significant effects on food crop production and productivity. ... 2 Department of Economics and Resource management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway ... food markets work well, the problem of imperfect markets does not allow ..... prices at the time of purchase with the remaining balance due at the end of the.
This address is an exploration of a lifetime of disparate and often conflicting observations about how different people view what is right and good for agriculture, food, and farmers around the world. The exploration utilizes the concept of wicked problems to focus on the issue of differing historical interpretations of global agricultural development. Sandra Batie defines wicked problems as "dynamically complex, ill-structured, public problems" for which "there can be radically different views and understanding of the problem by different stakeholders, with no unique 'correct' view." The wicked problem construct is applied to four core ideas in the history of agricultural development -- small farms, cash crops, agrarian ideals, and international development -- to demonstrate the potential for using this concept to approach complex problems of historical interpretation and contribute to solutions to the challenges of global agricultural development. The author suggests historians should acknowledge contradictory interpretations adn work toward reconciliation and synthesis, where it is possible and, where not, toward a clear explication of the basis for remaining differences. The author also encourages historians to seek multidisciplinary research opportunities that will help bring insights about historical context to policy deliberations.
Putra Simanjuntak, Panca; Tiurniari Napitupulu, Pangeran; Pratama Silalahi, Soni; Kisno; Pasaribu, Norlina; Valešová, Libuše
Cash crop is a promising sector in Tobasa regency; however, the trend showed a negative change of the cash crop production in. This research aims to develop an application which is based on Arduino for watering and fertilizing corn land. The result of using e-precision agriculture based on embedded system is 100% higher than the conventional one and the risk of harvesting failure using the embedded system decreased to 50%. Embedded system in this study acquired critical environment measurements which at last affected the yield raising and risk reduction. As the result, the use of e-precision agriculture provided a framework to be used by different stakeholders to implement e-agriculture platform that supports marketing of agricultural production since the system is proven to save the material and time which finally reduces the risk of harvesting failure and increases the yield. In other words, the system is able to economize the use of water and fertilizer on a small corn land. The system will be developed for more efficiency in material loss and the mobile-based application development to reach sustainable rural development particularly for cash-crop farmers.
Full Text Available In organic vegetable systems green manure crops play an important role as a nitrogen source, but they cover the soil for several months without producing a direct income. Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. provides both heads to be harvested and particularly abundant plant residues to be possibly incorporated into the soil, so it may play a double role of cash and cover crop. This paper describes an on-farm study in which seed-propagated artichoke, cultivated as an annual crop, preceded zucchini squash and lettuce cultivated in sequence within a vegetable organic system. Artichoke produced about 7 t ha-1 of saleable heads and left, after harvest, 50.3 t ha-1 of fresh biomass usable as green manure. Zucchini squash and lettuce following artichoke showed a significant increase in yield when artichoke residues were incorporated into the soil. Furthermore, a residual positive effect of green manure on soil fertility was detected after lettuce harvest.
Full Text Available This study examined the effects of agroclimatic factors on the yield of cash crops in Nigeria and other variables such as producer prices, exchange rate and level of national income (GDP. The effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, sunshine hour, relative humidity, radiation, exchange rate and GDP on the yields of three cash crops (Cocoa, Palm Kernel and Palm Oil were estimated for the period 1970-2003 in Nigeria. The methods of analysis employed in the study were mainly error-correction model (ECM within the context of co-integration theory. The results showed that all the variables are not stationary at their levels and thus, a need for differencing once to attain stationary. Statistical significance of the error-correction terms for the three produce validates the existence of an equilibrium relationship among the variables in each of these co-integrating vectors. However, producer price, temperature and GDP were the most significant factors influencing the yield of cocoa while only exchange rate was the most significant factors for the palm produce.
Evert, van F.K.; Fountas, S.; Jakovetic, D.; Crnojevic, V.; Travlos, I.; Kempenaar, C.
Farmers have access to many data-intensive technologies to help them monitor and control weeds and pests. Data collection, data modelling and analysis, and data sharing have become core challenges in weed control and crop protection. We review the challenges and opportunities of Big Data in
Daniela De Benedetto
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of agro-ecological practices on soil losses, by assessing experimental field topography changes and cauliflower crop yield after an artificial extreme rainfall event. Data were collected in an innovative experimental device in which different combined agronomic strategies were tested such as hydraulic arrangement, crop rotations and agro-ecological service crops (ASC introduction. The collection of elevation data was carried out in kinematic way before rainfall, and in punctual surveys to evaluate the effects of artificial event on this parameter. Non-parametric tests were performed to evaluate differences between samples. High-resolution digital elevation models were generated from independent data using kriging, and elevation difference maps were produced. The results indicated that the data before and after the artificial rainfall were statistically different. The raised strips suffered soil loss showing that the strip with permanent intercropping was higher than that in the absence of ASC. A significant rise of elevation was registered in the furrowed strips after rainfall, and deposition of soil occurred at the lowest areas of the experimental field. Moreover, the study showed a relationship between cash crop yield and elevation: the areas with lower elevation (higher flooding were characterized by the lowest yield.
Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E
-energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...
Stein, Katharina; Coulibaly, Drissa; Stenchly, Kathrin; Goetze, Dethardt; Porembski, Stefan; Lindner, André; Konaté, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Eduard K
Mutualistic biotic interactions as among flowering plants and their animal pollinators are a key component of biodiversity. Pollination, especially by insects, is a key element in ecosystem functioning, and hence constitutes an ecosystem service of global importance. Not only sexual reproduction of plants is ensured, but also yields are stabilized and genetic variability of crops is maintained, counteracting inbreeding depression and facilitating system resilience. While experiencing rapid environmental change, there is an increased demand for food and income security, especially in sub-Saharan communities, which are highly dependent on small scale agriculture. By combining exclusion experiments, pollinator surveys and field manipulations, this study for the first time quantifies the contribution of bee pollinators to smallholders' production of the major cash crops, cotton and sesame, in Burkina Faso. Pollination by honeybees and wild bees significantly increased yield quantity and quality on average up to 62%, while exclusion of pollinators caused an average yield gap of 37% in cotton and 59% in sesame. Self-pollination revealed inbreeding depression effects on fruit set and low germination rates in the F1-generation. Our results highlight potential negative consequences of any pollinator decline, provoking risks to agriculture and compromising crop yields in sub-Saharan West Africa.
Full Text Available In recent decades a boom in cashew (Anacardium occidentalecultivation has taken place in Guinea-Bissau, leading to the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture by a cash crop. As a result, the country is currently one of the world’s largest producers of raw cashew nuts and the cashew sector has acquired enormous importance in Guinea-Bissau’s economy. Changes induced by the cashew boom at social and environmental levels are yet to be analyzed and understood. The present study provides an account of the process of cashew expansion in Guinea-Bissau, reviews the current situation and discusses its future prospects. The cashew tree was introduced into the country by the Portuguese in the XIXth century, but only effectively expanded in the mid-1980s. It is largely cultivated by small farmers around villages and also plays a role in land ownership, since land tenure practices are linked to the planting of trees. The effects of this cashew boom on habitat fragmentation, fire regimes and biodiversity are still to be assessed. On the other hand, the spread of pests and diseases is becoming a problem. Strong dependence on a single cash crop also renders the country vulnerable to market fluctuations, entailing risks to local producers and the national economy. In the medium term, losses of export earnings can occur, which may impact the living standards and food security of Bissau-Guineans both in urban and rural areas.
This work makes a mention of cash management. At next chapter describes two most known theoretical models of cash management -- Baumol Model and Miller-Orr Model. Principal part of work is about cash pooling, types of cash pooling, cash pooling at Czech Republic and influence of cash pooling over accounting and taxes.
Andrea Karin Barrueto
Full Text Available Agricultural innovations are important, especially as climatic conditions around the world have been subject to increasing change over the past decades. Through innovation, farmers can adapt to the changing conditions and secure their livelihoods. In Nepal, 75% of the population depends upon agriculture, which is impacted by climate change, migration, and feminisation. In this context, it is important to understand what drives a household to start agricultural innovation to increase its economic benefits and resilience in the face of multiple pressures. We sought a comprehensive understanding of these drivers by investigating the determinants of rural innovation, using macadamia and walnut trees as examples of novel, potentially commercialised cash crops. After conducting an in-depth household survey that divided farmers into those who cultivate nuts and those who do not, we analysed the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of each category using statistical tests and a multiple logistic regression. Our results show that the individual variables of ethnicity, wealth and “years of experience with fruit trees” correlate significantly with nut cultivation. The results of the multiple regression suggest that “years of experience with tree cultivation” and “having an income through fruit trees” most influence nut cultivation. Overall, we conclude that nut cultivation is an accepted and promising cash crop mostly grown by wealthier households, and that, for poor, landless, or female-headed households to benefit, alternative business models and new policies must be explored and developed. We further suggest that this is also true for other nut or other cash crop trees that have gained recent attention in Nepal such as almond, hazelnut, or pecan farming.
C. R. Sabajo
Full Text Available Indonesia is currently one of the regions with the highest transformation rate of land surface worldwide related to the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops replacing forests on large scales. Land cover changes, which modify land surface properties, have a direct effect on the land surface temperature (LST, a key driver for many ecological functions. Despite the large historic land transformation in Indonesia toward oil palm and other cash crops and governmental plans for future expansion, this is the first study so far to quantify the impacts of land transformation on the LST in Indonesia. We analyze LST from the thermal band of a Landsat image and produce a high-resolution surface temperature map (30 m for the lowlands of the Jambi province in Sumatra (Indonesia, a region which suffered large land transformation towards oil palm and other cash crops over the past decades. The comparison of LST, albedo, normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI and evapotranspiration (ET between seven different land cover types (forest, urban areas, clear-cut land, young and mature oil palm plantations, acacia and rubber plantations shows that forests have lower surface temperatures than the other land cover types, indicating a local warming effect after forest conversion. LST differences were up to 10.1 ± 2.6 °C (mean ± SD between forest and clear-cut land. The differences in surface temperatures are explained by an evaporative cooling effect, which offsets the albedo warming effect. Our analysis of the LST trend of the past 16 years based on MODIS data shows that the average daytime surface temperature in the Jambi province increased by 1.05 °C, which followed the trend of observed land cover changes and exceeded the effects of climate warming. This study provides evidence that the expansion of oil palm plantations and other cash crops leads to changes in biophysical variables, warming the land surface and thus
Fischer, Mary L.; Ostrom, John S.
Elements of an effective management program for colleges and universities are examined. Five basic purposes of an effective program of cash management are identified: developing accurate cash projections, managing cash receipts, controlling cash disbursements, establishing sound banking relationships, and investing funds. It is suggested that all…
Purpose: Participation in labour markets and high-value crops among men and women smallholder farmers has always been an important strategy for poverty alleviation and attainment of food and income security. In contributing to the generation of gender-disaggregated empirical literature, this paper examined determinants of women smallholder…
van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo
Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses.
van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D.; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B.; Veldkamp, Edzo
Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion—the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000
Nielsen, George A.; Johannisson, Eric E.
The primary objective of a public cash management policy should include safety, liquidity, yield, and legality. Contains a cash management policy/procedure checklist, a test for cash managers, and a formula for calculating the rate of return. (MLF)
A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data.
Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Torres, Marco A; Martina, Mario L V
Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data-such as municipality-level records of crop seeding-for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using "good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The paper presents the problem
A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data
Full Text Available Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data—such as municipality-level records of crop seeding—for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using “good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The
US Agency for International Development — CART is a cash reconciliation tool that allows users to reconcile Agency cash disbursements with Treasury fund balances; track open unreconciled items; and create an...
reviewers for their comments and suggestions. ... Asia and Africa) devoted special issues to focus on the significance and ... Adjustment Program (SAP) and economic liberalization throughout sub- ..... of students in each household. ... collaboration with various institutions (University of Oxford, UK and International Food.
absence of price equation, the effect of any disequilibrium between aggregate .... Many estimators could have been considered, but in order to limit the size and cost of ... Ordinary least squares plus first- and second-order serial correlation.
There may be uncertainty about the relationships between instruments and ... For example, economic growth is a key instrument for reaching a range of ... initial conditions for subsequent high growth and poverty reduction (see McMahon.
Each year at Utica College, a tiny pot of money stands as a kind of symbol of where the college hopes to go and how close it sits to the edge. In a $55-million budget, after the college has paid its employees, heating bills, and other expenses, about $150,000 is left over for what the college calls its initiative fund. Todd S. Hutton, the…
Boyles, William W.
In 1973, Ronald G. Lykins presented a model for cash management and analysed its benefits for Ohio University. This paper attempts to expand on the previous method by providing answers to questions raised by the Lykins methods by a series of simple algebraic formulas. Both methods are based on two premises: (1) all cash over which the business…
Lykins, Ronald G.
This article deals with several techniques for regulating cash inflow and outflow and investing surplus cash for short periods of time. The techniques are: (1) consolidating checking accounts, (2) determining surplus cash by examining bank balances in conjunction with the cash book, (3) selecting a minimum bank balance, (4) investing a greater…
Vongvisouk, Thoumthone; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt; Mertz, Ole
In many countries with large tracts of tropical forests, there is a dual focus on enhancing forest protection and increasing commercial agriculture for economic development. Laos is a case in point for this development as the Government of Laos (GoL) has a strong commitment to economic growth, wh...
Chachina H. G.
This article is about risk assessment in planning future cash flows. Discount rate in DCF-model must include four factors: risk cash flow, inflation, value of investments, turnover assets. This has an influence net present value cash flow and make his incomparable.
Lee, Edward; Powell, Ronan
We examine the determinants of corporate cash holdings in Australia and the impact on shareholder wealth of holding excess cash. Our results show that a trade-off model best explains the level of a firm’s cash holdings in Australia. We find that 'transitory' excess cash firms earn significantly higher risk-adjusted returns compared to 'persistent' excess cash firms, suggesting that the market penalises firms that hoard cash. The marginal value of cash also declines with larger cash balances, ...
Full Text Available This study solves the dispute between the free cash flow and tunneling hypotheses in explaining the role of cash dividends on asset expropriation of the controlling shareholders in Chinese listed firms. Investors value more the cash dividends and the cash holdings of firms with lower ownership control than those of firms with higher ownership control. This is more consistent with the tunneling hypothesis. However, when investment opportunities are considered, the free cash flow hypothesis better explains firms' dividend policy. Investors value more the cash dividends of firms with fewer investment opportunities and higher probability of expropriation. This study indicates that investors are concerned with the potential asset expropriation through cash payouts, unless firms possess high growth opportunities.
Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes
Firms pay out cash using both dividends and share repurchases. In many aspects these two means are similar, but one important difference is that dividends are generally taxed more heavily than share repurchases. Nevertheless firms persist in paying out large amounts in dividends. This paper...... provides an explanation for this dividend puzzle by developing a class of signaling models violating the "single-crossing" property in which information about the quality of the firm is asymmetric between the management and the shareholders. In these models a high-quality firm can always signal its quality...... by using share repurchases only. However, in certain cases share repurchases become costlier on the margin for a high-quality firm than for a low-quality imitator. In such cases, the high-quality firm signals most cost efficiently by means of a combination of share repurchases and taxable cash dividends...
Erin Silva, University of Wisconsin, describes an organic no-till production technique using rye as cover crop to suppress weeds in the following production season. Using a roller-crimper, the overwintering rye is terminated at the time of cash crop planting, leaving a thick mat of plant residue on the soil surface. Soybeans are sown directly into the cover crop residue, allowing the cash crop to emerge through the terminated cover crop while suppressing weeds throughout the season. W...
Navarro, Jose A; Botella, Francisco; Maruhenda, Antonio; Sastre, Pedro; Sánchez-Pina, M Amelia; Pallas, Vicente
ABSTRACT Nonisotopic molecular dot blot hybridization technique and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV) and Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) in lettuce tissue were developed. Both procedures were suitable for the specific detection of both viruses in a range of naturally infected lettuce plants from various Spanish production areas and seven different cultivars. The study of the distribution of both viruses in the plant revealed that the highest concentration of LBVV and MiLV occurred in roots and old leaves, respectively. LBVV infection progress in a lettuce production area was faster than that observed for MiLV. In spite of different rates of virus infection progress, most lettuce plants became infected with both viruses about 100 days posttransplant. The appearance of both viruses in lettuce crops was preceded by a peak in the concentration of resting spores and zoosporangia of the fungus vector Olpidium brassicae in lettuce roots.
An institution's survival in the 1990s depends on its ability to generate enough cash to meet its needs. The author discusses two accounting tools, the cash budget and the statement of cash flows, that help monitor and control cash flows. By understanding the nature and impact of each report, nurse administrators can help safeguard one of their institution's scarcest resources: cash.
Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld
of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava...
Olsen, Mia; Mogensen, Klaus Æ.
We have used money as a means of payment since the earliest civilisations, and even though the way we spend and transfer money has changed over time, the coin still remains almost unchanged. Now, the coin and its young er big brother the banknote are threatened by new digital forms of payment, an...
J. Kippers (Jeanine)
textabstractCash is still the most common means of daily payments. The large number of cash payments is supported by a costly distribution system in which retailers, banks and central banks participate. Currency is issued in a range of bank note and coin denominations to facilitate efficiency
Bensoussan, Alain; Chutani, Anshuman; Sethi, Suresh
We solve an agent's optimization problem of meeting demands for cash over time with cash deposited in bank or invested in stock. The stock pays dividends and uncertain capital gains, and a commission is incurred in buying and selling of stock. We use a stochastic maximum principle to obtain explicitly the optimal transaction policy.
Hidrobo, Melissa; Fernald, Lia
Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cabello, Julia García
Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.
Galina S. Panova
Full Text Available Analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of the monetary sector of the Russian economy. Quantitative parameters of aggregate turnover, including the value of cash and non-cash it. Researched issues restricting cash advance industry in Russia and other countries; the problems encountered by foreign States in imposing administrative limits on cash payments; provides specific recommendations and identified risks imposing such restrictions in Russia. The article deals with topical issues of optimization of structure of aggregate turnover. Analyzing the development of money turnover, the role and the place of cash in the economy, the author explored the basic approaches to the determination and regulation of money turnover, proposed a new approach to ensure transparency in money flows. Particularly promising cash flow optimization are: a measures aimed at improving the cash turnover (including maintaining the stability of the national currency, improving the procedures for issuing and withdrawing money from circulation, determine the optimal structure of monetary aggregates, etc. and b development of cashless money turnover. The author's position is presented on the future of the scientific basis and practical realization of the optimal ratio of cash and cashless money turnover in Russia and other countries. In particular, felt the need to increase information transparency, openness international information exchange in order to improve monetary policy by countries at the national and international level. To develop common approaches (models of the analysis and forecasting of financial markets, as well as the establishment of an international coordination centre responsible for the collection, verification and access to public information databases for the cross-country studies of banking and financial and monetary sphere.
... the Secretary for the costs the Secretary incurred in providing that excess cash to the institution... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess cash. 668.166 Section 668.166 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a...
Cabello, Julia Garc?a
Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks? branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...
Dahlgran, Roger A.
Agribusinesses make long-term plant-investment decisions based on discounted cash flow. It is therefore incongruous for an agribusiness firm to use cash flow as a plant-investment criterion and then to completely discard cash flow in favor of batch profits as an operating objective. This paper assumes that cash flow and its stability is important to commodity processors and examines methods for hedging cash flows under continuous processing. Its objectives are (a) to determine how standard he...
Full Text Available In today’s environment, cash conversion cycle is randomly used as a measure of liquidity of the organizations. Cash conversion cycle is considered as the length of time between raw-materials and collection of cash from debtors. It can be used as a benchmarking competitors or comparing companies. On the other hand, Cash holding is one of the most important financial decisions that a manager has to make in any organization. Some organizations hold more cash and some organizations hold less cash. In this study, we perform a survey to make a relationship between Cash Conversion Cycle and Cash Holding.
Many kinds of arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) inhabit crop fields in Arizona and can have a large negative impact on several pest insect species that also infest these crops. Geocoris spp., commonly known as big-eyed bugs, are among the most abundant insect predators in field c...
Tamara Kucherenko; Inna Tkachuk
Cash is the only kind of company resource which can be transformed directly and with minimum time lag into any other kind of resources, their movement servicing all management operational processes. The article is covers the development of cash management algorithm in agricultural enterprise. The author has worked out the algorithm for determining the efficiency of cash management in agricultural enterprise. As the basis of the algorithm the income approach and discounted cash flow method has...
Sulayman H. Atieh
The purpose of this study is to examine the liquidity position of the Jordanian pharmaceutical sector using the traditional ratios as compared to the more recently developed cash flow ratios. The research involved the comparison between traditional ratios and cash flow ratios of the big seven companies of the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan over six years period (2007¨C2012). The companies were all from the same sector, and the data was obtained from the annual reports of these companies. T...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cash depositories. 277.7 Section 277.7 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.7 Cash depositories. (a) The term “cash depositories” refers to banks or other institutions which...
In this study, an integrated cash requirement forecasting and cash inventory optimization model is implemented in both the branch and automated teller machine (ATM) networks of a mid-sized bank in Turkey to optimize the bank’s cash supply chain. The implemented model’s objective is to minimize the idle cash levels at both branches and ATMs without decreasing the customer service level (CSL) by providing the correct amount of cash at the correct location and time. To the best of our knowledge,...
Calota Traian-Ovidiu; Tănase Alin-Eliodor
The consolidated financial statements must includ a specific statement, regarding cash flows from all activities of the entity, called „consolidated statement of cash flow”. Information for preparing cash flow statements can be found in all other components of the financial statements, such as financial position, statement of comprehensive income and statement of changes in equity. The cash flow statement shall report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financi...
Aktaş, Rabia; Karğın, Sibel; Karğın, Mahmut
Statement of cash flows that presents important information about firm’s power of cash generation and cash consumption is a reliable source of information for financial statement users. Therefore, financial reporting standards require cash flow statement to be reported and presented with the other financial statements such as statement of financial position, statement of comprehensive income, and statement of changes in equity. Turkish Accounting Standard 7 – “Statement of Cash Flows” (TMS 7 ...
Cash holdings of equity mutual funds impose a drag on fund performance but also allow managers to make quick investments in attractive stocks and satisfy outflows without costly fire sales. This article shows that actively managed equity funds with high abnormal cash—that is, with cash holdings in excess of the level predicted by fund attributes—outperform their low abnormal cash peers by over 2% per year. Managers carrying high abnormal cash compensate for the low return on cash by making su...
Kremer, Jan; Stensbo-Smidt, Kristoffer; Gieseke, Fabian Cristian
, modern astronomy requires big data know-how, in particular it demands highly efficient machine learning and image analysis algorithms. But scalability is not the only challenge: Astronomy applications touch several current machine learning research questions, such as learning from biased data and dealing......, and highlight some recent methodological advancements in machine learning and image analysis triggered by astronomical applications....
Lusiana Citra Dewi
Full Text Available Digital cash is one of the payment methods that is very easy to use, especially when someone is doing a transaction through the internet. Digital cash has many forms and systems, which are supposed to simplify and make the process of transaction easier. This paper will discuss about the definition of the digital cash itself, the important properties that it has, the problems which occur due to its existence, the examples of some key players who operate the digital cash from all around the world, along with how the digital cash works, and lastly, how the digital cash is put into the practical world. The purpose of this paper is to give a glimpse of view on the functions of the digital cash, the systems or protocols which are needed to implement it, and the problems faced by those who use it.
With the increased interest in cover crops, the impact of adoption on profitability of cash crops is a common question from producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Alabama. This experiment inclu...
Full Text Available In this study, an integrated cash requirement forecasting and cash inventory optimization model is implemented in both the branch and automated teller machine (ATM networks of a mid-sized bank in Turkey to optimize the bank’s cash supply chain. The implemented model’s objective is to minimize the idle cash levels at both branches and ATMs without decreasing the customer service level (CSL by providing the correct amount of cash at the correct location and time. To the best of our knowledge, the model is the first integrated model in the literature to be applied to both ATMs and branches simultaneously. The results demonstrated that the integrated model dramatically decreased the idle cash levels at both branches and ATMs without degrading the availability of cash and hence customer satisfaction. An in-depth analysis of the results also indicated that the results were more remarkable for branches. The results also demonstrated that the utilization of various seasonal indices plays a very critical role in the forecasting of cash requirements for a bank. Another unique feature of the study is that the model is the first to include the recycling feature of ATMs. The results demonstrated that as a result of the inclusion of the deliberate seasonal indices in the forecasting model, the integrated cash optimization models can be used to estimate the cash requirements of recycling ATMs.
Primavera De Filippi
Full Text Available Big data refers to the collection and aggregation of large quantities of data produced by and about people, things or the interactions between them. With the advent of cloud computing, specialised data centres with powerful computational hardware and software resources can be used for processing and analysing a humongous amount of aggregated data coming from a variety of different sources. The analysis of such data is all the more valuable to the extent that it allows for specific patterns to be found and new correlations to be made between different datasets, so as to eventually deduce or infer new information, as well as to potentially predict behaviours or assess the likelihood for a certain event to occur. This article will focus specifically on the legal and moral obligations of online operators collecting and processing large amounts of data, to investigate the potential implications of big data analysis on the privacy of individual users and on society as a whole.
Full Text Available A corporate cash-holding strategy is a trade-off between the costs and benefits of holding cash. At the macrolevel, firms are inclined to adjust and optimize their cash-holding strategies in response to changes in purchasing power due to inflation. At the microlevel, the operating cycle, which indicates the speed and turnover of corporate cash flow, also influences the corporate cash-holding strategy. Firms flexibly adjust their cash-holding strategies in response to changes in the internal and external environment, which is referred to as the cash adjustment strategy. We examine these predicted relationships using a sample of listed firms in China’s stock market over the 1998–2009 period. Consistent with our predictions, the empirical results indicate a significant negative association between cash holdings and the CPI, but the relationship is reversed when the CPI reaches a certain level. There is also a U-shaped relationship between operating cycle and cash holdings, and this relationship is similarly influenced by changes in the inflation level. In examining the macroeconomic environment and microlevel firm-specific characteristics simultaneously, our findings supplement the literature on firms’ cash-holding strategies and provide theoretical and practical implications.
