WorldWideScience

Sample records for bicarbonates

  1. Bicarbonate kinetics in Indian males

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Raj; R Kuriyan; A V Kurpad

    2006-06-01

    Measurement of rates of in vivo substrate oxidation such as that of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, are based on tracer (14C or 13C) data, and often depend on the isotopic content of expired CO2. The recovery of tracer-labelled CO2 generated from the oxidation of 13C labelled substrates may not be 100% over short term. This can lead to underestimation of oxidation rate of substrates, and consequently a correction for the incomplete recovery of tracer has to be applied by the determination of the recovery of 13CO2 in the breath during tracer bicarbonate infusions. We have studied the recovery of tracer-labelled bicarbonate using a bolus administration model, and further characterized kinetics of bicarbonate using a three-compartment model, to assess which compartmental fluxes changed during the change from a fasted state to fed state. Recovery of bicarbonate was lower at 69% and 67% (fasted and fed state) than the value of 71% and 74% found during earlier longer term of continuous infusions. During feeding, there was a 20-fold increase in the flux of bicarbonate between the central compartment and the compartment that was equivalent to the viscera. This study shows that the difference between the fasted and fed state recovery of tracer bicarbonate similar to that obtained with continuous infusions, and that bicarbonate fluxes show large changes between different compartments in the body depending on metabolic state.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  3. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  4. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a)...

  5. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K;

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal rel...

  6. Sodium-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boron WF

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Together, the Na(+-coupled HCO(3(- transporters and the AE family of anion exchangers (i.e., Cl-HCO3 exchangers comprise the bicarbonate transporter (BT superfamily. Virtually all BTs are important for the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i in cells throughout the body. Specific BTs also play roles in cell-volume regulation, as well as for the transport of salt and/or acid-base equivalents across many epithelia. Electrogenic Na/HCO3 cotransporters (NBCe's play key roles in HCO(3(- reabsorption by the renal proximal tubule, and HCO(3(- secretion by the pancreatic duct. Electroneutral NBC's (NBCn's regulate pH(i in vascular smooth muscle and are present in/near axons in the brain. Finally, the Na(+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger (NDCBE's appear to be the major pH(i regulators in CNS neurons. A characteristic of most, but not all, BT's is that they are inhibited rather effectively by 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-4,4'-disulfonate (DIDS.

  7. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. PMID:26574184

  8. Pancreatic Bicarbonate Secretion Involves Two Proton Pumps*

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L; Haanes, Kristian A.; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H+/HCO3− transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na+/K+-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps,...

  9. Bicarbonate-Regulated Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttke MS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC represents a novel form of mammalian adenylyl cyclase structurally, molecularly, and biochemically distinct from the G protein-regulated, transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs. sAC possesses no transmembrane domains and is insensitive to classic modulators of tmACs, such as heterotrimeric G proteins and P site ligands. Thus, sAC defines an independently regulated cAMP signaling system within mammalian cells. sAC is directly stimulated by bicarbonate ion both in vivo in heterologously expressing cells and in vitro using purified protein. sAC appears to be the predominant form of adenylyl cyclase (AC in mammalian sperm, and its direct activation by bicarbonate provides a mechanism for generating the cAMP required to complete the bicarbonate-induced processes necessary for fertilization, including hyperactivated motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. Immunolocalization studies reveal sAC is also abundantly expressed in other tissues which respond to bicarbonate or carbon dioxide levels suggesting it may function as a general bicarbonate/CO(2 sensor throughout the body.

  10. Cholangiocyte anion exchange and biliary bicarbonate excretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús M Banales; Jesús Prieto; Juan F Medina

    2006-01-01

    Primary canalicular bile undergoes a process of fluidization and alkalinization along the biliary tract that is influenced by several factors including hormones, innervation/neuropeptides, and biliary constituents. Theexcretion of bicarbonate at both the canaliculi and the bile ducts is an important contributor to the generation of the so-called bile-salt independent flow. Bicarbonate is secreted from hepatocytes and cholangiocytes through parallel mechanisms which involve chloride efflux through activation of Cl- channels, and further bicarbonate secretion via AE2/SLC4A2-mediated Cl-/HCO3-exchange. Glucagon and secretin are two relevant hormones which seem to act very similarly in their target cells (hepatocytes for the former and cholangiocytes for the latter). These hormones interact with their specific G protein-coupled receptors, causing increases in intracellular levels of cAMP and activation of cAMP-dependent Cl- and HCO3- secretory mechanisms. Both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes appear to have cAMP-responsive intracellular vesicles in which AE2/SLC4A2 colocalizes with cell specific Cl- channels (CFTR in cholangiocytes and not yet determined in hepatocytes) and aquaporins (AQP8 in hepatocytes and AQP1 in cholangiocytes). cAMP-induced coordinated trafficking of these vesicles to either canalicular or cholangiocyte lumenal membranes and further exocytosis results in increased osmotic forces and passive movement of water with net bicarbonate-rich hydrocholeresis.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 19, which is incorporated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dioxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 239... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  13. Pro: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhukar

    2016-08-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis is common in dialysis patients. Bicarbonate administration via the dialysate helps maintain the acid-base balance in these patients. Serum bicarbonate level in dialysis patients is determined by several factors that include dietary protein intake, nutritional status and dialysis prescription, etc. Additionally, a meaningful interpretation of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients requires an understanding of complexities involving its measurement. Both very low as well very high levels of serum bicarbonate have been associated with adverse outcomes in observational studies. However, recent observational data, when adjusted for the confounding effects of nutritional status, do not associate higher predialysis serum bicarbonate with adverse consequences. At this time, there are no prospective studies available that have examined the association of serum bicarbonate with hard outcomes in dialysis patients. The ideal level of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is therefore unknown. This article examines the available data with regard to the benefits of higher predialysis serum bicarbonate. PMID:27411723

  14. Intestinal bicarbonate secretion by marine teleost fish - why and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Rod W.; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp

    2002-01-01

    Calcium, Precipitation, Osmoregulation, pH-stat titration, Water absorption, Chloride-bicarbonate exchange......Calcium, Precipitation, Osmoregulation, pH-stat titration, Water absorption, Chloride-bicarbonate exchange...

  15. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.;

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express...... non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were...... H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and...

  16. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  17. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  18. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus; Rask-Madsen, J

    1997-01-01

    contaminating the oesophagusaccounted for 14% and 3%, respectively, of total oesophageal bicarbonate output. CONCLUSIONS: Bicarbonate secretory capacity of the humanoesophagus is less than previously assumed, and the clinical relevance of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate for mucosal defence may be......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus...... median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...

  19. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Bernardo; Zabala, Mikel; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belén

    2005-02-01

    Numerous studies have used exogenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and sodium citrate (Na-citrate) in an attempt to enhance human performance. After ingestion of NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate, two observations have been made: (a) There was great individual variability in the ergogenic benefit reached, which can be attributed to the level of physical conditioning of the subjects and to their tolerance of the buffer substance; and (b) the subjects who had ingested NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate show higher levels of pH, bicarbonate, and lactate ions concentrations in their exercising blood than do the subjects who had ingested the placebo. A majority of the studies have suggested that the ingestion of both substances provides an ergogenic effect due to the establishment and maintenance of an elevated pH level during exercise. However, the exact mechanism by which the ergogenic effects occur has not been demonstrated conclusively. Sodium bicarbonate and Na-citrate seem to be effective in activities with a sufficient duration to generate a difference in the hydrogen ion gradient, characterized by a very high intensity and involving large muscular groups. However, in activities of equally high intensity, but with longer duration, the results obtained have been conflicting and inconclusive. PMID:15705037

  20. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophageal bicarbonate secretion and...... either 60 mg/day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusion or 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfused oesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were...... measured. RESULTS: The median rates (95% confidence intervals) of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203) mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and...

  1. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Carlos Fernández-Fernández; David Mouriño-Bayolo; Elvira Castro-Quintela; Alberto Domínguez-Montero

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial ...

  2. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K;

    1996-01-01

    with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means...

  3. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus....../day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusionor 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfusedoesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were measured. RESULTS: The...... median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...

  4. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  5. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1989-01-01

    glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence or...... absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently...... of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin...

  6. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL DEPAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of point from aircraft wheels. he evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Shop ...

  7. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  8. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CALCIUM BICARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ye; Xiaofei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Surface modification of calcium bicarbonate powder with isopropyl triisostearoyl titanate (TTS) by microwave-assisted heating was studied in the present work. The features of microwave treated powder show obvious superiority to those of powder samples treated by traditional surface modification method and of untreated calcium bicarbonate - in suspension turbidity, suction potential, contact angle with water, and mechanical properties of their composites with PVC resin.

  9. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Walawska Barbara; Szymanek Arkadiusz; Pajdak Anna; Nowak Marzena

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume) and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR). Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine i...

  10. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  11. Practical considerations for bicarbonate loading and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg 1-2 h before exercise) can temporarily increase blood bicarbonate concentrations, enhancing extracellular buffering of hydrogen ions which accumulate and efflux from the working muscle. Such 'bicarbonate loading' provides an ergogenic strategy for sporting events involving high rates of anaerobic glycolysis which are otherwise limited by the body's capacity to manage the progressive increase in intracellular acidity. Studies show that bicarbonate loading strategies have a moderate positive effect on the performance of sports involving 1-7 min of sustained strenuous exercise, and may also be useful for prolonged sports involving intermittent or sustained periods of high-intensity work rates. This potential to enhance sports performance requires further investigation using appropriate research design, but may be limited by practical considerations such as gut discomfort or the logistics of the event. The effect of chronic use of bicarbonate supplementation prior to high-intensity workouts to promote better training performance and adaptations is worthy of further investigation. While this relatively simple dietary strategy has been studied and used by sports people for over 80 years, it is likely that there are still ways in which further benefits from bicarbonate supplementation can be developed and individualized for specific athletes or specific events. PMID:23765347

  12. Con: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Philippe; Rigothier, Claire; Combe, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic acidosis is often observed in advanced chronic kidney disease, with deleterious consequences on the nutritional status, bone and mineral status, inflammation and mortality. Through clearance of the daily acid load and a net gain in alkaline buffers, dialysis therapy is aimed at correcting metabolic acidosis. A normal bicarbonate serum concentration is the recommended target in dialysis patients. However, several studies have shown that a mild degree of metabolic acidosis in patients treated with dialysis is associated with better nutritional status, higher protein intake and improved survival. Conversely, a high bicarbonate serum concentration is associated with poor nutritional status and lower survival. It is likely that mild acidosis results from a dietary acid load linked to animal protein intake. In contrast, a high bicarbonate concentration in patients treated with dialysis could result mainly from an insufficient dietary acid load, i.e. low protein intake. Therefore, a high pre-dialysis serum bicarbonate concentration should prompt nephrologists to carry out nutritional investigations to detect insufficient dietary protein intake. In any case, a high bicarbonate concentration should be neither a goal of dialysis therapy nor an index of adequate dialysis, whereas mild acidosis could be considered as an indicator of appropriate protein intake. PMID:27411724

  13. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus;

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H-2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether...... this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after...... pretreatment with high dose omeprazole (n=17) and ranitidine (n=9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid...

  14. Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavender, G; Bird, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated bouts of intensive short duration exercise. Twenty-three subjects participated in the investigation (8 females and 15 males, age 21.4 +/- 2.3, mean +/- sd). Subjects completed six trials; three following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg body weight) and three following the ingestion of a placebo (8 g sodium chloride). Each trial consisted of ten ten-second sprints on a cycle ergometer...

  15. Extraction of tungsten from bicarbonate solutions by MTAA salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on investigations of tungsten extraction from bicarbonate reextracts prepared during reprocessing of carbonate solutions of autoclave-carbonate leaching of mineral raw material and so through ammonium reextraction of polymeric tungsten compounds with preparation of concentrated by tungsten reextracts for separation of conditioned ammonium paratungstate. Variants of proposed technological scheme are discussed

  16. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Machado Ramírez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

  17. Is bicarbonate stable in and on the calcite surface?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2016-01-01

    We have used density functional theory with the COSMO-RS implicit solvent model to predict the pKa for the deprotonation of bicarbonate to carbonate, i.e. HCO3− <=> CO32− + H+, when HCO3− is included in, and adsorbed on, a calcite surface. We have used cluster models (80–100 atoms) to represent t...

  18. Production of sodium bicarbonate from a basic process stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, G.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is in the area of the treatment of a gas flow containing carbon dioxide obtained from burning at least one organic waste or feed stream, on the one hand to produce sodium bicarbonate and optionally remove and/or recover molybdenum compounds and/or other impurities from the said

  19. Bicarbonate attenuates arterial desaturation during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B; Bredmose, Per P; Strømstad, Morten;

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  1. Gadolinium block of calcium channels: influence of bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, L M; Brown, T A; Dingledine, R

    1991-11-01

    The selectivity of block of voltage-activated barium (Ba2+) currents by lanthanide ions was studied in a rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell line (F11-B9), rat and frog peripheral neurons, and rat cardiac myocytes using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Gadolinium (Gd3+) produced a dose-dependent and complete inhibition of whole-cell Ba2+ current in all cells studied, including cells expressing identified dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type currents and omega-conotoxin-sensitive N-type currents. Like Gd3+, lutetium (Lu3+) and lanthanum (La3+) blocked all Ba2+ current with little selectivity for different components of the whole-cell current. Gd3+ block of Ba2+ currents was incomplete, however, when sodium bicarbonate (5-22.6 mM) was added to the standard HEPES-buffered external Ba2+ solution. In rat DRG neurons and F11-B9 cells, a fraction of the whole-cell Ba2+ current recorded in the presence of bicarbonate was resistant to block by saturating concentrations of Gd3+ (50-100 microM). The resistant current inactivated more rapidly than the original current giving the appearance that, under these conditions, Gd3+ block is more selective for the slowly inactivating component of the whole-cell current. Bicarbonate modification of Gd3+ block occurred both before and after omega-conotoxin block of N-type currents in rat DRG neurons, suggesting that even in the presence of bicarbonate, Gd3+ block was not selective for N-type currents. PMID:1786527

  2. Increasing wheat production while decreasing nitrogen losses from ammonium bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of a 4-year field experiment were i) to investigate the effects of rate and timing of application of ammonium bicarbonate on N-uptake efficiency by irrigated winter wheat, ii) to determine the fate of fertilizer N in wheat followed by maize, and iii) to study nitrate dynamics in the soil after N-fertilizer application to evaluate groundwater pollution by leaching. Nitrogen-application rates significantly affected wheat grain yields and straw dry matter. Grain yields were higher with 150 than with 225 kg N ha-1, whereas the highest fractional recoveries of N from ammonium bicarbonate occurred with 75 kg N ha-1 (38.5% in 1994-95 and 33.5% in 1996-97). On the basis of grain yield, N recovery and soil-N balance, ammonium bicarbonate at 150 kg N ha-1, was the optimum rate, when applied basally and as a top dressing to wheat. Subsequent yields of maize stover and grain were affected by N applied to the wheat, suggesting that fertilizer recommendations, in terms of rate and timing, should be made on the basis of effects on the cropping rotation as a whole. Water-holding capacity of the soil was poor, therefore large applications of N are likely to cause nitrate pollution of ground water. (author)

  3. Electrochemical Studies on Silicate and Bicarbonate Ions for Corrosion Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohorich, Michael E.; Lamb, Joshua; Chandra, Dhanesh; Daemen, Jaak; Rebak, Raul B.

    2010-10-01

    Several types of carbon and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels are being considered for use in the underground reinforcement of the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization under reducing conditions was used to determine the corrosion rates (CRs) and passivity behavior of AISI 4340 steel using different combinations of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), in both pure water (PW) and simulated seawater (SW, 3.5 pct NaCl). These experiments were carried out to examine the potential inhibiting properties of the silicate or bicarbonate ions on the surface of the steel. The addition of sodium silicate to solution reduced the observed CR at room temperature to 19 μm/y at 0.005 M concentration and 7 μm/y at 0.025 M concentration in PW. The addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the CR from 84 μm/y (C = 0.1 M) to 455 μm/y (C = 1 M). These same behaviors were also observed at higher temperatures.

  4. Uranium release from boom clay in bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of natural uranium from Boom Clay was studied to better understand the mechanisms governing the solid-liquid partitioning of uranium. Batch leaching experiments suggested that the portion of natural uranium released from clay is associated with colloids at a low bicarbonate concentration prevailing in Boom Clay. At increased bicarbonate concentrations, uranium was present predominantly as dissolved species indicating a formation of uranium carbonate complexes. The in situ aqueous uranium concentration, i.e., the concentration in the pore waters collected by piezometers was found to be 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower than the one measured by the batch techniques. These results illustrated that the batch techniques may cause a remobilization of uranium containing colloids from clay surfaces into solution when clay is suspended, agitated, and mechanically perturbed. These colloids are attributed to artefacts and are not considered to exist in situ because of the high compaction of Boom Clay. Due to the presence of colloids, a laboratory derived solid-liquid partitioning coefficient is not equivalent to and cannot simply be converted to the distribution coefficient Kd currently used in performance assessment calculations. (orig.)

