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Sample records for bicyclus anynana covering

  1. Cytogenetic characterization and AFLP-based genetic linkage mapping for the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, covering all 28 karyotyped chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen E Van't Hof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chromosome characteristics of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, have received little attention, despite the scientific importance of this species. This study presents the characterization of chromosomes in this species by means of cytogenetic analysis and linkage mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physical genomic features in the butterfly B. anynana were examined by karyotype analysis and construction of a linkage map. Lepidoptera possess a female heterogametic W-Z sex chromosome system. The WZ-bivalent in pachytene oocytes of B. anynana consists of an abnormally small, heterochromatic W-chromosome with the Z-chromosome wrapped around it. Accordingly, the W-body in interphase nuclei is much smaller than usual in Lepidoptera. This suggests an intermediate stage in the process of secondary loss of the W-chromosome to a ZZ/Z sex determination system. Two nucleoli are present in the pachytene stage associated with an autosome and the WZ-bivalent respectively. Chromosome counts confirmed a haploid number of n = 28. Linkage mapping had to take account of absence of crossing-over in females, and of our use of a full-sib crossing design. We developed a new method to determine and exclude the non-recombinant uninformative female inherited component in offspring. The linkage map was constructed using a novel approach that uses exclusively JOINMAP-software for Lepidoptera linkage mapping. This approach simplifies the mapping procedure, avoids over-estimation of mapping distance and increases the reliability of relative marker positions. A total of 347 AFLP markers, 9 microsatellites and one single-copy nuclear gene covered all 28 chromosomes, with a mapping distance of 1354 cM. Conserved synteny of Tpi on the Z-chromosome in Lepidoptera was confirmed for B. anynana. The results are discussed in relation to other mapping studies in Lepidoptera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study adds to the knowledge of chromosome structure and

  2. Geographic variation and thermal adaptation in Bicyclus anynana

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Maria Adriana de

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates mechanisms of adaptation to climate, and in particular temperature, in the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana. The work takes an integrated approach and brings together studies at the phenotypic, physiological and genetic level. By examining geographical variation among wild populations, the thesis investigates how B. anynana is adapted to geographically varying thermal conditions. The first half of the thesis is focused on phenotypic plasticity, which is a major comp...

  3. Geographic variation and thermal adaptation in Bicyclus anynana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Maria Adriana de

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates mechanisms of adaptation to climate, and in particular temperature, in the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana. The work takes an integrated approach and brings together studies at the phenotypic, physiological and genetic level. By examining geographical variation among wild

  4. Spectral characteristics and regionalization of the eye of the satyrid Bicyclus anynana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Hariyama, T; Arikawa, K

    1999-01-01

    The ommatidial characteristics of the eyes of many insects are non-uniform (Stavenga, 1992). The retinal heterogeneity has been investigated in the satyrid Bicyclus anynana by in vivo microspectrophotometry of the eye shine from individual ommatidia. The ommatidial reflectances fall into two classes

  5. Footprints of selection in wild populations of Bicyclus anynana along a latitudinal cline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.A.; Collins, S.; Beldade, P.; Brakefield, P.M.; Zwaan, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology is how variation in the genome enables species to adapt to divergent environments. Here, we study footprints of thermal selection in candidate genes in six wild populations of the afrotropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana sampled along a c

  6. Opsin cDNA sequences of a UV and green rhodopsin of the satyrine butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, Kürt; Eggen, BJL; Janssen, JJM; Stavenga, DG

    2002-01-01

    The cDNAs of an ultraviolet (UV) and long-wavelength (LW) (green) absorbing rhodopsin of the bush brown Bicyclus anynana were partially identified. The UV sequence, encoding 377 amino acids, is 76-79% identical to the UV sequences of the papilionids Papilio glaucus and Papilio xuthus and the moth Ma

  7. A wing expressed sequence tag resource for Bicyclus anynana butterflies, an evo-devo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Jonathan D

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butterfly wing color patterns are a key model for integrating evolutionary developmental biology and the study of adaptive morphological evolution. Yet, despite the biological, economical and educational value of butterflies they are still relatively under-represented in terms of available genomic resources. Here, we describe an Expression Sequence Tag (EST project for Bicyclus anynana that has identified the largest available collection to date of expressed genes for any butterfly. Results By targeting cDNAs from developing wings at the stages when pattern is specified, we biased gene discovery towards genes potentially involved in pattern formation. Assembly of 9,903 ESTs from a subtracted library allowed us to identify 4,251 genes of which 2,461 were annotated based on BLAST analyses against relevant gene collections. Gene prediction software identified 2,202 peptides, of which 215 longer than 100 amino acids had no homology to any known proteins and, thus, potentially represent novel or highly diverged butterfly genes. We combined gene and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP identification by constructing cDNA libraries from pools of outbred individuals, and by sequencing clones from the 3' end to maximize alignment depth. Alignments of multi-member contigs allowed us to identify over 14,000 putative SNPs, with 316 genes having at least one high confidence double-hit SNP. We furthermore identified 320 microsatellites in transcribed genes that can potentially be used as genetic markers. Conclusion Our project was designed to combine gene and sequence polymorphism discovery and has generated the largest gene collection available for any butterfly and many potential markers in expressed genes. These resources will be invaluable for exploring the potential of B. anynana in particular, and butterflies in general, as models in ecological, evolutionary, and developmental genetics.

  8. Potential constraints on evolution: sexual dimorphism and the problem of protandry in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bas J. Zwaan; Wilte G. Zijlstra; Marieke Keller; Jeroen Pijpe; Paul M. Brakefield

    2008-12-01

    The earlier mean adult emergence between males and females, protandry, has been well studied mathematically and in comparative studies. However, quantitative and evolutionary genetic research on protandry is scarce. The butterfly, Bicyclus anynana exhibits protandry and here we selected for each of the different combinations of male and female development time in this species, thus including direct selection on protandry (i.e., FAST, fast males and fast females; SLOW, slow males and slow females; FMSF, fast males and slow females; and SMFF, slow males and fast females). After eight generations of selection there was no significant response for increased or decreased protandry, whereas selection for increased or decreased development time in both sexes (FAST or SLOW) was successful. Continued selection (> 30 generations) for decreased or increased protandry showed a significant difference between the FMSFC and SMFFC lines (subscript c for continued selection), which was of the same magnitude as the nonsignificant difference observed between the FMSF and SMFF lines at generation eight. This indicated that the initial selection was successful, but that the difference between the lines did not increase with continued selection. Our results also indicate that the genetic covariance across sexes for development time is near unity. Interestingly, lines selected for decreased protandry (SMFF) had lower egg-to-adult survival, and broods from these lines had lower rates of egg hatching. This suggests that interactions with fertility might constrain certain directions of change in patterns of protandry. Moreover, selection yielded a change in the ratio of male to female development time for slow lines, suggesting that some amount of sex-specific genetic variance for development time is still present in this population. The FMSFC line showed the largest effect of selection on protandry, mainly through an effect on female developmental time. Lastly, our results show that

  9. The composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StéphanieHeuskin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD. Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera.

  10. Transcriptome-Wide Differential Gene Expression in Bicyclus anynana Butterflies: Female Vision-Related Genes Are More Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Muñoz, Aide; Smith, Gilbert; Monteiro, Antónia; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2016-01-01

    Vision is energetically costly to maintain. Consequently, over time many cave-adapted species downregulate the expression of vision genes or even lose their eyes and associated eye genes entirely. Alternatively, organisms that live in fluctuating environments, with different requirements for vision at different times, may evolve phenotypic plasticity for expression of vision genes. Here, we use a global transcriptomic and candidate gene approach to compare gene expression in the heads of a polyphenic butterfly. Bicyclus anynana have two seasonal forms that display sexual dimorphism and plasticity in eye morphology, and female-specific plasticity in opsin gene expression. Nonchoosy dry season females downregulate opsin expression, consistent with the high physiological cost of vision. To identify other genes associated with sexually dimorphic and seasonally plastic differences in vision, we analyzed RNA-sequencing data from whole head tissues. We identified two eye development genes (klarsicht and warts homologs) and an eye pigment biosynthesis gene (henna) differentially expressed between seasonal forms. By comparing sex-specific expression across seasonal forms, we found that klarsicht, warts, henna, and another eye development gene (domeless) were plastic in a female-specific manner. In a male-only analysis, white (w) was differentially expressed between seasonal forms. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that warts and white are expressed in eyes only, whereas klarsicht, henna and domeless are expressed in both eyes and brain. We find that differential expression of eye development and eye pigment genes is associated with divergent eye phenotypes in B. anynana seasonal forms, and that there is a larger effect of season on female vision-related genes. PMID:26371082

  11. A gene-based linkage map for Bicyclus anynana butterflies allows for a comprehensive analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beldade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopterans (butterflies and moths are a rich and diverse order of insects, which, despite their economic impact and unusual biological properties, are relatively underrepresented in terms of genomic resources. The genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been fully sequenced, but comparative lepidopteran genomics has been hampered by the scarcity of information for other species. This is especially striking for butterflies, even though they have diverse and derived phenotypes (such as color vision and wing color patterns and are considered prime models for the evolutionary and developmental analysis of ecologically relevant, complex traits. We focus on Bicyclus anynana butterflies, a laboratory system for studying the diversification of novelties and serially repeated traits. With a panel of 12 small families and a biphasic mapping approach, we first assigned 508 expressed genes to segregation groups and then ordered 297 of them within individual linkage groups. We also coarsely mapped seven color pattern loci. This is the richest gene-based map available for any butterfly species and allowed for a broad-coverage analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome. Based on 462 pairs of mapped orthologous markers in Bi. anynana and Bo. mori, we observed strong conservation of gene assignment to chromosomes, but also evidence for numerous large- and small-scale chromosomal rearrangements. With gene collections growing for a variety of target organisms, the ability to place those genes in their proper genomic context is paramount. Methods to map expressed genes and to compare maps with relevant model systems are crucial to extend genomic-level analysis outside classical model species. Maps with gene-based markers are useful for comparative genomics and to resolve mapped genomic regions to a tractable number of candidate genes, especially if there is synteny with related model species. This is discussed in relation to the identification of

  12. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  13. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Arun

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae, two developmental stages (pupal and adult and two sexes (male and female, all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum. The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the

  14. Developmental plasticity and acclimation both contribute to adaptive responses to alternating seasons of plenty and of stress in Bicyclus butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul M Brakefield; Jeroen Pijpe; Bas J Zwaan

    2007-04-01

    Plasticity is a crucial component of the life cycle of invertebrates that live as active adults throughout wet and dry seasons in the tropics. Such plasticity is seen in the numerous species of Bicyclus butterflies in Africa which exhibit seasonal polyphenism with sequential generations of adults with one or other of two alternative phenotypes. These differ not only in wing pattern but in many other traits. This divergence across a broad complex of traits is associated with survival and reproduction either in a wet season that is favourable in terms of resources, or mainly in a dry season that is more stressful. This phenomenon has led us to examine the bases of the developmental plasticity in a model species, B. anynana, and also the evolution of key adult life history traits, including starvation resistance and longevity. We now understand something about the processes that generate variation in the phenotype, and also about the ecological context of responses to environmental stress. The responses clearly involve a mix of developmental plasticity as cued by different environments in pre-adult development, and the acclimation of life history traits in adults to their prevailing environment.

  15. Preference for C4 shade grasses increases hatchling performance in the butterfly, Bicyclus safitza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokelainen, Ossi; Ripley, Brad S; van Bergen, Erik; Osborne, Colin P; Brakefield, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    The Miocene radiation of C4 grasses under high-temperature and low ambient CO 2 levels occurred alongside the transformation of a largely forested landscape into savanna. This inevitably changed the host plant regime of herbivores, and the simultaneous diversification of many consumer lineages, including Bicyclus butterflies in Africa, suggests that the radiations of grasses and grazers may be evolutionary linked. We examined mechanisms for this plant-herbivore interaction with the grass-feeding Bicyclus safitza in South Africa. In a controlled environment, we tested oviposition preference and hatchling performance on local grasses with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways that grow either in open or shaded habitats. We predicted preference for C3 plants due to a hypothesized lower processing cost and higher palatability to herbivores. In contrast, we found that females preferred C4 shade grasses rather than either C4 grasses from open habitats or C3 grasses. The oviposition preference broadly followed hatchling performance, although hatchling survival was equally good on C4 or C3 shade grasses. This finding was explained by leaf toughness; shade grasses were softer than grasses from open habitats. Field monitoring revealed a preference of adults for shaded habitats, and stable isotope analysis of field-sampled individuals confirmed their preference for C4 grasses as host plants. Our findings suggest that plant-herbivore interactions can influence the direction of selection in a grass-feeding butterfly. Based on this work, we postulate future research to test whether these interactions more generally contribute to radiations in herbivorous insects via expansions into new, unexploited ecological niches. PMID:27551380

  16. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  17. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to...

  18. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    OpenAIRE

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflie...

  19. Rapid spread of immigrant genomes into inbred populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilik J. Saccheri; Brakefield, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    When local populations are genetically differentiated from one another and partially inbred, as typically occurs in subdivided populations, immigrant genomes are predicted to be at a frequency-dependent fitness advantage due to heterosis (hybrid vigour) in their descendants. We tested this prediction with pedigreed laboratory populations of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana and report here on a rapid increase over five generations in the contribution of an initially rare immigrant genome to the ...

  20. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2014v19n1p158 Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  1. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  2. Estimating Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  3. Cover Your Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Cover Your Cough Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your Cough, Flyer for Health Care Settings English [324 KB] ...

  4. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  5. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Convex graph covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Buzatu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study some properties of minimum convex covers and minimum convex partitions of simple graphs. We establish existence of graphs with fixed number of minimum convex covers and minimum convex partitions. It is known that convex $p$-cover problem is NP-complete for $p\\geq3$ [5]. We prove that this problem is NP-complete in the case $p=2$. Also, we study covers and partitions of graphs when respective sets are nontrivial convex.

  7. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components such as......The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation into the...... landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover is...

  8. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  9. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  10. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  11. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  12. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  13. On directed coverings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose of this...

  14. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  15. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  16. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification...

  17. What Medicare Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plans Ways to pay Part A & Part B premiums Costs at a glance What Medicare Covers Is ... File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself Phone numbers & websites Privacy practices Contact Medicare The page could ...

  18. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs...

  19. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  20. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  1. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  2. Interactive Submodular Set Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Guillory, Andrew; Bilmes, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a natural generalization of submodular set cover and exact active learning with a finite hypothesis class (query learning). We call this new problem interactive submodular set cover. Applications include advertising in social networks with hidden information. We give an approximation guarantee for a novel greedy algorithm and give a hardness of approximation result which matches up to constant factors. We also discuss negative results for simpler approaches and present encouragin...

  3. Interactive Submodular Set Cover

    CERN Document Server

    Guillory, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a natural generalization of submodular set cover and exact active learning with a finite hypothesis class (query learning). We call this new problem interactive submodular set cover. Applications include advertising in social networks with hidden information. We give an approximation guarantee for a greedy algorithm and give a hardness of approximation result which matches up to constant factors. We also discuss the adaptivity gap for the problem and present encouraging early experimental results.

  4. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  5. Instrument measures cloud cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Eight solar sensing cells comprise inexpensive monitoring instrument. Four cells always track Sun while other four face sky and clouds. On overcast day, cloud-irradiance sensors generate as much short-circuit current as Sun sensor cells. As clouds disappear, output of cloud sensors decreases. Ratio of two sensor type outputs determines fractional cloud cover.

  6. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  7. Issue Cover (June 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Cover legend: Yeast cells were labeled with the fluorescent viability dyes propidium iodide (Red) and DiBAC4(3) (green) and the nucleus was stained with DAPI (blue). Cells were visualized using wide-field fluorescent microscopy. See Chadwick et al. Traffic 2016; 17(6):689-703. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12391. PMID:27174376

  8. Covering All Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  9. Issue Cover (September 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Cover legend: Macrophages phagocytosing RFP-labeled E.coli. GFP-APPL2 labels the phagosomal membrane. Image produced by N. Condon. See Yeo et al. Traffic 2016; 17(9):1014-1026. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12415. PMID:27510703

  10. Issue Cover (July 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Cover legend: N-cadherin clusters colocalize with Rab5 at the macropinosomes. Confocal microscopy image of an Ncad-GFP (green) transfected COS7 cell fed with fluorescent-dextran to label macropinosomes (blue) followed by immunofluorescence staining of Rab5 (red) and the nucleus (cyan). See Wen et al. Traffic 2016; 17(7):769-785. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12402. PMID:27297702

  11. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  12. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  13. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  14. Liability and cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fifth part is relative to liability and cover it includes: the modernization of the international nuclear third party liability regime, diplomatic conference convened to adopt a protocol to amend the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage and to adopt a Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage, the legislative mechanism for compensation of nuclear damage in Ukraine, international nuclear liability developments from the Usa perspective, nuclear liability law in Russia, the third party liability system for nuclear damage in the Republic of Korea. (N.C.)

  15. Issue Cover (August 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Cover legend: Absence of the novel endolysosomal trafficking regulator WDR81 (green) induces the accumulation of tetherin (red) in enlarged early endosomes. WDR81 knock-out HeLa cells were genetically complemented with an HA-tagged WDR81 construct and imaged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The original image was processed with photo editing software and overlaid with artistic effects. See Rapiteanu et al. Traffic 2016; 17(8):940-958. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12409. PMID:27412792

  16. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba

    2014-01-01

    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  17. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  18. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  19. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  20. Cover crops and N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  1. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  2. Ramification theory for inseparable coverings

    OpenAIRE

    Zalamansky, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce the notion of inseparable coverings and we try to develop a ramification theory for such objects. We make use of the groupoid scheme formalism. In section 1, we establish preliminary results on scheme epimorphisms. We use these results in the next section to prove a quotient theorem for groupoid schemes.Then in section 3 we introduce the general formalism of inseparable coverings.Finally, in the last section we consider in greater details inseparable coverings giv...

  3. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  4. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  5. Online Mixed Packing and Covering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskar, Umang

    2012-01-01

    In many problems, the inputs arrive over time, and must be dealt with irrevocably when they arrive. Such problems are online problems. A common method of solving online problems is to first solve the corresponding linear program, and then round the fractional solution online to obtain an integral solution. We give algorithms for solving linear programs with mixed packing and covering constraints online. We first consider mixed packing and covering linear programs, where packing constraints are given offline and covering constraints are received online. The objective is to minimize the maximum multiplicative factor by which any packing constraint is violated, while satisfying the covering constraints. No prior sublinear competitive algorithms are known for this problem. We give the first such --- a polylogarithmic-competitive algorithm for solving mixed packing and covering linear programs online. We also show a nearly tight lower bound. Our techniques for the upper bound use an exponential penalty function in...

  6. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ

  7. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  8. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of hepatic B virus(HBV)infection is the result of complex interactions between replicating HBV and the innate/adaptive immune system.As an important lectin complement pathway activator,human ficolin-2 is secreted from liver cells and contributes to the clearance of viral infections and lysis of enveloped virions,which has been implicated as an anti-infection innate immune molecule.In this issue,a research group lead by Drs.XiaoLian Zhang and Fengling Luo,investigated the serum and liver tissue ficolin-2

  9. COVER

    OpenAIRE

    Editörden

    2015-01-01

    Editör Kurulu/Editiorial Board  Aydın Karapınar (Gazi University, Turkey)  Dunstan Magro (University of Malta, Malta)  Eray Çelik (Yüzüncü Yıl University, Turkey)  Erdal Tanas Karagöl (Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Turkey)  Esin Cakan (University of Haven, USA) 

  10. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection remains a major global health problem because current therapies rarely eliminate the replicative template of HBV,which is the covalently closed circular DNA(ccc DNA).As an accurate and efficient genome editing tool,clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat(CRISPR)-associated(Cas)9 system represents a very promising potential

  11. Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Soybean growth habit is an important agronomic trait,and related genes have been cloned recently,while the variation of the major gene and how this gene was selected during the soybean breeding in China remain unknown.In the diverse soybean germplasm,it is hard to distinguish the determinate from the semi‐determinate phenotype.The development of functional Indel and CAPS markers from the Gm Tfl1 gene of the Dt1 locus makes it possible to evaluate genotype of the germplasm.The different allele

  12. GAP Land Cover - Tiled Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs...

  13. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  14. Shielding effect of foil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For neutron spectrum determinations one often irradiates activation detectors in boxes of cadmium, or of another material. Several models for the neutron attenuation in such foil covers are being studied. Preliminary experience is presented. (author)

  15. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Vertex covers and sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Imbesi, Maurizio; La Barbiera, Monica

    2012-01-01

    We consider algebraic developments of graph theory through suitable applications in real connection problems. We investigate ideals of vertex covers for the edge ideals associated to a significative class of connected graphs. It is shown that algebraic procedures linked to minimal vertex covering of such graphs are good instruments concerned about how sensor networks can be encoded and their properties measured. Moreover algebraic properties of such ideals are studied. Using the notion of lin...

  17. Good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable

    CERN Document Server

    Tancer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A good cover in R^d is a collection of open contractible sets in R^d such that the intersection of any subcollection is either contractible or empty. Motivated by an analogy with convex sets, intersection patterns of good covers were studied intensively. Our main result is that intersection patterns of good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable. More precisely, the intersection pattern of a good cover can be stored in a simplicial complex called nerve which records which subfamilies of the good cover intersect. A simplicial complex is topologically d-representable if it is isomorphic to the nerve of a good cover in R^d. We prove that it is algorithmically undecidable whether a given simplicial complex is topologically d-representable for any fixed d \\geq 5. As an auxiliary result we prove that if a simplicial complex is PL embeddable into R^d, then it is topologically d-representable. We also supply this result with showing that if a "sufficiently fine" subdivision of a k-dimensional complex is d-represen...

  18. Inverse Limits of Uniform Covering Maps

    OpenAIRE

    LaBuz, Brendon

    2008-01-01

    In ``Rips complexes and covers in the uniform category'' the authors define, following James, covering maps of uniform spaces and introduce the concept of generalized uniform covering maps. Conditions for the existence of universal uniform covering maps and generalized uniform covering maps are given. This paper notes that the universal generalized uniform covering map is uniformly equivalent to the inverse limit of uniform covering maps and is therefore approximated by uniform covering maps....

  19. Thermal properties for vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

    2011-12-01

    Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

  20. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  1. Cover Time and Broadcast Time

    OpenAIRE

    Elsässer, Robert; Sauerwald, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new technique for bounding the cover time of random walks by relating it to the runtime of randomized broadcast. In particular, we strongly confirm for dense graphs the intuition of Chandra et al.~\\cite{CRRST97} that ``the cover time of the graph is an appropriate metric for the performance of certain kinds of randomized broadcast algorithms''. In more detail, our results are as follows: \\begin{itemize} \\item For any graph $G=(V,E)$ of size $n$ and minimum degree $\\delta$, we h...

  2. Covers and the curve complex

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi, Kasra; Schleimer, Saul

    2007-01-01

    We provide the first non-trivial examples of quasi-isometric embeddings between curve complexes. These are induced either by puncturing a closed surface or via orbifold coverings. As a corollary, we give new quasi-isometric embeddings between mapping class groups.

  3. COVERING A CORE BY EXTRUSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnie, A.J.

    1963-07-16

    A method of covering a cylindrical fuel core with a cladding metal ms described. The metal is forced between dies around the core from both ends in two opposing skirts, and as these meet the ends turn outward into an annular recess in the dics. By cutting off the raised portion formed by the recess, oxide impurities are eliminated. (AEC)

  4. Covered bonds vs. assets securitization

    OpenAIRE

    Silviu Eduard DINCĂ

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis global banking and capital markets context, financial institutions around the globe are exploring new options to better secure their financing and refinancing demands. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between covered bonds and asset securitizations as financial markets-based funding techniques, highlighting certain key structuring and implementation specifics on each of them.

  5. Resumes, Applications, and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Good resumes, applications, and cover letters broadcast one's abilities. They tell employers how one's qualifications match a job's responsibilities. If these critical preliminaries are constructed well, one has a better chance of landing interviews--and, eventually, a job. This article provides some guidelines for creating resumes and cover…

  6. Cover times of random searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  7. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  8. Cover Tree Bayesian Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tziortziotis, Nikolaos; Dimitrakakis, Christos; Blekas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an online tree-based Bayesian approach for reinforcement learning. For inference, we employ a generalised context tree model. This defines a distribution on multivariate Gaussian piecewise-linear models, which can be updated in closed form. The tree structure itself is constructed using the cover tree method, which remains efficient in high dimensional spaces. We combine the model with Thompson sampling and approximate dynamic programming to obtain effective exploration po...

  9. Wetting of polymer covered surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Halperin, A.; De Gennes, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    We consider solid surfaces, partly covered with flexible, neutral, linear polymers (by adsorption or by grafting), wetted by a liquid which is a good solvent of the poymer. We give formulae for the spreading coefficient S as a function of chain length, solvent quality and adsorption strength. We also discuss the wetting films obtained in spreading a droplet of (non volatile) solvent : the equilibrium thickness e of the film is a compromise between S (favouring thin films) and the coil entropi...

  10. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  11. Persistent Homology of Filtered Covers

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Maia

    2012-01-01

    We prove an extension to the simplicial Nerve Lemma which establishes isomorphism of persistent homology groups, in the case where the covering spaces are filtered. While persistent homology is now widely used in topological data analysis, the usual Nerve Lemma does not provide isomorphism of persistent homology groups. Our argument involves some homological algebra: the key point being that although the maps produced in the standard proof of the Nerve Lemma do not commute as maps of chain complexes, the maps they induce on homology do.

  12. EXACT ALGORITHM FOR BIN COVERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new arc flow model for the one-dimensional bin covering problem and an algorithm to solve the problem exactly through a branch-and-bound procedure and the technique of column generation. The subproblems occuring in the procedure of branch-and-bound have the same structure and therefore can be solved by the same algorithm. In order to solve effectively the subproblems which are generally large scale, a column generation algorithm is employed. Many rules found in this paper can improve the performance of the methods.

  13. Reproducing butterflies do not increase intake of antioxidants when they could benefit from them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Bischofberger, Ines; Lorenz, Isabel; Scheelen, Lucie; Fischer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    The significance of dietary antioxidants may be limited by the ability of animals to exploit them. However, past studies have focused on the effects of dietary antioxidants after 'antioxidant forced-feeding', and have overlooked spontaneous antioxidant intake. Here, we found that reproducing female Bicyclus anynana butterflies had higher antioxidant defences and enhanced fecundity when forced to consume antioxidants (polyphenols). Interestingly, these positive effects were not constant across the oviposition period. When given the choice between food resources with and without antioxidants, reproducing butterflies did not target antioxidants when they could have benefited the most from them. Moreover, they did not consume more antioxidants than non-reproducing butterflies. These results emphasize that, despite potential positive effects of dietary antioxidants, the ability of animals to exploit them is likely to restrict their ecological significance. PMID:26911341

  14. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  15. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  16. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  17. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered employer. 825.104 Section 825.104 Labor Regulations... LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.104 Covered employer. (a) An employer covered by FMLA is any person engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity...

  18. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered commodity. 65.135 Section 65.135 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered...

  19. 42 CFR 418.202 - Covered services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered services. 418.202 Section 418.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Covered Services § 418.202 Covered services. All services must be...

  20. Finite covering projections of noncommutative torus

    OpenAIRE

    Ivankov, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This article contains is concerned with noncommutative analogue of topological finitely listed covering projections. In my previous article I have already find a family of covering projections of the noncommutative torus. This article describes all covering projections of the noncommutative torus.