This paper shows that ten methods of company valuation using discounted cash flows (WACC; equity cash flow; capital cash flow; adjusted present value; residual income; EVA; business's risk-adjusted equity cash flow; business's risk-adjusted free cash flow; risk-free-adjusted equity cash flow; and risk-free-adjusted free cash flow) always give the same value when identical assumptions are used. This result is logical, since all the methods analyze the same reality using the same assumptions; t...
Full Text Available For measuring the efficiency of management of cash, cash holding is one of the most important financial decisions that the manager of the concerned organization, has to make in the organization. Basically, it is observed that the organization hold cash for future purposes is very negligible. If the organization invested cash in profitable securities then there is some flexibility but when it relates to the capital market holding cash is not advantageous. Generally two contradictory theories such as Trade-off theory and the Pecking order theory are considered for measuring the efficiency of cash management. In this study we generally observed measured the efficiency of Cash Management influenced by Cash Holding. We also measured whether cash holding of the organization is affected with the degree of financial leverage, size of the organization, investment and profitability. This study helps us to understand the influence of DFL, Investment and Size of the organization on Cash holding. Proper holding of cash in cash management can prevent the bankruptcy of any organization and also increases the efficiency of Cash or Liquidity management.
" "Big science" is moving into astronomy, bringing large experimental teams, multi-year research projects, and big budgets. If this is the wave of the future, why are some astronomers bucking the trend?" (2 pages).
Replacement of delivery settlement of futures contracts with cash settlement is frequently proposed to reduce the frequency of market manipulation. This article shows that it is always possible to design a delivery-settled futures contract that is less susceptible to cornering by a large long than any given cash-settled contract. Such a contract is more susceptible to manipulation by large shorts, however. Therefore, cash settlement does not uniformly dominate delivery settlement as a means o...
Dewi, Lusiana Citra
Digital cash is one of the payment methods that is very easy to use, especially when someone is doing a transaction through the internet. Digital cash has many forms and systems, which are supposed to simplify and make the process of transaction easier. This paper will discuss about the definition of the digital cash itself, the important properties that it has, the problems which occur due to its existence, the examples of some key players who operate the digital cash from all around the wor...
Full Text Available Electronic cash (e-cash is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.
Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung
Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.
Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung
Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931
Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk
for studies that explicitly compare the quality of this new type of data to traditional data sources. With the current focus on Big Data in the transport field, public transport planners are increasingly looking towards smart card data to analyze and optimize flows of passengers. However, in many cases...... it is not all public transport passengers in a city, region or country with a smart card system that uses the system, and in such cases, it is important to know what biases smart card data has in relation to giving a complete view upon passenger flows. This paper therefore analyses the quality and biases...... of smart card data in Denmark, where public transport passengers may use a smart card, may pay with cash for individual trips or may hold a season ticket for a certain route. By analyzing smart card data collected in Denmark in relation to data on sales of cash tickets, sales of season tickets, manual...
A company's profit after tax (or net income) is quite an arbitrary figure, obtained after assuming certain accounting hypotheses regarding expenses and revenues. On the other hand, its cash flow is an objective measure, a single figure that is not subject to any personal criterion. In general, to study a company's situation, it is more useful to operate with the cash flow (equity cash flow, free cash flow or capital cash flow) as it is a single figure, while the net income is one of several t...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management. 140.612 Section 140.612 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Bond Issue Projects § 140.612 Cash management. By July 1 of each year the SHA will provide...
Bauer, Richard I.
Provides guidelines for overseeing a school district's cash-flow management program: (1) receipts into cash; (2) types of float; (3) concentration account or controlled-disbursement account; (4) bank-account analysis; and (5) safety. One figure is included. (LMI)
New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.
New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…
Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.
This training guide for financial aid staff explains the process of direct loan reconciliation and suggests appropriate cash management accounting practices. Chapter 1 explains the importance of cash management, the role of data matching, and reviews basic reconciliation concepts and terms and direct loan reporting requirements. Chapter 2 reviews…
Experienced managers know that cash affects virtually every aspect of a company's strategy and operations. Business students and new managers, however, sometimes lose sight of the importance of cash amidst the details of accrual-based accounting courses, formula-based finance courses, and production-based management courses. We therefore use…
Full Text Available Optimization of cash flows of the industrial company provides economic entity necessity and sufficiency of financial resources for sustainable activities. Cash optimization techniques are grouped into two blocks: theoretical - is mainly foreign methods and applied techniques that are mostly used by Russian authors. Models described in the literature are not allowed for the particular industry in the formation of cash. The mathematical models described in the literature do not allow to take into account industry characteristics in the formation of funds. The proposed methodology by authors allows to predict cash amounts based on business company. The balance of cash flows is provided by the budgeting system. The company’s the released money can send funds for investment purposes. Effectiveness of confirmed by practical testing methodology on the existing machine-building enterprise.
R. Anastasia Endang Susilawati
Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to examine behavior public company in Indonesia to manage of free cash flows and the role namagerial ownership on corporate debt policy. The using dependent variable on this research is debt, so independent variables are free cash flows and managerial ownership. The sample used was the public companies listed in the Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX. There were 59 companies which have and during the period from 2005-2009. Data collected by purposive sampling. The result examination is that public company in Indonesia have low investment opportunity set (IOS when free cash flow high attending by using debt for cost operation company. This result robust because evidence with chow test the result that significant difference regression stability between free cash flow to corporate debt policy have low and high investment opportunity set. Although, when dividend based big company have low investment opportunity and small company have low investment opportunity, both have the same effect between free cash flow on corporate debt policy. The result chow test suggest examination there are not statistically significant difference. Managerial ownership association negative with debt policy, this result evidence that agency cost of debt can be reduce by managerial ownership
Qi Luo; Toyohiko Hachiya
This paper presents evidence on cash holdings for Japanese firms listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, focusing on the impact of corporate governance factors in cash holdings and the implication of cash holdings to firm value. We find that insider ownership and bank relations of firms play a significant role in determining cash holdings. Our results indicate that foreign stockholders select profitable firms to invest, and these firms have higher levels of cash. We document evidence that cash ho...
Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.......Development in China raises the question of how big a city can become, and at the same time be sustainable, writes Christer Ljungwall of the Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis....
MELANIA ELENA MICULEAC
Full Text Available In order to reach the objective of supplying some relevant information regarding the liquidity inflows and outflows during a financial exercise, the total cash flow analysis must include the analysis of result cashable from operation, of payments and receipts related to the investment and of financing decisions of the last exercise, as well as the analysis of treasury variation (of cash items. The management of total cash flows ensures the correlation of current liquidness flows as consequence of receipts with the payments ’flows, in order to provide payment continuity of mature obligations.
Li, Yun; Moutinho, Luiz; Opong, Kwaku K.; Pang, Yang
This paper applies models in the extant literature that have been used to forecast operating cash flows to predict the cash flows of South African firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Out-of-sample performance is examined for each model and compared between them. The reported results show that some accrual terms, i.e. depreciation and changes in inventory do not enhance cash flow prediction for the average South African firm in contrast to the reported results of studies in USA an...
Full Text Available Big Data is nothing new. Public concern regarding the mass diffusion of data has appeared repeatedly with computing innovations, in the formation before Big Data it was most recently referred to as the information explosion. In this essay, I argue that the appeal of Big Data is not a function of computational power, but of a synergistic relationship between aesthetic order and a politics evacuated of a meaningful public deliberation. Understanding, and challenging, Big Data requires an attention to the aesthetics of data visualization and the ways in which those aesthetics would seem to depoliticize information. The conclusion proposes an alternative argumentative aesthetic as the appropriate response to the depoliticization posed by the popular imaginary of Big Data.
Madsen, Anders Koed; Flyverbom, Mikkel; Hilbert, Martin
is to outline a research agenda that can be used to raise a broader set of sociological and practice-oriented questions about the increasing datafication of international relations and politics. First, it proposes a way of conceptualizing big data that is broad enough to open fruitful investigations......The claim that big data can revolutionize strategy and governance in the context of international relations is increasingly hard to ignore. Scholars of international political sociology have mainly discussed this development through the themes of security and surveillance. The aim of this paper...... into the emerging use of big data in these contexts. This conceptualization includes the identification of three moments contained in any big data practice. Second, it suggests a research agenda built around a set of subthemes that each deserve dedicated scrutiny when studying the interplay between big data...
Groundnut is an important cash crop and a good source of vegetable oil to resource-poor farmers. The study examined the Profitability of Groundnut–based Cropping Systems among farmers in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers were ...
Ostergaard, Charlotte; Sasson, Amir; Sørensen, Bent E
We study how nonlisted firms trade off financial, real, and distributive uses of cash. We show that firms' marginal value of cash (MVC) affects the mix of external and internal finance used to absorb fluctuations in cash flows; in particular, high-MVC firms employ substantially more external finance on the margin. Linking firms to their main bank, we find that shocks to bank finance affect firms' trade-offs and have real effects in high-MVC firms, making investment more sensitiv...
Nyborg, Kjell G; Wang, Zexi
The paper contributes to the literature on corporate cash holdings by showing that there is a financial markets channel that affects corporations’ cash holdings. Leaning on the literature on stock price feedback to firm fundamentals, we advance the hypothesis that firms with more liquid stocks hold more cash, ceteris paribus, as ammunition to defend against negative cascades or stimulate positive ones. This contrasts with an alternative view that firms with more liquid stocks are less financi...
Bernardini, Ronald R.
There is a 64 billion dollar annual unattended cash transaction business in the US with 10 to 20 million daily transactions. Even small problems with the machine readability of banknotes can quickly become a major problem to the machine manufacturer and consumer. Traditional note designs incorporate overt security features for visual validation by the public. Many of these features such as fine line engraving, microprinting and watermarks are unsuitable as machine readable features in low cost note acceptors. Current machine readable features, mostly covert, were designed and implemented with the central banks in mind. These features are only usable by the banks large, high speed currency sorting and validation equipment. New note designs should consider and provide for low cost not acceptors, implementing features developed for inexpensive sensing technologies. Machine readable features are only as good as their consistency. Quality of security features as well as that of the overall printing process must be maintained to ensure reliable and secure operation of note readers. Variations in printing and of the components used to make the note are one of the major causes of poor performance in low cost note acceptors. The involvement of machine manufacturers in new currency designs will aid note producers in the design of a note that is machine friendly, helping to secure the acceptance of the note by the public as well as acting asa deterrent to fraud.
Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James
Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…
Full Text Available It is known the fact that often the entities offer to staff or third parties certain amounts of money, in order to make payments for the entities, such sums being registered differently in the accounting as cash advances. In the case in which the advances are offered in a foreign currency, there is the problem of the exchange rate used when justifying the advance, for the conversion in lei of payments that were carried out. In this article we wanted to signal the effect that the exchange rate, used in the assessment for reflecting in the accounting operations concerning cash advance reimbursements in a foreign currency, has on the information presented in the financial statement. Therewith, we signal some aspects from the content of the accounting regulations, with reference at defining the cash advances, meaning, and the presentation in the balance sheet of cash advances, which, in our opinion, impose clarifications.
Pärnu uue kunsti muuseumis linastub portreefilm ameerika kantri- ja folklauljast Johnny Cashist "Johnny Cash Folsomi vanglas", mis kirjeldab 1968. a. Folsomi vanglas karistust kandnud laulja albumi "Folsom Prison Blues" lindistamist
Full Text Available This paper applies models in the extant literature that have been used to forecast operating cash flows to predict the cash flows of South African firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Out-of-sample performance is examined for each model and compared between them. The reported results show that some accrual terms, i.e. depreciation and changes in inventory do not enhance cash flow prediction for the average South African firm in contrast to the reported results of studies in USA and Australia. Inclusion of more explanatory variables does not necessarily improve the models, according to the out-of-sample results. The paper proposes the application of moving average model in panel data, and vector regressive model for multi-period-ahead prediction of cash flows for South Africa firms.
Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash working capital. 36.182 Section 36.182... PROCEDURES; STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SEPARATING TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES... Cash Working Capital § 36.182 Cash working capital. (a) The amount for cash working capital, if not...
Full Text Available Use by individuals and businesses resulting in reduced cash cards in circulation, the corresponding increase in transfer payments and payments accounts also limit exchange risks and make effective use of currency. As a result, we have the effect of reducing cash in circulation. These advantages are also available for businesses and for banks and leads to favorable effects on import-export business. Following this, banks can diversify our products, so to meet customers' new products.
Belghitar, Yacine; Khan, James
This study analyses the effect of firm characteristics and governance mechanisms on cash holdings for a sample of UK SMEs. The results show that UK SMEs with greater cash flow volatility and institutional investors hold more cash; whereas levered and dividend paying SMEs with non-executive ownership hold less cash. We also find that ownership structure is significant only in explaining the cash holdings for firms with high growth investment opportunities, and leverage is only significant in e...
Nov 19, 2008 ... were found the best crop rotation systems under rain-fed conditions of ... Crop rotation is one of the major cultural practices in the .... components such as seed weight in a spike, harvest index, seed ..... due to high prices of product belonging to fodder pea and ... was a cash crop in agricultural marketing.
Full Text Available The FASB and the IASB recently released a joint Discussion Paper “Preliminary Views on FinancialStatement Presentation” (International Accounting Standards Board 2008, which contains a major proposalrequiring companies to report operating cash flows using the direct method and it also requires that theindirect method of calculating operating cash flows be disclosed in the notes. This is a departure from currentrules and has generated considerable debate among respondents’ comment letters on the Discussion Paper.This paper adds to this debate by providing some evidence as to the size of the gap users confront when usingthe indirect method to estimate the major operating cash flow elements, such as cash collected fromcustomers and cash paid to suppliers. Using a sample of Australian companies which reported operating cashflows using the direct method, and presented the indirect method in the notes, we find significant differencesbetween reported and estimated figures for both cash collected from customers and cash paid to suppliers.These findings support the discussion paper’s proposal that companies be required to report cash flows usingboth the direct and indirect methods.
Puspita Hardina Cahyaningrum
Full Text Available This study examines and analyzes the economic consequences of modified audit opinion on borrowing cash flow and investment cash flow. Panel data model was used to observe the research. The sample of this study was 247 companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange for the years 2008-2010. The results show that modified audit opinion, except unqualified opinion with explanatory paragraph about going concern, did not affect borrowing cash flow because audit opinion was not the only consideration for granting credit by creditors. Companies receiving modified audit opinion were proven using more operating cash flow for investing shown in investment cash flow, especially companies receiving unqualified opinion with explanatory paragraph about going concern.
Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.
During the first quarter of 1998 Big Bear completed a purchase of additional assets in the Rainbow Lake area of Alberta in which light oil purchase was financed with new equity and bank debt. The business plan was to immediately exploit these light oil assets, the result of which would be increased reserves, production and cash flow. Although drilling results in the first quarter on the Rainbow Lake properties was mixed, oil prices started to free fall and drilling costs were much higher than expected. As a result, the company completed a reduced program which resulted in less incremental loss and cash flow than it budgeted for. On April 29, 1998, Big Bear entered into agreement with Belco Oil and Gas Corp. and Moan Investments Ltd. for the issuance of convertible preferred shares at a gross value of $15,750,000, which shares were eventually converted at 70 cents per share to common equity. As a result of the continued plunge in oil prices, the lending value of the company's assets continued to fall, requiring it to take action in order to meet its financial commitments. Late in the third quarter Big Bear issued equity for proceeds of $11,032,000 which further reduced the company's debt. Although the company has been extremely active in identifying and pursuing acquisition opportunities, it became evident that Belco Oil and Gas Corp. and Big Bear did nor share common criteria for acquisitions, which resulted in the restructuring of their relationship in the fourth quarter. With the future of oil prices in question, Big Bear decided that it would change its focus to that of natural gas and would refocus ts efforts to acquire natural gas assets to fuel its growth. The purchase of Blue Range put Big Bear in a difficult position in terms of the latter's growth. In summary, what started as a difficult year ended in disappointment
Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…
Benson, Michael T.
The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…
Astronomy, like particle physics, has become Big Science where the demands of front line research can outstrip the science budgets of whole nations. Thus came into being the European Southern Observatory (ESO), founded in 1962 to provide European scientists with a major modern observatory to study the southern sky under optimal conditions.
Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.
The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern
Luecke, R W; Meeting, D T
The FASB's Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 7, Using Cash Flow Information and Present Value in Accounting Measurements (Statement No. 7), presents the board's views regarding how cash-flow information and present values should be used in accounting for future cash flows when information on fair values is not available. Statement No. 7 presents new concepts regarding how an asset's present value should be calculated and when the interest method of allocation should be used. The FASB proposes a present-value method that takes into account the degree of uncertainty associated with future cash flows among different assets and liabilities. The FASB also suggests that rather than use estimated cash flows (in which a single set of cash flows and a single interest rate is used to reflect the risk associated with an asset or liability), accountants should use expected cash flows (in which all expectations about possible cash flows are used) in calculating present values.
Ralph S.J. Koijen; Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh
We review the literature on return and cash-flow growth predictability from the perspective of the present-value identity. We focus predominantly on recent work. Our emphasis is on U.S. aggregate stock return predictability, but we also discuss evidence from other asset classes and countries.
If money is the root of all evil, is it also the root of all motivation? When talking about workplace performance and training, the experts' consensus is a resounding "No." This article discusses why cash doesn't motivate everyone all the time when it comes to workplace performance and training and takes a look at what does.
The paper presents the analysis of the economic content of exergy parameter and the thermodynamical analogy of the analysis of cash flow, and gives out the reasonable foundations of the analysis of heat economy. The thoughts of optimum design of the combination of heat economic analysis and investment policy are also put forward
Traynham, William W., Jr
Outlines the cash management program developed by the Orangeburg School District (SC) for the district's funds. They take bids from banks before deciding which bank to use for all their services, including an investment program. This new system has saved $30,000 in the first year. Sidebars tell how to shop for bank services and list technical…
Saylor, Joan Nesenkar
Basic components of a New Jersey district's profitable cash management program include consolidating funds using a negotiated bank agreement, a short term investment policy, accurate flowcharts for precise planning, and revenue and expenditure analysis. Data collection and analysis and the alternative of using a bank service agreement are…
Odd A. Asbjørnsen
Full Text Available The net present value of a discounted cash flow is used to evaluate projects. It is shown that the LaPlace transform of the cash flow time function is particularly useful when the cash flow profiles may be approximately described by ordinary linear differential equations in time. However, real cash flows are stochastic variables due to the stochastic nature of the disturbances during production.
Dalida Kadyrzhanova; Antonio Falato; Jae Sim
The rise in intangible capital is a fundamental driver of the secular trend in US corporate cash holdings over the last decades. We construct a new measure of intangible capital and show that intangible capital is the most important firm-level determinant of corporate cash holdings. Our measure accounts for almost as much of the secular increase in cash since the 1980s as all other standard determinants together. We then develop a new model of corporate cash holdings that introduces intangibl...
Tulay Yucel; Gulizar Kurt
This paper investigates the relationship of cash conversion cycle, a tool in working capital management, with profitability, liquidity and debt structure. The data covering the period of 1995-2000, of 167 firms whose stocks are listed on the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE). The cash conversion cycle, profitability, liquidity and debt structure were examined comparatively in this study on the basis of period, industry and firm size. It was examined that the relationships of these variables and t...
Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Jeppesen, Jacob
In this paper we investigate the micro-mechanisms governing structural evolution and performance of scientific collaboration. Scientific discovery tends not to be lead by so called lone ?stars?, or big egos, but instead by collaboration among groups of researchers, from a multitude of institutions...
Di Meglio, Alberto
Brief introduction to the challenges of big data in scientific research based on the work done by the HEP community at CERN and how the CERN openlab promotes collaboration among research institutes and industrial IT companies. Presented at the FutureGov 2014 conference in Singapore.
In late 2001, the directors of Pfizer asked that very question. And with good reason. After its 2000 merger with rival Warner-Lambert, the New York-based pharmaceutical giant found itself sitting on a net cash position of $8 billion, which seemed extraordinarily conservative for a company whose products generated $30 billion in revenues. Most large companies with revenues that healthy would increase leverage, thereby unlocking tremendous value for shareholders. But knowledge-intensive companies like Pfizer, this author argues, are in a class apart. Because their largely intangible assets (like R&D) are highly volatile and cannot easily be valued, they are more vulnerable to financial distress than are firms with a preponderance of tangible assets. To insure against that risk, they need to maintain large positive cash balances. These companies' decisions to run large cash balances is one of the key reasons their shares sustain consistent premiums. Only by investing in their intangible assets can knowledge-based companies hope to preserve the value of those assets. A company that finds itself unable to do so because unfavorable market conditions reduce its operating cash flows will see its share price suffer almost as much as if it were to default on its debts. By the same token, with the right balance sheet, knowledge companies can profitably insure against the risk of failing to sustain value-added investments in difficult times. An optimal capital structure that calls for significant cash balances is certainly at odds with the results of a traditional capital structure analysis, the author demonstrates, but it explains the financial policies of many well-run companies, from Pfizer to Intel to ChevronTexaco.
Eije, Henk von; Westerman, Wim
We discuss the impact of liberalisation, deregulation and the introduction of a single currency on cash management within multinationals in the euro zone. The developments in the euro zone reduce financial market imperfections in transferring cash and diminish the need for separate local cash
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash working capital... Changes § 154.306 Cash working capital. A natural gas company that files a tariff change under this part may not receive a cash working capital adjustment to its rate base unless the company or other...
... refinancing or purchase of the local debt. Cash draws for incurred building costs will generally be treated as refinanced costs. (2) The State may immediately draw cash for up to five percent of each fiscal year's... actual construction cost. In the latter case, the amount of the cash draw would be the actual...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cash flow forecasts. 232..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 232.072-3 Cash flow forecasts. (a... contractor to submit a cash flow forecast covering the duration of the contract. (b) A contractor's inability...
Barenbaum, L; Monahan, T F
Financial managers are discovering that net income and other traditional measures of cash flow may not provide them with the flexibility needed for comprehensive internal planning and control. By using a discretionary cash flow model, financial managers have a forecasting tool that can help them measure anticipated cash flows, and make better decisions concerning financing alternatives, capital expansion, and performance appraisal.
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management...: CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 357.5 Cash management programs. Oil pipeline... and § 357.2 of this title that participate in cash management programs must file these agreements with...
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
This participant's guide includes: "Introduction: Welcome to Cash Management Life Cycle Training"; "Module 1: Review of Cash Management Principles" (cash management overview and activity); "Module 2: Common Origination and Disbursement (COD) System Overview" (e.g., full participants and phase-in participants, COD…
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management... Cash management programs. Natural gas companies subject to the provisions of the Commission's Uniform... management programs must file these agreements with the Commission. The documentation establishing the cash...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management... OF 1978 STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.500 Cash management programs. Public utilities and... and § 141.1 or § 141.2 of this title that participate in cash management programs must file these...
Crop science is increasingly embracing big data to reconcile the apparent rift between intensification of food production and sustainability of a steadily stressed production base. A strategy based on long-term agroecosystem research and modeling simulation of crops, crop rotations and cropping sys...
Christina Handschuch; Meike Wollni
Increasing agricultural productivity through the dissemination of improved cropping practices remains one of the biggest challenges of this century. A considerable amount of literature is dedicated to the adoption of improved cropping practices among smallholder farmers in developing countries. While most studies focus on cash crops or main staple crops, traditional food grains like finger millet have received little attention in the past decades. The present study aims to assess the factors ...
Balkcom,Kipling Shane; Wood,Charles Wesley; Adams,James Fredrick; Meso,Bernard
Leguminous winter cover crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet nitrogen (N) requirements of succeeding summer cash crops, but the potential of summer legumes to reduce N requirements of a winter annual grass, used as a cover crop, has not been extensively examined. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaoli...
Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK)
The recently published report entitled 'The Big Public Inquiry' from the Council for Science and Society and the Outer Circle Policy Unit is considered, with especial reference to any future enquiry which may take place into the first commercial fast breeder reactor. Proposals embodied in the report include stronger rights for objectors and an attempt is made to tackle the problem that participation in a public inquiry is far too late to be objective. It is felt by the author that the CSS/OCPU report is a constructive contribution to the debate about big technology inquiries but that it fails to understand the deeper currents in the economic and political structure of technology which so influence the consequences of whatever formal procedures are evolved.
Cieľom bakalárskej práca je popísať problematiku Big Data a agregačné operácie OLAP pre podporu rozhodovania, ktoré sú na ne aplikované pomocou technológie Apache Hadoop. Prevažná časť práce je venovaná popisu práve tejto technológie. Posledná kapitola sa zaoberá spôsobom aplikovania agregačných operácií a problematikou ich realizácie. Nasleduje celkové zhodnotenie práce a možnosti využitia výsledného systému do budúcna. The aim of the bachelor thesis is to describe the Big Data issue and ...
The term 'Big Data' portrays inventive methods and advances to catch, store, disseminate, oversee and break down petabyte-or bigger estimated sets of data with high-speed & diverted structures. Enormous information can be organized, non-structured or half-organized, bringing about inadequacy of routine information administration techniques. Information is produced from different distinctive sources and can touch base in the framework at different rates. With a specific end goal to handle this...
Borgman, Christine L.
The enthusiasm for big data is obscuring the complexity and diversity of data in scholarship and the challenges for stewardship. Inside the black box of data are a plethora of research, technology, and policy issues. Data are not shiny objects that are easily exchanged. Rather, data are representations of observations, objects, or other entities used as evidence of phenomena for the purposes of research or scholarship. Data practices are local, varying from field to field, individual to indiv...
Wood, Rachel Godfrey
Developed countries have pledged billions of dollars a year to help poor nations adapt to climate change. But how should the money be spent? For the world's poor, who are both the most vulnerable to climate change and the most in need of social protection, the best answer may be cash transfer programmes. Giving money out in this way has a strong track record in reaching the poor and helping them improve their nutrition, education and incomes — all of which are vital for building their long-term capacity to adapt to climate change. Cash transfers are also well accepted at the local level and, given the right political backing, can be implemented on a broad scale.