  5. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawska Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR. Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

  6. Pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion: challenge of the acinar acid load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHegyi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acinar and ductal cells of the exocrine pancreas form a close functional unit. Although most studies contain data either on acinar or ductal cells, an increasing number of evidence highlights the importance of the pancreatic acinar-ductal functional unit. One of the best examples for this functional unit is the regulation of luminal pH by both cell types. Protons co-released during exocytosis from acini cause significant acidosis, whereas, bicarbonate secreted by ductal cells cause alkalization in the lumen. This suggests that the first and probably one of the most important role of bicarbonate secretion by pancreatic ductal cells is not only to neutralize the acid chyme entering into the duodenum from the stomach, but to neutralize acidic content secreted by acinar cells. To accomplish this role, it is more than likely that ductal cells have physiological sensing mechanisms which would allow them to regulate luminal pH. To date, four different classes of acid-sensing ion channels have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract (transient receptor potential ion channels, two-pore domain potassium channel, ionotropic purinoceptor and acid-sensing ion channel, however, none of these have been studied in pancreatic ductal cells. In this mini-review, we summarize our current knowledge of these channels and urge scientists to characterize ductal acid-sensing mechanisms and also to investigate the challenge of the acinar acid load on ductal cells.

  7. Regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej eGorbatenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells towards more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in the cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na+/H+-exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1 and various H+ ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary tumors, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na+,HCO3--cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1, are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer.

  8. Mobilization of arsenic from subsurface sediments by effect of bicarbonate ions in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain M; Akai, Junji; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic leaching by bicarbonate ions has been investigated in this study. Subsurface sediment samples from Bangladesh were treated with different carbonate and bicarbonate ions and the results demonstrate that the arsenic leaching efficiency of the carbonate solutions decreased in the order of Na2CO3>NaHCO3>BaCO3>MnCO3. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate ions extracted arsenic most efficiently; Na2CO3 leached maximum 118.12 microg/l of arsenic, and NaHCO3, 94.56 microg/l of arsenic from the Ganges delta sediments after six days of incubation. The arsenic concentrations extracted in the batch experiments correlated very well with the bicarbonate concentrations. The kinetics study of arsenic release indicates that arsenic-leaching rate increased with reaction time in bicarbonate solutions. Bicarbonate ions can extract arsenic from sediment samples in both oxic and anoxic conditions. A linear relationship found between arsenic contents in core samples and those in leachates suggests that dissolved arsenic concentration in groundwater is related to the amount of arsenic in aquifer sediments. In batch experiment, bicarbonate solutions effectively extracted arsenic from arsenic adsorbed iron oxyhydroxide, reflecting that bicarbonate solutions may mobilize arsenic from iron and manganese oxyhydroxide in sediments that are ubiquitous in subsurface core samples. Carbonate ion may form complexes on the surface sites of iron hydroxide and substitute arsenic from the surface of minerals and sediments resulting in release of arsenic to groundwater. Like in the batch experiment, arsenic and bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh correlated very well. Therefore, bicarbonate leaching is presumed to be one important mechanism to mobilize arsenic in bicarbonate dominated reducing aquifer of Bangladesh and other parts of the world as well. PMID:14602108

  9. Bicarbonate production inhibitors as a novel transmission-blocking approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria and leishmaniasis are caused by Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes and female sand flies respectively. These diseases are responsible for the deaths of more than a million people in developing countries every year and effective methods to control their propagation have not been developed at this point. A combination of several strategies for insect control is usually required in order to eliminate the vectors and the disease in a specific area. We believe that a strategy that combines vector population control as well as the simultaneous interruption of the life cycle of these parasites inside such vectors will have a greater impact (over a broader area) on the spreading of these diseases than vector control alone. Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites propagate naturally in the midgut of female anopheline mosquitoes and sand flies in which the pH is slightly alkaline. It has been suggested that the enzyme responsible for generating the bicarbonate necessary to maintain this pH is carbonic anhydrase. However, the molecular and physiological basis that implicate carbonic anhydrase (responsible for bicarbonate production) and bicarbonate transport proteins in the developmental mechanism of the parasites are poorly understood. We have used molecular biology as well as pharmacology to study the role that these proteins play in the development of Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites inside the female dipteran midgut with aims to interrupt their life cycle inside the vector. Disruption of the parasite's life cycle in combination with control strategies that target the insect vector will allow us to design new approaches to interrupt the propagation of these diseases using area-wide insect pest control methods. We have found that treatment of Plasmodium and Leishmania infected blood with carbonic anhydrase and bicarbonate transport inhibitors, interrupts development of these parasites in vitro and in vivo. Methazolamide, a

  10. Anodic behavior of nickel alloys in media containing bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 22 has been designed to resist corrosion in oxidizing and reducing conditions. Thanks to these properties it is considered a possible candidate for the fabrication of containers of high-level radioactive waste. Since the containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions, it is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is required in order to produce cracking. It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media potentials below trans-passivity. The aim of this work is to study the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in different media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions in various concentrations and temperatures and compare the results with other alloys containing nickel, and relate them to the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking in a future job. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo), 600 (Ni- Cr-Fe), 800h (Ni-Fe- Cr) and 201 (Ni commercially pure) in the following environments: 1.148 mol/L NaHCO3, 1.148 mol/L NaHCO3 + 1 mol/L NaCl, 1.148 mol/L NaHCO3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl. The tests were performed at the following temperatures: 90°C, 75°C, 60°C and 25°C. It was found that alloy 22 has a current peak in the anodic domain at potentials below trans-passivity between 200 and 300 m VECS, when the test temperature was 90°C. The potential, at which this peak occurred, increased with decreasing temperature. Also there was a variation of the peak with the composition of the solution. When bicarbonate ions were added to a solution containing chloride ions, the peak potential shifted to higher current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions. It was found that diminishing the content of

  11. Epoxidation of Alkenes with Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide and Quaternary Ammonium Bicarbonate Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Kegnæs, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A range of solid and liquid catalysts containing bicarbonate anions were synthesised and tested for the epoxidation of alkenes with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The combination of bicarbonate anions and quaternary ammonium cations opens up for new catalytic systems that can help to overcome challen...

  12. 77 FR 50613 - Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate; Exemption From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate... Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate, jointly referred to as.... Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of December 8, 2011 (76 FR 76674) (FRL-...

  13. Calcification generates protons for nutrient and bicarbonate uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, T. A.; Whelan, J. F.

    1997-03-01

    The biosphere's great carbonate deposits, from caliche soils to deep-sea carbonate oozes, precipitate largely as by-products of autotrophic nutrient acquisition physiologies. Protons constitute the critical link: Calcification generates protons, which plants and photosynthetic symbioses use to assimilate bicarbonate and nutrients. A calcium ATPase-based "trans" mechanism underlies most biological calcification. This permits high calcium carbonate supersaturations and rapid carbonate precipitation. The competitive advantages of calcification become especially apparent in light and nutrient-deficient alkaline environments. Calcareous plants often dominate the lower euphotic zone in both the benthos and the plankton. Geographically and seasonally, massive calcification concentrates in nutrient-deficient environments including alkaline soils, coral reefs, cyanobacterial mats and coccolithophorid blooms. Structural and defensive uses for calcareous skeletons are sometimes overrated.

  14. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A; Rune, S J

    1996-01-01

    The previously accepted role of gastric acid hypersecretion in peptic ulcer disease has been modified by studies showing no correlation between acid output and clinical outcome of ulcer disease, or between ulcer recurrence rate after vagotomy and preoperative acid secretion. At the same time......, studies have been unable to demonstrate increased acidity in the duodenal bulb in patients with duodenal ulcer, and consequently more emphasis has been given to the mucosal protecting mechanisms. The existence of an active gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion creates a pH gradient from the...... cell removal and repair regulated by epidermal growth factor. Sufficient mucosal blood flow, including a normal acid/base balance, is important for subepithelial protection. In today's model of ulcer pathogenesis, gastric acid and H. pylori work in concert as aggressive factors, with the open question...

  15. Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

  16. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  17. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunther, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Kunther@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scrivener, K. [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  18. Involvement of CFTR in Uterine Bicarbonate Secretion and the Fertilizing Capacity of Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXiao,Fei; ZhouChen-Xi; ShiQi-Xian; YuanYu-Ying; YuMei-Kuen; LouisChukwuemekaAjonuma

    2005-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFFR)is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in a wide variety of epithelial cells,mutations of which are responsible for the hallmark defective chloride secretion observed in cystic fibrosis(CF).Although CFTR has been implicated in bicarbonate secretion,its ability to directly mediate bicarbonate secretion of any physiological significance has not been shown.We demonstrate here that endometriaI epithelial ceils possess a CFTR-mediated bicarbonate transport mechanism.Co-culture of sperm with endometrial ceils treated with antisense oligonucleotide against CFTR,or with bicarbonate secretion-defective CF epithelial cells,resulted in lower sperm capacitation and egg-fertilizing ability.These results are consistent with a critical role of CFTR in controlling uterine bicarbonate secretion and the fertilizing capacity of sperm,providing a link between defective CFTR and lower female fertility in CF.

  19. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  20. Bicarbonate Secretion in the Murine Gallbladder - Lessons for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuthbert AW

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium lining the gallbladder of mammalian species has absorptive and secretory functions. An important function is the secretion of a bicarbonate rich fluid that helps neutralise stomach acid and provides an appropriate environment for intestinal enzymes. In cystic fibrosis (CF this secretory function is lost. This study concerns the bicarbonate secreting activity of murine gallbladders in vitro using wild type and CF mice and four main questions are considered as follows: a Does the murine gallbladder secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and is this prevented in CF? b Can the secretory activity in CF gallbladders be restored by gene therapy or pharmacologically? c How is the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR involved in bicarbonate secretion? d Does the data offer prospects for the treatment of CF?. Work from both the author's laboratory and the literature will be reviewed. Consideration of the currently available data indicates that the wild type murine gallbladder does secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and that this is absent in CF mice. Further it has been demonstrated that bicarbonate secretory activity can be restored by both gene therapy and by the use of drugs. The role of CFTR in bicarbonate secretion remains equivocal. Much evidence suggests that CFTR can act as a channel for HCO(3(- ions as well as Cl(- ions, while others propose a parallel arrangement of CFTR with a Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchanger is necessary. The matter is further complicated by the regulatory role of CFTR on other transporting activities. Opportunities for possible application to man are discussed.

  1. Bicarbonate impact on U(VI) bioreduction in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Chris; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al., 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer sediments desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ∼3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction in the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in

  2. The effect of bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrices on human plaque pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake-Haskins, J C; Gaffar, A; Volpe, A R; Bánóczy, J; Gintner, Z; Dombi, C

    1997-01-01

    The acidogenic response in dental plaque after rinsing with sodium bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice slurries was studied using three intra-oral models. In the first model, resting plaque pH was monitored in mesiobuccal plaque on upper molars and premolars in six healthy subjects after abstinence from normal oral hygiene for three days. These measurements were followed by a three-minute rinse with 10% sucrose and, following a two-minute interval, a three-minute rinse with a test dentifrice slurry. After the test dentifrice rinse, pH was monitored at regular intervals up to 60 minutes. Flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of stimulated saliva were also determined. Changes in resting pH, plaque pH minima, and maximum pH drop were calculated. A clear elevation in the resting pH was observed after bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice rinses, and a significant increase was obtained in the pH minima. The smallest pH drop also was found after treatment with the bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice rinse treatment (p antimony pH electrodes was used to study the effects of rinsing with increasing concentrations of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate solutions, and with a fluoride dentifrice containing sodium bicarbonate. The response to these treatments was found to be rapid, dose-dependent, and was the greatest from the sodium bicarbonate. A third model used 24 subjects to assess the effects of sodium bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice on plaque pH before and after a glucose challenge. The use of the bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice resulted in significantly less measurable plaque acid than the fluoride dentifrice treatment. Collectively, these results indicate bicarbonate in dentifrice to be an effective buffering agent for stabilizing the pH and neutralizing plaque acids in dental plaque. PMID:9586535

  3. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  4. Evaluation of chloride/bicarbonate. Exchange in the human colon in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, G R; Morawski, S. G.; Santa Ana, C A; Fordtran, J S

    1983-01-01

    During perfusion of a plasma-like solution, colonic absorption rate of chloride was much higher than the secretion rate of bicarbonate (34 vs. 3.5 meq/h, respectively). This might suggest that anion exchange (Cl/HCO3) accounts for only a small fraction of total chloride absorption. However, if the colon absorbs as well as secretes bicarbonate, this reasoning would underestimate the magnitude of the anion exchange. To see if the colon absorbs bicarbonate, we perfused a chloride-free solution (...

  5. Proximal tubular bicarbonate reabsorption and PCO2 in chronic metabolic alkalosis in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, D A; Gennari, F J

    1983-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to define the pattern of proximal tubular bicarbonate reabsorption and its relation to tubular and capillary PCO2 in rats with chronic metabolic alkalosis (CMA). CMA was induced by administering furosemide to rats ingesting a low electrolyte diet supplemented with NaHCO3 and KHCO3. Proximal tubular bicarbonate reabsorption and PCO2 were measured in CMA rats either 4-7 or 11-14 d after furosemide injection, in order to study a wide range of filtered bicarbonate loads. A...

  6. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....

  7. Acetate and bicarbonate assimilation and metabolite formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a 13C-NMR study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Singh

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolite analyses by (13C-NMR showed that C. reinhardtii cells assimilate acetate at a faster rate in heterotrophy than in mixotrophy. While heterotrophic cells produced bicarbonate and CO2aq, mixotrophy cells produced bicarbonate alone as predominant metabolite. Experiments with singly (13C-labelled acetate ((13CH(3-COOH or CH(3-(13COOH supported that both the (13C nuclei give rise to bicarbonate and CO2(aq. The observed metabolite(s upon further incubation led to the production of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG in mixotrophy, whereas in heterotrophy the TAG production was minimal with substantial accumulation of glycerol and starch. Prolonged incubation up to eight days, without the addition of fresh acetate, led to an increased TAG production at the expense of bicarbonate, akin to that of nitrogen-starvation. However, such TAG production was substantially high in mixotrophy as compared to that in heterotrophy. Addition of mitochondrial un-coupler blocked the formation of bicarbonate and CO2(aq in heterotrophic cells, even though acetate uptake ensued. Addition of PSII-inhibitor to mixotrophic cells resulted in partial conversion of bicarbonate into CO2(aq, which were found to be in equilibrium. In an independent experiment, we have monitored assimilation of bicarbonate via photoautotrophy and found that the cells indeed produce starch and TAG at a much faster rate as compared to that in mixotrophy and heterotrophy. Further, we noticed that the accumulation of starch is relatively more as compared to TAG. Based on these observations, we suggest that acetate assimilation in C. reinhardtii does not directly lead to TAG formation but via bicarbonate/CO2(aq pathways. Photoautotrophic mode is found to be the best growth condition for the production of starch and TAG and starch in C. reinhardtii.

  8. CRACK2. Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solutions in cracks in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Brodersen, Knud Erik

    2003-01-01

    The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description ofthe model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. Thec...

  9. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Cerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  10. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest: Current Guidelines and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Koniari, Ioanna; Apostolopoulou, Christina; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "bicarbonates" and "cardiac arrest", limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations. PMID:26985247

  11. An experimental study on the inhibitory effect of high concentration bicarbonate on the reduction of U(VI) in groundwater by functionalized indigenous microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anaerobic microcosms amended with 30 mM bicarbonate and without bicarbonate were established, respectively, and the reduction of U(VI) in the microcosms by functionalized indigenous microbial communities was investigated. Results of the chemical extraction and XANES analysis showed that the proportions of U(IV) in the microcosms amended with bicarbonate were 10 % lower than without bicarbonate at day 46. The amount of Cellulomonadaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Peptococcaceae and Veillonellaceae amended with bicarbonate was lower than without bicarbonate, so the reduction of U(VI) was less. The experimental results show that the high concentration bicarbonate has a significantly inhibitory effect on the reduction of U(VI). (author)

  12. Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2009-07-01

    Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate. PMID:19369292

  13. Cerebroventricular calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits rat duodenal bicarbonate secretion by release of norepinephrine and vasopressin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, H. J.; Brown, M R

    1990-01-01

    Proximal duodenal bicarbonate secretion is an important factor in humans and animals protecting the mucosa against acid-peptic damage. This study examined the mechanisms responsible for the central nervous system regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in unrestrained rats. Cerebroventricular administration of rat CGRP significantly inhibited basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion as well as the stimulatory effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide,...

  14. Conservation of functional domain structure in bicarbonate-regulated “soluble” adenylyl cyclases in bacteria and eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Mime; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2004-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is an evolutionarily conserved bicarbonate sensor. In mammals, it is responsible for bicarbonate-induced, cAMP-dependent processes in sperm required for fertilization and postulated to be involved in other bicarbonate- and carbon dioxide-dependent functions throughout the body. Among eukaryotes, sAC-like cyclases have been detected in mammals and in the fungi Dictyostelium; these enzymes display extensive similarity extending through two cyclase catalytic domain...

