity and ion-exchange chromatography. PSA-immunoreactive species were detected using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The obtained spectra were analyzed for protein and glycan composition. The general pattern of the molecular species of PCa PSA and BPH PSA found in complexes with IgM was similar. It comprised major peaks at 17 kDa and minor peaks at 28 kDa, corresponding to the entire mature glycosylated PSA. The main difference was the presence of incompletely glycosylated 26.8 kDa species, having putative paucimannosidic structures, observed in PCa PSA-IgM, but not in BPH PSA-IgM. Characteristic PCa PSA-IgM glycoforms pose the question of the possible role of glycosylation as a framework for immune surveillance and may be of interest in light of recent data indicating mannose-containing glycans as cancer biomarker.

  9. The effects of model and data complexity on predictions from species distributions models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Callejas, David; Bastos, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    by their geometrical properties. Tests involved analysis of models' ability to predict virtual species distributions in the same region and the same time as used for training the models, and to project distributions in different times under climate change. Of the eight species distribution models analyzed five (Random...

  10. Amyloidity is not diagnostic for species in the Mycena pearsoniana complex (Mycena sectio Calodontes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffer Bugge Harder; D. Jean Lodge; Ronald H. Petersen; Karen W. Hughes; Joaquin Cifuentes Blanco; Tobias Guldberg Froslev; Thomas. L& #230; ssoe

    2012-01-01

    Mycena sectio Calodontes with otherwise amyloid spores, the inamyloid spores of Mycena pearsoniana Dennis ex Singer were a distinguishing feature for this species and its subsection Violacella. Although the original concept of this species was European, Singer chose to typify it with material...

  11. Secondary metabolite comparison of the species within the Heterobasidion annosum s.l. complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, David; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Olson, Åke

    2014-01-01

    .s. and H. irregulare are pine infecting species, and H. parviporum, H. occidentale and H. abietinum are non-pine infecting. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the LC–HRMS data showed that samples from the five species could be separated into five groups and in accordance with the differences in host...

  12. High spatial resolution spectral unmixing for mapping ash species across a complex urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Pontius; Ryan P. Hanavan; Richard A. Hallett; Bruce D. Cook; Lawrence A. Corp

    2017-01-01

    Ash (Fraxinus L.) species are currently threatened by the emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) across a growing area in the eastern US. Accurate mapping of ash species is required to monitor the host resource, predict EAB spread and better understand the short- and long-term effects of EAB on the ash resource...

  13. Advances in the analysis of complex food matrices: Species identification in surimi-based products using Next Generation Sequencing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Carmen G.

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies represent a turning point in the food inspection field, particularly for species identification in matrices composed of a blend of two or more species. In this study NGS technologies were applied by testing the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in seafood traceability. Sixteen commercial surimi samples produced both in EU and non-EU countries were analysed. Libraries were prepared using a universal primer pair able to amplify a short 16SrRNA fragment from a wide range of fish and cephalopod species. The mislabelling rate of the samples was also evaluated. Overall, DNA from 13 families, 19 genera and 16 species of fish, and from 3 families, 3 genera and 3 species of cephalopods was found with the analysis. Samples produced in non-EU countries exhibited a higher variability in their composition. 37.5% of the surimi products were found to be mislabelled. Among them, 25% voluntary declared a species different from those identified and 25% (all produced in non-EU countries) did not report the presence of molluscs on the label, posing a potential health threat for allergic consumers. The use of vulnerable species was also proved. Although the protocol should be further optimized, PGM platform proved to be a useful tool for the analysis of complex, highly processed products. PMID:28968423

  14. Recognition and identification of bumblebee species in the Bombus lucorum-complex (Hymenoptera, Apidae – A review and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Bossert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of cryptic species represents one of the major challenges in current taxonomy and affects our understanding of global diversity. In practice, the process from discovery to acceptance in the scientific community can take an extensive length of time. A prime example is the traditionally difficult taxonomy of the cryptic bumblebee species belonging to the Bombus lucorum-complex. The status of the three European species in the group – Bombus lucorum and the closely related Bombus cryptarum and Bombus magnus – has recently become widely accepted, primarily due to investigations of nucleotide sequences and marking pheromones. In contrast, doubts prevail concerning the validity of species identification based on morphology. As a consequence, our knowledge of the species is muddled in a mire of unreliable and confusing literature data from a large number of authors over the centuries. To clarify this issue, this paper provides a recapitulation of the historical literature and highlights the milestones in the process of species recognition. Further, the possibility of a morphologically based species identification is discussed in the context of new molecular data. Finally, this review outlines the current challenges and provides directions for future issues.

  15. Revalidation of Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and phylogeny of the T. brasiliensis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Vagner José; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Pinotti, Heloisa; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Pita, Sebastián; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Panzera, Francisco; De Araújo, Renato Freitas; Azeredo-Oliveir, Maria Tercília Vilela De; Rosa, João Aristeu Da

    2016-05-02

    Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, and T. pessoai Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 were described based on material collected in the Brazilian state of Bahia. These species were later included in the T. brasiliensis complex based on their geographic distribution. Triatoma bahiensis and T. pessoai were subsequently synonymized with T. lenti. However, the phylogenetic position of T. lenti within the T. brasiliensis complex has remained doubtful. This study aims to assess the taxonomic status of T. bahiensis and to infer the phylogenetic relationships between T. lenti, T. bahiensis and the other members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. The identities of the species in concern were confirmed by comparisons with high resolution photos of the respective type materials; lectotypes are designated for T. pessoai and T. bahiensis. Morphological, morphometric, molecular, and cytogenetic approaches as well as experimental crosses were used. The low viability of experimental crosses combined with morphological and morphometric data allow the differentiation of T. bahiensis and T. lenti. Pairwise cyt b sequence divergence between T. lenti and T. bahiensis was 2.5%. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses grouped T. lenti and T. bahiensis as members of the T. brasiliensis complex. These results revalidate the specific status of T. bahiensis.

  16. Simulated tri-trophic networks reveal complex relationships between species diversity and interaction diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardikes, Nicholas A; Lumpkin, Will; Hurtado, Paul J; Dyer, Lee A

    2018-01-01

    Most of earth's biodiversity is comprised of interactions among species, yet it is unclear what causes variation in interaction diversity across space and time. We define interaction diversity as the richness and relative abundance of interactions linking species together at scales from localized, measurable webs to entire ecosystems. Large-scale patterns suggest that two basic components of interaction diversity differ substantially and predictably between different ecosystems: overall taxonomic diversity and host specificity of consumers. Understanding how these factors influence interaction diversity, and quantifying the causes and effects of variation in interaction diversity are important goals for community ecology. While previous studies have examined the effects of sampling bias and consumer specialization on determining patterns of ecological networks, these studies were restricted to two trophic levels and did not incorporate realistic variation in species diversity and consumer diet breadth. Here, we developed a food web model to generate tri-trophic ecological networks, and evaluated specific hypotheses about how the diversity of trophic interactions and species diversity are related under different scenarios of species richness, taxonomic abundance, and consumer diet breadth. We investigated the accumulation of species and interactions and found that interactions accumulate more quickly; thus, the accumulation of novel interactions may require less sampling effort than sampling species in order to get reliable estimates of either type of diversity. Mean consumer diet breadth influenced the correlation between species and interaction diversity significantly more than variation in both species richness and taxonomic abundance. However, this effect of diet breadth on interaction diversity is conditional on the number of observed interactions included in the models. The results presented here will help develop realistic predictions of the relationships

  17. Taxonomy and phylogeny of new wood- and soil-inhabiting Sporothrix species in the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Elsie M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Summerbell, Richard C; Moharram, A M; de Hoog, G Sybren; Vismer, Hester F; Wingfield, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Sporothrix, one of the anamorph genera of Ophiostoma, includes the important human pathogen S. schenckii and various fungi associated with insects and sap stain of wood. A survey of fungi from wood utility poles in South Africa yielded two distinct groups of Sporothrix isolates from different geographical areas. DNA sequence and morphological data derived in this study showed that isolates in these groups represent two novel species in the S. schenckii-O. stenoceras species complex. A new species isolated from pine poles and rosebush wood and phylogenetically closely related to S. pallida is described here as Sporothrix stylites. Phylogenetic analyses also confirmed the synonymy of S. albicans and S. nivea with S. pallida. Sporothrix stylites and S. pallida also are related closely to the isolates from soil, previously treated as "environmental" isolates of S. schenckii. Soil isolates are clearly distinct from human isolates of S. schenckii. We describe the former here as Sporothrix humicola. The isolates from eucalypt poles group peripheral to most other species in the S. schenckii-O. stenoceras complex and are newly described as Sporothrix lignivora. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of isolates from soil and wood together with those of clinical isolates showed that the human-pathogenic strains form an aggregate of several cryptic species.

  18. Integration of molecular, ecological, morphological and endosymbiont data for species delimitation within the Pnigalio soemius complex (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebiola, M; Gómez-Zurita, J; Monti, M M; Navone, P; Bernardo, U

    2012-03-01

    Integrative taxonomy is a recently developed approach that uses multiple lines of evidence such as molecular, morphological, ecological and geographical data to test species limits, and it stands as one of the most promising approaches to species delimitation in taxonomically difficult groups. The Pnigalio soemius complex (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) represents an interesting taxonomical and ecological study case, as it is characterized by a lack of informative morphological characters, deep mitochondrial divergence, and is susceptible to infection by parthenogenesis-inducing Rickettsia. We tested the effectiveness of an integrative taxonomy approach in delimiting species within the P. soemius complex. We analysed two molecular markers (COI and ITS2) using different methods, performed multivariate analysis on morphometric data and exploited ecological data such as host-plant system associations, geographical separation, and the prevalence, type and effects of endosymbiont infection. The challenge of resolving different levels of resolution in the data was met by setting up a formal procedure of data integration within and between conflicting independent lines of evidence. An iterative corroboration process of multiple sources of data eventually indicated the existence of several cryptic species that can be treated as stable taxonomic hypotheses. Furthermore, the integrative approach confirmed a trend towards host specificity within the presumed polyphagous P. soemius and suggested that Rickettsia could have played a major role in the reproductive isolation and genetic diversification of at least two species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Improvement of MALDI-TOF MS profiling for the differentiation of species within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedo, Ondrej; Nemec, Alexandr; Křížová, Lenka; Kačalová, Magdaléna; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2013-12-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is currently becoming the method of choice for rapid identification of bacterial species in routine diagnostics. Yet, this method suffers from the inability to differentiate reliably between some closely related bacterial species including those of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex, namely A. baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis. In the present study, we evaluated a protocol which was different from that used in the Bruker Daltonics identification system (MALDI BioTyper) to improve species identification using a taxonomically precisely defined set of 105 strains representing the four validly named species of the ACB complex. The novel protocol is based on the change in matrix composition from alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (saturated solution in water:acetonitrile:trifluoroacetic acid, 47.5:50:2.5, v/v) to ferulic acid (12.5mgml(-1) solution in water:acetonitrile:formic acid 50:33:17, v/v), while the other steps of sample processing remain unchanged. Compared to the standard protocol, the novel one extended the range of detected compounds towards higher molecular weight, produced signals with better mass resolution, and allowed the detection of species-specific signals. As a result, differentiation of A. nosocomialis and A. baumannii strains by cluster analysis was improved and 13 A. nosocomialis strains, assigned erroneously or ambiguously by using the standard protocol, were correctly identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Refugial isolation and divergence in the Narrowheaded Gartersnake species complex (Thamnophis rufipunctatus) as revealed by multilocus DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin A; Vandergast, A G; Lemos Espinal, J A; Fisher, R N; Holycross, A T

    2011-09-01

    Glacial-interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene are hypothesized as one of the foremost contributors to biological diversification. This is especially true for cold-adapted montane species, where range shifts have had a pronounced effect on population-level divergence. Gartersnakes of the Thamnophis rufipunctatus species complex are restricted to cold headwater streams in the highlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southwestern USA. We used coalescent and multilocus phylogenetic approaches to test whether genetic diversification of this montane-restricted species complex is consistent with two prevailing models of range fluctuation for species affected by Pleistocene climate changes. Our concatenated nuDNA and multilocus species analyses recovered evidence for the persistence of multiple lineages that are restricted geographically, despite a mtDNA signature consistent with either more recent connectivity (and introgression) or recent expansion (and incomplete lineage sorting). Divergence times estimated using a relaxed molecular clock and fossil calibrations fall within the Late Pleistocene, and zero gene flow scenarios among current geographically isolated lineages could not be rejected. These results suggest that increased climate shifts in the Late Pleistocene have driven diversification and current range retraction patterns and that the differences between markers reflect the stochasticity of gene lineages (i.e. ancestral polymorphism) rather than gene flow and introgression. These results have important implications for the conservation of T. rufipunctatus (sensu novo), which is restricted to two drainage systems in the southwestern US and has undergone a recent and dramatic decline. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Vicariance and Its Impact on the Molecular Ecology of a Chinese Ranid Frog Species-Complex (Odorrana schmackeri, Ranidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Li

    Full Text Available Paleogeological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had profound influences on the genetic patterns and phylogeographic structure of species in southern China. In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and Phylogeography of the Odorrana schmackeri species complex, mountain stream-dwelling odorous frogs, endemic to southern China. We obtained mitochondrial sequences (1,151bp of the complete ND2 gene and two flanking tRNAs of 511 individuals from 25 sites for phylogeographic analyses. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed seven divergent evolutionary lineages, with mean pairwise (K2P sequence distances from 7.8% to 21.1%, except for a closer ND2 distance (3.4%. The complex geological history of southern China drove matrilineal divergence in the O. schmackeri species complex into highly structured geographical units. The first divergence between lineage A+B and other lineages (C-G had likely been influenced by the uplift of coastal mountains of Southeast China during the Mio-Pliocene period. The subsequent divergences between the lineages C-G may have followed the formation of the Three Gorges and the intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Demographic analyses indicated that major lineages A and C have been experienced recent population expansion (c. 0.045-0.245 Ma from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Molecular analysis suggest that these seven lineages may represent seven different species, three described species and four cryptic species and should at least be separated into seven management units corresponding to these seven geographic lineages for conservation.

  2. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp. in the Nicaraguan crater lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Axel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidation of the mechanisms driving speciation requires detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of the incipient species within their entire ranges as well as their colonization history. The Midas cichlid species complex Amphilophus spp. has been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of ecological specialization, sexual selection and the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Here we present a comprehensive and integrative phylogeographic analysis of the complete Midas Cichlid species complex in Nicaragua (> 2000 individuals covering the entire distributional range, using two types of molecular markers (the mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 microsatellites. We investigated the majority of known lake populations of this species complex and reconstructed their colonization history in order to distinguish between alternative speciation scenarios. Results We found that the large lakes contain older and more diverse Midas Cichlid populations, while all crater lakes hold younger and genetically less variable species assemblages. The large lakes appear to have repeatedly acted as source populations for all crater lakes, and our data indicate that faunal exchange among crater lakes is extremely unlikely. Despite their very recent (often only a few thousand years old and common origin from the two large Nicaraguan lakes, all crater lake Midas Cichlid radiations underwent independent, but parallel, evolution, and comprise distinct genetic units. Indeed several of these crater lakes contain multiple genetically distinct incipient species that most likely arose through sympatric speciation. Several crater lake radiations can be traced back to a single ancestral line, but some appear to have more than one founding lineage. The timing of the colonization(s of each crater lake differs, although most of them occurred more (probably much more recently than 20,000 years ago. Conclusion The

  3. Vicariance and Its Impact on the Molecular Ecology of a Chinese Ranid Frog Species-Complex (Odorrana schmackeri, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongmin; Wu, Xiaoyou; Zhang, Huabin; Yan, Peng; Xue, Hui; Wu, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Paleogeological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had profound influences on the genetic patterns and phylogeographic structure of species in southern China. In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and Phylogeography of the Odorrana schmackeri species complex, mountain stream-dwelling odorous frogs, endemic to southern China. We obtained mitochondrial sequences (1,151bp) of the complete ND2 gene and two flanking tRNAs of 511 individuals from 25 sites for phylogeographic analyses. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed seven divergent evolutionary lineages, with mean pairwise (K2P) sequence distances from 7.8% to 21.1%, except for a closer ND2 distance (3.4%). The complex geological history of southern China drove matrilineal divergence in the O. schmackeri species complex into highly structured geographical units. The first divergence between lineage A+B and other lineages (C-G) had likely been influenced by the uplift of coastal mountains of Southeast China during the Mio-Pliocene period. The subsequent divergences between the lineages C-G may have followed the formation of the Three Gorges and the intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Demographic analyses indicated that major lineages A and C have been experienced recent population expansion (c. 0.045-0.245 Ma) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Molecular analysis suggest that these seven lineages may represent seven different species, three described species and four cryptic species and should at least be separated into seven management units corresponding to these seven geographic lineages for conservation.

  4. Ten new species of Rhagovelia in the angustipes complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae) from Colombia, with a key to the Colombian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gil, Dora Nancy

    2015-12-21

    Ten new species of Rhagovelia are described from Colombia as follows: Rhagovelia penta sp. n., and Rhagovelia santanderi sp. n., from the Upper and Middle Magdalena River Valley respectively; Rhagovelia carina sp. n., Rhagovelia tricoma sp. n., and Rhagovelia barbacoensis sp. n., from Altaquer, Río Ñambi; Rhagovelia caunapi sp. n. from Río Caunapi; Rhagovelia tumaquensis sp. n., from Tumaco, Río Mejicano; Rhagovelia jagua sp. n., from Eastern Andes; Rhagovelia mocoa sp. n. and Rhagovelia umbria sp. n., from Amazonas region. Rhagovelia tantilla Drake & Harris is recorded from Colombia, for the first time; the description of macropterous morph of Rhagovelia espriella Padilla-Gil, 2011 and a key to the Rhagovelia, angustipes complex of Colombian species are provided.

  5. The Praon dorsale-yomenae s.str. complex (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae): Species discrimination using geometric morphometrics and molecular markers with descrioption of a new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitrovski-Bogdanović, A.; Tomanović, Ž.; Mitrović, M.; Petrović, A.; Ivanović, A.; Žikić, V.; Starý, Petr; Vorburger, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 253, 4000336869200002 (2014), s. 270-282 ISSN 0044-5231 Grant - others:Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) IZ73ZO_1 28174; The Ministry of Education , Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Praon dorsale-yomenae species complex * geometric morphometrics * COl mtDNA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S0044523114000047#

  6. Multilocus Analysis of Divergence and Introgression in Sympatric and Allopatric Sibling Species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis Complex in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Camila J.; Souza, Nataly A.; Machado, Ricardo C.; Bruno, Rafaela V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of sibling species. In Brazil, a number of very closely related sibling species have been revealed by the analyses of copulation songs, sex pheromones and molecular markers. However, the level of divergence and gene flow between the sibling species remains unclear. Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided in two main groups: one producing Burst-type songs and the Cembrene-1 pheromone and a second more diverse group producing various Pulse song subtypes and different pheromones. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 21 nuclear loci in two pairs of Brazilian populations: two sympatric populations from the Sobral locality (1S and 2S) in northeastern Brazil and two allopatric populations from the Lapinha and Pancas localities in southeastern Brazil. Pancas and Sobral 2S are populations of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species while Lapinha and Sobral 1S are two putative incipient species producing the same pheromone and similar Pulse song subtypes. The multilocus analysis strongly suggests the occurrence of gene flow during the divergence between the sibling species, with different levels of introgression between loci. Moreover, this differential introgression is asymmetrical, with estimated gene flow being higher in the direction of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that introgressive hybridization has been a crucial phenomenon in shaping the genome of the L. longipalpis complex. This has possible epidemiological implications and is particularly interesting considering the potential for increased introgression caused by man-made environmental changes and the current trend of leishmaniasis urbanization in Brazil. PMID:24147172

  7. Biotic Habitat Complexity Controls Species Diversity and Nutrient Effects on Net Biomass Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Rubach, Anja; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Canopy-forming plants and algae commonly contribute to spatial variation in habitat complexity for associated organisms and thereby create a biotic patchiness of communities. In this study, we tested for interaction effects between biotic habitat complexity and resource availability on net biomass

  8. Additions to Philippine Slender Skinks of the Brachymeles bonitae Complex (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) II: a new species from the northern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Cameron D; Davis, Drew R; Freitas, Elyse S; Huron, Nicholas A; Geheber, Aaron D; Watters, Jessa L; Penrod, Michelle L; Papeș, Monica; Amrein, Andrew; Anwar, Alyssa; Cooper, Dontae; Hein, Tucker; Manning, Annalisa; Patel, Neeral; Pinaroc, Lauren; Diesmos, Arvin C; Diesmos, Mae L; Oliveros, Carl H; Brown, Rafe M

    2016-06-28

    We describe a new digitless scincid lizard of the genus Brachymeles from northern Luzon and Camiguin Norte islands in the Philippines. This species belongs to the Brachymeles bonitae Complex, and both molecular and morphological data confirm that this species is distinct from all other congeners. Formerly considered to be a single widespread species, this group of species has been the focus of recent systematic reviews. Here we describe a new species in the B. bonitae Complex, recognized currently to constitute five species. Brachymeles ilocandia sp. nov. is the second digitless and the seventeenth non-pentadactyl species in genus. The description of this species brings the total number of species in the genus to 40, and provides new insight into unique distribution patterns of species of the northern Philippines.

  9. Epiphytic diatoms in lotic and lentic waters - diversity and representation of species complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollár, J.; Fránková, Markéta; Hašler, P.; Letáková, M.; Poulíčková, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2015), s. 259-271 ISSN 1802-5439 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : diatoms * epiphyton * species comlexes * lotic and lentic waters Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.026, year: 2015

  10. Taxonomical and ecological description of a species complex of zooplanktivorous and insectivorous cichlids from Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, van M.J.P.; Witte, F.

    1996-01-01

    The zooplanktivorous Haplochromis tanaos spec. nov., and the morphologically very similar but insectivorous Haplochromis thereuterion spec. nov., from Lake Victoria (East Africa) are described and compared to Haplochromis diplotaenia Regan & Trewavas, 1928, a similar species which is known only from

  11. Genotyping species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by PCR-RFLP of calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America and is caused by 4 pathogenic thermodimorphic fungi in the genus Sporothrix. From both therapeutic and epidemiological perspectives, it is essential to identify the causative agents down to the species level. Traditional parameters may overlap among closely related species, and we propose polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) as an alternative approach. In the present study, the calmodulin gene was amplified and digested with HhaI to yield 5 different electrophoretic patterns representing all medically important Sporothrix species: Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa, and Sporothrix luriei. The PCR-RFLP protocol described here is a simple and inexpensive method and is highly suitable for accurate routine genotyping of relevant Sporothrix species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenotypic Convergence in Genetically Distinct Lineages of a Rhinolophus Species Complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, David S.; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both mor...