  1. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  2. On The Cycle Double Cover Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassab, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, for each graph G, a free edge set F is defined. To study the existence of cycle double cover, the naive cycle double cover of G and F have been defined and studied. In the main theorem, the paper, based on the Kuratowski minor properties, presents a condition to guarantee the existence of a naive cycle double cover for couple (G,F). As a result, the cycle double cover conjecture has been concluded. Moreover, Goddyn's conjecture - asserting if C is a cycle in bridgeless graph G, there is a cycle double cover of G containing C - will have been proved.

  3. Parameterized Algorithms for Partial Cover Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Amini, Omid; Saurabh, Saket

    2008-01-01

    Covering problems are fundamental classical problems in optimization, computer science and complexity theory. Typically an input to these problems is a family of sets over a finite universe and the goal is to cover the elements of the universe with as few sets of the family as possible. The variations of covering problems include well known problems like Set Cover, Vertex Cover, Dominating Set and Facility Location to name a few. Recently there has been a lot of study on partial covering problems, a natural generalization of covering problems. Here, the goal is not to cover all the elements but to cover the specified number of elements with the minimum number of sets. In this paper we study partial covering problems in graphs in the realm of parameterized complexity. Classical (non-partial) version of all these problems have been intensively studied in planar graphs and in graphs excluding a fixed graph $H$ as a minor. However, the techniques developed for parameterized version of non-partial covering problem...

  4. On 2-fold covers of graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yan-Quan; Kutnar, Klavdija; Malnič, Aleksander; Marušič, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    A regular covering projection $\\p\\colon \\tX \\to X$ of connected graphs is $G$-admissible if $G$ lifts along $\\p$. Denote by $\\tG$ the lifted group, and let $\\CT(\\p)$ be the group of covering transformations. The projection is called $G$-split whenever the extension $\\CT(\\p) \\to \\tG \\to G$ splits. In this paper, split 2-covers are considered. Supposing that $G$ is transitive on $X$, a $G$-split cover is said to be $G$-split-transitive if all complements $\\bG \\cong G$ of $\\CT(\\p)$ within $\\tG$ ...

  5. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  6. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  7. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  8. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  9. Does the Cover Letter Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-08-01

    Many journals require a covering letter alongside the submission process. Some of them, particularly elitist journals, pay a particular attention to the cover letter to such extent an editor may decide not to send a paper out for external peer-review because of a 'bad' or absence of a covering letter. As stated in the instructions of many journals, the goal of the covering letter is to emphasize the novelty and to communicate the potential implications of the reported findings. Authors are also invited to tell the handling editor how the topic is related to the journal's scope and to demonstrate how the results fit in broader context of the literature. Here, I briefly discuss if the cover letter is really necessary. PMID:24839946

  10. EASE-Grid Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  11. Three ways to cover a graph

    CERN Document Server

    Knauer, Kolja

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of covering a host graph $G$ with several graphs from a fixed template class ${T}$. The classical covering number of $G$ with respect to ${T}$ is the minimum number of template graphs needed to cover the edges of $G$. We introduce two new parameters: the local and the folded covering number. Each parameter measures how far $G$ is from the template class in a different way. Whereas the folded covering number has been investigated thoroughly for some template classes, e.g., interval graphs and planar graphs, the local covering number was given only little attention. We provide new bounds on each covering number w.r.t. the following template classes: linear forests, star forests, caterpillar forests, and interval graphs. The classical graph parameters turning up this way are interval-number, track-number, and linear-, star-, and caterpillar arboricity. As host graphs we consider graphs of bounded degeneracy, bounded degree, or bounded (simple) tree-width, as well as, outerplanar, planar b...

  12. Annual Detection of Forest Cover Loss Using Time Series Satellite Measurements of Percent Tree Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Peng Song; Chengquan Huang; Sexton, Joseph O.; Saurabh Channan; Townshend, John R.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and test a new method to detect annual forest cover loss from time series estimates of percent tree cover. Our approach is founded on two realistic assumptions: (1) land cover disturbances are rare events over large geographic areas that occur within a short time frame; and (2) spatially discrete land cover disturbances are continuous processes over time. Applying statistically rigorous algorithms, we first detect disturbance pixels as outliers of an underlying chi-square distrib...

  13. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250{degrees}C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure.

  14. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250 degrees C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure

  15. Insurance agreements covering the PAKS NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hungarian Nuclear Insurance Pool was formed in the second half of 1996 with the expressed aim of covering the risks of nuclear installations on the territory of the Hungarian Republic. The Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the first Russian-designed nuclear power plant having nuclear liability insurance cover. Since starting the co-operation with Paks, three different type of insurance cover have been set up by the Pool. These are: nuclear third party liability insurance, liability insurance for nuclear accidents arising during transportation of nuclear fuels and material damage insurance. (N.C.)

  16. 77 FR 48733 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definitions of Covered Business Method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Covered Business Method Patents, 77 FR 7080 (Feb. 10, 2012), to provide rules specific to the transitional... Method Patents, 77 FR 7080 (Feb. 10, 2012) and Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents... Covered Business Method Patents, 77 FR 7080 (Feb. 10, 2012) (notice of proposed rulemaking)...

  17. The kite cover : a new concept for covered codend selectivity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Hansen, K.E.; Moth-Poulsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    wound directly onto the net drum as the catch is hauled. The development and testing of the cover in a flume tank, where it was compared to a hooped cover, are described as well as the practical experience obtained when using the cover at sea. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Compact Manifolds Covered by a Torus

    OpenAIRE

    Demailly, Jean-Pierre; Hwang, Jun-Muk; Peternell, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Let $X$ be a connected compact complex manifold admitting a finite surjective map $A \\to X$ from a complex torus $A.$ We prove that up to finite \\'etale cover, $X$ is a product of projective spaces and a torus.

  19. Global Land Cover Characterization: 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of involvement in multi-scale, and multi-temporal land cover characterization and mapping of the world. During...

  20. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  1. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  2. Cover of source for level indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved safety handling of sources for level indicators used especially in blast furnaces and other facilities is provided by a cover claimed in CS patent document 242082. The cover consists of a case housing a depleted uranium shielding. A channel emptying in the chamber is provided in the shielding in the cover case axis. The channel houses a container with a radiation source shielded with a tungsten source holder shielding at one end and with the cylindrical shielding of a retractable closure at the other. The closure is secured in the shielding position with a safety pin provided with opening for the lock yoke. The safety pin is slidably located in a guide rail with an opening for pin extension. The cover case is firmly linked to a flange provided with a cap. The source holder is protected with a guard fitted to the holder, with the possibility of dismantle. (Z.M.). 1 fig

  3. Orbifoldization, covering surfaces and uniformization theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bántay, P

    1998-01-01

    The connection between the theory of permutation orbifolds, covering surfaces and uniformization is investigated, and the higher genus partition functions of an arbitrary permutation orbifold are expressed in terms of those of the original theory.

  4. On the Multiple Covering Densities of Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Sriamorn, Kirati; Wetayawanich, Akanat

    2014-01-01

    Given a convex disk $K$ and a positive integer $k$, let $\\vartheta_T^k(K)$ and $\\vartheta_L^k(K)$ denote the $k$-fold translative covering density and the $k$-fold lattice covering density of $K$, respectively. Let $T$ be a triangle. In a very recent paper, K. Sriamorn proved that $\\vartheta_L^k(T)=\\frac{2k+1}{2}$. In this paper, we will show that $\\vartheta_T^k(T)=\\vartheta_L^k(T)$.

  5. Land cover fire proneness in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gonzalez Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by forest fires in Europe. The characterization of the fuels is an important issue of the fire regime in each specific ecosystem while, on the other hand, fire is an important disturbance for global vegetation dynamics.Area of study: Southern European countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece.Material and Methods: Corine Land Cover maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006 and burned area (BA perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe are combined to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by wild fires using descriptive statistics and Geographical Information System (GIS techniques.Main results: The spatial and temporal distribution of BA perimeters, vegetation and burnt vegetation by wild fires was performed and different statistics were obtained for Mediterranean and entire Europe, confirming the usefulness of the proposed land cover system. A fire proneness index is proposed to assess the fire selectivity of land cover classes. The index allowed to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire.Research highlights: The usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index. The differences between northern Europe and southern Europe and among the Mediterranean region in what concerns to vegetation cover, fire incidence, area burnt in land cover classes and fire proneness between classes for the different countries.Keywords: Fire proneness; Mixed forests; Land cover/land use; Fire regime; Europe; GIS; Corine land cover

  6. Special study on vegetative covers. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  8. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed

  9. Well-covered graphs and factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    2006-01-01

    a perfect [1,2]-factor F_G, i.e. a spanning subgraph such that each component is 1-regular og 2-regular. Here, we characterize all well-covered graphs G satisfying α(G)=α(F_G) for some perfect [1,2]-factor F_G. This class contains all well-covered graphs G without isolated vertices of order n with α ≥ (n...

  10. Spatial Scaling of Land Cover Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Christopher; Sousa, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial networks of land cover are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. Continuous field proxies for human settlements, agriculture and forest cover have similar spatial scaling properties spanning 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Progressive segmentation of these continuous fields yields spatial networks with rank-size distributions having slopes near -1 for a wide range of thresholds. We consider a general explanation for this scaling that does not require different processes for...

  11. Coverings of topological semi-abelian algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucuk, Osman; Demir, Serap

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we study on a category of topological semi-abelian algebras which are topological models of given an algebraic theory T whose category of models is semi-abelian; and investigate some results on the coverings of topological models of such theories yielding semi-abelian categories. We also consider the internal groupoid structure in the semi-abelian category of T-algebras, and give a criteria for the lifting of internal groupoid structure to the covering groupoids.

  12. Covering of the electric power service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article it is sought to deepen more in the topic of the covering of the electric power service, especially in the related with the mechanisms that could facilitate their amplification. In the new market outline, in the one that the participation of the agents is encouraged in all the activities of the chain of services in which the state is not direct lender of the same one, it is confused the form like a covering will be achieved that is of agreement with the goals that intend in the national plan of development and in the sub sectorial plans. Although the rules of the market one comes consolidating, the process of linking of the private capital, especially in the distribution activity, it evidences the importance of to settle down and to define responsibilities and explicit mechanisms in the topic of expansion of the covering. A first interpretation of the ruled indicates the obligation of the state of extending the covering to 100% and of assuming the projects that don't undertake the matters. This would be the reading from the traditional mentality. However, the regulation of you public services of electricity don't demand a total covering, but rather it covers to the users that have the capacity to assume, with their own resources, the efficient costs of benefit. The service will also be lent to residential users that don't have payment capacity, when there are contribution resources or fiscal resources for subsidiary

  13. Some Results on Incremental Vertex Cover Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenqiang

    In the classical k-vertex cover problem, we wish to find a minimum weight set of vertices that covers at least k edges. In the incremental version of the k-vertex cover problem, we wish to find a sequence of vertices, such that if we choose the smallest prefix of vertices in the sequence that covers at least k edges, this solution is close in value to that of the optimal k-vertex cover solution. The maximum ratio is called competitive ratio. Previously the known upper bound of competitive ratio was 4α, where α is the approximation ratio of the k-vertex cover problem. And the known lower bound was 1.36 unless P = NP, or 2 - ɛ for any constant ɛ assuming the Unique Game Conjecture. In this paper we present some new results for this problem. Firstly we prove that, without any computational complexity assumption, the lower bound of competitive ratio of incremental vertex cover problem is φ, where φ=sqrt{5}+1/2≈ 1.618 is the golden ratio. We then consider the restricted versions where k is restricted to one of two given values(Named 2-IVC problem) and one of three given values(Named 3-IVC problem). For 2-IVC problem, we give an algorithm to prove that the competitive ratio is at most φα. This incremental algorithm is also optimal for 2-IVC problem if we are permitted to use non-polynomial time. For the 3-IVC problem, we give an incremental algorithm with ratio factor (1+sqrt{2})α.

  14. Land cover; 1 : 500 000; Selected land cover classes; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land cover is a suitable means for expressing the secondary landscape structure, as it represents the spatial objects of Earth's surface identified above all according to their morpho-structural and physiognomic traits. Land cover is the result of the effect of anthropic activities and natural factors on the primary landscape structure during a long-term development. It is formed by a set of material elements, which were influenced, partially or totally changed by man and they cover the entire Earth's surface. The characterised landscape structure types derive from the single European database of land cover classes produced under the CORINE land cover project by interpretation of the Landsat TM satellite images at scale 1 : 100 000. The images are from the years 1989 - 1992, the smallest identified area is 25 hectares, the width of the smallest linear element is 100 m. The owner of the CORINE land cover data is the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic. (authors)

  15. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982–2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982–2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period. (letter)

  16. Spatial Scaling of Land Cover Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Spatial networks of land cover are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. Continuous field proxies for human settlements, agriculture and forest cover have similar spatial scaling properties spanning 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Progressive segmentation of these continuous fields yields spatial networks with rank-size distributions having slopes near -1 for a wide range of thresholds. We consider a general explanation for this scaling that does not require different processes for each type of land cover. The same conditions that give rise to scale-free networks in general can produce power law distributions of component sizes for bounded spatial networks confined to a plane or surface. Progressive segmentation of a continuous field naturally results in growth of the network while the increasing perimeters of the growing components result in preferential attachment to the larger components with the longer perimeters. Progressive segmentation of two types of random continuous field results in progr...

  17. Cover song identification by sequence alignment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Li; Zhong, Qian; Wang, Szu-Ying; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2011-10-01

    Content-based music analysis has drawn much attention due to the rapidly growing digital music market. This paper describes a method that can be used to effectively identify cover songs. A cover song is a song that preserves only the crucial melody of its reference song but different in some other acoustic properties. Hence, the beat/chroma-synchronous chromagram, which is insensitive to the variation of the timber or rhythm of songs but sensitive to the melody, is chosen. The key transposition is achieved by cyclically shifting the chromatic domain of the chromagram. By using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to obtain the time sequences of songs, the system is made even more robust. Similar structure or length between the cover songs and its reference are not necessary by the Smith-Waterman Alignment Algorithm.

  18. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  19. On covering expander graphs by Hamilton cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Glebov, Roman; Szabó, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The problem of packing Hamilton cycles in random and pseudorandom graphs has been studied extensively. In this paper, we look at the dual question of covering all edges of a graph by Hamilton cycles and prove that if a graph with maximum degree $\\Delta$ satisfies some basic expansion properties and contains a family of $(1-o(1))\\Delta/2$ edge disjoint Hamilton cycles, then there also exists a covering of its edges by $(1+o(1))\\Delta/2$ Hamilton cycles. This implies that for every $\\alpha >0$ and every $p \\geq n^{\\alpha-1}$ there exists a covering of all edges of $G(n,p)$ by $(1+o(1))np/2$ Hamilton cycles asymptotically almost surely, which is nearly optimal.

  20. Ant Colony Optimization and Hypergraph Covering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pat, Ankit

    2011-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a very popular metaheuristic for solving computationally hard combinatorial optimization problems. Runtime analysis of ACO with respect to various pseudo-boolean functions and different graph based combinatorial optimization problems has been taken up in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the runtime behavior of an MMAS*(Max-Min Ant System) ACO algorithm on some well known hypergraph covering problems that are NP-Hard. In particular, we have addressed the Minimum Edge Cover problem, the Minimum Vertex Cover problem and the Maximum Weak- Independent Set problem. The influence of pheromone values and heuristic information on the running time is analysed. The results indicate that the heuristic information has greater impact towards improving the expected optimization time as compared to pheromone values. For certain instances of hypergraphs, we show that the MMAS* algorithm gives a constant order expected optimization time when the dominance of heuristic information is ...

  1. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, M.J.; Sugita, S.; Mazier, F.; Trondman, A.K.; Brostrom, A.; Hickler, T; J. O. Kaplan; Kjellstrom, E.; Kokfelt, U.; Kunes, P.; Lemmen, C; Miller, P.; Olofsson, J.; Poska, A; Rundgren, M.

    2010-01-01

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover - CLIMate interactions in ...

  2. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    OpenAIRE

    M.-J. Gaillard; Sugita, S.; Mazier, F.; A.-K. Trondman; A. Broström; Hickler, T; J. O. Kaplan; Kjellström, E; Kokfelt, U.; Kuneš, P.; Lemmen, C; Miller, P.; Olofsson, J.; Poska, A; Rundgren, M.

    2010-01-01

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in ...

  3. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, M.-J.; Sugita, S.; Mazier, F.; Trondman, A.-K.; A. Broström; Hickler, T; J. O. Kaplan; Kjellström, E; Kokfelt, U.; Kuneš, P.; Lemmen, C; Miller, P.; Olofsson, J.; Poska, A; Rundgren, M.

    2010-01-01

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover – CLIMat...

  4. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Stehman, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 Alaska land cover classification is the first 30-m resolution land cover product available covering the entire state of Alaska. The accuracy assessment of the NLCD 2001 Alaska land cover classification employed a geographically stratified three-stage sampling design to select the reference sample of pixels. Reference land cover class labels were determined via fixed wing aircraft, as the high resolution imagery used for determining the reference land cover classification in the conterminous U.S. was not available for most of Alaska. Overall thematic accuracy for the Alaska NLCD was 76.2% (s.e. 2.8%) at Level II (12 classes evaluated) and 83.9% (s.e. 2.1%) at Level I (6 classes evaluated) when agreement was defined as a match between the map class and either the primary or alternate reference class label. When agreement was defined as a match between the map class and primary reference label only, overall accuracy was 59.4% at Level II and 69.3% at Level I. The majority of classification errors occurred at Level I of the classification hierarchy (i.e., misclassifications were generally to a different Level I class, not to a Level II class within the same Level I class). Classification accuracy was higher for more abundant land cover classes and for pixels located in the interior of homogeneous land cover patches. ?? 2011.

  5. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, J.A.; Coan, M.J.; Homer, C.G.; Meyer, D.K.; Wickham, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

  6. Quantification of global gross forest cover loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Matthew C.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Potapov, Peter V.

    2010-01-01

    A globally consistent methodology using satellite imagery was implemented to quantify gross forest cover loss (GFCL) from 2000 to 2005 and to compare GFCL among biomes, continents, and countries. GFCL is defined as the area of forest cover removed because of any disturbance, including both natural and human-induced causes. GFCL was estimated to be 1,011,000 km2 from 2000 to 2005, representing 3.1% (0.6% per year) of the year 2000 estimated total forest area of 32,688,000 km2. The boreal biome...

  7. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  8. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  9. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  10. Nuclear reactor vessels with sealable rotatable covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor installations have a rotating cover with an annular blade or skirt which clips into an annular trough of mercury and forms a gas seal. The design is such that abnormal pressure occurring in the reactor vessel is balanced by an increase in level of the mercury. Also applicable to irradiated fuel storage. (U.K.)

  11. AGRONOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF TROPICAL COVER CROPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are important components of a sustainable crop production system. They can be planted with plantation crops such as cacao, coffee, banana, rubber and oil palm or in rotation with cash crops. Their use in a cropping system is mainly beneficial for soil and water conservation, recycling of...

  12. On label graphoidal covering number-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugaperumal Anitha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a graph with p vertices and q edges. An acyclicgraphoidal cover of G is a collection of paths in G which are internallydisjointand covering each edge of the graph exactly once. Let f : V !{1, 2, . . . , p} be a bijective labeling of the vertices of G. Let " Gf bethe directed graph obtained by orienting the edges uv of G from u tov provided f(u < f(v. If the set f of all maximal directed paths in"Gf , with directions ignored, is an acyclic graphoidal cover of G, then fis called a graphoidal labeling of G and G is called a label graphoidal graphand l = min{| f | : f is a graphoidal labeling of G} is called the labelgraphoidal covering number of G. In this paper we characterize graphsfor which (i l = q − m, where m is the number of vertices of degree 2and (ii l = q. Also, we determine the value of label graphoidal coveringnumber for unicyclic graphs.

  13. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  14. Python for Education: The Exact Cover Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Python implementation of Algorithm X by Knuth is presented.
    Algorithm X finds all solutions to the exact cover problem.
    The exemplary results for pentominoes, Latin squares and Sudoku
    are given.

  15. Magic coverings and the Kronecker product

    OpenAIRE

    López Masip, Susana Clara; Muntaner Batle, Francesc Antoni; Rius Font, Miquel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study a relationship existing among (super) magic coverings and the well known Kronecker product of matrices. We also introduce the concept of Z(n)-property for digraphs in order to study this relation mentioned before. The results obtained in this paper can also be applied to construct S-magic partitions.

  16. GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS (GCLS) IN LANDFILL COVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low permeability, compacted clay linters are commonly required as a barrier to water infiltration in landfill covers. elatively new material, known as geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), has been proposed as an alternative to a compacted clay liner. CL has the practical advantages of ...

  17. Cover Image, Volume 14, Issue 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotello, R; Ressel, L; Arvigo, M; Baroni, G; Marchetti, V; Romanelli, G; Burrow, R; Mignacca, D; Blackwood, L

    2016-06-01

    The cover image, by Riccardo Finotello et al., is based on the Original Article Canine pancreatic islet cell tumours secreting insulin-like growth factor type 2 (IGF-II): a rare entity, DOI: 10.1111/vco.12085. PMID:27140206

  18. 16 CFR 436.3 - Cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with a cover page, in the order and form as follows: (a) The title “FRANCHISE DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT” in... begin operation of a franchise is . This includes that must be paid to the franchisor or affiliate. (2) This disclosure document summarizes certain provisions of your franchise agreement and...

  19. Gentzen System for Coalgebraic Cover Modalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; Palmigiano, A.; Venema, Y.

    Amsterdam : University of Amsterdam, 2009. [TACL 2009. Topology, Algebra and Categories in Logic. 07.07.2009-11.07.2009, Amsterdam] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : modal logic * coalgebraic logic * Gentzen systems * cover modality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 侯自新

    2001-01-01

    Vogan conjectured that the parabolic induction of orbit data is independent of the choice of the parabolic subgroup. In this paper we first give the parabolic induction of orbit covers, whose relationship with geometric orbit datum is also induced. Hence we show a geometric interpretation of orbit data and finally prove the conjugation for geometric orbit datum using geometric method.

  1. Covering the Working Space of Mobile Robot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, Stanislav

    Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2014, s. 469-472. ISBN 978-80-214-4817-9. [International Conference on Mechatronics /16./. Brno (CZ), 03.12.2014-05.12.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : mobile robot * path planning * configuration space covering * rapidly exploring random trees Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  2. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  3. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  4. Coupling cover crops and manure injection: cover crop N and P uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injecting manure into established cover crops may reduce N and P losses by increasing nutrient cycling. The objectives of this research were to quantify fall and spring cover crop shoot dry matter (DM) production and N and P uptake following manure injection at increasing target N rates. Liquid swin...

  5. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  6. Quantification of global gross forest cover loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew C; Stehman, Stephen V; Potapov, Peter V

    2010-05-11

    A globally consistent methodology using satellite imagery was implemented to quantify gross forest cover loss (GFCL) from 2000 to 2005 and to compare GFCL among biomes, continents, and countries. GFCL is defined as the area of forest cover removed because of any disturbance, including both natural and human-induced causes. GFCL was estimated to be 1,011,000 km(2) from 2000 to 2005, representing 3.1% (0.6% per year) of the year 2000 estimated total forest area of 32,688,000 km(2). The boreal biome experienced the largest area of GFCL, followed by the humid tropical, dry tropical, and temperate biomes. GFCL expressed as the proportion of year 2000 forest cover was highest in the boreal biome and lowest in the humid tropics. Among continents, North America had the largest total area and largest proportion of year 2000 GFCL. At national scales, Brazil experienced the largest area of GFCL over the study period, 165,000 km(2), followed by Canada at 160,000 km(2). Of the countries with >1,000,000 km(2) of forest cover, the United States exhibited the greatest proportional GFCL and the Democratic Republic of Congo the least. Our results illustrate a pervasive global GFCL dynamic. However, GFCL represents only one component of net change, and the processes driving GFCL and rates of recovery from GFCL differ regionally. For example, the majority of estimated GFCL for the boreal biome is due to a naturally induced fire dynamic. To fully characterize global forest change dynamics, remote sensing efforts must extend beyond estimating GFCL to identify proximate causes of forest cover loss and to estimate recovery rates from GFCL. PMID:20421467

  7. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Australian land cover has been dramatically altered since European settlement primarily for agricultural utilization, with native vegetation widely replaced or modified for cropping and intensive animal production. While there have been numerous investigations into the regional and near surface climate impacts of Australian land cover change, these investigation have not included the climate impacts of larger-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and their associated feedbacks, or the impacts of longer-term soil moisture feedbacks. In this research the CSIRO General Circulation Model (GCM) was used to investigate the climate impacts of Australian land cover change, with larger-scale and longer-term feedbacks. To avoid the common problem of overstating the magnitude and spatial extent of changes in land surface conditions prescribed in land cover change experiments, the current Australian land surface properties were described from finer-scale, satellite derived land cover datasets, with land surface conditions extrapolating from remnant native vegetation to pre-clearing extents to recreate the pre-clearing land surface properties. Aggregation rules were applied to the fine-scale data to generate the land surface parameters of the GCM, ensuring the equivalent sub-grid heterogeneity and land surface biogeophysics were captured in both the current and pre-clearing land surface parameters. The differences in climate simulated in the pre-clearing and current experiments were analyzed for changes in Australian continental and regional climate to assess the modeled climate impacts of Australian land cover change. The changes in modeled climate were compared to observed changes in Australian precipitation over the last 50 and 100 years to assess whether modeled results could be detected in the historical record. The differences in climate simulation also were analyzed at the global scale to assess the impacts of local changes on larger scale circulation and climate at

  8. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, M.-J.; Sugita, S.; Mazier, F.; Trondman, A.-K.; Broström, A.; Hickler, T.; Kaplan, J. O.; Kjellström, E.; Kokfelt, U.; Kuneš, P.; Lemmen, C.; Miller, P.; Olofsson, J.; Poska, A.; Rundgren, M.; Smith, B.; Strandberg, G.; Fyfe, R.; Nielsen, A. B.; Alenius, T.; Balakauskas, L.; Barnekow, L.; Birks, H. J. B.; Bjune, A.; Björkman, L.; Giesecke, T.; Hjelle, K.; Kalnina, L.; Kangur, M.; van der Knaap, W. O.; Koff, T.; Lagerâs, P.; Latałowa, M.; Leydet, M.; Lechterbeck, J.; Lindbladh, M.; Odgaard, B.; Peglar, S.; Segerström, U.; von Stedingk, H.; Seppä, H.

    2010-07-01

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover - CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene) currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4) to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need for methods such as the REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is demonstrated to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. This will achieve a robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs) at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are expected to provide crucial data to reassess

  9. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-J. Gaillard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The major objectives of this paper are: (1 to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC developed during the last ten years, (2 to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites, to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3 to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4 to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need for methods such as the REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is demonstrated to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. This will achieve a robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are expected to provide crucial data

  10. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-J. Gaillard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The major objectives of this paper are: (1 to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC developed during the last ten years, (2 to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites, to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3 to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4 to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need of REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is proved to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. Thus, the application of REVEALS opens up the possibility of achieving a more robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are

  11. EnviroAtlas - Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the percentage of land area that is classified as forest land cover, modified forest land cover, and natural land cover using the 2006...

  12. Propagation of food and cover plants for waterfowl

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the propagation of food and cover plants for waterfowl. The report covers the general conditions of development of aquatic plants. Please note...

  13. NLCD Land Cover Data for the National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This tabular dataset includes land cover classes and acres and percentages of land cover for the National Wildlife Refuge System. The National Land Cover Database...

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - LAND_COVER_2006_USGS_IN: Land Cover in Indiana, Derived from the 2006 National Land Cover Database (United States Geological Survey, 30-Meter TIFF Image)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LAND_COVER_2006_USGS_IN is a grid (30-meter cell size) showing 2006 Land Cover data in Indiana. This grid is a subset of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD 2006)...