  15. Influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonochemical degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Saoudi, Fethi; Chiha, Mahdi; Pétrier, Christian

    2010-03-15

    The influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonolytic degradation of cationic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), in water was investigated. As a consequence of ultrasonic cavitation that generates .OH radicals, carbonate radicals were secondary products of water sonochemistry when it contains dissolved bicarbonate or carbonate ions. The results clearly demonstrated the significant intensification of sonolytic destruction of RhB in the presence of bicarbonate and carbonate, especially at lower dye concentrations. Degradation intensification occurs because carbonate radicals sonochemically formed undergo radical-radical recombination at a lesser extent than hydroxyl radicals. The generated carbonate radicals are likely able to migrate far from the cavitation bubbles towards the solution bulk and are suitable for degradation of an organic dye such as RhB. Therefore, at low dye concentrations, carbonate radical presents a more selective reactivity towards RhB molecules than hydroxyl radical. In the presence of bicarbonate, degradation rate reached a maximum at 3 g L(-1) bicarbonate, but subsequent addition retards the destruction process. In RhB solutions containing carbonate, the oxidation rate gradually increased with increasing carbonate concentration up to 10 g L(-1) and slightly decreased afterward. Carbonate radicals sonochemically generated are suitable for total removal of COD of sonicated RhB solutions. PMID:19910116

  16. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants. PMID:26159649

  17. [Sodium bicarbonate infusion for intoxication with tricyclic antidepressives: recommended inspite of lack of scientific evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijlandt, P J; Bosch, T M; Zijlstra, J G; Tulleken, J E; Ligtenberg, J J; van der Werf, T S

    2001-09-01

    Sodium bicarbonate infusion is widely recommended in textbooks for patients who present with self-poisoning from tricyclic antidepressives. Cardiac conduction disorders could also be treated or prevented by means of such an infusion. The scientific basis for these recommendations was investigated by using Medline to search for publications about clinical studies that supported the use of sodium carbonate; 111 articles were scrutinized. Observational studies and case reports mention a rapid improvement in hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias following the administration of sodium bicarbonate. Results from animal experiments are contentious; it is not clear whether alkalinisation or the administration of extra sodium causes the effect. Randomized studies in patients have not been carried out. As the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate is low, and its potential benefit appears to be high, we recommend its use, despite the lack of scientific evidence. No recommendations concerning dosing, concentration and the length of the therapy can be provided on the basis of the literature. PMID:11561485

  18. [Bicarbonate instead of lactate buffered substitution solution for continuous hemofiltration in intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbricht, C J; Huxmann-Nägeli, D; Bischoff, H

    1990-04-01

    The substitution fluids applied in continuous haemofiltration contain 40 mmol/l of lactate. This is unphysiological, since administration of large amounts of lactate lowers the phosphorylation potential and increases catabolism. With bicarbonate-buffered fluid three problems may arise: 1. Precipitation of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate; 2. pH is usually 8.4; 3. evaporation of CO2 increases pH. To solve these problems we applied a two-component system consisting of a glass bottle with 160 ml sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and a bag with 4.5 l of acidic solution. Prior to use, the bicarbonate was infused into the bag. The values of Ca++, Mg++, bicarbonate, and pH in this final substitution solution were constant during a 24 hr period after mixing. Precipitation of Ca++ and Mg++ carbonate was prevented by 3 mmol/l of lactic acid in the solution. The pH was 7.37. Evaporation of CO2 was prevented by bags made of special plastic sheeting. The solution was then applied in 7 intensive-care patients suffering from acute renal failure treated by continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration. No side effects of the solution were observed during six days of treatment. The values of Ca++, bicarbonate, pH, and pCO2 remained constant under clinical routine conditions. Hence, bicarbonate-buffered substitution solution is recommended for continuous haemofiltration. Continuous haemofiltration is now also available for patients with impaired liver function and increased lactate levels. PMID:2360710

  19. CRACK2. Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solutions in cracks in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Knud Erik

    2003-01-01

    diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. Thecementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide......The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description ofthe model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by...

  20. Decreased cerebral blood flow after administration of sodium bicarbonate in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Fris-Hansen, B

    1978-01-01

    In the course of our studies on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants, we have observed a striking depressing effect of sodium bicarbonate infusion on cerebral blood flow which in some cases may severely aggravate cerebral ischemia. We measured cerebral blood flow before and after the treatment...... with 1 to 8 meqs of sodium bicarbonate in seven distressed newborn infants. The 133 Xe clearance technique was used. The results showed in six of the seven cases a decrease in cerebral blood flow, which in most cases was reduced to 14 to 22 ml/100 g/min, which is about half the value prior to the...

  1. Effect of sodium bicarbonate administration on mortality in patients with lactic acidosis: a retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acidosis is a common cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered for an arterial pH <7.15 but paradoxically depresses cardiac performance and exacerbates acidosis by enhancing lactate production. This study aimed to evaluate the cause and mortality rate of lactic acidosis and to investigate the effect of factors, including sodium bicarbonate use, on death. METHODS: We conducted a single center analysis from May 2011 through April 2012. We retrospectively analyzed 103 patients with lactic acidosis among 207 patients with metabolic acidosis. We used SOFA and APACHE II as severity scores to estimate illness severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and Cox regression analysis models were used to identify factors that affect mortality. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients with a mean age of 66.1±11.4 years, eighty-three patients (80.6% died from sepsis (61.4%, hepatic failure, cardiogenic shock and other causes. The percentage of sodium bicarbonate administration (p = 0.006, catecholamine use, ventilator care and male gender were higher in the non-survival group than the survival group. The non-survival group had significantly higher initial and follow-up lactic acid levels, lower initial albumin, higher SOFA scores and APACHE II scores than the survival group. The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate administration (p = 0.016 was associated with higher mortality. Independent factors that affected mortality were SOFA score (Exp (B = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.12-2.63, p = 0.013 and sodium bicarbonate administration (Exp (B = 6.27, 95% CI = 1.10-35.78, p = 0.039. CONCLUSIONS: Lactic acidosis, which has a high mortality rate, should be evaluated in patients with metabolic acidosis. In addition, sodium bicarbonate should be prescribed with caution in the case of lactic acidosis because sodium bicarbonate

  2. The activation/depassivation of nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloys in bicarbonate solution: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical and surface analytical techniques (X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopies) were used to characterize the influence of potential on the properties of the oxide film formed on the Hybrid BC-1 (a Ni–Cr–Mo) alloy in chloride solutions containing bicarbonate. In the passive region the film possesses the expected bilayer structure with a Cr(III)-dominated barrier layer containing mixed oxidation states of Mo and an outer dominantly-hydroxide layer. At more positive potentials the Cr/Mo content of the film decreases when bicarbonate is present and the alloy becomes covered by a thick (>100 nm), and only partially protective, Ni(OH)2 layer

  3. High temperature attack of ores by a liquor containing essentially a soluble bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New process for high temperature oxidizing digestion of ores containing at least one metal in the uranium, vanadium and molybdenum group, by an aqueous liquor containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of free oxygen insufflated into the reaction medium

  4. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  5. Association of erosive esophagitis with Helicobacter pylori eradication: a role of salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, D B; Namiot, Z; Markowski, A R; Leszczyńska, K; Bucki, R; Kemona, A; Gołebiewska, M

    2009-01-01

    In some populations, Helicobacter pylori eradication is associated with development of erosive esophagitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion to the pathogenesis of erosive esophagitis developing after H. pylori eradication. Gastroscopy and saliva collection were performed at recruitment and 12 months after completion of eradication therapy. Eighty-eight patients with duodenal ulcer were recruited to the study. Erosive esophagitis was found in 13 patients (grade A, 8 patients; grade B, 4 patients; grade C, 1 patient). Among the 74 subjects who completed the study, erosive esophagitis was detected in 21 patients (grade A, 15 patients; grade B, 6 patients); they all were successfully eradicated. Bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion was not found to differ significantly between the subjects with and without erosive esophagitis both before and 1 year after H. pylori eradication. However, it was lower in H. pylori-infected (baseline) than in H. pylori-noninfected erosive esophagitis subjects (1 year after successful eradication) (bicarbonate 2.34 [1.29-3.40)]vs. 3.64 [2.70-4.58]micromol/min and glycoprotein 0.23 [0.15-0.31]vs. 0.35 [0.28-0.43] mg/min, P= 0.04 and P= 0.04, respectively). We conclude that changes in salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion related to H. pylori eradication do not promote the development of erosive esophagitis in duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:19222537

  6. CO2 absorption in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions : The Danckwerts-criterion revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cents, A. H. G.; Brilman, D. W. F.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications CO2 is frequently removed from gas streams at elevated pressures by absorption and subsequent chemical reaction in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions (e.g. Benfield process). The criterion that determines whether or not this reaction can be regarded as pseudo-first order is g

  7. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs. A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL. The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

  8. Migration behaviour of 14C labelled bicarbonate, HTO and 131I in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment studies for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Boom clay indicated the importance of the radionuclides 14C and 129I. The migration properties of these radionuclides in Boom clay are studied by Flow-Through type diffusion experiments. In the diffusion tests a mixture of 14C labelled bicarbonate, tritiated water (HTO) and carrier free 131C labelled bicarbonate, tritiated water (HTO) and carrier free 131I sodium iodide (NaI) is used. The isotope 131I is used as an equivalent for 129I. The mixture allows for a good comparison of the migration behviour of the three different species. The mean value of the diffussion constant for bicarbonate is 1.8x10-6, for iodide 4.2x10-6 and for tritiated water 6.2x10-6 cm2.s-1. For the interpretation of the experiments we consider sorption (isotopic exchange), diffusion and first order chemical reaction. The results of the diffusion tests are consistent with the concept of the diffusion accessible porosity and proves the importance of this concept. The diffusion accessible porosity for both bicarbonate and iodide is 0.11. The results are important for the safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository in the clay formation. (orig.)

  9. Biocompatibility and tolerability of a purely bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis solution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, L.; Stegmayr, B.; Malmsten, G.; Tejde, M.; Hadimeri, H.; Siegert, C.E.; Ahlmen, J.; Larsson, R.; Ingman, B.; Simonsen, O.; Hamersvelt, H.W. van; Johansson, A.C.; Hylander, B.; Mayr, M.; Nilsson, P.H.; Andersson, P.O.; Los Rios, T. De

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Novel peritoneal dialysis solutions are characterized by a minimal content of glucose degradation products and a neutral pH. Many studies have shown the biocompatibility of neutral lactate-buffered solutions; however, until now, the effect of purely bicarbonate-buffered solutions has not

  10. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Sehested, K.;

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of...

  11. Control of blue mold of apple by combining controlled atmosphere, antagonist mixtures and sodium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Golden Delicious' apples were wound-inoculated with Penicillium expansum, treated with various combinations of sodium bicarbonate and two antagonists, and stored in air or controlled atmosphere (1.4% O2, 3% CO2). The fruit were stored for 2 or 4 months at 1°C. The antagonists survived and their p...

  12. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH4HCO3 and zeolite could reduce SO2 to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NOx to nitrogen with the best NOx purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NOx concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO2 concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO2, NOx and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent

  13. EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Langfort

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w. on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05. Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05. Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05 as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m

  14. Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamhane Umesh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

  15. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO2 and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO2, (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO2, and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO2 showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO3--N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO3--N/L and 9.09 mg NO3--N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50 mg NO3--N/L

  16. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [40 ng 1,25(OH)2D3/day]. Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal 45Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO3 supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans

  17. Prevention of contrast induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate (the PROMEC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Nieto-Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of radiographic procedures. Different measures have been used to avoid this damage, but the evidence is controversial. New investigations are required to clarify it. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sodium bicarbonate solution compared with sodium chloride solution to prevent contrast induced nephropathy in patients with or at risk of renal dysfunction. Methods: A prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted from May 1, 2007 to February 8, 2008. Inpatients in a tertiary center, scheduled to undergo a procedure with the nonionic radiographic contrast agent iohexol. There were 220 patients with serum creatinine levels of at least 1.2 mg/dL (106.1 µmol/L and/or type 2 diabetics, who were randomized to receive an infusion of sodium chloride (n = 113 or sodium bicarbonate (n = 107 before and after contrast dye administration. The intervention were "A" group received 1 ml/kg/hour of normal saline solution, starting 12 hours before and continuing 12 hours after iohexol contrast. "B" group received 3 ml/kg of sodium bicarbonate solution (150 mEq/L one hour prior to procedure and then drip rate was decreased to 1 ml/kg/hour until 6 hours post procedure. Our main outcome measure was change in serum creatinine. Results: The mean creatinine value after the procedure was 1.26 mg/dL in the saline group and 1.22 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group (mean difference: 0.036; CI 95%: -0.16 to 0.23, p = 0.865. The diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy, defined by increase in serum creatinine on 25% or more within 2 days after administration of radiographic contrast, was done in twelve patients (12% in the bicarbonate group and eighth patients (7.1% in the saline group (RR: 1.68, CI 95%: 0.72 to 3.94. Conclusion: Our investigation showed that there were no differences between normal saline solution (extended infusion vs. bicarbonate solution for nephroprotection.

  18. Effect of bicarbonate on efficacy of oral rehydration therapy: studies in an experimental model of secretory diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, E. J.; A.J. WATSON; Walker-Smith, J A; Farthing, M J

    1988-01-01

    In situ perfusion of rat intestine was used to evaluate the effect of bicarbonate on the efficacy of a low sodium (35 mmol/l) glucose-electrolyte oral rehydration solution in normal and cholera toxin-treated rat small intestine. In normal intestine, absorption of water was greater (108 (8.1) microliters/min/g; p less than 0.01) and sodium secretion less (-4.3 (0.3) mumol/min/g; p less than 0.01) from the oral rehydration solution containing bicarbonate than from the solution in which bicarbon...

  19. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination...... distance; P < 0.05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium...... bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine....

  20. Quantified pH imaging with hyperpolarized 13C‐bicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, David Johannes; Janich, Martin A.; Köllisch, Ulrich;

    2015-01-01

    Because pH plays a crucial role in several diseases, it is desirable to measure pH in vivo noninvasively and in a spatially localized manner. Spatial maps of pH were quantified in vitro, with a focus on method‐based errors, and applied in vivo. In vitro and in vivo 13C mapping were performed for...... residual bicarbonate signal. pH maps reflect the induction of acute metabolic alkalosis. Inflamed, infected regions exhibit lower pH. Hyperpolarized 13C‐bicarbonate pH mapping was shown to be sensitive in the biologically relevant pH range. The mapping of pH was applied to healthy in vivo organs and...... interpreted within inflammation and acute metabolic alkalosis models. Magn Reson Med 73:2274–2282, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  1. Recent Developments in the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate as an Ergogenic Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Lars R; Gough, Lewis; Deb, Sanjoy; Bentley, David; Sparks, S Andy

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the current status of sodium bicarbonate as an ergogenic aid. It builds on previous reviews in the area. Current research would suggest that as an ergogenic aid, a 300 mg·kg dose of NaHCO3 can improve high-intensity exercise, within a range of exercise modalities, such as a single bout of supramaximal exercise, high-intensity intermittent activity, and skill-based sports. In particular, these benefits seem to be present to a greater extent within trained individuals. Despite this, there appears to exist a high intraindividual variability in response to NaHCO3, and therefore, the ergogenic benefits may not be induced during every exercise bout. Current thinking also suggests that athletes need to individualize their ingestion timings to maximize peak pH or blood bicarbonate to effectively maximize the performance effect, and this may allow individuals to attain the ergogenic benefits of NaHCO3 more consistently. PMID:27399820

  2. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  3. Influence of bicarbonate ions and redox conditions on the surface composition of a leached borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A serie of short leaching tests have been performed on a borosilicate glass (I117) up to a maximum of 40 days. The tests were performed in a closed system in oxic and anoxic conditions and in presence of bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions do not influence the mass losses while the oxic condition gives rise to an higher mass losses. Surface analysis was performed on the surface layer for the elements uranium and iron. Uranium is always depleted at the surface of the samples. It appears that adsorption and diffusion in the layer play an important part in the uranium released. Iron on the contrary is enriched so that solubility of the formed species are responsible of its concentration

  4. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Sehested, K.; Vujosevic, S.I.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G.; Draganic, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of...... reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO- + HCO3-) = (2 +/- 0.4) x 10(3) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(COO- + CO3-) = (5 +/- 1) x 10(7) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(NH2 + HCO3-) < 10(4) dm3 mol-1 s-1, and k(NH2 + CO3-) = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x...

  5. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shinnosuke Murakami; Yasuaki Goto; Kyo Ito; Shinya Hayasaka; Shigeo Kurihara; Tomoyoshi Soga; Masaru Tomita; Shinji Fukuda

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysi...