Utility management is paying increasing attention to the broadening of regulatory commission prudency reviews to cover operating generating plants as well as those under construction. Utilities can expect a prudency review after a major outage, and should investigate the possibility for legal action against a third party or be prepared to defend itself. The Shoreham nuclear plant serves as a warning to utilities of the need for on-going documentation of cost-benefit analyses conducted during the construction period. Utility managers should demand a prudency standard from their regulators, and minority owners in large projects should make independent prudency findings. There is also a growing need for utilities to develop intelligent strategies for handling excess cash. Methods for handling cash flow include the financial investment, grid refurbishment, dividend payout, decapitalization, and diversification
Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)
Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa
Aaen, Jon; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger
Big Data byder sig til som en af tidens mest hypede teknologiske innovationer, udråbt til at rumme kimen til nye, værdifulde operationelle indsigter for private virksomheder og offentlige organisationer. Mens de optimistiske udmeldinger er mange, er forskningen i Big Data i den offentlige sektor...... indtil videre begrænset. Denne artikel belyser, hvordan den offentlige sundhedssektor kan genanvende og udnytte en stadig større mængde data under hensyntagen til offentlige værdier. Artiklen bygger på et casestudie af anvendelsen af store mængder sundhedsdata i Dansk AlmenMedicinsk Database (DAMD......). Analysen viser, at (gen)brug af data i nye sammenhænge er en flerspektret afvejning mellem ikke alene økonomiske rationaler og kvalitetshensyn, men også kontrol over personfølsomme data og etiske implikationer for borgeren. I DAMD-casen benyttes data på den ene side ”i den gode sags tjeneste” til...
Fall-planted cover crops provide a plant host for obligate symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) during otherwise fallow periods and thus may increase AMF numbers in agroecosystems. Increased AMF numbers should increase mycorrhizal colonization of the subsequent cash crops, which has been li...
Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki
Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done…
Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo; Askegaard, Margrethe
-year crop rotations including various cash crops and grass-clover leys; two rotations running during the first two courses with the one replaced with another rotation during the last course. The rotations were combined with four combinations of the treatments; with and without animal manure (‘without...
... uncertainties related to crop size and cash-flow timing while meeting minimum reserve requirements set by the... cotton crop at that same level. This fee and the existing reserve are sufficient to cover the costs of... Pursuant to requirements set forth in the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601-612), AMS has...
... uncertainties related to crop size and cash-flow timing while meeting minimum reserve requirements set by the... cotton crop at that same level. This fee and the existing reserve are sufficient to cover the costs of... Flexibility Act Pursuant to requirements set forth in the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601-612...
Ohlhorst, Frank J
Unique insights to implement big data analytics and reap big returns to your bottom line Focusing on the business and financial value of big data analytics, respected technology journalist Frank J. Ohlhorst shares his insights on the newly emerging field of big data analytics in Big Data Analytics. This breakthrough book demonstrates the importance of analytics, defines the processes, highlights the tangible and intangible values and discusses how you can turn a business liability into actionable material that can be used to redefine markets, improve profits and identify new business opportuni
Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.
Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)
This paper shows that ten methods of company valuation using cash flow discounting (WACC; equity cash flow; capital cash flow; adjusted present value; residual income; EVA; business's risk-adjusted equity cash flow; business's risk-adjusted free cash flow; risk-free-adjusted equity cash flow; and risk-free-adjusted free cash flow) always give the same value when identical assumptions are used. This result is logical, since all the methods analyze the same reality based upon the same assumptio...
Roghayeh Ahmdi Panah Banad Koki; Iman Jokar
This paper presents an empirical investigation to predict future cash flows using present cash flow and accruals using the information of 96 selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2011. The proposed study uses linear regression techniques to forecast future cash flow and the results indicate that cash flow and accruals together could provide more power to forecast cash flow. In addition, accrual provides future cash flow better than cash flow. The survey also perf...
The purpose of this study was to develop a cash flow forecast model for the case company. The case company in this thesis was a Finnish building construction company. The group controlling set a target to improve the corporate treasury’s current long-term cash flow forecast because it was inaccurate and it often had outstanding deficiencies between actual and forecasted figures. A project team was set up to investigate on this issue and this research and development project is documented in t...
Full Text Available Using firm-level data from thirty-five countries around the world, this paper empirically examines whether investment-cash flow sensitivity reflects financial constraints. Recent US studies have raised questions on the prediction that investment-cash flow sensitivity is a measure of financial constraints. Looking at thirty-five countries with varying degrees of financial development, this study tests whether investment-cash flow sensitivity is in fact related to financial constraints. In most countries, the evidence supporting the argument that firms likely facing financially constraints display high investment-cash flow sensitivity is weak. Moreover, the evidence that firms in the absence of developed financial markets display high investment-cash flow sensitivity is also weak. Overall, the results from this international investigation do not support the prediction that investment-cash flow sensitivity reflects financial constraints.
Fadwa Muhieddine Dahrouge
Full Text Available This paper investigates how corporate cash holdings were adjusted over time for Brazilian companies during the crisis of 2008-2009. We adopt a dynamic model of corporate cash holdings to evaluate the main determinants for the speed of adjustment of cash holdings at the optimum level. We find evidence that: a the adjustment costs of Brazilian companies are high implying a delay in reaching the optimum level of cash; b the low speed adjustment to the optimum level is due to the limited availability of credit and the high cost of bank debt; c during crisis, the changes in working capital are positively related to the level of cash holdings providing evidence that companies prefer finance to growth with liquidity; d companies have looked for long-term financing to secure liquidity rather than investing on fixed assets, implying a negative relationship between investment and cash holding.
Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E
Many current organic arable agriculture systems are challenged by a dependency on imported livestock manure from conventional agriculture. At the same time organic agriculture aims at being climate friendly. A life cycle assessment is used in this paper to compare the carbon footprints of different....... The results showed significantly lower carbon footprint of the crops from the ‘Biogas’ rotation (assuming that biogas replaces fossil gas) whereas the remaining crop rotations had comparable carbon footprints per kg cash crop. The study showed considerable contributions caused by the green manure crop (grass......-clover) and highlights the importance of analysing the whole crop rotation and including soil carbon changes when estimating carbon footprints of organic crops especially where green manure crops are included....
Electronization of banking services is a strong reason for relative growth of cashless payments. The importance of cash, i.e., banknotes and coins, for realizing transactions should decrease. An analysis for the Czech Republic in the period 2003–2015 confirms this. Demand of nonbank entities for cash is associated mainly with liquidity, banks’ credibility and technological sophistication. Illegal transactions also form part of the demand. Zero return on cash counteracts demand, but it has li...
Harold Fletcher; Thomas Ulrich
This paper addresses one of the more difficult topics in teaching MBA level financial management, the statement of cash flows. By employing financial statement equations in preparing the statement of cash flows, students: (1) are employing tools that they are more familiar and comfortable with which mitigates their anxiety and enhances their understanding, (2) are better able to understand the logic of the statement of cash flows and the relationships that exist between it and the income stat...
mented, delays our ability to recover a significant amount of costs incurred on a contract and thus affects the timing of our cash flows. Northrop...Defense AT&L: March-April 2016 16 Something for Nothing “ Cash Flow” as a Contract Incentive John Pritchard n John Krieger Pritchard and...The government actually has complete control over one of the strongest con-tract incentives possible— cash flow. Most important, in our fiscally
Full Text Available Payment systems play a significant role in our daily lives. They are an important driver of economic activities and a vital part of the banking infrastructure of any country. Several current payment systems focus on security and reliability but pay less attention to users’ needs and behaviors. For example, people may share their bankcards with friends or relatives to withdraw money for various reasons. This behavior can lead to a variety of privacy and security issues since the cardholder has to share a bankcard and other sensitive information such as a personal identification number (PIN. In addition, it is commonplace that cardholders may lose their cards, and may not be able to access their accounts due to various reasons. Furthermore, transferring money to an individual who has lost their bankcard and identification information is not a straightforward task. A user-friendly person-to-person payment system is urgently needed to perform secure and reliable transactions that benefit from current technological advancements. In this paper, we propose two secure fund transfer methods termed QuickCash Online and QuickCash Offline to transfer money from peer to peer using the existing banking infrastructure. Our methods provide a convenient way to transfer money quickly, and they do not require using bank cards or any identification card. Unlike other person-to-person payment systems, the proposed methods do not require the receiving entity to have a bank account, or to perform any registration procedure. We implement our QuickCash payment systems and analyze their security strengths and properties.
Alhothaily, Abdulrahman; Alrawais, Arwa; Song, Tianyi; Lin, Bin; Cheng, Xiuzhen
Payment systems play a significant role in our daily lives. They are an important driver of economic activities and a vital part of the banking infrastructure of any country. Several current payment systems focus on security and reliability but pay less attention to users’ needs and behaviors. For example, people may share their bankcards with friends or relatives to withdraw money for various reasons. This behavior can lead to a variety of privacy and security issues since the cardholder has to share a bankcard and other sensitive information such as a personal identification number (PIN). In addition, it is commonplace that cardholders may lose their cards, and may not be able to access their accounts due to various reasons. Furthermore, transferring money to an individual who has lost their bankcard and identification information is not a straightforward task. A user-friendly person-to-person payment system is urgently needed to perform secure and reliable transactions that benefit from current technological advancements. In this paper, we propose two secure fund transfer methods termed QuickCash Online and QuickCash Offline to transfer money from peer to peer using the existing banking infrastructure. Our methods provide a convenient way to transfer money quickly, and they do not require using bank cards or any identification card. Unlike other person-to-person payment systems, the proposed methods do not require the receiving entity to have a bank account, or to perform any registration procedure. We implement our QuickCash payment systems and analyze their security strengths and properties. PMID:28608846
Alhothaily, Abdulrahman; Alrawais, Arwa; Song, Tianyi; Lin, Bin; Cheng, Xiuzhen
Payment systems play a significant role in our daily lives. They are an important driver of economic activities and a vital part of the banking infrastructure of any country. Several current payment systems focus on security and reliability but pay less attention to users' needs and behaviors. For example, people may share their bankcards with friends or relatives to withdraw money for various reasons. This behavior can lead to a variety of privacy and security issues since the cardholder has to share a bankcard and other sensitive information such as a personal identification number (PIN). In addition, it is commonplace that cardholders may lose their cards, and may not be able to access their accounts due to various reasons. Furthermore, transferring money to an individual who has lost their bankcard and identification information is not a straightforward task. A user-friendly person-to-person payment system is urgently needed to perform secure and reliable transactions that benefit from current technological advancements. In this paper, we propose two secure fund transfer methods termed QuickCash Online and QuickCash Offline to transfer money from peer to peer using the existing banking infrastructure. Our methods provide a convenient way to transfer money quickly, and they do not require using bank cards or any identification card. Unlike other person-to-person payment systems, the proposed methods do not require the receiving entity to have a bank account, or to perform any registration procedure. We implement our QuickCash payment systems and analyze their security strengths and properties.
It is known the fact that often the entities offer to staff or third parties certain amounts of money, in order to make payments for the entities, such sums being registered differently in the accounting as cash advances. In the case in which the advances are offered in a foreign currency, there is the problem of the exchange rate used when justifying the advance, for the conversion in lei of payments that were carried out. In this article we wanted to signal the effect that the exchange rate...
Jackson, A R
In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.
Dale, Stacy B; Brown, Randall S
To test the effect of a consumer-directed model (Cash and Counseling) of Medicaid personal care services (PCS) or home- and community-based waiver services (HCBS) on the cost of Medicaid services. Medicaid claims data were collected for all enrollees in the Cash and Counseling demonstration. Demonstration enrollees included those eligible for PCS (in Arkansas), those assessed to receive such services (in New Jersey), and recipients of Medicaid HCBS (in Florida). Enrollment occurred from December 1998 through April 2001. The follow-up period covered up to 24 months after enrollment. Demonstration volunteers were randomly assigned to have the option to participate in Cash and Counseling (the treatment group), or to receive Medicaid services as usual from an agency (the control group). Ordinary least squares regressions were used to estimate the effect of the program on costs for Medicaid PCS/waiver services and other Medicaid services, while controlling for consumers' preenrollment characteristics and preenrollment Medicaid spending. Models were estimated separately for nonelderly and elderly adults in each state and for children in Florida. Each state supplied claims data for demonstration enrollees. Largely because the program increased consumers' ability to get the authorized amount of paid care, expenditures for personal care/waiver services were higher for the treatment group than for the control group in each state and age group, except among the elderly in Florida. Higher costs for personal care/waiver services were partially offset by savings in other Medicaid services, particularly those related to long-term care. During year 1, total Medicaid costs were generally higher for the treatment group than for the control group, with treatment-control cost differences ranging from 1 percent (and statistically insignificant) for the elderly in Florida to 17 percent for the elderly in Arkansas. In year 2, these cost differences were generally greater than in year 1
Bell, Peter N
This paper explores how present value varies over time when the underlying cash flow has a deterministic period. I assume that cash flows are known with certainty and follow a cycle with a long or short period. When the cash flow has a short period, the present value is relatively stable over time because the present value calculation smooths out several cycles. However, when the cash flow has a long period the present value itself develops a long and large cycle. These results are driven...
Tim Opler; Lee Pinkowitz; Rene Stulz; Rohan Williamson
We examine the determinants and implications of holdings of cash and marketable" securities by publicly traded U.S. firms in the 1971-1994 period. Firms with strong growth" opportunities and riskier cash flows hold relatively high ratios of cash to total assets. Firms" that have the greatest access to the capital markets (e.g. large firms and those with credit" ratings) tend to hold lower ratios of cash to total assets. These results are consistent with the" view that firms hold liquid assets...
Full Text Available Financial reporting system includes three main pillars, namely balance sheet, income statement and cash flow. If the balance sheet reflects shareholders’ wealth at a given time, income statement demonstrates the efficiency or inefficiency of the activity and cash flows measures the company’s viability. This is the reason for which I have approached the cash flow matter in this paper, reviewing the latest studies and studying in detail the evolution of cash flow ratios on small and medium enterprises in Romania for a period between 2006 and 2014, highlighting the effects of the financial crisis on these enterprises
Mehari Mekonnen Akalu; Rodney Turner
textabstractOne of the debates in the capital budgeting model selection is between the free cash flow and DCF methods. In this paper an attempt is made to compare SVA against NPV model based on Monte Carlo simulations. Accordingly, NPV is found less sensitive to value driver variations and has got higher forecast errors as compared to SVA model.
M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)
textabstractOne of the debates in the capital budgeting model selection is between the free cash flow and DCF methods. In this paper an attempt is made to compare SVA against NPV model based on Monte Carlo simulations. Accordingly, NPV is found less sensitive to value driver variations and has got
Augustine, John H.
A well-run college or university will seek to accumulate and maintain an appropriate cash reserve or liquidity position. A rigorous analytic process for estimating the size and cost of a liquidity position, based on judgments about the institution's operating risks and opportunities, is outlined. (MSE)
Russell, David T.; Chong, James T.; Phillips, G. Michael
Consumers face hard choices when they need cash quickly. Hard choices can lead to emotional or economically unsound decisions. Traditional classroom discussions of raising funds to pay for expenses usually focus on generating income, borrowing, or the sale of real and financial assets, if hardship is discussed at all. However, many families have…
..., destroyed, or otherwise disposed of is replaced, and also cash realized from the sale of the company's securities and deposited with trustees to be held until invested in physical property of the company or for...; the amount of cash deposited to insure the performance of contracts to be performed within one year...
Managing cash flow is an incredibly important skill for a center director. Even a center with an annual budget showing a healthy surplus may experience brief periods where funds in the checkbook are insufficient to pay all the bills. To discover how successful directors manage cash flow in tight times, the author surveyed members of the "Exchange…
An "aged accounts payable" (A/P) summary and a cash disbursements journal are advocated as management measures useful in monitoring the cash flow in a college store. Methods for maintaining the A/P summary and for updating the journal are illustrated. (LBH)
Curry, John R.; Hutton, Lyn
Managing liquidity--a college or university's ability to access cash quickly or to easily convert assets to cash--is an increasingly crucial component of enterprise risk management. Liquidity risks lurk around nearly every corner--in the endowment portfolio, the debt portfolio, and in working-capital management. It also influences students'…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a..., either with or without adjustments of relative values as compensation for various costs, the parties to...
Petro, Fred; Gean, Farrell
Of the three financial statements in financial reporting, the Statement of Cash Flows (SCF) is perhaps the most challenging. The most difficult aspect of the SCF is in developing an understanding of how previous transactions are finalized in this document. The purpose of this paper is to logically explain the indirect approach of cash flow whereby…
Seifert, Bruce; Gonenc, Halit
This study examines the impact of creditor rights and country governance on cash holdings using a sample of firms from 47 countries. We hypothesize that cash holdings are smaller when both creditor rights and country governance are high. In these circumstances firms will not need to hold as much
Full Text Available Electronization of banking services is a strong reason for relative growth of cashless payments. The importance of cash, i.e., banknotes and coins, for realizing transactions should decrease. An analysis for the Czech Republic in the period 2003–2015 confirms this. Demand of nonbank entities for cash is associated mainly with liquidity, banks’ credibility and technological sophistication. Illegal transactions also form part of the demand. Zero return on cash counteracts demand, but it has little meaning with the decline in interest rates on bank deposits. The total stock of cash in the analyzed period rises, but its relative importance declines. Demand deposits are also liquid assets of households and enterprises. Cash compared with demand deposits clearly confirms the declining importance. Its share was the highest in 2004, at 30 %. It fell to less than 18 % in 2015. We found a similar tendency in the comparison of cash with other variables. Barring unforeseen circumstances such as complete collapse of computer networks or severe banking crisis, the author assumes that the relative importance of cash must decline in the long term. Some theoretical aspects of cash and cashless money are also discussed.
The analysis of economic and financial indicators of the firm regards the profit and loss account analysis and the balance sheet analysis. The cash-flow from operating activities represents the amount of cash obtained by a firm from selling goods and services after deducting the costs involved by raw materials, materials and processenig operations
Forman, J B
Replacing a traditional pension with a cash balance plan raises a number of complicated and unsettled legal issues, including the protection of accrued benefits, the rate of benefit accrual, age discrimination and notice requirements. This article discusses those issues and concludes that routine conversions to cash balance plans appear to be legal both currently and into the foreseeable future.
Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao
We conduct an incentivized experiment to study the effect of the payment method on spending. We find that the willingness to pay is higher when subjects pay with debit cards compared to cash. The result is robust to controlling for cash-on-hand constraints, spending type, price familiarity...
Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao
We conduct an incentivized experiment to test whether the willingness to pay is higher for debit cards compared to cash for three consumer products. Our findings support this conjecture also after controlling for cash availability, spending type, price familiarity and consumption habits...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary cash investments... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.136 Temporary cash investments. This account shall include the cost of investments, such as demand and time loans, bankers' acceptances...
Anggita Langgeng Wijaya
Full Text Available This research tests the effect of accrual quality and leverage on corporate cash holding for a sample of manufacturing company listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2007. This research also tests the role of asymmetric information as a mediating variable on the relation between accrual quality and cash holding. Population of this research is 197 manufacturing companies at the Indonesian Stock Exchange. This research uses the purposive sampling method. Hypothesis test of this research employs multiple regression analysis and path analysis. The results show that: accrual quality does not affect asymmetric information; asymmetric information positively affects corporate cash holdings; asymmetric information is not a mediating variable on the relation between accrual quality and cash holding; leverage negatively affects corporate cash holding.
Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.
Mustapha Gimba Kumshe; Kagu Bukar
The main objective of this paper was to focus on the elements, objectives, goals and importance of cash management; and also to examine the sources of revenue and cost effective collections for local governments. The elements of cash management are identified as establishing bank relations, preparing cash flow statements, estimating collection receipts and analyzing cash flow and preparing a budget. Amongst the objectives of cash management is to ensure availability of cash resources at all t...
Fernández , Pablo
This paper is a summarized compendium of all the methods and theories on company valuation using cash flow discounting. The paper shows the ten most commonly used methods for valuing companies by cash flow discounting: 1) free cash flow discounted at the WACC; 2) equity cash flows discounted at the required return to equity; 3) capital cash flows discounted at the WACC before tax; 4) APV (Adjusted Present Value); 5) the business's risk-adjusted free cash flows discounted at the required retur...
Nicole Jonker; Anneke Kosse; Lola Hernández
Having accurate information on cash usage is essential for monitoring the substitution process of cash by cards and for assessing the cost efficiency of the payment system. Moreover, estimates on cash usage reflect the transaction demand for cash. This is useful for central banks which are responsible for producing and issuing banknotes. The latest estimates of the number and value of cash payments made in the Netherlands date from 2007. How has cash usage developed since then? In what branch...
Olausson, Jonas; Löfgren, Christoffer
Corporate cash holdings is a topic constantly under review, companies hoarding cash are criticized by shareholders who rather have companies using their cash for new investments or dividend payouts. Recent academic research has discovered that levels of cash holding are high in times when risk is deemed to be high and found that levels of corporate cash holdings are substantially higher than they used to, making more coverage and a better understanding of the phenomenon crucial. This thesis i...
Negrea Laura Georgeta
Full Text Available The present study has as main objective to reflect the state of literature regarding free cash flow, and to withdraw the main pro's and con's in order to create an objective image upon this indicator. The main idea generating this research was the growing interest on cash flow reporting. As many say, 'Cash Flow is King', while in Anglo Saxon countries the interest of investors and analysts in concentrated on operating cash flow, as the most important indicator of the probability of bankruptcy. In this context, voluntary additional reporting, like free cash flow may come either as an aid in providing the fair view or as an opportunistically reported figure. Throughout the paper, the intention was to provide answers to three main research questions: What are the definition and calculation method of free cash flow? Why is there an interest in free cash flow reporting? What is the impact of free cash flow on the agency theory? In order to provide relevant conclusions, four international data basis were used, and related articles and studies were extracted. The results proved that there is no generally accepted definition and computing method, while the format depends on the end-user of the report (shareholders, investors, analysts, bankers, a.s.o.. As stated below, this aspect generates confusion and lack of comparability, giving room to creative accounting techniques. Moreover, the interest on free cash flow reporting is connected mainly to liquidity assessment, company valuation and investors choice. Still, in the context of agency theory, results show that in presence of high free cash flow, managers tend to make investment choices that satisfy their personal interest and that generate low efficiency and profitability for the company. The contribution to current state of research is providing a literature review study, focused on a comparative approach, as well as on underlying an objective image upon a debatable financial indicator and
Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann
Uncertain time of retirement and uncertain structure of retirement benefits are risk factors for life insurance companies. Nevertheless, classical life insurance models assume these are deterministic. In this paper, we include the risk from stochastic time of retirement and stochastic benefit...... structure in a classical finite-state Markov model for a life insurance contract. We include discontinuities in the distribution of the retirement time. First, we derive formulas for appropriate scaling of the benefits according to the time of retirement and discuss the link between the scaling...... and the guarantees provided. Stochastic retirement creates a need to rethink the construction of disability products for high ages and ways to handle this are discussed. We show how to calculate market reserves and how to use modified transition probabilities to calculate expected cash flows without significantly...
Data limitations in southern Africa frequently hinder adequate assessment of crop models before application. ... three locations to represent varying cropping and physical conditions in southern Africa, i.e. maize and sorghum (Mohale's Hoek, Lesotho and Big Bend, Swaziland) and maize and groundnut (Lilongwe, Malawi).
Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.
Househ, Mowafa S; Aldosari, Bakheet; Alanazi, Abdullah; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M
Much has been written on the benefits of big data for healthcare such as improving patient outcomes, public health surveillance, and healthcare policy decisions. Over the past five years, Big Data, and the data sciences field in general, has been hyped as the "Holy Grail" for the healthcare industry promising a more efficient healthcare system with the promise of improved healthcare outcomes. However, more recently, healthcare researchers are exposing the potential and harmful effects Big Data can have on patient care associating it with increased medical costs, patient mortality, and misguided decision making by clinicians and healthcare policy makers. In this paper, we review the current Big Data trends with a specific focus on the inadvertent negative impacts that Big Data could have on healthcare, in general, and specifically, as it relates to patient and clinical care. Our study results show that although Big Data is built up to be as a the "Holy Grail" for healthcare, small data techniques using traditional statistical methods are, in many cases, more accurate and can lead to more improved healthcare outcomes than Big Data methods. In sum, Big Data for healthcare may cause more problems for the healthcare industry than solutions, and in short, when it comes to the use of data in healthcare, "size isn't everything."
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...
Although Dr. Milan Hauner's study 'Stalin's Big Fleet program' has focused primarily on the formation of Big Fleets during the Tsarist and Soviet periods of Russia's naval history, there are important lessons...
Ceravolo, Paolo; Azzini, Antonia; Angelini, Marco; Catarci, Tiziana; Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Damiani, Ernesto; Mazak, Alexandra; van Keulen, Maurice; Jarrar, Mustafa; Santucci, Giuseppe; Sattler, Kai-Uwe; Scannapieco, Monica; Wimmer, Manuel; Wrembel, Robert; Zaraket, Fadi
Big Data technology has discarded traditional data modeling approaches as no longer applicable to distributed data processing. It is, however, largely recognized that Big Data impose novel challenges in data and infrastructure management. Indeed, multiple components and procedures must be
Rogério Rossi; Kechi Hirama
Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: t...
Décamps, Jean-Paul; Mariotti, Thomas; Rochet, Jean-Charles; Villeneuve, Stéphane
We study the issuance and payout policies that maximize the value of a firm facing both agency costs of free cash-flow and external financing costs. We find that the firm optimally issues equity. Equity distributes no dividends until a target cash level is reached, while new equity is issued when the firm runs out of cash. We characterize the process modelling the number of outstanding shares and the dynamics of the stock prices. In line with the leverage effect identified by Black (1976), we...