  15. Georadar Measurements for the Snow Cover Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Godio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground Probing Radar (GPR devices is adopted for the analysis of thickness and the mechanical properties (density of the snow cover in some test site in Alps, in Northern Italy. The performances of standard radar systems for the snow cover characterisation are analysed, the main aim is to assess the reliability of the method to estimate the snow density, the snowpack thickness and the depth resolution in terms of capability to detect thin layers. The main relationships between the electrical permittivity and the density of the dry-snow are applied to estimate the density vertical profiles inferred by the GPR investigation. The data were calibrated and compared with the results coming from direct measurements of the density and thickness.

  16. A New Steganography for Crypto Cover Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanikaiselvan V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Data security has become an indispensable part with rapid progress in digital technology. Secret information particularly needs to be handled with utmost care while transmitting through internet or any other media as well. Out of many techniques for securing data Cryptography and Steganography are the most efficient methods. The latter hides the data whereas the former encrypts the data. In thispaper we propose a new methodology that incorporates both these techniques to facilitate robust data security. The cover image is first encrypted using Arnold algorithm, and then the secret data which could be a text file or binary data is hidden using LSB substitution and Pixel Value Differencing (PVD to embed data adaptively in the encrypted cover image to give near full-proof security. In order to increase PSNR optimisation technique Optimum Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP has been used.

  17. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  18. Cover slip external cavity diode laser

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Adra V; Waitukaitis, Scott R; Perreault, John D; Lonij, Vincent P A; Cronin, Alexander D

    2007-01-01

    The design of a 671 nm diode laser with a mode-hop-free tuning range of 40 GHz is described. This long tuning range is achieved by simultaneously ramping the external cavity length with the laser injection current. The external cavity consists of a microscope cover slip mounted on piezoelectric actuators. In such a configuration the laser output pointing remains fixed, independent of its frequency. Using a diode with an output power of 5-7 mW, the laser linewidth was found to be smaller than 30 MHz. This cover slip cavity and feedforward laser current control system is simple, economical, robust, and easy to use for spectroscopy, as we demonstrate with lithium vapor and lithium atom beam experiments.

  19. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4γ + 2 and γ >= 1 (γ = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2γ + 1 (resp. 4γ + 2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4γ + 4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the γ-involution has at least one common fixed point. (author). 15 refs

  20. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, Rozaliya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, Thomas R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meisner, Roberta Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rosseel, Thomas M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  1. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available. PMID:24680540

  2. Extreme Learning Machine for land cover classification

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Mahesh

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of extreme learning machine based supervised classification algorithm for land cover classification. In comparison to a backpropagation neural network, which requires setting of several user-defined parameters and may produce local minima, extreme learning machine require setting of one parameter and produce a unique solution. ETM+ multispectral data set (England) was used to judge the suitability of extreme learning machine for remote sensing classifications...

  3. Forest cover: setting targets for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov Georgii A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The International Year of Forests, declared by the UN, is a good occasion to discuss approaches to reducing forest degradation in developing countries. The articles collected in Thematic Forest Series form a diversity of ideas which is essential for setting the levels below which the countries' reduced emissions could be measured and credited. This editorial calls attention to the use of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change models.

  4. Cover Song Identification with Timbral Shape Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Tralie, Christopher J.; Bendich, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel low level feature for identifying cover songs which quantifies the relative changes in the smoothed frequency spectrum of a song. Our key insight is that a sliding window representation of a chunk of audio can be viewed as a time-ordered point cloud in high dimensions. For corresponding chunks of audio between different versions of the same song, these point clouds are approximately rotated, translated, and scaled copies of each other. If we treat MFCC embeddings as point...

  5. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Dynamic Approximate Vertex Cover and Maximum Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Onak, Krzysztof; Rubinfeld, Ronitt

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of maintaining a large matching or a small vertex cover in a dynamically changing graph. Each update to the graph is either an edge deletion or an edge insertion. We give the first randomized data structure that simultaneously achieves a constant approximation factor and handles a sequence of k updates in k. polylog(n) time. Previous data structures require a polynomial amount of computation per update. The starting point of our construction is a distributed algorit...

  7. Domination, Eternal Domination, and Clique Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.

  8. Land cover fire proneness in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Gonzalez Pereira; Jose Aranha; Malik Amraoui

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: This study aims to identify and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of vegetation that are most affected by forest fires in Europe. The characterization of the fuels is an important issue of the fire regime in each specific ecosystem while, on the other hand, fire is an important disturbance for global vegetation dynamics.Area of study: Southern European countries: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece.Material and Methods: Corine Land Cover maps for...

  9. Seismic Surveys in Ice-Covered Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Klavenes, Jørgen Sørensen

    2013-01-01

    The master’s thesis ‘Seismic surveys in ice-covered waters’ describes several methods within the maritime seismic industry to acquire data concerning the Earth’s strata. It is the objective of this thesis to present a viable solution enabling the seismic industry to perform surveys in ice influenced waters. The hardware conducted for conventional seismic surveys are introduced and explained. Arctic area and ice issues in regards to marine seismic surveys are investigated. A suitable theor...

  10. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Decision support system to select cover systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this technology is to provide risk managers with a defensible, objective way to select capping alternatives for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills. The process of selecting containment cover technologies for mixed waste landfills requires consideration of many complex and interrelated technical, regulatory, and economic issues. A Decision Support System (DSS) is needed to integrate the knowledge of experts from scientific, engineering, and management disciplines to help in selecting the best capping practice for the site

  12. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  13. Approximating Sparse Covering Integer Programs Online

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    A covering integer program (CIP) is a mathematical program of the form: min {c^T x : Ax >= 1, 0 <= x <= u, x integer}, where A is an m x n matrix, and c and u are n-dimensional vectors, all having non-negative entries. In the online setting, the constraints (i.e., the rows of the constraint matrix A) arrive over time, and the algorithm can only increase the coordinates of vector x to maintain feasibility. As an intermediate step, we consider solving the covering linear program (CLP) online, where the integrality requirement on x is dropped. Our main results are (a) an O(log k)-competitive online algorithm for solving the CLP, and (b) an O(log k log L)-competitive randomized online algorithm for solving the CIP. Here k<=n and L<=m respectively denote the maximum number of non-zero entries in any row and column of the constraint matrix A. By a result of Feige and Korman, this is the best possible for polynomial-time online algorithms, even in the special case of set cover.

  14. Global warming: Sea ice and snow cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of differences among global climate simulations under scenarios where atmospheric CO2 is doubled, all models indicate at least some amplification of greenouse warming at the polar regions. Several decades of recent data on air temperature, sea ice, and snow cover of the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are summarized to illustrate the general compatibility of recent variations in those parameters. Despite a data void over the Arctic Ocean, some noteworthy patterns emerge. Warming dominates in winter and spring, as projected by global climate models, with the warming strongest over subpolar land areas of Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Eurasia. A time-longitude summary of Arctic sea ice variations indicates that timescales of most anomalies range from several months to several years. Wintertime maxima of total sea ice extent contain no apparent secular trends. The statistical significance of trends in recent sea ice variations was evaluated by a Monte Carlo procedure, showing a statistically significant negative trend in the summer. Snow cover data over the 20-y period of record show a noticeable decrease of Arctic snow cover in the late 1980s. This is of potential climatic significance since the accompanying decrease of surface albedo leads to a rapid increase of solar heating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, Marie José; Sugita, Shinya; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, A-K; Broström, Anna; Hickler, Thomas; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kjellström, Erik; Kokfelt, Ulla; Kunes, Petr; Lemmen, Carsten; Miller, Paul A; Olofsson, Jörgen; Poska, Anneli; Rundgren, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past landcover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM:LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in NW...

  16. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, M.J.; Sugita, S.; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, A.-K.; Brostrom, Anna; Hickler, T; J. O. Kaplan; Kjellström, E; Kokfelt, U.; Kunes, P.; Lemmen, C; Miller, P.; Olofsson, J.; Poska, A; Rundgren, M.

    2010-01-01

    The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past landcover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM:LAND cover - CLIMate interactions in NW...

  17. Cover gas purification experience at KNK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KNK II is an experimental, sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. The reactor was operated until 1974 with a thermal core (KNK I). The plant was converted into a fast breeder reactor (KNK II) from 1974 to 1977. The commissioning of KNK II was started in October 1977 with the first fast core KNK 11/1. After 400 effective full power days (EFPD) the reactor was shut down in August 1982. After replacing the complete core by the second fast core KNK 11/2, the plant went into operation again in August 1983. In August 1986 nearly 400 EFPD were achieved with the second fast core. Argon is used as cover gas in the primary and secondary sodium systems of KNK. In former times fresh argon was supplied by a bundle of gas cylinders. Later on a liquid argon supply was installed. Purification of cover gas is done by flushing only. During KNK I operation no fuel failures occurred. The primary cover gas activity was characterized by the formation of Ar-41, only small quantities of fission gas were measured, released from 'tramp uranium'. Therefore, no problems existed during KNK I operation with regard to radioactive gas disposal. However, after start-up of KNK II, several fuel elements failed. Until August 1986, five fuel failures were observed, two in KNK 11/1, and three in KNK 11/2. Sometimes, operation with defective fuel pins caused problems when fission gases leaked into the containment atmosphere, and the access had to be restricted. The purging rate of the primary cover gas was limited by the capacity of the charcoal filters in the delay line. Of all non-radioactive impurities, hydrogen (Hz) and nitrogen (N2) were of most importance in the primary cover gas. Main source of both impurities was the ingress of air and atmospheric moisture during handling operations in shutdown periods. An other possible source for hydrogen might be a release from the steel-clad zirconium hydride, used as moderator in the moderated driver fuel elements. Additional nitrogen may diffuse through the

  18. National Land Cover Database 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 1992-2001 Retrofit Change Product What is the NLCD 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product? Although one of the guiding principles of the NLCD 2001 design...

  19. LANDSAT applications by the Adirondack Park Agency for land cover analyses and forest cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. S.; Curran, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Adirondack Park Agency is using LANDSAT imagery to provide current, consistent parkwide data on forest cover, forest change and other land cover characteristics for the Adirondack Park, an area of 9,375 sq. miles (24,280 sq km). Boundaries of the study area were digitized and the data were enhanced and geographically rectified. A classification scheme was devised which emphasized the basic land cover types of the Park: hardwoods, spruce-fir, pine, wet conifer, brushland, grassland, agricultural areas, exposed earth, urban areas, and water bodies. Cover type classifications for disturbed forest land were also chosen: cut hardwoods, regenerating hardwoods, and cut spruce fir. Field verification of 1978 classification revealed an accurate differentiation of forest types within types and between nonforested/forested areas. The classification accurately detects forest land disturbances; however, it is not always descriptive of the level of disturbance.

  20. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Meramec Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information...

  1. Cover gas seals: 26-cover gas seal components. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, O.P. III; Horton, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in FY 1977 on the Cover Gas Seal Components and Fuel Handling Subcomponent Development programs included: CRBRP inflatable seal vendor qualification, static inflatable seal development, sodium wetting tests, and sodium carry over tests of hoist chain. (DLC)

  2. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    OpenAIRE

    Tiina Köster; Raimo Kõlli

    2013-01-01

    Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic) mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness...

  3. Annual Detection of Forest Cover Loss Using Time Series Satellite Measurements of Percent Tree Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Song

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and test a new method to detect annual forest cover loss from time series estimates of percent tree cover. Our approach is founded on two realistic assumptions: (1 land cover disturbances are rare events over large geographic areas that occur within a short time frame; and (2 spatially discrete land cover disturbances are continuous processes over time. Applying statistically rigorous algorithms, we first detect disturbance pixels as outliers of an underlying chi-square distribution. Then, we fit nonlinear, logistic curves for each identified change pixel to simultaneously characterize the magnitude and timing of the disturbance. Our method is applied using the yearly Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF tree cover product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and the resulting disturbance-year estimates are evaluated using a large sample of Landsat-based forest disturbance data. Temporal accuracy is ~65% at 250-m, annual resolution and increases to >85% when temporal resolution is relaxed to ±1 yr. The r2 of MODIS VCF-based disturbance rates against Landsat ranges from 0.7 to 0.9 at 5-km spatial resolution. The general approach developed in this study can be potentially applied at a global scale and to other land cover types characterized as continuous variables from satellite data.

  4. Modelling land cover dynamics: integration of fine-scale land cover data with landscape attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Benoît; Lambin, Eric

    Land cover change detection based on remote sensing data allows the identification of major processes of change and, by inference, the characterization of land use dynamics. Empirical diagnostic models of land use/cover change can be developed from these observations. To grasp the complexity of landscape mosaics and changes in land use, fine-scale land cover and socio-economic data are required. Case studies need to be representative of conditions at a broader scale, and selected where sufficient knowledge on social and ecological processes leading to land use changes exists. For this reason, collaboration between remote sensing specialists and human ecologists conducting long-term field-based land use studies is extremely productive. Continental-scale analysis of Africa was conducted to detect land cover change "hot spots". Fine-scale analyses were performed for validation purposes and to understand better the land cover change processes. Spatial statistical models of land cover change can be developed in order to anticipate where changes are more likely to occur next. Such predictive information is essential to support the implementation of appropriate policy responses to, for example, land degradation that would lead to the depletion of essential resources. Results of a spatial model of deforestation in southern Cameroon are discussed.

  5. Ladar-based terrain cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Jose; Manduchi, Roberto; Matthies, Larry H.

    2001-09-01

    An autonomous vehicle driving in a densely vegetated environment needs to be able to discriminate between obstacles (such as rocks) and penetrable vegetation (such as tall grass). We propose a technique for terrain cover classification based on the statistical analysis of the range data produced by a single-axis laser rangefinder (ladar). We first present theoretical models for the range distribution in the presence of homogeneously distributed grass and of obstacles partially occluded by grass. We then validate our results with real-world cases, and propose a simple algorithm to robustly discriminate between vegetation and obstacles based on the local statistical analysis of the range data.

  6. Covering a Crucible with Metal Containing Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    In a procedure that partly resembles the lost-wax casting process, a crucible made of a brittle material (ceramic, quartz, or glass) is covered with a layer of metal containing channels. The metal cover and the channels can serve any or all of several purposes, depending upon the application: Typically, the metal would serve at least partly to reinforce the crucible. The channels could be used as passages for narrow objects that could include thermocouples and heat-transfer strips. Alternatively or in addition, channels could be used as flow paths for liquid or gaseous coolants and could be positioned and oriented for position- or direction-selective cooling. In some cases, the channels could be filled with known gases and sealed so that failure of the crucibles could be indicated by instruments that detect the gases. The process consists of three main steps. In the first step, a pattern defining the channels is formed by wrapping or depositing a material in the desired channel pattern on the outer surface of the crucible. The pattern material can be a plastic, wax, low-ash fibrous material, a soluble material, or other suitable material that can subsequently be removed easily. In a proof-of-concept demonstration (see figure), the crucible was an alumina cylinder and the mold material was plastic tie-down tape. In the second step, the patterned crucible is coated with metal. In one variation of the second step, a very thin layer containing or consisting of an electrically conductive material (e.g., gold, silver, or carbon) is painted or otherwise deposited on the mold-covered crucible, then the covering metal required for the specific application is electrodeposited on the very thin conducting layer. In another variation of the second step, the metal coat is formed by chemical vapor deposition. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, a layer of nickel 0.003 in. ( 0.08 mm) thick was electrodeposited. In the third step, the patterned material is removed. This is

  7. Making meaning(s with cover designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Reed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article Halliday’s systemic functional grammar, Kress and Van Leeuwen’s grammar of visual design and Bernstein’s work on pedagogic discourse are drawn on in order to analyze some of the ways in which meanings are made and some meanings privileged over others in the designing, both visual and discursive, of the covers of three course books prepared for teacher education programmes in South Africa. The primary aim of this analysis is to understand what meanings are offered to readers as entrants into or as established members of communities of practice in the teaching profession and the academy.

  8. Small Planar Monopole Covers Multiband BRANS

    OpenAIRE

    Ammann, Max; Doyle, L. E.

    2000-01-01

    The use of a single antenna which can cover a wide range of frequencies is a desirable feature for future wireless communications systems. The emerging self-organising and ad-hoc networks require more than an octave of bandwidth to facilitate multiband operation. A shorted planar monopole antenna is optimised for future wireless networking bands by suitable choice of planar dimension and feedgap separation. The antenna offers a return-loss greater than 10 dB from 1.60 GHz to 5.90 GHz. The rad...

  9. 21 CFR 882.5250 - Burr hole cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burr hole cover. 882.5250 Section 882.5250 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5250 Burr hole cover. (a) Identification. A burr hole cover is a plastic or metal device used to cover or plug holes drilled into the...

  10. Fuel element transport container with a removable cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cover of the fuel element transport container is removably fixed with screws on a flange as mechanical loads have to be expected during the transfer to the disposal plant. A ring-shaped or star-shaped clamping device grips over the cover. It has a clamp claw to lock the cover and permits unscrewing without unlocking the cover. (DG)

  11. Lock-in thermography of OLEDs through cover glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lovera, T.; Van der Tempel, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many photovoltaic cells and OLEDs are covered by cover glass or foil to protect the device against oxygen and moisture. The cover glassor foil is semitransparent for infrared radiation and conducts the heat and blurs lock-in thermograms. In lock-in thermograms of OLEDs with cover glass short circu

  12. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  13. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  14. Compilation and Assessment of Pan-European Land Cover Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Hazeu, G.W.; Mucher, C.A.; Kramer, H; F. Kienast

    2008-01-01

    Land cover is changing in many parts of Europe at an increasing rate. The knowledge on these land cover changes is important for spatial planning, resource evaluation, ecological modelling etc. Modification of ecosystems is most visible through changing land cover. Furthermore, spatio-temporal models that describe and predict land cover change due to social and economic processes need reliable information on land cover changes in order to calibrate and validate these models (Kaufman and Seto,...

  15. Estimating fractional vegetation cover of oasis in Tarim Basin, China, using dimidiate fractional cover model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoyong; Han, Ling

    2015-12-01

    Oasis is an important component of desert ecosystem. This paper employs Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multi-spectral data to extract fractional vegetation cover of oasis in Tarim Basin with four methods. The mixture pixel decomposition model based on normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) is firstly used to estimate fractional vegetation cover(FVC). The results indicated that the method is mainly underestimating the FVC at the low FVC area and overestimating the FVC at high FVC area. Thereafter, a stepwise regression model between 15 Vegetation Indices (VIs) and measured FVC data and a log-linear model have been established through the relation analysis of FVC and NDVI. Trials of these two models showed that they are mainly overestimating the FVC. Finally, a dimidiate fractional cover model was proposed, which is composed of two linear functions. When the NDVI is less than 0.3, the linear function is formed by stress related vegetation index (STVI1) and normal differential water index (NDWI) (R2, 0.764) while the NDVI is greater than 0.3, the linear function is composed of NDVI and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) (R2, 0.801). The validation of the dimidiate fractional cover model has been tested with the measured data. In the optimal case, the mean error is 0.002 and the RMSE is 0.051, demonstrating that the model can be used in estimating fractional vegetation cover of oasis in Tarim Basin.

  16. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    John Devaney; Brian Barrett; Frank Barrett; John Redmond; John O Halloran

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estima...

  17. Forest cover estimation in Ireland using radar remote sensing: a comparative analysis of forest cover assessment methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O'Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estima...

  18. Analysis and Comparison of a Detailed Land Cover Dataset versus the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) in Blacksburg, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    White, Claire McKenzie

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have completed accuracy assessments on the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), little research has utilized a detailed digitized land cover dataset, like that available for the Town of Blacksburg, for this comparison. This study aims to evaluate the information available from a detailed land cover dataset and compare it with the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) at a localized scale. More specifically, it utilizes the detailed land cover dataset for the Town of Blacksbur...

  19. Aerosol growth in the cover gas space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerosol equation appropriate to the cover gas space is derived with a growth term specified by the total mass fluxes across the cavity. A relation between the maximum supersaturation reached in boundary layers and the aerosol number density and mean droplet size enables calculations to be made of the aerosol size distribution, the settling flux and mean aerosol density. Possible saturations are related to temperatures and sizes of nuclei which could induce heterogeneous nucleation, and it is concluded that nucleation is more likely to occur in the colder upper boundary layer. For a fixed saturation in this layer, the settling rate increases faster than the aerosol density with increase in pool temperature. (author)

  20. On Approximating Four Covering and Packing Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Mary; Berman, Piotr; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; DasGupta, Bhaskar; Kao, Ming-Yang; 10.1016/j.jcss.2009.01.002

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider approximability issues of the following four problems: triangle packing, full sibling reconstruction, maximum profit coverage and 2-coverage. All of them are generalized or specialized versions of set-cover and have applications in biology ranging from full-sibling reconstructions in wild populations to biomolecular clusterings; however, as this paper shows, their approximability properties differ considerably. Our inapproximability constant for the triangle packing problem improves upon the previous results; this is done by directly transforming the inapproximability gap of Haastad for the problem of maximizing the number of satisfied equations for a set of equations over GF(2) and is interesting in its own right. Our approximability results on the full siblings reconstruction problems answers questions originally posed by Berger-Wolf et al. and our results on the maximum profit coverage problem provides almost matching upper and lower bounds on the approximation ratio, answering a...

  1. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  2. Extreme Learning Machine for land cover classification

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Mahesh

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of extreme learning machine based supervised classification algorithm for land cover classification. In comparison to a backpropagation neural network, which requires setting of several user-defined parameters and may produce local minima, extreme learning machine require setting of one parameter and produce a unique solution. ETM+ multispectral data set (England) was used to judge the suitability of extreme learning machine for remote sensing classifications. A back propagation neural network was used to compare its performance in term of classification accuracy and computational cost. Results suggest that the extreme learning machine perform equally well to back propagation neural network in term of classification accuracy with this data set. The computational cost using extreme learning machine is very small in comparison to back propagation neural network.

  3. On the Complexity of Planar Covering of Small Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bílka, Ondřej; Klavík, Pavel; Tancer, Martin; Volec, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The problem Cover(H) asks whether an input graph G covers a fixed graph H (i.e., whether there exists a homomorphism G to H which locally preserves the structure of the graphs). Complexity of this problem has been intensively studied. In this paper, we consider the problem PlanarCover(H) which restricts the input graph G to be planar. PlanarCover(H) is polynomially solvable if Cover(H) belongs to P, and it is even trivially solvable if H has no planar cover. Thus the interesting cases are when H admits a planar cover, but Cover(H) is NP-complete. This also relates the problem to the long-standing Negami Conjecture which aims to describe all graphs having a planar cover. Kratochvil asked whether there are non-trivial graphs for which Cover(H) is NP-complete but PlanarCover(H) belongs to P. We examine the first nontrivial cases of graphs H for which Cover(H) is NP-complete and which admit a planar cover. We prove NP-completeness of PlanarCover(H) in these cases.

  4. CLC2000 land cover database of the Netherlands; monitoring land cover changes between 1986 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeu, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    The 1986 CORINE land cover database of the Netherlands was revised and updated on basis of Landsat satellite images and ancillary data. Interpretation of satellite images from 1986 and 2000 resulted in the CLC2000, CLC1986rev and CLCchange databases. A standard European legend and production methodo

  5. Monitoring urban land cover change by updating the national land cover database impervious surface products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 is widely used as a baseline for national land cover and impervious conditions. To ensure timely and relevant data, it is important to update this base to a more recent time period. A prototype method was developed to update the land cover and impervious surface by individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season from both 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, impervious surface was estimated for areas of change by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain a variety of metropolitan areas. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of impervious surface changes associated with urban developments were accurately captured and updated. The approach optimizes mapping efficiency and can provide users a flexible method to generate updated impervious surface at national and regional scales. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  6. Shuttle landing facility cloud cover study: Climatological analysis and two tenths cloud cover rule evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Michael K.; Schumann, Robin; Taylor, Greg; Warburton, John; Wheeler, Mark; Yersavich, Ann

    1993-05-01

    The two-tenths cloud cover rule in effect for all End Of Mission (EOM) STS landings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) states: 'for scattered cloud layers below 10,000 feet, cloud cover must be observed to be less than or equal to 0.2 at the de-orbit burn go/no-go decision time (approximately 90 minutes before landing time)'. This rule was designed to protect against a ceiling (below 10,000 feet) developing unexpectedly within the next 90 minutes (i.e., after the de-orbit burn decision and before landing). The Applied Meteorological Unit (AMU) developed and analyzed a database of cloud cover amounts and weather conditions at the Shuttle Landing Facility for a five-year (1986-1990) period. The data indicate the best time to land the shuttle at KSC is during the summer while the worst time is during the winter. The analysis also shows the highest frequency of landing opportunities occurs for the 0100-0600 UTC and 1300-1600 UTC time periods. The worst time of the day to land a shuttle is near sunrise and during the afternoon. An evaluation of the two-tenths cloud cover rule for most data categorizations has shown that there is a significant difference in the proportions of weather violations one and two hours subsequent to initial conditions of 0.2 and 0.3 cloud cover. However, for May, Oct., 700 mb northerly wind category, 1500 UTC category, and 1600 UTC category there is some evidence that the 0.2 cloud cover rule may be overly conservative. This possibility requires further investigation. As a result of these analyses, the AMU developed nomograms to help the Spaceflight Meteorological Group (SMG) and the Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility (CCFF) forecast cloud cover for EOM and Return to Launch Site (RTLS) at KSC. Future work will include updating the two tenths database, further analysis of the data for several categorizations, and developing a proof of concept artificial neural network to provide forecast guidance of weather constraint violations for shuttle

  7. Investigation of daily covering material for biocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

    2014-02-01

    Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglabāšanas sfērā, sakarā ar Direktīvas 1999/31/EC pieņemšanu, ir zaudējusi savu aktualitāti, taču šī metode vēl joprojām var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu noārdīšanai un biogāzes ražošanai. Viena no iespējām kā samazināt bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir biošūnu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstrādei pirms to noglabāšanas. Šūnas piepildīšana ikdienā prasa nepieciešamību izolēt lielāko tās daļu, lai samazinātu gāzes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materiāli, kas ikdienā tiek izmantoti atkritumu pārklāšanai, nepietiekami ietekmē bioprocesus, kas pamatā ir galvenais biošūnas izmantošanas mērķis. Šajā sakarā ir veikta dažādu tirdzniecībā pieejamu pārklājuma materiālu izpēte, pielietojot virkni fizikālo, ķīmisko un bioloģisko metožu, un nosakot svarīgākos parametrus, kas ir b

  8. National Land Cover Data for the National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Natural Resources Program Center conducted a land cover analysis to determine land cover types, acres and their subsequent percentages for the National Wildlife...

  9. Council tax precept failed to cover cost of NLW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Charging residents extra council tax to help pay for social care is insufficient to cover current funding gaps and has failed to cover the cost of the national living wage (NLW), a report warns. PMID:27573947

  10. National Land Cover Database 2006: 2005-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 2006 quantifies land cover and land cover change between the years 2001 to 2006 and provides an updated version of NLCD 2001. These products represent the...

  11. Cover Image, Volume 113, Number 8, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Guzman, Adrian R; Thapa, Hem R; Devarenne, Timothy P; Han, Arum

    2016-08-01

    Cover Legend The cover image, by Arum Han et al., is based on the Article A droplet microfluidics platform for rapid microalgal growth and oil production analysis, DOI: 10.1002/bit.25930. PMID:27348569

  12. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CAPILLARY BARRIER FINAL LANDFILL COVERS FACT SHEET

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fact sheet provides an overview of two alternative landfill cover designs. It briefly describes advantages and limitations, performance, costs, design and site considerations, and monitoring parameters associated with these cover designs. The document also includes 20 site ...