  6. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-09-17

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Acid-base analysis: a critique of the Stewart and bicarbonate-centered approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Ira; Kraut, Jeffrey; Ornekian, Vahram; Nguyen, Minhtri K

    2008-05-01

    When approaching the analysis of disorders of acid-base balance, physical chemists, physiologists, and clinicians, tend to focus on different aspects of the relevant phenomenology. The physical chemist focuses on a quantitative understanding of proton hydration and aqueous proton transfer reactions that alter the acidity of a given solution. The physiologist focuses on molecular, cellular, and whole organ transport processes that modulate the acidity of a given body fluid compartment. The clinician emphasizes the diagnosis, clinical causes, and most appropriate treatment of acid-base disturbances. Historically, two different conceptual frameworks have evolved among clinicians and physiologists for interpreting acid-base phenomena. The traditional or bicarbonate-centered framework relies quantitatively on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, whereas the Stewart or strong ion approach utilizes either the original Stewart equation or its simplified version derived by Constable. In this review, the concepts underlying the bicarbonate-centered and Stewart formulations are analyzed in detail, emphasizing the differences in how each approach characterizes acid-base phenomenology at the molecular level, tissue level, and in the clinical realm. A quantitative comparison of the equations that are currently used in the literature to calculate H(+) concentration ([H(+)]) is included to clear up some of the misconceptions that currently exist in this area. Our analysis demonstrates that while the principle of electroneutrality plays a central role in the strong ion formulation, electroneutrality mechanistically does not dictate a specific [H(+)], and the strong ion and bicarbonate-centered approaches are quantitatively identical even in the presence of nonbicarbonate buffers. Finally, our analysis indicates that the bicarbonate-centered approach utilizing the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is a mechanistic formulation that reflects the underlying acid-base phenomenology. PMID

  8. Efficacy of sodium bicarbonate as anaesthetic for yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, H.B; Ingole, B; Sreepada, R.A.

    rapid recovery is better (Marking & Meyer, 1985; Stoskopf, 1993). An ideal anaesthetic should possess several attributes such Available online at http://www.urpjournals.com International Journal of Research in Fisheries and Aquaculture Universal... carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) juveniles. Turk J Fish Aquat Sc. 9, 29-31. 2. Booke, H. E., Hollender, B. and Lutterbie, G. 1978. 3. Sodium bicarbonate, an inexpensive fish anesthetic for field use. Progressive Fish Culturist., 40, 11...

  9. Evaluation of different sodium bicarbonate regimens for the prevention of contrast medium-induced nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Abouzeid, Sameh; Mosbah, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rapid decline in renal function caused by radiographic contrast agents usually is transient, but it can result in chronic kidney disease. The pathophysiology of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is poorly understood, but it may include acute hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and free radicals generated within the acid environment of the renal medulla. Thus, the alkalization of urine by sodium bicarbonate has been regarded as resulting in the reduction of CIN. The aim of this ...

  10. Bicarbonate and Ca(2+) Sensing Modulators Activate Photoreceptor ROS-GC1 Synergistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Makino, Clint L; Sharma, Rameshwar K

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptor ROS-GC1, a prototype subfamily member of the membrane guanylate cyclase family, is a central component of phototransduction. It is a single transmembrane-spanning protein, composed of modular blocks. In rods, guanylate cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) 1 and 2 bind to its juxtamembrane domain (JMD) and the C-terminal extension, respectively, to accelerate cyclic GMP synthesis when Ca(2+) levels are low. In cones, the additional expression of the Ca(2+)-dependent guanylate cyclase activating protein (CD-GCAP) S100B which binds to its C-terminal extension, supports acceleration of cyclic GMP synthesis at high Ca(2+) levels. Independent of Ca(2+), ROS-GC1 activity is also stimulated directly by bicarbonate binding to the core catalytic domain (CCD). Several enticing molecular features of this transduction system are revealed in the present study. In combination, bicarbonate and Ca(2+)-dependent modulators raised maximal ROS-GC activity to levels that exceeded the sum of their individual effects. The F(514)S mutation in ROS-GC1 that causes blindness in type 1 Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) severely reduced basal ROS-GC1 activity. GCAP2 and S100B Ca(2+) signaling modes remained functional, while the GCAP1-modulated mode was diminished. Bicarbonate nearly restored basal activity as well as GCAP2- and S100B-stimulated activities of the F(514)S mutant to normal levels but could not resurrect GCAP1 stimulation. We conclude that GCAP1 and GCAP2 forge distinct pathways through domain-specific modules of ROS-GC1 whereas the S100B and GCAP2 pathways may overlap. The synergistic interlinking of bicarbonate to GCAPs- and S100B-modulated pathways intensifies and tunes the dependence of cyclic GMP synthesis on intracellular Ca(2+). Our study challenges the recently proposed GCAP1 and GCAP2 "overlapping" phototransduction model (Peshenko et al., 2015b). PMID:26858600

  11. Umami Receptor Activation Increases Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion via Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Release in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Joon-Ho; Inoue, Takuya; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.; Akiba, Yasutada

    2011-01-01

    Luminal nutrient chemosensing during meal ingestion is mediated by intestinal endocrine cells, which regulate secretion and motility via the release of gut hormones. We have reported that luminal coperfusion of l-Glu and IMP, common condiments providing the umami or proteinaceous taste, synergistically increases duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) possibly via taste receptor heterodimers, taste receptor type 1, member 1 (T1R1)/R3. We hypothesized that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide...

  12. Impact of Bicarbonate, Ammonium Chloride, and Acetazolamide on Hepatic and Renal SLC26A4 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Alesutan, Ioana; Daryadel, Arezoo; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Pelzl, Lisann; Leibrock, Christina; Voelkl, Jakob; Bourgeois, Soline; Dossena, Silvia; Nofziger, Charity; Paulmichl, Markus; Carsten A Wagner; Lang, Florian

    2011-01-01

    SLC26A4 encodes pendrin, a transporter exchanging anions such as chloride, bicarbonate, and iodide. Loss of function mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome characterized by hearing loss and enlarged vestibular aqueducts as well as variable hypothyroidism and goiter. In the kidney, pendrin is expressed in the distal nephron and accomplishes HCO(3)(-) secretion and Cl(-) reabsorption. Renal pendrin expression is regulated by acid-base balance. The liver contributes to acid-base regulation ...

  13. SODIUM BICARBONATE INFUSION: TO PREVENT CARDIAC SURGERY - ASSOCIATED ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The incidence of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury is 50% of patients and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine if perioperative urinary and plasma alkalization with sodium bicarbonate infusion re duces the incidence of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury. SETTING AND DESIGN: This study is double blind randomized control trial conducted at U N Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center , India. METHOD S AND RESULT: A total of 140 pat ients scheduled to undergo elective cardiac surgery , who were at increased risk of development of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury using recognized risk factors. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either sodium bicarbonate (n = 70 o r sodium chloride (n = 70 infusion , commencing at the start of anesthesia , in a dose of 4 mmol/kg over 24 hour. The primary outcome measure was the number of patients with development of CSA - AKI , defined as an increase in creatinine greater than 25% from baseline to peak value within the first three postoperative days. Significant differences among the groups in both plasma and urinary pH were achieved 6 hours after commencement of the infusion , and these changes persisted for more than 24 hours. A total o f 7 out of 70(10% patients in the sodium bicarbonate group and 16 out of 70(22.85% patients in the sodium chloride group developed acute kidney injury within the first three postoperative days with p value of 0.06 which is statistically not significant . There were also no significant differences in ventilation hours , ICU or hospital length of stay , or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative alkalization of blood and urine using an infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not result in a decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. KEYWORDS: Acute kidney injury; Cardiac surgery; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Creatinine

  14. Plasma exchange successfully treats central pontine myelinolysis after acute hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Kyung Yoon; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Gi Jun; Cho, Kangwon; Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Background Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) primarily occurs after rapid correction of severe hyponatremia. There are no proven effective therapies for ODS, but we describe the first case showing the successful treatment of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) by plasma exchange, which occurred after rapid development of hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. Case presentation A 40-year-old woman presented with general weakness, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. The p...

  15. The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after Cardiothoracic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Regina Turner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI is reported to be between 3-30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate during cardiac surgery will attenuate the postoperative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury when compared to a perioperative infusion with normal saline. An interim analysis was performed after data was available on the first 120 participants. A similar number of patients in the two treatment groups developed acute kidney injury (AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine the first 48 hours after surgery of 0.3 mg/dl or more. Specifically 14 patients (24% who received sodium chloride (SC and 17 patients (27% who received sodium bicarbonate (SB were observed to develop AKI post surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.1, chi-square p-value=0.68 for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC . The data safety monitoring board for the trial recommended closing the study early as there was only a 12% probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected. We therefore concluded that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate failed to attenuate the risk of CSA-AKI.

  16. In vivo predictive dissolution: transport analysis of the CO2 , bicarbonate in vivo buffer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Development of an oral in vivo predictive dissolution medium for acid drugs with a pKa in the physiological range (e.g., Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IIa) requires transport analysis of the complex in vivo CO2 /bicarbonate buffering system. In this report, we analyze this buffer system using hydrodynamically defined rotating disk dissolution. Transport analysis of drug flux was predicted using the film model approach of Mooney et al based on equilibrium assumptions as well as accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . The accuracy of the models was compared with experimentally determined results using the rotating disk dissolution of ibuprofen, indomethacin, and ketoprofen. The equilibrium and slow hydration reaction rate models predict significantly different dissolution rates. The experimental results are more accurately predicted by accounting for the slow hydration reaction under a variety of pH and hydrodynamic conditions. Although the complex bicarbonate buffering system requires further consideration given its dynamic nature in vivo, a simplifying irreversible reaction (IRR) transport analysis accurately predicts in vitro rotating disk dissolution rates of several carboxylic acid drugs. This IRR transport model provides further insight into bicarbonate buffer and can be useful in developing more physiologically relevant buffer systems for dissolution testing. PMID:25212721

  17. Bicarbonate-induced activation of H₂O₂ for metal-free oxidative desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-03-01

    Efficient oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) and aromatic thiophenic derivatives has been achieved at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide activation by inorganic bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Using in-situ formation of peroxymonocarbonate as oxidant, the transformation of main model substrate DBT to corresponding DBT-sulfone was easily accomplished in biphasic reaction conditions. In the presence of water-acetonitrile polar phase, increasing the water content upto 50% decreased the extraction capacity more than 3 times, but ∼ 90% DBT oxidation was still achieved. The oxidizing capacity of bicarbonate catalyst was maintained during repeated ODS cycles, but DBT removal efficiency was critically dependent on the extraction capacity of the polar phase. Under heterogeneous reaction conditions, bicarbonate-modified ion-exchange resin achieved similar ODS activity compared to the homogeneous catalytic system. Additionally, the efficient formation of peroxymonocarbonate using gaseous CO2 precursor in alkaline conditions was also utilized for DBT oxidation. The present study proposes the NaHCO3/H2O2 catalytic system as an efficient and cheap metal-free alternative for the oxidative removal of aromatic sulfur compounds from fuel oil. PMID:26561755

  18. Differential responses in pear and quince genotypes induced by Fe deficiency and bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Zocchi, Graziano

    2009-07-15

    Most of the studies carried out on Fe deficiency condition in arboreous plants have been performed, with the exception of those carried out on plants grown in the field, in hydroponic culture utilizing a total iron depletion growth condition. This can cause great stress to plants. By introducing Fe deficiency induced by the presence of bicarbonate, we found significant differences between Pyrus communis L. cv. Conference and Cydonia oblonga Mill. BA29 and MA clones, characterized by different levels of tolerance to chlorosis. Pigment content and the main protein-pigment complexes were investigated by HPLC and protein gel blot analysis, respectively. While similar changes in the structural organization of photosystems (PSs) were observed in both species under Fe deficiency, a different reorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus was found in the presence of bicarbonate between tolerant and susceptible genotypes, in agreement with the photosynthetic electron transport rate measured in isolated thylakoids. In order to characterize the intrinsic factors determining the efficiency of iron uptake in a tolerant genotype, the main mechanisms induced by Fe deficiency in Strategy I species, such as Fe3+-chelate reductase (EC 1.16.1.7) and H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.6) activities, were also investigated. We demonstrate that physiological and biochemical root responses in quince and pear are differentially affected by iron starvation and bicarbonate supply, and we show a high correlation between tolerance and Strategy I activation. PMID:19269060

  19. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

    1986-03-01

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO/sub 3/) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10/sup -6/M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO/sub 3/ and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar/sup 1/, Ile/sup 8/)-Angiotensin II(10/sup -6/M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium.

  20. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na......HCO3; 0.4 g.kg(-1) b.w.), caffeine (CAF; 6 mg.kg(-1) b.w.) or placebo (PLA) on three different occasions. Thereafter, participants engaged in intense arm exercise prior to the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level-2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Heart rate, blood lactate and glucose as well as rating of perceived...

  1. Effects of Bicarbonate and High pH Conditions on Zinc and Other Nutrients Absorption in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; MENG Fan-hua; S. VILLAREAL; WEI You-zhang; YU Xiao-ping; YANG Xiao-e; K. L. HEONG; LIN Jian-jun; HU Cui; LIU Jian-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Zinc deficiency was widely observed in calcareous soil where bicarbonate and high pH were always related with low zinc availability. In a hydroponic experiment, one zinc-efficient rice (IR36) and one zinc-inefficient rice (IR26) genotypes were employed to investigate the effects of bicarbonate and high pH conditions on absorption, transport of zinc and other nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg,Fe, Cu, Mn) in rice. As compared with the control, high pH inhibited absorption, translocation and accumulation of zinc and other nutrients in both rice genotypes. Bicarbonate had minor effect on zinc-efficient rice genotype (IR36) whereas it could decrease zinc and other nutrient absorption in zinc-inefficient rice genotype (IR26). These results implied that increasing rice tolerance to bicarbonate is one of the most important strategies to improve rice adaptation for zinc-deficit calcareous soil.

  2. Oral rehydration therapy: efficacy of sodium citrate equals to sodium bicarbonate for correction of acidosis in diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. R.; Samadi, A R; Ahmed, S. M. [وسمية محمد أحمد; Bardhan, P K; Ali, A.

    1984-01-01

    Forty patients with moderate degrees of dehydration and acidosis because of acute watery diarrhoea were successfully treated randomly with either WHO recommended oral rehydration solution containing 2.5 g sodium bicarbonate or an oral solution containing 2.94 g sodium citrate in place of sodium bicarbonate per litre of oral rehydration rehydration solution. Efficacies were compared by measuring oral fluid intake, stool and vomitus output, change in body weight, hydration status, and rate of c...

  3. Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate and propylene glycol using potassium bicarbonate as catalyst in supercritical CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Yicun; Zhang Rui; Cang Yu; Zhang Jianchao; Liu Lixiao; Guo Xuhong; Fan Bin

    2015-01-01

    The improved one-pot synthesis of dimethyl carbonate and propylene glycol from propylene oxide, supercritical carbon dioxide, and methanol with potassium bicarbonate as the catalyst has been reported in this paper. As far as we know, it is the first time to use potassium bicarbonate only as the catalyst in the production process which is simple and cheap. Satisfactory conversion rate of propylene oxide and yield of the products could be achieved at the optimized conditions with quite a small ...

  4. Bicarbonate secretion in vivo by rat distal tubules during alkalosis induced by dietary chloride restriction and alkali loading.

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Harrison, V

    1991-01-01

    To examine in vivo the separate effects on distal tubule JtCO2, of dietary chloride restriction, bicarbonate loading, and changes in luminal chloride concentration, we microperfused distal tubules at a physiologic flow rate (8 nl/min) with solutions containing either 45 or 0 mM chloride (after gluconate substitution). Rats were fed a diet containing zero, minimal, or normal amounts of chloride, while drinking either water or a solution of 0.15 M sodium bicarbonate. Neither extracellular fluid...

  5. No effect of bicarbonate treatment on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in non-diabetic older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Susan S.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mild metabolic acidosis is common among older adults, and limited evidence suggests that it may contribute to insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. This analysis was conducted to determine whether bicarbonate supplementation, an alkalinizing treatment, improves insulin sensitivity or glucose control in non-diabetic older adults. Fasting blood glucose and insulin were measured in stored samples from subjects who had completed a 3-month clinical trial of bicarbonate supplementation to...