Simon-Rusinowitz, L; Mahoney, K J; Desmond, S M; Shoop, D M; Squillace, M R; Fay, R A
As long-term care (LTC) expenditures have risen, policymakers have sought ways to control costs while maintaining consumer satisfaction. Concurrently, there is increasing interest within the aging and disability communities in consumer-directed care. The Cash and Counseling Demonstration and Evaluation (CCDE) seeks to increase consumer direction and control costs by offering a cash allowance and information services to persons with disabilities, enabling them to purchase needed assistance. The authors present results from a telephone survey conducted to assess consumer preferences for a cash option in Arkansas and describe how findings from the four-State CCDE can inform consumer information efforts and policymakers.
Rapp, Marc Steffen; Killi, Andreas Maximilian
We examine cash holdings and leverage levels of German listed (non-financial and non-utility) firms. We document a secular increase in cash ratios over the last twenty years (1992–2011), reducing the net debt book leverage ratio for the average sample firm close to zero. Using prediction models...... firms are associated with measures of uncertainty faced by firms. Our results suggest that German firms have increased (reduced) their cash (net debt leverage) levels over time in order to adopt more precautionary financial policies....
Liu Wei; Guo Jilin
Cash flow forecasting is very important for owners and contractors of nuclear power projects to arrange the capital and to decrease the capital cost. The factors related to contractor cash flow forecasting are analyzed and a cash flow forecasting model is presented which is suitable for both contractors and owners. The model is efficiently solved using a cost-schedule data integration scheme described. A program is developed based on the model and verified with real project data. The result indicates that the model is efficient and effective
Natalie V. Gryzunova
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is the analysis of structure and process of management of cash ﬂows of the enterprise, researchof a ﬁnancial position and development of recommendationsabout increase of effective management of cash ﬂ ows. When performing work various methods of research were applied:ﬁ nancial, coefﬁ cient, ekonomiсo-mathematical, etc. As a result of the analysis reserves of increase of management efﬁciency are revealed and models of free cash ﬂows, the most actual for group of the considered enterprises are offered.
Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.
Diego N. Chavarría
Full Text Available Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L., vetch (Vicia sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. which were sown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1 and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2, with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield.
Chavarría, D.N.; Verdenelli, R.A.; Muñoz, M.J.; Conforto, C.; Restovich, S.B.; Andriulo, A.E.; Meriles, J.M.; Vargas-Gil, S.
Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC) as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation) during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L.), vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) which weresown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1) and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2), with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield. (Author)
Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria
Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.
Kupeli, Elif; Karnak, Demet; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Kayacan, Oya
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a nonimmunoglobulin E-related immune-mediated parenchymal lung disease. A 45-year-old woman who was a lifelong nonsmoker with a six-month history of frequent episodes of cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. She had been working as a money counter for 20 years at a central bank. Bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, ground-glass opacities and a mosaic pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, restrictive abnormality on pulmonary function tests and mild hypoxemia were the prominent findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis revealed a predominance of CD4-positive T cells, and she tested positive on her natural challenge test. She was diagnosed with subacute HP based on established criteria. She was advised to discontinue counting fresh banknotes. Prednisolone was commenced, then tapered to discontinue in the ensuing six months. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved within two months. To the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first to describe 'hard cash HP', possibly caused by chipping dust or printing dye.
Due to market forces and technological evolution, Big Data computing is developing at an increasing rate. A wide variety of novel approaches and tools have emerged to tackle the challenges of Big Data, creating both more opportunities and more challenges for students and professionals in the field of data computation and analysis. Presenting a mix of industry cases and theory, Big Data Computing discusses the technical and practical issues related to Big Data in intelligent information management. Emphasizing the adoption and diffusion of Big Data tools and technologies in industry, the book i
Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian
Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,
Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.
Full Text Available This study aims to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure and examine its impact on operating cash flow of banks listed on the UAE Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange (ADX and Dubai Financial Market (DFM during the period 2003-2016. The authors conducted content analysis of the annual reports to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure. In addition, they used dynamic panel data regressions to analyze the impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks. The results show a low degree of operational risk disclosure for all UAE banks, both Islamic and conventional. In addition, the results show no association between the levels of disclosure of operational risk and cash flow for all banks, conventional and Islamic. Operational risk disclosure of Islamic banks has not been examined by any prior researchers. In addition, this paper examines the potential impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks.
Godwin, N H; Key, K G
In recent years, a growing number of healthcare organizations have dropped the traditional defined-benefit pension plan and adopted cash-balance pension plans. A cash-balance pension plan generally allows employers to pay less in overall pension benefits and administration costs. A cash-balance pension plan pays benefits according to a predetermined formula based on an average of the employee's annual salary over his or her length of service. This provides recognizable benefits to younger employees but lower overall benefits to employees who have a long length of service. To assuage employees who may feel cheated out of the pension benefits they expected, employers that change to a cash-balance pension plan should consider offering higher guaranteed growth rates, advanced notification of the change to the new plan, and generous early-retirement options for employees with longer lengths of service.
.... The primary objective of this phase of the audit was to evaluate whether sales proceeds that were deposited into cash suspense accounts were being reimbursed to the appropriate turn-in activities in a timely manner...
Golovko, V.; Mysaka, G.
Article is dedicated to study of the actual questions of the improvement of the dataware and methodic of the economic analysis of the cash and flow in process of the optimization of management company financial resource.
Tuner, James A.
Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…
... for set-asides. A State may draw cash through the ACH for the full amount of costs incurred for set... incurred project costs prior to drawing cash. A State may not draw cash for a particular project until the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General payment and cash draw rules. 35...
Davis, Jefferson T.
U.S. GAAP and IFRS standards both require a cash flow statement that presents operating, investing and financing net cash flows (FASB, FAS 95; 1987; IASB, IAS 7, 1992). Although students are exposed to the cash flow statement in beginning accounting courses and then study the cash flow statement in more depth in intermediate accounting classes,…
In this paper we show that the three residual Income models for equity valuation always yield the same value as the Discounted Cash Flow Valuation models. We use three residual income measures: Economic Profit, Economic Value Added (EVA) and Cash Value Added. We also show that economic profit and EVA are different, although Copeland, Koller and Murrin (2000, page 55) say that economic profit is a synonym of EVA. Specifically, we first show that the present value of the Economic Profit discoun...
Garrett, Ian; Priestley, Richard
This is the authors’ accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. Publishers web site http://journals.cambridge.org/ Using a new variable based on a model of dividend smoothing, we find that dividend growth is highly predictable and that cash flow news contributes importantly to return variability. Cash flow betas derived from this predictability are central to explaining the size effect in the cross section of returns. However, they do not explain the value effect; this is explained b...
Puja Dutta; Stephen Howes; Rinku Murgai
India's approach to social security stresses the provision of subsidized food and public works. Targeted, unconditional cash transfers are little used, and have been little evaluated. An evaluation of cash transfers for the elderly and widows based on national household survey data and surveys on social pension utilization in two of India's states, Karnataka and Rajasthan, reveal that these social pension schemes work reasonably well. Levels of leakage (corruption) are low, funds flow disprop...
Full Text Available Big data management is a reality for an increasing number of organizations in many areas and represents a set of challenges involving big data modeling, storage and retrieval, analysis and visualization. However, technological resources, people and processes are crucial to facilitate the management of big data in any kind of organization, allowing information and knowledge from a large volume of data to support decision-making. Big data management can be supported by these three dimensions: technology, people and processes. Hence, this article discusses these dimensions: the technological dimension that is related to storage, analytics and visualization of big data; the human aspects of big data; and, in addition, the process management dimension that involves in a technological and business approach the aspects of big data management.
Aldea Mita Cheryta
Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effect of leverage and asymmetry information on the firm value through cash holding as mediation variable. The populations of this research were all the firms which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange since 2012 – 2015. A sample of this research was saturated sample and census, consisted 56 firms related the population criteria. This research used secondary data from the firm financial report through path analysis method. This research showed that leverage had a negative effect on the cash holdings, asymmetry information had a negative effect on the firm value through cash holding, and cash holding had a negative effect on the firm value. With leverage and effect on cash, holding cannot affect the firm value, due to investor risk-averse, investor risk seeker, and neutral investor has their own point of view in assessing the company. Cash holdings can lead to asymmetric information that can lead to agency conflict that can affect a company's performance, so that indirectly, with the existence of asymmetry information had an effect on the declining the firm value.
Holly J. Bowen
Full Text Available It is common practice for psychology researchers to recruit their sample of participants from the undergraduate student population. Participants are typically compensated with partial course credit or a monetary payment. The current study reveals that the motivation to participate in a study (cash versus course credit can relate to performance on a behavioral task of rewarded memory. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were recruited and compensated for their time with either partial course credit or cash. Potential performance-based cash rewards were earned during a rewarded memory task, where correct recognition of half the stimuli was worth a high reward and the other half a low reward. Memory for high reward items was better than low reward items, but only for the cash group. The credit group did not modulate their performance based on the value of the stimuli. In Experiment 2, undergraduates were compensated with partial course credit for their time and given the opportunity to earn a bonus credit for performance on a memory test. The findings were in line with the results from the credit group of Experiment 1, suggesting that the modulation of performance in the cash group of Experiment 1 cannot be accounted for by congruency between motivation to participate and reward for task performance. Of methodological importance, the findings indicate that recruiting and compensating participants with cash versus course credit may influence the results on a rewarded memory task. This factor should be taken into consideration in studies of reward motivation.
Lourdes Jerez Barroso
Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.
Heise, Lori; Lutz, Brian; Ranganathan, Meghna; Watts, Charlotte
Cash payments to vulnerable households and/or individuals have increasingly garnered attention as a means to reduce poverty, improve health and achieve other development-related outcomes. Recent evidence from Malawi and Tanzania suggests that cash transfers can impact HIV-related behaviours and outcomes and, therefore, could serve as an important addition to HIV prevention efforts. This article reviews the current evidence on cash transfers for HIV prevention and suggests unresolved questions for further research. Gaps include (1) understanding more about the mechanisms and pathways through which cash transfers affect HIV-related outcomes; (2) addressing key operational questions, including the potential feasibility and the costs and benefits of different models of transfers and conditionality; and (3) evaluating and enhancing the wider impacts of cash transfers on health and development. Ongoing and future studies should build on current findings to unpack unresolved questions and to collect additional evidence on the multiple impacts of transfers in different settings. Furthermore, in order to address questions on sustainability, cash transfer programmes need to be integrated with other sectors and programmes that address structural factors such as education and programming to promote gender equality and address HIV.
Cash holding is most important financial decision in the company management strategy. In this dissertation, the determinants of corporate cash holdings in UK non-financial publicly traded firms over the period from 2003 to 2012 are investigated. Our study finds that growth opportunities and cash flow and cash flow variability are positively associated with the level of corporate cash holdings, while firm size, leverage, net working capital, bank debt and dividend payment have negative impact ...
Basche, A.; Kaspar, T.; Archontoulis, S.; Jaynes, D. B.; Sauer, T. J.; Parkin, T.; Miguez, F.
The Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-third of maize and one-quarter of soybeans globally, is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability with future climate change. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding and runoff as well as drought-induced crop water stress. While some research indicates that a winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation increases soil water, producers continue to be concerned that water use by cover crops will reduce water for a following cash crop. We analyzed continuous in-field soil moisture measurements over from 2008-2014 at a Central Iowa research site that has included a winter rye cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation for thirteen years. This period of study included years in the top third of wettest years on record (2008, 2010, 2014) as well as years in the bottom third of driest years (2012, 2013). We found the cover crop treatment to have significantly higher soil water storage from 2012-2014 when compared to the no cover crop treatment and in most years greater soil water content later in the growing season when a cover crop was present. We further found that the winter rye cover crop significantly increased the field capacity water content and plant available water compared to the no cover crop treatment. Finally, in 2012 and 2013, we measured maize and soybean biomass every 2-3 weeks and did not see treatment differences in crop growth, leaf area or nitrogen uptake. Final crop yields were not statistically different between the cover and no cover crop treatment in any of the years of this analysis. This research indicates that the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop can improve soil water dynamics without sacrificing cash crop growth.
Asfaw, Solomon; Davis, Benjamin; Dewbre, Josh; Handa, Sudhanshu; Winters, Paul
This paper reports analysis of the impact of Kenya’s Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme on the household decisions on productive activities using data from a randomized experimental design. Results show that the programme had a positive and significant impact on food consumption coming from home production, accumulation of productive assets, especially on the ownership of small livestock and on formation of nonfarm enterprise, especially for females. The programme has provided more flexibility to families in terms of labour allocation decisions, particularly for those who are geographically isolated. The programme was also found to have reduced child labour, an important objective of the programme. However we find very little impact of the programme on direct indicators of crop production. PMID:25663712
Ozgur Arslan; Chrisostomos Florackis; Aydin Ozkan
This paper investigates the relationship between financing constraints and investment-cash flow sensitivities by focusing on cash holdings of firms as the basic classification scheme to separate firms into financially constrained and unconstrained categories. The idea is that high cash reserves increase the ability of firms to undertake profitable investment opportunities. Our classification scheme is based on an optimal cash model, which helps us identify the firms that deviate significantly...
Evgeniya Vladimirovna Baturina
Full Text Available The computer simulation of economic systems is a promising tool in the development of the theory of the country’s economic security. We have examined the Russian banking legislation and synthesized judicial economic expertise. This has allowed to develop an algorithm for the investigation of the marker pattern of shadow cash flows. The authors’ algorithm of marker monitoring of cash flow consists of the following sequences. Firstly, we set the time of the first receipt of money and the first withdrawals. Secondly, we compare cash balance of an organization at the beginning of the period with the first withdrawals. Thirdly, under the given condition, the minimum value of interested money flow in these withdrawals is calculated. This value is characterized by the marker parameters and forms a table containing data on the cash flow, recipients and payers, spheres of their activity. And last, on the basis of this table, we build a graph of relationships between the subjects of the shadow economy. The graph’s vertices represent these subjects. The visual representation of the graph is a marker pattern of shadow cash flow. The practical importance of this algorithm is due to its applicability in the investigation of economic crimes both at the stage of intelligence operations, and when obtaining proofs of the brought criminal cases in the form of the conclusions of expertseconomists. In addition, marker patterns of shadow cash flows can describe the state of the shadow economy of a region as a whole including its dynamics. This expands its parameterization. The created database of the shadow flows of the economy can be also useful for the scientific community. On the basis of the received results, we have developed management decisions to create and administer the information resource of the Bank of Russia “Shadow economy of a region”. This information resource ensures tracking the marker trace of cash flow in the bank environment by the
Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.
The paper concerns the 'Big Bang' theory of the creation of the Universe 15 thousand million years ago, and traces events which physicists predict occurred soon after the creation. Unified theory of the moment of creation, evidence of an expanding Universe, the X-boson -the particle produced very soon after the big bang and which vanished from the Universe one-hundredth of a second after the big bang, and the fate of the Universe, are all discussed. (U.K.)
This work offers a summary of Cukier the book: "Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How we Live, Work, and Think" by Viktor Mayer-Schonberg and Kenneth. Summary of the ideas in Viktor Mayer-Schonberg's and Kenneth Cukier's book: " Big Data " explains that big data is where we use huge quantities of data to make better predictions based on the fact we identify patters in the data rather than trying to understand the underlying causes in more detail. This summary highlights that big data will be a source of new economic value and innovation in the future. Moreover, it shows that it will
Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Mcilvenny, Paul Bruce; Davidsen, Jacob
and beautiful visualisations. However, we also need to ask what the tools of big data can do both for the Humanities and for more interpretative approaches and methods. Thus, we prefer to explore how the power of computation, new sensor technologies and massive storage can also help with video-based qualitative......For the last few years, we have witnessed a hype about the potential results and insights that quantitative big data can bring to the social sciences. The wonder of big data has moved into education, traffic planning, and disease control with a promise of making things better with big numbers...
Berg, van den H.
The African bollworm, Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera , is one of the worst agricultural pests in Africa, attacking a variety of food and cash crops. For development of sustainable pest management, it is essential to study the ecology and natural
Sara R. Lopez-Rodriguez; Juan F. Blanco-Libreros
The 250 landslides that simultaneously occurred in the Río Tarazá basin, Antioquia Department, in Colombia after the torrential rains of 19 and 20 May 2007 (Fig. 1) rank among the major rainfalltriggered disasters in this country (1). According to an official report, about 3000 ha, mostly covered by illegal cash crops, were wasted, thus reviving...
... manage uncertainties related to crop size and cash-flow timing while meeting minimum reserve requirements... level. This proposed fee and the existing reserve are sufficient to cover the costs of providing.... Regulatory Flexibility Act Pursuant to requirements set forth in the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S...
Hauser, R C; Edwards, D E; Edwards, J T
Cash budgeting is generally considered to be an important part of resource management in all businesses. However, respondents to a survey of not-for-profit health care entities revealed that some 40 percent of the participants do not currently prepare cash budgets. Where budgeting occurred, the cash forecasts covered various time frames, and distribution of the document was inconsistent. Most budgets presented cash receipts and disbursements according to operating, investing, and financing activities--a format consistent with the year-end cash flow statement. By routinely preparing monthly cash budgets, the not-for-profit health care entity can project cash inflow/outflow or position with anticipated cash insufficiencies and surpluses. The budget should be compared each month to actual results to evaluate performance. The magnitude and timing of cash flows is much too critical to be left to chance.
Full Text Available This paper based on the perspective of firm’s agency conflicts to examine the relationship between financial reporting quality and investment efficiency and to analyze the interaction effect between financial reporting and free cash flow on investment efficiency. We use 3,726 samples of Chinese listed firms during the period 2008–2012 to test the empirical models and find that financial reporting quality is negatively associated with both underinvestment and overinvestment. Further, we find that financial reporting quality is more strongly associated with overinvestment for firms with large free cash flow, which suggests that financial reporting quality can reduce information asymmetry arising from agency conflicts between the managers and investors. This paper extends the field of application of financial reporting quality and investment efficiency in the emerging capital markets in the world. Moreover, this is the first study that analyzes the interaction effect between financial reporting quality and free cash flow on investment efficiency.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of cash-flow tool for financial planning, cash flow calculation by applying the indirect method within a company in the field of tourism. Thus, it tackled issues concerning the organization of accounting of treasury which made a presentation of the subject reflected in treasury accounting record of the existence and movement of securities placement, availability of the accounts at banks, short term bank loans and other cash values. The importance of access to information as well as more detailed and clearer leads to an upward trend of the tourism society. Standardization of definitions helps to ensure that all parties are talking of the same terms or concepts with lower or no variables. This is essential for developers and contractors in different geographical regions of the world and different countries when they discuss issues of tourism and travel.
Full Text Available Cash flow ratios help financial users get relevant information about financial resources for a given time. Cash flow ratios are now used more than the traditional ones because it is more effective and justified. Cash flow based ratios are especially surprising because they do not only play a significant role in the credit rating of evaluation, but also forecast the failure of a corporation. In this study, we perform an empirical investigation on a company named CMC. From the study, it is clear that the liquidity and solvency positions of the company were moderate whereas the company maintained low profitability. On the other hand, the efficiency and sufficiency ratios of the study give us a new look on financial judgement.
Lavinia Elena BRÎNDESCU OLARIU
Full Text Available The financing decision is taken based on the expectations concerning the future cash-flows generated in the operating activity, which should provide coverage for the debt service and allow for an increase of the shareholders’ wealth. Still, the future cash-flows are affected by risk, which makes the sensitivity analysis a very important part of the decision process. The current research sets to evaluate the sensitivity of the payment capacity to variations of the payments for raw materials and consumables. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flow statements collected from 50 companies together with detailed information concerning the hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study allow for the establishment of benchmarks for the payment capacity’s sensitivity, the determination of the mechanisms through which the variation of payments for raw materials and consumables impacts the payment capacity, as well as the identification of the possible causes of such a variation.
Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge.......Danmark har en digital infrastruktur, en registreringskultur og it-kompetente medarbejdere og kunder, som muliggør en førerposition, men kun hvis virksomhederne gør sig klar til næste big data-bølge....
Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory
Omar Ahmad Kachkar
Full Text Available Purpose - This paper aims to propose cash waqf (endowment to develop a conceptual model that can be utilised to extend microfinance for refugees. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative method is used in this research. An extensive review of the literature has been conducted. Latest literature on refugees, microfinance has been critically examined beside the current cash waqf models. Findings - Empirical studies have shown that many refugees are equipped with marketable skills and talents that can be utilised to improve their socio-economic situations. The proposed model – cash waqf refugee microfinance fund (CWRMF – is structured to extend microfinance to potential refugee micro entrepreneurs. To address the lack of collateral, which is a requirement to gain any microfinance, CWRMF has been incorporated with a takaful unit (cooperation by which refugees may guarantee each other. Additionally, the model has also been structured to address the challenge of sustainability of the institution that would provide microfinance. Hence, a reserve fund has also been integrated into the model. Practical implications - CWRMF represents a potential model to be implemented by humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs and aid agencies to support livelihood of refugees in particular for Muslim refugees. Positive outcome is expected from the implementation of this model. This is because of the various advantages of microfinance programs not only on refugees but also on concerned NGOs, host populations and donor parties. Additionally, this paper is a set of primarily thoughts aims to open the door wider for more researchers to explore the potential of cash waqf as one of the instruments to finance refugee microenterprises and business activities. Originality/value - Recently cash waqf has been into several models for socio-economic development and poverty alleviation. This paper is proposing cash waqf as a source for a microfinance fund that can
Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Chen, Shaojie; Fisher, Aaron; Mejia, Amanda; Xu, Yuting; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Caffo, Brian; Lindquist, Martin A
Big Data are of increasing importance in a variety of areas, especially in the biosciences. There is an emerging critical need for Big Data tools and methods, because of the potential impact of advancements in these areas. Importantly, statisticians and statistical thinking have a major role to play in creating meaningful progress in this arena. We would like to emphasize this point in this special issue, as it highlights both the dramatic need for statistical input for Big Data analysis and for a greater number of statisticians working on Big Data problems. We use the field of statistical neuroimaging to demonstrate these points. As such, this paper covers several applications and novel methodological developments of Big Data tools applied to neuroimaging data.
Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong
This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.
Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós
Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...
Ксенія Романівна Петрофанова
The study of the peculiarities of electronic money is accompanied by the discovery of a large number of theoretical and practical problems and separate discussion issues of important application significance. As the number of e-money users increases with the development of e-commerce, protecting their interests requires proper civil and financial regulation. Comparing electronic money with cash and non-cash money, we found that they, by combining the benefits of the other two forms of money, actually became the third specific monetary form
Nott, Sherrill B.
The sources of the 51 cash grain farms analyzed in this report were Telfarm/MicroTel at Michigan State University, plus the AgriSolutions offices in East Lansing, Adrian, Mt. Pleasant, and Alpena. Farm types were assigned using the 1992 Census of Agriculture's Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) definitions. Basically, any farm with 50 percent or more of value of farm sales from one item becomes a farm of that type. Cash grain farms have 50 percent or more of value of combined sales from...
Somnuek, Siriluk; Slingerland, M.A.; Grünbühel, C.M.
As part of the Thai Government’s objective to increase energy security through biodiesel, oil palm was introduced to Northeast Thailand in 2005. Nong Khai Province was selected as a pilot project because of its suitable environmental conditions. This study assesses the acceptance of policy
Ahmed, M.Z.; Gulzar, S.; Ahmed, M.Z.; Kikuchi, A.
Aeluropus lagopoides is a salt tolerant grass which propagates both through genets and ramets. Six disjunct populations of A. lagopoides from Pakistan were selected to test the hypothesis that genetic diversity would be low within but higher among populations. Genetic diversity was investigated using RAPD markers. AMOVA showed higher genetic diversity within population (74%) and lower among population (26%). Furthermore, there were no genetic differences between coastal and inland populations. However, substantial (11%) genetic variation existed among populations of Sindh and Balochistan. Higher genetic diversity within populations are possibly due to physical disturbances that may provide more opportunity for establishment of seeds and increase the possibility of out crossing. Low diversity among populations or between coastal and inland populations indicates fragmentation of a single meta-population due to anthropogenic activity. Geographical barrier between Sindh and Balochistan, appears to mediate gene flow among populations of A. lagopoides. (author)
Lund Pedersen, Carsten
Idea in Brief: Problem: There is an enormous profit potential for manufacturing firms in big data, but one of the key barriers to obtaining data-driven growth is the lack of knowledge about which capabilities are needed to extract value and profit from data. Solution: We (BDBB research group at C...
Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod
The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.
Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.
The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.
Bhuyan, Prachet; Chenthati, Deepak
This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the state-of-the-practice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, service-generated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.
Kull, Karl, 1987-
Cash pooling’ust kui finantsjuhtimise ühest alaliigist. Cash pooling’u kasutamise piirangutest: äriseadustiku §-des 159 ja 281 sätestatud laenukeelust ning emaettevõtja kohustuste võimalikust rikkumisest
Our objectives were to verify the accountability for cash and related assets and to evaluate the adequacy of procedures used to determine the accuracy of records used to support cash accountability...
Big data is een niet meer weg te denken fenomeen in onze maatschappij. Het is de hype cycle voorbij en de eerste implementaties van big data-technieken worden uitgevoerd. Maar wat is nu precies big data? Wat houden de vijf V's in die vaak genoemd worden in relatie tot big data? Ter inleiding van
The article explores the methodological approaches to the analysis of cash flows in investment activity of the enterprise; the system of motion net cash flows, reflecting the impact of cash management efficiency on the amount and source of investment cash flows of the enterprise; analytical model of definition of effectiveness of cash management of the enterprise is proposed, based on the selected principals of modeling, comprehensive analysis of cash flows in investing activities and their o...
Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel
In recent years, big data has been one of the most controversially discussed technologies in terms of its possible positive and negative impact. Therefore, the need for technology assessments is obvious. This paper first provides, based on the results of a technology assessment study, an overview...... of the potential and challenges associated with big data and then describes the problems experienced during the study as well as methods found helpful to address them. The paper concludes with reflections on how the insights from the technology assessment study may have an impact on the future governance of big...... data....
Boyd, Richard N.