  13. Enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 (NLCDe 92)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 ("NLCDe 92") served as the primary source for nationally consistent mapped land cover during the first decade of sampling...

  14. Cover Image, Volume 117, Number 8, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David E; Brown, Jacob L; Rosa, Megan E; Brown, Lemuel A; Perry, Richard A; Wiggs, Michael P; Nilsson, Mats I; Crouse, Stephen F; Fluckey, James D; Washington, Tyrone A; Greene, Nicholas P

    2016-08-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Nicholas P. Greene et al., is based on the Article microRNA-16 Is Downregulated During Insulin Resistance and Controls Skeletal Muscle Protein Accretion, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25476. PMID:27301891

  15. 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land cover data were derived...

  16. Cover Image, Volume 231, Number 12, December 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Kashton, Cheryl; Lichtensztejn, Daniel; Baloglu, Erkan; Senapedis, William; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael G; Kotb, Rami; Mai, Sabine

    2016-12-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Sabine Mai et al., is based on the Research Article XPO1 Inhibition Preferentially Disrupts the 3D Nuclear Organization of Telomeres in Tumor Cells, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.25378. PMID:27548513

  17. Cover Image, Volume 231, Number 10, October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Rajiv, Vishwaesh; Shenoy, Sudha K

    2016-10-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Sudha K. Shenoy et al., is based on the Mini-Review Ubiquitin-Related Roles of β-Arrestins in Endocytic Trafficking and Signal Transduction, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.25317. PMID:27315163

  18. Cover Image, Volume 117, Number 9, September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaganapalli, Babajan; Mohammed, Kaleemuddin; Khan, Imran Ali; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Elango, Ramu; Shaik, Noor Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Noor Ahmad Shaik et al., is based on the Article A Computational Protein Phenotype Prediction Approach to Analyze the Deleterious Mutations of Human MED12 Gene, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25499. PMID:27392314

  19. Covering line graphs with equivalence relations

    CERN Document Server

    Esperet, L; King, A

    2010-01-01

    An equivalence graph is a disjoint union of cliques, and the equivalence number $\\mathit{eq}(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the minimum number of equivalence subgraphs needed to cover the edges of $G$. We consider the equivalence number of a line graph, giving improved upper and lower bounds: $\\frac 13 \\log_2\\log_2 \\chi(G) < \\mathit{eq}(L(G)) \\leq 2\\log_2\\log_2 \\chi(G) + 2$. This disproves a recent conjecture that $\\mathit{eq}(L(G))$ is at most three for triangle-free $G$; indeed it can be arbitrarily large. To bound $\\mathit{eq}(L(G))$ we bound the closely-related invariant $\\sigma(G)$, which is the minimum number of orientations of $G$ such that for any two edges $e,f$ incident to some vertex $v$, both $e$ and $f$ are oriented out of $v$ in some orientation. When $G$ is triangle-free, $\\sigma(G)=\\mathit{eq}(L(G))$. We prove that even when $G$ is triangle-free, it is NP-complete to decide whether or not $\\sigma(G)\\leq 3$.

  20. Mental Accounting: A New Behavioral Explanation of Covered Call Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Hammad

    2014-01-01

    The empirical performance of covered call writing is quite puzzling in the traditional finance framework. Covered call writing is typically a risk reducing strategy so its expected return should be less than the expected return on the underlying in an efficient market. However, recent empirical evidence suggests (covering a period from 1988 onwards) that the covered call writing has nearly the same return as the underlying whereas the standard deviation of returns is considerably less. Market...

  1. Cloud removal methodology from MODIS snow cover product

    OpenAIRE

    Gafurov, A.; Bárdossy, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) employed by Terra and Aqua satellites provides spatially snow covered data with 500 m and daily temporal resolution. It delivers public domain data in raster format. The main disadvantage of the MODIS sensor is that it is unable to record observations under cloud covered regions. This is why this study focuses on estimating the pixel cover for cloud covered areas where no information is available. Our step to this product involves empl...

  2. Wildfire Selectivity for Land Cover Type: Does Size Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Ana M. G.; José M.C. Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that fires burn certain land cover types disproportionally to their abundance. We used quantile regression to study land cover proneness to fire as a function of fire size, under the hypothesis that they are inversely related, for all land cover types. Using five years of fire perimeters, we estimated conditional quantile functions for lower (avoidance) and upper (preference) quantiles of fire selectivity for five land cover types - annual crops, evergreen...

  3. 10 CFR 950.31 - Covered event dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered event dispute resolution. 950.31 Section 950.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Dispute Resolution Process § 950.31 Covered event dispute resolution. (a) If a sponsor disagrees with the Covered...

  4. Compilation and Assessment of Pan-European Land Cover Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeu, G.W.; Mucher, C.A.; Kramer, H.; Kienast, F.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover is changing in many parts of Europe at an increasing rate. The knowledge on these land cover changes is important for spatial planning, resource evaluation, ecological modelling etc. Modification of ecosystems is most visible through changing land cover. Furthermore, spatio-temporal model

  5. 16 CFR 501.5 - Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.5 Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases. Table covers, bedsheets, and pillowcases, fabricated from paper, are exempt from the requirements of § 500.12 of...

  6. THE ECONOMICS OF COVER CROP BIOMASS FOR CORN AND COTTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inclusion of cover crops into cropping systems brings both direct and indirect costs and benefits to the farm. A myriad of studies have examined the economic benefits of cover crops in multiple cropping systems by comparing them to systems without cover crops. To date, economic research pertaini...

  7. Semiautomatic land cover mapping according to the 2nd level of the CORINE Land Cover legend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golenia Martyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actual land cover maps are a very good source of information on present human activities. It increases value of actual spatial databases and it is a key element for decision makers. Therefore, it is important to develop fast and cheap algorithms and procedures of spatial data updating. Every day, satellite remote sensing deliver vast amount of new data, which can be semi-automatically classified.

  8. Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change with Airborne S-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Ningthoujam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, forest classification with optical data is limited by its insensitivity to three-dimensional canopy structure and cloud cover obscuring many forest regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors are increasingly being used to mitigate these problems, mainly in the L-, C- and X-band domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. S-band has not been systematically studied for this purpose. In anticipation of the British built NovaSAR-S satellite mission, this study evaluates the benefits of polarimetric S-band SAR for forest characterisation. The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS-I radiative transfer model is utilised to understand the scattering mechanisms in forest canopies at S-band. The MIMICS-I model reveals strong S-band backscatter sensitivity to the forest canopy in comparison to soil characteristics across all polarisations and incidence angles. Airborne S-band SAR imagery over the temperate mixed forest of Savernake Forest in southern England is analysed for its information content. Based on the modelling results, S-band HH- and VV-polarisation radar backscatter and the Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI are used in a forest/non-forest Maximum Likelihood classification at a spatial resolution of 6 m (70% overall accuracy, κ = 0.41 and 20 m (63% overall accuracy, κ = 0.27. The conclusion is that S-band SAR such as from NovaSAR-S is likely to be suitable for monitoring forest cover and its changes.

  9. EASE-Grid 2.0 Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  10. Braiding surface links which are coverings over the standard torus

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAMURA, Inasa

    2009-01-01

    We consider a surface link in the 4-space which can be presented by a simple branched covering over the standard torus, which we call a torus-covering link. Torus-covering links include spun $T^2$-knots and turned spun $T^2$-knots. In this paper we braid a torus-covering link over the standard 2-sphere. This gives an upper estimate of the braid index of a torus-covering link. In particular we show that the turned spun $T^2$-knot of the torus $(2,\\,p)$-knot has the braid index four.

  11. Accuracy assessment of global land cover maps: lessons learnt from the GlobCover and GlobCorine experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defourny, P.; Bontemps, S.; Obsomer, V.; Schouten, L.; Bartalev, S.; Herold, M.; Bicheron, P.; Bogaert, van E.; Leroy, M.; Arino, O.

    2010-01-01

    The validation of global land cover products becomes a critical and challenging issue as more global products are made available more regularly to the international community. The GlobCover 2005 product delivered in 2008 was the first global land cover product at 300 m resolution. Later on, the MODI

  12. Insurance Cover for Revised Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will

  13. Parametric analyses of evapotranspiration landfill covers in humid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural soils are more durable than almost all man-made materials. Evapotranspiration (ET covers use vegetated soil layers to store water until it is either evaporated from the soil surface or transpired through vegetation. ET covers rely on the water storage capacity of soil layer, rather than low permeability materials, to minimize percolation. While the use of ET covers in landfills increased over the last decade, they were mainly used in arid or semi-arid regions. At present, the use of ET covers has not been thoroughly investigated in humid areas. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of ET covers in humid areas where there is an annual precipitation of more than 800 mm. Numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the influences of cover thickness, soil type, vegetation level and distribution of precipitation on performance of ET covers. Performance and applicability of capillary barriers and a new-type cover were analyzed. The results show that percolation decreases with an increasing cover thickness and an increasing vegetation level, but the increasing trend becomes unclear when certain thickness or LAI (leaf area index is reached. Cover soil with a large capability of water storage is recommended to minimize percolation. ET covers are significantly influenced by distribution of precipitation and are more effective in areas where rainy season coincides with hot season. Capillary barriers are more efficient than monolithic covers. The new cover is better than the monolithic cover in performance and the final percolation is only 0.5% of the annual precipitation.

  14. Validation of Land Cover Products Using Reliability Evaluation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. This study proposes a validation schema to evaluate the reliability of land cover products, including two methods, namely, result reliability evaluation and process reliability evaluation. Result reliability evaluation computes the reliability of land cover products using seven reliability indicators. Process reliability evaluation analyzes the reliability propagation in the data production process to obtain the reliability of land cover products. Fuzzy fault tree analysis is introduced and improved in the reliability analysis of a data production process. Research results show that the proposed reliability evaluation scheme is reasonable and can be applied to validate land cover products. Through the analysis of the seven indicators of result reliability evaluation, more information on land cover can be obtained for strategic decision-making and planning, compared with traditional accuracy assessment methods. Process reliability evaluation without the need for reference data can facilitate the validation and reflect the change trends of reliabilities to some extent.

  15. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  16. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs

  17. Digital land cover/use databases of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Rikanovič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The most frequently used land cover/used data sets of Slovenia in Geological Survey of Slovenia and their methodologies are presented in the article. These are CORINE Land Cover, Statistical land cover/use GIS of Slovenia and Agriculture land use monitoring. They are based on different methodologies, data sources and categorization, but primarily designed for GIS use. Though they all have certain disadvantages, they still represent relevant data for general land use analysis.

  18. Forest cover change in the Czech Republic - trajectories, drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kapuka, Alpo Mpande

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTS: There are many forces that act individually or together to create changes in the forest and landscapes. This Thesis serves as a case study to assess the spatial changes in forest cover in the entire Czech Republic. Main questions: How much did the forest cover change in macrostructure? And what are the main driving forces behind these changes? The study aims to provide answers to these questions through forest cover change analyses. This can be useful in forest management and p...

  19. Land Cover Change and Soil Fertility Decline in Tropical Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemink, Alfred E.; Veldkamp, Tom; Bai, Zhanguo

    2008-01-01

    Land cover changes influence the biogeochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the earth. Studies that assessed land cover changes at the global scale mostly focused on: deforestation, cropland expansion, dry land degradation, urbanisation, pasture expansion, and agricultural intensification. For the assessment, remotely sensed land-cover data, census data, and expert knowledge were used. In tropical regions, forest is cleared for the expansion of cropland, wood extraction, or infrastructure exp...

  20. Land cover change and soil fertility decline in tropical regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemink, A.E.; Veldkamp, A.; Bai, Zhanguo

    2008-01-01

    Land cover changes influence the biogeochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the earth. Studies that assessed land cover changes at the global scale mostly focused on: deforestation, cropland expansion, dry land degradation, urbanisation, pasture expansion, and agricultural intensification. For the assessment, remotely sensed land-cover data, census data, and expert knowledge were used. In tropical regions, forest is cleared for the expansion of cropland, wood extraction, or infrastructure exp...

  1. Snow cover data derived from MODIS for water balance applications

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gafurov; Bárdossy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Snow cover information is of central importance for the estimation of water storage in cold mountainous regions. It is difficult to assess distributed snow cover information in a catchment in order to estimate possible water resources. It is especially a challenge to obtain snow cover information for high mountainous areas. Usually, snow depth is measured at meteorological stations, and it is relatively difficult to extrapolate this spatially or temporally since it highly depends on available...

  2. Concrete cover cracking due to uniform reinforcement corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe; Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica;

    2013-01-01

    and reinforcement de-passivation is a frequently used limit state. The present paper investigates an alternative limit state: corrosion-induced cover cracking. Results from numerical simulations of concrete cover cracking due to reinforcement corrosion are presented. The potential additional service...... from the numerical simulations reveal that, depending on the serviceability limit state applied, the service life of a reinforced concrete structure can be increased significantly by allowing minor damage of the cover....

  3. Nitriding of steels in fast reactor cover gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although nitrogen levels in the cover gas of PFR have not reached the values discussed in the paper it would seem from this preliminary study that the recommendation that nitrogen levels in the cover gas should not exceed 1000 vpm is a reasonable value to keep within if the tensile properties of the steels are not to be affected by exposure to low levels of nitrogen in cover gas environments

  4. Land Cover of Virginia From Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, David Dean

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of land cover is important in a variety of natural resources applications. This knowledge becomes more powerful within the spatial analysis capabilities of a geographic information system (GIS). This thesis presents a digital land cover map of Virginia, produced through interpretation of 14 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes, circa 1991-1993. The land cover map, which has a 30m pixel size, was produced entirely with personal computers. Hypercluster aggregation, an unsuper...

  5. Deriving Snow Cover Metrics for Alaska from MODIS

    OpenAIRE

    Chuck Lindsay; Jiang Zhu; Amy E. Miller; Peter Kirchner; Wilson, Tammy L.

    2015-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow cover products provide an opportunity for determining snow onset and melt dates across broad geographic regions; however, cloud cover and polar darkness are limiting factors at higher latitudes. This study presents snow onset and melt dates for Alaska, portions of western Canada and the Russian Far East derived from Terra MODIS snow cover daily 500 m grid data (MOD10A1) and evaluates our method for filling data gaps caused by cl...

  6. A Topological Approach to Soft Covering Approximation Space

    OpenAIRE

    Tozlu, Naime; Yuksel, Saziye; Simsekler, Tugba Han

    2015-01-01

    Theories of rough sets and soft sets are powerful mathematical tools for modelling various types of vagueness. Hybrid model combining a rough set with a soft set which is called soft rough set proposed by Feng et al. [3] in 2010. In this paper, we study soft covering based rough sets from the topological view. We present under which conditions soft covering lower approximation operation become interior operator and the soft covering upper approximation become closure operator. Also some new m...

  7. Digital land cover/use databases of Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Rada Rikanovič

    2004-01-01

    The most frequently used land cover/used data sets of Slovenia in Geological Survey of Slovenia and their methodologies are presented in the article. These are CORINE Land Cover, Statistical land cover/use GIS of Slovenia and Agriculture land use monitoring. They are based on different methodologies, data sources and categorization, but primarily designed for GIS use. Though they all have certain disadvantages, they still represent relevant data for general land use analysis.

  8. Identifying Protein-Protein Interaction Sites Using Covering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Song; Jiaxing Cheng; Xiuquan Du

    2009-01-01

    Identification of protein-protein interface residues is crucial for structural biology. This paper proposes a covering algorithm for predicting protein-protein interface residues with features including protein sequence profile and residue accessible area. This method adequately utilizes the characters of a covering algorithm which have simple, lower complexity and high accuracy for high dimension data. The covering algorithm can achieve a comparable performance (69.62%, Complete dataset; 60....

  9. UMTRAP research on cover design for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the UMTRAP research on radon attenuation and tailings cover design, the basis and general procedures are available for designing covers for uranium tailings piles to meet present criteria for radon emissions. The general procedures involve assessment of the radon source strength of the tailings, definition of candidate cover materials, assessment of their moisture retention and radon diffusion properties, computing the required thicknesses of these materials, comparing costs, and evaluating long-term performance criteria. Final selection of the cover design must assure adequate long-term performance and radon retention as first priority, and keep costs to a minimum in achieving this goal

  10. Numerical simulation of mechanical breakup of river ice-cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; HE Liang; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jueyi

    2013-01-01

    Ice jams and ice dams in rivers will cause significant rises of water levels.Under extreme conditions,the ice flooding during winter or early spring may occur.In this paper,by considering the fluid-solid coupling effect caused by the water and the ice cover,the mechanisms of the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover are studied.A formula is obtained for determining whether or not the mechanical breakup process would happen under the hydraulic pressure of the flow.Combined with the hydraulic model under the ice covered flow,a numerical model is built and the interaction between the discharge,the hydraulic pressure under the ice cover and the date for the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover is simulated.The simulated results of the dates for the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover agree very well with the field observations of the breakups of the river ice cover in the Hequ Reach of the Yellow River.Therefore,the numerical model might serve as a good preliminary step in studying the breakup of the river ice-cover,evidencing many important parameters that affect the ice-cover process.

  11. Models for hydrologic design of evapotranspiration landfill covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Victor L; Gimon, Dianna M; Bonta, James V; Howell, Terry A; Malone, Robert W; Williams, Jimmy R

    2005-09-15

    The technology used in landfill covers is changing, and an alternative cover called the evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover is coming into use. Important design requirements are prescribed by Federal rules and regulations for conventional landfill covers but not for ET landfill covers. There is no accepted hydrologic model for ET landfill cover design. This paper describes ET cover requirements and design issues, and assesses the accuracy of the EPIC and HELP hydrologic models when used for hydrologic design of ET covers. We tested the models against high-quality field measurements available from lysimeters maintained by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture at Coshocton, Ohio, and Bushland, Texas. The HELP model produced substantial errors in estimating hydrologic variables. The EPIC model estimated ET and deep percolation with errors less than 7% and 5%, respectively, and accurately matched extreme events with an error of less than 2% of precipitation. The EPIC model is suitable for use in hydrologic design of ET landfill covers. PMID:16201652

  12. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian ZHANG

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation into the underlying waste. This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM. Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers. Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers. In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover, the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm, respectively. The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil. The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow. Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration, thus reducing percolation.

  13. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-xian ZHANG; Zhan-yu ZHANG; Kang WANG

    2009-01-01

    Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation) into the underlying waste.This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers) and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM).Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers.Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers.In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover,the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm,respectively.The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil.The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow.Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration,thus reducing percolation.

  14. SPECIAL ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL STORMWATER RUNOFF COVERS OVER SLIT TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L; Luther Hamm, L

    2008-12-18

    Solid Waste Management (SWM) commissioned this Special Analysis (SA) to determine the effects of placing operational stormwater runoff covers (referred to as covers in the remainder of this document) over slit trench (ST) disposal units ST1 through ST7 (the center set of slit trenches). Previously the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entered into an agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to place covers over Slit Trenches 1 and 2 to be able to continue disposing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) solid waste (see USDOE 2008). Because the covers changed the operating conditions, DOE Order 435.1 (DOE 1999) required that an SA be performed to assess the impact. This Special Analysis has been prepared to determine the effects of placing covers over slit trenches at about years 5, 10 and 15 of the 30-year operational period. Because some slit trenches have already been operational for about 15 years, results from analyzing covers at 5 years and 10 years provide trend analysis information only. This SA also examined alternatives of covering Slit Trenches 1 and 2 with one cover and Slit Trenches 3 and 4 with a second cover versus covering them all with a single cover. Based on modeling results, minimal differences exist between covering Slit Trench groups 1-2 and 3-4 with two covers or one large cover. This SA demonstrates that placement of covers over slit trenches will slow the subsequent release and transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone in the early time periods (from time of placement until about 100 years). Release and transport of some radionuclides in the vadose zone beyond 100 years were somewhat higher than for the case without covers. The sums-of-fractions (SOFs) were examined for the current waste inventory in ST1 and ST2 and for estimated inventories at closure for ST3 through ST7. In all

  15. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    OpenAIRE

    Recep Gundogan; Abdullah E. Akay; Alaaddin Yüksel

    2008-01-01

    The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land cover types and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor imagery has been widely used in classification process of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessing satellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellite sensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases...

  16. Continental estimates of forest cover and forest cover changes in the dry ecosystems of Africa between 1990 and 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Bodart, Catherine; Brink, Andreas B.; Donnay, François; Lupi, Andrea; Mayaux, Philippe; Achard, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study provides regional estimates of forest cover in dry African ecoregions and the changes in forest cover that occurred there between 1990 and 2000, using a systematic sample of medium-resolution satellite imagery which was processed consistently across the continent. Location The study area corresponds to the dry forests and woodlands of Africa between the humid forests and the semi-arid regions. This area covers the Sudanian and Zambezian ecoregions. Methods A systematic sample o...

  17. CORINE land cover and floristic variation in a Mediterranean wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallonardo, Tommaso; Landi, Marco; Frignani, Flavio; Geri, Francesco; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Angiolini, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate whether CORINE land cover classes reflect significant differences in floristic composition, using a very detailed CORINE land cover map (scale 1:5000); (2) decompose the relationships between floristic assemblages and three groups of explanatory variables (CORINE land cover classes, environmental characteristics and spatial structure) into unique and interactive components. Stratified sampling was used to select a set of 100-m(2) plots in each land cover class identified in the semi-natural wetland surrounding a lake in central Italy. The following six classes were considered: stable meadows, deciduous oak dominated woods, hygrophilous broadleaf dominated woods, heaths and shrublands, inland swamps, canals or watercourses. The relationship between land cover classes and floristic composition was tested using several statistical techniques in order to determine whether the results remained consistent with different procedures. The variation partitioning approach was applied to identify the relative importance of three groups of explanatory variables in relation to floristic variation. The most important predictor was land cover, which explained 20.7% of the variation in plant distribution, although the hypothesis that each land cover class could be associated with a particular floristic pattern was not verified. Multi Response Permutation Analysis did not indicate a strong floristic separability between land cover classes and only 9.5% of species showed a significant indicator value for a specific land cover class. We suggest that land cover classes linked with hygrophilous and herbaceous communities in a wetland may have floristic patterns that vary with fine scale and are not compatible with a land cover map. PMID:21229303

  18. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE TIRE-COVER PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pozdniakova, O.; Statilko, M.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using tire-cover pyrolysis products as a fuel has been investigated. The technical operation factors of pyrolysis products have been determined. The comparative analysis of tire-cover utilization products and traditional fuels has been carried out.

  19. The Analysis of Spot-5 Characteristics on land cover classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐开明

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge about land cover and land use has become increasingly important as the Nation plans to overcome the problems of uncontrolled development, deteriorating environmental quality, loss of prime agricultural lands etc. Land use and land cover data are needed in the analysis of environmental processes and problems to know if living conditions and standards are to be improved or maintained at current levels.

  20. The analysis of SPOT-5 characteristics on land cover classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUKai-ming

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge about land cover and land use has become increasingly important as the Nation plans to overeome the problems of uncontrolled development, deteriorating environmental quality, loss of prime agricultural lands etc. Land use and land cover data are needed in the analysis of environmental processes and problems to know if riving conditions and standards are to be improved or maintained at current levels.

  1. Covered exstrophy with anorectal malformation and vaginal duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawa Monika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Covered exstrophy is a rare variant of the exstrophy-epispadias complex. We report a female newborn with covered exstrophy, absent anal opening and duplication of the introitus and the lower vagina. This rare, previously unreported, combination of anomalies highlights the complexity of the embryological events in the caudal area during separation of the hindgut and allantois.

  2. 10 CFR 950.33 - Covered costs dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered costs dispute resolution. 950.33 Section 950.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Dispute Resolution Process § 950.33 Covered costs dispute resolution. (a) If a sponsor disagrees with the Claim...

  3. Chemical behaviour of zinc in cover gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that enhancement of 65-Zn in the cover gas regions of reactor plant may increase levels of radioactivity and provide potential embrittlement situations has lead to a limited metallurgical and chemical investigation into how this element behaves in cover gas environments. This paper reports the chemical findings from those investigations and compare results obtained with those anticipated from thermodynamic predictions

  4. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.125 Commingled covered commodities....

  5. Hairy vetch seedbank persistence and implications for cover crop management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is a fast growing, winter hardy annual legume that can produce shoot biomass levels upwards of 6500 kg ha-1. This cover crop is well suited for summer annual grain rotations, as it fixes considerable amounts of nitrogen, reduces erosion through rapid ground cover, an...

  6. Radon attenuation handbook for uranium mill tailings cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook has been prepared to facilitate the design of earthen covers to control radon emission from uranium mill tailings. Radon emissions from bare and covered uranium mill tailings can be estimated from equations based on diffusion theory. Basic equations are presented for calculating surface radon fluxes from covered tailings, or alternately, the cover thicknesses required to satisfy a given radon flux criterion. Also described is a computer code, RAECOM, for calculating cover thicknesses and surface fluxes. Methods are also described for measuring diffusion coefficients for radon, or for estimating them from empirical correlations. Since long-term soil moisture content is a critical parameter in determining the value of the diffusion coefficient, methods are given for estimating the long-term moisture contents of soils. The effects of cover defects or advection are also discussed and guidelines are given for determining if they are significant. For most practical cases, advection and cover defect effects on radon flux can be neglected. Several examples are given to demonstrate cover design calculations, and an extensive list of references is included. 63 references, 18 figures, 6 tables

  7. Cover Crop Chart: An Intuitive Educational Resource for Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Mark A.; Johnson, Holly; Archer, David; Hendrickson, John; Nichols, Kristine; Schmer, Marty; Tanaka, Don

    2013-01-01

    Interest in cover crops by agricultural producers has increased the need for information regarding the suitability of crops for addressing different production and natural resource goals. To help address this need, staff at the USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Laboratory developed a decision aid called the Cover Crop Chart (CCC). Visually…

  8. Forest value and optimal rotations in continuous cover forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Jensen, Frank; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    imply uneven-aged dynamics, and while a number of numerical studies have analysed specific continuous cover forest ecosystems in search of optimal management regimes, no one has tried to capture key dynamics of continuous cover forestry in simple mathematical models. In this paper we develop a simple...

  9. Cover Image, Volume 117, Number 7, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dujaili, Saja A; Koh, Amy J; Dang, Ming; Mi, Xue; Chang, Wenhan; Ma, Peter X; McCauley, Laurie K

    2016-07-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Laurie K. McCauley et al., is based on the Article Calcium Sensing Receptor Function Supports Osteoblast Survival and Acts as a Co-Factor in PTH Anabolic Actions in Bone, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25447. PMID:27145428

  10. EVALUATING ECOREGIONS FOR SAMPLING AND MAPPING LAND-COVER PATTERNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecoregional stratification has been proposed for sampling and mapping land- cover composition and pattern over time. Using a wall-to-wall land-cover map of the United States, we evaluated geographic scales of variance for 17 landscape pattern indices, and compared stratification ...

  11. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  12. Modeling Heat and Mass Transfer from Fabric-Covered Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Gibson

    2009-01-01

    Fabric-covered cylinders are convenient analogs forclothing systems. The geometry is well defined andincludes many of the effects that are important ingarments. Fabric-covered cylinder models are usedin conjunction with laboratory measurements ofmaterial properties to calculate heat and mass transferproperties of clothing under specific conditions ofenvironmental wind speed, temperature, and relativehumidity.