  6. Anodic behavior of alloy 22 in bicarbonate containing media: Effect of alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 22 is one of the candidates for the manufacture of high level nuclear waste containers. These containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions.It is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is necessary to produce cracking, . It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media at potentials below transpassivity. The aim of this work is to study the effect of alloying elements on the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions at different concentrations and temperatures. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-22% Cr-13% Mo), Ni-Mo (Ni-28, 5% Mo) and Ni-Cr (Ni-20% Cr) in the following solutions: 1 mol/L NaCl at 90oC, and 1.148 mol/L NaHCO3; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO3 + 1 mol/L NaCl; 1.148 mol/L NaHCO3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl, at 90oC, 75oC, 60oC and 25oC. It was found that alloy 22 has a anodic current density peak at potentials below transpassivity, only in the presence of bicarbonate ions. Curves performed in 1 mol/L NaCl did not show any anodic peak, in any of the tested alloys. The curves made on alloys Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr in the presence of bicarbonate ions, allowed to determine that Cr, is responsible for the appearance of the anodic peak in alloy 22. The curves of alloy Ni-Mo showed no anodic peak in the studied conditions. The potential at which the anodic peak appears in alloy 22 and Ni-Cr alloy, increases with decreasing temperature. The anodic peak was also affected by solution composition. When chloride ion is added to bicarbonate solutions, the anodic peak is shifted to higher potential and current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions (author)

  7. Effects of bicarbonate and sulfate ions on the pitting corrosion behavior of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China is to enclose the spent nuclear fuel in sealed metal canisters which are embedded in bentonite clay hundreds meters down in the bed-rock. The choice of container material depends largely on the redox conditions and the aqueous environment of the repository. One of the choices for the fabrication of waste canisters is copper, because it is thermodynamically stable under the saline, anoxic conditions over the large majority of the container lifetime. However, in the early aerobic phase of the geological disposal the corrosion of copper could take place, and the corrosion behavior of copper would be influenced by the complex chemical conditions of groundwater markedly. Pitting corrosion of copper often take place in power plants or air-conditioning condensate water. The corrosion environment usually contains bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride ions. In the early stage of geological disposal, if the aerobic water with bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride ions immersion repository, the pitting corrosion of copper may occur. The content of bicarbonate and sulfate ion in the water chemistry environment, as well as the synergy between them, could affect the behavior of pitting seriously. The content of bicarbonate and chloride ion in the water chemistry environment, as well as the synergy between them, could affect the behavior of pitting seriously. The researchers generally agreed that chloride ions would promote the occurrence of pitting corrosion of copper, and bicarbonate ions will lead to surface passivation and inhibition of pitting. However, there is no systematic work in this area. In our work, the cycle polarization behavior and surface morphology of pitting has been investigated in HCO3- and Cl- mixed solution, respectively by electrochemical cyclic polarization test and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the circular polarization curves of copper could be divided into four types. The

  8. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia. PMID:27215244

  9. The choice of dialysate bicarbonate: do different concentrations make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Rossi, Luigi; Lomonte, Carlo

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; it is typically caused by the accumulation of sulfate, phosphorus, and organic anions. Metabolic acidosis is correlated with several adverse outcomes, such as morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality. Thus, correction of metabolic acidosis is fundamental for the adequate management of many systemic complications of chronic kidney disease. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, acid-base homeostasis depends on many factors including the following: net acid production, amount of alkali given by the dialysate bath, duration of the interdialytic period, and residual diuresis, if any. Recent literature data suggest that the development of metabolic alkalosis after dialysis may contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. Our review is focused on the potential effects of different dialysate bicarbonate concentrations on hard outcomes such as mortality. Unfortunately, no randomized studies exist about this issue. Acid-base equilibrium is a complex and vital system whose regulation is impaired in chronic kidney disease. We await further studies to assess the extent to which acid-base status is a major determinant of overall survival in patients undergoing hemodialysis. For the present, the clinician should understand that target values for predialysis serum bicarbonate concentration have been established primarily based on observational studies and expert opinion. Based on this, we should keep the predialysis serum bicarbonate level at least at 22 mmol/l. Furthermore, a specific focus should be addressed by the attending nephrologist to the clinical and nutritional status of the major outliers on both the acid and alkaline sides of the curve. PMID:26924048

  10. Biohydrogen Fermentation from Sucrose and Piggery Waste with High Levels of Bicarbonate Alkalinity

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongdong Choi; Youngho Ahn

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of biohydrogen fermentation under the high bicarbonate alkalinity (BA) and pH to optimize these critical parameters. When sucrose was used as a substrate, hydrogen was produced over a wide range of pH values (5–9) under no BA supplementation; however, BA affected hydrogen yield significantly under different initial pHs (5–10). The actual effect of high BA using raw piggery waste (pH 8.7 and BA 8.9 g CaCO 3 /L) showed no biogas production or propionate/ace...

  11. Bicarbonate and Ca2+ sensing modulators activate photoreceptor ROS-GC1 synergistically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eDuda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoreceptor ROS-GC1, a prototype subfamily member of the membrane guanylate cyclase family, is a central component of phototransduction. It is a single transmembrane-spanning protein, composed of modular blocks. In rods, guanylate cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs 1 and 2 bind to its juxtamembrane domain and the C-terminal extension, respectively, to accelerate cyclic GMP synthesis when Ca2+ levels are low. In cones, the additional expression of the Ca2+-dependent guanylate cyclase activating protein (CD-GCAP S100B which binds to its C-terminal extension, supports acceleration of cyclic GMP synthesis at high Ca2+ levels. Independent of Ca2+, ROS-GC1 activity is also stimulated directly by bicarbonate binding to the core catalytic domain. Several enticing molecular features of this transduction system are revealed in the present study. In combination, bicarbonate and Ca2+-dependent modulators raised maximal ROS-GC activity to levels that exceeded the sum of their individual effects. The F514S mutation in ROS-GC1 that causes blindness in type 1 Leber’s congenital amaurosis severely reduced basal ROS-GC1 activity. GCAP2 and S100B Ca2+ signaling modes remained functional, while the GCAP1-modulated mode was diminished. Bicarbonate nearly restored basal activity as well as GCAP2- and S100B-stimulated activities of the F514S mutant to normal levels but could not resurrect GCAP1 stimulation. We conclude that GCAP1 and GCAP2 forge distinct pathways through domain-specific modules of ROS-GC1 whereas the S100B and GCAP2 pathways may overlap. The synergistic interlinking of bicarbonate to GCAPs- and S100B-modulated pathways intensifies and tunes the dependence of cyclic GMP synthesis on intracellular Ca2+. Our study challenges the recently proposed GCAP1 and GCAP2 overlapping phototransduction model (Peshenko, I.V., Olshevskaya, and Dizhoor, A. M. (2015 J Biol. Chem 290, 6913-6924.

  12. Sodium Bicarbonate Prevents Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Addition to Theophylline: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Wolfgang; Huber, Toni; Baum, Stephan; Franzen, Michael; Schmidt, Christian; Stadlbauer, Thomas; Beitz, Analena; Schmid, Roland M; Schmid, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether hydration with sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline in addition to theophylline (both groups) in the prophylaxis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). It was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study in a university hospital on 2 general intensive care units (63% of investigations) and normal wards.After approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent 152 patients with screening serum creatinine ≥1.1 mg/dL and/or at least 1 additional risk factor for CIN undergoing intravascular contrast media (CM) exposure were randomized to receive a total of 9 mL/kg bicarbonate 154 mmol/L (group B; n = 74) or saline 0.9% (group S; n = 78) hydration within 7 h in addition to intravenous application of 200 mg theophylline. Serum creatinine was determined immediately before, 24 and 48 h after CM exposure. As primary endpoint we investigated the incidence of CIN (increase of serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL and/or ≥25% within 48 h of CM).Both groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Incidence of CIN was significantly less frequent with bicarbonate compared to sodium hydration (1/74 [1.4%] vs 7/78 [9.0%]; P = 0.035). Time course of serum creatinine was more favorable in group B with decreases in serum creatinine after 24 h (-0.084 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: -0.035 to -0.133 mg/dL]; P = 0.008) and 48 h (-0.093 mg/dL (-0.025 to -0.161 mg/dL); P = 0.007) compared to baseline which were not observed in group S.In patients at increased risk of CIN receiving prophylactic theophylline, hydration with sodium bicarbonate reduces contrast-induced renal impairment compared to hydration with saline. PMID:27227933

  13. Association between serum bicarbonate and pH with depression, cognition and sleep quality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common feature in chronic renal failure patients, worsening progressively as renal function declines. There are conflicting data in hemodialysis (HD) patients with regard to acidosis, alkalosis and mortality. In HD patients, cognitive impairment, depression, sleep disorders and impaired quality of life are very common. Besides, these conditions are related with increased morbidity and mortality. However, no previous study investigated the relationship between pH, venous bicarbonate and anion gap with depression, sleep problems and cognitive function in HD patients. In this study we investigated these relationships. In total, 65 HD patients were included. The demographic parameters and laboratory parameters including bicarbonate, pH and anion gap was measured for all patients. Depressive symptoms, sleep quality and cognitive function, were measured by Beck depression inventory, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and by Mini Mental State Examination, respectively. We found that, sleep quality but not cognitive function or depression was independently related with venous pH and bicarbonate. Anion gap has no independent relationship with sleep quality, cognitive function and depression. In conclusion, metabolic acidosis and bicarbonate levels were independently related with sleep quality in HD patients. However, there was no association between metabolic acidosis and bicarbonate levels with cognitive function and depression. PMID:25894326

  14. Sodium bicarbonate in-duct injection with sodium sulfate recovery for SO2/NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry sodium injection with sodium bicarbonate has been used commercially at industrial sites since the mid 1980's. In the past three years, five full scale commercial demonstrations have been completed on electric utility coal fired units. Up to 75% SO2 removal with 0-40% NOx removal has been achieved on units equipped with ESPs. Recent slip stream studies have proven up to 90% SO2 removal and 25% NOx removal when injection is ahead of a baghouse. If dry sodium bicarbonate sorbent injection technology is used prior to a retrofitted baghouse, but after an existing ESP the sodium sulfate by-product/flyash mixture in the baghouse is over 90% Na2SO4. Simple filtration and crystallization will yield a high value 99% + pure Na2SO4 for sale. In this application, no liquid discharge occurs and potentially no solids discharge, since flyash recovered from the filter is either recycled to the boiler with the coal stream or reinjected into the boiler. EPA IAPCS model Version 4 is modified to project costs for this SO2/NOx removal technology when couples with Na2SO4 recovery. In this paper an example is used to show hardware requirements, consumables accountability, by-product recovery rates, capital costs and levelized costs

  15. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification

    KAUST Repository

    Zoccola, Didier

    2015-06-04

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3− transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4γ isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3− to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4γ appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians.

  16. CRACK2 - Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solution in cracks in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description of the model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. The cementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migrating ions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results. Leaching behavior of sodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porosity calcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant for conventional uses of concrete. (au)

  17. CRACK2 - Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solution in cracks in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodersen, K

    2003-03-01

    The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description of the model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. The cementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migrating ions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results. Leaching behavior of sodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porosity calcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant for conventional uses of concrete. (au)

  18. Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Pimenta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%, and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

  19. Patterns in the Parathyroid Response to Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion Test in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodossis S. Papavramidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The sodium bicarbonate infusion test evaluates the function of the parathyroid glands. The present study aims to evaluate the range of parathyroid response in healthy individuals and the potential influence of various factors. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers were subjected to the test. Levels of vitamin D, calcium, albumin, and PTH were measured before infusion. PTH was measured at 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after infusion. Results. A curve describing the response of parathyroids to the test was drawn. Twenty percent of the subjects had blunted PTH response. No significant difference was observed between normal and blunted responders concerning age, BMI, baseline PTH, or calcium levels. Nonetheless, there was a significant difference in vitamin D levels (P=0.024. Interpretation. The test is easy to perform and may be used for everyday screening. It has to be clarified whether our observations are, at least partly, produced due to the presence of individuals with a constitutively blunted response or if low levels of vitamin D decrease the ability of the parathyroids to respond. Whichever the case, PTH response of normal individuals to sodium bicarbonate infusion test is more varied than previously thought and vitamin D levels influence it.

  20. Bicarbonate correction of ketoacidosis alters host-pathogen interactions and alleviates mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Lin, Lin; Liu, Mingfu; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; French, Samuel; Edwards, John E; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2016-06-01

    Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are uniquely predisposed to mucormycosis, an angioinvasive fungal infection with high mortality. Previously, we demonstrated that Rhizopus invades the endothelium via binding of fungal CotH proteins to the host receptor GRP78. Here, we report that surface expression of GRP78 is increased in endothelial cells exposed to physiological concentrations of β-hydroxy butyrate (BHB), glucose, and iron that are similar to those found in DKA patients. Additionally, expression of R. oryzae CotH was increased within hours of incubation with DKA-associated concentrations of BHB, glucose, and iron, augmenting the ability of R. oryzae to invade and subsequently damage endothelial cells in vitro. BHB exposure also increased fungal growth and attenuated R. oryzae neutrophil-mediated damage. Further, mice given BHB developed clinical acidosis and became extremely susceptible to mucormycosis, but not aspergillosis, while sodium bicarbonate reversed this susceptibility. BHB-related acidosis exerted a direct effect on both GRP78 and CotH expression, an effect not seen with lactic acidosis. However, BHB also indirectly compromised the ability of transferrin to chelate iron, as iron chelation combined with sodium bicarbonate completely protected endothelial cells from Rhizopus-mediated invasion and damage. Our results dissect the pathogenesis of mucormycosis during ketoacidosis and reinforce the importance of careful metabolic control of the acidosis to prevent and manage this infection. PMID:27159390

  1. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  2. STUDY & EVALUATE THE COMPARISON OF PLAIN LIGNOCAINE AND LIGNACAINE WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE EFFECTS IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS : supraclavicular brachial plexus block is usually used to anaesthetize the upper limb for the purpose of upper limb surgeries. Drugs like Lignocaine , Bupiv a caine are used for this block and some additives are added to prolong the duration and quality of bl ockade. The present study is aimed to evaluate the comparison of plain lignocaine and lign o caine with sodium bicarbonate in supraclavicular brachial plexus block by means of the onset time of sensory and motor blockade, the quality of sensory and motor blo ckade , and the duration of blockade . METHODS : Sixty patients aged between 18 and 60 years of physical status ASA 1 and 2 undergoing upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block was performed after eliciting paraesthesia. The patients in Group I (n=30 received 25ml of 1% plain lignocaine (prepared by adding 12.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. The patients in th e Group II (study group received 25ml of 1% alkalinized lignocaine (prepared by adding 3ml of 7.5% sodium bicarbonate and 9.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. RESULTS : The present study entitled Comparison of effects of plain lignoc aine and lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate on brachial plexus block concludes that, the onset time of sensory and motor blockade is lesser with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine (4.13, 11.1minutes when compared to plain lignocaine(9.73, 21.1minutes in supraclavicular brachial plexus block, the quality of sensory and motor blockade is better with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine, the duration of motor and sensory blockade was significantly prolonged when lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate was used in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

  3. Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate and propylene glycol using potassium bicarbonate as catalyst in supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yicun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The improved one-pot synthesis of dimethyl carbonate and propylene glycol from propylene oxide, supercritical carbon dioxide, and methanol with potassium bicarbonate as the catalyst has been reported in this paper. As far as we know, it is the first time to use potassium bicarbonate only as the catalyst in the production process which is simple and cheap. Satisfactory conversion rate of propylene oxide and yield of the products could be achieved at the optimized conditions with quite a small amount of by-products. Our new method offers an attractive choice for the production of dimethyl carbonate in large-scale industry efficiently and environmental friendly.

  4. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel alloys in bicarbonate and chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 22 is one of the candidates for the manufacture of high level radioactive waste containers. These containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionics solutions, it is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate at temperatures above 60°C and applied potentials around +400 mVSCE are necessary in order to produce cracking, . This susceptibility may be associated to the instability of the passive film formed and to the formation of an anodic current peak in the polarization curves in these media. Until now, it is unclear the role played by each alloying element (Ni, Cr or Mo) in the SCC susceptibility of Alloy 22 in these media The aim of this work is to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of nickel-based alloys in media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions, at high temperature. Slow Strain Rate Testing (SSRT) was conducted to samples of different alloys: 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo), 600 (Ni-Cr-Fe), 800H (Ni-Fe-Cr) y 201 (99.5% Ni).This tests were conducted in 1.1 mol/L NaHCO3 +1.5 mol/L NaCl a 90°C and different applied potentials (+200mVSCE,+300 mVSCE, +400 mVSCE). These results were complemented with those obtained in a previous work, where we studied the anodic electrochemical behavior of nickel base alloys under the same conditions. It was found that alloy 22 showed a current peak in a potential range between +200 mVSCE and +300 mVSCE when immersed in bicarbonate ions containing solutions. This peak was attributed to the presence of chromium in the alloys. The SSRT showed that only alloy 22 has a clear indication of stress corrosion cracking. The current results suggested that the presence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves was not a sufficient condition for cracking. (author)

  5. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1996-01-01

    /h) gastric bicarbonate secretion were higher (p < 0.05) than in the health, whereas the corresponding rates (339 +/- 42 versus 591 +/- 51 mumol/h and 543 +/- 99 versus 778 +/- 69 mumol/h) in duodenal bicarbonate secretion were lower (p < 0.05). In addition, inactive DU patients had higher basal (148 +/- 32...