  13. Complex phylogenetic placement of ilex species (aquifoliaceae): a case study of molecular phylogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, F.; Sun, L.; Xiao, P.G.; Hao, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the phylogenetic relationships among Ilex species distributed in China, we analyzed two alignments including 4,698 characters corresponding to six plastid sequences (matK, rbcL, atpB-rbcL, trnL-F, psbA-trnH, and rpl32-trnL) and 1,748 characters corresponding to two nuclear sequences (ITS and nepGS). Using different partitioning strategies and approaches (i.e., Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony) for phylogeny reconstruction, different topologies and clade supports were determined. A total of 18 Ilex species was divided into two major groups (group I and II) in both plastid and nuclear phylogenies with some incongruences. Potential hybridization events may account, in part, for those phylogenetic uncertainties. The analyses, together with previously identified sequences, indicated that all 18 species were recovered within Eurasia or Asia/North America groups based on plastid data. Meanwhile, the species in group II in the nuclear phylogeny were placed in the Aquifolium clade, as inferred from traditional classification, whereas the species in group I belonged to several other clades. The divergence time of most of the 18 Ilex species was estimated to be not more than 10 million years ago. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that paleogeographical events and past climate changes during the same period might have played important roles in these diversifications. (author)

  14. Molecular study of Astyanax altiparanae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) as a probable species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprá, I C; Gomes, V N; Deprá, G C; Oliveira, I J; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J

    2014-08-07

    Astyanax altiparanae, belonging to the bimaculatus group, which includes species with similar colors and morphology, occurs in the upper Paraná River basin. As the use of mitochondrial DNA has made great strides in the diagnosis of species, in previous researches, two strains were detected in A. altiparanae with a high divergence in the D-loop region, provisionally called AltoPR and AltoPR-D. Evidence led to the hypothesis that the two strains did not belong to the same species. Phylogenetic hypotheses were produced by maximum-likelihood. Mean internal distances of the AltoPR and AltoPR-D groups were respectively 0.002 and 0.003, with the distance between them being 0.037. Sequences from GenBank of specimens collected from the Paraíba do Sul River basin were also divided into two groups, of which one may be identified as AltoPR. Since the other group provided an intermediate distance when compared to AltoPR-D, an in-depth investigation was required. The other species analyzed showed a greater distance and was revealed to be a monophyletic taxon. The results suggested that they are really two species and that neither corresponds to the other species used in the current study.

  15. A shotgun metagenomic method to characterise low abundant species and assign precisely taxonomy in complex microbial ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Anne-Laure; Almeida, Mathieu; Pons, Nicolas; Pauvert, Charlie; Schbath, Sophie; Renault, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A first step for a better understanding of complex microbial ecosystems, such as cheese or human gut microbiota, is the characterisation and quantification of their species composition. Once DNA is extracted from samples, two main techniques are usually used: the sequencing of evolutionary conserved genes, such as those coding for the 16S or 18S RNA or ITS, or whole genome shotgun sequencing. The first approach is widely used and provides a rapid view of the ecosystem, but often fails to prov...

  16. The Rhynchosia totta complex (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae in Southern Africa, including the description of a new variety and new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah N. Moteetee

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: A great variation in leaf structure and vestiture occurs within the R. totta complex, with the extreme forms easily recognisable. However, the total number of varieties are limited to four [R. totta vars. totta,  longicalyx,  rigidula and venulosa] and a new species described to accommodate specimens with a distinctly prostrate habit and upwardly directed leaves.

  17. Peptaibol, Secondary‐Metabolite, and Hydrophobin Pattern of Commercial Biocontrol Agents Formulated with Species of the Trichoderma harzianum Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Dieckmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    in plant‐protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna®, Trichosan...... metabolites, were detected, the latter being known for their antifungal, siderophore, or plant‐growth‐promoting activities. Notably, none of the isolates produced low‐molecular weight mycotoxins....

  18. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Agudo-Adriani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height, structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc. and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae. We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts.

  19. Vector capacity of members of Triatoma brasiliensis species complex: The need to extend Chagas disease surveillance to Triatoma melanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folly-Ramos, Elaine; Dornak, L Lynnette; Orsolon, Guilherme; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Lilioso, Mauricio; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a lab-based comparative study on vector capacity features of two species of triatomines: Triatoma brasiliensis and T. melanica. Both are members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. The former is the most important Chagas disease vector in the northeastern region of Brazil. To date, no transmission via T. melanica has been recorded. Immature insects exhibited distinct intermoult periods without a direct relationship to a given species. Females of T. brasiliensis consumed an average of 1.9 times more meals (mean = 12.92 vs 6.63) and survived for a shorter period (mean =330.8 days) than T. melanica (mean = 365.2 days), probably due to the cost of reproduction (all significant at P39%) of insects defecated rapidly (<30 s) after feeding. Overall, results highlight the need to extend vector surveillance to T. melanica. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Towards Plant Species Identification in Complex Samples: A Bioinformatics Pipeline for the Identification of Novel Nuclear Barcode Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Angers-Loustau

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the food chain to fight fraud and protect consumer health relies on the availability of methods to correctly identify the species present in samples, for which DNA barcoding is a promising candidate. The nuclear genome is a rich potential source of barcode targets, but has been relatively unexploited until now. Here, we show the development and use of a bioinformatics pipeline that processes available genome sequences to automatically screen large numbers of input candidates, identifies novel nuclear barcode targets and designs associated primer pairs, according to a specific set of requirements. We applied this pipeline to identify novel barcodes for plant species, a kingdom for which the currently available solutions are known to be insufficient. We tested one of the identified primer pairs and show its capability to correctly identify the plant species in simple and complex samples, validating the output of our approach.

  1. Identification and characterization of multiple emissive species in aggregated minor antenna complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wahadoszamen, M.; Belgio, Erica; Rahman, M.A.; Ara, A.M.; Ruban, A.V.; van Grondelle, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1857, č. 12 (2016), s. 1917-1924 ISSN 0005-2728 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Light harvesting * Minor antenna complexes * Photoprotective energy dissipation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.932, year: 2016

  2. Prevalence of Burkholderia species, including members of Burkholderia cepacia complex, among UK cystic and non-cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Dervla T D; Lilley, Daniel; Coward, Amy; Martin, Kate; Perry, Claire; Pike, Rachel; Hill, Robert; Turton, Jane F

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence of different Burkholderia species among UK cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF patients over a 2 year period. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify isolates to genus level, followed by recA/gyrB sequence clustering or species-specific PCR. In all, 1047 Burkholderia isolates were submitted for identification from 361 CF patients and 112 non-CF patients, 25 from the hospital environment and three from a commercial company. Potential cross-infection was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi- locus-sequence typing (MLST). MICs were determined for 161 Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) isolates. CF Trust registry data were sought to examine clinical parameters relating to Bcc infection. Burkholderia multivorans was the most prevalent species among CF patients affecting 56 % (192) patients, followed by Burkholderia cenocepacia IIIA (15 %; 52 patients). Five novel recA clusters were found. Among non-CF patients, Burkholderia cepacia was the most prevalent species (37/112; 34 %), with 18 of 40 isolates part of a UK-wide B. cepacia 'cluster'. This and three other clusters were investigated by PFGE and MLST. Cable-pili positive isolates included two novel sequence types and representatives of ET12. Antibiotic susceptibility varied between and within species and CF/non- CF isolates. CF Trust registry data suggested no significant difference in lung function between patients harbouring B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans and other Bcc species (P=0.81). The dominance of B. multivorans in CF, the presence of a B. cepacia cluster among non-CF patients and the existence of putative novel species all highlighted the continuing role of Burkholderia species as opportunistic pathogens.

  3. Complexity and idiosyncrasy in the responses of algae to disturbance in mono- and multi-species assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, P J; Underwood, A J

    2008-09-01

    There is considerable debate about whether stability (e.g. inertia) of an assemblage, or of individuals in an assemblage, is positively associated with the number of species or whether there are idiosyncratic effects of particular species. We assessed the general model that the loss of an individual alga, caused by trampling, is greater in monospecific than in multi-species stands but that the responses of algae are idiosyncratic, depending on the morphology of the species. The experiment was done on conspicuous and dominant algae with different morphology on temperate Australian rocky shores: the fucalean algae Hormosira banksii and Sargassum sp. and the coralline alga Corallina officinalis. We assessed the relative and interactive effects of the extent of trampling (number of paths) and the localised intensity of trampling (number of travels per path) on the three algae. The number of paths trampled (the extent of disturbance) had more impact on each alga than the number of times paths were travelled (the intensity of disturbance). As predicted, H. banksii was most susceptible to trampling at each level than were the coarser algae Sargassum sp. and C. officinalis. There was a consistent trend for each alga to be more inert to trampling when in the presence of the other two species than when in monospecific stands, but this was only statistically significant (P < 0.05) for the softer alga H. banksii. The responses of H. banksii and Sargassum sp. to disturbance seemed, in many cases, to be due to the presence of C. officinalis rather than to "diversity" per se. The relationship between the number of species and stability is complex in intertidal habitats, depending on the species and the combinations of species with which it grows.

  4. A new Eastern Central Atlantic skate Raja parva sp. nov. (Rajoidei: Rajidae) belonging to the Raja miraletus species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Peter R; Séret, Bernard

    2016-08-05

    An investigation of combined CO1 and NADH2 data for rajid skates referable to Raja miraletus provided evidence that populations ranging from southern Africa to the North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, once considered to represent a cline, belong to a species complex consisting of at least four valid species. Raja miraletus appears to be confined to the Mediterranean Sea, and the North-East Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay south to Morocco and Madeira. The southernmost species, referable to the resurrected Raja ocellifera, occurs off southern Africa, off Namibia and from False Bay to Durban (South Africa). Two species occur off tropical West Africa, including Raja parva sp. nov. (Senegal, Liberia and Angola but is probably more widespread within the region), and another unidentified species needing further investigation. Raja cf. miraletus, confirmed from Mauritania and Senegal, appears to be a larger skate with a broader disc, more broadly pointed snout, larger spiracles, and a slightly longer and broader tail. Raja parva sp. nov. differs from nominal members of the complex in having an unusually long procaudal tail (exceeding 22% TL), as well as a combination of other external characters. Past investigators observed morphological and anatomical differences between these forms but these were thought to be due to intraspecific variability. They postulated that an upwelling at Cape Blanco (21°N) may have isolated the Mediterranean form (R. miraletus) from Mauritania-Senegal form (now known to be two species). Similarly, the Benguela Current and upwelling off Cape Frio (18°S) were thought to be responsible for separating the Angolan form (R. parva) and South African form (R. ocellifera).

  5. Interbreeding and DNA analysis of sibling species within the Bactrocera dorsalis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2003-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis and B. papayae interbreed readily and produce viable offspring under laboratory conditions. Under laboratory observation of B. carambolae and B. papayae interbreeding, the average number of eggs laid by hybrid females was lower than that of B. papayae females but higher than that of B. carambolae females of intra-specific crosses. For inter- and intra-specific mating, the copulatory period is dependent on the female species involved - female B. carambolae copulates significantly longer than that of B. papayae female. Aedeagal and aculeus length of hybrids are intermediate between those of their respective parental species. Hybrid males have one to four sex pheromonal components after consumption of methyl eugenol; 2-6% of them possess a combination of endogenous pheromonal components specific to B. carambolae and components derived from methyl eugenol typical of B. papayae. Based on the latter, four wild males captured from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia possessed combination of the sex pheromonal components. DNA analysis using PCR techniques was very useful in differentiating pest species. Using AFLP polymorphism of amplified DNA fragment plus calculated Nei's genetic distance showed that natural hybrid of B. carambolae and B. papayae was closer to B. dorsalis than to the parental species. Using exon primed, intron crossing PCR, one of the three alleles of actin gene intron of B. dorsalis has identical DNA sequence to one of three allelic introns of the same gene in B. papayae which suggests that the two species are not distinct genetic species. A Hobo-like transposon element was detected in a population from Penang Island, while in a population from the mainland of Peninsular Malaysia, a mariner-like transposon element was detected. (author)

  6. The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Kristin E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemically mediated prezygotic barriers to reproduction likely play an important role in speciation. In facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers from the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex, mate recognition of females by males is mediated by the Mate Recognition Protein (MRP, a globular glycoprotein on the surface of females, encoded by the mmr-b gene family. In this study, we sequenced mmr-b copies from 27 isolates representing 11 phylotypes of the B. plicatilis species complex, examined the mode of evolution and selection of mmr-b, and determined the relationship between mmr-b genetic distance and mate recognition among isolates. Results Isolates of the B. plicatilis species complex have 1–4 copies of mmr-b, each composed of 2–9 nearly identical tandem repeats. The repeats within a gene copy are generally more similar than are gene copies among phylotypes, suggesting concerted evolution. Compared to housekeeping genes from the same isolates, mmr-b has accumulated only half as many synonymous differences but twice as many non-synonymous differences. Most of the amino acid differences between repeats appear to occur on the outer face of the protein, and these often result in changes in predicted patterns of phosphorylation. However, we found no evidence of positive selection driving these differences. Isolates with the most divergent copies were unable to mate with other isolates and rarely self-crossed. Overall the degree of mate recognition was significantly correlated with the genetic distance of mmr-b. Conclusions Discrimination of compatible mates in the B. plicatilis species complex is determined by proteins encoded by closely related copies of a single gene, mmr-b. While concerted evolution of the tandem repeats in mmr-b may function to maintain identity, it can also lead to the rapid spread of a mutation through all copies in the genome and thus to reproductive isolation. The mmr-b gene is evolving

  7. Comparison of transmission of Papaya leaf curl China virus among four cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Guo, Qi; Cui, Xi-Yun; Liu, Yin-Quan; Hu, Jian; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Begomoviruses are transmitted by cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex, often in a species-specific manner. Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) has been recorded to infect several crops including papaya, tomato and tobacco in China. To help assess the risks of spread of this virus, we compared the acquisition, retention and transmission of PaLCuCNV among four species of whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED), Asia 1 and Asia II 7. All four species of whiteflies are able to acquire, retain and transmit the virus, but with different levels of efficiency. Transmission tests using tomato as the host plant showed that MEAM1 transmitted PaLCuCNV with substantially higher efficiency than did MED, Asia 1 and Asia II 7. Furthermore, accumulation of PaLCuCNV in the whiteflies was positively associated with its efficiency of transmitting the virus. Altogether, these findings indicate that MEAM1 is the most efficient vector for PaLCuCNV in the four species of whiteflies, and suggest that risks of PaLCuCNV pandemics are high in regions where MEAM1 occurs. PMID:26486606

  8. Systematic studies in the Gloriosa superba complex (Colchicaceae): a re-assessment of species boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.; Berg, van den R.G.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - Gloriosa superba L. is a highly variable species occurring in a wide range of ecological habitats in South Africa, tropical Africa and Asia. The morphological variation in G. superba was found to be complicated and therefore numerical methods were used to re-evaluate

  9. Intraspecific variation of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Pompeiano, A.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 9 (2015), s. 679-689 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : chemotaxonomy * GCxGC/TOFMS * multiple factorial analyses * putative species * South American fruit fly Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  10. Genotyping species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by PCR-RFLP of calmodulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America and is caused by 4 pathogenic thermodimorphic fungi in the genus Sporothrix. From both therapeutic and epidemiological perspectives, it is essential to identify the causative agents down to the species level. Traditional

  11. A conspectus og the genus Allophylus (Sapindaceae). The problem of the complex species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1967-01-01

    Allophylus, at present with c. 255 accepted species, is considered as one of the largest genera of the Sapindaceae. It is distributed throughout the tropics of the Old and the New World, and shows a wide ecological range. Although somewhat variable in vegetative characters, there is a striking

  12. Genotyping species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by PCR-RFLP of calmodulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Pires Camargo, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America and is caused by 4 pathogenic thermodimorphic fungi in the genus Sporothrix. From both therapeutic and epidemiological perspectives, it is essential to identify the causative agents down to the species level. Traditional

  13. Stem cankers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia reveal a complex of pathogenic Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, S.M.; Tan, Y.P.; Young, A.J.; Neate, S.M.; Aitken, E.A.B.; Shivas, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of Diaporthe (anamorph Phomopsis) species associated with stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia was studied using morphology, DNA sequence analysis and pathology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clades that did not correspond with known taxa, and these are

  14. Current knowledge of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Hernández-Ortiz, V.; Bravo, I. S. J.; Dias, V.; Roriz, A. K. P.; Laumann, R. A.; Mendonca, A. L.; Paranhos, B. A. J.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 211-237 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * cryptic species * taxonomy * sexual behavior * chemical communication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6228

  15. A comparison of the application of a biological and phenetic species concept in the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex within a phylogenetic framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Kuyper, T.W.

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented to derive an operational phenetic species concept for the Hebeloma crustuliniforme complex in northwestern Europe. The complex was found to consist of at least 22 biological species (intercompatibility groups; ICGs). Almost none of these biological species could be recognised...... is provided. Other taxon names are briefly discussed. The very limited ability to translate a biological species concept into an operational phenetic species concept is explained by the lack of qualitative characters and the plasticity of quantitative characters. Recency of common evolutionary history is also...

  16. Phenotypic convergence in genetically distinct lineages of a Rhinolophus species complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Jacobs

    Full Text Available Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the

  17. Phenotypic convergence in genetically distinct lineages of a Rhinolophus species complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David S; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the

  18. Distributional potential of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex at present and under scenarios of future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Triatoma brasiliensis complex is a monophyletic group, comprising three species, one of which includes two subspecific taxa, distributed across 12 Brazilian states, in the caatinga and cerrado biomes. Members of the complex are diverse in terms of epidemiological importance, morphology, biology, ecology, and genetics. Triatoma b. brasiliensis is the most disease-relevant member of the complex in terms of epidemiology, extensive distribution, broad feeding preferences, broad ecological distribution, and high rates of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi; consequently, it is considered the principal vector of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil. Methods We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distributions of all members of the complex, and evaluated the potential for suitable adjacent areas to be colonized; we also present first evaluations of potential for climate change-mediated distributional shifts. Models were developed using the GARP and Maxent algorithms. Results Models for three members of the complex (T. b. brasiliensis, N = 332; T. b. macromelasoma, N = 35; and T. juazeirensis, N = 78) had significant distributional predictivity; however, models for T. sherlocki and T. melanica, both with very small sample sizes (N = 7), did not yield predictions that performed better than random. Model projections onto future-climate scenarios indicated little broad-scale potential for change in the potential distribution of the complex through 2050. Conclusions This study suggests that T. b. brasiliensis is the member of the complex with the greatest distributional potential to colonize new areas: overall; however, the distribution of the complex appears relatively stable. These analyses offer key information to guide proactive monitoring and remediation activities to reduce risk of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24886587

  19. Identification of a New Mullet Species Complex Based on an Integrative Molecular and Cytogenetic Investigation of Mugil hospes (Mugilidae: Mugiliformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mullets are very common fishes included in the family Mugilidae, (Mugiliformes, which are characterized by both a remarkably uniform external morphology and internal anatomy. Recently, within this family, different species complexes were molecularly identified within Mugil, a genus which is characterized by lineages that sometimes show very different karyotypes. Here we report the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses conducted on Mugil hospes, commonly known as the hospe mullet, from Ecuador. The study aims to verify whether the original described species from the Pacific Ocean corresponds to that identified in the Atlantic Ocean, and to identify species-specific chromosome markers that can add new comparative data about Mugilidae karyotype evolution. The karyotype of M. hospes from Ecuador is composed of 48 acrocentric chromosomes and shows two active nucleolar organizer regions (NORs. In situ hybridization, using different types of repetitive sequences (rDNAs, U1 snDNA, telomeric repeats as probes, identified species-specific chromosome markers that have been compared with those of other species of the genus Mugil. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI sequence analysis shows only 92–93% similarity with sequences previously deposited under this species name in GenBank, all of which were from the Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate the presence of three well-supported hospe mullet lineages whose molecular divergence is compatible with the presence of distinct species. Indeed, the first lineage includes samples from Ecuador, whereas the other two lineages include the Atlantic samples and correspond to M. brevirostris from Brazil and Mugil sp. R from Belize/Venezuela. Results here provided reiterate the pivotal importance of an integrative molecular and cytogenetic approach in the reconstruction of the relationships within Mugilidae.

  20. Inferring selection in the Anopheles gambiae species complex: an example from immune-related serine protease inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Tom J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae species complex are the primary vectors of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Many host genes have been shown to affect Plasmodium development in the mosquito, and so are expected to engage in an evolutionary arms race with the pathogen. However, there is little conclusive evidence that any of these mosquito genes evolve rapidly, or show other signatures of adaptive evolution. Methods Three serine protease inhibitors have previously been identified as candidate immune system genes mediating mosquito-Plasmodium interaction, and serine protease inhibitors have been identified as hot-spots of adaptive evolution in other taxa. Population-genetic tests for selection, including a recent multi-gene extension of the McDonald-Kreitman test, were applied to 16 serine protease inhibitors and 16 other genes sampled from the An. gambiae species complex in both East and West Africa. Results Serine protease inhibitors were found to show a marginally significant trend towards higher levels of amino acid diversity than other genes, and display extensive genetic structuring associated with the 2La chromosomal inversion. However, although serpins are candidate targets for strong parasite-mediated selection, no evidence was found for rapid adaptive evolution in these genes. Conclusion It is well known that phylogenetic and population history in the An. gambiae complex can present special problems for the application of standard population-genetic tests for selection, and this may explain the failure of this study to detect selection acting on serine protease inhibitors. The pitfalls of uncritically applying these tests in this species complex are highlighted, and the future prospects for detecting selection acting on the An. gambiae genome are discussed.