  13. Cover Image, Volume 117, Number 11, November 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Malyšková, Barbora; Küntziger, Thomas; Collas, Philippe; Cmarko, Dušan; Raška, Ivan; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Kozubek, Stanislav; Bártová, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Eva Bártová et al., is based on the Article Localized Movement and Levels of 53BP1 Protein Are Changed by γ-irradiation in PML Deficient Cells, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25551. PMID:27603158

  14. Field Performance Of Three Compacted Clay Landfill Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted at sites in subtropical Georgia, seasonal and humid Iowa, and arid southeastern California to evaluate the field hydrology of compacted clay covers for final closure of landfills. Water balance of the covers was monitored with large (10 by 20 m ), instrumen...

  15. EVALUATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL COVER DESIGNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) Model was used to evaluate the hydrologic behavior of a series of one-, two-, and three-layer cover designs for municipal solid waste landfill cover designs were chosen to isolate the effects of features such as surface veg...

  16. Cover Image, Volume 231, Number 8, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Chan, Brandon; Grati, M'hamed; Mittal, Jeenu; Patel, Kunal; Debs, Luca H; Patel, Amit P; Yan, Denise; Chapagain, Prem; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Xue Liu et al., is based on the Review Article Molecular Structure and Regulation of P2X Receptors With a Special Emphasis on the Role of P2X2 in the Auditory System, DOI: 10.1002/jcp.25274. PMID:27088259

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF VEGETATION COVER, ROUGHNESS AND ALBEDO DISTRIBUTION OVER CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正秋; 周秀骥; 李维亮; 徐兴奎

    2001-01-01

    To build land surface dataset for climate model, with application of remote sensing technique as well as the Geographic Information System (GIS), the data of surface type, roughness and albedo over China in 1997 were retrieved, resolutions being 10 km× 10 km. Based on these data,an analysis is conducted on the geographic distributions and seasonal variations of surface vegetation cover and roughness as well as albedo over China. Results show that surface vegetation cover is mainly located to the south of Yangtze River, in Southwest and Northeast China and sparse vegetation cover is in the Northwest. The variation of land surface cover affects the variations of land surface roughness and albedo. High albedo occurred in the north of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the north of Northeast China and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in winter, in correspondence with the location of snow cover.For most part of China, surface roughness decreases and albedo increases in winter, while the roughness increases and the albedo decreases in summer, which could mainly result from land surface cover (snow cover and vegetation cover) and soil moisture changes. This shows that the geographic distribution and seasonal variation of the albedo are alnost opposite to those of the roughness, in agreement with theoretical results. Temporally, the amplitude of surface roughness change is quite small in comparison with the roughness itself.

  18. Cluster-tilted algebras and their intermediate coverings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Bin

    2008-01-01

    We construct the intermediate coverings of cluster-tilted algebras by defining the generalized cluster categories. These generalized cluster categories are Calabi-Yau triangulated categories with fraction CY-dimension and have also cluster tilting objects (subcategories). Furthermore we study the representations of these intermediate coverings of cluster-tilted algebras.

  19. Tree cover changes in- and ouside protected areas in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, J.-C.

    between tree cover change and general human pressure. We did not find a significant correlation between tree cover change inside and outside PAs with increasing general human pressures. The lack of correlation could be due to the huge reforestation China has carried out the last years, mainly to stop...

  20. 50 CFR 600.405 - Types of statistics covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of statistics covered. 600.405 Section 600.405 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Statistics § 600.405 Types of statistics covered. NOAA is authorized under the Magnuson-Stevens Act and...

  1. 5 CFR 352.304 - International organizations covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International organizations covered. 352... REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.304 International organizations covered. (a) An agency may detail or transfer an employee under this...

  2. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at pplanning in the region.

  3. Rips complexes and covers in the uniform category

    CERN Document Server

    Brodskiy, N; Labuz, B; Mitra, A

    2007-01-01

    Berestovskii and Plaut introduced a theory of covers for uniform spaces generalizing their work for topological groups. The class of uniform spaces for which their theory works well are so-called coverable spaces. In their approach composition of covers may not be a cover and it is difficult to determine if a particular compact space is coverable. Part of the problem is that they generalize only regular covers in topology and those may not be preserved by compositions. In this paper we introduce covers for uniform spaces by expanding the concept of generalized paths of Krasinkiewicz and Minc. We use paths in Rips complexes and their homotopy classes possess a natural uniform structure. Applying Rips complexes leads to a natural class of uniform spaces for which our theory of covers works as well as the classical one, namely the class of uniformly joinable spaces. In the case of metric continua (compact and connected metric spaces) that class is identical with pointed 1-movable spaces, a well-understood class ...

  4. Cover Image, Volume 117, Number 10, October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Vivian Y L; Larma, Irma; Harvey, Jennet; Thomas, Marc A; Bentel, Jacqueline M

    2016-10-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Jacqueline May Bentel et al., is based on the Article Activity of ABCG2 Is Regulated by Its Expression and Localization in DHT and Cyclopamine-Treated Breast Cancer Cells, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25523. PMID:27479943

  5. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 19 - Covered Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered Transactions Appendix to Part 19 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Pt. 19, App. Appendix to Part 19—Covered Transactions ER26NO03.000...

  6. 34 CFR Appendix to Part 85 - Covered Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered Transactions Appendix to Part 85 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Pt. 85, App. Appendix to Part 85—Covered Transactions ER26NO03.001...

  7. 21 CFR Appendix to Part 1404 - Covered Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Covered Transactions Appendix to Part 1404 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Pt. 1404, App. Appendix to Part 1404—Covered Transactions ER26NO03.000...

  8. 76 FR 79204 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of minimum random drug testing rate. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has set the calendar year 2012 minimum random drug testing rate at 50 percent of covered crewmembers. DATES: The minimum random...

  9. 76 FR 1448 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of minimum random drug testing rate. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has set the calendar year 2011 minimum random drug testing rate at 50 percent of covered crewmembers. DATES: The minimum random...

  10. 78 FR 4855 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of minimum random drug testing rate. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has set the calendar year 2013 minimum random drug testing rate at 25 percent of covered crewmembers. The Coast Guard will continue...

  11. Positioning Resumes and Cover Letters as Reflective-Reflexive Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Chalice

    2012-01-01

    Although the resume and cover letter genre is widely discussed in both popular and scholarly publications, discussion thus far has failed to acknowledge that the process of creating a resume and cover letter has the potential for encouraging students' reflective and reflexive capacities. This article suggests that business communication educators…

  12. Modeling Heat and Mass Transfer from Fabric-Covered Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gibson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabric-covered cylinders are convenient analogs forclothing systems. The geometry is well defined andincludes many of the effects that are important ingarments. Fabric-covered cylinder models are usedin conjunction with laboratory measurements ofmaterial properties to calculate heat and mass transferproperties of clothing under specific conditions ofenvironmental wind speed, temperature, and relativehumidity.

  13. Enhanced Cover Assessment Project:Soil Manipulation and Revegetation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W. Joseph [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Albright, Dr. Bill [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Benson, Dr. Craig [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management is evaluating methods to enhance natural changes that are essentially converting conventional disposal cell covers for uranium mill tailings into water balance covers. Conventional covers rely on a layer of compacted clayey soil to limit exhalation of radon gas and percolation of rainwater. Water balance covers rely on a less compacted soil “sponge” to store rainwater, and on soil evaporation and plant transpiration (evapotranspiration) to remove stored water and thereby limit percolation. Over time, natural soil-forming and ecological processes are changing conventional covers by increasing hydraulic conductivity, loosening compaction, and increasing evapotranspiration. The rock armor on conventional covers creates a favorable habitat for vegetation by slowing soil evaporation, increasing soil water storage, and trapping dust and organic matter, thereby providing the water and nutrients needed for plant germination, survival, and sustainable transpiration. Goals and Objectives Our overall goal is to determine if allowing or enhancing these natural changes could improve cover performance and reduce maintenance costs over the long term. This test pad study focuses on cover soil hydrology and ecology. Companion studies are evaluating effects of natural and enhanced changes in covers on radon attenuation, erosion, and biointrusion. We constructed a test cover at the Grand Junction disposal site to evaluate soil manipulation and revegetation methods. The engineering design, construction, and properties of the test cover match the upper three layers of the nearby disposal cell cover: a 1-foot armoring of rock riprap, a 6-inch bedding layer of coarse sand and gravel, and a 2-foot protection layer of compacted fine soil. The test cover does not have a radon barrier—cover enhancement tests leave the radon barrier intact. We tested furrowing and ripping as means for creating depressions parallel to the slope

  14. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation over Oil-Covered Sea Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Jin, Wei; Guo, Li-Xin

    2012-07-01

    An exhaustive analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation over an oil-covered sea surface in an evaporation duct environment is studied in comparison with those of the oil-free sea surface. Instead of using the traditional rms height formula, which only considers the oil-free sea surface, we reduce the rms height of a one-dimensional oil-covered sea surface based on the Pierson-Moskowitz sea spectrum. Then, the electromagnetic wave propagation over the oil-covered sea surface in an evaporation duct environment with different wind speeds and frequencies is discussed by the parabolic equation for a fully oil-covered sea surface. In addition, the influence of the fractional filling factor on the electromagnetic wave propagation over non-fully oil-covered sea surface is also investigated. The results show that the oil film can reduce the sea surface roughness and strengthen the trapping effect in an evaporation duct environment.

  15. Seasat SAR identification of dry climate urban land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, F. M.; Wharton, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Digitally processed Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the Denver, Colorado area was examined to assess its potential for mapping urban land cover and the compatibility of SAR derived classes with those described in the U.S. Geological Survey classification system. The entire scene was interpreted to generate a small-scale land cover map. In addition, six subscene enlargements representative of urban land cover categories extant in the area were used as test sites for detailed analysis of land cover types. Two distinct approaches were employed and compared in examining the imagery - a visual interpretation of black-and-white positive transparencies and an automated-machine/visual interpretation. The latter used the Image 100 interactive image analysis system to generate land cover classes by density level slicing of the image frequency histogram.

  16. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach

  17. Towards realistic Holocene land cover scenarios: integration of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological records and comparison to global land cover scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brue, Hanne; Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Notebaert, Bastiaan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and spatially explicit landscape reconstructions for distinct time periods in human history are essential for the quantification of the effect of anthropogenic land cover changes on, e.g., global biogeochemical cycles, ecology, and geomorphic processes, and to improve our understanding of interaction between humans and the environment in general. A long-term perspective covering Mid and Late Holocene land use changes is recommended in this context, as it provides a baseline to evaluate human impact in more recent periods. Previous efforts to assess the evolution and intensity of agricultural land cover in past centuries or millennia have predominantly focused on palynological records. An increasing number of quantitative techniques has been developed during the last two decades to transfer palynological data to land cover estimates. However, these techniques have to deal with equifinality issues and, furthermore, do not sufficiently allow to reconstruct spatial patterns of past land cover. On the other hand, several continental and global databases of historical anthropogenic land cover changes based on estimates of global population and the required agricultural land per capita have been developed in the past decennium. However, at such long temporal and spatial scales, reconstruction of past anthropogenic land cover intensities and spatial patterns necessarily involves many uncertainties and assumptions as well. Here, we present a novel approach that combines archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data for the Dijle catchment in the central Belgium Loess Belt in order to arrive at more realistic Holocene land cover histories. Multiple land cover scenarios (> 60.000) are constructed using probabilistic rules and used as input into a sediment delivery model (WaTEM/SEDEM). Model outcomes are confronted with a detailed geomorphic dataset on Holocene sediment fluxes and with REVEALS based estimates of vegetation cover using palynological data from

  18. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Devaney

    Full Text Available Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory, one pan-European (Forest Map 2006 and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1-98.5%, with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%. Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42% whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%, although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting.

  19. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado; Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada; Smith, G.M. [Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  20. The CORINE Land Cover database of the Netherlands; final report of the CORINE Land Cover project in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, H.A.M.; Middelaar, van H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The CORINE Land Cover Project is aimed at gathering coherent information on land cover for the European Union and at integrating this in a geographical information system (GIS). The methodology is a computer-assisted visual interpretation of earth observation satellite images, with simultaneous cons

  1. Cartographic aspects of land cover change detection (over- and underestimation in the I&CORINE Land Cover 2000 project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feranec, J.; Hazeu, G.W.; Jaffrain, G.; Cebecauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis of the data obtained by the method of computer-aided visual interpretation of satellite images used for identification of changes in land cover within the framework of the Image and CORINE Land Cover 2000 (I&CLC2000) Project (jointly managed by the Eur

  2. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  3. Spatial relationship between landslide occurrence and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide represents a major type of natural hazards. It may leave great threat to human lives as well as infrastructures. In this study, we tried to understand the spatial relationship between landslide occurrences and land cover types through spatial statistics. The approach was based on the bivariate K-functions which can be used to analyze whether there is spatial clustering, repelling or randomness for landslide occurring in areas within different land covers. The Arno River basin in central Italy was chosen as the study area because the landslide inventory is complete with acquired records of more than 27,000 events. According to the inventory, we divided landslides into four classifications according to their types: slides, sofluctions, falls and flows. The land cover data was derived from the CORINE Land Cover map. The land cover types of artificial lands, natural and forest areas, and agriculture lands were focused on. The results indicate that landslides tend to occur in a clustering way within both three land covers. The difference is from the clustering level and spatial dependence distance. Therefore, no evidence can be found that the spatial pattern of landslide occurrence is dependent on changes of land covers.

  4. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km2, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  5. Inverting MODIS Snow Covered Area in a Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, A. G.; Clark, M. P.

    2009-12-01

    Direct application of remote sensing products into hydrologic models has been an ongoing challenge for the past 30 years. Microwave signals which have the potential to inform about snow mass, are at low spatial resolution and easily confused by many mixed signals. Snow covered area is much more readily available at the scales relevant to hydrologic models than other snow products derived from remote sensing. The MODIS MOD10A1/MYDA1 products give snow cover as a binary value (present or not) over an area or approximately 500m resolution. This data will contain some error due to the assumption that any pixel with less than 50% snow cover is flagged as bare. In this work we look at snow regimes within a hydrologic model that can reproduce the proportional area of snow cover over a given basin. The model we use is TopNet which includes a scale invariant fractional snow cover parameterization. This parameterization accounts for the hysteresis associated with snow covered area during accumulation and ablation processes. We use two basins (and their subsequent sub-basins) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California and Nevada; namely the North Fork of the American River and the East Fork of the Carson. The scale dependence of the ability to reproduce snow fractional cover will be assessed from first order through to fifth order basins and we seek to determine at what scale and under what snow regime can meaningful information be garnered about snow mass.

  6. Thin film nitinol covered stents: design and animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Daniel S; Williams, Ryan J; Liu, Jasen; Danon, Saar; Stepan, Lenka L; Panduranga, Mohanchandra K; Fishbein, Michael C; Carman, Greg P

    2008-01-01

    Interventionalists in many specialties have the need for improved, low profile covered stents. Thin films of nitinol (<5-10 microns) could be used to improve current covered stent technology. A "hot target" sputter deposition technique was used to create thin films of nitinol for this study. Covered stents were created from commercially available balloon-inflatable and self-expanding stents. Stents were deployed in a laboratory flow loop and in four swine. Uncovered stent portions served as controls. Postmortem examinations were performed 2-6 weeks after implantation. In short-term testing, thin film nitinol covered stents deployed in the arterial circulation showed no intimal proliferation and were easily removed from the arterial wall postmortem. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thin layer of endothelial cells on the thin film, which covered the entire film by 3 weeks. By contrast, significant neointimal hyperplasia occurred on the luminal side of stents deployed in the venous circulation. Extremely low-profile covered stents can be manufactured using thin films of nitinol. Although long-term studies are needed, thin film nitinol may allow for the development of low-profile, nonthrombogenic covered stents. PMID:18496269

  7. Snow cover data derived from MODIS for water balance applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gafurov

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Snow cover information is of central importance for the estimation of water storage in cold mountainous regions. It is difficult to assess distributed snow cover information in a catchment in order to estimate possible water resources. It is especially a challenge to obtain snow cover information for high mountainous areas. Usually, snow depth is measured at meteorological stations, and it is relatively difficult to extrapolate this spatially or temporally since it highly depends on available energy and topography. The snow coverage of a catchment gives detailed information about the catchment's potential source for water. Many regions lack meteorological stations that measure snow, and usually no stations are available at high elevations.

    Satellite information is a very valuable source for obtaining several environmental parameters. One of the advantages is that the data is mostly provided in a spatially distributed format. This study uses satellite data to estimate snow coverage on high mountainous areas. Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover data is used in the Kokcha Catchment located in the north-eastern part of Afghanistan. The main disadvantage of MODIS data that restricts its direct use in environmental applications is cloud coverage. This is why this study is focused on eliminating cloud covered cells and estimating cell information under cloud covered cells using six logical, spatial and temporal approaches. The results give total cloud removal and mapping of snow cover for the study areas.

  8. Updating the 2001 National Land Cover Database land cover classification to 2006 by using Landsat imagery change detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.; Fry, J.

    2009-01-01

    The recent release of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001, which represents the nation's land cover status based on a nominal date of 2001, is widely used as a baseline for national land cover conditions. To enable the updating of this land cover information in a consistent and continuous manner, a prototype method was developed to update land cover by an individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season in 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, land cover classifications at the full NLCD resolution for 2006 areas of change were completed by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain several metropolitan areas including Seattle, Washington; San Diego, California; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Jackson, Mississippi; and Manchester, New Hampshire. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of land cover change was captured and updated with overall land cover classification accuracies of 78.32%, 87.5%, 88.57%, 78.36%, and 83.33% for these areas. The method optimizes mapping efficiency and has the potential to provide users a flexible method to generate updated land cover at national and regional scales by using NLCD 2001 as the baseline. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Deriving Snow Cover Metrics for Alaska from MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuck Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS daily snow cover products provide an opportunity for determining snow onset and melt dates across broad geographic regions; however, cloud cover and polar darkness are limiting factors at higher latitudes. This study presents snow onset and melt dates for Alaska, portions of western Canada and the Russian Far East derived from Terra MODIS snow cover daily 500 m grid data (MOD10A1 and evaluates our method for filling data gaps caused by clouds or polar darkness. Pixels classified as cloud or no data were reclassified by: spatial filtering using neighboring pixel values; temporal filtering using pixel values for days before/after cloud cover; and snow-cycle filtering based on a time series assessment of a pixel’s position within snow accumulation, cover or melt periods. During the 2012 snow year, these gap-filling methods reduced cloud pixels from 27.7% to 3.1%. A total of 12 metrics (e.g., date of first and last snow, date of persistent snow cover and periods of intermittence for each pixel were calculated by snow year. A comparison of MODIS-derived snow onset and melt dates with in situ observations from 244 weather stations generally showed an early bias in MODIS-derived dates and an effect of increasing cloudiness exacerbating bias. Our results show that mean regional duration of seasonal snow cover is 179–311 days/year and that snow cover is often intermittent, with 41% of the area experiencing ≥2 snow-covered periods during a snow season. Other regional-scale patterns in the timing of snow onset and melt are evident in the yearly 500 m gridded products publically available at http://static.gina.alaska.edu/NPS_products/MODIS_snow/.

  10. EBR-II cover-gas cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of EBR-II with breached elements results in the continuous release of fission gases to the argon cover gas. To control activity in the reactor, a cover-gas cleanup system (CGCS) was installed to remove xenon and krypton from the cover gas by cryogenic distillation. Although only one breached fuel element will, by intention, be in-core during the early stages of the run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) program now under way, the CGCS is designed to handle the activity released by up to 12 mixed-oxide elements

  11. ON f-EDGE COVER-COLOURING OF SIMPLE GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Huimin; Liu Guizhen

    2005-01-01

    An f-edge cover-colouring of a graph G = (V, E) is an assignment of colours to the edges of G such that every colour appears at each vertex υ∈ V at least f(υ) times.The maximum number of colours needed to f-edge cover colour G is called the f-edge cover chromatic index of G, denoted by χfc(G). This paper gives that min[d(ν)-1/f(ν)] ≤χfc(G) ≤min[d(υ)/f(υ)].

  12. An energy efficient breakdown cover service for electric cars

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Vispoel, Stijn; Van Maerhem, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A typical breakdown cover service unit in Belgium has to assist up to 5 cars a day that end up with an empty fuel tank. As the range of today’s battery electric cars is lower than what people are used to have today, breakdown cover services expect that massive introduction of electric cars will lead to a multiple of EVs ending up with an empty battery. This paper reports about a research project, initiated by a Belgian breakdown cover service, that aimed to design and build a prot...

  13. Automated Training Sample Extraction for Global Land Cover Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Radoux; Céline Lamarche; Eric Van Bogaert; Sophie Bontemps; Carsten Brockmann; Pierre Defourny

    2014-01-01

    Land cover is one of the essential climate variables of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI). In this context, the Land Cover CCI (LC CCI) project aims at building global land cover maps suitable for climate modeling based on Earth observation by satellite sensors.  The  challenge  is  to  generate  a  set  of  successive  maps  that  are  both  accurate and consistent over time. To do so, operational methods for the automated classification of optical images are investigated. The pr...

  14. On DRC-Covering of K_n by Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Bermond, Jean-Claude; Coudert, David; Yu, Min-Li

    2001-01-01

    This work considers the cycle covering of complete graphs motivated by the design of survivable WDM networks, where the requests are routed on sub-networks which are protected independently from each other. The problem can be stated as follows: for a given graph $G$, find a cycle covering of the edge set of $K_n$, where $V(K_n) = V(G)$, such that each cycle in the covering satisfies the disjoint routing constraint (DRC), relatively to $G$, which can be stated as follows : to each edge of $K_n...

  15. On DRC-covering of Kn by cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Bermond, Jean-Claude; Coudert, David; Yu, Min-Li

    2003-01-01

    International audience This paper considers the cycle covering of complete graphs motivated by the design of survivable WDM networks, where the requests are routed on INF-networks which are protected independently from each other. The problem can be stated as follows: for a given graph G, find a cycle covering of the edge set of Kn, where V(Kn) = V(G), such that each cycle in the covering satisfies the disjoint routing constraint (DRC), relatively to G, which can be stated as follows: to e...

  16. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  17. Solving liveness problem for marked nets by exhaustive coverability trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that a coverability tree of a Petri net cannot solve reaehability and liveness problems of the net because using symbol ω (infinity.) may lose some information. A solution to this problem is presented for a special kind of Petri net, marked net. With the combination of o and the increasing/decreasing information of token number, a new kind of coverability tree of marked nets, called exhaustive coverability tree (ECT), is proposed. It is shown with an example that an ECT can be used to detect deadlock.

  18. Potential for Monitoring Snow Cover in Boreal Forests by Combining MODIS Snow Cover and AMSR-E SWE Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, George A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of snow cover extent and snow water equivalent (SWE) in boreal forests is important for determining the amount of potential runoff and beginning date of snowmelt. The great expanse of the boreal forest necessitates the use of satellite measurements to monitor snow cover. Snow cover in the boreal forest can be mapped with either the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) or the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) microwave instrument. The extent of snow cover is estimated from the MODIS data and SWE is estimated from the AMSR-E. Environmental limitations affect both sensors in different ways to limit their ability to detect snow in some situations. Forest density, snow wetness, and snow depth are factors that limit the effectiveness of both sensors for snow detection. Cloud cover is a significant hindrance to monitoring snow cover extent Using MODIS but is not a hindrance to the use of the AMSR-E. These limitations could be mitigated by combining MODIS and AMSR-E data to allow for improved interpretation of snow cover extent and SWE on a daily basis and provide temporal continuity of snow mapping across the boreal forest regions in Canada. The purpose of this study is to investigate if temporal monitoring of snow cover using a combination of MODIS and AMSR-E data could yield a better interpretation of changing snow cover conditions. The MODIS snow mapping algorithm is based on snow detection using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to enhance snow detection in dense vegetation. (Other spectral threshold tests are also used to map snow using MODIS.) Snow cover under a forest canopy may have an effect on the NDVI thus we use the NDVI in snow detection. A MODIS snow fraction product is also generated but not used in this study. In this study the NDSI and NDVI components of the snow mapping algorithm were calculated and analyzed to determine how they changed

  19. A methodology to generate a synergetic land-cover map by fusion of different land-cover products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hoyos, A.; García-Haro, F. J.; San-Miguel-Ayanz, J.

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop a general framework for building a hybrid land-cover map by the synergistic combination of a number of land-cover classifications with different legends and spatial resolutions. The proposed approach assesses class-specific accuracies of datasets and establishes affinity between thematic legends using a common land-cover language such as the UN Land-Cover Classification System (LCCS). The approach is illustrated over a large region in Europe using four land-cover datasets (CORINE, GLC2000, MODIS and GlobCover), but it can be applied to any set of existing products. The multi-classification map is expected to improve the performance of individual classifications by reconciling their best characteristics while avoiding their main weaknesses. The intermap comparison reveals improved agreement of the hybrid map with all other land-cover products and therefore indicates the successful exploration of synergies between the different products. The approach offers also estimates for the classification confidence associated with the pixel label and flexibility to shift the balance between commission and omission errors, which are critical in order to obtain a desired reliable map.

  20. North American Land Cover Characteristics ? 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an Arc/INFO grid map of land cover characteristics for North America, excluding Hawaii, and including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The...

  1. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  2. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Upper Kansas River Watershed Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period as part of a...

  3. Forests and Forest Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  4. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  5. Caregivers Often Give Up Necessities to Cover Alzheimer's Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Caregivers Often Give Up Necessities to Cover Alzheimer's Costs Many skip food and health care, cut ... 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease means caregivers often skimp on their own ...

  6. Stakes and modalities of the climatic risk covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several econometric works show that climatic volatility is at the first rank of the risk factors in several economic sectors like energy, textile, agriculture and food, tourism, leisure, building industries etc. However, climate remains an underestimated economic factor for several reasons: lack of awareness about the comparative stakes of climate risks management and market risks management, difficulties in the measurement of climate risk exposure, weak knowledge of covering techniques for private contract and organized markets, and unsolved question of risk sharing between shareholders and managers. This document analyzes the sensitivity of companies with respect to climate risk and describes the 5 steps of implementation of a climate covering policy: risk exposure measurement, risk bearing or transfer decision, definition of the optimum covering profile, choice of markets and covering instruments, efficiency measurement. A practical example is shown with its related questions. (J.S.)

  7. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the...

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALGORITHMS FOR LAND COVER CHANGE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALGORITHMS FOR LAND COVER CHANGE SHYAM BORIAH*, VARUN MITHAL, ASHISH GARG, VIPIN KUMAR, MICHAEL STEINBACH, CHRIS POTTER, AND STEVE KLOOSTER*...

  9. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with...

  10. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  11. National Land Cover Database 2001 Version 2: 1985-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database 2001 Version 2 (NLCD 2001 Version 2) is being compiled across all 50 states and Puerto Rico as a cooperative mapping effort of the...

  12. Covers of two Time, April 30, 2007 magazines

    OpenAIRE

    TIME

    2008-01-01

    Front cover includes photographs of victims; "Campus Massacre: Tragedy in Blacksburg", by: Nancy Gibbs, page 36. "Faces of the Fallen: Victims of that Day", page 42. "Psychology: What Creates a Killer?" By: Jeffrey Kluger, page 54.

  13. Global Land Cover Classification Using Modis Surface Reflectance Prosucts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Kiyonari; Shimoda, Haruhisa

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop high accuracy land cover classification algorithm for Global scale by using multi-temporal MODIS land reflectance products. In this study, time-domain co-occurrence matrix was introduced as a classification feature which provides time-series signature of land covers. Further, the non-parametric minimum distance classifier was introduced for timedomain co-occurrence matrix, which performs multi-dimensional pattern matching for time-domain co-occurrence matrices of a classification target pixel and each classification classes. The global land cover classification experiments have been conducted by applying the proposed classification method using 46 multi-temporal(in one year) SR(Surface Reflectance) and NBAR(Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance) products, respectively. IGBP 17 land cover categories were used in our classification experiments. As the results, SR and NBAR products showed similar classification accuracy of 99%.