  6. Production of the carbonate radical anion during xanthine oxidase turnover in the presence of bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Marcelo G; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Di Mascio, Paolo; Augusto, Ohara

    2004-12-10

    Xanthine oxidase is generally recognized as a key enzyme in purine catabolism, but its structural complexity, low substrate specificity, and specialized tissue distribution suggest other functions that remain to be fully identified. The potential of xanthine oxidase to generate superoxide radical anion, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite has been extensively explored in pathophysiological contexts. Here we demonstrate that xanthine oxidase turnover at physiological pH produces a strong one-electron oxidant, the carbonate radical anion. The radical was shown to be produced from acetaldehyde oxidation by xanthine oxidase in the presence of catalase and bicarbonate on the basis of several lines of evidence such as oxidation of both dihydrorhodamine 123 and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and chemiluminescence and isotope labeling/mass spectrometry studies. In the case of xanthine oxidase acting upon xanthine and hypoxanthine as substrates, carbonate radical anion production was also evidenced by the oxidation of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and of dihydrorhodamine 123 in the presence of uricase. The results indicated that Fenton chemistry occurring in the bulk solution is not necessary for carbonate radical anion production. Under the conditions employed, the radical was likely to be produced at the enzyme active site by reduction of a peroxymonocarbonate intermediate whose formation and reduction is facilitated by the many xanthine oxidase redox centers. In addition to indicating that the carbonate radical anion may be an important mediator of the pathophysiological effects of xanthine oxidase, the results emphasize the potential of the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide pair as a source of biological oxidants. PMID:15448145

  7. Carbonate precipitates and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggio, Caterina; Torre, Agata; Lando, Gabriele; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Trischitta, Francesca

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the chemical composition of the precipitates found in the intestine of Dicentrarchus labrax and the source of HCO(3)(-) secreted into the intestinal lumen. The chemical analysis was performed by employing the potentiometric double titration method and by means of an electron microscope coupled with a spectrometer and X-ray powder diffraction. The results obtained suggest the presence of very insoluble intestinal precipitates, presumably formed by a mixture of CaCO(3) and MgCO(3), with a higher quantity of the former with respect to the latter. HCO(3)(-) secretion rate was investigated with the aid of the pH stat method in isolated tissues mounted in Ussing chamber, where the transepithelial electrical parameters were also measured. When the serosal surface of the intestinal mucosa was bathed in HCO(3)(-)-Ringer bubbled with 1% CO(2) in O(2) while the serosal surface was bathed in HCO(3)(-) free Ringer solution bubbled with pure O(2), bicarbonate secretion proceeded at an almost stable rate of 0.9 ± 0.05 μeq cm(-2) h(-1) for about 3 h while I(sc) maintained a constant value of 38 ± 1.5 μA cm(-2). The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor ethoxyzolamide elicited a progressive reduction of HCO(3)(-) secretion that was about 75% of the initial value after 80 min. When serosal HCO(3)(-)-CO(2) saline was substituted with Hepes-O(2) saline base secretion progressively declined reaching a value of about 20% of the initial value. It was also strongly inhibited when Na(+) was substituted with the impermeant cation choline and when either DIDS or ouabain were added to the basolateral side. These results suggest that most of the bicarbonate secreted is of extracellular source and is probably transported across the basolateral membrane by both Na(+) independent mechanism and Na(+) dependent transporter, presumably a NaHCO(3) cotransport. PMID:21152925

  8. No effect of bicarbonate treatment on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in non-diabetic older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic mild metabolic acidosis is common among older adults, and limited evidence suggests that it may contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This analysis was conducted to determine whether bicarbonate supplementation, an alkalinizing treatment, improves insulin sensitivity or gluco...

  9. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Burgess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephropathy following contrast media (CM exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb. The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

  10. CONTROL OF CADMIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION INTERFERENCES DURING THE DIALYSIS OF CADMIUM IN HIGH BICARBONATE ALKALINITY AQUATIC-LIFE BIOASSAY WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The precipitation of cadmium carbonate during the dialysis of cadmium in a high bicarbonate alkalinity natural water, was linked to a significant source of error when determining dialyzate cadmium concentrations. The relative standard deviation was reduced by approximately four-f...

  11. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1995-01-01

    luminal output of PGE2 into the stomach and the duodenum of nine healthy volunteers using a new technique permitting simultaneous measurements. In the stomach modified sham feeding increased bicarbonate secretion from 382 (62) mumol/h (mean (SEM)) to 959 (224) mumol/h (p < 0.02). In the duodenum modified...

  12. Control of blue mold decay of apple during commercial controlled atmosphere storage with yeast antagonists and sodium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture of two yeast antagonists, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Cryptococcus laurentii, originally isolated from apples and having superior biocontrol activity against blue mold of apple over individual application of these yeasts, were used in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) in a pilot ...

  13. Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate Co-transport Inhibitor S0859

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann Møller; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Lauritzen, Gitte;

    2012-01-01

    Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast...

  14. Effects of rapid versus slow infusion of sodium bicarbonate on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in preterm infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, A.A.E.M. van der; Hopman, J.C.W.; Klaessens, J.H.G.M.; Feuth, A.B.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Liem, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is often used for correction of metabolic acidosis in preterm infants. The effects of NaHCO3 administration on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation are not well known. Furthermore, there is no consensus on infusion rate of NaHCO3. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the

  15. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica LaRusch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF, a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002. Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005 and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001. WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in

  16. Enhanced U(VI) release from autunite mineral by aerobic Arthrobacter sp. in the presence of aqueous bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena; Carvajal, Denny A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2012-04-20

    The bacterial effect on U(VI) leaching from the autunite mineral (Ca[(UO{sub 2})(PO{sub 4})]{sub 2} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O) was investigated to provide a more comprehensive understanding into important microbiological processes affecting autunite stability within subsurface bicarbonate-bearing environments. Experiments were performed in a culture of G975 Arthrobacter oxydans strain, herein referred to as G975, a soil bacterium previously isolated from Hanford Site soil. 91 mg of autunite powder and 50 mL of phosphorus-limiting sterile media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 1-10 mM in glass reactor bottles and inoculated with G975 strain after the dissolution of autunite was at steady state. SEM observations indicated G975 formed a biofilm on the autunite surface and penetrated the mineral cleavages. The mineral surface colonization by bacteria tended to increase concomitantly with bicarbonate concentrations. Additionally, a sterile cultureware with inserts was used in non-contact bioleaching experiments where autunite and bacteria cells were kept separately. The data suggest the G975 bacteria is able to enhance U(VI) leaching from autunite without the direct contact with the mineral. In the presence of bicarbonate, the damage to bacterial cells caused by U(VI) toxicity was reduced, yielding similar values for total organic carbon (TOC) degradation and cell density compared to U(VI)-free controls. The presence of active bacterial cells greatly enhanced the U(VI) bioleaching from autunite in bicarbonate-amended media.

  17. Measurement of energy expenditure in healthy male adults using [14C] bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The use of double-labelled water (3HH 18O) to measure total energy expenditure (TEE) in free-living humans is expensive and requires access to a mass spectrometer. A 48-hour infusion of [14C]-bicarbonate with the measurement of [14C]-carbon dioxide (14CO2) after urease digestion of the urine, has been shown to produce comparable results to whole body calorimetry. We have used [14C]-bicarbonate to measure TEE and determined (i) it's comparability with the Schofield equation and (ii) the reproducibility of repeated measurements within an individual. On two occasions ∼ 14 days apart, measurements of TEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), energy intake, food quotient (FQ) and physical activity were made in eight healthy men (age 50 ± 3 yrs, wt 79 ± 3 kg, BMI 26 ± 1 kg/m2, fat mass 22.7 ± 2.5 kg, lean mass 56.5 ± 2.4 kg). Samples of each subjects' urine (collected for two consecutive 24 hour periods) were assayed in triplicate. RMR and RQ were determined by indirect calorimetry. Diet and activity patterns were recorded for four days during the infusion, and were analysed to determine energy intake and activity levels. There were no significant differences in any of the variables on the two study days. Data are expressed as mean ± SE. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the 14CO2 assay (within-assay CV) was 4.1 ± 0.4% (range 1.7 - 7.5%). The variation for the subjects between study days was 5.1 ± 0.9% (range 0.9 - 9.2%). TEE measured by 14CO2 (16,200 ± 780 KJ/day; range 13,400 - 19,387 KJ/day) was greater (14.7 ± 9% (% mean absolute difference ranged from -24.6 to 0.8%)) than the Schofield estimate of TEE (13,800 ± 710 KJ/day; range 12,100-15,500 KJ/day); the group means were significantly different (95% limits of agreement, T = 3.8, P = 0.007). Energy intake was 10,700 ± 535 KJ/day (range 7,970 - 12,600 KJ/day). Fasting RQ was 0.81 ± 0.01 (range 0.78 - 0.88), FQ was 0.84 ± 0.01 (range 0.78 - 0.87), and RQ/FQ was 0.97

  18. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa . PMID:25980464

  19. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefano Ginanni Corradini; Edoardo Poli; Adriano De Santis; Aldo Roda; Carolina Colliva; Patrizia Simoni; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Flaminia Ferri; Michela Mordenti; Luigi Iuliano; Maria Siciliano; Maria Antonella Burza; Bruno Sordi; Barbara Caciotti; Maria Pacini

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease.METHODS:Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n =20) or tap (n =20) water controlled drinking.Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound,blood vitamin E,oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol.and 7-ketocholesterol),bile acid (BA),triglycerides,total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.Food consumption,stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily.RESULTS:Blood lipids,oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption.Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P <0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL).Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P <0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83-1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol).The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid.The number of pasta (P < 0.001),meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group.Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups.CONCLUSION:Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  20. Bicarbonate enhances expression of the endocarditis and biofilm associated pilus locus, ebpR-ebpABC, in Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson L Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously identified ebpR, encoding a potential member of the AtxA/Mga transcriptional regulator family, and showed that it is important for transcriptional activation of the Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis and biofilm associated pilus operon, ebpABC. Although ebpR is not absolutely essential for ebpABC expression (100-fold reduction, its deletion led to phenotypes similar to those of an ebpABC mutant such as absence of pili at the cell surface and, consequently, reduced biofilm formation. A non-piliated ebpABC mutant has been shown to be attenuated in a rat model of endocarditis and in a murine urinary tract infection model, indicating an important participation of the ebpR-ebpABC locus in virulence. However, there is no report relating to the environmental conditions that affect expression of the ebpR-ebpABC locus. Results In this study, we examined the effect of CO2/HCO3-, pH, and the Fsr system on the ebpR-ebpABC locus expression. The presence of 5% CO2/0.1 M HCO3- increased ebpR-ebpABC expression, while the Fsr system was confirmed to be a weak repressor of this locus. The mechanism by which the Fsr system repressed the ebpR-ebpABC locus expression appears independent of the effects of CO2- bicarbonate. Furthermore, by using an ebpA::lacZ fusion as a reporter, we showed that addition of 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate to TSBG (buffered at pH 7.5, but not the presence of 5% CO2, induced ebpA expression in TSBG broth. In addition, using microarray analysis, we found 73 genes affected by the presence of sodium bicarbonate (abs(fold > 2, P ebpA mRNA levels under the conditions tested. Conclusions This study reports that the ebp locus expression is enhanced by the presence of bicarbonate with a consequential increase in the number of cells producing pili. Although the molecular basis of the bicarbonate effect remains unclear, the pathway is independent of the Fsr system. In conclusion, E. faecalis joins the growing family of

  1. Inhibition of cobalt active dissolution by benzotriazole in slightly alkaline bicarbonate aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of benzotriazole as inhibiting agent for the corrosion of cobalt was probed at pH ranging from 8.3 to 10.2 in a sodium bicarbonate solution, chosen to simulate mild natural environments. From electrochemical, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry experiments, we have demonstrated that benzotriazole markedly affects the electrodissolution reactions, which become modeled by the formation of a [Co(II)(BTA)2.H2O] n film according to two different mechanisms. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has shown that the polarization of a cobalt electrode at cathodic potentials with respect to its potential of zero charge allows a mechanism of specific adsorption of the neutral form of benzotriazole to take place through a suspected metal-to-molecule electron transfer and which follows Frumkin's adsorption isotherms. At the onset of the anodic dissolution, some experimental evidence suggests that these adsorbed neutral benzotriazole molecules deprotonate to yield a very thin [Co(II)(BTA)2.H2O] n polymer-like and water-insoluble protective film, responsible for the inhibition of active dissolution processes occurring at slightly more anodic potentials. In the anodic dissolution region, deprotonated benzotriazole species present in the bulk solution favors the formation of a multilayered [Co(II)(BTA)2.H2O] n film, which also contributes to the inhibition of any further cobalt dissolution usually observed at higher electrode potentials

  2. Biohydrogen Fermentation from Sucrose and Piggery Waste with High Levels of Bicarbonate Alkalinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongdong Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of biohydrogen fermentation under the high bicarbonate alkalinity (BA and pH to optimize these critical parameters. When sucrose was used as a substrate, hydrogen was produced over a wide range of pH values (5–9 under no BA supplementation; however, BA affected hydrogen yield significantly under different initial pHs (5–10. The actual effect of high BA using raw piggery waste (pH 8.7 and BA 8.9 g CaCO3/L showed no biogas production or propionate/acetate accumulation. The maximum hydrogen production rate (0.32 L H2/g volatile suspended solids (VSS-d was observed at pH 8.95 and 3.18 g CaCO3/L. BA greater than 4 g CaCO3/L also triggered lactate-type fermentation, leading to propionate accumulation, butyrate reduction and homoacetogenesis, potentially halting the hydrogen production rate. These results highlight that the substrate with high BA need to amend adequately to maximize hydrogen production.

  3. Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

  4. Stress corrosion cracking tests on electron beam welded carbon steel specimens in carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking tests have been performed on tapered carbon steel test pieces containing electron beam welds with a view to defining susceptibility to such cracking in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution at 90 C and an appropriate electrode potential. The tests involved applying cyclic loads to the specimens and it is shown that the threshold stress for cracking reduces linearly with increase in the magnitude of the cyclic load component. Extrapolation of these trends to zero fluctuating stress indicates static load threshold stresses in the vicinity of the yield stress (i.e. about 300 N/mm2 for parent plate without a weld, 400 N/mm2 for specimens with welds on one side only and 600 N/mm2 for specimens having welds penetrating through the thickness of the specimen). The averages of the maximum crack velocities observed were least for parent plate material and greatest for weld metal, the former being essentially intergranular in morphology and the latter mostly transgranular, with heat affected zone material being intermediate between these extremes. (author)

  5. Evaluating Battery-like Reactions to Harvest Energy from Salinity Differences using Ammonium Bicarbonate Salt Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoung; Rahimi, Mohammad; Logan, Bruce E; Gorski, Christopher A

    2016-05-10

    Mixing entropy batteries (MEBs) are a new approach to generate electricity from salinity differences between two aqueous solutions. To date, MEBs have only been prepared from solutions containing chloride salts, owing to their relevance in natural salinity gradients created from seawater and freshwater. We hypothesized that MEBs could capture energy using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB), a thermolytic salt that can be used to convert waste heat into salinity gradients. We examined six battery electrode materials. Several of the electrodes were unstable in AmB solutions or failed to produce expected voltages. Of the electrode materials tested, a cell containing a manganese oxide electrode and a metallic lead electrode produced the highest power density (6.3 mW m(-2) ). However, this power density is still low relative to previously reported NaCl-based MEBs and heat recovery systems. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that MEBs could indeed be used to generate electricity from AmB salinity gradients. PMID:27030080

  6. Formation of a sodium bicarbonate cluster in the structure of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    Ceramic sodium-substituted carbonated hydroxyapatite has been synthesized using the method of the solid-phase reaction in the temperature range of 640-820°C in water vapor. It has been established that substitutions of Ca2+ ions in the cation and anion subsystems with Na+ ions and the PO{4/3-} and OH- groups with CO{3/2-} ions lead to a considerable acceleration of the shrinkage and synthesis of dense ceramics at substantially lower temperatures than in the case of unsubstituted hydroxyapatite. Sintering in water vapor leads to densification of carbonate groups in channel positions, which induces the appearance of orderings of A2 and B2 types (bands with wave numbers 867 and 865 cm-1 in IR spectra, respectively) as well as the protonation of carbonate groups both in A and B sites and the formation of sodium bicarbonate clusters (856 and 859 cm-1) in addition to carbonate ordering of A1 and B1 types (879 and 872 cm-1).