The precision of measurements in modern cosmology has made huge strides in recent years, with measurements of the cosmic microwave background and the determination of the Hubble constant now rivaling the level of precision of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis. However, these results are not necessarily consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model of big bang nucleosynthesis. Reconciling these discrepancies may require extensions of the basic tenets of the model, and possibly of the reaction rates that determine the big bang abundances
Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kaufman, Marcia
Find the right big data solution for your business or organization Big data management is one of the major challenges facing business, industry, and not-for-profit organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather patterns monitored by meteorologists, or social network activity can quickly outpace the capacity of traditional data management tools. If you need to develop or manage big data solutions, you'll appreciate how these four experts define, explain, and guide you through this new and often confusing concept. You'll learn what it is, why it m
Full Text Available Big data is and will be used more in the future as a tool for everything that happens both online and offline. Of course , online is a real hobbit, Big Data is found in this medium , offering many advantages , being a real help for all consumers. In this paper we talked about Big Data as being a plus in developing new applications, by gathering useful information about the users and their behaviour.We've also presented the key aspects of real-time monitoring and the architecture principles of this technology. The most important benefit brought to this paper is presented in the cloud section.
Miranda-Lopez, Jose Eduardo; Nichols, Linda M.
The concepts of both accrual accounting and cash basis accounting need to be thoroughly understood by accounting graduates as they enter the workplace. In making decisions, both managers and investors often may need to make adjustments from one basis to the other. But do students really understand these concepts? This study uses an experimental…
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency cash assistance to refugees. 400.52 Section 400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal cash transactions report. 3015.83 Section 3015.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Financial Reporting...
Peffer, Ron A.; Telgen, Jan
Who would ever expect that a bank would complain about the number of calculations required to do anything, let alone cut down costs? Mr. Peffer and Dr. Telgen describe their experiences in implementing a cash management system for use by independent local banks; when they got that response—perhaps
Lee, Kye Woo; Hwang, Miae
This study aims to analyze whether subsidies provided by the Indonesian conditional cash transfer against child labor program (Program Keluarga Harapan: PKH) were sufficient for children to stop working and go back to schooling. Ex-post evaluations of the program found that it did not improve children's enrollment rate and reduce child labor…
Mathematical annuity models application in cash flow analysis. ... We also compare the cost efficiency between Amortisation and Sinking fund loan repayment as prevalent in financial institutions. Keywords: Annuity, Amortisation, Sinking Fund, Present and Future Value Annuity, Maturity date and Redemption value.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized cash payments. 321.7 Section 321.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... registration on the front of the security, or by a person authorized or empowered to act for a corporate legal...
Full Text Available This study is engaged on the axis of Financial Management, with research into the factors controlling corporation in small business finance. It has as main objective to analyze the cash flow tool as a tool for financial management and specific process to describe the use of the Cash Flow tool objectives; analyze the feasibility of implementing the Cash Flow tool as an instrument of financial management and suggest proposals for suitability for deployment of Cash Flows as a financial management system. Facing these objectives the research uses the precedence of qualitative methodology and applies the instruments on-site visit, interview and questionnaire to collect data. Descriptive analysis that confront the theoretical basis and the data obtained from research is used. With the completion of the analysis the following results were achieved: description of business processes researched; identifying the needs and forms of control currently used and presentation of improvement measures for the adjustment of non-conformities identified. The study contributes to both the academic improvement by analyzing the real situation of the company, as well as it serves as a recommendation to companies embracing similar difficulties in financial management.
Full Text Available Asymmetric information refers to a situation where one party has more information than the other party. The agency problems arise from asymmetric information in the principal agent contracts. In addition, there are also several factors that could affect earnings management that is free cash flow and audit quality. The aim of this research is to provide empirical evidence about the impact of free cash flow and audit quality variables on discretionary accruals, as a measure of Earnings Management with the control variables company’s size. This research used 103 manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, selected using purposive sampling method, during the research period 2007-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple regression method. Based on the result of analysis concluced that the variable independent free cash flow have a negative and significant effect on earning management. It means that companies with high free cash flow will restrict the practice of earnings management. While the audit quality no significance effect on earning management.
Vellekoop, M.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.W.
We derive a general formula for the futures price process without the restriction that the assets used in the future margin account are continuous and of finite variation. To do so, we model tradeable securities with dividends which are not necessarily cash dividends at fixed times or continuously
Our aim is to also determine investor's cash flows valuation generated from the investment. The investor invested her short position into N number of investment firms. The firms in turn invest the short position of the investor into the stock and bond markets in order to hedge out the risks associated with the investor's portfolio.
In Tanzania, the Tanzania Social Action Fund provides financial support to poor and vulnerable people. Conditions attached to the funds include sending children to school and accessing basic health care. Recent evidence suggests that cash transfers can contribute to pro-poor growth by: -serving as an effective risk ...
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
This guide for institutions of higher education and other schools receiving funds under the William D. Ford Direct Loan Program details required and recommended procedures for the reconciliation process. The reconciliation process is explained to include cash management (the accounting for Direct Loan funds drawn down and disbursed to borrowers)…
Spiwak, Rand S.
A study was conducted to identify those variables appearing to affect cash management practices in Florida community colleges, and recommend prescriptive measures concerning these practices. The study methodology included informal discussions with the chief fiscal officers of each Florida community college and appropriate state board staff,…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cash management planning and review. 206.6 Section 206.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY...
van Wijnbergen, S.
Absence of terms-of-trade contingent instruments in international capital markets, combined with differences in risk aversion between commercial creditors and LDC borrowers, has important consequences for the welfare effects of cash/debt buy-backs. In such circumstances, secondary market prices fail
Zhang, Shan Shan
This paper firstly investigates the empirical determinants of corporate cash holdings for a sample of listed US, UK and Japanese firms during the 2000-2012 period. Through applying the pooled time-series cross-sectional estimations, cross-sectional estimations and GMM two-step method of estimations, the results reveal that firms’ cash flow, cash flow variability, bank debt and degree of shareholders protection and creditor protection all have inverse relationship with cash holdings. Contraril...
Cash flows are incrementally useful to earnings in security valuation mainly when earnings quality is low. This suggests that when earnings quality decreases, analysts will be more likely to supplement their earnings forecasts with cash flow estimates. Contrary to this prediction, we find that analysts do not disclose cash flow forecasts when the quality of earnings is low. This is because cash flow forecast accuracy depends on the accuracy of the accrual estimates and the precision of accrua...
Kanapickienė, Rasa; Šlekienė, Vaida
The article deals with the forecasting of a cash flow from primary activities of an enterprise. Different mathematical methods are applied to forecast cash flow. Cash flow forecasts are often introduced in the project of the enterprise budget. Some scientific sources state that it is possible to forecast cash flow from primary activities of an enterprise according to its historical financial data by the means of regression analysis. These sources suggest various models of regression analysis ...
Somayeh Sadeghi Moghaddam; Fateme Zabihi
This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between cash flow and market share on selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2011. Using regression analysis, the study has detected a positive and meaningful relationship between cash flow on one side and three other investment opportunities, firm size and operating cash flow. In addition, there is a negative and meaningful relationship between leverage and cash flow. However, the study does not ...
Tosti, Giacomo; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela
this can influence the N uptake and N status of different subsequent summer cash crops. In this study the N effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing proportion was tested on maize (Zea Mays L.) and processing......Adopting mixtures between legumes and non legumes can be an efficient tool to merge the advantages of the single species in the fall-sown cover crop practice. Nevertheless there is a lack of information on how the species proportion may affect N accumulation and C/N of the cover crops and how...... of the relationship between cover crop C/N and Neff was confirmed, so mixtures can be used to adjust the extent and timing of mineralisation of the incorporated biomass to the subsequent cash crop requirements. Prediction of the cash crops N status on the cover crop C/N appears to be a useful approach, but, it may...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Why and when we will stop your cash benefits... and when we will stop your cash benefits. (a) When you are not entitled to benefits. If you become entitled to disability cash benefits as a statutorily blind person, we will find that you are no longer...
... selected by the insured. If no designated beneficiary survives, the present value of any remaining unpaid... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of cash value in... AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.16 Payment of cash value in monthly...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash and Management Information (C... HOMES PROGRAM (HOPE 3) Grants § 572.230 Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System. Disbursement of HOPE 3 grant funds is managed through HUD's Cash and Management Information (C/MI) System for the HOPE...
... cash and medical assistance (and related administrative costs) to Cuban and Haitian entrants according... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cuban and Haitian entrant cash and medical... ENTRANT PROGRAM § 401.12 Cuban and Haitian entrant cash and medical assistance. Except as may be otherwise...
... SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND OPERATION OF THE CASH MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS FUND § 206.10 Operation of and payments from the Cash Management Improvements Fund. (a) The Cash... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of and payments from the...
Seifert, Bruce; Gonenc, Halit
We examine the effects of both country and firm-level governance on cash holdings and the value of cash for a large international sample during the period 2002-2013. We find that both strong country and strong firm-level governance reduce the amount of cash holdings. We observe that a number of the
Botshekan, M.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.
We test whether asymmetric preferences for losses versus gains affect the prices of cash flow versus discount rate risk. We construct a return decomposition distinguishing cash flow and discount rate betas in up and down markets. Using U.S. data, we find that downside cash flow and discount rate
Haag, Leonard H.
Effective cash management and short-term investing are discussed in this "how to" guide designed to benefit most institutions of higher education. The following premises are examined: proper compensation for effective cash management is not an expense but an investment; effective cash management and short-term investment programs do not depend on…
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope and purpose (cash management rules). 668.161... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.161 Scope and purpose (cash management rules). (a) General. (1) This subpart establishes the rules and...
Boyles, William W.
With today's relatively high interest rates, inflationary trend, and declining public support to higher education, cash management programs are of interest to the academic business officer as well as the commercial businessman. Four areas in which the management of cash can be improved are: (1) speeding collections of cash; (2) delaying…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What cash management procedures apply to INA... Administrative Requirements § 668.860 What cash management procedures apply to INA grant funds? INA grantees must... implement the Cash Management Improvement Act, found at 31 CFR part 205, apply by law to most recipients of...
Warnick, Bryan R.
A growing number of schools have begun experimenting with giving students cash rewards to improve academic performance. This practice has come to be known as "cash-for-grades." In this article, I examine some of the philosophical and ethical questions involved with cash-for-grades programmes, rather than focusing on whether such…
Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel
Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)......Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)...
TNO, in collaboration with the Big Data Value Center, presents the fourth Small Big Data Congress! Our congress aims at providing an overview of practical and innovative applications based on big data. Do you want to know what is happening in applied research with big data? And what can already be
Cryptography for Big Data Security Book Chapter for Big Data: Storage, Sharing, and Security (3S) Distribution A: Public Release Ariel Hamlin1 Nabil...Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ii Contents 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1 1.1 Introduction...48 Chapter 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1.1 Introduction With the amount
This ebook aims to give practical guidance for all those who want to understand big data better and learn how to make the most of it. Topics range from big data analysis, mobile big data and managing unstructured data to technologies, governance and intellectual property and security issues surrounding big data.
Flyverbom, Mikkel; Madsen, Anders Koed; Rasche, Andreas
This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects...... shows that big data problematizes selected aspects of traditional ways to collect and analyze data for development (e.g. via household surveys). We also demonstrate that using big data analyses to address development challenges raises a number of questions that can deteriorate its impact....
Kallinikos, Jannis; Constantiou, Ioanna
We elaborate on key issues of our paper New games, new rules: big data and the changing context of strategy as a means of addressing some of the concerns raised by the paper’s commentators. We initially deal with the issue of social data and the role it plays in the current data revolution...... and the technological recording of facts. We further discuss the significance of the very mechanisms by which big data is produced as distinct from the very attributes of big data, often discussed in the literature. In the final section of the paper, we qualify the alleged importance of algorithms and claim...... that the structures of data capture and the architectures in which data generation is embedded are fundamental to the phenomenon of big data....
The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.
Khayyat, Zuhair; Ilyas, Ihab F.; Jindal, Alekh; Madden, Samuel; Ouzzani, Mourad; Papotti, Paolo; Quiané -Ruiz, Jorge-Arnulfo; Tang, Nan; Yin, Si
of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic
Oana Claudia BRATOSIN
Full Text Available Today Big data is an emerging topic, as the quantity of the information grows exponentially, laying the foundation for its main challenge, the value of the information. The information value is not only defined by the value extraction from huge data sets, as fast and optimal as possible, but also by the value extraction from uncertain and inaccurate data, in an innovative manner using Big data analytics. At this point, the main challenge of the businesses that use Big data tools is to clearly define the scope and the necessary output of the business so that the real value can be gained. This article aims to explain the Big data concept, its various classifications criteria, architecture, as well as the impact in the world wide processes.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...
on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also
Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind
Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...
Cash management can be defined as the optimization of cash flows and investment of excess cash in a corporation. But from an international perspective, cash management becomes very complex because of different laws among countries that pertain to cross-border cash transfers. Besides, the value of cross-border cash transfers is affected by the exchange rate fluctuations. This article is concerned with the optimization of cash flows in a multinational corporation and examines centralized cash m...
Juan José Camargo-Vega
Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido el término Big Data, la presente investigación buscó estudiar y analizar de manera exhaustiva el estado del arte del Big Data; además, y como segundo objetivo, analizó las características, las herramientas, las tecnologías, los modelos y los estándares relacionados con Big Data, y por último buscó identificar las características más relevantes en la gestión de Big Data, para que con ello se pueda conocer todo lo concerniente al tema central de la investigación.La metodología utilizada incluyó revisar el estado del arte de Big Data y enseñar su situación actual; conocer las tecnologías de Big Data; presentar algunas de las bases de datos NoSQL, que son las que permiten procesar datos con formatos no estructurados, y mostrar los modelos de datos y las tecnologías de análisis de ellos, para terminar con algunos beneficios de Big Data.El diseño metodológico usado para la investigación fue no experimental, pues no se manipulan variables, y de tipo exploratorio, debido a que con esta investigación se empieza a conocer el ambiente del Big Data.
Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL
In these lectures I briefly review Big Bang baryosynthesis. In the first lecture I discuss the evidence which exists for the BAU, the failure of non-GUT symmetrical cosmologies, the qualitative picture of baryosynthesis, and numerical results of detailed baryosynthesis calculations. In the second lecture I discuss the requisite CP violation in some detail, further the statistical mechanics of baryosynthesis, possible complications to the simplest scenario, and one cosmological implication of Big Bang baryosynthesis. (orig./HSI)
Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos
Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.
Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R
The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2015 The Authors.
Mayer-Schönberger, V; Ingelsson, E
Big Data promises huge benefits for medical research. Looking beyond superficial increases in the amount of data collected, we identify three key areas where Big Data differs from conventional analyses of data samples: (i) data are captured more comprehensively relative to the phenomenon under study; this reduces some bias but surfaces important trade-offs, such as between data quantity and data quality; (ii) data are often analysed using machine learning tools, such as neural networks rather than conventional statistical methods resulting in systems that over time capture insights implicit in data, but remain black boxes, rarely revealing causal connections; and (iii) the purpose of the analyses of data is no longer simply answering existing questions, but hinting at novel ones and generating promising new hypotheses. As a consequence, when performed right, Big Data analyses can accelerate research. Because Big Data approaches differ so fundamentally from small data ones, research structures, processes and mindsets need to adjust. The latent value of data is being reaped through repeated reuse of data, which runs counter to existing practices not only regarding data privacy, but data management more generally. Consequently, we suggest a number of adjustments such as boards reviewing responsible data use, and incentives to facilitate comprehensive data sharing. As data's role changes to a resource of insight, we also need to acknowledge the importance of collecting and making data available as a crucial part of our research endeavours, and reassess our formal processes from career advancement to treatment approval. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Full Text Available In the recent years the damage caused by the game animals to the agricultural crops has increased considerably. An immediate cause of this situation is an expanding population of big game, especially wild boar. This increase is primarily due to the changes in agrocenoses, dominated by large area maize cropping. The crop damage is compensated by hunting associations leasing the specific areas. The aim of this paper was to present the costs of the compensation incurred by the lease-holders of the hunting grounds. A cause - effect relationship between greater game damage and increased harvest of the game animals was demonstrated. The analysis was based on the data provided in the Statistical Yearbooks of the Central Statistical Office for 2000-2013. The study also indicated a problem of a decline in roe deer population, caused by more intense harvest resulting from farmer compensation claims.
Maugis, Pierre-André G
Big data-the idea that an always-larger volume of information is being constantly recorded-suggests that new problems can now be subjected to scientific scrutiny. However, can classical statistical methods be used directly on big data? We analyze the problem by looking at two known pitfalls of big datasets. First, that they are biased, in the sense that they do not offer a complete view of the populations under consideration. Second, that they present a weak but pervasive level of dependence between all their components. In both cases we observe that the uncertainty of the conclusion obtained by statistical methods is increased when used on big data, either because of a systematic error (bias), or because of a larger degree of randomness (increased variance). We argue that the key challenge raised by big data is not only how to use big data to tackle new problems, but to develop tools and methods able to rigorously articulate the new risks therein. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Polster, Sean P; Cao, Ying; Carroll, Timothy; Flemming, Kelly; Girard, Romuald; Hanley, Daniel; Hobson, Nicholas; Kim, Helen; Koenig, James; Koskimäki, Janne; Lane, Karen; Majersik, Jennifer J; McBee, Nichol; Morrison, Leslie; Shenkar, Robert; Stadnik, Agnieszka; Thompson, Richard E; Zabramski, Joseph; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Awad, Issam A
Brain cavernous angiomas with symptomatic hemorrhage (CASH) are uncommon but exact a heavy burden of neurological disability from recurrent bleeding, for which there is no proven therapy. Candidate drugs to stabilize the CASH lesion and prevent rebleeding will ultimately require testing of safety and efficacy in multisite clinical trials. Much progress has been made in understanding the epidemiology of CASH, and novel biomarkers have been linked to the biological mechanisms and clinical activity in lesions. Yet, the ability to enroll and risk-stratify CASH subjects has never been assessed prospectively at multiple sites. Biomarkers and other outcomes have not been evaluated for their sensitivity and reliability, nor have they been harmonized across sites. To address knowledge gaps and establish a research network as infrastructure for future clinical trials, through the Trial Readiness grant mechanism, funded by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institutes of Health. This project includes an observational cohort study to assess (1) the feasibility of screening, enrollment rates, baseline disease categorization, and follow-up of CASH using common data elements at multiple sites, (2) the reliability of imaging biomarkers including quantitative susceptibility mapping and permeability measures that have been shown to correlate with lesion activity, and (3) the rates of recurrent hemorrhage and change in functional status and biomarker measurements during prospective follow-up. We propose a harmonized multisite assessment of enrollment rates of CASH, baseline features relevant to stratification in clinical trials, and follow-up assessments of functional outcomes in relation to clinical bleeds. We introduce novel biomarkers of vascular leak and hemorrhage, with firm mechanistic foundations, which have been linked to clinical disease activity. We shall test their reliability and validity at multiple sites, and assess their changes over time
Full Text Available As global population increases and demands for food supplies become greater, we face great challenges in providing more products and in larger quantities from less arable land. Crop science has gained increasing importance in meeting these challenges and results of scientific research must be communicated worldwide on a regular basis. In many countries, however, crop scientists have to publish the results of their investigations in national journals with heterogeneous contents and in their native languages. As a consequence, valuable work often remains unknown to scientists elsewhere. As a big country with a large number of crop scientists, China has a wide range of climatic and ecological environments, diverse plant species and cropping systems, and different regional needs for food supplies, which justify the recent decision by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science within the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, to launch a new communication channel, The Crop Journal. The goal of The Crop Journal is to meet an urgent need for a major Asia-based journal that covers the diverse fields of crop science. Our aim is to create a vital and thought-provoking journal that will highlight state-of-the-art original work and reviews by high-profile crop scientists and investigative groups throughout the world — a journal that will respond to the needs of specialists in strategic crop research. We will work with scientific and publishing colleagues worldwide, using The Plant Journal and Crop Science as models, to establish The Crop Journal as a broadly based high quality journal and a premier forum for issues in crop science. The Crop Journal will cover a wide range of topics, including crop genetics, breeding, agronomy, crop physiology, germplasm resources, grain chemistry, grain storage and processing, crop management practices, crop biotechnology, and biomathematics. The journal also encourages the submission of review
Roghayeh Ahmdi Panah Banad Koki
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to predict future cash flows using present cash flow and accruals using the information of 96 selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2011. The proposed study uses linear regression techniques to forecast future cash flow and the results indicate that cash flow and accruals together could provide more power to forecast cash flow. In addition, accrual provides future cash flow better than cash flow. The survey also performs an investigation on discretionary accrual and finds that the firms with higher accruals maintain lower return compared with firms with lower return. This means there is a clear evidence of discretionary accruals on Tehran Stock Exchange.
Full Text Available The previous researches explore the question of why firms hold cash. But there are few researches done in developing countries like Pakistan. The need for cash is characterized by its policies of firms regarding capital structure, working capital requirements, cash flow management, dividend payments, and asset management. In this paper, the impact of these factors is normally analyzed under the framework of Tradeoff theory, Pecking Order Theory and Free Cash Flow Theory. This paper focuses on determining the level of corporate cash holdings of non-financial Pakistani firms, and cash holding requirement among different industries. The data is set for period of 2008- 2012 by using the data of 40companies and 6 industries. The findings of the study support the theories. Which show that firm size, net working capital, leverage, Capital Expenditure and Dividend significantly affect the cash holdings of non-financial firms in Pakistan.
Y. P. Vetrov
Full Text Available The article deals with the various interpretations of the term "strategic management accounting". The role and importance of strategic management accounting in the organization’s cash flows control are investigated. The accounting and analytical models of strategic management accounting are analyzed. The territorial scope of this article covers the Russian Federation. The study concludes that the system of assessment parameters of organization’s financial condition should cover all its aspects, namely, financial sustainability, solvency, liquidity and business activity. Hence, strategic management accounting of cash flows makes it possible to correctly set information base to monitor financial flows of a company which responds the tends of market economy and allows to make optimal management decisions.
BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER
Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratios representing the liquidity as current assets, assets implied in the determination of liquidity ratios. The end of the paper consists of the conclusions drawn from the issues presented in the paper but also our views on this research topic.
Prana Wahyu Nisasmara
Full Text Available This research aims to understand the influence of profitability, capital structure, cash holding, and GCG (Good Corporate Governance on firm value. The samples of this study were the property sector and real estate companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in the period of 2008-2013. The data used from the annual report company. The methods of data analysis were multiple regression models and analyzed using IBM SPSS software. The results of this study are profitability has no influence on firm value, capital structure has positive influence on firm value, cash holding has no influence on firm value and GCG a has a positive influence on firm value.
Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to scaling to big datasets. This presents a serious impediment since data cleansing often involves costly computations such as enumerating pairs of tuples, handling inequality joins, and dealing with user-defined functions. In this paper, we present BigDansing, a Big Data Cleansing system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing. The system can run on top of most common general purpose data processing platforms, ranging from DBMSs to MapReduce-like frameworks. A user-friendly programming interface allows users to express data quality rules both declaratively and procedurally, with no requirement of being aware of the underlying distributed platform. BigDansing takes these rules into a series of transformations that enable distributed computations and several optimizations, such as shared scans and specialized joins operators. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets show that BigDansing outperforms existing baseline systems up to more than two orders of magnitude without sacrificing the quality provided by the repair algorithms.
Chow, C W; McNamee, A H
Discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques can enhance the effectiveness of a healthcare organization's capital budgeting decisions. But a financial manager unaware of common misapplications of DCF techniques may make capital decisions with a hidden bias against long-term projects, an inaccurate evaluation of options, or inappropriate estimations of expected inflation and risk. Social and psychological factors also can impede effective decisions on projects already introduced.
Y. P. Vetrov; O. G. Vandina; A. R. Galustov
The article deals with the various interpretations of the term "strategic management accounting". The role and importance of strategic management accounting in the organization’s cash flows control are investigated. The accounting and analytical models of strategic management accounting are analyzed. The territorial scope of this article covers the Russian Federation. The study concludes that the system of assessment parameters of organization’s financial condition should cover all its aspect...
Almaas, Synne Schanke; Bystrøm, Line Synnøve
The housing prices in Norway and the ratio of Norwegian household debt to disposable income have reached unprecedentedly high levels in recent years, raising concerns about whether we are in a serious housing bubble. This attracts much attention and initiates debates among politicians, researchers as well as the entire society. Contributing to the debates, the present thesis studies "cash-out" refinancing in the Norwegian housing market and has two main findings. First, along with the soaring...
Cap, Kim Hoang
2014 dissertation for MSc in International Accounting and Finance. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. This paper investigates the determination of corporate cash holdings in Vietnam. The sample includes Vietnamese publicly-traded firms for the period 2010-2013. Determinants include financial indicators as firm-specific characteristics and state ownership as an institutional factor for the purpose of exploring the existence of agency costs for this em...
ADELA BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMUSANU; BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; ANDRA MANCIU
The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidit...
Baustad, T.; Courtin, G.; Davies, T.; Kenison, R.; Turnbull, J.; Gray, B.; Jalali, Y.; Remondet, J.C.; Hjelmsmark, L.; Oldfield, T.; Romano, C.; Saier, R.; Rannestad, G.
To minimize financial risk and accelerate return on investment, oil companies are using low-cost, reusable production systems. The scope of these development options is illustrated by looking at three offshore case studies that range from extended well test to marginal field development. In each case, production systems technology has been deployed to provide superior data, early oil or both, thus reducing economic uncertainty and delivering accelerated cash flow. 10 figs., 23 refs
Full Text Available The principal proposition this paper will endeavour to maintain is that the liquidity of the budget is not fully managed by the Ministry of Finance, which is why it is unable, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, to rein in and slow down the growth in short-term public debt. Only since 2001, thanks to institutional improvements, have the conditions been created in the Ministry of Finance for cash and liquidity management. Thus payments operations, previously in the hands of a government institution, were taken over by the banks; the financial operations of budgetary spending agencies were channelled via the Single Account of the Treasury; and government deposits were gradually transferred from numerous commercial banks to the Single Account of the Treasury in the Croatian National Bank and the state-owned Croatian Postal Bank. Unfortunately, however, the Ministry of Finance, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, still carries out no operation of cash and liquidity management within the government Treasury system, nor does it operate on the money market with its surplus budgetary resources. Because of this state of affairs, management of the cash and liquidity of the central government budget is within the purview of the commercial banks.