  14. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    the spring of 2012 before cultivation. Soil water retention and air permeability were measured for matric potentials ranging from −1 to −30 kPa. Gas diffusivity was measured at −10 kPa. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was also used to characterize soil pore characteristics. At the 4- to 8- and 18......Information about the quantitative effect of conservation tillage combined with a cover crop on soil structure is still limited. This study examined the effect of these management practices on soil pore characteristics of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial. The tillage treatments (main...... plots) included direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H), and moldboard plowing (MP). The cover crop treatments were subplot with cover crop (+CC) and without cover crop (−CC). Minimally disturbed soil cores were taken from the 4- to 8-, 12- to 16-, and 18- to 27-cm depth intervals in...

  15. Potential of weed suppression by summer cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pinto Lamego

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the cultural measures adopted for weed management, the use of soil cover crops in no tillage system is a practice that presents several positive effects. The objective of this study was evaluated the potential of suppression of weeds emergence through of using summer cover crops. The experimental design was in bands, with experimental units of 3.0 m x 4.0 m, randomly distributed. The treatments consisted of 26 summer cover crops species, being 18 belonged to the family Fabaceae, seven to Poaceae family and one to the Asteraceae family. The weeds with higher importance occurring were Raphanus spp. and Conyza bonariensis. Corn, dente-de-burro, sesbânia and mucuna-verde as summer cover crops, cause suppressive effect on germination, emergence and establishment of Raphanus spp. The mucuna-anã was that allowed the establishment of the higher quantity of weed.

  16. Observations on mattress covers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S

    1998-01-01

    Samples of covers from three commercially available mattresses were examined in the laboratory using test methods originally devised for testing surgical dressings. These revealed that although the covers shared many common features, there were differences in the conformability and tensile properties which may be of some clinical relevance. The study also confirmed that with some minor modifications, the experimental techniques used would be suitable for a future, more comprehensive review of mattress performance. In a separate investigation designed to examine the consequences of a failure of a mattress cover, the bioburden of a foam core removed from a damaged cover revealed the presence of very large numbers of microorganism, well in excess of 10(10) per gram of foam which could act as a recevoir of contamination and thus a source of cross infection. PMID:10531919

  17. Land Cover Trends Geotagged Photography: 1999-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends field photography collection is a national-scale, ground-reference dataset which initially served as a...

  18. Land Use and Land Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  19. Forests and Forest Cover, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other...

  20. Cover Image, Volume 170A, Number 9, September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shahida; Fano, Virginia; Obregon, Maria Gabriela; Altmüller, Janine; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Nishimura, Gen; Wollnik, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    The cover image, by Shahida Moosa et al., is based on the Research Letter A novel homozygous PAM16 mutation in a patient with a milder phenotype and longer survival, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37823. PMID:27518918

  1. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the...

  2. Cover Image, Volume 171B, Number 3, April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Fierro, Kyle C; Raman, Mira M; Saggar, Manish; Sheau, Kristen E; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-04-01

    The cover image, by Tamar Green et al., is based on the Research Article Surface-based morphometry reveals distinct cortical thickness and surface area profiles in Williams syndrome, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32422. PMID:27001917

  3. Cover Image, Volume 117, Number 6, June 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; El Khattouti, Abdelouahid; Ejaeidi, Ahmed; Ma, Tangeng; Day, William A; Espinoza, Ingrid; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Gomez, Christian R

    2016-06-01

    The cover image, by Christian Gomez et al., is based on the Article Elevated Expression of Hepatoma Up-Regulated Protein Inhibits γ-Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer Cells, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25419. PMID:27043249

  4. Archimedes' quadrature of the parabola and minimal covers

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín-Aquino, Octavio A.

    2016-01-01

    The generalization of Archimedes strategy to obtain the area of a parabolic segment leads to combinatorial formulas involving minimal covers of sets. These, in turn, are conjecturally related to $q$-binomial coefficients.

  5. Cassini Main Engine Assembly Cover Flight Management and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan P.; Millard, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has performed its four year Prime Mission at Saturn and is currently in orbit at Saturn performing a two year extended mission. 12Its main engine nozzles are susceptible to impact damage from micrometeoroids and on-orbit dust. The spacecraft has an articulating device known as the Main Engine Assembly (MEA) cover which can close and shield the main engines from these threats. The cover opens to allow for main engine burns that are necessary to maintain the trajectory. Periodically updated analyses of potential on-orbit dust hazard threats have resulted in the need to continue to use the MEA cover beyond its intended use and beyond its design life. This paper provides a detailed Systems-level overview of the flight management of the MEA cover device and its flight performance to date.

  6. Land Use - Cover Change Assessment Framework: Famagusta North Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Akingbaso, Ebunoluwa Yetunde

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In recent studies, assessing the impact caused by human- want on several land cover and land use classes has become important, as the so-called irrelevant changes contribute to the environmental hazards, most especially within the immediate climate condition of that area i.e local climate temperature. Also such influences are observed on the vegetation type and cover and the rate of under-ground disturbances. Accounting for change around urban centers within the suburban communitie...

  7. Total domination in K 5- and K 6-covered graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Favaron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph G is K r-covered if each vertex of G is contained in a K r-clique. Let γ t (G denote the total domination number of G. It has been conjectured that every K r-covered graph of order n with no K r-component satisfies γ t (G ≤ 2n/(r+1. We prove that this conjecture is true for r=5 and 6.

  8. [Tendencies of nematodes communities to recover after soil cover degradation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdeva, L I; Sushchuk, A A

    2010-01-01

    The way nematodes form communities on a new substrate after complete soil and plant cover degradation is studied on a model of industrial dumping. It is revealed that recovery of soil cover after degradation begins with invasion of mainly the upper soil horizon by nematodes. At the early stages, species that are resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions dominate (bacteriophages), next the abundances of carnivores and nematodes that are connected with plants increase, which indicates the process of biocenosis regeneration. PMID:21275095

  9. Modeling debris-covered glaciers: response to steady debris deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Leif S.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are common in rapidly eroding alpine landscapes. When thicker than a few centimeters, surface debris suppresses melt rates. If continuous debris cover is present, ablation rates can be significantly reduced leading to increases in glacier length. In order to quantify feedbacks in the debris–glacier–climate system, we developed a 2-D long-valley numerical glacier model that includes englacial and supraglacial debris advection. We ran 120 si...

  10. Redistribution of phosphorus in soil through cover crop roots

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio C. Franchini; Marcos A. Pavan; Mário Miyazawa

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if cover crops can absorb P from the upper layers and transport it in their roots to subsoil layers. Samples of an Oxisol were placed in PVC columns. Super phosphate fertilizer was applied to the 0-10 cm soil surface layers. The cover crops tested were: Avena strigosa, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Pisum sativum subsp arvense, Pisum sativum, Vicia villosa, Vicia sativa, Lupinus angustifoliu, Lupinus albus, and Triticum aestivum. After a growth perio...

  11. Estimating crop coefficients from fraction of ground cover and height

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Allen; L. S. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    The FAO-56 procedure for estimating the crop coefficient Kc as a function of fraction of ground cover and crop height has been formalized in this study using a density coefficient Kd. The density coefficient is multiplied by a basal Kc representing full cover conditions, Kcb full, to produce a basal crop coefficient that represents actual conditions of ET and vegetation coverage when the soil surface is dry. Kcb full is estimated primarily as a function of crop height....

  12. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Steven A. Hughes; Christopher I. Thornton

    2015-01-01

    Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time) overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves). The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of ...

  13. Monitoring forest cover change in boreal forests: a methodological approach

    OpenAIRE

    KISSIYAR Ouns; BARTALEV SVYATOSLAV; ACHARD Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a monitoring tool for boreal forest cover change on continental level at high resolution. The system is based on Landsat satellite imagery and has been implemented for the period 1990-2000-2010. For the identification and classification of the forest cover within a large amount of satellite imagery, a robust methodological approach combining multi-date image segmentation and cluster based supervised automated classification was chosen. Thus, an object b...

  14. Forecasts covering one month using a cut-cell model

    OpenAIRE

    J. Steppeler; Park, S. -H.; A. Dobler

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact and potential use of the cut-cell vertical discretisation for forecasts covering five days and climate simulations. A first indication of the usefulness of this new method is obtained by a set of five-day forecasts, covering January 1989 with six forecasts. The model area was chosen to include much of Asia, the Himalayas and Australia. The cut-cell model LMZ (Lokal Modell with z-coordinates) provides a much more accurate represe...

  15. Specialists' meeting on fast reactor cover gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tentative agenda was adopted by the participants without comment and was followed throughout the meeting. The following topics were discussed at the subsequent sessions of the meeting on 'Fast Reactor Cover Gas Purification': National Position Papers; Impurities: Sources and Measurement; Cover Gas Purification Techniques; Sodium Aerosol Trapping; Radiological Considerations. Based on the papers presented and the discussions following, session summaries and conclusions were prepared and are included in this report

  16. Textiles and leather coverings for the European furniture market

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Volpe; Sara Maddaloni

    2010-01-01

    The Report offers a comprehensive picture of the demand of soft coverings (textiles, simulated leather, leather) in 20 European countries, providing trends on quantitative demand, by price range and kind of product, key customers and key suppliers. Covering segments analysed: fabrics (vegetable, animal, artificial, synthetic, printed, plain, jacquard, coated), simulated leather (low, middle and upper end), leather Countries considered: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Northern Europe); Belgi...

  17. The impact of daily covers on sidewall leakage in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, A. L. [Villanova Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, PA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Typically, sanitary landfills are covered by 15 cm of locally available soil on a daily basis. This practice is intended to limit short term negative effects of the waste material on the above-ground environment such as odor, fire, or vermin attraction. Daily placement of compacted soil creates low hydraulic conductivity stratifying layers within the landfill which, in due course, may result in side-slope seepage, decreased stability and decreased efficiency of methane gas venting. The expense of soil acquisitions and the the diminishing availability of landfill space increases the need for alternative materials to replace the daily cover. This paper examines the the threat of sidewall landfill leakage for a hypothetical landfill with traditional soil cover and an alternative daily cover, to demonstrate that the threat of sidewall leakage is real and can be decreased with the use of alternative material as the daily cover such as crushed glass, sludge from waste-water treatment plants, industrial waste, foams and various geosynthetics. At the same time, results of the modelling study showed that with proper drainage sidewall seepage will not occur even with a daily cover that has a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude smaller than the waste, despite positive pressure building up on top of the daily cover. These results imply that the threat of sidewall leakage is minimal, and while alternative daily cover material would help to reduce it even further, their use is most likely to be the result of economic, not technical, considerations. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Land Cover Classification Method Oriented to Geographic National Conditions Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, T.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China)

    2014-01-01

    Developing the project of geographic national conditions investigation is in order to obtain land cover change information which is caused by natural and human social and economic activities, and serve the information for government, enterprise and public. Land cover is an important method to describe the geographic national conditions information, which can truly reflect the land surface material type and its natural attribute. It has been contained in the content system preliminary...

  19. GLOBAL LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING MODIS SURFACE REFLECTANCE PROSUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fukue, Kiyonari; Shimoda, Haruhisa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop high accuracy land cover classification algorithm for Global scale by using multi-temporal MODIS land reflectance products. In this study, time-domain co-occurrence matrix was introduced as a classification feature which provides time-series signature of land covers. Further, the non-parametric minimum distance classifier was introduced for timedomain co-occurrence matrix, which performs multi-dimensional pattern matching for time-domain co-o...

  20. Cloudiness and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products

    OpenAIRE

    P. Da Ronco; De Michele, C.

    2014-01-01

    Snow cover maps provide an information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they allow to estimate the regional snow resource. Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. In this context, MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometeron on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tes...

  1. MONITORING OF SNOW COVER VARIATION USING MODIS SNOW PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    N. Fayaz; M. Vazifedoust; S. Araghinejad

    2013-01-01

    Snow is one of the integral components of hydrological and climatic systems. Needless to say, snow cover areas (SCA) are considered as indispensable input of hydrological and general circulation models. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of SCA is of the paramount importance for tremendous variety of research such as climate change, water supply and properly managing water resources. In this study by means of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover product,...

  2. GLOBAL LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING MODIS SURFACE REFLECTANCE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoda, H; K. Fukue

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop high accuracy land cover classification algorithm for Global scale by using multi-temporal MODIS land reflectance products. In this study, time-domain co-occurrence matrix was introduced as a classification feature which provides time-series signature of land covers. Further, the non-parametric minimum distance classifier was introduced for timedomain co-occurrence matrix, which performs multi-dimensional pattern matching for time-domain co-o...

  3. UMTRA project disposal cell cover biointrusion sensitivity assessment, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides an analysis of potential changes that may take place in a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell cover system as a result of plant biointrusion. Potential changes are evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis of the relative impact of root penetrations on radon flux out of the cell cover and/or water infiltration into the cell cover. Data used in this analysis consist of existing information on vegetation growth on selected cell cover systems and information available from published studies and/or other available project research. Consistent with the scope of this paper, no new site-specific data were collected from UMTRA Project sites. Further, this paper does not focus on the issue of plant transport of radon gas or other contaminants out of the disposal cell cover though it is acknowledged that such transport has the potential to be a significant pathway for contaminants to reach the environment during portions of the design life of a disposal cell where plant growth occurs. Rather, this study was performed to evaluate the effects of physical penetration and soil drying caused by plant roots that have and are expected to continue to grow in UMTRA Project disposal cell covers. An understanding of the biological and related physical processes that take place within the cover systems of the UMTRA Project disposal cells helps the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determine if the presence of a plant community on these cells is detrimental, beneficial, or of mixed value in terms of the cover system's designed function. Results of this investigation provide information relevant to the formulation of a vegetation control policy

  4. Land Cover in a Managed Forest Ecosystem: Mexican Shade Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Allen; Albers, Heidi J.; Ávalos Sartorio, Beatriz; Crooks, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Managed forest ecosystems—agroforestry systems in which crops such as coffee and bananas are planted side-by-side with woody perennials—are being touted as a means of safeguarding forests along with the ecological services they provide. Yet we know little about the determinants of land cover in such systems, information needed to design effective forest conservation policies. This paper presents a firstever spatial regression analysis of land cover in a managed forest ecosystem—a shade coffee...

  5. Limits and prospects of photovoltaic covers in Mediterranean greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Marucci; Adolfo Gusman; Barbara Pagniello; Andrea Cappuccini

    2013-01-01

    The use of plastic film coverings has made a significant contribution to the development of greenhouses in Italy and to a new generation of greenhouses that differ from those of Central and Northern Europe: the so called Mediterranean Greenhouse. This is a simple structure with cheap coverings and emergency artificial heating systems. During the winter season, the available solar energy is more than sufficient to meet energy requirements. During the hot season, however, the intense solar radi...

  6. Improved patch antenna performance by using a metamaterial cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Fang-ming; HU Jun

    2007-01-01

    A new patch antenna system with a metamaterial cover is presented in this paper. The impedance, radiation pattern, and directivity of such an antenna are studied. A performance comparison between the conventional patch antenna and the new metamaterial patch antenna is given. The results show that the directivity of the metamaterial patch antenna is significantly improved. The effect of the metamaterial cover's layer numbers on the radiation pattern of the patch antenna is also studied.

  7. The dust covering factor in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalevski, Marko; Ricci, Claudio; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Lira, Paulina; Fritz, Jacopo; Baes, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    The primary source of emission of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the accretion disc, is surrounded by an optically and geometrically thick dusty structure (`the so-called dusty torus'). The infrared radiation emitted by the dust is nothing but a reprocessed fraction of the accretion disc emission, so the ratio of the torus to the AGN luminosity (Ltorus/LAGN) should corresponds to the fraction of the sky obscured by dust, i.e. the covering factor. We undertook a critical investigation of the Ltorus/LAGN as the dust covering factor proxy. Using state-of-the-art 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we calculated a grid of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) emitted by the clumpy two-phase dusty structure. With this grid of SEDs, we studied the relation between Ltorus/LAGN and the dust covering factor for different parameters of the torus. We found that in the case of type 1 AGNs the torus anisotropy makes Ltorus/LAGN underestimate low covering factors and overestimate high covering factors. In type 2 AGNs Ltorus/LAGN always underestimates covering factors. Our results provide a novel easy-to-use method to account for anisotropy and obtain correct covering factors. Using two samples from the literature, we demonstrated the importance of our result for inferring the obscured AGN fraction. We found that after the anisotropy is properly accounted for, the dust covering factors show very weak dependence on LAGN, with values in the range of ≈0.6-0.7. Our results also suggest a higher fraction of obscured AGNs at high luminosities than those found by X-ray surveys, in part owing to the presence of a Compton-thick AGN population predicted by population synthesis models.

  8. Cover Image, Volume 113, Number 9, September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, Juan M; Krämer, Christina E M; Ungerböck, Birgit; Mayr, Torsten; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    Cover Legend The cover image, by Bernd Nidetzky et al., is based on the Article Development of a fully integrated falling film microreactor for gas-liquid-solid biotransformation with surface immobilized O2 -dependent enzyme, DOI: 10.1002/bit.25969. Support by the European Union (FP7 Marie Curie ITN project EUROMBR - European network for innovative microbioreactor applications in bioprocess development; Grant Agreement Number 608104) is acknowledged. PMID:27467979

  9. Optimal q-Markov COVER for finite precision implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Darrell; Skelton, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    The existing q-Markov COVER realization theory does not take into account the problems of arithmetic errors due to both the quantization of states and coefficients of the reduced order model. All q-Markov COVERs allow some freedom in the choice of parameters. Here, researchers exploit this freedom in the existing theory to optimize the models with respect to these finite wordlength effects.

  10. Land Cover Semantic Annotation Derived from High Resolution SAR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru, Corneliu Octavian; Schwarz, Gottfried; Datcu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Users of remote sensing images analyzing land cover characteristics are very much interested in classification schemes that define a consistent set of target categories. Up to now, a number of established classification schemes are mainly being used by interpreters of medium-resolution optical satellite image focusing on large-scale land cover. In contrast, we concentrate in this publication on the definition of a new classification scheme for high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (S...

  11. Forest value and optimal rotations in continuous cover forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Jette Bredahl Jacobsen; Frank Jensen; Bo Jellesmark Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    The Faustmann forest rotation model is a celebrated contribution in economics. The model provides a forest value expression and allows a solution to the optimal rotation problem valid for perpetual rotations of even-aged forest stands. However, continuous forest cover forest management systems imply uneven-aged dynamics, and while a number of numerical studies have analysed specific continuous cover forest ecosystems in search of optimal management regimes, no one has tried to capture key dyn...

  12. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of lipids using etched silver substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnapp, Andreas; Niehoff, Ann-Christin; Koch, Annika; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2016-07-15

    Silver-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry can be used for the analysis of small molecules. For example, adduct formation with silver cations enables the molecular analysis of long-chain hydrocarbons, which are difficult to ionize via conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). Here we used highly porous silver foils, produced by etching with nitric acid, as sample substrates for LDI mass spectrometry. As model system for the analysis of complex lipid mixtures, cuticular extracts of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and worker bees (Apis mellifera) were investigated. The mass spectra obtained by spotting extract onto the etched silver substrates demonstrate the sensitive detection of numerous lipid classes such as long-chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, fatty acyl alcohols, wax esters, and triacylglycerols. MS imaging of cuticular surfaces with a lateral resolution of a few tens of micrometers became possible after blotting, i.e., after transferring lipids by physical contact with the substrate. The examples of pheromone-producing male hindwings of the squinting bush brown butterfly (Bicyclus anynana) and a fingermark are shown. Because the substrates are also easy to produce, they provide a viable alternative to colloidal silver nanoparticles and other so far described silver substrates. PMID:26827933

  13. Compatibility of Canadian Snowfall and Snow Cover Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodison, B. E.

    1981-08-01

    The accuracy and compatibility of Canadian snowfall and snow survey data were investigated in the Cold Creek research basin in southern Ontario. Problems in obtaining compatible point measurements of snowfall precipitation from gauge and ruler measurements are discussed. However, it is shown that correction of gauge measurements (MSC Nipher, Universal, Fischer and Porter) of snowfall water equivalent for catch variations caused by environmental factors, notably wind speed, results in compatible storm or seasonal totals. Accurate statistics of basin snow cover were determined from snow courses specifically sited in relation to basin land use. At the time of peak accumulation, which might occur at any time during the winter, there was a statistically significant difference in snow cover between land use categories. Mean basin snow cover was calculated by weighting the snow survey measurements in proportion to basin land use. The need to consider the effect of changing land use on snow course measurements is demonstrated. Results show that as an alternative to direct snow survey measurements, accumulated precipitation may be used to estimate snow cover up to peak accumulation. Net snow cover determined from accumulated corrected gauge data less short-term melt losses and snow evaporation was within the confidence limits of the basin mean snow cover measured during the winter. Compatible results are only achieved when precipitation measurements are corrected for gauge catch variations and snow survey data are representative of basin land use.

  14. Covered stent implantation for the treatment of intracranial arterial disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coronary covered s tents have been more and more used to treat intracranial arterial diseases for recent years, and the hot point in study has gradually changed from clinical application of coronary covered stents to the fundamental and clinical trial of specially-designed intracranial covered stents. The covered stents are mainly employed for the treatment of intracranial arterial disorders, including giant, wide-necked or minute cerebral aneurysms, intracranial pseudoaneurysms caused by a variety of reasons, fusiform or dissecting aneurysms of vertebral-basic artery, and internal carotid cavernous fistula, etc. It is very difficult for current surgical or endovascular treatment, both materially and technically, to deal with the above mentioned intracranial disorders. The covered stent can restore the anatomic shape of artery by direct sealing the aneurysmal neck and the fistula. The complications of covered stent treatment include defect of cranial nerves, occlusion of parent artery or branches. This article aims to review the related medical literature published both at home and abroad, to make a retrospective analysis of the therapeutic results, and to put forward some issues of common interest. (authors)

  15. Certainties and uncertainties of land cover statistics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation or land cover maps have been made directly or indirectly available for the entire territory of China. The certainties anduncertainties of land cover statistics were analyzed by comparing three data sources: China's Vegetation Map, IGPB DISCover, and Universityof Maryland Product. Great similarities in the statistics of 7 aggregated land cover types were found among the three data sources, particularlybetween the two global land cover maps. The per-pixel agreement between any 2 of 3 maps was between 38.0%-51.4%; the per-pixelagreement among all three maps was only 27.1%. Certainties were found in regions where vegetation types are typical and human land usepractice is relatively homogenous; the uncertainties occurred to either vegetation transition zones or regions where land cover types and land usepractice are relatively diversified. Systematic and multidisciplinary efforts are necessary to promote accurate mapping of nationwide land covertypes in China. Intensive efforts should be made in regions where uncertainties of land cover information are found.

  16. Oxygen diffusion through soil covers on sulphidic mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineered soil covers are being evaluated under Canada's Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) program for their effectiveness in preventing and controlling acid generation in sulfidic mill tailings. A critical parameter for predicting the performance of these covers is the diffusion coefficient of gaseous oxygen in the cover materials. Laboratory experiments conducted to determine the effective diffusion coefficient of a candidate cover material, a glacial till from an active mine site, are described. The diffusion coefficient is determined by fitting a semianalytic solution of the one-dimensional, transient diffusion equation to experimental gaseous oxygen concentration versus time graphs. Effective diffusion coefficients determined at high water saturations (85%--95%) were of the order of 8 x 10-8 m2/s. The diffusion coefficients decreased with increase in water saturation as a result of the low diffusivity of gaseous oxygen in water relative to that in air and the low solubility of oxygen in water. Placement of soil covers in high saturation conditions would ensure that the flux of oxygen into tailings underneath such covers is low, resulting in low acid flux. This is confirmed by combined laboratory, field, and modeling studies

  17. DISTRIBUTED VERTEX COVER ALGORITHMS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Kavalci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertex covering has important applications for wireless sensor networks such as monitoring link failures, facility location, clustering, and data aggregation. In this study, we designed three algorithms for constructing vertex cover in wireless sensor networks. The first algorithm, which is an adaption of the Parnas & Ron’s algorithm, is a greedy approach that finds a vertex cover by using the degrees of the nodes. The second algorithm finds a vertex cover from graph matching where Hoepman’s weighted matching algorithm is used. The third algorithm firstly forms a breadth-first search tree and then constructs a vertex cover by selecting nodes with predefined levels from breadth-first tree. We show the operation of the designed algorithms, analyze them, and provide the simulation results in the TOSSIM environment. Finally we have implemented, compared and assessed all these approaches. The transmitted message count of the first algorithm is smallest among other algorithms where the third algorithm has turned out to be presenting the best results in vertex cover approximation ratio.

  18. LEO effects on candidate solar-cell cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) test samples discussed within are part of the Solar Array Materials Passive (SAMPLE) LDEF experiment, which included contributions from NASA and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL). Only the JPL portion is described in this paper. The JPL test plate contains 30 individual thin silicon solar cell/cover samples. It was the intent of the experiment to evaluate the stability and protective capability of various cover materials such as conventional fused silica and potential alternative materials such as Teflon, silicone RTV's, glass resins, polyimides, and a copolymer encapsulate. Examination of the recovered experiment shows extensive physical changes have occurred. Approximately 150 micrometeoroid/debris impact were noted, some directly on the solar cells. Of particular interest are the results of ultraviolet and atomic oxygen interactions with the various cover materials. Initial results show that the fused silica cover is the most stable and protective, with performance of other materials varying widely. Electrical measurements of the cell/cover samples are presented as part of the evaluation of cover materials to protect cells in low earth orbit environments

  19. Characterizing Global Land Cover Type and Seasonal Land Cover Dynamics at Moderate Spatial Resolution With MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Mark; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Strahler, Alan

    Until recently, the only land cover datasets available with global coverage were compiled from pre-existing maps and atlases based on ground surveys, national mapping programs, and highly generalized biogeographic maps (e.g., Olson and Watts 1982; Matthews 1983; Wilson and Henderson-Sellers 1985). In the 1990s, when Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-derived global remote sensing datasets became available, it was possible to map land cover based on observable land cover properties (DeFries and Townshend 1994; DeFries et al. 1998; Loveland et al. 2000). As newer and better remote sensing data sources have emerged (e.g., MODIS, SPOT, MERIS), global land cover products continue to progress in both methodological maturity and map quality.

  20. Mapping Snow Cover Loss Patterns in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.; Kampf, S. K.; Richer, E.; Stone, B.