  7. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Skaar, Don

    2014-09-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO(3) rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO(3) (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed. PMID:24909548

  8. Ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate plus alkaline chlorate oxidant for recovery of uranium values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the present invention, uranium values are extracted from materials containing uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state by contacting the materials containing uranium with an aqueous alkaline leach solution containing an alkaline chlorate in an amount sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state to its hexavalent state. In a further embodiment of the present invention, the alkaline leach solution is an aqueous solution of a carbonate selected from the group consisting of ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and mixtures thereof. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, at least one catalytic compound of a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, iron, nickel, chromium and mixtures thereof adapted to assure the presence of the ionic species Cu++, Co++, Fe+++, Ni++, Cr+++ and mixtures thereof, respectively, during the contacting of the material containing uranium with the alkaline leach solution and in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of at least a portion of the uranium in its lower valence states to its hexavalent state, is present

  9. Photochemical reactions of Am(V) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on Am(V) in sodium carbonate and bicarbonate solutions of pH 9.00 - 11.40 was studied by spectrophotometry. An Am(IV) + Am(VI) mixture was formed at pH 9 to 10; however, the conversion of Am(V) did not exceed 60 - 70%. The reaction rate order with respect to Am(V) was about 1. A quantum yield for the reaction on photolysis with light of λ = 337 nm was estimated at 0.003. The reaction rate and the conversion of Am(V) were decreased with increasing pH. The reaction started with the absorption of a UV quantum by a carbonate complex of Am(V). Its first step was presumably the electron transfer either from a water molecule to Am(V) in the coordination sphere of the excited carbonate complex of Am(V) or between two Am(V) ions in an excimer involving an excited and an unexcited carbonate complex of Am(V)

  10. Production of Spirulina platensis using dry chicken manure supplemented with urea and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepparath Ungsethaphand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive source of valuable protein for both human and animal consumption. The conventional nitrogen source for S. platensis is nitrate. However, recent research has evaluated the potential of using animal waste as a low-cost nitrogen source. In this work, the cultivation of S. platensis was done using dry chicken manure (DCM, collected from a closed-system poultry house, as nitrogen source. The experiment was carried out in open concrete tanks with 100 litres of culture medium and an initial biomass concentration of 0.5 g/L. The culture media were prepared to test the effect of unsupplemented DCM, DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U, and/or 40 mg/L of sodium bicarbonate (DCM+U+B or DCM+B. The best cellular growth and highest protein production were observed for S. platensis in the biomass harvested from the culture medium containing DCM supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of urea (DCM+U.

  11. Diatoms modify the relationship between dissolved silicon and bicarbonate in the impounded rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoli Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between dissolved silicon (DSi and bicarbonate (HCO3–, we analysed water samples from the main Changjiang channel and its main tributaries in August 2006 and, during 2007-2009, the contrasting tributaries Wujiang (WJ – mainly dominated by carbonate weathering, and Ganjiang – mainly dominated by silicate weathering. The DSi: HCO3– ratio ranged from 0 to 0.67, which is in agreement with mixing between the weathering of carbonate or silicate. A negative correlation between DSi and HCO3– was observed and interpreted as the imprint of regional geology on water chemistry. This relationship and the DSi: HCO3– ratios illustrate the predominant role of carbonate weathering on the riverine HCO3–, even forcatchments where silicate rocks are dominant. In contrast, a cascade of dams in WJ tributary influenced the concentrations of Dsi and HCO3– and resulted in a positive correlation between DSi and HCO3–. This is because reservoirs allowed populations of diatomsto develop and diatoms stoichiometrically sequestered DSi and HCO3– causing a negative feedback regulation on the DSi: HCO3– ratio. Our study demonstrates that the relationship between DSi and HCO3–can reflect not only their geological background but also the influence of algal activity (diatom uptake within rivers.

  12. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  13. Nanomaterials-Based Approaches for the Modulation of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hee Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HCO3- and fluid secretion are major functions of all epithelia, and alterations in HCO3- secretion by sodium bicarbonate cotransporters are associated with many epithelial diseases, such as renal, ocular, and dental abnormalities. Electrolyte and fluid exits are synergistically mediated by the intracellular second messengers, cAMP and Ca2+, and this raises the possibility that ion transporters are involved in simple secretion and more complicated forms of regulation. Evidence indicates that HCO3- transport is regulated by the assemblage of Na+-HCO3- cotransporters (NBCs into complexes by multiple regulatory factors. Recently the specific regulatory functions of factors that interact with NBCe1, especially NBCe1-B, have been elucidated. In this review, I focus on the structural characteristics of electrogenic NBCe1, pathophysiology of NBCe1, and molecular mechanisms responsible for transporter regulation. Moreover I propose the possibility to apply nanomaterials combined with regulatory factors for modulating the activity of NBC transporters as a potential development of therapeutic drug.

  14. Putative interaction of brush cells with bicarbonate secreting cells in the proximal corpus mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Anna-Maria Eberle

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The gastric epithelium is protected from the highly acidic luminal content by alkaline mucus which is secreted from specialized epithelial cells. In the stomach of mice strong secretion of alkaline fluid was observed at the gastric groove, the border between corpus and fundus mucosa. Since this region is characterized by numerous brush cells it was proposed that these cells might secrete alkaline solution as suggested for brush cells in the bile duct. In fact, it was found that in this region multiple cells express elements which are relevant for the secretion of bicarbonate, including carbonic anhydrase (CAII, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1. However, this cell population was distinct from brush cells which express the TRP-channel TRPM5 and are considered as putative sensory cells. The location of both cell populations in close proximity implies the possibility for a paracrine interaction. This view was substantiated by the finding that brush cells express prostaglandin synthase-1 (COX-1 and the neighbouring cells a specific receptor type for prostaglandins. The notion that brush cells may be able to sense a local acidification was supported by the observation that they express the channel PKD1L3 which contributes to the acid responsiveness of gustatory sensory cells. The results support the concept that brush cells may sense the luminal content and influence via prostaglandins the secretion of alkaline solution.

  15. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  16. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoppen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p < 0.0001. Insulin concentrations showed a significant time effect (p < 0.0001 and a significant water x time interaction (p < 0.021. At 120 min insulin levels with BMW-1 were significantly lower than with LMW (p = 0.022. Postprandial insulin concentrations showed significantly different patterns of mineral water intake depending on HOMA n-tiles (p = 0.016. Conclusion: Results suggests an increase in insulin sensitivity after BMWs consumption. This effect is more marked in the women, who have higher HOMA values. These waters should be considered part of a healthy diet in order to prevent insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease.

  17. Excess sodium bicarbonate in the diet and its effect on Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S; Wideman, R F

    1992-09-01

    1. A commercial 62-week-old layer flock experienced an acute drop in egg production and an increase in shell-less egg production within 2 days of consuming feed erroneously formulated to contain over 30 g/kg instead of 3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Other symptoms included increased water consumption, diarrhoea and increased mortality associated with visceral gout. 2. An experiment was conducted to assess the responses of hens under controlled conditions. Twenty Dekalb XL Single Comb White Leghorn hens (50 weeks old) were placed in individual cages, having ad libitum access to water from trough waterers. Ten hens were fed the TEST (High NaHCO3) feed for one week (Test group), and ten hens remained on normal commercial layer ration (Control group). 3. Hens in the Test group had high water consumption and watery droppings, but egg production and mortality were not affected. Physiological evaluations indicated the Test feed caused metabolic alkalosis. Plasma sodium, urine pH and urinary sodium excretion were increased, and glomerular filtration rates were decreased in the Test group. 4. These physiological effects are consistent with known responses to excess sodium intake in domestic fowl. The reduced egg production and increased mortality caused by the Test feed under commercial conditions may be related to more severe dehydration experienced by hens in multi-bird cages supplied by cup-type watering systems. PMID:1327426

  18. Proportional influence of sea water and bicarbonate on the production of Spirulina sp. biomass with light-emitting diode lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vasquez-Villalobos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the influence of the variables seawater proportion (% and bicarbonate concentration on Spirulina sp. biomass production, using a Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD to evaluate the optimal regions of biomass production (ϕ, adaptation phase (λ, specific growth rate (µ and generation time (G, using for each treatment the Gompertz mathematical model. The highest values of biomass (ϕ log N/N0 : 0.93 were obtained at 168.8 hours; in a culture medium with pH 8.8±0.1; at a temperature of 25°C; with salinity of 1.2% and 1.6 gL of bicarbonate. The lowest value of ϕ was 0.45±0.01; coincidentally obtained in repetitions of the central point, using a salinity of 0.7% and 3.0g/L of bicarbonate; in a medium with pH 9.1±0.4 to 25°C; which shows the importance of salinity provided by the volume of seawater relative to bicarbonate, in the production of Spirulina biomass. The lighting was 2.7±1.2 klx, provided by a White LightEmitting Diode (WLED during 12 continuous hours and an air injection of 0.86±0.09 L/s by a photo bioreactor with a 200 mL capacity. Only the values of ϕ, adjusted properly to the Response Surface with an R2 of 0.99 for a quadratic mathematical model and p < 0.05 with a 2.4% average absolute error.

  19. The Effect of Bicarbonate on the Microbial Dissolution of Autunite Mineral in the Presence of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria are key players in the processes that govern fate and transport of contaminants. The uranium release from Na and Ca-autunite by Arthrobacter oxydans strain G968 was evaluated in the presence of bicarbonate ions. This bacterium was previously isolated from Hanford Site soil and in earlier prescreening tests demonstrated low tolerance to U(VI) toxicity compared to other A.oxydans isolates. Experiments were conducted using glass serum bottles as mixed bioreactors and sterile 6-well cell culture plates with inserts separating bacteria cells from mineral solids. Reactors containing phosphorus-limiting media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 0-10 mM and metaautunite solids to provide a U(VI) concentration of 4.4 mmol/L. Results showed that in the presence of bicarbonate, A.oxydans G968 was able to enhance the release of U(VI) from Na and Ca autunite at the same capacity as other A.oxydans isolates with relatively high tolerance to U(VI). The effect of bacterial strains on autunite dissolution decreases as the concentration of bicarbonate increases. The results illustrate that direct interaction between the bacteria and the mineral is not necessary to result in U (VI) biorelease from autunite. The formation of secondary calcium-phosphate mineral phases on the surface of the mineral during the dissolution can ultimately reduce the natural autunite mineral contact area, which bacterial cells can access. This thereby reduces the concentration of uranium released into the solution. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions between meta-autunite and microbes in conditions mimicking arid and semiarid subsurface environments of western U.S.

  20. Effect of calcium cyanamide, ammonium bicarbonate and lime mixture, and ammonia water on survival of Ralstonia solanacearum and microbial community

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Liu; Chengliang Sun; Xingxing Liu; Xiaolin He; Miao Liu; Hao Wu; Caixian Tang; Chongwei Jin; Yongsong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The inorganic nitrogenous amendments calcium cyanamide (CC), ammonia water (AW), and a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate with lime (A+L) are popularly used as fumigants to control soil-borne disease in China. However, it is unclear which of these fumigants is more effective in controlling R. solanacearum. This present study compared the efficiencies of the three nitrogenous amendments listed above at four nitrogen levels in suppressing the survival of R. solanacearum in soil. The CC showed the ...

  1. Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunadian, Vijayalakshmi, E-mail: kunadianvijay@aol.com [Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust/Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Zaman, Azfar, E-mail: Azfar.Zaman@nuth.nhs.uk [Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust/Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Spyridopoulos, Ioakim [Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust/Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Institute of Human Genetics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Qiu, Weiliang [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO{sub 3} and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO{sub 3} versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO{sub 3} group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO{sub 3} is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

  2. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica LaRusch; Jinsei Jung; General, Ignacio J.; Lewis, Michele D; Hyun Woo Park; Brand, Randall E.; Andres Gelrud; Anderson, Michelle A.; Banks, Peter A; Darwin Conwell; Christopher Lawrence; Joseph Romagnuolo; John Baillie; Samer Alkaade; Gregory Cote

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev ) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize tha...

  3. Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO3 and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO3 versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO3 group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO3 is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

  4. Intestinal GPS: bile and bicarbonate control cyclic di-GMP to provide Vibrio cholerae spatial cues within the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli to enable bacteria to transition between different lifestyles. Here we discuss our recent findings that the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae recognizes 2 host-specific signals, bile and bicarbonate, to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP. We have demonstrated that bile acids increase intracellular c-di-GMP to promote biofilm formation. We have also shown that this bile-mediated increase of intracellular c-di-GMP is negated by bicarbonate, and that this interaction is dependent on pH, suggesting that V. cholerae uses these 2 environmental cues to sense and adapt to its relative location in the small intestine. Increased intracellular c-di-GMP by bile is attributed to increased c-di-GMP synthesis by 3 diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and decreased expression of one phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the presence of bile. The molecular mechanisms by which bile controls the activity of the 3 DGCs and the regulators of bile-mediated transcriptional repression of the PDE are not yet known. Moreover, the impact of varying concentrations of bile and bicarbonate at different locations within the small intestine and the response of V. cholerae to these cues remains unclear. The native microbiome and pharmaceuticals, such as omeprazole, can impact bile and pH within the small intestine, suggesting these are potential unappreciated factors that may alter V. cholerae pathogenesis. PMID:25621620

  5. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongseok Jang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO3− and mucin in Gamble’s solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble’s solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies.

  6. Selection of microalgae and cyanobacteria strains for bicarbonate-based integrated carbon capture and algae production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhanyou; Elloy, Farah; Xie, Yuxiao; Hu, Yucai; Chen, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Using microalgae to capture CO2 from flue gas is an ideal way to reduce CO2 emission, but this is challenged by the high cost of carbon capture and transportation. To address this problem, a bicarbonate-based integrated carbon capture and algae production system (BICCAPS) has been proposed, in which bicarbonate is used for algae culture, and the regenerated carbonate from this process can be used to capture more CO2. High-concentration bicarbonate is obligate for the BICCAPS. Thus, different strains of microalgae and cyanobacteria were tested in this study for their capability to grow in high-concentration NaHCO3. The highest NaHCO3 concentrations they are tolerant to were determined as 0.30 M for Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, 0.60 M for Cyanothece sp., 0.10 M for Chlorella sorokiniana, 0.60 M for Dunaliella salina, and 0.30 M for Dunaliella viridis and Dunaliella primolecta. In further study, biomass production from culture of D. primolecta in an Erlenmeyer flask with either 0.30 M NaHCO3 or 2 % CO2 bubbling was compared, and no significant difference was detected. This indicates BICCAPS can reach the same biomass productivity as regular CO2 bubbling culture, and it is promising for future application. PMID:24092450

  7. Current Status of Sodium Bicarbonate in Coronary Angiography: An Updated Comprehensive Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Ali-Hassan-Sayegh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review with meta-analysis sought to determine comparison of efficacy and safety of hydration with sodium bicarbonate versus sodium chloride on contrast induced nephropathy and clinical outcomes. We searched major electronic databases for studies in randomized controlled trials. A value of P50% indicated significant heterogeneity between the studies. Literature search of all databases retrieved 650 studies. 29 studies enrolled in meta-analysis. Pooled analysis indicated about the incidence of CIN (OR of 0.718; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.85; P=0.000, requirement of hemodialysis (OR of 1.00; 95% CI: 0.49 to 2.01; P=0.9, mean changes of serum creatinine (WMD of 2.321; 95% CI: 1.995 to 2.648; P=0.000, length of hospital stays (WMD of −0.774; 95% CI: −1.65 to 0.10; P=0.08, major adverse cardiovascular events (OR = 1.075, 95% CI: 0.59 to 1.95; P=0.8, and mortality (OR of 0.73; 95% CI: 0.42 to 1.26; P=0.2. Overall, hydration with sodium bicarbonate could significantly reduce CIN and the length of hospital stay compared to sodium chloride. In addition NAC added as a supplement to sodium bicarbonate could increase prophylactic effects against nephropathy.

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate air abrasive polishing on resistance to sliding during tooth alignment and leveling: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C. B. L. Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the Resistance to Sliding (RS provided by metallic brackets and 3 types of orthodontic wires (TMA, SS and NiTi, before and after the use of sodium bicarbonate airborne particle abrasion, in an experimental model with 3 non leveled brackets. Materials and Methods: The bicarbonate airborne abrasion was applied perpendicularly to the bracket slots at a distance of 2 mm, for 5 seconds (T2 and 10 seconds (T3 on each bracket slot. In a universal testing machine, the wires were pulled through a set of 3 non leveled brackets at a cross head speed of 50 mm/min for a distance of 10 mm, and static and kinetic friction readings were registered at T1 (no airborne abrasion, T2 and T3. Results: For all tested wires, a significant RS increase between T1 and T3 (P<0.001 was seen. For SS and TMA wires, there was a statistically significant RS increase between T1 and T2 (P<0.001. Between T2 and T3, RS increase was significant for TMA (P<0.001 and NiTiwires (P<0.05. Conclusions: Sodium bicarbonate air abrasive polishing during orthodontic treatment is not recommended, once this procedure promoted a significant RS increase between the metallic brackets and all the three types of wires tested.

  9. Successful recovery from iatrogenic severe hypernatremia and severe metabolic acidosis resulting from accidental use of inappropriate bicarbonate concentrate for hemodialysis treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bhosale, Guruprasad P; Veena R Shah

    2015-01-01

    Bicarbonate dialysis is the treatment modality of choice for correction of metabolic acidosis in chronic renal failure. However, improper selection of dialysate concentrate can result in life-threatening human errors. We report a case of iatrogenic severe hypernatremia (sodium 207 mEq/L) and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.65) that resulted due to accidental use of inappropriate bicarbonate concentrate for hemodialysis treatment. There was successful recovery in this patient with no neurologi...