Production of energy crops in Denmark is more or less non-existent in Denmark at the time being. However, the need for biomass on the other side of year 2005 exceeds the existing biomass resources and a substantial amount of energy crops will be necessary in order to fulfil the goals in Energy 21. The targeted share of the use of renewable energy sources by year 2030 is approximately 30%. Energy crops are seen as the most important new resource in order to create a balanced input mix of renewable in the energy system. The energy crops are mainly seen as fuel in small and medium sized CHP plants and in the big power plants. The Danish energy crop project consists of three main parts: a demonstration part, a research and development part, and an overall assessment part. Based on the results from the project the following overall conclusions can be made: Seen from a strictly market and production economic point of view energy crops will not be competitive in a foreseeable future, neither as a production for farmers nor as a fuel at the utility companies; The costs per GJ of energy crops are still higher than a GJ of straw; The cost difference between annual and perennial energy crops are slightly in favour of perennials, however the conditions on the individual farms should govern the choice between annual and perennial energy crops; Energy crops must be seen as part of an overall environmental scheme covering both agriculture and the energy sector; Given the right production scheme energy crops can be grown on environmental sensitive areas and on most ground water protection areas; Adding the potential sustainability benefits like reduced nutrient leakage and reduced CO 2 emissions energy crops seem to be a sensible and sustainable solution; Due to different handling, storage and fuel characteristics an all year delivery scheme of energy crops should include a mix of different energy crops to keep overall cost down. (BA)
Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo
Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....
Lai, Signe Sophus
The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...
Costa, Fabricio F
The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Greene, Casey S; Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Moore, Jason H; Cheng, Chao
Recent technological advances allow for high throughput profiling of biological systems in a cost-efficient manner. The low cost of data generation is leading us to the "big data" era. The availability of big data provides unprecedented opportunities but also raises new challenges for data mining and analysis. In this review, we introduce key concepts in the analysis of big data, including both "machine learning" algorithms as well as "unsupervised" and "supervised" examples of each. We note packages for the R programming language that are available to perform machine learning analyses. In addition to programming based solutions, we review webservers that allow users with limited or no programming background to perform these analyses on large data compendia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lahariya, Chandrakant; Mishra, Ashok; Nandan, Deoki; Gautam, Praveen; Gupta, Sanjay
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) schemes have shown largely favorable changes in the health seeking behavior. This evaluation study assesses the process and performance of an Additional Cash Incentive (ACI) scheme within an ongoing CCT scheme in India, and document lessons. A controlled before and during design study was conducted in Madhya Pradesh state of India, from August 2007 to March 2008, with increased in institutional deliveries as a primary outcome. In depth interviews, focus group discussions and household surveys were done for data collection. Lack of awareness about ACI scheme amongst general population and beneficiaries, cumbersome cash disbursement procedure, intricate eligibility criteria, extensive paper work, and insufficient focus on community involvement were the major implementation challenges. There were anecdotal reports of political interference and possible scope for corruption. At the end of implementation period, overall rate of institutional deliveries had increased in both target and control populations; however, the differences were not statistically significant. No cause and effect association could be proven by this study. Poor planning and coordination, and lack of public awareness about the scheme resulted in low utilization. Thus, proper IEC and training, detailed implementation plan, orientation training for implementer, sufficient budgetary allocation, and community participation should be an integral part for successful implementation of any such scheme. The lesson learned this evaluation study may be useful in any developing country setting and may be utilized for planning and implementation of any ACI scheme in future.
Full Text Available Abstract – Accounting reform movement was born with the aim of structuring the direction of improvement . This movement is characterized by the enactment of the Act of 2003 and Act 1 of 2004, which became the basis of the birth of Government Regulation No.24 of 2005 on Government Accounting Standards ( SAP . The general, accounting is based on two systems, the cash basis and the accrual basis. The facts speak far students still at problem with differences to the two methods that result in a lack of understanding on the treatment system for recording. The purpose method of research is particularly relevant to student references who are learning basic accounting so that it can provide information and more meaningful understanding of the accounting method cash basis and Accrual basis. This research was conducted through a normative approach, by tracing the document that references a study/library that combines source of reference that can be believed either from books and the internet are processed with a foundation of knowledge and experience of the author. The conclusion can be drawn that basically to be able to understand the difference of the system and the Cash Basis accrual student base treatment requires an understanding of both methods. To be able to have the ability and understanding of both systems required reading exercises and reference sources. Keywords : Reform, cash basis, accrual basis Abstrak - Gerakan reformasi akuntansi dilahirkan dengan tujuan penataan ke arah perbaikan. Gerakan ini ditandai dengan dikeluarkannya Undang-Undang tahun 2003 dan Undang-Undang No.1 Tahun 2004 yang menjadi dasar lahirnya Peraturan Pemerintah No.24 Tahun 2005 tentang Standar Akuntansi Pemerintah (SAP . Pada umumnya pencatatan akuntansi di dasarkan pada dua sistem yaitu basis kas (Cash Basis dan basis akrual (Accrual Basis. Fakta berbicara Selama ini mahasiswa masih dibinggungkan dengan perbedaan ke dua metode itu sehingga
Muhammad Rizky Prima Sakti
Full Text Available Cash waqf is becoming one of the popular Islamic financial instruments which not only focus on the religiosity but also has significant impact to the ummah development. This waqf scheme does not require richness in wealth, yet everybody in the society can contribute to cash waqf. The importance of cash waqf is getting popular as it has benefited in many ways, for example it can be used to develop assets and abandoned land for business and agricultural purposes. In addition, cash waqf also can be utilized to help institutions who are facing financial problem or liquidity issues. Nonetheless, rarely we found in the literature that empirically examines the cash waqf determinants and contributions. This paper is one of the few empirical studies that investigate the determinants towards the contribution of cash waqf in Malaysia. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the main factors that influence people towards the contribution of cash waqf instruments, special reference to the Klang Valley and Selangor. This paper employs structural equation modeling (SEM to verify the determinants of cash waqf contribution. In doing so, we use primary data by distributing self-administrated questionnaire constituting a sample of 114 respondents from Klang Valley and Selangor. Our empirical results reveal that the main factors that driven people towards the contribution of cash waqf products are attitude and social influences, however interestingly religion obligation is not influence the contribution of cash waqf.
Full Text Available The present study is investigating the quality of annual accounting earnings in banking firms that have been listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE and it evaluates the most important information of accounting that is earnings and cash flows. The study also intends to investigate the relationship between earnings and cash flows regarding their relationship with the expected return of stocks and the extent of informing in the analysis of the inevitable return of stocks. The analyses of data during 6 years revealed that the earnings in comparison to the cash flows are very important as they have positive effects on the stock. Moreover, in the case of the relations of earnings and earnings changes with the expected return of stocks and the relation of cash flows and cash flow changes with the expected return of stock, it was found that there is only a meaningful relationship between earning changes and the expected return of stock in banking groups. However, there is no meaningful relationship between earning and cash flows with the expected return of stock. The result was that the informational content test didn’t support the value relation of earning and cash flows. Furthermore, the classifying of information through banking group indicated that the changes of earning was in the first rank and next were earning, the changes of cash flow and cash flows.Keywords: Earnings; Cash flows; expected return; Value relevance; Banking risks
Full Text Available One of the main financial statements is the Cash Flow. It became mandatory from the law # 11,638/2007 on, which changed the law # 6,404/1976 – the Corporations’ law, and the Cash Flow statement allows analysis about the companies’ operations activities effects, investing and financing, highlighting their main sources of financial allocation. In 2005 and 2006, 37 companies registered takeover bids in the Brazilian Securities Exchange Commission (CVM – Comissão de Valores Mobiliários. Based on these companies’ analysis of Projected Cash Flows (FCP – Fluxos de Caixa Projetados when the takeover bids were put in place and their Actual Cash Flows (FCR – Fluxo de Caixa Realizados the objective of this work was to compare those cash flows, to analyze the differences between the Statements of Cash Flows attached to the Appraisal Reports and the actual ones, as well as to check if these companies’ cash were in line with the balances projected in the takeover bids. The obtained results via statistical analysis of differences between the Projected Cash Flows attached to the Appraisal Reports and the effective Actual Cash Flows, all of them compared in the period between 2007 and 2013, did not show significant differences among them. IE: it was observed that, nevertheless the companies did not accomplish the promised Cash Flows delivery when the OPAs were put in place, the differences between the balances projected and the actual ones were not statistically significant.
Even though standard setters have now embraced cash flow statements there remains ambivalence as to the best format (i.e. direct or indirect method) for disclosing cash flow from operations. In 1987 the FASB asserted that information about the gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments is more relevant than information about the net amounts of cash receipts and payments. Yet apart from Australia and New Zealand, most standard setting bodies, including the International Accounting Standa...
Artiklen har flere formål. Dels at præsentere FASBs første forslag til den regnskabsmæssige behandling af samtlige derivater. Dels at analysere og sammenligne de enkelte big six revisions-firmaers holdning til forslagets vigtigste emner samt at sammenligne dette med kommentarerne fra en repræsent......Artiklen har flere formål. Dels at præsentere FASBs første forslag til den regnskabsmæssige behandling af samtlige derivater. Dels at analysere og sammenligne de enkelte big six revisions-firmaers holdning til forslagets vigtigste emner samt at sammenligne dette med kommentarerne fra en...... repræsentant for brugerne. Artiklen viser, at revisionsfirmaerne generelt er meget enige i deres bedømmelse af reglerne. De fleste er ikke modstandere af at værdiansætte derivater til fair value. Kritikken går på behandlingen af gevinsterne og tabene, hvor de er bange for den volatilitet, der kan komme i...... virksomhedernes resultater. Især for gevinster og tab på derivater, der sikrer fremtidige cash-flows. Artiklen forklarer nærmere, hvad modstanden består i, hvilket giver en dybere forståelse for, hvordan reglerne virker. Artiklen viser, at brugerne ikke er nær så kritiske som the big six....
Horstmann, Cay S
Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.
John Van Reenen
In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.
The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with
Big Data in History introduces the project to create a world-historical archive, tracing the last four centuries of historical dynamics and change. Chapters address the archive's overall plan, how to interpret the past through a global archive, the missions of gathering records, linking local data into global patterns, and exploring the results.
Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna
The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…
New ways of thinking about leadership require that leaders move their big desks and establish environments that encourage trust and open communication. Educational leaders must trust their colleagues to make wise choices. When teachers are treated democratically as leaders, classrooms will also become democratic learning organizations. (SM)
The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…
Yurov, Artyom V.; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.
This paper contains a detailed discussion on new cosmic solutions describing the early and late evolution of a universe that is filled with a kind of dark energy that may or may not satisfy the energy conditions. The main distinctive property of the resulting space-times is that they make to appear twice the single singular events predicted by the corresponding quintessential (phantom) models in a manner which can be made symmetric with respect to the origin of cosmic time. Thus, big bang and big rip singularity are shown to take place twice, one on the positive branch of time and the other on the negative one. We have also considered dark energy and phantom energy accretion onto black holes and wormholes in the context of these new cosmic solutions. It is seen that the space-times of these holes would then undergo swelling processes leading to big trip and big hole events taking place on distinct epochs along the evolution of the universe. In this way, the possibility is considered that the past and future be connected in a non-paradoxical manner in the universes described by means of the new symmetric solutions
How did the Universe begin? The favoured theory is that everything - space, time, matter - came into existence at the same moment, around 13.7 thousand million years ago. This event was scornfully referred to as the "Big Bang" by Sir Fred Hoyle, who did not believe in it and maintained that the Universe had always existed.
The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse ...
Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui
Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...
Olesen, Jørgen E
This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....
Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.
The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…
Data cleansing approaches have usually focused on detecting and fixing errors with little attention to big data scaling. This presents a serious impediment since identify- ing and repairing dirty data often involves processing huge input datasets, handling sophisticated error discovery approaches and managing huge arbitrary errors. With large datasets, error detection becomes overly expensive and complicated especially when considering user-defined functions. Furthermore, a distinctive algorithm is de- sired to optimize inequality joins in sophisticated error discovery rather than na ̈ıvely parallelizing them. Also, when repairing large errors, their skewed distribution may obstruct effective error repairs. In this dissertation, I present solutions to overcome the above three problems in scaling data cleansing. First, I present BigDansing as a general system to tackle efficiency, scalability, and ease-of-use issues in data cleansing for Big Data. It automatically parallelizes the user’s code on top of general-purpose distributed platforms. Its programming inter- face allows users to express data quality rules independently from the requirements of parallel and distributed environments. Without sacrificing their quality, BigDans- ing also enables parallel execution of serial repair algorithms by exploiting the graph representation of discovered errors. The experimental results show that BigDansing outperforms existing baselines up to more than two orders of magnitude. Although BigDansing scales cleansing jobs, it still lacks the ability to handle sophisticated error discovery requiring inequality joins. Therefore, I developed IEJoin as an algorithm for fast inequality joins. It is based on sorted arrays and space efficient bit-arrays to reduce the problem’s search space. By comparing IEJoin against well- known optimizations, I show that it is more scalable, and several orders of magnitude faster. BigDansing depends on vertex-centric graph systems, i.e., Pregel
Rivers, Ariel N; Mullen, Christina A; Barbercheck, Mary E
Agricultural practices affect arthropod communities and, therefore, have the potential to influence the activities of arthropods. We evaluated the effect of cover crop species and termination timing on the activity of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in transition to organic production in Pennsylvania, United States. We compared two cover crop treatments: 1) hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) planted together with triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) after wheat harvest, and 2) cereal rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus) planted after corn harvest. We terminated the cover crops in the spring with a roller-crimper on three dates (early, middle, and late) based on cover crop phenology and standard practices for cash crop planting in our area. We characterized the ground-dwelling arthropod community using pitfall traps and assessed relative predation using sentinel assays with live greater waxworm larvae (Galleria mellonella Fabricius). The activity density of predatory arthropods was significantly higher in the hairy vetch and triticale treatments than in cereal rye treatments. Hairy vetch and triticale favored the predator groups Araneae, Opiliones, Staphylinidae, and Carabidae. Specific taxa were associated with cover crop condition (e.g., live or dead) and termination dates. Certain variables were positively or negatively associated with the relative predation on sentinel prey, depending on cover crop treatment and stage, including the presence of predatory arthropods and various habitat measurements. Our results suggest that management of a cover crop by roller-crimper at specific times in the growing season affects predator activity density and community composition. Terminating cover crops with a roller-crimper can conserve generalist predators.
Full Text Available Bankruptcy has been one of the most important issues among investors in stock market and there are literally different techniques for predicting bankruptcy. In this paper, we study on effects of cash flow patterns and auditors’ opinions in predicting financial distress on some 80 selected firms traded on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2005-2011. In this study, the combination of cash flow patterns represent firm’s resource allocations and operational capabilities interacted with their strategy choices. In additions, predictions about each individual cash flow components, operational, investment, financial, are derived from economic theory, which forms a basis for the life proxy. We use cash flow patterns in the decline stage and compare the results with auditors’ opinions. The results indicate that cash flow patterns could predict financial distress companies in Iran. In addition, the effective cash flow patterns in predicting financial distress is more than auditors’ feedbacks.
"Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own…
Gehan A. Mousa
This research examines the association between accounting conservatism and cash dividends of listed firms in the Kingdom of Bahrain. It has addressed two questions. First, does accounting conservatism actually work? Second, can accounting conservatism influence cash dividends of firms in the Kingdom of Bahrain? The findings of this study support the hypothesis that accounting conservatism plays an important role in reducing cash dividends and managing agency conflicts. It documents a signific...
C. Fritz Foley; Jay C. Hartzell; Sheridan Titman; Garry Twite
U.S. corporations hold significant amounts of cash on their balance sheets, and these cash holdings have been justified in the existing empirical literature by transaction costs and precautionary motives. An additional explanation, considered in this study, is that U.S. multinational firms hold cash in their foreign subsidiaries because of the tax costs associated with repatriating foreign income. Consistent with this hypothesis, firms that face higher repatriation tax burdens hold higher lev...
The author analyzes the impact of direct taxes and cash social transfers on income distribution in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia in the years before the collapse of communism. He contrasts the results for socialist and market economies. Cash social transfers accounted for about a fifth of gross income, a proportion comparable with that in developed welfare economies. Generally, cash transfers were unrelated to income in socialist countries, in marked contrast with m...
The article treats a new methodological approach to the company cash flows target-oriented forecasting based on its financial position analysis. The approach is featured to be universal and presumes application of the following techniques developed by the author: financial ratio values correction techniques and correcting cash flows techniques. The financial ratio values correction technique assumes to analyze and forecast company financial position while the correcting cash flows technique i...
Full Text Available Purpose: With the introduction of the cash flow statement it became an integral part of financial reporting. A need arose to develop ratios for the effective evaluation of cash flow information. This article investigates cash flow ratios suggested by various researchers and suggests a list of ratios with the potential to predict financial failure. Design: The cash flow ratios suggested by researchers, from as early as 1966, are investigated and eight cash flow ratios selected for inclusion in an analysis to predict financial failure. Ten failed entities are selected for a cash flow evaluation by means of the selected ratios for five years prior to failure. For a comparison, non-failed entities in similar sectors are selected and also evaluated by means of the cash flow ratios. The mean values of each ratio, for each year prior to failure, were then calculated and the means of the failed entities were compared to the non-failed entities. Findings: The comparison revealed that cash flow ratios have predictive value with the cash flow to total debt identified as the best indicator of failure. It was also determined that, although failed entities have lower cash flows than non-failed entities, they also had smaller reserves of liquid assets. Furthermore, they have less capacity to meet debt obligations and they tend to incur more debt. The ratios of the failed entities were unstable and fluctuated from one year to the next. Finally, bankruptcy could be predicted three years prior to financial failure. Implications: Income statement and balance sheet ratios are not enough to measure liquidity. An entity can have positive liquidity ratios and increasing profits, yet have serious cash flow problems. Ratios developed from the cash flow statement should supplement traditional accrual-based ratios to provide additional information on the financial strengths and weaknesses of an entity .
3-D seismic acquisition surveys in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, are carried out under extremely arduous field conditions due to difficult terrain, dense vegetation, semi-manual mode of operation, wildlife and volatile communities. The vegetation is a combination of evergreen tropical rain forest in the land areas and mangrove in the swamp areas. Some parts of the delta are prone to high seasonal flooding. Seismic lines are laid out by manual cutting of brush using machetes and shot holes drilled semi-manually with pumps. In order to effectively carry out the operations with due regard to the people and environment, a Community Affairs, Safety, Health, Environment and Security (CASHES) Polio and management System which ensures that a hazards are identified, assessed. controlled, with an effective loop feedback mechanism was introduced and implemented. CASHES critical activities are community relations, field security, explosives handling, water transport/journey management, river crossings. weather, shallow gas blow-out, waste management, seasonal flooding and floating-seaweed (water hyacinth)/timber logs. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies arc essential at the initial planning stages. About 41 Hazard Registers and 177 Activity Specification Sheets are developed in a typical survey. About 85% of the labor workforce are recruited from the host communities to promote cordial relations. Extensive training is carried out to raise the standards of the new recruits. The implementation of the management system is cascaded down using simplified documentation (procedures, work tasks, checklists etc.) adapted to local conditions. Integrated CASHES audits (Premob, Minor, Major. Follow up) arc conducted to check the efficiency of the system with documents getting reviewed regularly to keep the system alive and capable of handling changes. With these in place, high potential incidents are reduced/eliminated.
Full Text Available Cash transfer (CTs is an increasingly popular social protection mechanism used by many developing countries to improve the food security and nutritional status of lower socio-economic groups. This paper is a review of the literature regarding the impact of CT programs on the food security of recipient households in the developing countries, including Iran. We looked for all original studies, performed in the developing countries and published in any language, containing at least one outcome related to food and nutritional security of the beneficiary population using Pub Med, Iran Medex, SID (Scientific Information Database, ISI (Information Sciences Institute database, INP (Iran’s Nutrition Publication Abstracts, IRANDOC and Magiran. Searches used the following terms or keywords: “household food security”, “household food insecurity” and “cash transfer” on any publication published within 1990-2015. A total of 12 studies evaluating the influence of CT programs on the recipients’ food and nutrition security were identified. CT programs have the potential to deliver a range of benefits not only through reducing extreme poverty but also by providing effective support for broader human development objectives, including better nutrition, as well as health and education outputs and outcomes. The extent to which programs can have these different impacts will depend critically on the availability of complementary services, the local context, and the specifics of program design, including the transfer value. However, findings in Iran suggest that the replacement of staple food subsidies by CT has led to a significant increase in household food insecurity (especially marginal or mild food insecurity. Keywords: Household food security, Cash transfer, Developing countries
The design and implementation of any portfolio management programme must, by definition, be tailored to the drivers and particular objectives of the company owning the assets. This paper will concentrate on one of the most important driving forces, namely managing cash-flow. Five key steps are required to achieve an effective portfolio management programme: 1. establish targets/goals; 2. describe and value the assets in your company's portfolio; 3. identify and catalogue potential 'customers'; 4. construct appropriate deal structures and other strategies to achieve your targets; 5. work hard and do deals. (author)
The principal proposition this paper will endeavour to maintain is that the liquidity of the budget is not fully managed by the Ministry of Finance, which is why it is unable, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, to rein in and slow down the growth in short-term public debt. Only since 2001, thanks to institutional improvements, have the conditions been created in the Ministry of Finance for cash and liquidity management. Thus payments operations, previously in the hands of a gov...
Fernando Gómez Villarraga
Full Text Available The mathematic scheme, known as economic equation of continuity, is established for the balance of economic resources. In order to apply this equation it is necessary to determine an economic volume of control. The patrimonial equation is also proposed as a speed equationfor this volurne. The integral equation of economic continuity is applied to the «cash» system along with the integral patrimonial equation and so it gets expressions that correspond to model to elaborate cashflow statement with the particularities of the direct and indirect method. This model generales a useful definition for the calculation of this basic financial statement classified by operating, investing and financing activities.
Weber, J Michael
The following study is an exploratory investigation into the opportunity identification, opportunity analysis, and strategic implications of implementing a cash-only family physician practice. The current market dynamics (i.e., increasing insurance premiums, decreasing benefits, more regulations and paperwork, and cuts in federal and state programs) suggest that there is sufficient motivation for these practitioners to change their current business model. In-depth interviews were conducted with office managers and physicians of family physician practices. The results highlighted a variety of issues, including barriers to change, strategy issues, and opportunities/benefits. The implications include theory applications, strategic marketing applications, and managerial decision-making.
The general objective of the present study is to investigate and assess the incremental information content of cash flow disclosures as required by the AASB 1026 ¡°Statement of Cash Flows¡±. This test addresses the issue of whether a change in cash flow components has the same relationship with security prices as that in earnings. Several previous studies indicate both income and cash flow statements may be mutually exclusive or mutually inclusive statements. The data to test three hypotheses...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the global financial crisis and firm characteristics on corporate cash holdings in Indonesia. A total of 101 manufacturing firms listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2014 are examined. This study employs panel regression with fixed effect model. The results show that Indonesia firms hold more cash during the global financial crisis than in the normal times. Investment opportunities set and divident payment have positive effect on cash holding, meanwhile firm size, capital expenditure, liquid assets substitutes, and leverage have negative effect on cash holding.
Full Text Available This paper examines empirically the effect of firm growth opportunities and earnings quality on the market valuation of free cash flow, defined as the difference between operating cash flows and capital expenditures. Equity valuation theory prescribes that free cash flow should not be associated with stock returns because itdoes not add value. However, free cash flow could become a value-relevant construct in certain contexts. This study considers growth opportunities and transitory earnings as two such contexts and examines the valuation of free cash flow. An accounting-based valuation framework is developed where stock returns are regressed onfree cash flow interacted with growth and earnings quality proxies, after controlling for book values, dividends, and current earnings realisations. Findings reveal that firms with a positive free cash flow and attractive growth opportunities command a valuation premium. Furthermore, free cash flow is found to be positively associatedwith stock returns when earnings are transitory. The results are robust to alternative definitions of both free cash flow and growth opportunities.
Full Text Available Cash management can be defined as the optimization of cash flows and investment of excess cash in a corporation. But from an international perspective, cash management becomes very complex because of different laws among countries that pertain to cross-border cash transfers. Besides, the value of cross-border cash transfers is affected by the exchange rate fluctuations. This article is concerned with the optimization of cash flows in a multinational corporation and examines centralized cash management approach and pooling technique in order to optimize the parent-subsidiary and inter-subsidiary cash flows.
P.S.G. Aruna Sri
Full Text Available Big data is the term for any gathering of information sets, so expensive and complex, that it gets to be hard to process for utilizing customary information handling applications. The difficulties incorporate investigation, catch, duration, inquiry, sharing, stockpiling, Exchange, perception, and protection infringement. To reduce spot business patterns, anticipate diseases, conflict etc., we require bigger data sets when compared with the smaller data sets. Enormous information is hard to work with utilizing most social database administration frameworks and desktop measurements and perception bundles, needing rather enormously parallel programming running on tens, hundreds, or even a large number of servers. In this paper there was an observation on Hadoop architecture, different tools used for big data and its security issues.
Page, Lyman A; Partridge, R Bruce
Cosmology, the study of the universe as a whole, has become a precise physical science, the foundation of which is our understanding of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) left from the big bang. The story of the discovery and exploration of the CMBR in the 1960s is recalled for the first time in this collection of 44 essays by eminent scientists who pioneered the work. Two introductory chapters put the essays in context, explaining the general ideas behind the expanding universe and fossil remnants from the early stages of the expanding universe. The last chapter describes how the confusion of ideas and measurements in the 1960s grew into the present tight network of tests that demonstrate the accuracy of the big bang theory. This book is valuable to anyone interested in how science is done, and what it has taught us about the large-scale nature of the physical universe.