    2011-12-01

    Cara Moore, Stephanie Kampf, Eric Richer, Brandon Stone Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1499 The Western United States depends on snowmelt to provide water for industrial, municipal, and agricultural needs. Some areas in this region have observed an increase in the proportion of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow in response to climate warming, a trend that can alter the timing and magnitude of runoff. Transitional snow zones, which lie between lower elevation intermittent snowpack and higher elevation persistent snowpack, may be particularly sensitive to changing climate conditions. Snow covered area is an easily obtainable measurement that can help identify the locations and elevations of these transitional snow zones. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of snowpack characteristics in the Western U.S. by mapping snow cover loss patterns using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area (SCA) product. Snow cover loss patterns can be difficult to compare objectively between regions because spring snow storms lead to abrupt increases and decreases in SCA. Therefore, we develop a curve-fitting snow cover depletion model (SCoDMod) used to derive standardized snow cover loss curves. We fit the model to snow cover patterns within 100m elevation zones from January 1st until July 19th for each USGS eight digit hydrologic unit in the Western US. We use the model to identify 11 year (2000-2010) average snow cover loss patterns and compare those patterns to snow cover loss behavior in wet and dry years. Model results give maps of average SCA in the Western United States on the first of the month from January to July, as well as maps of the date of SCA loss to 75% (Q75), 50% (Q50), and 25% (Q25) SCA. Results show that the Cascade, Sierra Nevada, and Rocky mountains from Colorado northward retain >90% SCA until March, whereas most parts of lower elevation

  1. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  2. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  3. Biocompatibility of a new device of self-expandable covered and non-covered tracheal stent: comparative study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the compatibility of a new model of self-expandable tracheal stent in rats. METHODS: A new device of polyurethane covered and non - covered stent was placed in the trachea of Wistar rats. Animals were distributed in two groups: the polyurethane covered and non-covered group. Macroscopic parameters included position within the tracheal lumen, adherence to the mucosa, degree of dilatation, permeability and internal diameter. Microscopic findings evaluated were: incorporation, inflammatory activity, granulation tissue and epithelial revetment injuries. The observation follow-up was six weeks. All parameters were quantified based on determined score values. Incorporation of the stents was evaluated based on the observation if the stent was fixed into the trachea or if it could be removed. Degree of dilatation was performed by external diameter measurements. Granulation tissue was evaluated by measurements of height of the tissue growing into the tracheal lumen. RESULTS: 100% of non-covered stents had total attachment to mucosa and 100% of polyurethane covered type had adherence only. Regarding dilatation, granulation tissue, inflammatory activity and internal diameter measurements, there were no significant differences between the groups. Pathological tracheal wall injuries were present in both groups. CONCLUSION: Both models of stent demonstrated biocompatibility with the trachea. Rats are suitable for an experimental model of tracheal stent study.

  4. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  5. T Tank Farm Interim Cover Test - Design Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2006-07-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim cover on the surface. Such a cover is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has prepared a design plan to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim cover. A three-dimensional numerical simulation of water movement beneath a cover was conducted to guide the design of the plan. Soil water content, water pressure, and temperature will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests will be installed, one inside and one outside of the proposed cover. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests, both inside the proposed cover, will be installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron access tube and a capacitance probe (to measure water content), and four heat-dissipation units (to measure pressure head and temperature). A datalogger and a meteorological station will be installed outside of the fence. Two drain gauges will be installed in locations inside and outside the cover for the purpose of measuring soil water flux.

  6. Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

    2009-04-01

    The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was

  7. Cloud cover retrieved from skyviewer: A validation with human observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Yo; Jee, Joon-Bum; Zo, Il-Sung; Lee, Kyu-Tae

    2016-02-01

    Cloud cover information is used alongside weather forecasts in various fields of research; however, ground observation of cloud cover is conducted by human observers, a method that is subjective and has low temporal and spatial resolutions. To address these problems, we have developed an improved algorithm to calculate cloud cover using sky image data obtained with Skyviewer equipment. The algorithm uses a variable threshold for the Red Blue Ratio (RBR), determined from the frequency distribution of the Green Blue Ratio (GBR), to calculate cloud cover more accurately than existing algorithms. To verify the accuracy of the algorithm, we conducted daily, monthly, seasonal, and yearly statistical analyses of human observations of cloud cover, obtained every hour from 0800 to 1700 Local Standard Time (LST) for the entirety of 2012 at the Gangwon Regional Meteorological Administration (GRMA), Korea. A case study compared daily images taken at 1200 LST in each season with pixel images of cloud cover calculated by our improved algorithm. The selected cases yielded a high correlation coefficient of 0.93 with the GRMA data. A monthly case study showed low root mean square errors (RMSEs) and high correlation coefficients (Rs) for December (RMSE = 1.64 tenths and R = 0.92) and August (RMSE = 1.43 tenths and R = 0.91). In addition, seasonal cases yielded a high correlation of 0.9 and 87% consistency within ± 2 tenths for winter and a correlation of 0.83 and 82% consistency for summer, when cases of cloud-free or overcast conditions are frequent. Annual analyses showed that the bias of GRMA and Skyviewer cloud cover data for 2012 was -0.36 tenth, and the RMSE was 2.12 tenths, with the GRMA data showing more cloud cover. Considering that the GRMA and Skyviewer data were gathered at different spatial locations, GRMA and Skyviewer data were well correlated (R = 0.87) and showed a consistency of 80% in their cloud cover data (consistent within ± 2 tenths).

  8. Environmental conditions for alternative tree cover states in high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abis, Beniamino; Brovkin, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Previous analysis of the vegetation cover from remote sensing revealed the existence of three alternative modes in the frequency distribution of boreal tree cover: a sparsely vegetated treeless state, a savanna-like state, and a forest state. Identifying which are the regions subject to multimodality, and assessing which are the main factors underlying their existence, is important to project future change of natural vegetation cover and its effect on climate. We study the impact on the forest cover fraction distribution of seven globally-observed environmental factors: mean annual rainfall, mean minimum temperature, growing degree days above 0, permafrost distribution, soil moisture, wildfire occurrence frequency, and thawing depth. Through the use of generalised additive models, regression trees, and conditional histograms, we find that the main factors determining the forest distribution in high latitudes are: permafrost distribution, mean annual rainfall, mean minimum temperature, soil moisture, and wildfire frequency. Additionally, we find differences between regions within the boreal area, such as Eurasia, Eastern North America, and Western North America. Furthermore, using a classification based on these factors, we show the existence and location of alternative tree cover states under the same climate conditions in the boreal region. These are areas of potential interest for a more detailed analysis of land-atmosphere interactions.

  9. Trends in Mapping, Measuring, and Monitoring Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, T. R.; Hansen, M.

    2007-12-01

    The necessity for improved maps and statistics documenting the rates and characteristics of land cover change from local to global scales has been driven by the acceptance that land change has pervasive and substantial environmental consequences. The expanding need for accurate land cover change characteristics data over long time periods and large geographic areas has stimulated both methodological and mission advances. Two important methodological advances include the use of the continuous fields approach for quantifying key landscape characteristics including vegetation cover and surface imperviousness, and the increased emphasis on using probability sampling to precisely estimate land cover change rates. We are using Landsat-based sampling within ecoregions to assess 1972-2000 land change in the United States. An additional methodological trend is the use of multi-source remotely sensed data for land cover change assessments. An example that blends these three elements is our use of MODIS and Landsat to map and measure 2000-2005 global deforestation. MODIS forest fraction maps provide an annual source of forest change locations that provides an efficient means to stratify probable change. Automated classification of randomly sampled Landsat scenes provide a means for detecting forest change within forest biomes and generating precise estimates of period deforestation. Studies such as this are enabled by the NASA Earth Observing System program and the NASA-USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission. Together, these missions extend the global Earth observation record to unprecedented levels and enable new generations of detailed land change assessments.

  10. Modelling land cover change in the Ganga basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulds, S.; Tsarouchi, G.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.

    2013-12-01

    Over recent decades the green revolution in India has driven substantial environmental change. Modelling experiments have identified northern India as a 'hot spot' of land-atmosphere coupling strength during the boreal summer. However, there is a wide range of sensitivity of atmospheric variables to soil moisture between individual climate models. The lack of a comprehensive land cover change dataset to force climate models has been identified as a major contributor to model uncertainty. In this work a time series dataset of land cover change between 1970 and 2010 is constructed for northern India to improve the quantification of regional hydrometeorological feedbacks. The MODIS instrument on board the Aqua and Terra satellites provides near-continuous remotely sensed datasets from 2000 to the present day. However, the quality of satellite products before 2000 is poor. To complete the dataset MODIS images are extrapolated back in time using the Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at small regional extent (CLUE-s) modelling framework. Non-spatial estimates of land cover area from national agriculture and forest statistics, available on a state-wise, annual basis, are used as a direct model input. Land cover change is allocated spatially as a function of biophysical and socioeconomic drivers identified using logistic regression. This dataset will provide an essential input to a high resolution, physically based land surface model to generate the lower boundary condition to assess the impact of land cover change on regional climate.

  11. Biophysical climate impacts of recent changes in global forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Changes in forest cover affect the local climate by modulating the land-atmosphere fluxes of energy and water. The magnitude of this biophysical effect is still debated in the scientific community and currently ignored in climate treaties. Here we present an observation-driven assessment of the climate impacts of recent forest losses and gains, based on Earth observations of global forest cover and land surface temperatures. Our results show that forest losses amplify the diurnal temperature variation and increase the mean and maximum air temperature, with the largest signal in arid zones, followed by temperate, tropical, and boreal zones. In the decade 2003-2012, variations of forest cover generated a mean biophysical warming on land corresponding to about 18% of the global biogeochemical signal due to CO2 emission from land-use change.

  12. Dependence of Polarimetric Scattering Mechanisms on Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, D. K.; Meyer, F.

    2011-03-01

    A method for statistically representing the polarimetric SAR scattering mechanisms of individual land cover classes is introduced and applied to ALOS PALSAR L-band quad-pol data. PALSAR scattering signatures are correlated with land cover classification maps to determine typical scattering mechanisms. The approach utilizes two free, open-source software tools, ESA's PolSARpro and the Alaska Satellite Facility's MapReady Remote Sensing Toolbox as well as Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, to compute the probability density functions of normalized decomposition components for each land cover class.The proposed method provides the ability to compare polarimetric decompositions, investigate scattering mechanisms, detect change in land cover classification, and discover inhomogeneities in the spectral characteristics of individual classes. The approach is first employed to compare the Freeman and Van Zyl three-component decomposition techniques, where the former is shown to introduce many pixels with 100% volume saturation.Ideally, the method yields distinctive scattering peaks for each land cover class with minimal variance in the individual scattering components. However, in some instances, bimodal peaks are found. These are shown to either represent changes between the original land classification and the SAR acquisitions, or the existence of spectral subclasses that were not differentiated in the original classification. Last, the method is used to determine the impact of Polarimetric Orientation Angle (POA) correction on the scattering signatures of urban land cover classes. POA compensation is shown to bring about a significant reduction in the volume scattering component.A method for statistically representing the polarimetric SAR scattering mechanisms of individual land cover classes is introduced and applied to ALOS PALSAR L-band quad-pol data. PALSAR scattering signatures are correlated with land cover classification maps to determine typical

  13. Known algorithms for EDGE CLIQUE COVER are probably optimal

    CERN Document Server

    Cygan, Marek; Pilipczuk, Michał

    2012-01-01

    In the EDGE CLIQUE COVER problem, given a graph G and an integer k, we ask whether the edges of G can be covered with k complete subgraphs of G or, equivalently, whether G admits an intersection model on k-element universe. Gramm et al. [JEA 2008] shown a set of simple rules that reduce the number of vertices of G to 2^k, and no algorithm is known with significantly better running time bound than a brute-force search on this reduced instance. In this paper we show that the approach of Gramm et al. is essentially optimal: we present a polynomial time algorithm that reduces an arbitrary 3-CNF-SAT formula with n variables and m clauses to an equivalent EDGE CLIQUE COVER instance (G,k) with k = O(log n) and |V(G)| = O(n + m).

  14. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS IN MEXICAN JOURNALISTS COVERING THE DRUG WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Flores Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study obtained data on the frequency of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD symptoms from a national sample of Mexican journalists. The main objective of this exploratory and transversal study was to assess PTSD symptoms, and identify differences by gender (male/female, assignment (journalists who cover drug trafficking news/other journalists, and professional activity (reporter/photographer. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C, and a questionnaire on sociodemographic data were used. The instruments were applied in a national context of war on drugs, in which acts of extreme violence like mass murders, beheadings and skinning are present. Results indicate that 35% of the journalists had PTSD symptoms. However, rates of PTSD symptoms in reporters who cover drug war news were significantly higher than in journalists who cover other assignments (p=.03.

  15. A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2002-10-01

    The perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic is shown to be declining at -9% per decade using satellite data from 1978 to 2000. A sustained decline at this rate would mean the disappearance of the multiyear ice cover during this century and drastic changes in the Arctic climate system. An apparent increase in the fraction of second year ice in the 1990s is also inferred suggesting an overall thinning of the ice cover. Surface ice temperatures derived from satellite data are negatively correlated with perennial ice area and are shown to be increasing at the rate of 1.2 K per decade. The latter implies longer melt periods and therefore decreasing ice volume in the more recent years.

  16. Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained.

  17. Bin Completion Algorithms for Multicontainer Packing, Knapsack, and Covering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Fukunaga, A S; 10.1613/jair.2106

    2011-01-01

    Many combinatorial optimization problems such as the bin packing and multiple knapsack problems involve assigning a set of discrete objects to multiple containers. These problems can be used to model task and resource allocation problems in multi-agent systems and distributed systms, and can also be found as subproblems of scheduling problems. We propose bin completion, a branch-and-bound strategy for one-dimensional, multicontainer packing problems. Bin completion combines a bin-oriented search space with a powerful dominance criterion that enables us to prune much of the space. The performance of the basic bin completion framework can be enhanced by using a number of extensions, including nogood-based pruning techniques that allow further exploitation of the dominance criterion. Bin completion is applied to four problems: multiple knapsack, bin covering, min-cost covering, and bin packing. We show that our bin completion algorithms yield new, state-of-the-art results for the multiple knapsack, bin covering,...

  18. Soil cover and water quality for irrigation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bertossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relationship between land cover and water quality for irrigation in the sub-basin of the stream Horizonte, located in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we selected five places in the sub-basin to collect surface water and groundwater, each influenced by different soil cover types: pasture, forest, coffee, upstream and downstream of the urban area. Collecting samples were made during periods of drought and rainfall. The physical-chemical analysis of water was made by determining the pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, sodium and calculated sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. According to the results we can conclude that the soil cover did not change the quality of water for irrigation and water evaluated, both surface and groundwater, showed no risk of soil salinization, but can cause problems sodification, making it difficult to water infiltration.

  19. Sharp dyadic coverings and nondoubling Calder\\'on-Zygmund theory

    CERN Document Server

    Conde, Jose M; Parcet, Javier

    2012-01-01

    We construct a family of n+1 dyadic filtrations in R^n, so that every Euclidean ball B is contained in some cube Q of our family satisfying diam(Q) \\le c_n diam(B) for some dimensional constant c_n. Our dyadic covering is optimal on the number of filtrations and improves previous results of Christ and Garnett/Jones by extending a construction of Mei for the n-torus. Based on this covering and motivated by applications to matrix-valued functions, we provide a dyadic nondoubling Calder\\'on-Zygmund decomposition which avoids Besicovitch type coverings in Tolsa's decomposition. We also use a recent result of Hyt\\"onen and Kairema to extend our dyadic nondoubling decomposition to the more general setting of upper doubling metric spaces.

  20. conservation and nutritional quality of blueberry treated with eatable covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcibela Stülp

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lengthening the post-harvest life of fruits from temperate climates is one of the greatest challenges of modern agriculture, which aims at diminishing the losses and increasing the offer period of the product in national and international market. The use of eatable pellicles has been explored to cover fruits, since its usage represents an economical advantage, due to its low price and reduction of post-harvest losses. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of blueberry, cultivar Florida M, produced in an organic production system and covered with eatable covering based on kefir grains associated with different storage temperatures. Thus, it was observed that the most efficient treatment to reduce blueberry post-harvest loss was the combination of kefir grains in association with storage cooled at 5 ºC, not changing the chemical composition and nutritional of blueberry.

  1. Cover technology demonstration for low-level radioactive sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a shallow land burial site in isolating low-level radioactive and mixed waste is strongly influenced by the behavior of the precipitation falling on the site. Predicting the long-term integrity of a cover design requires a knowledge of the water balance dynamics, and the use of predictive models. The multiplicity of factors operating on a site in the years post-closure (precipitation intensity and duration, soil conditions, vegetation seasonality and variability) have made it extremely difficult to predict the effects of natural precipitation with accuracy. Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field demonstration at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on an inactive waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot are measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Soil moisture reduction during the growing season was more pronounced on the shrub plots. This indicates that a more complex vegetative cover provides greater soil moisture storage capacity for winter precipitation than the usual grass cover

  2. Fast reactor primary cover gas system proposals for CDFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary sodium gas cover has been designed for CDFR, it comprises plant to maintain and control; cover gas pressure for all reactor operating at fault conditions, cover gas purity by both blowdown and by a special clean-up facility and the clean argon supply for the failed fuel detection system and the primary pump seal purge. The design philosophy is to devise a cover gas system that can be specified for any LMFBR where only features like vessel and pipework size need to be altered to suit different design and operating conditions. The choice of full power and shutdown operating pressures is derived and the method chosen to control these values is described. A part active/part passive system is proposed for this duty, a surge volume of 250 m3 gives passive control between full power and hot shutdown. Pressure control operation criteria is presented for various reactor operating conditions. A design for a sodium aerosol filter, based on that used on PFR is presented, it is specifically designed so that it can be fitted with an etched disc type particulate filter and maintenance is minimised. Two methods that maintain cover gas purity are described. The first, used during normal reactor operation with a small impurities ingress, utilises the continuous blowdown associated with the inevitable clean argon purge through the various reactor component seals. The second method physically removes the impurities xenon and krypton from the cover gas by their adsorption, at cryogenic temperature, onto a bed of activated carbon. The equipment required for these two duties and their mode of operation is described with the aid of a system flow diagram. The primary pump seals requires a gas purge to suppress aerosol migration. A system where the argon used for this task is recirculated and partially purified is described. (author)

  3. Effects of different scale land cover maps in watershed modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Antonio; Araújo, Antonio; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Water management is a rather complex process that usually involves multiple stakeholder, multiple data and sources, and complex mathematical modelling. One of the key data sets to understand a particular water system is the characterization of the land cover. Land cover maps are essential for the estimation of environmental variables (e.g. LAI, ETa) related to water quantity. Also, land cover maps are used for modelling the water quality. For instance, watersheds that have intensive agriculture can have poor water quality due to increase of nutrients loading; forest fires have a significant negative impact over the water quality by increasing the sediment loads; forest fires can increase flood risks. The land cover dynamics can as well severely affect the water quantity and quality in watersheds. In the MyWater project we are conducting a study to supply water quantity and quality information services for five study areas in five different countries (Brazil, Greece, Mozambique, Netherlands, and Portugal). In this project several land cover maps were produced both at regional and local scales, based on the exploitation of medium and high resolution satellite images (MERIS and SPOT 4). These maps were produced through semi-automatic supervised classification procedures, using an LCCS based nomenclature of 15 classes. Validation results pointed to global accuracy values greater than 80% for all maps. In this paper we focus on studying the effect of using different scale land cover maps in the watershed modelling and its impact in results. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  4. Modified sewage sludge as temporary landfill cover material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the feasibility of modified sewage sludge as landfill cover material and its performance in a complex landfill environment, strength and hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted. The permeability requirements for daily and interim covers were analyzed first. Based on saturated-unsaturated seepage calculations, it is suggested that approximately 1.0 × 10-4 cm/s and 1.0 × 10-5 cm/s are the appropriate values for the hydraulic conductivities of daily and interim covers, respectively. The strength and permeability requirements of the mixtures, when used as an interim cover, can be met at a sludge:lime:cement:silt:tire-derived aggregate (TDA weight ratio of 100:15:5:70:15. Results also demonstrate that the solid content ratio of modified sewage sludge, which should be greater than 60% when modified sewage sludge is used as a temporary cover material, is crucial to both strength and hydraulic performance. In addition, as the duration of soaking of modified sewage sludge in synthetic leachate increases, the unconfined compressive strength increases, and the hydraulic conductivity decreases slightly or fluctuates between 1.0 × 10-5 cm/s and 1.0 × 10-6 cm/s, still meeting the requirements for an interim cover. The reduction in hydraulic conductivity of modified sewage sludge under the effect of synthetic leachate, as well as the long-term and environmental performance of the modified sewage sludge, should be examined in future studies.

  5. Cover and Erosion Asymmetry in Saltation-Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C. P.; Parker, G.

    2014-12-01

    Erosion in bedrock-floored rivers is both driven and limited by the amount of sediment transported along the bed. Some sediment boosts wear rates, whereas too much generates a protective cover. This phenomenon determines the shape of river channels in a variety of landscapes and limits how fast they evolve. Here we reevaluate data from a well-known bedrock wear experiment to throw new light on how the saltation-abrasion process. Instead of a symmetric form for erosion versus sediment flux relative to transport capacity, we find the erosion rate peak shifts towards lower sediment fluxes when blocking of oblique saltation trajectories is taken into account. The theoretical context for this reevaluation is a cover-saltation-abrasion model, based on queueing theory (QT), for bedload transport over a planar bedrock bed. The QT approach provides some clarity in the stochastic treatment of granular impacts and cover, and generates closed-form solutions for wear rate in terms of sediment flux and simplified saltation geometry. Applied to the Sklar & Dietrich (2001) experiments in a very small recirculating flume, the two-parameter QT model fits the observed relation between erosion rate and sediment load, infers sediment flux as a function of load, admits non-negligible wear rates for a mean sediment depth of one grain, i.e., for full cover on average, but also suggests that bedrock erosion is blocked at >=50% instantaneous cover. The QT model makes testable predictions for future laboratory experiments and highlights the need for specific improvements in more comprehensive treatments of bedrock erosion and cover.

  6. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the data sets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalously high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010, which was not reported by PRODES. The burned area data indicated that this was predominantly related to increased burned area occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicated that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover

  7. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance under clear and snow-covered ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBates, T.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Ward, M.C.; Werlin, K.B.; Lorenzen, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    We described the distribution of cladoceran zooplankton under the ice in a natural, glacial lake. Local light availability apparently altered the spatial distribution of cladocerans. Light levels measured under snow-covered areas (0.178 lux) were an order of magnitude less than those measured at the same depth under clear ice (1.750 lux). Cladoceran density under snow-covered areas was significantly higher (Bosmina spp.=3.34/L; Daphnia spp.=0.61/L) than cladoceran abundance under clear ice (Bosmina spp.=0.91/L; Daphnia spp.=0.19/L).

  8. Cover stones on liquefiable soil bed under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the results of an experimental study on the behavior of cover stones on a liquefiable soil bed exposed to a progressive wave. The soil was silt with d50=0.098mm. Stones, the size of 4cm, were used as cover material. The effect of packing density of stones, and that of number of...... stone layers (including the effect of an intermediate filter layer) were investigated. Pore pressure was measured across the soil depth. The experiments show that the soil liquefaction depended mainly on two parameters: the packing density of stones, and the number of stone layers. When the liquefaction...

  9. Cover for marine pollution fines in P&I insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Linnersten, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyse the fines regime and the P&I insurance cover for the same in marine pollution claims. An understanding of the foundations of marine pollution liability is necessary to grasp the content of the P&I cover for fines of the same and will thus be presented. The perspectives applied for the subject field is partly that of the authorities, partly that of the P&I insurance industry. The underlying cause for this investigation is the disunity that may arise when actors have...

  10. Cover gas purification in the German LMFBR-programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific problem of sodium-cooled reactor plants is the purity of the noble gas argon which is used to protect the liquid alkali metal sodium in its systems in order to avoid or reduce disagreeable reactions between sodium and gaseous compounds like moisture or air and organic products like oil and grease. But as this contact cannot completely be excluded, we have to recycle such soiled cover gas. Simultaneously this procedure has to correct the release of radioactivity. Therefore the cover gas purification of primary systems of reactor plants contains the removal of the inorganic chemical disposal and of the nuclear waste. (author)

  11. Is cost-covering remuneration fully booked? - Teething problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this interview with Michael Kaufmann, director of the SwissEnergy programme, possible strategies for the correct pricing of electricity and measures for the correction of the dissatisfactory situation now prevailing concerning the cost-covering remuneration of power from renewable sources are discussed. The pricing of electricity from various sources and the indirect costs that are at present not met by non-renewable resources are commented on. Further topics covered include suggestions for strategies for relieving the presently blocked financial promotion of renewables, the goals set for the role to be played by renewable energy in Swiss electricity production in 2030 and suggestions for future political action

  12. The Space-time Origin of Quantum Mechanics Covering Law

    CERN Document Server

    Svetlichny, G

    2000-01-01

    Lorentz covariance imposed upon a quantum logic of local propositions forwhich all observers can consistently maintain state collapse descriptions,implies a condition on space-like separated propositions that if imposed ongenerally commuting ones would lead to the covering law, and hence to ahilbert-space model for the logic. Such a generalization can be argued if statepreparation can be conditioned to space-like separated events using EPR-typecorrelations. This suggests that the covering law is related to space-timestructure, though a final understanding of it, through a self-consistencyrequirement, will probably require quantum space-time.

  13. Change detection for Finnish CORINE land cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, Markus; Härmä, Pekka; Hatunen, Suvi; Teiniranta, Riitta; Kallio, Minna; Järvenpää, Elise

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the ideas, data and methods to produce Finnish Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC2006) classification. This version is based on use of existing national GIS data and satellite images and their automated processing, instead of visual interpretation of satellite images. The main idea is that land use information is based on GIS datasets and land cover information interpretation of satellite images. Because Finland participated to CLC2000-project, also changes between years 2000 and 2006 are determined. Finnish approach is good example how national GIS data is used to produce data fulfilling European needs in bottom-up fashion.

  14. Use of manual densitometry in land cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, D. C.; Graves, D. H.; Hammetter, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    Through use of manual spot densitometry values derived from multitemporal 1:24,000 color infrared aircraft photography, areas as small as one hectare in the Cumberland Plateau in Kentucky were accurately classified into one of eight ground cover groups. If distinguishing between undisturbed and disturbed forest areas is the sole criterion of interest, classification results are highly accurate if based on imagery taken during foliated ground cover conditions. Multiseasonal imagery analysis was superior to single data analysis, and transparencies from prefoliated conditions gave better separation of conifers and hardwoods than did those from foliated conditions.

  15. Cover Image, Volume 113, Number 10, October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paula G; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Cover Legend The design and operation of a bidirectional flow, pumpless 14 chamber system representing 13 tissues/organs with both barrier and nonbarrier tissue chambers is described. Viability across all compartments was initially demonstrated with one cell line. Then viability and functionality in the device was retained for 7 days using 5 representative cell lines and compared to static controls. The cover image, by Michael L. Shuler and Paula G. Miller, is based on the Article Design and demonstration of a pumpless 14 compartment microphysiological system, DOI: 10.1002/bit.25989. PMID:27563856

  16. Quasicrystals: Atomic coverings and windows are dual projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Peter

    1999-01-01

    In the window approach to quasicrystals, the atomic position space E_parallel is embedded into a space E^n = E_parallel + E_perp. Windows are attached to points of a lattice Lambda \\in E^n. For standard 5fold and icosahedral tiling models, the windows are perpendicular projections of dual Voronoi and Delone cells from Lambda. Their cuts by the position space E_parallel mark tiles and atomic positions. In the alternative covering approach, the position space is covered by overlapping copies of...

  17. On spectral cover equations in Simpson integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gerasimov, Anton A

    2016-01-01

    Following Simpson we consider the integrable system structure on the moduli spaces of Higgs bundles on a compact K\\"ahler manifold $X$. We propose a description of the corresponding spectral cover of $X$ as the fiberwise projective dual to a hypersurface in the projectivization $\\mathbb{P}(\\mathcal{T}_{X} \\oplus \\mathcal{O}_X)$ of the tangent bundle $\\mathcal{T}_X$ to $X$. The defining equation of the hypersurface dual to the Simpson spectral cover is explicitly constructed in terms of the Higgs fields.