  1. Alkaline cation complexing with calixarenes in electro-spray / mass spectrometry. Specificity for cesium, influence of solvation on ion species and radiolytic stability of the complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, Francoise

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a rather difficult issue. In order to reduce the volume of waste storage, particularly the Cs 135 (radioactive half-life 2.3 10 6 years), liquid-liquid extraction experiments have shown that crown calixarenes were able to selectively extract cesium cation in wastes. However, the stability under radiolysis of this type of macrocycle is unknown and is the theme of this thesis. Through the coupling of electro-spray and mass spectrometry, the selectivity of crown calixarenes for cesium has been confirmed. The necessity to optimize operating conditions during the utilization of this ionization mode was acknowledged for a correct interpretation of mass spectrum. The solvent nature, source temperature, applied voltage on the cone, gaseous phase stability and species ionization desorption rate are indeed parameters that should be taken into account. Experiments show that the solution species stability is inverse to the one in gaseous phase. In a solution, species stability is linked to the nature of the solvent (solvating power) whereas in gaseous phase, it is linked to the cationic affinity. In the current radiolysis conditions it has been demonstrated that calixarenes have a stable structure. Degradation products are very largely substitution products and do not hinder the caesium cation complexing. Concerning the quantitative aspect, an estimation was produced, however results are not satisfying: reference product synthesis is in fact necessary in order to establish calibration curves that will allow to precisely dose the various components derived from radiolysis [fr

  2. Genetic and Morphological Analyses Demonstrate That Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) Is Likely to Be a Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Camila S.; Costa-Silva, Guilherme J.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Schizolecis is a monotypic genus of Siluriformes widely distributed throughout isolated coastal drainages of southeastern Brazil. Previous studies have shown that fish groups found in isolated river basins tend to differentiate over time in the absence of gene flow, resulting in allopatric speciation. In this study, we used partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene COI with the analysis of the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC) and the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) for single locus species delimitation, and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of external morphology to test the hypothesis that Schizolecis guntheri is a complex of species. We analyzed 94 samples of S. guntheri for GMYC and ABGD, and 82 samples for PCA from 22 coastal rivers draining to the Atlantic in southeastern Brazil from the Paraná State to the north of the Rio de Janeiro State. As a result, the GMYC model and the ABGD delimited five operational taxonomy units (OTUs – a nomenclature referred to in the present study of the possible new species delimited for the genetic analysis), a much higher number compared to the traditional alfa taxonomy that only recognizes S. guntheri across the isolated coastal rivers of Brazil. Furthermore, the PCA analysis suggests that S. guntheri is highly variable in aspects of external body proportions, including dorsal-fin spine length, pectoral-fin spine length, pelvic-fin spine length, lower caudal-fin spine length, caudal peduncle depth, anal width and mandibular ramus length. However, no exclusive character was found among the isolated populations that could be used to describe a new species of Schizolecis. Therefore, we can conclude, based on our results of PCA contrasting with the results of GMYC and ABGD, that S. guntheri represents a complex of species. PMID:29552028

  3. Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Taylor

    Full Text Available Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens. Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe. A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya. Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2, these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2 at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz represents the

  4. Analyses of volatiles produced by the African fruit fly species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Vaníčková, Lucie; Faťarová, M.; Ekesi, S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 385-404 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ceratitis FAR complex * chemotaxonomy * male and female-borne volatiles * GCxGC-TOFMS * GC-EAD Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6223

  5. Taxonomic studies of the Penicillium glabrum complex and the description of a new species P. subericola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    - and microscopic features, the comparison of extrolite profiles and sequencing a part of the β-tubulin and calmodulin gene. The six β-tubulin types were reduced to three different species. One group of isolates was centred on the ex-type strain of P. glabrum, a second group accommodated the type strain of P...... sequences. Six groups with different partial β-tubulin gene sequences were observed, and a selection of isolates of each group was made. These selected isolates and various related ex-type strains were subjected to a taxonomical study using a polyphasic approach. This approach included analysis of macro....... spinulosum and a third group contained isolates which were unique in their β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences, extrolite profiles and growth characteristics. This group of isolates is described as the new species Penicillium subericola. The type strain of P. subericola CBS 125096T was isolated from...

  6. Characterization of divalent and trivalent species generated in the chemical and electrochemical oxidation of a dimeric pincer complex of nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasyuk, Denis M; Gorelsky, Serge I; van der Est, Art; Zargarian, Davit

    2011-03-21

    The electrolytic and chemical oxidation of the dimeric pincer complex [κ(P),κ(C),κ(N),μ(N)-(2,6-(i-Pr(2)POC(6)H(3)CH(2)NBn)Ni](2) (1; Bn = CH(2)Ph) has been investigated by various analytic techniques. Cyclic voltammetry measurements have shown that 1 undergoes a quasi-reversible, one electron, Ni-based redox process (ΔE(0)(1/2) = -0.07 V vs Cp(2)Fe/[Cp(2)Fe](+)), and spectroelectrochemical measurements conducted on the product of the electrolytic oxidation, [1](+•), have shown multiple low-energy electronic transitions in the range of 10,000-15,000 cm(-1). Computational studies using Density Functional Theory (B3LYP) have corroborated the experimentally obtained structure of 1, provided the electronic structure description, and helped interpret the experimentally obtained absorption spectra for 1 and [1](+·). These calculations indicate that the radical cation [1](+·) is a dimeric, mixed-valent species (class III) wherein most of the spin density is delocalized over the two nickel centers (Ni(+2.5)(2)N(2)), but some spin density is also present over the two nitrogen atoms (Ni(2+)(2)N(2)·). Examination of alternative structures for open shell species generated from 1 has shown that the spin density distribution is highly sensitive toward changes in the ligand environment of the Ni ions. NMR, UV-vis, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses have shown that chemical oxidation of 1 with N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) follows a complex process that gives multiple products, including the monomeric trivalent species κ(P),κ(C),κ(N)-{2,6-(i-Pr(2)PO)(C(6)H(3))(CH═NBn)}NiBr(2) (2). These studies also indicate that oxidation of 1 with 1 equiv of NBS gives an unstable, paramagnetic intermediate that decomposes to a number of divalent species, including succinimide and the monomeric divalent complexes κ(P),κ(C),κ(N)-{2,6-(i-Pr(2)PO)(C(6)H(3))(CH═NBn)}NiBr (3) and κ(P),κ(C),κ(N)-{2,6-(i-Pr(2)PO)(C(6)H(3))(CH(2)N

  7. Three routes to crypsis: Stasis, convergence, and parallelism in the Mastigias species complex (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, H F; Gómez Daglio, L; Dawson, M N

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary inference can be complicated by morphological crypsis, particularly in open marine systems that may rapidly dissipate signals of evolutionary processes. These complications may be alleviated by studying systems with simpler histories and clearer boundaries, such as marine lakes-small bodies of seawater entirely surrounded by land. As an example, we consider the jellyfish Mastigias spp. which occurs in two ecotypes, one in marine lakes and one in coastal oceanic habitats, throughout the Indo-West Pacific (IWP). We tested three evolutionary hypotheses to explain the current distribution of the ecotypes: (H1) the ecotypes originated from an ancient divergence; (H2) the lake ecotype was derived recently from the ocean ecotype during a single divergence event; and (H3) the lake ecotype was derived from multiple, recent, independent, divergences. We collected specimens from 21 locations throughout the IWP, reconstructed multilocus phylogenetic and intraspecific relationships, and measured variation in up to 40 morphological characters. The species tree reveals three reciprocally monophyletic regional clades, two of which contain ocean and lake ecotypes, suggesting repeated, independent evolution of coastal ancestors into marine lake ecotypes, consistent with H3; hypothesis testing and an intraspecific haplotype network analysis of samples from Palau reaffirms this result. Phylogenetic character mapping strongly correlates morphology to environment rather than lineage (r=0.7512, pmorphological similarity in Mastigias spp. clearly results from three separate patterns of evolution: morphological stasis in ocean medusae, convergence of lake morphology across distinct species and parallelism between lake morphologies within species. That three evolutionary routes each result in crypsis illustrates the challenges of interpreting evolutionary processes from patterns of biogeography and diversity in the seas. Identifying cryptic species is only the first step in

  8. The first European stand of Paramecium sonneborni (P. aurelia complex), a species known only from North America (Texas, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria; Lebedeva, Natalia

    2014-06-01

    P. aurelia is currently defined as a complex of 15 sibling species including 14 species designated by Sonneborn (1975) and one, P. sonneborni, by Aufderheide et al. (1983). The latter was known from only one stand (Texas, USA). The main reason for the present study was a new stand of Paramecium in Cyprus, with strains recognized as P. sonneborni based on the results of strain crosses, cytological slides, and molecular analyses of three loci (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-5'LSU rDNA, COI, CytB). The new stand of P. sonneborni in Europe shows that the species, previously considered endemic, may have a wider range. This demonstrates the impact of under-sampling on the knowledge of the biogeography of microbial eukaryotes. Phylogenetic trees based on all the studied fragments revealed that P. sonneborni forms a separate cluster that is closer to P. jenningsi and P. schewiakoffi than to the other members of the P. aurelia complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée) (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée) (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad) and Paectes longiformis Pogue (Brazil) are described: Paectes asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia), Paectes medialba sp. n. (Argentina), Paectes similis sp. n. (Brazil), Paectes sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay), and Paectes tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of Paectes nana (Walker) (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos) as a valid species and revised synonyms Paectes indefatigabilis Schaus and Paectes isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of Paectes nana instead of Paectes arcigera. New host records for Paectes sinuosa and Paectes nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of Paectes obrotunda (Guenée) are illustrated.

  10. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pogue

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad and P. longiformis Pogue (Brazil are described: P. asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia, P. medialba sp. n. (Argentina, P. similis sp. n. (Brazil, P. sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and P. tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of P. nana (Walker (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos as a valid species and revised synonyms P. indefatigabilis Schaus and P. isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of P. nana instead of P. arcigera. New host records for P. sinuosa and P. nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of P. obrotunda (Guenée are illustrated.

  11. Nuclear markers reveal a complex introgression pattern among marine turtle species on the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaça, Sibelle T; Vargas, Sarah M; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Molfetti, Érica; Reis, Estéfane C; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Soares, Luciano S; Santos, Fabrício R

    2012-09-01

    Surprisingly, a high frequency of interspecific sea turtle hybrids has been previously recorded in a nesting site along a short stretch of the Brazilian coast. Mitochondrial DNA data indicated that as much as 43% of the females identified as Eretmochelys imbricata are hybrids in this area (Bahia State of Brazil). It is a remarkable find, because most of the nesting sites surveyed worldwide, including some in northern Brazil, presents no hybrids, and rare Caribbean sites present no more than 2% of hybrids. Thus, a detailed understanding of the hybridization process is needed to evaluate natural or anthropogenic causes of this regional phenomenon in Brazil, which could be an important factor affecting the conservation of this population. We analysed a set of 12 nuclear markers to investigate the pattern of hybridization involving three species of sea turtles: hawksbill (E. imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea). Our data indicate that most of the individuals in the crossings L. olivacea × E. imbricata and L. olivacea × C. caretta are F1 hybrids, whereas C. caretta × E. imbricata crossings present F1 and backcrosses with both parental species. In addition, the C. caretta × E. imbricata hybridization seems to be gender and species biased, and we also found one individual with evidence of multispecies hybridization among C. caretta × E. imbricata × Chelonia mydas. The overall results also indicate that hybridization in this area is a recent phenomenon, spanning at least two generations or ~40 years. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Insecticide susceptibility of Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and three other stink bug species composing a soybean pest complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Endo, Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The susceptibility of the stink bug species Nezara viridula (L.), Nezara antennata Scott, Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin), and Riptortus pedestris (F.) to insecticides was tested, establishing their 50% lethal dose (LD50) values as baseline data. Third instars and adults of the four species were treated by topical application with seven insecticides: fenitrothion, fenthion, etofenprox, silafluofen, dinotefuran, clothianidin, and ethiprole. The weight of the stink bug and weight of the insecticide applied to each bug were used as explanatory variables in the probit regression analysis. The effect of the body weight on the dose-response relationship, the proportional model, was not uniform among the tested insecticide-stink bug combinations. However, the basic model fit all combinations and could estimate LD50 values successfully. Therefore, LD50 values at the medium (average) weight estimated by the basic model were selected to describe the susceptibility of the stink bugs. The LD50 value of silafluofen for N. viridula adults, and that of silafluofen and etofenprox for N. antennata adults, was at least 2,338 ng greater than the other species exposed to each insecticide. Almost all of the LD50 values for adults were over 10 times greater than those of the same species' nymphs treated with the same insecticide. Thus monitoring of occurring species and their developmental stages is important for controlling effectively the stink bug pest complex by insecticides, especially by silafluofen or etofenprox. The estimated LD50 values can be used as baseline data to compare the susceptibility of the species collected in another year or location.

  13. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  14. Modeling co-expression across species for complex traits: insights to the difference of human and mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions between genes or proteins contribute substantially to phenotypic evolution. We present a probabilistic model and a maximum likelihood approach for cross-species clustering analysis and for identification of conserved as well as species-specific co-expression modules. This model enables a "soft" cross-species clustering (SCSC approach by encouraging but not enforcing orthologous genes to be grouped into the same cluster. SCSC is therefore robust to obscure orthologous relationships and can reflect different functional roles of orthologous genes in different species. We generated a time-course gene expression dataset for differentiating mouse embryonic stem (ES cells, and compiled a dataset of published gene expression data on differentiating human ES cells. Applying SCSC to analyze these datasets, we identified conserved and species-specific gene regulatory modules. Together with protein-DNA binding data, an SCSC cluster specifically induced in murine ES cells indicated that the KLF2/4/5 transcription factors, although critical to maintaining the pluripotent phenotype in mouse ES cells, were decoupled from the OCT4/SOX2/NANOG regulatory module in human ES cells. Two of the target genes of murine KLF2/4/5, LIN28 and NODAL, were rewired to be targets of OCT4/SOX2/NANOG in human ES cells. Moreover, by mapping SCSC clusters onto KEGG signaling pathways, we identified the signal transduction components that were induced in pluripotent ES cells in either a conserved or a species-specific manner. These results suggest that the pluripotent cell identity can be established and maintained through more than one gene regulatory network.

  15. Nonrandom patterns of genetic admixture expose the complex historical hybrid origin of unisexual leaf beetle species in the genus Calligrapha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Tinguaro; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Many unisexual animal lineages supposedly arose from hybridization. However, support for their putative hybrid origins mostly comes from indirect methodologies, which are rarely confirmatory. Here we provide compelling data indicating that tetraploid unisexual Calligrapha are true genetic mosaics obtained via analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and allelic variation and coalescence times for three single-copy nuclear genes (CPS, HARS, and Wg) in five of six unisexual Calligrapha and a representative sample of bisexual species. Nuclear allelic diversity in unisexuals consistently segregates in the gene pools of at least two but up to three divergent bisexual species, interpreted as putative parentals of interspecific hybridization crosses. Interestingly, their mtDNA diversity derives from an additional yet undiscovered older evolutionary lineage that is possibly the same for all independently originated unisexual species. One possibly extinct species transferred its mtDNA to several evolutionary lineages in a wave of hybridization events during the Pliocene, whereby descendant species retained a polymorphic mtDNA constitution. Recent hybridizations, in the Pleistocene and always involving females with the old introgressed mtDNA, seemingly occurred in the lineages leading to unisexual species, decoupling mtDNA introgression (and inferences derived from these data, such as timing and parentage) from subsequent acquisition of the new reproductive mode. These results illuminate an unexpected complexity in possible routes to animal unisexuality, with implications for the interpretation of ancient unisexuality. If the origin of unisexuality requires a mechanism where (1) hybridization is a necessary but insufficient condition and (2) multiple bouts of hybridization involving more than two divergent lineages are required, then the origins of several classical unisexual systems may have to be reassessed.

  16. Environmental Fate of a Complex Mixture, Creosote, in Two Species of Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    present results demonstrate the potential usefulness of isolated fish hepatocytes as an alternative to live animals in studies of aquatic toxicology . Accesion...to live animals in studies of aquatic toxicology . 8 INTRODUCTION Creosote is a complex mixture of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds and is used...J.M.J., (1982) Use of aquatic toxicology and quantitative chemistry to estimate environmental deactivation of marine- grade creosote in seawater

  17. Detection of recent hybridization between sympatric Chilean Puya species (Bromeliaceae) using AFLP markers and reconstruction of complex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Katharina; Silvestro, Daniele; Kiehlmann, Elke; Vesely, Sanja; Novoa, Patricio; Zizka, Georg

    2010-12-01

    The Chilean Puya species constitute a monophyletic group, co-occurring in different species combinations within the country and displaying a remarkable morphological variability. Here, we studied the importance of recent hybridization and introgression in the group and reconstructed the complex inter- and intraspecific relationships. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, including 109 accessions of all Chilean Puya species and four putative hybrids, yielded 984 characters. Three main genetic groups were revealed, with the chilensis group (P. chilensis, P. gilmartiniae, P. boliviensis) diverging first, and the alpestris (P. alpestris, P. berteroniana) and coerulea group (P. venusta, P. coerulea) forming sister groups. STRUCTURE analyses confirmed a hybrid origin of morphologically intermediate individuals, and detected several additional hybrids. Hybrids were found between the chilensis and alpestris group, and between the alpestris and coerulea group. Exclusion of hybrids improved phylogenetic reconstructions. The study demonstrates that the detection of hybrids within Bromeliaceae can be difficult based on morphological characters alone and that efficient reproductive barriers may only slowly establish, leading to hybridization between closely related sympatric species. The importance of hybridization for the rapid diversification of Puya is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The genome of African yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata complex) hosts endogenous sequences from four distinct Badnavirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umber, Marie; Filloux, Denis; Muller, Emmanuelle; Laboureau, Nathalie; Galzi, Serge; Roumagnac, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Pavis, Claudie; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves; Seal, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Several endogenous viral elements (EVEs) have been identified in plant genomes, including endogenous pararetroviruses (EPRVs). Here, we report the first characterization of EPRV sequences in the genome of African yam of the Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata complex. We propose that these sequences should be termed 'endogenous Dioscorea bacilliform viruses' (eDBVs). Molecular characterization of eDBVs shows that they constitute sequences originating from various parts of badnavirus genomes, resulting in a mosaic structure that is typical of most EPRVs characterized to date. Using complementary molecular approaches, we show that eDBVs belong to at least four distinct Badnavirus species, indicating multiple, independent, endogenization events. Phylogenetic analyses of eDBVs support and enrich the current taxonomy of yam badnaviruses and lead to the characterization of a new Badnavirus species in yam. The impact of eDBVs on diagnosis, yam germplasm conservation and movement, and breeding is discussed. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Nitrogen complex species and its chemical nature in TiO2 for visible-light sensitized photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Ryoji; Morikawa, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    A photocatalyst with high reactivity under visible-light has been desired to utilize solar irradiation or interior lighting efficiently. Nitrogen-doped TiO 2 revealed significant improvement in optical absorption and photocatalytic activity over TiO 2 under visible light. We have performed the first-principles calculations to study the detailed N complex species introduced in TiO 2 . The results include stable geometries, densities of states, formation energies, and core levels. The present systematic studies account for the long-term controversial issue on N-doped TiO 2 , in particular, regarding the detailed assignment of N 1s binding energies observed in the XPS measurement. The detailed analyses of the formation energies show that introducing the N species more in a controlled way via process conditions is crucial to achieve the optimized photocatalytic performance

  20. New molecular data shed light on the global phylogeny and species limits of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimoğlu, Olcay; Sağlam, İsmail K; Özer, Nurdan; Estrada-Peña, Agustin

    2016-07-01

    The Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex is a group of closely related tick species distributed all around the world. In this study, using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, new specimens of R sanguineus sensu lato from Turkey and Rhipicephalus camicasi from Kenya, were evaluated together with available sequences of this complex in GenBank. Our objectives were to delimit the complex, re-evaluate its global phylogeny and develop a reconstruction of its biogeographic history. Given Turkey's geographical location and its neighboring status within Africa, Asia and Europe, molecular information of R. sanguineus s.l. species from this region could have important implications both on a regional and global scale. Phylogenetic trees obtained with three methods (Bayesian, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony) were highly similar and consensus trees gave the same branching patterns and similar node support values. A total of four different clades with up to 9 Operational Taxonomic Units formed strong monophyletic groups. Biogeographic reconstructions demonstrated the importance of populations in Middle East (Turkey) in the spread of the group from Europe to Africa and Asia. Data supported previous conclusions on the existence of two species of R. sanguineus s.l. in South America and the strong molecular similarity between R. camicasi and the so-called tropical lineage of R. sanguineus s.l. These results point to the need of a re-evaluation of most specimens designated as R. sanguineus s.l. in East Europe, Middle East, Africa and Asia after an adequate re-description of this taxon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in mammals' and its importance for studies of rare species (with Felidae family as an example)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasian, K K; Sorokin, P A; Kholodova, M V; Rozhnov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) appears to be a suitable tool for solving various tasks of popu- lationgenetics. Information on genetic basis of immunity facilitates understanding of evolutionary his- tory and assessment of current state and prospects of studied population/species survival. On the one hand, MHC variability is maintained through pathogen dependent mechanisms, i.e., directional selection of individuals resistant to diseases, that are present in the environment and balancing selection which gives advantage to those individuals carrying unusual or rare alleles of MHC genes. On the other hand, MHC genes have an influence on reproduction efficiency of individuals. Because of MHC polygeny, its studying requires an application of methods that introduce additional stages between amplification of a certain gene segment and its sequencing. In the article, different tech- niques of allele separation are considered, as well as a simplified version of MHC variability analysis based on the examination of microsatellite loci. Despite the high information value of MHC, it is still not used in zoological studies as often as it deserves. Using as an example predatory mammals of Felidae family which contains quite a few threatened species, we show that a majority of studies on MHC in wild cats is descriptive ones and only few of them deal with genes comparative analysis. The rise of interest to the studies of major histocompatibility complex in non-model species may help not only in solving the fundamental problems of evolution and phylogenetic structure of the family but also in planning the measures for conservation of rare and endangered species exposed to various anthropogenic stresses.

  2. A two-locus DNA sequence database for typing plant and human pathogens within the Fusarium oxysporum species complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Gueidan, C; Sink, S

    2009-01-01

    We constructed a two-locus database, comprising partial translation elongation factor (EF-1alpha) gene sequences and nearly full-length sequences of the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS rDNA) for 850 isolates spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex...... (FOSC). Of the 850 isolates typed, 101 EF-1alpha, 203 IGS rDNA, and 256 two-locus sequence types (STs) were differentiated. Analysis of the combined dataset suggests that two-thirds of the STs might be associated with a single host plant. This analysis also revealed that the 26 STs associated with human...