Flyverbom, Mikkel; Klinkby Madsen, Anders; Rasche, Andreas
data is constituted as an aspiration to improve the data and knowledge underpinning development efforts. Based on this framework, we argue that big data’s impact on how relevant problems are governed is enabled by (1) new techniques of visualizing development issues, (2) linking aspects......This paper conceptualizes how large-scale data and algorithms condition and reshape knowledge production when addressing international development challenges. The concept of governmentality and four dimensions of an analytics of government are proposed as a theoretical framework to examine how big...... of international development agendas to algorithms that synthesize large-scale data, (3) novel ways of rationalizing knowledge claims that underlie development efforts, and (4) shifts in professional and organizational identities of those concerned with producing and processing data for development. Our discussion...
Marshall, W.; Billingon, D.E.; Cameron, R.F.; Curl, S.J.
Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but just imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the risks of nuclear power. The paper reviews the way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past and makes recommendations for the future, including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'loss of life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and 'equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking'. The paper presents mathematical arguments, which show the derivation and validity of the proposed methods of presenting the consequences of imaginable big nuclear accidents. (author)
Brizuela, David; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A; Pawlowski, Tomasz
The dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe is studied with the methods of loop quantum cosmology, via a so-called hybrid quantization, as an example of the quantization of vacuum cosmological spacetimes containing gravitational waves (Gowdy spacetimes). The analysis of this model with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, performed at the effective level, shows that (i) the initial Big Bang singularity is replaced (as in the case of homogeneous cosmological models) by a Big Bounce, joining deterministically two large universes, (ii) the universe size at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude as that of the background homogeneous universe and (iii) for each gravitational wave mode, the difference in amplitude at very early and very late times has a vanishing statistical average when the bounce dynamics is strongly dominated by the inhomogeneities, whereas this average is positive when the dynamics is in a near-vacuum regime, so that statistically the inhomogeneities are amplified. (fast track communication)
Full Text Available DNA sequencers, Twitter, MRIs, Facebook, particle accelerators, Google Books, radio telescopes, Tumblr: what do these things have in common? According to the evangelists of “data science,” all of these are instruments for observing reality at unprecedentedly large scales and fine granularities. This perspective ignores the social reality of these very different technological systems, ignoring how they are made, how they work, and what they mean in favor of an exclusive focus on what they generate: Big Data. But no data, big or small, can be interpreted without an understanding of the process that generated them. Statistical data science is applicable to systems that have been designed as scientific instruments, but is likely to lead to confusion when applied to systems that have not. In those cases, a historical inquiry is preferable.
Schwartz, Richard Evan
In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...
Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…
Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 5 RG behandelt die Grundlagen (Maßsystem, Größenordnungen) und die Mechanik (Translation, Rotation, Kraft, Erhaltungssätze).
Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Band 8 vermittelt auf verständliche Weise Relativitätstheorie, Kern- und Teilchenphysik (und deren Anwendungen in der Kosmologie und Astrophysik), Nanotechnologie sowie Bionik.
Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. Der Band 6 RG behandelt die Gravitation, Schwingungen und Wellen, Thermodynamik und eine Einführung in die Elektrizität anhand von Alltagsbeispielen und Querverbindungen zu anderen Disziplinen.
Physik soll verständlich sein und Spaß machen! Deshalb beginnt jedes Kapitel in Big Bang mit einem motivierenden Überblick und Fragestellungen und geht dann von den Grundlagen zu den Anwendungen, vom Einfachen zum Komplizierten. Dabei bleibt die Sprache einfach, alltagsorientiert und belletristisch. In Band 7 werden neben einer Einführung auch viele aktuelle Aspekte von Quantenmechanik (z. Beamen) und Elektrodynamik (zB Elektrosmog), sowie die Klimaproblematik und die Chaostheorie behandelt.
Krnjaic, Gordan; Sigurdson, Kris
In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis , a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD , which generica...
Lehmann, C U; Séroussi, B; Jaulent, M-C
To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. 'Big Data' has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that 'Big Data' will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics - some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of 'Big Data' today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016.
Moriyama, Fumio; Miyazawa, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Yoshisuke
The features of three big solar flares observed at Tokyo Observatory are described in this paper. The active region, McMath 14943, caused a big flare on September 16, 1977. The flare appeared on both sides of a long dark line which runs along the boundary of the magnetic field. Two-ribbon structure was seen. The electron density of the flare observed at Norikura Corona Observatory was 3 x 10 12 /cc. Several arc lines which connect both bright regions of different magnetic polarity were seen in H-α monochrome image. The active region, McMath 15056, caused a big flare on December 10, 1977. At the beginning, several bright spots were observed in the region between two main solar spots. Then, the area and the brightness increased, and the bright spots became two ribbon-shaped bands. A solar flare was observed on April 8, 1978. At first, several bright spots were seen around the solar spot in the active region, McMath 15221. Then, these bright spots developed to a large bright region. On both sides of a dark line along the magnetic neutral line, bright regions were generated. These developed to a two-ribbon flare. The time required for growth was more than one hour. A bright arc which connects two ribbons was seen, and this arc may be a loop prominence system. (Kato, T.)
Bellazzi, Riccardo; Dagliati, Arianna; Sacchi, Lucia; Segagni, Daniele
The so-called big data revolution provides substantial opportunities to diabetes management. At least 3 important directions are currently of great interest. First, the integration of different sources of information, from primary and secondary care to administrative information, may allow depicting a novel view of patient’s care processes and of single patient’s behaviors, taking into account the multifaceted nature of chronic care. Second, the availability of novel diabetes technologies, able to gather large amounts of real-time data, requires the implementation of distributed platforms for data analysis and decision support. Finally, the inclusion of geographical and environmental information into such complex IT systems may further increase the capability of interpreting the data gathered and extract new knowledge from them. This article reviews the main concepts and definitions related to big data, it presents some efforts in health care, and discusses the potential role of big data in diabetes care. Finally, as an example, it describes the research efforts carried on in the MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission. PMID:25910540
Guyer, Jane I
Current variation in the forms of money challenges economic anthropologists and historians to review theory and comparative findings on multiple currency systems. There are four main sections to the paper devoted to (i) the present continuum of hard to soft currencies as an instance of multiplicity, including discussion of different combinations of the classic four functions of money, especially the relationship between store of value and medium of exchange; (ii) the logic of anthropological inquiry into multiple currency economies; (iii) the case of the monies of Atlantic Africa, applying the analytics of exchange rates as conversions to African transactions; and (iv) the return to economic life in a present day Nigerian economy lived in soft currency and cash. The paper identifies five findings that suggest foci for future research. (i) The widespread occurrence of conversions, which bring together ranking principles within transactions. (ii) Several types of positional ranking ranging from simple stepwise ordinal scales to iconic ordinality that creates a parabolic curve of value. (iii) Fictional units of account that serve to mediate both the memorization of nonreductive transactions and their nature as conversions. (iv) The importance of the temporal reach of what constitutes wealth: over the short run, the life span, intergenerational succession, and in (legal) perpetuity (as for corporate and sovereign debts and specified assets). (v) The social niches in which these qualities are brought together in transactional regimes. In conclusion, the paper returns to the exchange function of cash, soft currencies, and new money forms.
Nery, J S; Rodrigues, L C; Rasella, D; Aquino, R; Barreira, D; Torrens, A W; Boccia, D; Penna, G O; Penna, M L F; Barreto, M L; Pereira, S M
To evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer programme (Bolsa Família Programme, BFP) on tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Brazil from 2004 to 2012. We studied tuberculosis surveillance data using a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design covering 2458 Brazilian municipalities. The main independent variable was BFP coverage and the outcome was the TB incidence rate. All study variables were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for selected covariates and a variable representing time. After controlling for covariates, TB incidence rates were significantly reduced in municipalities with high BFP coverage compared with those with low and intermediate coverage (in a model with a time variable incidence rate ratio = 0.96, 95%CI 0.93-0.99). This was the first evidence of a statistically significant association between the increase in cash transfer programme coverage and a reduction in TB incidence rate. Our findings provide support for social protection interventions for tackling TB worldwide.
Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja
Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C; Rodríguez-Gómez, D; Ward, J
Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...
Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD
Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...
Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan
We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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The decomposition of consumption beta into a component driven by assets' cash-flow news and one related to assets' discount-rate news reveals that macroeconomic risks embodied in cash flows largely account for the cross-sectional dynamics of average stock returns. Empirically, we find that
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Vietnam has made progress to improve oversight and control over cash balances for the state budget. The current arrangement however falls short of a treasury single account (TSA), which has led to inefficiencies in the management of cash balances and higher than necessary borrowing costs. In response to this, the Government of Vietnam has embarked on reforms to adopt a TSA and strengthen o...
... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the... (Application for Cash Surrender or Policy Loan) Activities: Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0012.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Application for Cash Surrender...
... abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission... (Application for Cash Surrender or Policy Loan) Activities: Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits...: Titles: a. Application for Cash Surrender, Government Life Insurance, VA Form 29-1546. b. Application for...
... obtain approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for each collection of information they... (Application for Cash Surrender or Policy Loan) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... to determine a claimant's eligibility for a loan or cash surrender value on his or her Government...
George, R.; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Qian, J.
A controversy exists on the use of the investment–cash flow sensitivity as a measure of financing constraints of firms.Were-examine this controversy by analyzing firms affiliated to Indian business groups. We find a strong investment–cash flow sensitivity for both group-affiliated and independent
... rehabilitation grant amounts: Cash and Management Information System. 511.75 Section 511.75 Housing and Urban... rehabilitation grant amounts: Cash and Management Information System. (a) General. Rental Rehabilitation grants.... Any drawdown is conditioned upon the submission of satisfactory information by the grantee or State...
Wang, Ting J.
This paper describes the fundamental concept of the reconciliation behind the indirect method of the statement of cash flows. A conceptual framework is presented to demonstrate how accrual and cash-basis accounting methods relate to each other and to illustrate the concept of reconciling these two accounting methods. The conceptual framework…
Riccio, James A.
The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) are long-standing policies that link cash assistance to low-income families to work effort. A new policy being tested in New York City adopts this "conditional cash transfer" principle and extends it to a broader set of family efforts to build their…
Igwe Ikenna UKOHA
Full Text Available The preference for cash-less transaction by Nigerians cannot be exaggerated, but despite its patronage, there exist limited access and utilization of the cash-less technologies among farmers in South-East Nigeria. The study analysed the determinants of rural farmers’ preference for cash-less transactions in Imo state, South-East Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in selection of 100 farmers for the study. The determinant of rural farmers’ preference for cash-less transactions in Imo State, was achieved using logit model. The result of the analysis showed that age (5%, gender (10% education levels of the farmers (1%, user friendliness of technologies (5%, transaction charge (5% and security of transactions (5% were found to be the major determinants of farmers preference for cash-less transactions based on their levels of significance. Centred on the findings, the study recommended the strengthening of the use of cash-less transaction by farmers by providing a favourable financial environment through better orientation programs, so as to enable a smooth transition from a cash-based economy to cash-less economy.
Big data and data analytics offer the promise to enhance teaching and learning, improve educational research and progress education governance. This chapter aims to contribute to the conceptual and methodological understanding of big data and analytics within educational research. It describes the opportunities and challenges that big data and analytics bring to education as well as critically explore the perils of applying a data driven approach to education. Despite the claimed value of the...
The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature
Jain, S.; Bruniaux, J.; Zeng, X.; Bruniaux, P.
Significant work has been done in the field of big data in last decade. The concept of big data includes analysing voluminous data to extract valuable information. In the fashion world, big data is increasingly playing a part in trend forecasting, analysing consumer behaviour, preference and emotions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the term fashion data and why it can be considered as big data. It also gives a broad classification of the types of fashion data and briefly defines them. Also, the methodology and working of a system that will use this data is briefly described.
Full Text Available Big data is a data beyond the storage capacity and beyond the processing power is called big data. Big data term is used for data sets its so large or complex that traditional data it involves data sets with sizes. Big data size is a constantly moving target year by year ranging from a few dozen terabytes to many petabytes of data means like social networking sites the amount of data produced by people is growing rapidly every year. Big data is not only a data rather it become a complete subject which includes various tools techniques and framework. It defines the epidemic possibility and evolvement of data both structured and unstructured. Big data is a set of techniques and technologies that require new forms of assimilate to uncover large hidden values from large datasets that are diverse complex and of a massive scale. It is difficult to work with using most relational database management systems and desktop statistics and visualization packages exacting preferably massively parallel software running on tens hundreds or even thousands of servers. Big data environment is used to grab organize and resolve the various types of data. In this paper we describe applications problems and tools of big data and gives overview of big data.
In discussing the viability of the big-bang model of the Universe relative evidence is examined including the discrepancies in the age of the big-bang Universe, the red shifts of quasars, the microwave background radiation, general theory of relativity aspects such as the change of the gravitational constant with time, and quantum theory considerations. It is felt that the arguments considered show that the big-bang picture is not as soundly established, either theoretically or observationally, as it is usually claimed to be, that the cosmological problem is still wide open and alternatives to the standard big-bang picture should be seriously investigated. (U.K.)
Nenu Elena Alexandra
Full Text Available Worldwide corporate cash holdings have significantly increased and have become an important tool for managers. This study explores the factors that influence firms’ behavior regarding cash holdings and the signal that financial conservatism is sending to potential investors. Our data consists in annual observations collected through the Reuters Eikon platform. It includes companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, the investigated period being 2005-2014. The econometric analysis employs multivariate regression for an unbalanced panel data, using the OLS technique. The results show a positive correlation of cash holdings with the value registered by this indicator in the previous period, fact that might be interpreted as an attempting of the companies to maintain a target level of cash. Also, the results showed a non-linear relationship between leverage and cash holdings, while the tangible assets determine a negative correlation. As regards firm size and ownership concentration, the correlations were not statistically validated.
Full Text Available In economic practice the process of valuing enterprises is based on potential earnings from companies operating assets ñ operating fixed assets and operating working capital. Cash and other non-operating assets (mainly financial are treated as unproductive, non-income assets. Eventually, in process of pricing their current, accounting value is added to income value of enterprise or cash is treated as source for quick covering the debts of firm, what of course indirectly improve for better value of equity (the lower financial risk. Not taking into account the profitable influence of cash value and other non-operating assets can negatively affect on result of final value of enterprise, reducing it. In the article two alternative approaches (separate and inclusive of cash value is presented. Also main determinants of estimating value of cash are described as well as potential threats of its valuation.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study to determine the effect of operating cash flow to the abnormal return and the effect of operating cash flow to the abnormal return of companies that conduct the revaluation is higher than that of non revaluation which adopted SFAS No. 16 (2012. The analysis used in this study are multiple regression, for the period 2012-2015. The results showed that operating cash flow has no effect on non-sampled companies revaluation, while the sample of firms that perform revaluation proves that operating cash flow has a positive and significant impact on the abnormal return. Moreover, the effect of revaluation policy can strengthen the influence between operating cash flow to the firm abnormal return than non revaluation.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i1.4820
Marcelo Botelho da Costa Moraes
Full Text Available This work aims to apply genetic algorithms (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO to managing cash balance, comparing performance results between computational models and the Miller-Orr model. Thus, the paper proposes the application of computational evolutionary models to minimize the total cost of cash balance maintenance, obtaining the parameters for a cash management policy, using assumptions presented in the literature, considering the cost of maintenance and opportunity for cost of cash. For such, we developed computational experiments from cash flows simulated to implement the algorithms. For a control purpose, an algorithm has been developed that uses the Miller-Orr model defining the lower bound parameter, which is not obtained by the original model. The results indicate that evolutionary algorithms present better results than the Miller-Orr model, with prevalence for PSO algorithm in results.
McCue, M J; Thompson, J M; Dodd-McCue, D
Using a resource dependency framework and financial theory, this study assessed the market, mission, operational, and financial factors associated with the level of cash and security investments in hospitals. We ranked hospitals in the study sample based on their cash and security investments as a percentage of total assets: hospitals in the high cash/security investment category were in the top 25th percentile of all hospitals; those in the low cash/security investment group were in the bottom 25th percentile. Findings indicate that high cash/security investment hospitals are under either public or private nonprofit ownership and have greater market share. They also serve more complex cases, offer more technology services, generate greater profits, incur a more stable patient revenue base, and maintain less debt.
Thurber, Bonnie B.
How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.
Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri
Hyndman, Rob J.; Liu, Xueqin Amy; Pinson, Pierre
Visualization is a crucial component of data analysis. It is always a good idea to plot the data before fitting models, making predictions, or drawing conclusions. As sensors of the electric grid are collecting large volumes of data from various sources, power industry professionals are facing th...... the challenge of visualizing such data in a timely fashion. In this article, we demonstrate several data-visualization solutions for big energy data through three case studies involving smart-meter data, phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, and probabilistic forecasts, respectively....
Alexandru Adrian TOLE
Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.
Stoop, Ruedi; Kanders, Karlis; Lorimer, Tom; Held, Jenny; Albert, Carlo
We propose that a handle could be put on big data by looking at the systems that actually generate the data, rather than the data itself, realizing that there may be only few generic processes involved in this, each one imprinting its very specific structures in the space of systems, the traces of which translate into feature space. From this, we propose a practical computational clustering approach, optimized for coping with such data, inspired by how the human cortex is known to approach the problem.
Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik
The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matr...
Our objectives were to verify the accountability for cash and related assets and to evaluate the adequacy of procedures used to determine the accuracy of records used to support cash accountability...
Full Text Available The article explores the methodological approaches to the analysis of cash flows in investment activity of the enterprise; the system of motion net cash flows, reflecting the impact of cash management efficiency on the amount and source of investment cash flows of the enterprise; analytical model of definition of effectiveness of cash management of the enterprise is proposed, based on the selected principals of modeling, comprehensive analysis of cash flows in investing activities and their optimization for the purpose of maximization of social and economic benefit. The research performed here allowed generalization and definition of stages of analysis for investing cash flow of the enterprise with the appropriate reasoning. It is necessary that research is going concern in this direction of effectiveness valuation of cash flow management in investing activity of the enterprise.
Higgins, Stephen T
This essay discusses research on incentive-based interventions to promote healthy behavior change, contingency management (CM) and conditional cash transfers (CCT). The overarching point of the essay is that CM and CCT are often treated as distinct areas of inquiry when at their core they represent a common approach. Some potential bi-directional benefits of recognizing this commonality are discussed. Distinct intellectual traditions probably account for the separate paths of CM and CCT to date, with the former being rooted in behavioral psychology and the latter in microeconomics. It is concluded that the emerging field of behavioral economics, which is informed by and integrates principles of each of those disciplines, may provide the proper conceptual framework for integrating CM and CCT.
Niebel, Thomas; Rasel, Fabienne; Viete, Steffen
This paper analyzes the relationship between firms’ use of big data analytics and their innovative performance for product innovations. Since big data technologies provide new data information practices, they create new decision-making possibilities, which firms can use to realize innovations. Applying German firm-level data we find suggestive evidence that big data analytics matters for the likelihood of becoming a product innovator as well as the market success of the firms’ product innovat...
Niebel, Thomas; Rasel, Fabienne; Viete, Steffen
This paper analyzes the relationship between firms’ use of big data analytics and their innovative performance in terms of product innovations. Since big data technologies provide new data information practices, they create novel decision-making possibilities, which are widely believed to support firms’ innovation process. Applying German firm-level data within a knowledge production function framework we find suggestive evidence that big data analytics is a relevant determinant for the likel...
Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, John W.
Cropping is a cutting process whereby opposing aligned blades create a shearing failure by exerting opposing forces normal to the surfaces of a metal sheet or plate. Building on recent efforts to quantify cropping, this paper formulates a plane strain elastic-plastic model of a plate subject to s...
Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp
Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of gricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse...
Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp
Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of gricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse ...
Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Jensen, Peter Kryger
This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of agricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse and semi-field trials are also included. The report contains results...
Sewerin, Philipp; Ostendorf, Benedikt; Hueber, Axel J; Kleyer, Arnd
Until now, most major medical advancements have been achieved through hypothesis-driven research within the scope of clinical trials. However, due to a multitude of variables, only a certain number of research questions could be addressed during a single study, thus rendering these studies expensive and time consuming. Big data acquisition enables a new data-based approach in which large volumes of data can be used to investigate all variables, thus opening new horizons. Due to universal digitalization of the data as well as ever-improving hard- and software solutions, imaging would appear to be predestined for such analyses. Several small studies have already demonstrated that automated analysis algorithms and artificial intelligence can identify pathologies with high precision. Such automated systems would also seem well suited for rheumatology imaging, since a method for individualized risk stratification has long been sought for these patients. However, despite all the promising options, the heterogeneity of the data and highly complex regulations covering data protection in Germany would still render a big data solution for imaging difficult today. Overcoming these boundaries is challenging, but the enormous potential advances in clinical management and science render pursuit of this goal worthwhile.
Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.
We present an overview of the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), which describes the production of the light elements in the early universe. The theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 3 He, 4 He, and 7 Li is discussed. We emphasize the role of key nuclear reactions and the methods by which experimental cross section uncertainties are propagated into uncertainties in the predicted abundances. The observational determination of the light nuclides is also discussed. Particular attention is given to the comparison between the predicted and observed abundances, which yields a measurement of the cosmic baryon content. The spectrum of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) now independently measures the baryon density to high precision; we show how the CMB data test BBN, and find that the CMB and the D and 4 He observations paint a consistent picture. This concordance stands as a major success of the hot big bang. On the other hand, 7 Li remains discrepant with the CMB-preferred baryon density; possible explanations are reviewed. Finally, moving beyond the standard model, primordial nucleosynthesis constraints on early universe and particle physics are also briefly discussed
Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Bakken, Suzanne
Contemporary big data initiatives in health care will benefit from greater integration with nursing science and nursing practice; in turn, nursing science and nursing practice has much to gain from the data science initiatives. Big data arises secondary to scholarly inquiry (e.g., -omics) and everyday observations like cardiac flow sensors or Twitter feeds. Data science methods that are emerging ensure that these data be leveraged to improve patient care. Big data encompasses data that exceed human comprehension, that exist at a volume unmanageable by standard computer systems, that arrive at a velocity not under the control of the investigator and possess a level of imprecision not found in traditional inquiry. Data science methods are emerging to manage and gain insights from big data. The primary methods included investigation of emerging federal big data initiatives, and exploration of exemplars from nursing informatics research to benchmark where nursing is already poised to participate in the big data revolution. We provide observations and reflections on experiences in the emerging big data initiatives. Existing approaches to large data set analysis provide a necessary but not sufficient foundation for nursing to participate in the big data revolution. Nursing's Social Policy Statement guides a principled, ethical perspective on big data and data science. There are implications for basic and advanced practice clinical nurses in practice, for the nurse scientist who collaborates with data scientists, and for the nurse data scientist. Big data and data science has the potential to provide greater richness in understanding patient phenomena and in tailoring interventional strategies that are personalized to the patient. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
... the following rules: (a) Loans—(1) Eligible project costs. A State may draw cash based on the... associated pre-project costs, cash may be drawn immediately upon execution of the loan agreement. (2) Eligible project reimbursement costs. A State may draw cash to reimburse assistance recipients for eligible...
The author considers experiments to confirm the substantial deviations from a Planck curve in the Woody and Richards spectrum of the microwave background, and search for conducting needles in our galaxy. Spectral deviations and needle-shaped grains are expected for a cold Big Bang, but are not required by a hot Big Bang. (Auth.)
N. (Niek) van Antwerpen; Klaas Jan Mollema
Big data heeft niet alleen geleid tot uitdagende technische vraagstukken, ook gaat het gepaard met allerlei nieuwe ethische en morele kwesties. Om verantwoord met big data om te gaan, moet ook over deze kwesties worden nagedacht. Want slecht datagebruik kan nadelige gevolgen hebben voor
Hansen, Henning Otte
Landbrugets omverdensforhold og konkurrencevilkår ændres, og det vil nødvendiggøre en udvikling i retning af “big business“, hvor landbrugene bliver endnu større, mere industrialiserede og koncentrerede. Big business bliver en dominerende udvikling i dansk landbrug - men ikke den eneste...
Boer, J. de
Since 2014 I am involved in various (research) projects that try to make the hype around Big Data more concrete and tangible for the industry and government. Big Data is about multiple sources of (real-time) data that can be analysed, transformed to information and be used to make 'smart' decisions.
De Melis, Cinzia
Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang lors d'un grand événement public. Affiche et programme. On 2 June 2013 CERN launches a scientific tourist trail through the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva known as the Passport to the Big Bang. Poster and Programme.
Big Data and analytics have gained a huge momentum in recent years. Big Data feeds into the field of Learning Analytics (LA) that may allow academic institutions to better understand the learners' needs and proactively address them. Hence, it is important to have an understanding of Big Data and its applications. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to provide an overview of Big Data, the technologies used in Big Data, and some of the applications of Big Data in educa...
Full Text Available This paper shows how big data analysis opens a range of research and technological problems and calls for new approaches. We start with defining the essential properties of big data and discussing the main types of data involved. We then survey the dedicated solutions for storing and processing big data, including a data lake, virtual integration, and a polystore architecture. Difficulties in managing data quality and provenance are also highlighted. The characteristics of big data imply also specific requirements and challenges for data mining algorithms, which we address as well. The links with related areas, including data streams and deep learning, are discussed. The common theme that naturally emerges from this characterization is complexity. All in all, we consider it to be the truly defining feature of big data (posing particular research and technological challenges, which ultimately seems to be of greater importance than the sheer data volume.