  18. A reduction of the globalization and U(1)-covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We suggest a reduction of the globalization and multidimensional quantization to the case of reductive Lie groups by lifting to U(1)-covering. our construction is connected with M. Duflo's third method for algebraic groups. From a reductive datum of the given real algebraic Lie group we firstly construct geometric complexes with respect to U(1)-covering by using the unipotent positive distributions. Then we describe in terms of local cohomology the maximal globalization of Harish-Chandra modules which correspond to the geometric complexes. (author). 9 refs

  19. On Vertex Covering Transversal Domination Number of Regular Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, R.; Subramanian, K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple graph G = (V, E) is said to be r-regular if each vertex of G is of degree r. The vertex covering transversal domination number γvct(G) is the minimum cardinality among all vertex covering transversal dominating sets of G. In this paper, we analyse this parameter on different kinds of regular graphs especially for Qn and H3,n. Also we provide an upper bound for γvct of a connected cubic graph of order n ≥ 8. Then we try to provide a more stronger relationship between γ and γvct.

  20. STRENGTHENING OF TRENCH COVER PLATES FOR SWITCHGEAR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this calculation is to strengthen the existing trench cover plates of the Electrical Switchgear Building (BLDG 5010) of the Exploratory Studies Facility. A remodeling effort will change the portion of the facility that has the trenches for electrical cables to a craft/shop area. The users of the building will be using a forklift in this area (Clark CGP 30 forklift with a capacity of 3 tons). The trench covers require strengthening to support the wheel loads from the forklift. The output of this calculation will be sketches revising the floor plate details of DWG YMP-025-1-7007-ST103,2. (Details 4 and 5)

  1. Hands on with ASP.NET MVC covering MVC 6

    CERN Document Server

    Sahay, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    MVC (Model-View-Controller) is the popular Microsoft technology which enables you to build dynamic, data-driven, mobile websites, TDD site. Hands-On with ASP.NET MVC is not only written for those who are going to have affair with MVC for the 1st time, rather it is written in such a way that even experienced professional will love reading this book. This book covers all the tiny steps on using MVC at its best. With complete practical tutorials to illustrate the concepts, you will step by step build one End to End application which covers below mentioned techniques - Controllers, Views, Models,

  2. Forecasts covering one month using a cut-cell model

    OpenAIRE

    Steppeler, J.; S.-H. Park; A. Dobler

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact and potential use of the cut-cell vertical discretisation for forecasts covering five days and climate simulations. A first indication of the usefulness of this new method is obtained by a set of five-day forecasts, covering January 1989 with six forecasts. The model area was chosen to include much of Asia, the Himalayas and Australia. The cut-cell model LMZ (Lokal Modell with z-coordinates) provides a much more accurate representation of mountains on ...

  3. Known algorithms for EDGE CLIQUE COVER are probably optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Cygan; Marcin Pilipczuk; Michal Pilipczuk

    2013-01-01

    In the EDGE CLIQUE COVER (ECC) problem, given a graph G and an integer k, we ask whether the edges of G can be covered with k complete subgraphs of G or, equivalently, whether G admits an intersection model on k-element universe. Gramm et al. [JEA 2008] have shown a set of simple rules that reduce the number of vertices of G to 2^k, and no algorithm is known with significantly better running time bound than a brute-force search on this reduced instance. In this paper we show that the approach...

  4. Deterministic approximation for the cover time of trees

    CERN Document Server

    Feige, Uriel

    2009-01-01

    We present a deterministic algorithm that given a tree T with n vertices, a starting vertex v and a slackness parameter epsilon > 0, estimates within an additive error of epsilon the cover and return time, namely, the expected time it takes a simple random walk that starts at v to visit all vertices of T and return to v. The running time of our algorithm is polynomial in n/epsilon, and hence remains polynomial in n also for epsilon = 1/n^{O(1)}. We also show how the algorithm can be extended to estimate the expected cover (without return) time on trees.

  5. Statistical analysis of multivariate atmospheric variables. [cloud cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) estimation in discrete multivariate distributions; (2) a procedure to predict cloud cover frequencies in the bivariate case; (3) a program to compute conditional bivariate normal parameters; (4) the transformation of nonnormal multivariate to near-normal; (5) test of fit for the extreme value distribution based upon the generalized minimum chi-square; (6) test of fit for continuous distributions based upon the generalized minimum chi-square; (7) effect of correlated observations on confidence sets based upon chi-square statistics; and (8) generation of random variates from specified distributions.

  6. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA)

  7. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  8. Cover Image, Volume 113, Number 7, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yudan; Crump, Colin M; Mackley, Malcolm M; Li Puma, Gianluca; Reis, Nuno M

    2016-07-01

    Cover Legend This figure shows an artistic representation of UVC inactivation of virus particles in a plastic fluoropolymer microcapillary film. The plastic microcapillary film has a refractive index similar to water and is very transparent to UVC light, consisting of a number of parallel microcapillaries embedded in a flat film. The inner diameter of the microcapillaries is tuned for rapid efficient UVC inactivation of virus particles in continuous flows. The cover image, by Nuno Miguel Reis et al., is based on the Article Photo inactivation of virus particles in microfluidic capillary systems, DOI: 10.1002/bit.25912. PMID:27225689

  9. EFFECTS OF EDGE COVERING ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF MDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Dowels, 6, 8 and 10 mm ? diameters were bonded with PVAc adhesive on Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF. Edges were covered with 5, 8 and 12 mm beech wood materials, drilled 25 mm depth. Tensile strength measurments were made on the samples. The highest tensile strength value was given as 6 mm ? dowel and MDF covered with 8 mm thickness beech wood material (2.294 N/mm2, the lowest value was obtained with 10 mm ? dowel and with unprocessed MDF (1.314 N/mm2.

  10. Covered stent placement for the treatment of malignant superior vena cava syndrome: Is unilateral covered stenting and effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hoon; Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Gi Young; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Sung, Kyu Bo [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of unilateral covered stent placement in patients with malignant superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome. Between October 2008 and November 2012, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent placement for malignant SVC syndrome was performed in 40 consecutive patients (35 men and five women; mean age, 61.4 years; range, 35-81 years). All covered stents were unilaterally placed within the SVC or across the venous confluence when needed to relieve venous obstruction and prevent tumor overgrowth, regardless of patency of contralateral brachiocephalic veins. Stent placement was technically successful in all patients. There were no major complications. Of the 37 patients symptomatic prior to stent placement, 34 (92%) experienced complete symptomatic relief 1-8 days after stent placement. Of the 29 patients who underwent covered stent placement across the venous confluence, nine patients had patent contralateral brachiocephalic veins prior to stent placement. However, no sign of SVC obstruction or contralateral upper extremity venous thrombosis was observed during the follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed median patient survival of 163 days. Stent occlusion occurred in four (10%) of 40 patents. Cumulative stent patency rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 95%, 92%, 86%, and 86%, respectively. Unilateral covered stent placement appears to be a safe and effective method for treating malignant SVC syndrome, despite the location of SVC occlusion.

  11. Modelling Deforestation and Land Cover Transitions of Tropical Peatlands in Sumatra, Indonesia Using Remote Sensed Land Cover Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Elz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia land use change associated with forest loss and degradation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. This is of particular concern where deforestation occurs on peat soils. A business-as-usual (BAU land change model was developed using Dinamica EGO© for a REDD+ Demonstration Activity area in south-east Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia containing Berbak National Park (NP. The model output will be used as baseline land change predictions for comparison with alternative land cover management scenarios as part of a REDD+ feasibility study. The study area is approximately 376,000 ha with approximately 50% on peat soils. The model uses published 2000 and 2010 land cover maps as input and projects land cover change for thirty years until 2040. The model predicted that under a BAU scenario the forest area, 185,000 ha in 2010, will decline by 37% by 2040. In protected forest areas, approximately 50% of the study area, forest cover will reduce by 25%. Peat swamp forest will reduce by almost 37%. The greatest land cover category increases are plantation/regrowth areas (which includes oil palm and open areas which each increase by 30,000 ha. These results indicate that the site has great potential as an Indonesian REDD+ Demonstration Activity.

  12. Covered stent placement for the treatment of malignant superior vena cava syndrome: Is unilateral covered stenting and effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of unilateral covered stent placement in patients with malignant superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome. Between October 2008 and November 2012, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent placement for malignant SVC syndrome was performed in 40 consecutive patients (35 men and five women; mean age, 61.4 years; range, 35-81 years). All covered stents were unilaterally placed within the SVC or across the venous confluence when needed to relieve venous obstruction and prevent tumor overgrowth, regardless of patency of contralateral brachiocephalic veins. Stent placement was technically successful in all patients. There were no major complications. Of the 37 patients symptomatic prior to stent placement, 34 (92%) experienced complete symptomatic relief 1-8 days after stent placement. Of the 29 patients who underwent covered stent placement across the venous confluence, nine patients had patent contralateral brachiocephalic veins prior to stent placement. However, no sign of SVC obstruction or contralateral upper extremity venous thrombosis was observed during the follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed median patient survival of 163 days. Stent occlusion occurred in four (10%) of 40 patents. Cumulative stent patency rates at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were 95%, 92%, 86%, and 86%, respectively. Unilateral covered stent placement appears to be a safe and effective method for treating malignant SVC syndrome, despite the location of SVC occlusion.

  13. Estimating The Effect of Biofuel on Land Cover Change Using Multi-Year Modis Land Cover Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    There has been a growing debate on the effects of the increase in demands of biofuels on land use land cover (LULC) change with apprehension in some quarters that the growing demand for bioenergy as a clean fuel will result in widespread direct and indirect LULC change. However estimating both direct and indirect LULC change is challenging and will require development of accurate high frequency, high resolution (temporal and spatial) land use land cover data as well as new LULC models which can be used to locate, quantify and predict these changes. To assess whether the demand for biofuel has caused significant LULC we used MODIS land cover data (MCD12Q1) from 2001 to 2008 along with cropland data layer (CDL) to estimate cropland and grassland changes in United States for the years 2002-2008 as well as its correlation with biofuel growth.

  14. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  15. Cover cropping impacts on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a management tool which can extend the period of time that a living plant is growing and conducting photosynthesis. This is critical for soil health, because most of the soil organisms, particularly the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are limited by carbon. Research, on-farm, and demon...

  16. 20 CFR 641.100 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... efforts to provide services through the integration of the SCSEP within the One-Stop Delivery System. (c... GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Purpose and Definitions § 641.100 What does this part cover? Part 641 contains the Department of Labor's regulations for the Senior Community...

  17. A recent bifurcation in Arctic sea-ice cover

    CERN Document Server

    Livina, Valerie N

    2012-01-01

    There is ongoing debate over whether Arctic sea-ice has already passed a 'tipping point', or whether it will do so in future, with several recent studies arguing that the loss of summer sea ice does not involve a bifurcation because it is highly reversible in models. Recently developed methods can detect and sometimes forewarn of bifurcations in time-series data, hence we applied them to satellite data for Arctic sea-ice cover. Here we show that a new low ice cover state has appeared from 2007 onwards, which is distinct from the normal state of seasonal sea ice variation, suggesting a bifurcation has occurred from one attractor to two. There was no robust early warning signal of critical slowing down prior to this bifurcation, consistent with it representing the appearance of a new ice cover state rather than the loss of stability of the existing state. The new low ice cover state has been sampled predominantly in summer-autumn and seasonal forcing combined with internal climate variability are likely respons...

  18. Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

  19. Soil Nitrogen Response to Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with manure (M) application may increase retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this research was to quantify soil N changes after application of liquid swine M (Sus scrofa L.) at target N rates of 112, 224, an...

  20. Enhancing Nutrient Cycling by Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with liquid manure injection may increase manure nutrient capture. The objectives of this research were to quantify manure injection effects using target manure N rates of 112, 224, and 336 kg N ha-1 on CC plant density, fall and spring shoot biomass, N, ...

  1. On Covering Single Points by Randomly Ordered Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Berbee, Henry

    1981-01-01

    A strictly increasing, pure jump process with stationary, independent increments hits a single point $r > 0$ with probability 0. Adapting a method of proof, due to Carleson, we obtain a similar result for processes with exchangeable increments. This enables us to solve a regularity problem from game theory concerning probabilities of covering single points by randomly ordered intervals.

  2. Government-Sponsored Health Insurance in India : Are You Covered?

    OpenAIRE

    La Forgia, Gerard; Nagpal, Somil

    2012-01-01

    Since independence, India has struggled to provide its people with universal health coverage. Whether defined in terms of financial protection or access to and effective use of health care, the majority of Indians remain irregularly and incompletely covered. Finally, and most recently, a new generation of Government-Sponsored Health Insurance Schemes (GSHISs) has emerged to provide the poo...

  3. Effects of interannual climate variability on tropical tree cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Milena; Hirota, Marina; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten

    2013-08-01

    Climatic warming is substantially intensifying the global water cycle and is projected to increase rainfall variability. Using satellite data, we show that higher climatic variability is associated with reduced tree cover in the wet tropics globally. In contrast, interannual variability in rainfall can have neutral or even positive effects on tree cover in the dry tropics. In South America, tree cover in dry lands is higher in areas with high year-to-year variability in rainfall. This is consistent with evidence from case studies suggesting that in these areas rare wet episodes are essential for opening windows of opportunity where massive tree recruitment can overwhelm disturbance effects, allowing the establishment of extensive woodlands. In Australia, wet extremes have similar effects, but the net effect of rainfall variability is overwhelmed by negative effects of extreme dry years. In Africa, effects of rainfall variability are neutral for dry lands. It is most likely that differences in herbivore communities and fire regimes contribute to regulating tree expansion during wet extremes. Our results illustrate that increasing climatic variability may affect ecosystem services in contrasting, and sometimes surprising, ways. Expansion of dry tropical tree cover during extreme wet events may decrease grassland productivity but enhance carbon sequestration, soil nutrient retention and biodiversity.

  4. 45 CFR 283.1 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 283.1 Section 283.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION OF SECTION 403(A)(2) OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY...

  5. 45 CFR 309.01 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 309.01 Section 309.01 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT...

  6. 45 CFR 261.1 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 261.1 Section 261.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK § 261.1 What does this part...

  7. 45 CFR 265.1 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 265.1 Section 265.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DATA COLLECTION AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 265.1 What does...

  8. 45 CFR 286.1 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 286.1 Section 286.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS General Tribal TANF Provisions § 286.1...

  9. 45 CFR 284.10 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 284.10 Section 284.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING WHETHER AN INCREASE IN A STATE...

  10. 45 CFR 287.1 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 287.1 Section 287.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM General NEW Provisions...

  11. 45 CFR 309.55 - What does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this subpart cover? 309.55 Section 309.55 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT...

  12. 45 CFR 260.10 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 260.10 Section 260.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES...

  13. 45 CFR 310.0 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 310.0 Section 310.0 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND...

  14. 45 CFR 270.1 - What does this part cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does this part cover? 270.1 Section 270.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIGH PERFORMANCE BONUS AWARDS § 270.1 What does this part...

  15. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growing systems in Ghana and West Africa consist of diverse tree species and densities.This study was conducted to determine factors that influence tree species configurations and how tree characteristics affect canopy cover in cocoa farms. Eighty-six farmers and...

  16. Greedy Local Search and Vertex Cover in Sparse Random Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    -search heuristic finds an optimal cover in polynomial time with a probability arbitrarily close to 1. This behavior relies on the absence of a giant component. As an additional insight into the randomized search, it is shown that the heuristic fails badly also on graphs consisting of a single tree component of...

  17. The curve complex and covers via hyperbolic 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Rafi and Schleimer recently proved that the natural relation between curve complexes induced by a covering map between two surfaces is a quasi-isometric embedding. We offer another proof of this result using a distance estimate via hyperbolic 3-manifolds.

  18. Covering Conflict and Controversy: Measuring Balance, Fairness, Defamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Todd F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Measures balance, fairness, and defamation in local stories containing controversy and covering law enforcement, education, local government, and business. Finds that most stories lack balance and that the opposing side of the controversy was not contacted in 28 percent of the instances. (RS)

  19. Covering Based Optimistic Multigranular Approximate Rough Equalities and their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.Tripathy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception rough set theory has proved itself to be one of the most important models to capture impreciseness in data. However, it was based upon the notion of equivalence relations, which are relatively rare as far as applicability is concerned. So, the basic rough set model has been extended in many directions. One of these extensions is the covering based rough set notion, where a cover is an extension of the concept of partition; a notion which is equivalent to equivalence relation. From the granular computing point of view, all these rough sets are unigranular in character; i.e. they consider only a singular granular structure on the universe. So, there arose the necessity to define multigranular rough sets and as a consequence two types of multigranular rough sets, called the optimistic multigranular rough sets and pessimistic rough sets have been introduced. Four types of covering based optimistic multigranular rough sets have been introduced and their properties are studied. The notion of equality of sets, which is too stringent for real life applications, was extended by Novotny and Pawlak to define rough equalities. This notion was further extended by Tripathy to define three more types of approximate equalities. The covering based optimistic versions of two of these four approximate equalities have been studied by Nagaraju et al recently. In this article, we study the other two cases and provide a comparative analysis.

  20. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.248 Cover over buried pipeline. (a) Unless specifically... the pipe and the ground level, road bed, river bottom, or underwater natural bottom (as determined...

  1. Mouse-resistant insulated covers keep pipes from freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    Fabric wellhead covers and insulated blankets are commonly used at well sites in the Wyoming coalbed methane field to keep surface pipes from freezing. These materials are often chewed up by mice who build nests close to the warm pipes. The mice attract rattlesnakes, a potentially serious problem for the workmen who check the wells daily. Kennon Products of Sheridan, Wyoming solved this problem by making a flexible covering material that has a coating of hardened guard plates that prevents mice from chewing through it. More than a hundred of Kennon's mouse-resistant wellhead covers have been used successfully in the gas fields for over a year. They can be installed in less than 30 minutes and cost only a fraction of what a fiberglass hut costs to purchase and install. Huts are being discouraged for use on federal lands because they alter the nesting patterns of eagles, who perch upon them to hunt rodents. Huts also trap methane gas, which is a potential safety hazard. Kennon's mouse-resistant wellhead covers are lower than the fiberglass huts and blend into the landscape. The company is working on camouflage colours to make wellheads less noticeable. In the future, the company plans to insulate water pipes. 1 fig.

  2. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers

  3. Land Cover and Rainfall Interact to Shape Waterbird Community Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Studds, Colin E.; DeLuca, William V.; Baker, Matthew E.; Ryan S King; Marra, Peter P

    2012-01-01

    Human land cover can degrade estuaries directly through habitat loss and fragmentation or indirectly through nutrient inputs that reduce water quality. Strong precipitation events are occurring more frequently, causing greater hydrological connectivity between watersheds and estuaries. Nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion that occur following these events are known to limit populations of benthic macroinvertebrates and commercially harvested species, but the consequences for top...

  4. An explicit computation of a family of trivialising \\'etale covers

    OpenAIRE

    Stäbler, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We explicitly compute \\'etale covers of the smooth Fermat curves $Y_{p+1} = \\Proj k[u,v,w]/(u^{p+1} + v^{p+1} - w^{p+1})$ which trivialise the vector bundles $\\Syz(u^2, v^2, w^2)(3)$, where $k$ is a field of characteristic $p \\geq 3$.

  5. Cover Image, Volume 170A, Number 7, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Elisa; Ciolfi, Andrea; Biamino, Elisa; Caputo, Viviana; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Belligni, Elga Fabia; Calcia, Alessandro; Gaidolfi, Elena; Bruselles, Alessandro; Mancini, Cecilia; Cavalieri, Simona; Molinatto, Cristina; Cirillo Silengo, Margherita; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Tartaglia, Marco; Brusco, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    The cover image, by Alfredo Brusco et al., is based on the Original Article Whole exome sequencing is necessary to clarify ID/DD cases with de novo copy number variants of uncertain signifi cance: Two proof-of-concept examples, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37649. PMID:27311422

  6. D Land Cover Classification Based on Multispectral LIDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Lidar System can emit simultaneous laser pulses at the different wavelengths. The reflected multispectral energy is captured through a receiver of the sensor, and the return signal together with the position and orientation information of sensor is recorded. These recorded data are solved with GNSS/IMU data for further post-processing, forming high density multispectral 3D point clouds. As the first commercial multispectral airborne Lidar sensor, Optech Titan system is capable of collecting point clouds data from all three channels at 532nm visible (Green), at 1064 nm near infrared (NIR) and at 1550nm intermediate infrared (IR). It has become a new source of data for 3D land cover classification. The paper presents an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to only use multispectral Lidar point clouds datasets for 3D land cover classification. The approach consists of three steps. Firstly, multispectral intensity images are segmented into image objects on the basis of multi-resolution segmentation integrating different scale parameters. Secondly, intensity objects are classified into nine categories by using the customized features of classification indexes and a combination the multispectral reflectance with the vertical distribution of object features. Finally, accuracy assessment is conducted via comparing random reference samples points from google imagery tiles with the classification results. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most of the land cover types. Over 90% of overall accuracy is achieved via using multispectral Lidar point clouds for 3D land cover classification.

  7. Evaluation of diffusing properties of greenhouse covering materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Breugel, van A.J.; Mohammadkhani, V.

    2016-01-01

    Modern greenhouse covering and screen materials are able to transform direct sunlight into diffuse light. After entering the greenhouse the sunlight is scattered and penetrates the crop where it is absorbed and used for photosynthesis. Diffuse light has been shown to increase light interception o

  8. Cover Image, Volume 170A, Number 8, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akawi, Nadia; Ben-Salem, Salma; Lahti, Laura; Partanen, Juha; Ali, Bassam R; Al-Gazali, Lihadh

    2016-08-01

    The cover image, by Lihadh Al Gazali et al., is based on the Original Article A recessive syndrome of intellectual disability, moderate overgrowth, and renal dysplasia predisposing to Wilms tumor is caused by a mutation in FIBP gene, DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.37741. PMID:27410198

  9. Cover Image, Volume 170A, Number 6, June 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Allan; Fijalkowski, Igor; Andersen, Tobias; Abdulmunem, Sura Azhar; van den Ende, Jenneke; Van Hul, Wim

    2016-06-01

    The cover image, by Wim Van Hul et al., is based on the Original Article Further delineation of facioaudiosymphalangism syndrome: Description of a family with a novel NOG mutation and without hearing loss, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37626. PMID:27191530

  10. 37 CFR 385.16 - Reproduction and distribution rights covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction and distribution..., Other Incidental Digital Phonorecord Deliveries and Limited Downloads § 385.16 Reproduction and distribution rights covered. A compulsory license under 17 U.S.C. 115 extends to all reproduction...

  11. Multilayered antifriction nanostraction covering for lubrication in the tribocoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir KOLESNIKOV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In article principles of creation of a new way of the lubrication a wheel-rail tribosystem by drawing on a lateral side of a rail head of a multilayered antifriction nanostructurial covering possessing property of blocking negative segregation phenomena in metals of a wheel and a rail are considered.

  12. Landscape Level Analyses of Vegetation Cover in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, T.; Hollister, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Many International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) studies have been conducted to identify vegetation changes due to warming. However, knowledge gaps remain. For example, most of these studies are conducted at the plot level, not the landscape level, potentially masking larger scale impacts of climate change. An Arctic Systems Science (ARCSS) grid was established in Atqasuk, Alaska and Barrow, Alaska in the mid 1990's. In 2010, approximately 100 untreated vegetation plots were implemented at each grid site. These vegetation plots are 1 meter squared, spaced 100 meters apart, and span 1 kilometer squared. Each vegetation plot represents 100 square meters along the grid. This project will focus on how vegetation cover has changed at the landscape level, using the point frame method, from 2010 to 2013. Preliminary data analysis indicates that in Atqasuk, graminoids, deciduous shrubs, and evergreen shrubs show increased cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes, forbs and lichens. In Barrow, graminoids, lichens and forbs have shown an increase in cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes and deciduous shrubs. At both sites, graminoids represent the greatest increase in cover of all growth forms analyzed. This study will be the foundation for later work, with the purpose of predicting what ARCSS grid vegetation community compositions will be in the future. These expectations will be based on anticipated warming data from ITEX passively warmed vegetation plots. This will be the first time that ITEX vegetation warming research is applied to landscape level research in Barrow and Atqasuk.

  13. Colonizing and Decolonizing Projects of Re/covering Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jeong-eun; Subedi, Binaya

    2014-01-01

    In this postcolonial inquiry, we analyze how spirituality has been simultaneously appropriated/re-covered and re-appropriated/recovered for the purpose of (re)colonizing as well as decolonizing projects. By drawing from discrete yet interconnected literatures of decolonizing, (post)(anti)colonial, Indigenous, and ethnic studies based theories, we…

  14. Assessment of the thematic accuracy of land cover maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Several land cover maps are generated from aerial imagery and assessed by different approaches. The test site is an urban area in Europe for which six classes (‘building’, ‘hedge and bush’, ‘grass’, ‘road and parking lot’, ‘tree’, ‘wall and car port’) had to be derived. Two classification methods...

  15. Experimental research of covered stent implanted in canine hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of success rate of implantation, post-procedure stenosis rate, apposition ability and endothelialization level, etc. for implantation with balloon-expandable covered stent in canine hepatic artery. Methods: 8 adult canines were implanted with balloon-expendable stents covered by expandable poly Teflon ester membrane (e-PTFEM). Follow-up DSA was performed immediately, 2, 4 and 12 wk after the procedure. The canines were sacrificed for histopathologic examination and statistical analysis with correlation of implantation manenvor and angiographic manifestations. Results: 8 cases were all implanted with the covered stents in proper hepatic artery/right hepatic artery successfully; showing good apposition ability and non-opacification of the separated branches. 2 cases showed intraluminal obvious stenosis( > 50%)of the stent at 2 weeks follow-up, so did 3 cases at 12 weeks follow-up, and the total stenosis rate was 37.5% and 5 cases manifested full endothelialization (3 different locations of the sample all manifested full endothelialization), 3 cased manifested partial endothelialization (at least 1 location of the sample didn't show full endothelialization), and the two terminal parts were easier to get endothelialization than the central part. Before and after the stent implantation, hepatic function of all cases didn't demonstrate any obvious changes. Conclusions: Balloon-expandable covered stent can be implanted in canine hepatic artery. successfully, with good apposition ability, full endothelialization, and no influence on hepatic function. (authors)

  16. Comparison of ET models over different land cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to compare various ET models based on a standard dataset. We selected 9 ET models for comparison, including three surface energy balance residual models (SEBS, TSEB-P and TSEB-S), four Penman-Monteith models (PM-Mu, PM-Yuan, PM-Sun and PM-SW), one Priestly-Taylor model (PT-Fi) and one semi-empirical statiacital model (ST). ET is evaluated using surface climate data from ground measurements as input. Remote sensing data including Ts, LAI and NDVI products from MODIS are used. Estimated ET is validated against 40 Fluxnet measurement sites across North United states and Europe. The sites land cover types include grassland, cropland, evergreen needle leaf forest, evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, mixed forest, shrub land and savannas. Results show that ST model had a balanced performance with relative good precision over all the land cover types. PM-Sun has high R2 and low RMSE and bias over all land cover types. However, it overestimated high value and underestimated low value, mainly due to the overestimation of soil evaporation and underestimation of plant transpiration. The energy budget series models including SEBS, TSEB-P and TSEB-S have a bad performs on the forest land cover. PM-Mu and PM-Yuan underestimated ET obviously, resulting from the underestimation of soil evaporation

  17. 27 CFR 73.10 - What does subpart B cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 73.10 Section 73.10 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Signatures § 73.10 What does subpart B cover? This subpart provides...

  18. 27 CFR 73.30 - What does subpart C cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 73.30 Section 73.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Filing of Documents with TTB § 73.30 What does subpart C cover? This...

  19. Rye Cover Crops in a Corn Silage-Soybean Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn silage is often grown in the Upper Midwest to provide feed for cattle. Silage harvest, however, does not leave enough crop residue to adequately protect the soil from erosion and can reduce soil organic matter. Winter cover crops planted after silage harvest and after other crops in the croppin...

  20. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...