  3. NADPH oxidase complex-derived reactive oxygen species, the actin cytoskeleton, and rho GTPases in cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Alanna; Thompson, Kerry; Hynes, Ailish

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Rho GTPases are historically known to be central regulators of actin cytoskeleton reorganization. This affects many processes including cell migration. In addition, members of the Rac subfamily are known to be involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through...... mediating cytoskeletal reorganization. Critical Issues: The role of the actin cytoskeleton in providing a scaffold for components of the Nox complex needs to be examined in the light of these new advances. During cell migration, Rho GTPases, ROS, and cytoskeletal organization appear to function as a complex...... the regulation of NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. This review focuses on relationships between Nox-regulated ROS, Rho GTPases, and cytoskeletal reorganization, in the context of cell migration. Recent Advances: It has become clear that ROS participate in the regulation of certain Rho GTPase family members, thus...

  4. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Alan V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb. Darbysh. is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN], the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first

  5. Advances and challenges in paracoccidioidomycosis serology caused by Paracoccidioides species complex: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the possible methodologies for the rapid and inexpensive identification of fungal infections is essential for disease diagnosis, but there are some limitations. To help with this problem, serological methods that detect antigens or antibodies are widely used and are useful for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) through the detection of gp43, which is the main antigen employed for the immunodiagnosis of this disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. However, the use of gp43 has become restricted because it was recently found that this marker is not identified in the infections caused by Paracoccidioides lutzii. Therefore, it is necessary to identify new antigens in both species or antigens specific for P. lutzii to decrease the morbidity and/or mortality associated with PCM. This review provides a discussion of new diagnostic challenges after the recent discoveries regarding the taxonomy of the Paracoccidioides genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphometric analysis to discriminate between species: The case of the Megalobulimus leucostoma complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Borda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity of conchological characters had led to erroneous descriptions and the accumulation of synonyms making difficult the discrimination among species. The land snail genus Megalobulimus is an example of this problem. Megalobulimus leucostoma (Sowerby, 1835 has three subspecies which are difficult to differentiate by using the original descriptions. The aim of this paper is to discriminate among the subspecies of M. leucostoma by using morphometric and distribution analyses. Both provide substantial differences between M. l. leucostoma and M. l lacunosus that would not support the subspecies status of the former. Megalobulimus leucostoma weyrauchi fits into the great conchological variability of M. l .leucostoma; also the sympatric status between these two subspecies would not support the subspecies status of the former, and M. l. weyrauchi should be considered as part of M. l. leucostoma.

  7. Automated species and strain identification of bacteria in complex matrices using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzey, K. A.; Gardner, P. J.; Petrova, V. K.; Donnelly, C. W.; Petrucci, G. A.

    2008-04-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides a highly selective and reproducible means for the chemically-based discrimination of intact microbial cells which make the method valuable for large-scale screening of foods. The goals of the present study were to assess the effect of chemical interferents, such as food matrices, different sanitizing compounds and growth media, on the ability of the method to accurately identify and classify L. innocua, L. welshimeri, E. coli, S. cholerasuis, S. subterranea, E. sakazakii, and E. aerogenes. Moreover, the potential of FTIR spectroscopy for discrimination of L. innocua and L. welshimeri of different genotypes and the effect of growth phase on identification accuracy of L. innocua and L. welshimeri were tested. FTIR spectra were collected using two different sample presentation techniques - transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR), and then analyzed using multivariate discriminant analysis based on the first derivative of the FTIR spectra with the unknown spectra assigned to the species group with the shortest Mahalanobis distance. The results of the study demonstrated 100% correct identification and differentiation of all bacterial strains used in this study in the presence of chemical interferents or food matrices, better than 99% identification rate in presence of media matrices, and 100% correct detection for specific bacteria in mixed flora species. Additionally, FTIR spectroscopy proved to be 100% accurate when differentiating between genotypes of L. innocua and L. welshimeri, with the classification accuracy unaffected by the growth stage. These results suggest that FTIR spectroscopy can be used as a valuable tool for identifying pathogenic bacteria in food and environmental samples.

  8. Using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data for disentangling population structure in complex pest species: a case study with Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Roy

    Full Text Available Among global changes induced by human activities, association of breakdown of geographical barriers and impoverishered biodiversity of agroecosystems may have a strong evolutionary impact on pest species. As a consequence of trade networks' expansion, secondary contacts between incipient species, if hybrid incompatibility is not yet reached, may result in hybrid swarms, even more when empty niches are available as usual in crop fields and farms. By providing important sources of genetic novelty for organisms to adapt in changing environments, hybridization may be strongly involved in the emergence of invasive populations. Because national and international trade networks offered multiple hybridization opportunities during the previous and current centuries, population structure of many pest species is expected to be the most intricate and its inference often blurred when using fast-evolving markers. Here we show that mito-nuclear sequence datasets may be the most helpful in disentangling successive layers of admixture in the composition of pest populations. As a model we used D. gallinae s. l., a mesostigmatid mite complex of two species primarily parasitizing birds, namely D. gallinae L1 and D. gallinae s. str. The latter is a pest species, considered invading layer farms in Brazil. The structure of the pest as represented by isolates from both wild and domestic birds, from European (with a focus on France, Australian and Brazilian farms, revealed past hybridization events and very recent contact between deeply divergent lineages. The role of wild birds in the dissemination of mites appears to be null in European and Australian farms, but not in Brazilian ones. In French farms, some recent secondary contact is obviously consecutive to trade flows. Scenarios of populations' history were established, showing five different combinations of more or less dramatic bottlenecks and founder events, nearly interspecific hybridizations and recent

  9. A new species of bright-eyed treefrog (Mantellidae) from Madagascar, with comments on call evolution and patterns of syntopy in the Boophis ankaratra complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R; Lambert, Shea M; Cobb, Kerry A; Andriampenomanana, Zo Faniry; Vences, Miguel

    2015-10-30

    We describe a new species of Boophis treefrog from Ranomafana National Park in the southern central east of Madagascar. This region has remarkably high anuran diversity, and along with neighbouring sites, hosts more than 35 Boophis species. Boophis boppa sp. nov. is part of the B. ankaratra sub-clade (herein named the B. ankaratra complex), previously identified within the monophyletic B. albipunctatus species group. It occurs sympatrically with two other species of the complex (B. ankaratra and B. schuboeae). Morphological differentiation of species within the B. ankaratra clade remains elusive, but species are well characterized by distinct advertisement calls, with B. boppa having the longest note duration and inter-note intervals when compared to closely related species. Furthermore, it has moderate differentiation in mitochondrial DNA, with pairwise distances of 1.9-3.7% to all other species in sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA marker. Additional evidence is given by the lack of haplotype sharing with related species for the nuclear exon DNAH-3. All examples of syntopic occurrence in this complex involve species with strongly different advertisement calls, while allopatric species have more similar calls. Such a pattern might result from adaptive call co-evolution but could also be the result of non-adaptive processes. Thorough clarification of the systematics of the B. ankaratra sub-clade is required, and we outline future directions for both bioacoustic and genetic research.

  10. Imaging Fluorescent Combustion Species in Gas Turbine Flame Tubes: On Complexities in Real Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Y. R.; Locke, R. J.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M.; Schock, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is used to visualize the flame structure via OH, NO, and fuel imaging in kerosene- burning gas turbine combustor flame tubes. When compared to simple gaseous hydrocarbon flames and hydrogen flames, flame tube testing complexities include spectral interferences from large fuel fragments, unknown turbulence interactions, high pressure operation, and the concomitant need for windows and remote operation. Complications of these and other factors as they apply to image analysis are considered. Because both OH and gas turbine engine fuels (commercial and military) can be excited and detected using OH transition lines, a narrowband and a broadband detection scheme are compared and the benefits and drawbacks of each method are examined.

  11. Molecular diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in cerebrospinal fluid: comparison of primer sets for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilena dos Anjos; Brighente, Kate Bastos Santos; Matos, Terezinha Aparecida de; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; Hipólito, Daise Damaris Carnietto de; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of polymerase chain reaction for cryptococcal meningitis diagnosis in clinical samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the methodology were evaluated using eight Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex reference strains and 165 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurological diseases divided into two groups: 96 patients with cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS; and 69 patients with other neurological opportunistic diseases (CRL/AIDS). Two primer sets were tested (CN4-CN5 and the multiplex CNa70S-CNa70A/CNb49S-CNb-49A that amplify a specific product for C. neoformans and another for C. gattii). CN4-CN5 primer set was positive in all Cryptococcus standard strains and in 94.8% in DNA samples from cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS group. With the multiplex, no 448-bp product of C. gattii was observed in the clinical samples of either group. The 695bp products of C. neoformans were observed only in 64.6% of the cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS group. This primer set was negative for two standard strains. The specificity based on the negative samples from the CTL/AIDS group was 98.5% in both primer sets. These data suggest that the CN4/CN5 primer set was highly sensitive for the identification of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinical suspicion of cryptococcal meningitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Colombo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC, indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-derived bottles (but not those from peripheral veins yielded hyaline fungi that, based on morphology, were identified as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Gene amplification and direct sequencing of the fungal ITS1 rRNA region and the EF-1alpha gene confirmed the isolate as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Portions of the CVC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Fungi mycelia with long protruding hyphae were seen into the lumen. The firm adhesion of the fungal formation to the inner surface of the catheter was evident. In the absence of systemic infection, catheter removal and prophylactic voriconazole therapy were followed by disappearance of febrile events and recovery. Thus, indwelling catheters are prone to contamination by environmental fungi.

  13. The microgeographical patterns of morphological and molecular variation of a mixed ploidy population in the species complex Actinidia chinensis.

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    Yifei Liu

    Full Text Available Polyploidy and hybridization are thought to have significant impacts on both the evolution and diversification of the genus Actinidia, but the structure and patterns of morphology and molecular diversity relating to ploidy variation of wild Actinidia plants remain much less understood. Here, we examine the distribution of morphological variation and ploidy levels along geographic and environmental variables of a large mixed-ploidy population of the A. chinensis species complex. We then characterize the extent of both genetic and epigenetic diversity and differentiation exhibited between individuals of different ploidy levels. Our results showed that while there are three ploidy levels in this population, hexaploids were constituted the majority (70.3%. Individuals with different ploidy levels were microgeographically structured in relation to elevation and extent of niche disturbance. The morphological characters examined revealed clear difference between diploids and hexaploids, however tetraploids exhibited intermediate forms. Both genetic and epigenetic diversity were high but the differentiation among cytotypes was weak, suggesting extensive gene flow and/or shared ancestral variation occurred in this population even across ploidy levels. Epigenetic variation was clearly correlated with changes in altitudes, a trend of continuous genetic variation and gradual increase of epigenomic heterogeneities of individuals was also observed. Our results show that complex interactions between the locally microgeographical environment, ploidy and gene flow impact A. chinensis genetic and epigenetic variation. We posit that an increase in ploidy does not broaden the species habitat range, but rather permits A. chinensis adaptation to specific niches.

  14. IPD-MHC 2.0: an improved inter-species database for the study of the major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Giuseppe; Robinson, James; Ballingall, Keith; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Grimholt, Unni; Kaufman, Jim; Ho, Chak-Sum; de Groot, Natasja G; Flicek, Paul; Bontrop, Ronald E; Hammond, John A; Marsh, Steven G E

    2017-01-04

    The IPD-MHC Database project (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/mhc/) collects and expertly curates sequences of the major histocompatibility complex from non-human species and provides the infrastructure and tools to enable accurate analysis. Since the first release of the database in 2003, IPD-MHC has grown and currently hosts a number of specific sections, with more than 7000 alleles from 70 species, including non-human primates, canines, felines, equids, ovids, suids, bovins, salmonids and murids. These sequences are expertly curated and made publicly available through an open access website. The IPD-MHC Database is a key resource in its field, and this has led to an average of 1500 unique visitors and more than 5000 viewed pages per month. As the database has grown in size and complexity, it has created a number of challenges in maintaining and organizing information, particularly the need to standardize nomenclature and taxonomic classification, while incorporating new allele submissions. Here, we describe the latest database release, the IPD-MHC 2.0 and discuss planned developments. This release incorporates sequence updates and new tools that enhance database queries and improve the submission procedure by utilizing common tools that are able to handle the varied requirements of each MHC-group. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both

  16. Marennine, Promising Blue Pigments from a Widespread Haslea Diatom Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastineau, Romain; Turcotte, François; Pouvreau, Jean-Bernard; Morançais, Michèle; Fleurence, Joël; Windarto, Eko; Semba Prasetiya, Fiddy; Arsad, Sulastri; Jaouen, Pascal; Babin, Mathieu; Coiffard, Laurence; Couteau, Céline; Bardeau, Jean-François; Jacquette, Boris; Leignel, Vincent; Hardivillier, Yann; Marcotte, Isabelle; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Tremblay, Réjean; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Badawy, Hope; Pasetto, Pamela; Davidovich, Nikolai; Hansen, Gert; Dittmer, Jens; Mouget, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    In diatoms, the main photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls a and c, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin. The marine pennate diatom Haslea ostrearia has long been known for producing, in addition to these generic pigments, a water-soluble blue pigment, marennine. This pigment, responsible for the greening of oysters in western France, presents different biological activities: allelopathic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and growth-inhibiting. A method to extract and purify marennine has been developed, but its chemical structure could hitherto not be resolved. For decades, H. ostrearia was the only organism known to produce marennine, and can be found worldwide. Our knowledge about H. ostrearia-like diatom biodiversity has recently been extended with the discovery of several new species of blue diatoms, the recently described H. karadagensis, H. silbo sp. inedit. and H. provincialis sp. inedit. These blue diatoms produce different marennine-like pigments, which belong to the same chemical family and present similar biological activities. Aside from being a potential source of natural blue pigments, H. ostrearia-like diatoms thus present a commercial potential for aquaculture, cosmetics, food and health industries. PMID:24879542

  17. Marennine, Promising Blue Pigments from a Widespread Haslea Diatom Species Complex

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    Romain Gastineau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In diatoms, the main photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls a and c, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin. The marine pennate diatom Haslea ostrearia has long been known for producing, in addition to these generic pigments, a water-soluble blue pigment, marennine. This pigment, responsible for the greening of oysters in western France, presents different biological activities: allelopathic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and growth-inhibiting. A method to extract and purify marennine has been developed, but its chemical structure could hitherto not be resolved. For decades, H. ostrearia was the only organism known to produce marennine, and can be found worldwide. Our knowledge about H. ostrearia-like diatom biodiversity has recently been extended with the discovery of several new species of blue diatoms, the recently described H. karadagensis, H. silbo sp. inedit. and H. provincialis sp. inedit. These blue diatoms produce different marennine-like pigments, which belong to the same chemical family and present similar biological activities. Aside from being a potential source of natural blue pigments, H. ostrearia-like diatoms thus present a commercial potential for aquaculture, cosmetics, food and health industries.

  18. Delineating ecological boundaries of Hanuman langur species complex in peninsular India using MaxEnt modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Chetan; Chetan, Nag; Karanth, K Praveen; Praveen, Karanth K; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva; Vasudeva, Gururaja Kotambylu

    2014-01-01

    Hanuman langur is one of the widely distributed and extensively studied non-human diurnal primates in India. Until recently it was believed to be a single species - Semnopithecus entellus. Recent molecular and morphological studies suggest that the Hanuman langurs consists of at least three species S. entellus, S. hypoleucos and S. priam. Furthermore, morphological studies suggested that both S. hypoleucos and S. priam have at least three subspecies in each. We explored the use of ecological niche modeling (ENM) to confirm the validity of these seven taxa and an additional taxon S. johnii belonging to the same genus. MaxEnt modeling tool was used with 19 bioclimatic, 12 vegetation and 6 hydrological environmental layers. We reduced total environmental variables to 14 layers after testing for collinearity and an independent test for model prediction was done using ENMTools. A total of 196 non-overlapping data points from primary and secondary sources were used as inputs for ENM. Results showed eight distinct ecological boundaries, corroborating the eight taxa mentioned above thereby confirming validity of these eight taxa. The study, for the first time provided ecological variables that determined the ecological requirements and distribution of members of the Hanuman langur species complex in the Indian peninsula.

  19. Phylogeographic Pattern and Extensive Mitochondrial DNA Divergence Disclose a Species Complex within the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernando A.; Peretolchina, Tatiana; Lazoski, Cristiano; Harris, Kecia; Dotson, Ellen M.; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Tamayo, Elsa; Pennington, Pamela M.; Monroy, Carlota; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Salazar-Schettino, Paz Maria; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Grijalva, Mario J.; Beard, Charles B.; Marcet, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Triatoma dimidiata is among the main vectors of Chagas disease in Latin America. However, and despite important advances, there is no consensus about the taxonomic status of phenotypically divergent T. dimidiata populations, which in most recent papers are regarded as subspecies. Methodology and Findings A total of 126 cyt b sequences (621 bp long) were produced for specimens from across the species range. Forty-seven selected specimens representing the main cyt b clades observed (after a preliminary phylogenetic analysis) were also sequenced for an ND4 fragment (554 bp long) and concatenated with their respective cyt b sequences to produce a combined data set totalling 1175 bp/individual. Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of both data sets (cyt b, and cyt b+ND4) disclosed four strongly divergent (all pairwise Kimura 2-parameter distances >0.08), monophyletic groups: Group I occurs from Southern Mexico through Central America into Colombia, with Ecuadorian specimens resembling Nicaraguan material; Group II includes samples from Western-Southwestern Mexico; Group III comprises specimens from the Yucatán peninsula; and Group IV consists of sylvatic samples from Belize. The closely-related, yet formally recognized species T. hegneri from the island of Cozumel falls within the divergence range of the T. dimidiata populations studied. Conclusions We propose that Groups I–IV, as well as T. hegneri, should be regarded as separate species. In the Petén of Guatemala, representatives of Groups I, II, and III occur in sympatry; the absence of haplotypes with intermediate genetic distances, as shown by multimodal mismatch distribution plots, clearly indicates that reproductive barriers actively promote within-group cohesion. Some sylvatic specimens from Belize belong to a different species – likely the basal lineage of the T. dimidiata complex, originated ∼8.25 Mya. The evidence presented here strongly supports the proposition that T

  20. Phylogeographic pattern and extensive mitochondrial DNA divergence disclose a species complex within the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata.

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    Fernando A Monteiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Triatoma dimidiata is among the main vectors of Chagas disease in Latin America. However, and despite important advances, there is no consensus about the taxonomic status of phenotypically divergent T. dimidiata populations, which in most recent papers are regarded as subspecies. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 126 cyt b sequences (621 bp long were produced for specimens from across the species range. Forty-seven selected specimens representing the main cyt b clades observed (after a preliminary phylogenetic analysis were also sequenced for an ND4 fragment (554 bp long and concatenated with their respective cyt b sequences to produce a combined data set totalling 1175 bp/individual. Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of both data sets (cyt b, and cyt b+ND4 disclosed four strongly divergent (all pairwise Kimura 2-parameter distances >0.08, monophyletic groups: Group I occurs from Southern Mexico through Central America into Colombia, with Ecuadorian specimens resembling Nicaraguan material; Group II includes samples from Western-Southwestern Mexico; Group III comprises specimens from the Yucatán peninsula; and Group IV consists of sylvatic samples from Belize. The closely-related, yet formally recognized species T. hegneri from the island of Cozumel falls within the divergence range of the T. dimidiata populations studied. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that Groups I-IV, as well as T. hegneri, should be regarded as separate species. In the Petén of Guatemala, representatives of Groups I, II, and III occur in sympatry; the absence of haplotypes with intermediate genetic distances, as shown by multimodal mismatch distribution plots, clearly indicates that reproductive barriers actively promote within-group cohesion. Some sylvatic specimens from Belize belong to a different species - likely the basal lineage of the T. dimidiata complex, originated ~8.25 Mya. The evidence presented here strongly supports the proposition

  1. Leaf shape evolution has a similar genetic architecture in three edaphic specialists within the Mimulus guttatus species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Rushton, Tullia; Greenlee, Anna B; Toll, Katherine; Blackman, Benjamin K; Willis, John H

    2015-08-01

    The genetic basis of leaf shape has long interested botanists because leaf shape varies extensively across the plant kingdom and this variation is probably adaptive. However, knowledge of the genetic architecture of leaf shape variation in natural populations remains limited. This study examined the genetic architecture of leaf shape diversification among three edaphic specialists in the Mimulus guttatus species complex. Lobed and narrow leaves have evolved from the entire, round leaves of M. guttatus in M. laciniatus, M. nudatus and a polymorphic serpentine M. guttatus population (M2L). Bulk segregant analysis and next-generation sequencing were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie leaf shape in an M. laciniatus × M. guttatus F2 population. To determine whether the same QTLs contribute to leaf shape variation in M. nudatus and M2L, F2s from M. guttatus × M. nudatus and lobed M2L × unlobed M. guttatus crosses were genotyped at QTLs from the bulk segregant analysis. Narrow and lobed leaf shapes in M. laciniatus, M. nudatus and M. guttatus are controlled by overlapping genetic regions. Several promising leaf shape candidate genes were found under each QTL. The evolution of divergent leaf shape has taken place multiple times in the M. guttatus species complex and is associated with the occupation of dry, rocky environments. The genetic architecture of elongated and lobed leaves is similar across three species in this group. This may indicate that parallel genetic evolution from standing variation or new mutations is responsible for the putatively adaptive leaf shape variation in Mimulus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, M. Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E.A.; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations. PMID:26798257

  3. Extensive recombination rate variation in the house mouse species complex inferred from genetic linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L; White, Michael A; Steffy, Brian; Wiltshire, Tim; Payseur, Bret A

    2011-01-01

    The rate of recombination is a key genomic parameter that displays considerable variation among taxa. Species comparisons have demonstrated that the rate of evolution in recombination rate is strongly dependent on the physical scale of measurement. Individual recombination hotspots are poorly conserved among closely related taxa, whereas genomic-scale recombination rate variation bears a strong signature of phylogenetic history. In contrast, the mode and tempo of evolution in recombination rates measured on intermediate physical scales is poorly understood. Here, we conduct a detailed statistical comparison between two whole-genome F₂ genetic linkage maps constructed from experimental intercrosses between closely related house mouse subspecies (Mus musculus). Our two maps profile a common wild-derived inbred strain of M. m. domesticus crossed to distinct wild-derived inbred strains representative of two other house mouse subspecies, M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus. We identify numerous orthologous genomic regions with significant map length differences between these two crosses. Because the genomes of these recently diverged house mice are highly collinear, observed differences in map length (centimorgans) are suggestive of variation in broadscale recombination rate (centimorgans per megabase) within M. musculus. Collectively, these divergent intervals span 19% of the house mouse genome, disproportionately aggregating on the X chromosome. In addition, we uncover strong statistical evidence for a large effect, sex-linked, site-specific modifier of recombination rate segregating within M. musculus. Our findings reveal considerable variation in the megabase-scale recombination landscape among recently diverged taxa and underscore the continued importance of genetic linkage maps in the post-genome era.