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the valuation of stochastic cash flows that exhibit dependence on interest rates. We focus on insurance liability cash flows linked to an index, such as a consumer price index or wage index, where changes in the index value can be partially understood in terms of changes in the term structure of interest rates. Insurance liability cash flows that are not explicitly linked to an index may still be valued in our framework by interpreting index returns as so-called claims inflation, i.e., an increase in claims cost per sold insurance contract. We focus primarily on the case when a deep and liquid market for index-linked contracts is absent or when the market price data are unreliable. Firstly, we present an approach for assigning a monetary value to a stochastic cash flow that does not require full knowledge of the joint dynamics of the cash flow and the term structure of interest rates. Secondly, we investigate in detail model selection, estimation and validation in a Heath–Jarrow–Morton framework. Finally, we analyze the effects of model uncertainty on the valuation of the cash flows and how forecasts of cash flows and interest rates translate into model parameters and affect the valuation.
Full Text Available Inadequate cash resources resulting from poor cash flows have been among the fundamental causes of construction project failures. Despite the panoply of cash flow forecasting (CFF tools, the cash flow performance of many construction firms have been reported to be poor due weak Cash flow forecasting (CFF process capabilities influenced by a couple of organisational characteristics. Although these organisational characteristics have been reported to significantly influence firms’ CFF process capabilities, the underlying mechanisms of how these organisational features and characteristics exhibit their specific influences on the cash flow forecasting capabilities of construction firms still remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims at empirically exploring the influence of some organisation characteristics on the CFF process capabilities of construction firms. Best practices in CFF identified from the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS Cash Flow Forecasting (CFF guide were used to develop an assessment criteria used to assess the CFF capabilities of construction firms. The assessment was conducted through a questionnaire survey involving contracting organisations involved in both building and civil engineering works in Nigeria. The key best practices in CFF were ranked based on arithmetic mean value scores and averages were also determined for each of the four CFF components assessed (Knowledge and understanding CFF concepts and principles, Practical application, Practical considerations, and other Managerial issues. Hierarchical regression analysis was then used to examine the relationships between contractors’’ CFF process capabilities and some organisational characteristics. Results of the study reveals that organisational characteristics are strongly associated to firms’ abilities to prudently manage cash flows. The results of this study could serve as a basis for the strategic planning and improvement of Cash Flow
On a flat, red mulga plain in the outback of Western Australia, preparations are under way to build the most audacious telescope astronomers have ever dreamed of - the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Next-generation telescopes usually aim to double the performance of their predecessors. The Australian arm of SKA will deliver a 168-fold leap on the best technology available today, to show us the universe as never before. It will tune into signals emitted just a million years after the Big Bang, when the universe was a sea of hydrogen gas, slowly percolating with the first galaxies. Their starlight illuminated the fledgling universe in what is referred to as the “cosmic dawn”.
Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Simon, R.S.
This paper describes the design and the capabilities of the Naval Research Laboratory Big Optical Array (BOA), an interferometric optical array for high-resolution imaging of stars, stellar systems, and other celestial objects. There are four important differences between the BOA design and the design of Mark III Optical Interferometer on Mount Wilson (California). These include a long passive delay line which will be used in BOA to do most of the delay compensation, so that the fast delay line will have a very short travel; the beam combination in BOA will be done in triplets, to allow measurement of closure phase; the same light will be used for both star and fringe tracking; and the fringe tracker will use several wavelength channels
Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)
Calvao, M.O.; Lima, J.A.S.
The usual FRW hot big-bang cosmologies have been generalized by considering the equation of state ρ = Anm +(γ-1) -1 p, where m is the rest mass of the fluid particles and A is a dimensionless constant. Explicit analytic solutions are given for the flat case (ε=O). For large cosmological times these extended models behave as the standard Einstein-de Sitter universes regardless of the values of A and γ. Unlike the usual FRW flat case the deceleration parameter q is a time-dependent function and its present value, q≅ 1, obtained from the luminosity distance versus redshift relation, may be fitted by taking, for instance, A=1 and γ = 5/3 (monatomic relativistic gas with >> k B T). In all cases the universe cools obeying the same temperature law of the FRW models and it is shown that the age of the universe is only slightly modified. (author) [pt
McGuire, Austin D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.
Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik
The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control
Craps, Ben [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Verlinde, Erik [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)
The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.
At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark
At its latest venue at Fermilab from 10-14 November, the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields meeting entered a new dimension. These regular meetings, which allow younger researchers to communicate with their peers, have been gaining popularity over the years (this was the seventh in the series), but nobody had expected almost a thousand participants and nearly 500 requests to give talks. Thus Fermilab's 800-seat auditorium had to be supplemented with another room with a video hookup, while the parallel sessions were organized into nine bewildering streams covering fourteen major physics topics. With the conventionality of the Standard Model virtually unchallenged, physics does not move fast these days. While most of the physics results had already been covered in principle at the International Conference on High Energy Physics held in Dallas in August (October, page 1), the Fermilab DPF meeting had a very different atmosphere. Major international meetings like Dallas attract big names from far and wide, and it is difficult in such an august atmosphere for young researchers to find a receptive audience. This was not the case at the DPF parallel sessions. The meeting also adopted a novel approach, with the parallels sandwiched between an initial day of plenaries to set the scene, and a final day of summaries. With the whole world waiting for the sixth ('top') quark to be discovered at Fermilab's Tevatron protonantiproton collider, the meeting began with updates from Avi Yagil and Ronald Madaras from the big detectors, CDF and DO respectively. Although rumours flew thick and fast, the Tevatron has not yet reached the top, although Yagil could show one intriguing event of a type expected from the heaviest quark.
Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.
Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe
von Kalckreuth, Ulf; Schmidt, Tobias; Stix, Helmut
Standard transaction cost arguments can only partially explain why the share of cash transactions is still high in many countries. This paper shows that consumers’ desire to monitor liquidity is one of the reasons. Consumers make use of a distinctive feature of cash – a glance into one’s pocket provides a signal for both the remaining budget as well as the level of past expenses. We propose a theoretical framework which incorporates this feature of cash, and derives implications not only for ...
Full Text Available Practitioners and most academics in valuation include changes in liquid assets (potential dividends in the cash flows. This widespread and wrong practice is inconsistent with basic finance theory. We present economic, theoretical, and empirical arguments to support the thesis. Economic arguments underline that only flows of cash should be considered for valuation; theoretical arguments show how potential dividends lead to contradiction and to arbitrage losses. Empirical arguments, from recent studies, suggest that investors discount potential dividends with high discount rates, which means that changes in liquid assets are not value drivers. Hence, when valuing cash flows, we should consider only actual payments.
Alm, Jonas; Lindskog, Filip
In this paper, we study the valuation of stochastic cash flows that exhibit dependence on interest rates. We focus on insurance liability cash flows linked to an index, such as a consumer price index or wage index, where changes in the index value can be partially understood in terms of changes in the term structure of interest rates. Insurance liability cash flows that are not explicitly linked to an index may still be valued in our framework by interpreting index returns as so-called claims...
Yessica Tria Christina
Full Text Available This research provides an empirical evidence about the effect of institutional ownerships as a proxy of information transparancy on excess cash holdings. Manufacture companies listed on BEI from years 2002 to 2011 are employed. The results show that the higher the proportion of institutional ownership, the lower the excess cash holdings. Informational transparancy, as one of the requirements of good corporate governance, can in fact lower the chance of aggrevating the manager’s behavior to practice excess cash holdings that can lower the company’s efficiency.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the persistence of earnings components and pricing test of abnormal changes in cash for selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE. The proposed study gathers the necessary data from 166 firms over the period 2004-2012 from firms whose shares were actively traded on TSE market. The study uses Panel data and with the implementation of linear regression technique examines four hypotheses. The results indicate that abnormal negative changes in cash are more persistence than positive abnormal changes. In addition, both positive and negative abnormal changes are more persistence than accruals. Market also has a good perception on abnormal positive and negative changes in cash.
Zhu, Yuqing; Zhan, Jianfeng; Weng, Chuliang; Nambiar, Raghunath; Zhang, Jinchao; Chen, Xingzhen; Wang, Lei
Big Data is considered proprietary asset of companies, organizations, and even nations. Turning big data into real treasure requires the support of big data systems. A variety of commercial and open source products have been unleashed for big data storage and processing. While big data users are facing the choice of which system best suits their needs, big data system developers are facing the question of how to evaluate their systems with regard to general big data processing needs. System b...
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Doocy, Shannon; Johnson, Diane; Robinson, Courtland
Historically, cash interventions, as opposed to material or in-kind aid, have been relatively uncommon in the humanitarian response to emergencies. The widespread implementation of cash-based programs following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami provided an opportunity to examine cash distributions following disasters. The Mercy Corps cash grant program in Aceh, Indonesia, was a short-term intervention intended to assist in recompensing losses from the December 2004 tsunami. An evaluation of the Mercy Corps cash grant program was conducted for the 12-month period following the tsunami using program monitoring data and a systematic survey of cash grant beneficiaries. in 2005, the cash grant program disbursed more than US$3.3 million to more than 53,000 beneficiaries; the average cash grant award was US$6390, which was shared by an average of 108 beneficiaries. In a beneficiary survey, more than 95% of respondents reported the grant allocation processes were fair and transparent and that grant funds were received. The Mercy Corps experience with cash programs suggests that cash interventions in the emergency context, when properly administered, can have an immediate impact and serve as an efficient mechanism for providing assistance. Organizations involved in humanitarian relief, particularly donors and nongovernmental organizations, should consider incorporating cash-based interventions as an element of their response in future emergencies.
Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of earnings management on operating cash flows management over the period 2004-2011 using the information of 119 firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. Results indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between earnings management and operating cash flows management. In other words, earnings management creates and shapes operating cash flows management. In addition, after controlling for the loss reporting, firm size and firm's financial risk, the results show that there was a relationship between loss reporting and firm size with the cash flows management. When firms report loss, then operating cash flows increases. Finally, operating cash flows decreases when firm size increases. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between financial risk and cash flows management.
Elitzur, Shmuel; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Giveon, Amit; Kutasov, David
We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a 'big bang' singularity, expands and then contracts to a 'big crunch' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected to the preceding one and to the next one at the respective big bang/big crunch singularities. The sequence of NW spacetimes is further connected at the singularities to a series of non-compact static regions with closed timelike curves. These regions contain boundaries, on which the observables of the theory live. This suggests a holographic interpretation of the physics. (author)
Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.
Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins
Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.
Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.
How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit
Del Barrio et al. (2004) haben vor mehr als 10 Jahren versucht, eine direkte Beziehung zwischen Empathie und den Big Five herzustellen. Im Mittel hatten in ihrer Stichprobe Frauen höhere Werte in der Empathie und auf den Big Five-Faktoren mit Ausnahme des Faktors Neurotizismus. Zusammenhänge zu Empathie fanden sie in den Bereichen Offenheit, Verträglichkeit, Gewissenhaftigkeit und Extraversion. In unseren Daten besitzen Frauen sowohl in der Empathie als auch den Big Five signifikant höhere We...
Gutmann, Myron P; Merchant, Emily Klancher; Roberts, Evan
Big data is an exciting prospect for the field of economic history, which has long depended on the acquisition, keying, and cleaning of scarce numerical information about the past. This article examines two areas in which economic historians are already using big data - population and environment - discussing ways in which increased frequency of observation, denser samples, and smaller geographic units allow us to analyze the past with greater precision and often to track individuals, places, and phenomena across time. We also explore promising new sources of big data: organically created economic data, high resolution images, and textual corpora.
Victor Ya. Tsvetkov
Full Text Available The article covers analysis of ‘Big Data’ which has been discussed over last 10 years. The reasons and factors for the issue are revealed. It has proved that the factors creating ‘Big Data’ issue has existed for quite a long time, and from time to time, would cause the informational barriers. Such barriers were successfully overcome through the science and technologies. The conducted analysis refers the “Big Data” issue to a form of informative barrier. This issue may be solved correctly and encourages development of scientific and calculating methods.
We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behaviour is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.
It seems like “big data” is everywhere these days. In planetary science and astronomy, we’ve been dealing with large datasets for a long time. So how “big” is our data? How does it compare to the big data that a bank or an airline might have? What new tools do we need to analyze big datasets, and how can we make better use of existing tools? What kinds of science problems can we address with these? I’ll address these questions with examples including ESA’s Gaia mission, ...
The Rate Change Big Bang Theory redefines the birth of the universe with a dramatic shift in energy direction and a new vision of the first moments. With rate change graph technology (RCGT) we can look back 13.7 billion years and experience every step of the big bang through geometrical intersection technology. The analysis of the Big Bang includes a visualization of the first objects, their properties, the astounding event that created space and time as well as a solution to the mystery of anti-matter.
Big Data technologies are becoming more popular with the constant grow of data generation in different fields such as social networks, internet of things and laboratories like CERN. How is CERN making use of such technologies? How machine learning is applied at CERN with Big Data technologies? How much data we move and how it is analyzed? All these questions will be answered during the talk.
Carbonell (Isabelle M.)
This paper examines the ethics of big data in agriculture, focusing on the power asymmetry between farmers and large agribusinesses like Monsanto. Following the recent purchase of Climate Corp., Monsanto is currently the most prominent biotech agribusiness to buy into big data. With wireless sensors on tractors monitoring or dictating every decision a farmer makes, Monsanto can now aggregate large quantities of previously proprietary farming data, enabling a privileged position with unique in...
Goglio, Pietro; Brankatschk, Gerhard; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman
objectives of this discussion article are as follows: (i) to discuss the characteristics of cropping systems which might affect the LCA methodology, (ii) to discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the current available methods for the life-cycle assessment of cropping systems, and (iii) to offer...... management and emissions, and (3) functional unit issues. The LCA approaches presented are as follows: cropping system, allocation approaches, crop-by-crop approach, and combined approaches. The various approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages, applicability...... considers cropping system issues if they are related to multiproduct and nutrient cycling, while the crop-by-crop approach is highly affected by assumptions and considers cropping system issues only if they are related to the analyzed crop. Conclusions Each LCA approach presents advantages and disadvantages...
Mina Nath Paudel
Full Text Available Multiple cropping is an agriculture system long adopted by marginalized small holder farmers especially in hills and mountains. This practice was a meant to enhance farm productivity when farming area is limited. Here, in this paper, a brief review on the benefits of multiple cropping is presented focusing on the practices adopted by marginalized farmers, in general. In multiple cropping, it is generally argued that the practice favors an efficient utilization of resources like air, water, light, space, and nutrients by companion crops in both temporal and spatial dimensions due to their differential growth habits and seasonality. Multiple cropping could be one of the viable alternatives to cope uncertainties and changes, where food and nutritional uncertainty looming large. The ultimate outcome of multiple cropping could be visualized in adverse or harsh environment for increase agriculture production, livelihood and income. Various food products are obtained through multiple cropping. Land equivalent ratio (LER, relative yield total (RYT and income equivalent ratio (IER can be increased with mixed/intercropping systems. Multiple cropping helps in getting more than one crop simultaneously, so even if the selling price of one commodity is less, the other might compensate. In the tropics, smallholder farms, which produce over 60% of the food resources of developing nations from intercropping of cereals with many crops mostly legumes, had been the field of much investigation because of synergistic effects of diversifying food production and household cash incomes in these systems. This clearly implies the importance of multiple cropping for small farmers who constitute majority in the developing countries.
Full Text Available This paper assesses whether eligibility for conditional cash transfer programs has been manipulated, as well as the impact of this phenomenon on time allocation within households. To perform this analysis, we use data from the 2006 PNAD (Brazilian national household survey and investigate the eligibility manipulation for the Bolsa Família (Family Stipend program during this time period. The program assists families with a monthly per capita income of around R$120.00 (US$60.00. By applying the tests developed by McCrary (2008, we find suggestive evidence that individuals manipulate their income by voluntarily reducing their labor supply in order to become eligible to the program. Moreover, the reduction in labor supply is greater among women, especially single or divorced mothers. This evidence raises some concern about the unintended consequences related to the eligibility criteria utilized by Bolsa Família, as well as the program's impact on individuals living in extreme poverty.
Full Text Available The Accrual basis of accounting has always found favour amongst corporate practitioners of earnings management. There have been extensive studies on earnings management, focusing on earnings hazards. This paper contributes to the literature by showing market inclination to accrual basis of accounting as motivated by a desire for earnings management. It analyzes the sample units’ performance in regard to accrual-indicators vs. cash-indicators and their pervasiveness on stock pricing in India. In India, the corporate ownership model is the Promoter Dominated Shareholders Model (PDSHM which makes this study unique in highlighting earnings management motivation. The units show a market preference for accrual numbers and motivation for earnings management as clear in their stock pricing behavior. I hope the study improves investors’ perception of the reliability of a firm’s performance, as measured by earnings. It is of use to the users of financial accounting and corporate finance globally for rationalizing the motivation behind earnings manipulation by the management.
When their CERN contracts expire and they leave the Organization, Fellows recoup the amounts paid into the Pension Fund by and for them every month. If they invest this money well, right from the outset, it can grow into a nice little nest-egg by the time they reach retirement age. As employed members of the CERN personnel, Fellows are members of the Organization’s Pension Fund. Accordingly, a specific amount is withheld from their salary every month (see first box) and, as the months go by, this gradually accumulates into their transfer value (i.e. their capital). When their contracts expire, Fellows may opt to transfer that money directly into another pension fund (subject to the national laws of the destination country and, unfortunately, not possible everywhere), or take it in cash. This is because only employed members of the personnel who have at least five years of service with the Organization are entitled to remain beneficiaries of the CERN Pension Fund for life*. But the capi...
Full Text Available Performance measurement in managerial accounting is normally associated with cash flow and it is executed based on different figures such as testing information content abuse and accounting figures. However, increasing the information content in accrual components of earning and internal performance measurement provides additional informative insights. This paper studies the relationship between operating cash flows and earnings along with total shareholder returns. The study chooses the information of 54 firms from Tehran Stock Exchange. The results show that there were some meaningful relationship between the operating cash flow, profitability and the returns of all stakeholders. However, this happens by increasing profitability and cash flow of information asymmetry proportion to their correlation with the economic efficiency of shareholders’ returns.
Full Text Available There are many cases, where we may wish to choose a good accounting system and would like to learn how they work and the advantages and disadvantages of each so we can choose the better one for a business. In this paper, we present an empirical survey to understand whether we can choose accrual or cash accounting system. The proposed study designs a questionnaire among 220 experts in area of accounting affairs. The survey considers four sub hypotheses and one main hypothesis to see whether there are reliable rules and regulations in accrual-based accounting compared with cash accounting or not. Similarly, the survey investigates whether accrual-based accounting is more informative, comprehensive and provides better comparative results compared with cash accounting. The results indicate that accrual-based account performs better in terms of all mentioned criteria and it is a better method for managing accounting affairs compared with cash accounting systems.
Full Text Available We examine whether business groups’ influence on cash holdings depends on ownership. Group affiliation can increase firms’ agency costs or benefit firms by providing an internal capital market, especially in transition economies characterized by weak investor protection and difficult external capital acquisition. A hand-collected dataset of Chinese firms reveals that group affiliation decreases cash holdings, alleviating the free-cash-flow problem of agency costs. State ownership and control of listed firms moderate this benefit, which is more pronounced when the financial market is less liquid. Group affiliation facilitates related-party transactions, increases debt capacity and decreases investment-cash-flow sensitivity and overinvestment. In transitional economies, privately controlled firms are more likely to benefit from group affiliation than state-controlled firms propped up by the government.
Broyles, Robert W; Mattachione, Steven; Khaliq, Amir
This paper develops a model that enables the health administrator to identify the balance that minimizes the projected cost of holding cash. Adopting the principles of mathematical expectation, the model estimates the expected total costs of adopting each of the several strategies concerning the cash balance that the organization might maintain. Expected total costs consist of anticipated short costs, resulting from a potential shortage of funds. Long costs are associated with a potential surplus of funds and an opportunity cost represented by foregone investment income. Of importance to the model is the potential for the health service organization to realize a surplus of funds during periods characterized by a net cash disbursement. The paper also develops an interactive spreadsheet that enables the administrator to perform sensitivity analysis and examine the response of the desired or target cash balance to changes in the parameters that define the expected long and short cost functions.
MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE
Full Text Available The options available to taxpayers make tax systems attractive and give them an opportunity to choose one system or another after a careful analysis of the fiscal advantages and disadvantages of each choice. A small or medium company has to explore the options available, whether that is VAT registration or de-registration or choosing the best VAT special scheme. VAT optimisation is particularly interesting because of the high cash flow involved and because of the cash flow benefits that can be obtained. This paper presents an analysis of VAT costs and their impact on profitability and cash flow of small and medium enterprises. We also analysed specific mechanisms to improve profitability and cash flow through VAT optimisation.
Maria Zenovia GRIGORE
Full Text Available The options available to taxpayers make tax systems attractive and give them an opportunity to choose one system or another after a careful analysis of the fiscal advantages and disadvantages of each choice. A small or medium company has to explore the options available, whether that is VAT registration or de-registration or choosing the best VAT special scheme. VAT optimisation is particularly interesting because of the high cash flow involved and because of the cash flow benefits that can be obtained. This paper presents an analysis of VAT costs and their impact on profitability and cash flow of small and medium enterprises. We also analysed specific mechanisms to improve profitability and cash flow through VAT optimisation.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of cash holdings of publicly traded Portuguese firms. We find that such firms hold less cash than similar companies operating in countries where both shareholders and creditors’ rights are more tightly protected by the law. In addition, our regression results suggest that leverage, other liquid assets, and firm growth are negatively correlated with our sample firms’ cash holdings whereas long-term debt and financial distress are positively correlated. Our findings cannot be reconciled with just one of the existent theories (trade-off, pecking order and free cashflow theory, and emphasize the importance of a country’s legal, institutional, and economic environment for explaining firms’ cash holdings decisions.
Full Text Available Financial performance is often difficult to achieve by economic entities, especially in the current economic context and successful models of some companies constitute examples of good practice for aspirants. Cash-flow explains investment because it contains information about future flows of cash and because investment is made in pursuit of future income. Therfore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between cash-flow, investment and net income. The target population of the study was the companies listed and traded on the Bucharest Stock Exchange during 2012-2016. The results of this empirical study showed that most of the companies listed and traded on BVB that earn profit constantly generate cash-flow and 65% of the companies listed and traded on BVB during the period 2012-2016 show a satisfactory long-term financial balance.
This paper deals with nature and analysis of current approaches to optimization of cash flows of the enterprise. Ways and management directions in order to achieve sustainable development by enterprise have been justified
The Big Data era has begun also in the climate sciences, not only in economics or molecular biology. We measure climate at increasing spatial resolution by means of satellites and look farther back in time at increasing temporal resolution by means of natural archives and proxy data. We use powerful supercomputers to run climate models. The model output of the calculations made for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report amounts to ~650 TB. The 'scientific evolution' of grid computing has started, and the 'scientific revolution' of quantum computing is being prepared. This will increase computing power, and data amount, by several orders of magnitude in the future. However, more data does not automatically mean more knowledge. We need statisticians, who are at the core of transforming data into knowledge. Statisticians notably also explore the limits of our knowledge (uncertainties, that is, confidence intervals and P-values). Mudelsee (2014 Climate Time Series Analysis: Classical Statistical and Bootstrap Methods. Second edition. Springer, Cham, xxxii + 454 pp.) coined the term 'optimal estimation'. Consider the hyperspace of climate estimation. It has many, but not infinite, dimensions. It consists of the three subspaces Monte Carlo design, method and measure. The Monte Carlo design describes the data generating process. The method subspace describes the estimation and confidence interval construction. The measure subspace describes how to detect the optimal estimation method for the Monte Carlo experiment. The envisaged large increase in computing power may bring the following idea of optimal climate estimation into existence. Given a data sample, some prior information (e.g. measurement standard errors) and a set of questions (parameters to be estimated), the first task is simple: perform an initial estimation on basis of existing knowledge and experience with such types of estimation problems. The second task requires the computing power: explore the hyperspace to
Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just
Business to business electronic commerce is looming large in the future of the oil industry. It is estimated that by adopting e-commerce the industry could achieve bottom line savings of between $1.8 to $ 3.4 billion a year on annual gross revenues in excess of $ 30 billion. At present there are several teething problems to overcome such as inter-operability standards, which are at least two or three years away. Tying in electronically with specific suppliers is also an expensive proposition, although the big benefits are in fact in doing business with the same suppliers on a continuing basis. Despite these problems, 14 of the world's largest energy and petrochemical companies joined forces in mid-April to create a single Internet procurement marketplace for the industry's complex supply chain. The exchange was designed by B2B (business-to-business) software provider, Commerce One Inc., ; it will leverage the buying clout of these industry giants (BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell Group, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Phillips Petroleum, Unocal Corporation and Statoil among them), currently about $ 125 billion on procurement per year; they hope to save between 5 to 30 per cent depending on the product and the region involved. Other similar schemes such as Chevron and partners' Petrocosm Marketplace, Network Oil, a Houston-based Internet portal aimed at smaller petroleum companies, are also doing business in the $ 10 billion per annum range. e-Energy, a cooperative project between IBM Ericson and Telus Advertising is another neutral, virtual marketplace targeted at the oil and gas sector. PetroTRAX, a Calgary-based website plans to take online procurement and auction sales a big step forward by establishing a portal to handle any oil company's asset management needs. There are also a number of websites targeting specific needs: IndigoPool.com (acquisitions and divestitures) and WellBid.com (products related to upstream oil and gas operators) are just two examples. All in
Zubova, Jelena; Kurasova, Olga
In this paper, methods and tools for big data visualization have been investigated. Challenges faced by the big data analysis and visualization have been identified. Technologies for big data analysis have been discussed. A review of methods and tools for big data visualization has been done. Functionalities of the tools have been demonstrated by examples in order to highlight their advantages and disadvantages.
Growing interest in Big Data is leading industries, academics and governments to accelerate Big Data research. However, how teachers should teach Big Data has not been fully examined. This article suggests criteria for redesigning Big Data syllabi in public and private degree-awarding higher education establishments. The author conducted a survey…
Crop science is a highly integrative science using the disciplines of conventional plant breeding, transgenic crop improvement, plant physiology, and cropping system sciences to develop improved varieties of agronomic, turf, and forage crops to produce feed, food, fuel, and fiber for our world's gro...
Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...