  4. Iron-complexed adsorptive membrane for As(V) species in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Rakesh N.; Das, Sadananda; Acharya, R.; Rajurkar, N.S.; Pandey, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Functionalized membrane was prepared by graft polymerization in host membrane. ► Fe 3+ ions fixed in membrane made it selective for As(V) ions. ► As(V) preconcentrated selectively in membrane samples was quantified by INAA. ► As(V) in ground water sample was easily quantified in 2–3 ppb using membrane. ► Total inorganic arsenic could be quantified by oxidation of As(III) to As(V). - Abstract: Selective preconcentration of a target analyte in the solid phase is an effective route not only to enhance detection limit of the conventional analytical method but also for elimination of interfering matrix. An adsorptive membrane was developed for selective preconcentration and quantification of ultra-trace (ppb) amounts of As(V) present in a variety of aqueous samples. The precursor membrane was prepared by UV-initiator induced graft polymerization of sulphate and phosphate bearing monomers (1:1 mol proportion) in pores of the host microporous poly(propylene) membrane. Fe 3+ ions were loaded in the precursor membrane to make it selective for As(V) ions. The presence of phosphate functional groups prevent leaching of Fe 3+ ions from the membrane when it comes in contact with solution like seawater having high ionic strength. The optimized membrane was characterized in terms of its physical structure, chemical structure and experimental conditions affecting As(V) uptake in the membrane. The possibility of quantifying total preconcentration of As content was also explored by converting As(III) to As(V). To quantify As(V), the membrane samples were subjected to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studies carried in the present work showed that quantification of inorganic arsenic species in natural water samples is easily possible in 2–3 ppb concentration range.

  5. Scedo-Select III: a new semi-selective culture medium for detection of the Scedosporium apiospermum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trâm; Giraud, Sandrine; Schuliar, Gaëlle; Rougeron, Amandine; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    The Scedosporium apiospermum complex is responsible for a large variety of infections in human. Members of this complex have become emerging fungal pathogens with an increasing occurrence in patients with underlying conditions such as immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. A better knowledge of these fungi and of the sources of contamination of the patients is required and more accurate detection methods from the environment are needed. In this context, a highly selective culture medium was developed in the present study. Thus, various aliphatic, cyclic, or aromatic compounds were tested as the sole carbon source, in combination with some inorganic nitrogen sources and fungicides. The best results were obtained with 4-hydroxy-benzoate combined with ammonium sulfate and the fungicides dichloran and benomyl. This new culture medium called Scedo-Select III was shown to support growth of all species of the S. apiospermum complex. Subsequently, this new culture medium was evaluated successfully on water and soil samples, exhibiting higher sensitivity and selectivity than the previously described SceSel+ culture medium. Therefore, this easy-to-prepare and synthetic semi-selective culture medium may be useful to clarify the ecology of these fungi and to identify their reservoirs in patients' environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ecomorph or endangered coral? DNA and microstructure reveal hawaiian species complexes: Montipora dilatata/flabellata/turgescens & M. patula/verrilli.

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    Zac H Forsman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available M. dilatata, M. flabellata, and M. patula and 80 other scleractinian corals were petitioned to be listed under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA, which would have major conservation implications. One of the difficulties with this evaluation is that reproductive boundaries between morphologically defined coral species are often permeable, and morphology can be wildly variable. We examined genetic and morphological variation in Hawaiian Montipora with a suite of molecular markers (mitochondrial: COI, CR, Cyt-B, 16S, ATP6; nuclear: ATPsβ, ITS and microscopic skeletal measurements. Mitochondrial markers and the ITS region revealed four distinct clades: I M. patula/M. verrilli, II M. cf. incrassata, III M. capitata, IV M. dilatata/M. flabellata/M. cf. turgescens. These clades are likely to occur outside of Hawai'i according to mitochondrial control region haplotypes from previous studies. The ATPsβ intron data showed a pattern often interpreted as resulting from hybridization and introgression; however, incomplete lineage sorting may be more likely since the multicopy nuclear ITS region was consistent with the mitochondrial data. Furthermore, principal components analysis (PCA of skeletal microstructure was concordant with the mitochondrial clades, while nominal taxa overlapped. The size and shape of verrucae or papillae contributed most to identifying groups, while colony-level morphology was highly variable. It is not yet clear if these species complexes represent population-level variation or incipient speciation (CA<1MYA, two alternatives that have very different conservation implications. This study highlights the difficulty in understanding the scale of genetic and morphological variation that corresponds to species as opposed to population-level variation, information that is essential for conservation and for understanding coral biodiversity.

  7. Evolutionary Genetic Analysis Uncovers Multiple Species with Distinct Habitat Preferences and Antibiotic Resistance Phenotypes in the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Complex

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    Luz E. Ochoa-Sánchez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria has a broad environmental distribution. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is its best known species because it is a globally emerging, multidrug-resistant (MDR, opportunistic pathogen. Members of this species are known to display high genetic, ecological and phenotypic diversity, forming the so-called S. maltophilia complex (Smc. Heterogeneous resistance and virulence phenotypes have been reported for environmental Smc isolates of diverse ecological origin. We hypothesized that this heterogeneity could be in part due to the potential lumping of several cryptic species in the Smc. Here we used state-of-the-art phylogenetic and population genetics methods to test this hypothesis based on the multilocus dataset available for the genus at pubmlst.org. It was extended with sequences from complete and draft genome sequences to assemble a comprehensive set of reference sequences. This framework was used to analyze 108 environmental isolates obtained in this study from the sediment and water column of four rivers and streams in Central Mexico, affected by contrasting levels of anthropogenic pollution. The aim of the study was to identify species in this collection, defined as genetically cohesive sequence clusters, and to determine the extent of their genetic, ecological and phenotypic differentiation. The multispecies coalescent, coupled with Bayes factor analysis was used to delimit species borders, together with population genetic structure analyses, recombination and gene flow estimates between sequence clusters. These analyses consistently revealed that the Smc contains at least 5 significantly differentiated lineages: S. maltophilia and Smc1 to Smc4. Only S. maltophilia was found to be intrinsically MDR, all its members expressing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs. The other Smc lineages were not MDR and did not express MBLs. We also obtained isolates related to S. acidaminiphila, S. humi and S. terrae. They

  8. Genetic and morphological analyses indicate that the Australian endemic scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi (Scorpiones: Urodacidae is a species complex

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    Karen Luna-Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Australian scorpions have received far less attention from researchers than their overseas counterparts. Here we provide the first insight into the molecular variation and evolutionary history of the endemic Australian scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi. Also known as the inland robust scorpion, it is widely distributed throughout arid zones of the continent and is emerging as a model organism in biomedical research due to the chemical nature of its venom. Methods We employed Bayesian Inference (BI methods for the phylogenetic reconstructions and divergence dating among lineages, using unique haplotype sequences from two mitochondrial loci (COXI, 16S and one nuclear locus (28S. We also implemented two DNA taxonomy approaches (GMYC and PTP/dPTP to evaluate the presence of cryptic species. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to test whether the linear combination of 21 variables (ratios of morphological measurements can predict individual’s membership to a putative species. Results Genetic and morphological data suggest that U. yaschenkoi is a species complex. High statistical support for the monophyly of several divergent lineages was found both at the mitochondrial loci and at a nuclear locus. The extent of mitochondrial divergence between these lineages exceeds estimates of interspecific divergence reported for other scorpion groups. The GMYC model and the PTP/bPTP approach identified major lineages and several sub-lineages as putative species. Ratios of several traits that approximate body shape had a strong predictive power (83–100% in discriminating two major molecular lineages. A time-calibrated phylogeny dates the early divergence at the onset of continental-wide aridification in late Miocene and Pliocene, with finer-scale phylogeographic patterns emerging during the Pleistocene. This structuring dynamics is congruent with the diversification history of other fauna of the Australian arid zones. Discussion Our results indicate

  9. Genetic and morphological analyses indicate that the Australian endemic scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi (Scorpiones: Urodacidae) is a species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramirez, Karen; Miller, Adam D; Rašić, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    Australian scorpions have received far less attention from researchers than their overseas counterparts. Here we provide the first insight into the molecular variation and evolutionary history of the endemic Australian scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi . Also known as the inland robust scorpion, it is widely distributed throughout arid zones of the continent and is emerging as a model organism in biomedical research due to the chemical nature of its venom. We employed Bayesian Inference (BI) methods for the phylogenetic reconstructions and divergence dating among lineages, using unique haplotype sequences from two mitochondrial loci ( COXI , 16 S ) and one nuclear locus (28 S ). We also implemented two DNA taxonomy approaches (GMYC and PTP/dPTP) to evaluate the presence of cryptic species. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to test whether the linear combination of 21 variables (ratios of morphological measurements) can predict individual's membership to a putative species. Genetic and morphological data suggest that U. yaschenkoi is a species complex. High statistical support for the monophyly of several divergent lineages was found both at the mitochondrial loci and at a nuclear locus. The extent of mitochondrial divergence between these lineages exceeds estimates of interspecific divergence reported for other scorpion groups. The GMYC model and the PTP/bPTP approach identified major lineages and several sub-lineages as putative species. Ratios of several traits that approximate body shape had a strong predictive power (83-100%) in discriminating two major molecular lineages. A time-calibrated phylogeny dates the early divergence at the onset of continental-wide aridification in late Miocene and Pliocene, with finer-scale phylogeographic patterns emerging during the Pleistocene. This structuring dynamics is congruent with the diversification history of other fauna of the Australian arid zones. Our results indicate that the taxonomic status of U. yaschenkoi requires

  10. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Masi; Susan Meyer; Gennaro Pescitelli; Alessio Cimmino; Suzette Clement; Beth Peacock; Antonio Evidente

    2017-01-01

    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure (‘die-off’), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex...

  11. Unveiling Members of Colletotrichum acutatum Species Complex Causing Colletotrichum Leaf Disease of Hevea brasiliensis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunupolagama, D M; Chandrasekharan, N V; Wijesundera, W S S; Kathriarachchi, H S; Fernando, T H P S; Wijesundera, R L C

    2017-06-01

    Colletotrichum is an important fungal genus with great diversity, which causes anthracnose of a variety of crop plants including rubber trees. Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides have been identified as the major causative agents of Colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber trees in Sri Lanka based on morphology, pathogenicity, and the analysis of internally transcribed spacer sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. This study has been conducted to investigate the members of the C. acutatum species complex causing rubber leaf disease using a morphological and multi gene approach. For the first time in Sri Lanka, Colletotrichum simmondsii, Colletotrichum laticiphilum, Colletotrichum nymphaeae, and Colletotrichum citri have been identified as causative agents of Colletotrichum leaf disease in addition to C. acutatum s. str. Among them, C. simmondsii has been recognized as the major causative agent.

  12. Distribution of Karyotypes of the Cryptocercus punctulatus Species Complex (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Keisuke; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Luykx, Peter

    2017-01-01

    During the period between 1999 and 2006, wood-feeding cockroaches in the Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder species complex were collected throughout Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. The chromosome numbers of insects from 59 sites were determined, and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial COII and nuclear ITS2 DNA. The distribution of the three male karyotypes found in the park (2n = 37, 39, and 45) is mapped and discussed in relation to recent disturbances and glacial history. Clades of the three karyotype groups meet near the ridgeline separating North Carolina from Tennessee in the center of the park, suggesting that these may have originated from separate lower elevation refugia after the last glacial maximum. The timing of divergence and a significant correlation between elevation difference and genetic distance in two of the clades supports this hypothesis. The ecological role of the cockroaches in the park is discussed. PMID:28475683

  13. Wolves, dogs, rearing and reinforcement: complex interactions underlying species differences in training and problem-solving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Harry

    2011-11-01

    Frank and Frank et al. (1982-1987) administered a series of age-graded training and problem-solving tasks to samples of Eastern timber wolf (C. lupus lycaon) and Alaskan Malamute (C. familiaris) pups to test Frank's (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 53:389-399, 1980) model of the evolution of information processing under conditions of natural and artificial selection. Results confirmed the model's prediction that wolves should perform better than dogs on problem-solving tasks and that dogs should perform better than wolves on training tasks. Further data collected at the University of Connecticut in 1983 revealed a more complex and refined picture, indicating that species differences can be mediated by a number of factors influencing wolf performance, including socialization regimen (hand-rearing vs. mother-rearing), interactive effects of socialization on the efficacy of both rewards and punishments, and the flexibility to select learning strategies that experimenters might not anticipate.

  14. The southwestern Carpathians as an ancient centre of diversity of freshwater gammarid amphipods: insights from the Gammarus fossarum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copilaş-Ciocianu, Denis; Petrusek, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Gammarus fossarum is a diverse species complex of epigean freshwater amphipods throughout Europe. Due to their poor dispersal capabilities and ubiquity, these crustaceans may serve as a model for investigating the influence of historical factors on the contemporary distribution and diversity patterns of freshwater macrozoobenthos. Here, we investigate the fine-scale phylogeographic structure of this complex across its range in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains, which comprises two areas that are geographically isolated from its main European distribution area as well as from each other. Given the Tertiary age of many freshwater Gammarus species, we hypothesize that the southwestern Carpathian populations reflect a relict distribution pattern. We used two mitochondrial and three nuclear markers from 32 localities to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and estimate the timings of divergence among southwestern Carpathian and non-Carpathian lineages. Cryptic diversity was evaluated from mitochondrial markers by employing phylogenetic and distance-based methods. We distinguished at least 16 cryptic microendemic taxa, some of them coexisting, distributed in the southwestern Carpathians in a mosaic-like pattern. These lineages form a monophyletic group together with several lineages from southeastern Europe. Estimated divergence times indicate a Middle Miocene origin of this clade, with many deep splits dating back to more than 10 Ma. This time frame corresponds with a period of intense geological subsidence in the region that gave birth to the Pannonian Basin. We conclude that subsidence could have been an important driver of diversification in freshwater Gammarus and that the southwestern Carpathians represent an ancient centre of diversity for these crustaceans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Craniometrical study of the species complex of Meriones shawii-grandis (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Morocco, in Algeria and in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelaila, Yassine; Denys, Christiane; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Cornette, Raphaël; Lalis, Aude; Adamou-Djerbaoui, Malika; Boukhemza, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    In North Africa, the rodents of the species complex Meriones shawii-grandis have a considerable ecological, economic and epidemiological importance. Until now, the systematics of these species was subject to discussion due to the presence of populations displaying high morphological variability. By means of an approach of traditional morphometrics based on cranial distances and by using the method of the log shape-ratio, we attempt to characterize morphologically these two taxa. The results show significant differences in size and shape between the specimens of Morocco, on the one hand, and those of Algeria and Tunisia, on the other hand. The samples of Morocco that have been molecularly typed and attributed to M. grandis have larger tooth rows and narrower skulls, as well as relatively small tympanic bullae. On the other hand, those of Algeria and Tunisia assigned to M. shawii are characterized by small tooth rows and wide skulls with well-developed tympanic bullae. The morphological distance is relatively strong between both clades (79.5%), which corresponds to the molecular distance. However, the discriminant analysis performed after molecularly-typed specimens allows the correct classification of only 91.8% of the individuals. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided.

  17. Native trees of the Northeast Argentine: natural hosts of the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattana, Maria Emilia; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Fernández, Mariana; Rojas, Florencia; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    In Argentina, information about epidemiology and environmental distribution of Cryptococcus is scarce. The city of Resistencia borders with Brazil and Paraguay where this fungus is endemic. All these supported the need to investigate the ecology of the genus and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in this area. The aim was to investigate the presence of species of Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii complex and their genotypes in trees of the city of Resistencia. One hundred and five trees were sampled by swabbing technique. The isolates were identified using conventional and commercial methods and genotyped by PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). Cryptococcus was found in 7 out of the total trees. 6 out of 7 Cryptococcus isolates were identified as C. neoformans and one as C. gattii. C. gattii was isolated from Grevillea robusta. C. neoformans strains were isolated from Tabebuia avellanedae and Peltophorum dubium. Genotyping showed that all C. neoformans belonged to the VNI type and C. gattii belonged to the VGI type. This represents the first study on the ecology of Cryptococcus spp. associated to trees from northeastern Argentina, and the first report describing Grevillea robusta as a host of members of this fungal genus. Another finding is the isolation of C. neoformans from Tabebuia avellanedae and Peltophorum dubium, both tree species native to northeastern Argentina. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  19. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Antibiotic-Induced Cell Death in Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Heleen; Gielis, Jan; Acke, Marloes; Cools, Freya; Cos, Paul; Coenye, Tom

    2016-01-01

    It was recently proposed that bactericidal antibiotics, besides through specific drug-target interactions, kill bacteria by a common mechanism involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, this mechanism involving the production of hydroxyl radicals has become the subject of a lot of debate. Since the contribution of ROS to antibiotic mediated killing most likely depends on the conditions, differences in experimental procedures are expected to be at the basis of the conflicting results. In the present study different methods (ROS specific stainings, gene-expression analyses, electron paramagnetic resonance, genetic and phenotypic experiments, detection of protein carbonylation and DNA oxidation) to measure the production of ROS upon antibiotic treatment in Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria were compared. Different classes of antibiotics (tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, meropenem) were included, and both planktonic and biofilm cultures were studied. Our results indicate that some of the methods investigated were not sensitive enough to measure antibiotic induced production of ROS, including the spectrophotometric detection of protein carbonylation. Secondly, other methods were found to be useful only in specific conditions. For example, an increase in the expression of OxyR was measured in Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 after treatment with ciprofloxacin or meropenem (both in biofilms and planktonic cultures) but not after treatment with tobramycin. In addition results vary with the experimental conditions and the species tested. Nevertheless our data strongly suggest that ROS contribute to antibiotic mediated killing in Bcc species and that enhancing ROS production or interfering with the protection against ROS may form a novel strategy to improve antibiotic treatment.

  20. Selection, trans-species polymorphism, and locus identification of major histocompatibility complex class IIβ alleles of New World ranid frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, Karen M.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play key roles in the vertebrate immune system. However, our understanding of the evolutionary processes and underlying genetic mechanisms shaping these genes is limited in many taxa, including amphibians, a group currently impacted by emerging infectious diseases. To further elucidate the evolution of the MHC in frogs (anurans) and develop tools for population genetics, we surveyed allelic diversity of the MHC class II ??1 domain in both genomic and complementary DNA of seven New World species in the genus Rana (Lithobates). To assign locus affiliation to our alleles, we used a "gene walking" technique to obtain intron 2 sequences that flanked MHC class II?? exon 2. Two distinct intron sequences were recovered, suggesting the presence of at least two class II?? loci in Rana. We designed a primer pair that successfully amplified an orthologous locus from all seven Rana species. In total, we recovered 13 alleles and documented trans-species polymorphism for four of the alleles. We also found quantitative evidence of selection acting on amino acid residues that are putatively involved in peptide binding and structural stability of the ??1 domain of anurans. Our results indicated that primer mismatch can result in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias, which influences the number of alleles that are recovered. Using a single locus may minimize PCR bias caused by primer mismatch, and the gene walking technique was an effective approach for generating single-copy orthologous markers necessary for future studies of MHC allelic variation in natural amphibian populations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Phenotypic variability confirmed by nuclear ribosomal DNA suggests a possible natural hybrid zone of Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jane; Bargues, Maria Dolores; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Lawrence, Gena G; Gumiel, Marcia; Oliveira, Genova; Cabello, Pedro; Lima, Marli Maria; Dotson, Ellen; Provance, David William; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Mateo, Lucia; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Dujardin, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma occurs in Pernambuco state, Brazil, which is situated between the distribution areas of Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis (north) and Triatoma juazeirensis (south). T. b. macromelasoma displays greater variations in its chromatic phenotype than either T. b. brasiliensis or T. juazeirensis, and patterns reminiscent of one or the other. Experimental crosses from each of these members of the T. brasiliensis species complex generated fertile offspring suggesting that viable hybrids could be present in nature, despite their significant genetic distances. Considering the geographical position of occurrence of the T. b. macromelasoma (in Pernambuco) it was proposed to be an area capable of supporting natural hybridization between T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis. Since phenotypic variability is expected, this study investigated the existence of intermediate chromatic phenotypes for T. b. macromelasoma in various locations in areas between the T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis occurrences. Thirteen different color patterns were for the first time characterized and nine of those displayed intermediate phenotypes. Molecular analysis performed using ribosomal DNA intergenic region, grouped all within the T. brasiliensis complex. The intermediate chromatic phenotypes, molecular analysis and experimental crosses all support the distinction of a zone of hybridization that gave rise to the T. b. macromelasoma through homoploidal evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of the complexed species of models of nitrohumic acids derived from phthalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercê Ana Lucia Ramalho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of model compounds is necessary in order to obtain information about complex organic substances as in the case of humic substances (HS. These substances are potential organic fertilizers and have other important functions in soils, natural waters and organic sediments. The main chemical properties of the complexes formed from 3-nitrophthalic and 4-nitrophthalic acids and the metal ions Fe(III and Zn(II were studied using potentiometric titrations, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis and cyclic voltammetry (CV. A trial potentiometric titration was done with a mixture of the models for nitrohumic acids and Cu(II. Equilibrium constants for the systems were calculated and UV-Vis and CV were employed to monitor the formation of the species. Comparative studies involving chelating centres of nitrosalicylic acids and nitrocatechols with Fe(III, Zn(II and Cu(II are presented. The initial studies involving the nitrohumic substances (NHS, a laboratory artifact of HS have been made and good evidence was found for the further use of NHS as a potential organic fertilizer as well as HS. In this present work one of the observed advantages of NHS over HS was that some aromatic nitro- centres can bind some metal ions at p[H] values of normal soils, near 7.0 to 7.5.

  3. Effective surface passivation of multi-shelled InP quantum dots through a simple complexing with titanium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jung-Ho; Kim, Min-Seok; Han, Chang-Yeol; Jang, Eun-Pyo; Do, Young Rag; Yang, Heesun

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent efficiency of various visible quantum dots (QDs) has been incessantly improved to meet industrially high standard mainly through the advance in core/shell heterostructural design, however, their stability against degradable environments appears still lacking. The most viable strategy to cope with this issue was to exploit chemically inert oxide phases to passivate QD surface in the form of either individual overcoating or matrix embedding. Herein, we report a simple but effective means to passivate QD surface by complexing its organic ligands with a metal alkoxide of titanium isopropoxide (Ti(i-PrO)4). For this, highly efficient red-emitting InP QDs with a multi-shell structure of ZnSeS intermediate plus ZnS outer shell are first synthesized and then the surface of resulting InP/ZnSeS/ZnS QDs is in-situ decorated with Ti(i-PrO)4. The presence of Tisbnd O species from Ti(i-PrO)4 on QD surface is verified by x-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Two comparative dispersions of pristine versus Ti(i-PrO)4-complexed QDs are exposed for certain periods of time to UV photon and heat and their temporal changes in photoluminescence are monitored, resulting in a huge improvement in QD stability from the latter ones through Ti(i-PrO)4-mediated better surface passivation.

  4. A reinvestigation of phylogeny and divergence times of the Ablepharus kitaibelii species complex (Sauria, Scincidae) based on mtDNA and nuDNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtanioti, Eirini; Kapli, Paschalia; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Avcı, Aziz; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Crnobrnja-Isailović, Jelka; Gherghel, Iulian; Lymberakis, Petros; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2016-10-01

    Morphological and DNA data support that the East Mediterranean snake-eyed skink Ablepharus kitaibelii represents a species complex that includes four species A. kitaibelii, A. budaki, A. chernovi, and A. rueppellii, highlighting the need of its taxonomic reevaluation. Here, we used Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods to estimate the phylogenetic relationships of all members of the complex based on two mitochondrial (cyt b, 16S rRNA) and two nuclear markers (MC1R, and NKTR) and using Chalcides, Eumeces, and Eutropis as outgroups. The biogeographic history of the complex was also investigated through the application of several phylogeographic (BEAST) and biogeographic (BBM) analyses. Paleogeographic and paleoclimatic data were used to support the inferred phylogeographic patterns. The A. kitaibelli species complex exhibits high genetic diversity, revealing cases of hidden diversity and cases of non-monophyletic species such as A. kitaibelii and A. budaki. Our results indicate that A. pannonicus branches off first and a group that comprises specimens of A. kitaibelli and A. budaki from Kastelorizo Island group (southeast Greece) and southwest Turkey, respectively is differentiated from the rest A. kitaibelli and A. budaki populations and may represent a new species. The estimated divergence times place the origin of the complex in the Middle Miocene (∼16Mya) and the divergence of most currently recognized species in the Late Miocene. The inferred ancestral distribution suggests that the complex originated in Anatolia, supposing that several vicariance and dispersal events that are related with the formation of the Mid-Aegean Trench, the Anatolian Diagonal and the orogenesis of the mountain chains in southern and eastern Anatolia have led to current distribution pattern of A. kitaibelii species complex in the Balkans and Middle East. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of elongation factor Tu gene (tuf) sequencing and species-specific PCR (SS-PCR) for the molecular identification of Acetobacter species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Lina; Chu, Wen-Shen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use tuf gene as a molecular target for species discrimination in the Acetobacter genus, as well as to develop species-specific PCR method for direct species identification of Acetobacter aceti. The results showed that most Acetobacter species could be clearly distinguished, and the average sequence similarity for the tuf gene (89.5%) among type strains was significantly lower than that of the 16S rRNA gene sequence (98.0%). A pair of species-specific primers were designed and used to specifically identify A. aceti, but none of the other Acetobacter strains. Our data indicate that the phylogenetic relationships of most strains in the Acetobacter genus can be resolved using tuf gene sequencing, and the novel species-specific primer pair could be used to rapidly and accurately identify the species of A. aceti by the PCR based assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Fusarium solani species complex in human infections and the descriptions of F. keratoplasticum sp. nov. and F. petroliphilum stat. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Short, Dylan P.G.; O’Donnell, Kerry; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium species are frequently associated with mycotic keratitis and, to a lesser extent, cases of localized and disseminated infections. The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with human infectious diseases. Several studies to date have revealed...... dozens of strongly supported phylogenetic species within this important evolutionary clade, though little work has been done to improve the taxonomy and understanding of the reproductive mode and phenotypes of the predominant clinically relevant species. Here we described Fusarium keratoplasticum sp. nov...

  7. Metal- versus Ligand-Centered Oxidations in Phenolato-Vanadium and -Cobalt Complexes: Characterization of Phenoxyl-Cobalt(III) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Achim; Adam, Britta; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Hildenbrand, Knut; Schnepf, Robert; Hildebrandt, Peter; Bill, Eckhard; Wieghardt, Karl

    1997-08-13

    The coordination chemistry of the pendent-arm macrocycles 1,4,7-tris(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, L(Me)H(3), 1,4,7-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, L(Bu)H(3), 1,4,7-tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, L(OCH)()3H(3), and Tolman's ligand 1,4-diisopropyl-7-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, L(Pr)H, with vanadium and cobalt(III) has been studied. The following complexes containing a fac-N(3)O(3) donor set have been synthesized: [L(Me)V(III)] (1), [L(Me)V(IV)]PF(6) (2), [(L(Me)H)V(V)(O)]PF(6) (3), [L(Bu)V(IV)]PF(6) (4), [L(OCH)()3V(IV)]PF(6) (5), [L(Me)Co(III)] (6), [L(Bu)Co(III)] (7), [L(OCH)()3Co(III)] (8). In addition, two complexes containing the L(Pr)Co(III) fragment have been prepared: [L(Pr)Co(III)(acac)](ClO(4)) (9) and [L(Pr)Co(III)(Cl(4)cat)].CH(3)CN (10), where acac(-) represents the ligand pentane-2,4-dionate and Cl(4)cat(2)(-) is tetrachlorocatecholate. Complexes 9 and 10 have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography: 9 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 9.493(1) Å, b = 9.760(1) Å, c = 18.979(2) Å, alpha = 88.57(1) degrees, beta = 78.60(1) degrees, gamma = 79.24(1) degrees, V = 1693.3(3) Å(3), and Z = 2; 10 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 10.184(2) Å, b = 24.860(5) Å, c = 14.872(3) Å, beta = 97.95(3) degrees, V = 3729(1) Å(3), and Z = 4. Electrochemically, complexes 2, 4, and 5 can be reversibly oxidized by one electron, yielding vanadium(V), and one-electron-reduced, affording vanadium(III) species; 3 can be reduced to [L(Me)HV(IV)(O)]. These redox processes are shown to be metal-centered. In contrast, the cyclic voltammograms of 7 and 8 display three reversible one-electron oxidations. For the monocations [7](*)(+) and [8](*)(+), EPR and UV-vis spectroscopies reveal that these are phenoxyl-cobalt(III) species. Thus, the redox processes are ligand

  8. Phylogeography and DNA-based species delimitation provide insight into the taxonomy of the polymorphic rose chafer Protaetia (Potosia) cuprea species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) in the Western Palearctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráček, Dominik; Fuchsová, Aneta; Ahrens, Dirk; Král, David; Šípek, Petr

    2018-01-01

    The development of modern methods of species delimitation, unified under the "integrated taxonomy" approach, allows a critical examination and re-evaluation of complex taxonomic groups. The rose chafer Protaetia (Potosia) cuprea is a highly polymorphic species group with a large distribution range. Despite its overall commonness, its taxonomy is unclear and subject to conflicting hypotheses, most of which largely fail to account for its evolutionary history. Based on the sequences of two mitochondrial markers from 65 individuals collected across the species range, and a detailed analysis of morphological characters including a geometric morphometry approach, we infer the evolutionary history and phylogeography of the P. cuprea species complex. Our results demonstrate the existence of three separate lineages in the Western Palearctic region, presumably with a species status. However, these lineages are in conflict with current taxonomic concepts. None of the 29 analyzed morphological characters commonly used in the taxonomy of this group proved to be unambiguously species- or subspecies- specific. The geometric morphometry analysis reveals a large overlap in the shape of the analyzed structures (pronotum, meso-metaventral projection, elytra and aedeagus), failing to identify either the genetically detected clades or the classical species entities. Our results question the monophyly of P. cuprea in regard to P. cuprina, as well as the species status of P. metallica. On the other hand, we found support for the species status of the Sicilian P. hypocrita. Collectively, our findings provide a new and original insight into the taxonomy and phylogeny of the P. cuprea species complex. At the same time, the results represent the first attempt to elucidate the phylogeography of these polymorphic beetles.

  9. Celastrol targets mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I to induce reactive oxygen species-dependent cytotoxicity in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Xiang; Wang, Di; Xu, Yuanji; Du, Zhiyan; Yu, Xiaodan

    2011-05-14

    Celastrol is an active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium Wilfordii, which exhibits significant antitumor activity in different cancer models in vitro and in vivo; however, the lack of information on the target and mechanism of action of this compound have impeded its clinical application. In this study, we sought to determine the mode of action of celastrol by focusing on the processes that mediate its anticancer activity. The downregulation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) client proteins, phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3 were detected by western blotting. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle progression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes. Celastrol induced ROS accumulation, G2-M phase blockage, apoptosis and necrosis in H1299 and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidative agent, inhibited celastrol-induced ROS accumulation and cytotoxicity. JNK phosphorylation induced by celastrol was suppressed by NAC and JNK inhibitor SP600125 (SP). Moreover, SP significantly inhibited celastrol-induced loss of MMP, cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3, mitochondrial translocation of Bad, cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c, and cell death. However, SP did not inhibit celastrol-induced ROS accumulation. Celastrol downregulated HSP90 client proteins but did not disrupt the interaction between HSP90 and cdc37. NAC completely inhibited celastrol-induced decrease of HSP90 client proteins, catalase and thioredoxin. The activity of MRC complex I was completely inhibited in H1299 cells treated with 6 μM celastrol in the absence and presence of NAC. Moreover, the inhibition of MRC complex I activity

  10. Celastrol targets mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I to induce reactive oxygen species-dependent cytotoxicity in tumor cells

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    Xu Yuanji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celastrol is an active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium Wilfordii, which exhibits significant antitumor activity in different cancer models in vitro and in vivo; however, the lack of information on the target and mechanism of action of this compound have impeded its clinical application. In this study, we sought to determine the mode of action of celastrol by focusing on the processes that mediate its anticancer activity. Methods The downregulation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 client proteins, phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, and cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3 were detected by western blotting. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle progression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC complexes. Results Celastrol induced ROS accumulation, G2-M phase blockage, apoptosis and necrosis in H1299 and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidative agent, inhibited celastrol-induced ROS accumulation and cytotoxicity. JNK phosphorylation induced by celastrol was suppressed by NAC and JNK inhibitor SP600125 (SP. Moreover, SP significantly inhibited celastrol-induced loss of MMP, cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3, mitochondrial translocation of Bad, cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c, and cell death. However, SP did not inhibit celastrol-induced ROS accumulation. Celastrol downregulated HSP90 client proteins but did not disrupt the interaction between HSP90 and cdc37. NAC completely inhibited celastrol-induced decrease of HSP90 client proteins, catalase and thioredoxin. The activity of MRC complex I was completely inhibited in H1299 cells treated with 6 μM celastrol in the absence and presence of NAC

  11. Towards a phylogenetic approach to the composition of species complexes in the North and Central American Triatoma, vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rúa, Nicholas M; Bustamante, Dulce M; Menes, Marianela; Stevens, Lori; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, C William; Rizzo, Donna; Klotz, Stephen A; Schmidt, Justin; Axen, Heather J; Dorn, Patricia L

    2014-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of insect vectors of parasitic diseases are important for understanding the evolution of epidemiologically relevant traits, and may be useful in vector control. The sub-family Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae) includes ∼140 extant species arranged in five tribes comprised of 15 genera. The genus Triatoma is the most species-rich and contains important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Triatoma species were grouped into complexes originally by morphology and more recently with the addition of information from molecular phylogenetics (the four-complex hypothesis); however, without a strict adherence to monophyly. To date, the validity of proposed species complexes has not been tested by statistical tests of topology. The goal of this study was to clarify the systematics of 19 Triatoma species from North and Central America. We inferred their evolutionary relatedness using two independent data sets: the complete nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 ribosomal DNA (ITS-2 rDNA) and head morphometrics. In addition, we used the Shimodaira-Hasegawa statistical test of topology to assess the fit of the data to a set of competing systematic hypotheses (topologies). An unconstrained topology inferred from the ITS-2 data was compared to topologies constrained based on the four-complex hypothesis or one inferred from our morphometry results. The unconstrained topology represents a statistically significant better fit of the molecular data than either the four-complex or the morphometric topology. We propose an update to the composition of species complexes in the North and Central American Triatoma, based on a phylogeny inferred from ITS-2 as a first step towards updating the phylogeny of the complexes based on monophyly and statistical tests of topologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium heraklionense, and a Newly Proposed Species, “Mycobacterium virginiense” sp. nov., but Not Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, as Species of the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Causing Tenosynovitis and Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddy, Sruthi; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wengenack, Nancy L.; Eke, Uzoamaka A.; Benwill, Jeana L.; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium terrae complex has been recognized as a cause of tenosynovitis, with M. terrae and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum reported as the primary etiologic pathogens. The molecular taxonomy of the M. terrae complex causing tenosynovitis has not been established despite approximately 50 previously reported cases. We evaluated 26 isolates of the M. terrae complex associated with tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis recovered between 1984 and 2014 from 13 states, including 5 isolates reported in 1991 as M. nonchromogenicum by nonmolecular methods. The isolates belonged to three validated species, one new proposed species, and two novel related strains. The majority of isolates (20/26, or 77%) belonged to two recently described species: Mycobacterium arupense (10 isolates, or 38%) and Mycobacterium heraklionense (10 isolates, or 38%). Three isolates (12%) had 100% sequence identity to each other by 16S rRNA and 99.3 to 100% identity by rpoB gene region V sequencing and represent a previously undescribed species within the M. terrae complex. There were no isolates of M. terrae or M. nonchromogenicum, including among the five isolates reported in 1991. The 26 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin (100%), rifabutin (100%), ethambutol (92%), and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70%). The current study suggests that M. arupense, M. heraklionense, and a newly proposed species (“M. virginiense” sp. nov.; proposed type strain MO-233 [DSM 100883, CIP 110918]) within the M. terrae complex are the major causes of tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis in the United States, with little change over 20 years. Species identification within this complex requires sequencing methods. PMID:26962085

  13. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data reveal cryptic species within cryptic freshwater snail species-The case of theAncylus fluviatilisspecies complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martina; Weigand, Hannah; Weigand, Alexander M; Leese, Florian

    2018-01-01

    DNA barcoding utilizes short standardized DNA sequences to identify species and is increasingly used in biodiversity assessments. The technique has unveiled an unforeseeably high number of morphologically cryptic species. However, if speciation has occurred relatively recently and rapidly, the use of single gene markers, and especially the exclusive use of mitochondrial markers, will presumably fail in delimitating species. Therefore, the true number of biological species might be even higher. One mechanism that can result in rapid speciation is hybridization of different species in combination with polyploidization, that is, allopolyploid speciation. In this study, we analyzed the population genetic structure of the polyploid freshwater snail Ancylus fluviatilis , for which allopolyploidization was postulated as a speciation mechanism. DNA barcoding has already revealed four cryptic species within A. fluviatilis (i.e., A. fluviatilis s. str., Ancylus sp. A-C), but early allozyme data even hint at the presence of additional cryptic lineages in Central Europe. We combined COI sequencing with high-resolution genome-wide SNP data (ddRAD data) to analyze the genetic structure of A. fluviatilis populations in a Central German low mountain range (Sauerland). The ddRAD data results indicate the presence of three cryptic species within A. fluviatilis s. str. occurring in sympatry and even syntopy, whereas mitochondrial sequence data only support the existence of one species, with shared haplotypes between species. Our study hence points to the limitations of DNA barcoding when dealing with organismal groups where speciation is assumed to have occurred rapidly, for example, through the process of allopolyploidization. We therefore emphasize that single marker DNA barcoding can underestimate the true species diversity and argue in strong favor of using genome-wide data for species delimitation in such groups.

  14. Conservation Below The Species Level: Suitable Evolutionarily Significant Units Among Mountain Vipers (The Montivipera Raddei Complex) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Roozbeh; Kaboli, Mohammad; Arnal, Véronique; Nazarizadeh, Masoud; Asadi, Atefeh; Salmanian, Amin; Ahmadi, Mohsen; Montgelard, Claudine

    2018-02-01

    Northern and western mountains of Iran are among the most important biodiversity and endemism hot spots for reptiles in the Middle East. Among herpetofauna, the montivipers represent an emblematic and fragmented endemic group for which estimating their level of genetic differentiation and defining conservation priorities is urgently needed. Here, we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic study on the Montivipera raddei species group comprising all five known taxa, among which three are endemic to Iran. Based on two mitochondrial genes, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed three major lineages each presenting very contrasting distribution area. The Iranian montivipers are highly structured in clades showing low genetic diversity and corresponding to high altitude summits. Molecular dating revealed the role of Quaternary paleo-climatic oscillations and altitudinal movements of montivipers in shaping genetic diversity and differentiation of these sky-island taxa. In addition, the best scenario of historical biogeography allowed identifying three possible refugial areas in Iran most likely arising by vicariance. Based on our mitochondrial results and pending additional data, we recognize three candidate species among the Montivipera raddei complex: M. raddei, M.latifii and M. kuhrangica that are coherent with their geographical distribution. We propose that the most appropriate Evolutionary Significant Units for conservation of the montivipers are represented by thirteen units among which six are recognized as high priority. Finally, we suggest some recommendations to the IUCN as well as to the Iranian conservation policies with respect to conservation prioritization. © The American Genetic Association 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and systematics of the Acrapex unicolora Hampson species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini, with the description of five new species from the Afrotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Le Ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten morphologically similar species of Acrapex Hampson, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini from Central and Eastern Africa are reviewed, including five new species: Acrapex kafula le Ru sp. nov., A. kavumba le Ru sp. nov., A. kiakouama le Ru sp. nov., A. miscantha le Ru sp. nov. and A. simillima le Ru sp. nov. Evidence is provided to transfer the monotypic genus Poecopa Bowden, 1956 to the genus Acrapex. Host plants of five species are recorded, some of them for the first time. Acrapex kavumba sp. nov., A. miscantha sp. nov. and A. simillima sp. nov. were found on one host plant each. Acrapex mediopuncta, previously reported in West Africa from Pennisetum purpureum Schumach., Rottboellia compressa L., Setaria megaphylla (Steud Dur. & Schinz. and Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv. Stapf, was only found from S. megaphylla in Central Africa. Larvae of Acrapex unicolora were collected on Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Chrysopogon zizanoides (L. Roberty, Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus (Hochst. ex A.Rich. Maire & Weller, Cymbopogon pospischiilii (K.Schum. C.E.Hubb., Hyparrhenia diplandra (Hack. Stapf and Setaria sphacelata (Schumach. Moss. We also conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses (using maximum likelihood and molecular species delimitation analyses on a comprehensive sample of 61 specimens belonging to eight of the studied species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses provided additional evidence of the synonymy of Acrapex and Poecopa, whereas molecular species delimitation analyses support the validity of the five newly described species and unravel another potential new species, only collected in the larval stage.

  16. The effects of sampling bias and model complexity on the predictive performance of MaxEnt species distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy M Syfert

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs trained on presence-only data are frequently used in ecological research and conservation planning. However, users of SDM software are faced with a variety of options, and it is not always obvious how selecting one option over another will affect model performance. Working with MaxEnt software and with tree fern presence data from New Zealand, we assessed whether (a choosing to correct for geographical sampling bias and (b using complex environmental response curves have strong effects on goodness of fit. SDMs were trained on tree fern data, obtained from an online biodiversity data portal, with two sources that differed in size and geographical sampling bias: a small, widely-distributed set of herbarium specimens and a large, spatially clustered set of ecological survey records. We attempted to correct for geographical sampling bias by incorporating sampling bias grids in the SDMs, created from all georeferenced vascular plants in the datasets, and explored model complexity issues by fitting a wide variety of environmental response curves (known as "feature types" in MaxEnt. In each case, goodness of fit was assessed by comparing predicted range maps with tree fern presences and absences using an independent national dataset to validate the SDMs. We found that correcting for geographical sampling bias led to major improvements in goodness of fit, but did not entirely resolve the problem: predictions made with clustered ecological data were inferior to those made with the herbarium dataset, even after sampling bias correction. We also found that the choice of feature type had negligible effects on predictive performance, indicating that simple feature types may be sufficient once sampling bias is accounted for. Our study emphasizes the importance of reducing geographical sampling bias, where possible, in datasets used to train SDMs, and the effectiveness and essentialness of sampling bias correction within MaxEnt.

  17. The effects of sampling bias and model complexity on the predictive performance of MaxEnt species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syfert, Mindy M; Smith, Matthew J; Coomes, David A

    2013-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) trained on presence-only data are frequently used in ecological research and conservation planning. However, users of SDM software are faced with a variety of options, and it is not always obvious how selecting one option over another will affect model performance. Working with MaxEnt software and with tree fern presence data from New Zealand, we assessed whether (a) choosing to correct for geographical sampling bias and (b) using complex environmental response curves have strong effects on goodness of fit. SDMs were trained on tree fern data, obtained from an online biodiversity data portal, with two sources that differed in size and geographical sampling bias: a small, widely-distributed set of herbarium specimens and a large, spatially clustered set of ecological survey records. We attempted to correct for geographical sampling bias by incorporating sampling bias grids in the SDMs, created from all georeferenced vascular plants in the datasets, and explored model complexity issues by fitting a wide variety of environmental response curves (known as "feature types" in MaxEnt). In each case, goodness of fit was assessed by comparing predicted range maps with tree fern presences and absences using an independent national dataset to validate the SDMs. We found that correcting for geographical sampling bias led to major improvements in goodness of fit, but did not entirely resolve the problem: predictions made with clustered ecological data were inferior to those made with the herbarium dataset, even after sampling bias correction. We also found that the choice of feature type had negligible effects on predictive performance, indicating that simple feature types may be sufficient once sampling bias is accounted for. Our study emphasizes the importance of reducing geographical sampling bias, where possible, in datasets used to train SDMs, and the effectiveness and essentialness of sampling bias correction within MaxEnt.

  18. The vascular plant species of the Krugłe Bagno aquatic peatland complex (Łęczna – Włodawa Lakeland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Banach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the richness of vascular plant species of the Krugłe Bagno aquatic peatland complex and its structure. A field study was carried out in the growing seasons of 2008–2010. The aim of the study was to determine the species richness of the flora and its characteristics as well as to document changes in its composition taking place in successive years of the study. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the stability of the qualitative and quantitative structure of the phytocoenoses and abiotic environmental factors bodes well for the maintenance of this aquatic peatland complex in good condition. However, due to the specificity of its species composition (a large proportion of stenobiontic species, it seems advisable to monitor regularly the biotic and abiotic conditions of this habitat.

  19. Oligonucleotide array-based identification of species in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in isolates from blood cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Nan-Yao; Su, Siou Cing; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Wang, Li-Rong; Yan, Jin-Jou; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2008-06-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, A. baumannii, Acinetobacter genomic species (gen. sp.) 3, and Acinetobacter gen. sp. 13TU, which are included in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, are difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. An array with six oligonucleotide probes based on the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (ITS) region was developed to differentiate species in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex. Validation of the array with a reference collection of 52 strains of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and 137 strains of other species resulted in an identification sensitivity and specificity of 100%. By using the array, the species distribution of 291 isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex from patients with bacteremia were determined to be A. baumannii (221 strains [75.9%]), Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3 (67 strains [23.0%]), Acinetobacter gen. sp. 13TU (2 strains [0.7%]), and unidentified Acinetobacter sp. (1 strain [0.3%]). The identification accuracy of the array for 12 randomly selected isolates from patients with bacteremia was further confirmed by sequence analyses of the ITS region and the 16S rRNA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the 291 isolates from patients with bacteremia revealed that A. baumannii strains were less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3. All Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3 strains were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, imipenem, and meropenem; but only 67.4%, 90%, and 86% of the A. baumannii strains were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, imipenem, and meropenem, respectively. The observed significant variations in antimicrobial susceptibility among different species in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex emphasize that the differentiation of species within the complex is relevant from a clinical-epidemiological point of view.

  20. Revision of fleas of the genus Plocopsylla belonging to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex in the Andean biogeographic region, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Beaucournu, J-C; Lareschi, M

    2015-06-01

    In Argentina, the Andean biogeographic region accommodates the most diverse population of fleas in the country. The Craneopsyllinae (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) represent one of the most commonly found subfamilies in this region and show some endemism and high diversity. Plocopsylla is the most diverse genus of Craneopsyllinae; it includes 10 species mainly distributed in the Patagonian subregion, which parasitize sigmodontine rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae). We describe and illustrate the morphology of the aedeagus in species of Plocopsylla that belong to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex. This character is of diagnostic value in differentiating among species. A new species of this complex, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii sp. n., is described and identified by the shape and chaetotaxy of the distal arm of sternite IX, as well as by the shape of the median dorsal lobe of the aedeagus. New host associations for this complex and range extensions for most of its species are reported. Plocopsylla (P.) silewi is recorded for the first time in Argentina. The southern limits of the distributions of Plocopsylla (P.) lewisi and Plocopsylla (P.) wilesi are extended to Santa Cruz Province. The angusticeps-lewisi complex is found for the first time in San Juan Province. The information may be useful in epidemiological studies of flea-borne diseases. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Red Alder-Conifer Stands in Alaska: An Example of Mixed Species Management to Enhance Structural and Biological Complexity

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    Robert L. Deal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is worldwide interest in managing forests to improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An increasingly important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity and improve wildlife and aquatic habitat. Well-planned silvicultural systems containing a mixture of broadleaf-conifer species have potential to enhance stand diversity and provide other ecosystem services earlier than typical even-aged conifer plantations. Here, we use the example of mixed Sitka spruce/western hemlock and red alder in young, managed stands in southeast Alaska to achieve these goals. We briefly describe the silvics of Sitka spruce, western hemlock and red alder plantations as pure conifer stands or pure broadleaf stands. Then, we synthesize studies of mixed red alder-Sitka spruce/western hemlock stands in southeast Alaska and present their potential for improving stand structural complexity, biodiversity and other ecosystem services over pure conifer forests. Finally, we discuss some of the opportunities and potential tradeoffs for managing mixed broadleaf-conifer stands for providing a number of natural resources and the influence of these broadleaf-conifer forests on ecosystem linkages and processes.

  2. Molecular evidence for long distance dispersal across the Southern Hemisphere in the Ganoderma applanatum-australe species complex (Basidiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Buchanan, Peter K

    2008-04-01

    We examined phylogeographic relationships in the cosmopolitan polypore fungus Ganoderma applanatum and allies, and conservatively infer a possible age of origin for these fungi. Results indicate that it is very unlikely that members of this species complex diversified before the break-up of Gondwana from Laurasia ca 120M years ago, and also before the final separation of the Gondwanan landmasses from each other that was achieved about 66M years ago. An earliest possible age of origin of 30M years was estimated from nucleotide substitution rates in the 18S rDNA gene. Phylogenetic reconstruction of a worldwide sampling of ITS rDNA sequences reveals at least eight distinct clades that are strongly correlated with the geographic origin of the strains, and also correspond to mating groups. These include one Southern Hemisphere clade, one Southern Hemisphere-Eastern Asia clade, two temperate Northern Hemisphere clades, three Asian clades, and one neotropical clade. Geographically distant collections from the Southern Hemisphere shared identical ITS haplotypes, and an ITS recombinant was noted. Nested clade analysis of a parsimony network among isolates of the Southern Hemisphere clade indicated restricted gene flow with isolation-by-distance among the New Zealand, Australia-Tasmania, Chile-Argentine, and South Africa populations, suggesting episodic events of long-distance dispersal within the Southern Hemisphere. This study indicates that dispersal bias plays a more important role than generally admitted to explain the Southern Hemisphere distribution of many taxa, at least for saprobic fungi.

  3. Thousand Cankers Disease Complex: A Forest Health Issue that Threatens Juglans Species across the U.S.

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    Dixie A. Daniels

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD is a disease complex wherein the fungus (Geosmithia morbida is vectored by the walnut twig beetle (WTB, Pityophthorus juglandis. The disease causes mortality primarily of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra, although other walnut and wingnut (Pterocarya species are also susceptible. Black walnut is native to the Eastern and Midwestern U.S. but is widely planted in western states. Total standing volume in both urban and forested settings is approximately 96 million cubic meters, and is valued at $539 billion. Although native to the Southwestern U.S., the range of WTB has expanded considerably. The spread of G. morbida coincides with that of WTB. TCD was introduced into Tennessee in 2010, and has spread to seven eastern states. Trees infected with TCD exhibit drought-like symptoms, making field detection difficult without molecular and/or morphological methods. The recently sequenced G. morbida genome will provide valuable research tools focused on understanding gene interactions between organisms involved in TCD and mechanisms of pathogenicity. With no chemical treatments available, quarantine and sanitation are preeminent options for slowing the spread of TCD, although biological control agents have been discovered. High levels of black walnut mortality due to TCD will have far-reaching implications for both eastern and western states.

  4. Ability of phages to infect Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex species through acquisition of different pectate lyase depolymerase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hugo; Costa, Ana R; Konstantinides, Nico; Ferreira, Alice; Akturk, Ergun; Sillankorva, Sanna; Nemec, Alexandr; Shneider, Mikhail; Dötsch, Andreas; Azeredo, Joana

    2017-12-01

    Bacteriophages are ubiquitous in nature and represent a vast repository of genetic diversity, which is driven by the endless coevolution cycle with a diversified group of bacterial hosts. Studying phage-host interactions is important to gain novel insights into their dynamic adaptation. In this study, we isolated 12 phages infecting species of the Acinetobacter baumannii-Acinetobacter calcoaceticus complex which exhibited a narrow host range and similar morphological features (podoviruses with short tails of 9-12 nm and isometric heads of 50-60 nm). Notably, the alignment of the newly sequenced phage genomes (40-41 kb of DNA length) and all Acinetobacter podoviruses deposited in Genbank has shown high synteny, regardless of the date and source of isolation that spans from America to Europe and Asia. Interestingly, the C-terminal pectate lyase domain of these phage tail fibres is often the only difference found among these viral genomes, demonstrating a very specific genomic variation during the course of their evolution. We proved that the pectate lyase domain is responsible for phage depolymerase activity and binding to specific Acinetobacter bacterial capsules. We discuss how this mechanism of phage-host co-evolution impacts the tail specificity apparatus of Acinetobacter podoviruses. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sporothrix brasiliensis produces the highest levels of oxidative stress in a murine model among the species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex

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    Débora Nunes Mario

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared indicators of oxidative stress in the tissue of mice infected with strains from Sporothrix schenckii complex. METHODS: Mice were inoculated with Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana or Sporothrix albicans. The activity of catalase and glutathione were accessed in the liver and spleen. RESULTS: Animals infected with S. brasiliensis exhibited splenomegaly and significant decrease in catalase activity, and protein and non-protein thiol content compared to animals infected with the other species. CONCLUSIONS: Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibits higher pathogenicity compared to other species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by increasing oxidative stress in animal tissue.

  6. Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic data reveal cryptic species of the Botryosphaeriaceae: a case study on the Neofusicoccum parvum/N. ribis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlic, Draginja; Slippers, Bernard; Coutinho, Teresa A; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Neofusicoccum parvum and N. ribis (Botryosphaeriaceae, Ascomycetes) are closely related, plant pathogenic fungi with a world-wide distribution on a wide range of woody hosts. Species boundaries in the N. parvum/N. ribis complex have eluded definition, despite the application of various tools for characterisation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that only one species exists amongst isolates from the N. parvum/N. ribis complex, identified from Syzygiumcordatum trees across their native distribution in South Africa. Genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR) was applied based on concordance of genealogies obtained from DNA sequence data for five nuclear loci. These data showed that the single species hypothesis must be rejected. Rather, all analyses support the existence of three previously unrecognised, cryptic species within the N. parvum/N.ribis complex from S. cordatum, in addition to N. parvum and N. ribis. The three lineages reflecting these cryptic taxa are sympatric across their geographical range, indicating barriers to gene flow other than geographic isolation. Phenotypic characters failed to detect all the species uncovered by the GCPSR. Sequence data of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA locus, which is thought to be useful for barcoding in fungi, did not distinguish all the species with confidence. RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2) was the most informative to distinguish all the species a posteriori to the application of GCPSR. The results reflect the critical importance of using multiple gene genealogies and adequate sampling to identify cryptic species and to characterise the true diversity within the Botryosphaeriaceae.

  7. AMPHIDINIUM REVISITED. II. RESOLVING SPECIES BOUNDARIES IN THE AMPHIDINIUM OPERCULATUM SPECIES COMPLEX (DINOPHYCEAE), INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTIONS OF AMPHIDINIUM TRULLA SP. NOV. AND AMPHIDINIUM GIBBOSUM. COMB. NOV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Shauna; Jørgensen, Mårten Flø; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2004-01-01

    within the examined Amphidinium species varied greatly. There was little difference among strains in partial LSU rDNA for most species, but strains of A. carterae and A. massartii Biencheler differed by as much as 4%. In both A. carterae and A. massartii, three distinct genotypes based on partial LSU r......DNA were found, but no morphological differences among strains could be observed using LM or SEM. In the case of A. carterae, no biogeographically related molecular differences were found....

  8. Development of a PCR-RFLP method based on the transcription elongation factor 1-a gene to differentiate Fusarium graminearum from other species within the Fusarium graminearum species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of cereals crops worldwide and a major food safety concern due to grain contamination with trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. Fusarium graminearum, a member of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is the dominant FHB pathogen in many p...

  9. Genetic diversity and geographic structure in Aglaia elaeagnoidea (Meliaceae, Sapindales), a morphologically complex tree species, near the two extremes of its distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muellner, A.N.; Greger, H.; Pannell, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea is the most widespread and one of the more morphologically diverse complex species in the largest genus of the mahogany family (Meliaceae, Sapindales). We performed maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses (nuclear ITS rDNA) to estimate genetic relations among

  10. Spatial distribution of the .i.Daphnia longispina./i. species complex and other planktonic crustaceans in the heterogeneous environment of canyon-shaped reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seďa, Jaromír; Petrusek, A.; Macháček, Jiří; Šmilauer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2007), s. 619-628 ISSN 0142-7873 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0190 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Daphnia longispina species complex * canyon-shaped reservoirs Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2007

  11. Simultaneous real-time PCR quantification of Fusarium asiaticum, F ussurianum and F vorosii, representing the Asian clade of the F graminearum species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ortuno, D.; Waalwijk, C.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Fan, J.; West, J.S.; Fraaije, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the repeated discovery of new members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), some of the F. graminearum sensu stricto (s.s.)-specific qPCR assays developed to date have since been shown to be non-specific. In this study, a probe-based qPCR method was developed, targeting a sterol

  12. Observations and Measurements of Wing Parameters of the Selected Beetle Species and the Design of a Mechanism Structure Implementing a Complex Wing Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, T.

    2016-12-01

    Beetle wings perform a flapping movement, consisting of the rotation relative to the two axes. This paper presents the results of observations and measurements of wings operating parameters in different planes of some beetle species. High speed photos and videos were used. The concept of the mechanism performing a complex wing movement was proposed and developed.

  13. Observations and Measurements of Wing Parameters of the Selected Beetle Species and the Design of a Mechanism Structure Implementing a Complex Wing Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisler T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beetle wings perform a flapping movement, consisting of the rotation relative to the two axes. This paper presents the results of observations and measurements of wings operating parameters in different planes of some beetle species. High speed photos and videos were used. The concept of the mechanism performing a complex wing movement was proposed and developed.

  14. Temporal changes of symbiont density and host fitness after rifampicin treatment in a whitefly of the Bemisia tabaci species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Yan, Ting-Ting; Tang, Hai-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Liu, Yin-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Microbial symbionts are essential or important partners to phloem-feeding insects. Antibiotics have been used to selectively eliminate symbionts from their host insects and establish host lines with or without certain symbionts for investigating functions of the symbionts. In this study, using the antibiotic rifampicin we attempted to selectively eliminate certain symbionts from a population of the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 whitefly of the Bemisia tabaci species complex, which harbors the primary symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and two secondary symbionts "Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa" and Rickettsia. Neither the primary nor the secondary symbionts were completely depleted in the adults (F0) that fed for 48 h on a diet treated with rifampicin at concentrations of 1-100 μg/mL. However, both the primary and secondary symbionts were nearly completely depleted in the offspring (F1) of the rifampicin-treated adults. Although the F1 adults produced some eggs (F2), most of the eggs failed to hatch and none of them reached the second instar, and consequently the rifampicin-treated whitefly colony vanished at the F2 generation. Interestingly, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays showed that in the rifampicin-treated whiteflies, the density of the primary symbiont was reduced at an obviously slower pace than the secondary symbionts. Mating experiments between rifampicin-treated and untreated adults demonstrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were expressed when the females were treated by the antibiotic, and whether males were treated or not by the antibiotic had little contribution to the negative effects. These observations indicate that with this whitefly population it is not feasible to selectively eliminate the secondary symbionts using rifampicin without affecting the primary symbiont and establish host lines for experimental studies. However, the extinction of the whitefly colony at the second generation after

  15. Gene Network Polymorphism Illuminates Loss and Retention of Novel RNAi Silencing Components in the Cryptococcus Pathogenic Species Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Feretzaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RNAi is a ubiquitous pathway that serves central functions throughout eukaryotes, including maintenance of genome stability and repression of transposon expression and movement. However, a number of organisms have lost their RNAi pathways, including the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis, the human pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii, and some human parasite pathogens, suggesting there may be adaptive benefits associated with both retention and loss of RNAi. By comparing the RNAi-deficient genome of the Pacific Northwest Outbreak C. deuterogattii strain R265 with the RNAi-proficient genomes of the Cryptococcus pathogenic species complex, we identified a set of conserved genes that were lost in R265 and all other C. deuterogattii isolates examined. Genetic and molecular analyses reveal several of these lost genes play roles in RNAi pathways. Four novel components were examined further. Znf3 (a zinc finger protein and Qip1 (a homolog of N. crassa Qip were found to be essential for RNAi, while Cpr2 (a constitutive pheromone receptor and Fzc28 (a transcription factor are involved in sex-induced but not mitosis-induced silencing. Our results demonstrate that the mitotic and sex-induced RNAi pathways rely on the same core components, but sex-induced silencing may be a more specific, highly induced variant that involves additional specialized or regulatory components. Our studies further illustrate how gene network polymorphisms involving known components of key cellular pathways can inform identification of novel elements and suggest that RNAi loss may have been a core event in the speciation of C. deuterogattii and possibly contributed to its pathogenic trajectory.

  16. Fundamental insights into conformational stability and orbital interactions of antioxidant (+)-catechin species and complexation of (+)-catechin with zinc(II) and oxovanadium(IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasarawan, Nuttawisit; Thipyapong, Khajadpai; Sirichai, Somsak; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    2013-09-01

    Conformational stability of (+)-catechin species in water has been examined with density functional theory, associated with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) of solvation. Factors such as electron delocalization, lone-pair electron donation and intramolecular hydrogen bonding substantially contribute to the conformational stabilization. Upon deprotonation, the HOMO and LUMO energies for (+)-catechin are both elevated; the energy gaps for the deprotonated species are narrower than the energy gap for the neutral species. The preferential deprotonation occurs at the C3'-, C5-, C7- and C4'-OH groups successively. The pKa value at 9.3 predicted for the most acidic OH group agrees well with previous experimental data; however the values are overestimated for the less acidic OH groups due to limitations of the PCM for charged solutes and/or complex nature of true deprotonation pathways. Formation of hydrogen radicals should be promoted at high pH values following the bond dissociation enthalpies. Complexation of (+)-catechin with either zinc(II) or oxovanadium(IV) is favored at the 1:1 metal-to-ligand (M:L) mole ratio, with the oxovanadium(IV) complex showing higher reaction preference. At M:L = 1:2, formation of two isomeric complexes are plausible for each type of metal ion. Effects of stoichiometry and isomerism on the computational spectral features of the possibly formed metal complexes have been described.

  17. Niche overlap of congeneric invaders supports a single-species hypothesis and provides insight into future invasion risk: implications for global management of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew P; Terblanche, John S

    2014-01-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has expanded its range rapidly over the past 10 years. Here we aimed to determine if the recent range expansion of Bactrocera invadens into southern Africa can be better understood through niche exploration tools, ecological niche models (ENMs), and through incorporating information about Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., a putative conspecific species from Asia. We test for niche overlap of environmental variables between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. as well as two other putative conspecific species, Bactrocera philippinensis and B. papayae. We examine overlap and similarity in the geographical expression of each species' realised niche through reciprocal distribution models between Africa and Asia. We explore different geographical backgrounds, environmental variables and model complexity with multiple and single Bactrocera species hypotheses in an attempt to predict the recent range expansion of B. invadens into northern parts of South Africa. Bactrocera invadens has a high degree of niche overlap with B. dorsalis s.s. (and B. philippinensis and B. papayae). Ecological niche models built for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. have high transferability to describe the range of B. invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone. Consistent with other studies proposing these Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same-at least functionally-and global quarantine and management strategies applied

  18. MALDI-TOF MS enables the rapid identification of the major molecular types within the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex comprises two sibling species that are divided into eight major molecular types, C. neoformans VNI to VNIV and C. gattii VGI to VGIV. These genotypes differ in host range, epidemiology, virulence, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. The currently used phenotypic and molecular identification methods for the species/molecular types are time consuming and expensive. As Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS offers an effective alternative for the rapid identification of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to examine its potential for the identification of C. neoformans and C. gattii strains at the intra- and inter-species level. METHODOLOGY: Protein extracts obtained via the formic acid extraction method of 164 C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates, including four inter-species hybrids, were studied. RESULTS: The obtained mass spectra correctly identified 100% of all studied isolates, grouped each isolate according to the currently recognized species, C. neoformans and C. gattii, and detected potential hybrids. In addition, all isolates were clearly separated according to their major molecular type, generating greater spectral differences among the C. neoformans molecular types than the C. gattii molecular types, most likely reflecting a closer phylogenetic relationship between the latter. The number of colonies used and the incubation length did not affect the results. No spectra were obtained from intact yeast cells. An extended validated spectral library containing spectra of all eight major molecular types was established. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid identification tool for the correct recognition of the two currently recognized human pathogenic Cryptococcus species and offers a simple method for the separation of the eight major molecular types and the detection of hybrid strains within this

  19. Niche overlap of congeneric invaders supports a single-species hypothesis and provides insight into future invasion risk: implications for global management of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Hill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has expanded its range rapidly over the past 10 years. Here we aimed to determine if the recent range expansion of Bactrocera invadens into southern Africa can be better understood through niche exploration tools, ecological niche models (ENMs, and through incorporating information about Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., a putative conspecific species from Asia. We test for niche overlap of environmental variables between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. as well as two other putative conspecific species, Bactrocera philippinensis and B. papayae. We examine overlap and similarity in the geographical expression of each species' realised niche through reciprocal distribution models between Africa and Asia. We explore different geographical backgrounds, environmental variables and model complexity with multiple and single Bactrocera species hypotheses in an attempt to predict the recent range expansion of B. invadens into northern parts of South Africa. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bactrocera invadens has a high degree of niche overlap with B. dorsalis s.s. (and B. philippinensis and B. papayae. Ecological niche models built for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. have high transferability to describe the range of B. invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Consistent with other studies proposing these Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same

  20. Experimental study of the complexation of silicon and germanium with aqueous organic species: implications for germanium and silicon transport and Ge/Si ratio in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovski, Gleb S.; Schott, Jacques

    1998-11-01

    The stability of aqueous complexes formed by Si and Ge with carboxylic acids (acetic, salicylic, oxalic, citric, tartaric) and phenols (phenol and catechol) has been investigated from 25 to 90°C via solubility and potentiometric measurements. Results show that Ge forms stable complexes with the di- and tricarboxylic acids and catechol, but that Si forms much weaker complexes with these ligands. Analysis of our results and of available literature data on Ge complexes formed with other types of aqueous organic species demonstrates that Ge forms complexes of chelate type with the following functional groups: (1) carboxylic in acid solutions (1 ≤ pH ≤ 6), (2) di-phenolic hydroxyls in neutral and basic solutions (pH ≥ 6), and (3) alcoholic hydroxyls in very basic solutions (pH ≥ 10). Conversely, Si forms very weak complexes with these compounds. Stability constants generated in this study for Ge- and Si-organic species have been used to approximate Ge and Si complexing with humic acids which possess the same organic functional groups as those used in this study. Our calculations show that Si-humic acid complexes are negligible in most natural waters. In contrast, the presence of humic acids can considerably affect Ge speciation in aqueous solution. For example, at pH ≥ 6 in a solution containing and 0.1 μg/L of Ge and 20 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Ge-humic acid complexes account for more than 95% of total aqueous Ge. These results can explain the increase of the Ge/Si ratio in organic-rich surficial waters. Ge-organic matter complexation should be thus taken into account when using Ge/Si ratios measured in surface waters and biogenic opals to estimate chemical-weathering intensity and Ge and Si global fluxes.

  1. Lovesongs and period gene polymorphisms indicate Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) as a sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoder, Felipe M; Araki, Alejandra S; Bauzer, Luiz G S R; Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2010-08-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) is implicated as a vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in some areas of Brazil. Lutzomyia cruzi is closely related to Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) the main Latin American vector of AVL and a species complex. Although females of the two species are identical, the males can be distinguished by differences in the genitalia. Nevertheless, pheromone analysis shows that Lu. cruzi males produce 9-methyl-germacrene-B, which has also been found in a number of Latin American populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. In addition, analysis of microsatellite loci shows that the level of divergence between Lu. cruzi and Lu. longipalpis s.l. is similar to that observed among the Lu. longipalpis s.l. sibling species. Here we present the lovesongs of Lu. cruzi males which are similar to the Burst-type songs produced by one of the Lu. longipalpis s.l. sibling species. We also present data on the molecular polymorphisms of the period gene of Lu. cruzi that indicate this species as another sibling within the Lu. longipalpis complex. The results highlight the importance of an integrative approach to understand the patterns of genetic and phenotypic divergence among very closely related vector species. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex with the proposal of Acinetobacter pittii sp. nov. (formerly Acinetobacter genomic species 3) and Acinetobacter nosocomialis sp. nov. (formerly Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Alexandr; Krizova, Lenka; Maixnerova, Martina; van der Reijden, Tanny J K; Deschaght, Pieter; Passet, Virginie; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Brisse, Sylvain; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2011-05-01

    Acinetobacter genomic species (gen. sp.) 3 and gen. sp. 13TU are increasingly recognized as clinically important taxa within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex. To define the taxonomic position of these genomic species, we investigated 80 strains representing the known diversity of the ACB complex. All strains were characterized by AFLP analysis, amplified rDNA restriction analysis and nutritional or physiological testing, while selected strains were studied by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analysis, multilocus sequence analysis and whole-genome comparison. Results supported the genomic distinctness and monophyly of the individual species of the ACB complex. Despite the high phenotypic similarity among these species, some degree of differentiation between them could be made on the basis of growth at different temperatures and of assimilation of malonate, l-tartrate levulinate or citraconate. Considering the medical relevance of gen. sp. 3 and gen. sp. 13TU, we propose the formal names Acinetobacter pittii sp. nov. and Acinetobacter nosocomialis sp. nov. for these taxa, respectively. The type strain of A. pittii sp. nov. is LMG 1035(T) (=CIP 70.29(T)) and that of A. nosocomialis sp. nov. is LMG 10619(T) (=CCM 7791(T)). Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships in the Niviventer-Chiromyscus complex (Rodentia, Muridae inferred from molecular data, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Balakirev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular data for mitochondrial (Cyt b, COI and nuclear (IRBP, GHR genes, and morphological examinations of museum specimens, we examined diversity, species boundaries, and relationships within and between the murine genera Chiromyscus and Niviventer. Phylogenetic patterns recovered demonstrate that Niviventer sensu lato is not monophyletic but instead includes Chiromyscus chiropus, the only previously recognized species of Chiropus. To maintain the genera Niviventer and Chiropus as monophyletic lineages, the scope and definition of the genus Chiromyscus is revised to include at least three distinct species: Chiromyscus chiropus (the type species of Chiromyscus, C. langbianis (previously regarded as a species of Niviventer, and a new species, described in this paper under the name C. thomasi sp. n.

  4. A survey of Anopheles gambiae (species A) and An. arabiensis (species B) of the An. gambiae Giles complex in the Kisumu area of Kenya following insecticidal spraying with OMS-43 (Fenitrothion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, M W; Joshi, G P; Pradhan, G D

    1978-08-01

    After village huts in the Kisumu area of Kenya had been sprayed with a nominal 2 g/m2 of OMS-43 (fenitrothion) as part of an insecticidal evaluation programme 964 adults of the Anopheles gambiae complex collected from huts were identified cytogenetically as either An. gambiae (species A) or An. arabiensis (species B). Similarly, cytogenetic methods were used to identify 349 adults collected from granaries and artificial pit-shelters. In addition, 2203 larvae of the gambiae complex collected from different types of habitats were specifically identified cytogenetically. As in a previous survey made prior to insecticidal spraying, adults of An. arabiensis predominated in outdoor collections while An. gambiae was highly endophilic. However, it appeared that spraying with fenitrothion had resulted in an increase in both the degree of exophily in An. arabiensis and also its relative numbers in respect to An. gambiae, although the overall pooulation of both species was greatly reduced by spraying. Insecticidal spraying may have diverted both species from feeding on man to cattle. Except for one village, where larvae of An. arabiensis were commoner than expected in cattle hoof-prints, there was little difference between the selection of different types of larval habitats by the two sibling species. Chromosomal inversions were more common in adults of An. arabiensis than in An. gambiae.

  5. Contribution to the systematics and zoogeography of the East-African Acomys spinosissimus Peters 1852 species complex and the description of two new species (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheyen, W.; Hulselmans, J.; Wendelen, W.

    2011-01-01

    We revised the taxonomic status of the putative Acomys spinosissimus complex based on the comparative study of specimen collections from Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, DR Congo and South Africa, by means of analysis of external morphology, craniometry, enzymes, mitochondrial DNA sequence...

  6. Identification of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albitarsis complex species (Diptera: Culicidae using rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2-based polymerase chain reaction primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Li

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus marajoara is a proven primary vector of malaria parasites in Northeast Brazil, and An. deaneorum is a suspected vector in Western Brazil. Both are members of the morphologically similar Albitarsis Complex, which also includes An. albitarsis and an undescribed species, An. albitarsis "B". These four species were recognized and can be identified using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers, but various other methodologies also point to multiple species under the name An. albitarsis. We describe here a technique for identification of these species employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2 sequence. Since this method is based on known sequence it is simpler than the sometimes problematical RAPD-PCR. Primers were tested on samples previously identified using RAPD markers with complete correlation.

  7. Systematic revision of the Parvoscincus decipiens (Boulenger, 1894) complex of Philippine forest skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Lygosominae) with descriptions of seven new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkem, Charles W; Brown, Rafe M

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of external morphological characters, color pattern, and DNA sequence data, plus consideration of biogeographical patterns, leads us to the hypothesis that the Parvoscincus decipiens complex of Philippine forest skinks consists of a minimum of eight highly divergent, phenotypically distinct, cohesive evolutionary lineages. We rectify this taxonomic underestimation of species diversity with formal descriptions of seven new species (P. abstrusus sp. nov., P. agtorum sp. nov., P. arvindiesmosi sp. nov., P aurorus sp. nov., P banahaoensis sp. nov., P. jimmymcguirei sp. nov., and P. palaliensis sp. nov.) and highlight geographical sampling deficiencies, which, if addressed with additional fieldwork, should lead to additional new species discoveries. Due to the difficulty of identifying non-overlapping differences in scalation on similarly sized, small-bodied skinks, species level diversity in diminutive Philippine forest skinks is undoubtedly substantially underestimated.

  8. Niche Overlap of Congeneric Invaders Supports a Single-Species Hypothesis and Provides Insight into Future Invasion Risk: Implications for Global Management of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew P.; Terblanche, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has expanded its range rapidly over the past 10 years. Here we aimed to determine if the recent range expansion of Bactrocera invadens into southern Africa can be better understood through niche exploration tools, ecological niche models (ENMs), and through incorporating information about Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., a putative conspecific species from Asia. We test for niche overlap of environmental variables between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. as well as two other putative conspecific species, Bactrocera philippinensis and B. papayae. We examine overlap and similarity in the geographical expression of each species’ realised niche through reciprocal distribution models between Africa and Asia. We explore different geographical backgrounds, environmental variables and model complexity with multiple and single Bactrocera species hypotheses in an attempt to predict the recent range expansion of B. invadens into northern parts of South Africa. Principal Findings Bactrocera invadens has a high degree of niche overlap with B. dorsalis s.s. (and B. philippinensis and B. papayae). Ecological niche models built for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. have high transferability to describe the range of B. invadens, and B. invadens is able to project to the core range of B. dorsalis s.s. The ENMs of both Bactrocera dorsalis and B. dorsalis combined with B. philipenesis and B. papayae have significantly higher predictive ability to capture the distribution points in South Africa than for B. invadens alone. Conclusions/Significance Consistent with other studies proposing these Bactrocera species as conspecific, niche similarity and overlap between these species is high. Considering these other Bactrocera dorsalis complex species simultaneously better describes the range expansion and invasion potential of B. invadens in South Africa. We suggest that these species should be considered the same–at least

  9. Morphological and Molecular Data Reveal Three Distinct Populations of Indian Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwant; Singh, Nisha; Mishra, Shefali; Tripathi, Kabita; Singh, Bikram P.; Rai, Vandna; Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Nagendra K.

    2018-01-01

    Wild relatives of crops possess adaptive mutations for agronomically important traits, which could play significant role in crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. However, global climate change and human activities pose serious threats to the natural habitats leading to erosion of genetic diversity of wild rice populations. The purpose of this study was to explore and characterize India’s huge untapped wild rice diversity in Oryza rufipogon Griff. species complex from a wide range of ecological niches. We made strategic expeditions around diversity hot spots in 64 districts of nine different agro-climatic zones of the country and collected 418 wild rice accessions. Significant variation was observed among the accessions for 46 morphological descriptors, allowing classification into O. nivara, O. rufipogon, and O. sativa f. spontanea morpho-taxonomic groups. Genome-specific pSINE1 markers confirmed all the accessions having AA genome, which were further classified using ecotype-specific pSINE1 markers into annual, perennial, intermediate, and an unknown type. Principal component analysis revealed continuous variation for the morphological traits in each ecotype group. Genetic diversity analysis based on multi-allelic SSR markers clustered these accessions into three major groups and analysis of molecular variance for nine agro-climatic zones showed that 68% of the genetic variation was inherent amongst individuals while only 11% of the variation separated the zones, though there was significant correlation between genetic and spatial distances of the accessions. Model based population structure analysis using genome wide bi-allelic SNP markers revealed three sub-populations designated ‘Pro-Indica,’ ‘Pro-Aus,’ and ‘Mid-Gangetic,’ which showed poor correspondence with the morpho-taxonomic classification or pSINE1 ecotypes. There was Pan-India distribution of the ‘Pro-Indica’ and ‘Pro-Aus’ sub-populations across agro-climatic zones

  10. Eggplant Resistance to the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Involves Both Broad-Spectrum and Strain-Specific Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Salgon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt (BW is a major disease of solanaceous crops caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC. Strains are grouped into five phylotypes (I, IIA, IIB, III, and IV. Varietal resistance is the most sustainable strategy for managing BW. Nevertheless, breeding to improve cultivar resistance has been limited by the pathogen’s extensive genetic diversity. Identifying the genetic bases of specific and non-specific resistance is a prerequisite to breed improvement. A major gene (ERs1 was previously mapped in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. using an intraspecific population of recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross of susceptible MM738 (S × resistant AG91-25 (R. ERs1 was originally found to control three strains from phylotype I, while being totally ineffective against a virulent strain from the same phylotype. We tested this population against four additional RSSC strains, representing phylotypes I, IIA, IIB, and III in order to clarify the action spectrum of ERs1. We recorded wilting symptoms and bacterial stem colonization under controlled artificial inoculation. We constructed a high-density genetic map of the population using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs developed from genotyping-by-sequencing and added 168 molecular markers [amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs, simple sequence repeats (SSRs, and sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs] developed previously. The new linkage map based on a total of 1,035 markers was anchored on eggplant, tomato, and potato genomes. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping for resistance against a total of eight RSSC strains resulted in the detection of one major phylotype-specific QTL and two broad-spectrum QTLs. The major QTL, which specifically controls three phylotype I strains, was located at the bottom of chromosome 9 and corresponded to the previously identified major gene ERs1. Five candidate R-genes were underlying this QTL, with different alleles

  11. Morphological and Molecular Data Reveal Three Distinct Populations of Indian Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild relatives of crops possess adaptive mutations for agronomically important traits, which could play significant role in crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. However, global climate change and human activities pose serious threats to the natural habitats leading to erosion of genetic diversity of wild rice populations. The purpose of this study was to explore and characterize India’s huge untapped wild rice diversity in Oryza rufipogon Griff. species complex from a wide range of ecological niches. We made strategic expeditions around diversity hot spots in 64 districts of nine different agro-climatic zones of the country and collected 418 wild rice accessions. Significant variation was observed among the accessions for 46 morphological descriptors, allowing classification into O. nivara, O. rufipogon, and O. sativa f. spontanea morpho-taxonomic groups. Genome-specific pSINE1 markers confirmed all the accessions having AA genome, which were further classified using ecotype-specific pSINE1 markers into annual, perennial, intermediate, and an unknown type. Principal component analysis revealed continuous variation for the morphological traits in each ecotype group. Genetic diversity analysis based on multi-allelic SSR markers clustered these accessions into three major groups and analysis of molecular variance for nine agro-climatic zones showed that 68% of the genetic variation was inherent amongst individuals while only 11% of the variation separated the zones, though there was significant correlation between genetic and spatial distances of the accessions. Model based population structure analysis using genome wide bi-allelic SNP markers revealed three sub-populations designated ‘Pro-Indica,’ ‘Pro-Aus,’ and ‘Mid-Gangetic,’ which showed poor correspondence with the morpho-taxonomic classification or pSINE1 ecotypes. There was Pan-India distribution of the ‘Pro-Indica’ and ‘Pro-Aus’ sub-populations across agro

  12. Using Vitek MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to identify species belonging to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex: a relevant alternative to molecular biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailhoriès, Hélène; Daure, Sophie; Eveillard, Matthieu; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2015-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii belongs to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (Acb) containing 2 other pathogenic species: Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis. Identification of these bacteria remains problematic despite the use of matrix-assisted laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Here, we enriched the SARAMIS™ database of the Vitek MS® plus mass spectrometer to improve the identification of species of the Acb complex. For each species, we incremented reference spectra. Then, a SuperSpectrum was created based on the selection of 40 specific masses. In a second step, we validated reference spectra and SuperSpectra with 100 isolates identified by rpoB gene sequencing. All the isolates were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS with the database we created as compared to the identifications obtained by rpoB sequencing. Our database enabled rapid and reliable identification of the pathogen species belonging to the Acb complex. Identification by MALDI-TOF MS with our database is a good alternative to molecular biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Diaporthe sojae species complex: phylogenetic re-assessment of pathogens associated with soybean, cucurbits and other field crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytopathogenic species of Diaporthe are associated with the serious diseases including seed decay, pod and stem blight and stem canker of soybean leading to considerable loss of crop production worldwide. Accurate identification of the species that cause these diseases has been difficult due to the...

  14. Development of novel chloroplast microsatellite markers to identify species in the Agrostis complex (Poaceae) and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria L. Zapiola; Richard C. Cronn; Carol A. Mallory-Smith

    2010-01-01

    We needed a reliable way to identify species and confirm potential interspecific and intergeneric hybrids in a landscape-level study of gene flow from transgenic gylphosate-resistant Agrostis stolonifera (Poaceae) to compatible relatives. We developed 12 new polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers to aid in identifying species recipient of...

  15. Integrative taxonomy: Where we are now, with a focus on the resolution of three tropical fruit fly species complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate species delimitation underpins good taxonomy. Formalisation of integrative taxonomy in the last decade has provided a framework for using multidisciplinary data to increase rigor in species delimitation hypotheses. We address the state of integrative taxonomy by using an international proje...

  16. Linking species- and ecosystem-level impacts of climate change in lakes with a complex and a minimal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, W.M.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Janse, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    To study the interaction between species- and ecosystem-level impacts of climate change, we focus on the question of how climate-induced shifts in key species affect the positive feedback loops that lock shallow lakes either in a transparent, macrophyte-dominated state or, alternatively, in a

  17. Reactive oxygen species are generated by the respiratory complex II - evidence for lack of contribution of the reverse electron flow in complex I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Hernandez-Esquivel, L.; Rivero-Segura, N.A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Neužil, Jiří; Ralph, S. J.; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 3 (2013), s. 927-938 ISSN 1742-464X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : anti-cancer drugs * mitochondria * respiratory complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  18. Entomopathogens of Amazonian stick insects and locusts are members of the Beauveria species complex (Cordyceps sensu stricto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Tatiana; Tabima, Javier; Restrepo, Silvia; Læssøe, Thomas; Spatafora, Joseph W; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon the only described species of Cordyceps sensu stricto (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) that parasitize insects of Orthopterida (orders Orthoptera and Phasmida) are Cordyceps locustiphila and C. uleana. However, the type specimens for both taxa have been lost and the concepts of these species are uncertain. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the systematics of these species, collections of Cordyceps from the Amazon regions of Colombia, Ecuador and Guyana were subjected to morphological, ecological and molecular phylogenetic studies. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on partial sequences of SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1 and RPB2 nuclear loci. Two new species are proposed including C. diapheromeriphila, a parasite of Phasmida, and C. acridophila, a parasite of the superfamily Acridomorpha (Orthoptera), which is broadly distributed across the Amazon. For C. locustiphila a lectotypification and an epitypification are made. Cordyceps locustiphila is host specific with Colpolopha (Acridomorpha: Romaleidae), and its distribution coincides with that of its host. The phylogenetic placement of these three species was resolved with strong support in the Beauveria clade of Cordyceps s. str. (Cordycipitaceae). This relationship and the morphological similarity of their yellow stromata with known teleomorphs of the clade, suggest that the holomorphs of these species may include Beauveria or Beauveria-like anamorphs. The varying host specificity of the beauverioid Cordyceps species suggest the potential importance of identifying the natural host taxon before future consideration of strains for use in biological control of pest locusts.

  19. Ants with Attitude: Australian Jack-jumpers of the Myrmecia pilosula species complex, with descriptions of four new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert W

    2015-01-21

    The six known "Jack-jumper species Myrmecia pilosula Fr. Smith 1858, M. croslandi Taylor 1991, M. banksi, M. haskinsorum, M. imaii and M. impaternata spp.n. are reviewed, illustrated and keyed. Myrmecia imaii is known only from southwest Western Australia, the others variously from southeastern Australia and Tasmania. These taxa were previously confused under the name M. pilosula (for which a lectotype is designated). Previous cytogenetical findings, which contributed importantly to current taxonomic understanding, are summarized for each species. Eastern and Western geographical races of the widespread M. pilosula are recognized. Myrmecia croslandi is one of only two eukaryote animals known to possess a single pair of chromosomes (2n=2 3 or 4). Myrmecia impaternata is evidentially an allodiploid (n=5 or 14, 2n=19) sperm-dependent gynogenetic hybrid between M. banksi and an element of the eastern race of M. pilosula, or their immediate ancestry. The sting-injected venom of these ants can induce sometimes fatal anaphylaxis in sensitive humans. 

  20. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermentedfood condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I.; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    -hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producerswas also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar......The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean(Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth...... and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCETRPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding´cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non...

  1. The AD-type ectomycorrhizas, one of the most common morphotypes present in truffle fields, result from fungi belonging to the Trichophaea woolhopeia species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Andrea; Belfiori, Beatrice; Passeri, Valentina; Baciarelli Falini, Leonardo; Arcioni, Sergio; Riccioni, Claudia; Paolocci, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Belowground ectomycorrhizal communities are often species rich. Characterization of the ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) underneath native truffle areas and/or cultivation sites is particularly relevant to identifying fungal species that might interfere with or promote truffle propagation and fruiting. Fungal identification at the genus/species level can now be achieved by combining detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions with molecular approaches. In a survey of the mycorrhizal biodiversity of Tuber melanosporum orchards and inoculated host plants in nurseries, we repeatedly sampled ECMs with morphological features resembling those of the ECMs widely known as the AD type. Despite the fact that the AD type is regarded as one of the most competitive fungal species towards Tuber spp., its taxonomical rank has yet to be resolved. By analyzing the 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA regions, here, we show that AD-type ECMs result from host plant colonization by the pyronemataceous species Trichophaea woolhopeia. Further to this, the 28S and ITS phylogenetic trees built from the AD-type ECMs analyzed sustain the hypothesis that T. woolhopeia is a species complex.

  2. Evolutionary History of the Live-Bearing Endemic Allotoca diazi Species Complex (Actinopterygii, Goodeinae: Evidence of Founder Effect Events in the Mexican Pre-Hispanic Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diushi Keri Corona-Santiago

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of Mexican ichthyofauna has been strongly linked to natural events, and the impact of pre-Hispanic cultures is little known. The live-bearing fish species Allotoca diazi, Allotoca meeki and Allotoca catarinae occur in areas of biological, cultural and economic importance in central Mexico: Pátzcuaro basin, Zirahuén basin, and the Cupatitzio River, respectively. The species are closely related genetically and morphologically, and hypotheses have attempted to explain their systematics and biogeography. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers were used to investigate the evolutionary history of the complex. The species complex shows minimal genetic differentiation. The separation of A. diazi and A. meeki was dated to 400-7000 years ago, explained by geological and climate events. A bottleneck and reduction of genetic diversity in Allotoca diazi was detected, attributed to recent climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activity. The isolation of A. catarinae occurred ~1900 years ago. No geological events are documented in the area during this period, but the date is contemporary with P'urhépecha culture settlements. This founder effect represents the first evidence of fish species translocation by a pre-Hispanic culture of Mexico. The response of the complex to climate fluctuation, geological changes and human activity in the past and the future according to the ecological niches predictions indicates areas of vulnerability and important information for conservation. The new genetic information showed that the Allotoca diazi complex consist of two genetic groups with an incomplete lineage sorting pattern: Pátzcuaro and Zirahuén lakes, and an introduced population in the Cupatitzio River.

  3. Evolutionary History of the Live-Bearing Endemic Allotoca diazi Species Complex (Actinopterygii, Goodeinae): Evidence of Founder Effect Events in the Mexican Pre-Hispanic Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Santiago, Diushi Keri; Doadrio, Ignacio; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Mexican ichthyofauna has been strongly linked to natural events, and the impact of pre-Hispanic cultures is little known. The live-bearing fish species Allotoca diazi, Allotoca meeki and Allotoca catarinae occur in areas of biological, cultural and economic importance in central Mexico: Pátzcuaro basin, Zirahuén basin, and the Cupatitzio River, respectively. The species are closely related genetically and morphologically, and hypotheses have attempted to explain their systematics and biogeography. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite mar