  10. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sham S; Ramdas, Shenoy Shailesh; Ballal, Shrinidhi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum on the salivary pH and to compare the effect of chewing bicarbonate-containing sugar-free gum on salivary pH against that of standard sugar-free gum. The experiment was carried out on 30 volunteers aged 20-22 years (mean age = 21 years) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The test gum was sugar-free greenmint-flavored bicarbonate-containing gum and the standard control was sugar-free spearmint-flavored gum. The pH was measured immediately using pH strips. According to statistical analysis, the mean salivary pH of the bicarbonate gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.9713, 6.5667, 6.4267, 6.3867 and 6.3233 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes, but there was a significant difference in salivary pH from 5 to 20 minutes (p = 0.014). The mean salivary pH of the standard gum at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes is 6.8767, 6.6067, 6.4200, 6.4027 and 6.3000 respectively. There is decrease in pH from 0 to 20 minutes. According to Bonferroni, there was no significant difference in pH from 0 to 20 minutes, 5 to 20 minutes, 10 to 20 minutes and 15 to 20 minutes. Thus, the higher salivary pH achieved with chewing bicarbonate gum compared with a standard sugar-free gum may have important oral health implications. How to cite this article: Ballal RK, Bhat SS, Ramdas SS, Ballal S. Effect of Chewing Bicarbonate-containing Sugar-free Gum on the Salivary pH: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):35-38. PMID:27274153

  11. Effects of bicarbonate/lactate solution on peritoneal advanced glycosylation end-product accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M S; Kim, J K; Holmes, C; Weiss, M F

    2000-01-01

    Advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) are associated with diabetic complications and peritoneal damage after long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) with high glucose dialysis solutions. Glucose degradation products (GDPs) derived during heat sterilization of high glucose dialysis solutions are thought to accelerate AGE formation. A new technique of separating glucose from electrolytes has yielded markedly lower GDP levels and permitted the use of dialysis solutions containing the physiologic buffer bicarbonate. Formation of AGEs in vitro with this new solution is significantly lower compared with formation of AGEs with conventional solutions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of long-term intraperitoneal use of new, neutral dialysis solution (B/L) containing bicarbonate (25 mmol/L) and lactate (15 mmol/L) on peritoneal AGE accumulation and permeability. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Twice daily for 12 weeks, 30 mL of new solution (B/L) or conventional solution [Lac (lactate 40 mmol/L)] was injected into the peritoneal cavity of the test rats. As a control, rats that were not injected were kept for 12 weeks in the same manner as the test rats. After 12 weeks, a 2-hour peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was performed in the test rats. After the PET, the parietal peritoneum and liver were obtained for evaluation of peritoneal morphology and for immunohistochemistry for AGE. Intensity of AGE staining was semi-quantitatively graded from 0 to 3. The omentum was also obtained and immediately frozen for analysis of pentosidine content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with findings in the control group, hematoxylin and eosin staining of the parietal peritoneum and liver samples revealed partial denudation of mesothelial cells in the Lac group; denudation was not remarkable in the B/L group. The B/L solution showed significantly less AGE staining in the peritoneal cavity compared to conventional solution. However

  12. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  13. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shu-Ting; Du, Yun-Xia; Xu, Chang-Fu; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Mo, Li-Ping; Sun, Ying; Gao, Xiao-Li

    2014-10-01

    The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice. PMID:25092435

  14. Simultaneous blood-tissue exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and hydrogen ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Ranjan K; Bassingthwaighte, James B

    2006-07-01

    A detailed nonlinear four-region (red blood cell, plasma, interstitial fluid, and parenchymal cell) axially distributed convection-diffusion-permeation-reaction-binding computational model is developed to study the simultaneous transport and exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood-tissue exchange system of the heart. Since the pH variation in blood and tissue influences the transport and exchange of O2 and CO2 (Bohr and Haldane effects), and since most CO2 is transported as HCO3(-) (bicarbonate) via the CO2 hydration (buffering) reaction, the transport and exchange of HCO3(-) and H+ are also simulated along with that of O2 and CO2. Furthermore, the model accounts for the competitive nonlinear binding of O2 and CO2 with the hemoglobin inside the red blood cells (nonlinear O2-CO2 interactions, Bohr and Haldane effects), and myoglobin-facilitated transport of O2 inside the parenchymal cells. The consumption of O2 through cytochrome-c oxidase reaction inside the parenchymal cells is based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The corresponding production of CO2 is determined by respiratory quotient (RQ), depending on the relative consumption of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The model gives a physiologically realistic description of O2 transport and metabolism in the microcirculation of the heart. Furthermore, because model solutions for tracer transients and steady states can be computed highly efficiently, this model may be the preferred vehicle for routine data analysis where repetitive solutions and parameter optimization are required, as is the case in PET imaging for estimating myocardial O2 consumption. PMID:16775761

  15. Parametric study of reverse electrodialysis using ammonium bicarbonate solution for low-grade waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We characterized the influence of various parameters on the NH4HCO3-RED system. • We found the best power density at the concentrated solutions of 1.5 mol L−1 and the diluted solution of 0.01 mol L−1. • We obtained the higher power density of 0.77 W m−2 than previous studies. - Abstract: Waste heat recovery has attracted a significant attention because of the world growth in energy demand. In this paper, we report the study on an energy recovery system utilizing low-grade waste heat below 100 °C. This system called a thermal-driven electrochemical generator is composed of reverse electrodialysis (RED) power generation and thermal separation using waste heat. We especially focus on the experimental characterization of the RED process with ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) solution, which is known to be easily decomposed at the temperature around 60 °C. We characterized this NH4HCO3-RED system with various parameters including the concentration difference, the membrane type, the inlet flow rate, and the compartment thickness. We found the best power density at the concentrated solution of 1.5 mol L−1 and the diluted solution of 0.01 mol L−1. The maximum power density increases as the inlet flow rate increases or the compartment thickness decreases owing to the decrease in the internal resistance. We obtained the excellent power density of 0.77 W m−2, compared with the previous studies

  16. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ∼1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux. PMID:26863442

  17. Transient and long-term effects of bicarbonate on the ANAMMOX process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Yu, Jin-Jin; Ma, Chun; Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhang, Jue; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ji, Yu-Xin; Hu, Bao-Lan

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effects of both transient and long-term inorganic carbon (IC) addition on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process under pseudo-steady-state and substrate inhibitions were analyzed using reactor performance and measures of sludge activity. Compared with the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 3.42 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the control bioreactor (ICDR) without IC, the peak NRR reached 21.0 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the reactor (ICAR) with sufficient IC added. It was revealed that the long-term addition of bicarbonate significantly enhanced the performance of the ANAMMOX reactor. The optimum HCO3 (-)/TN ratio was considered to be 1.20, which is lower than that in normal conditions. The IC concentration affected biomass activity, and the transient addition or removal of IC to differing sludge media caused a significant loss of activity. Sufficient addition of IC alleviated the inhibition of excess substrates, while the inhibition was aggravated by the IC limitation. The half-maximal (50 %) inhibitory concentrations of substrate for the sludge were 295 mg L(-1) NO2 (-)-N and 361 mg L(-1) NH4 (+)-N with 120 mg L(-1) of fixed HCO3 (-) and 346 mg L(-1) NO2 (-)-N and 456 mg L(-1) NH4 (+)-N with unlimited IC, respectively. Changing the HCO3 (-)/TN (in milligrams per milligram) ratio resulted in the variation of ANAMMOX stoichiometric ratios. Sludge characterization parameters in the ICDR, including biomass, extracellular polymeric substances, heme C, and so on, were lower than those in ICAR. Filamentous bacteria and spherical bacteria were also observed in the reactor with limited IC. PMID:23780583

  18. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  19. Thermal analysis of modified sodium bicarbonate%碳酸氢钠的改性及其热分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹贤武; 张轶钧; 伍巍; 吴鹏君

    2012-01-01

    考察了不同目数下碳酸氢钠的热分解温度;采用熔融法和溶液法,使用硬脂酸、芥酸酰胺等5种改性剂对碳酸氢钠进行改性,利用DSC和TG评价其改性效果。结果表明:碳酸氢钠的目数对其热分解温度有一定影响;采用有机包覆改性碳酸氢钠的方法能够有效提高其分解温度,缩短分解区间,提高分解速率,从而应用于泡沫塑料加工;当NaHCO3∶硬脂酸的质量比为1∶0.5时,采用熔融法所得的改性碳酸氢钠的起始分解温度由115℃提高至178℃,分解区间由61℃缩短至25℃;改性前后碳酸氢钠的热分解反应都符合"成核与核增长"机理中的Avrami-Erofeev方程,改性剂的添加会导致核成长因子n的增加,改性碳酸氢钠的活化能Ea也有所提高。%The decomposition temperature of sodium bicarbonate with different mesh number was studied.Five modifiers,including stearic acid and erucamide,were used to modify sodium bicarbonate by melting method and solution method.The effects of modification were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA).The results showed that the mesh number of sodium bicarbonate has influence on its decomposition temperature.The organic coating and modification of sodium bicarbonate can increase the initial decomposition temperature,narrow the range of decomposition temperature and improve the decomposition rate.All of these can be used in the processing of foam plastic.Sodium bicarbonate was modified by melting-method with a mass ratio of 1∶0.5 obtained in the optimized condition,in which its initial decomposition temperature is increased from 115 ℃ to 178 ℃,and its decomposition temperature range is narrowed from 61 ℃ to 25 ℃.The most probable mechanism functions of the thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and modified sodium bicarbonate agree with Avrami-Erofeev equations.The addition of modifiers can increase the nucleation growth

  20. The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. C. Plane

    Full Text Available It is proposed that a component of meteoric smoke, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, provides particularly effective condensation nuclei for noctilucent clouds. This assertion is based on three conditions being met. The first is that NaHCO3 is present at sufficient concentration (±104 cm-3 in the upper mesosphere between 80 and 90 km. It is demonstrated that there is strong evidence for this based on recent laboratory measurements coupled with atmospheric modelling. The second condition is that the thermodynamics of NaHCO3(H2On cluster formation allow spontaneous nucleation to occur under mesospheric conditions at temperatures below 140 K. The Gibbs free energy changes for forming clusters with n = 1 and 2 were computed from quantum calculations using hybrid density functional/Hartree-Fock (B3LYP theory and a large basis set with added polarization and diffuse functions. The results were then extrapolated to higher n using an established dependence of the free energy on cluster size and the free energy for the sublimation of H2O to bulk ice. A 1-dimensional model of sodium chemistry was then employed to show that spontaneous nucleation to form ice particles (n >100 should occur between 84 and 89 km in the high-latitude summer mesosphere. The third condition is that other metallic components of meteoric smoke are less effective condensation nuclei, so that the total number of potential nuclei is small relative to the amount of available H2O. Quantum calculations indicate that this is probably the case for major constituents such as Fe(OH2, FeO3 and MgCO3.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; cloud physics and chemistry; middle atmosphere · composition and chemistry

  1. Evidence for Bicarbonate Secretion by Ameloblasts in a Novel Cellular Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, E; Guo, J; Rácz, R; Burghardt, B; Földes, A; Kerémi, B; Harada, H; Steward, M C; Den Besten, P; Bronckers, A L J J; Varga, G

    2016-05-01

    evidence for a regulated, vectorial, basolateral-to-apical bicarbonate transport in polarized HAT-7 cells. We therefore propose that the HAT-7 cell line is a useful functional model for studying electrolyte transport by ameloblasts. PMID:26792171

  2. Fate of nitrogen in soil-crop system by nuclear techniques. Effects of applied rate of ammonium bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was conducted with 15N tracing techniques in Shijiazhuang from 1994 to 1995. Three nitrogen rates, including optimum rate (150 kg/hm2) based on the recommendation of local farmers, above 50% of optimum rate (225 kg/hm2) and below 50% of optimum rate (75 kg/hm2), were selected to study the effect of application rates of ammonium bicarbonate on yield of winter wheat and fate of applied nitrogen under local management and irrigated condition. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and grain yield of wheat under fertilized treatments were higher than those in unfertilized treatment (except 225 kg/hm2 treatment). The highest yield and top dry mater weight (grain 6.80 t/hm2, top 14.70 t/hm2) were obtained in optimum N applied treatment (150 kg/hm2), while the highest nitrogen recovery efficiency (38.5%) of ammonium bicarbonate by winter wheat was found in below 50% of optimum rate treatment (75 kg/hm2) due to the relatively high basic fertility of the field. However, nitrogen recovery efficiency of ammonium bicarbonate decreased with the increasing N application rate. The highest residue of fertilizer N was found in 225 kg/hm2 treatment, and 46% of the residue existed in the top layer of the soil (0∼50 cm). The unaccounted N from fertilizer were 30.20%, 36.56%, 31.25% in 75 kg/hm2, 150 kg/hm2, 225 kg/hm2 treatments respectively according to 15N balance calculation in soil-plant system. The effect of residue N in soil on the next crop, maize, in 225 kg/hm2 treatment was best in three fertilized treatments, suggesting the possibilities of nitrate leaching down in 225 kg/hm2 treatment. (15 tabs.)

  3. The variation of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate concentration, pH and conductivity in groundwater of Karachi region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater in Karachi is influenced mainly by the evaporation / crystallization process as expressed by the Na/(Na+Ca) weight concentration ratio. The high coefficient of determined between conductivity and total dissolved ions concentration in meq/sup -1/ revealed that major ions affect the conductivity of groundwater. It was also found that groundwater quality with respect to cations is not significantly influenced by geology, particularly in the Urban are of the city, where the 90% of the population resides. The relationship between conductivity and bicarbonate concentration shows that supersaturation of groundwater with carbon dioxide is responsible for general depression of pH. (author)

  4. Sodium bicarbonate protects uranium-induced acute nephrotoxicity through uranium-decorporation by urinary alkalinization in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmachi, Yasushi; Imamura, Tomomi; Ikeda, Mizuyo; Shishikura, Eriko; Kim, Eunjoo; Kurihara, Osamu; Sakai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) in removing uranium and protecting animals from uranium toxicity, we intramuscularly administered 1 mg/kg of uranyl nitrate to 8-wk-old male SD rats, and 20 min after administration of uranyl nitrate, the animals were given a single oral administration of SB at 0.1, 0.3 or 1 g/kg. The SB treatment at a dose of 0.3 g/kg or more raised the pH of the rats’ urine until 4 h after treatment, and it significantly reduced the uranium amounts in...

  5. Effect of Electrochemical Treatment in Aqueous Ammonium Bicarbonate on Surface Properties of PAN-based Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海琳; 黄玉东; 张志谦; 孙举涛

    2004-01-01

    The surface properties of PAN-based carbon fibers electrochemically treated in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate before and after treatment were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Dynamic Contact Angle Analysis (DCAA). The results of characterization indicated that the oxygen and nitrogen contents in carbon fiber surface were significantly increased by electrochemical treatment, and amide groups was introduced onto it, which was related with the electrolyte. The AFM photographs illustrated that the roughness of the fiber surface was also increased. The wettibality of the fibers was improved after treatment because the surface energy especially the polar part of it was increased.

  6. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Khelil-Arfa, Hajer; Faverdin, Philippe; Boudon, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20% DM (Na(-)) and 0.50% DM (Na(+))] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4 mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of...

  7. Studies on the kinetics of UO2 dissolution in carbonate-bicarbonate medium using sodium hypochlorite as oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of UO2 in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions containing sodium hypochlorite as an oxidant has been investigated. The effect of temperature, sodium hypochlorite concentration and stirring speed was examined. In the temperature range of 303 to 318 K, the leaching reaction displayed linear kinetics. Apparent activation energy obtained from the differential approach was found to be 57 kJ mol-1. This relatively high activation energy value indicates a chemically controlled behavior of UO2 dissolution. The order of reaction with respect to sodium hypochlorite concentration was found to be unity. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs

  8. Reactive transport modeling of carbon dioxide sequestration via bicarbonate brine injection in the Rose Run sandstone formation: A comparison with traditional CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Kendall, T.; Seeker, R.; Constantz, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    One by-product of the Calera process to make building materials from CO2 is a bicarbonate solution that contains a variable fraction of the CO2 captured from flue gas. Injection of this fluid into the subsurface has advantages over CO2 injection in terms of technical risks, environmental issues, cost, safety, and public acceptance. With bicarbonate injection, there is no need of a cap-rock, as the solution is non-volatile, and will not be buoyant because it is of comparable density to the host fluids. Although a bicarbonate fluid has less CO2 mass per unit volume than supercritical CO2 (in our example, 34 times less), a large injection zone footprint is not a strong disadvantage because detailed site characterization, in particular of cap-rock integrity, is less critical. Moreover, the amount of CO2 that needs trapping is reduced by an amount equal to the carbon in the mineralized cement by-product. Bicarbonate injection can be carried out in relatively shallow aquifers, which reduces the pumping energy needed for emplacement. In terms of desirable long-term CO2 trapping mechanisms, bicarbonate injection greatly accelerates solubility and mineral trapping into hours and days as compared to decades or more for liquid CO2 injection. Thus, bicarbonate injection is a practical demonstration of fluid mixing at field scale. To assess the potential for geological storage of CO2 in American Electric Power’s (AEP) Mountaineer site, 1D reactive transport models have been constructed to compare bicarbonate with CO2 injection and upscale the mixing problem from batch experiments to the field. For CO2 injection, CO2 forms a completely dried-out zone near the borehole, which may result in halite efflorescence and may be a concern for well-bore injectivity. Simulations predict that after 10,000 years, the CO2 partial pressure remains above 200 bars, and the solution pH remains below 5 within a one kilometer radius of the wellbore. Consequently, the dissolved CO2 is about 1

  9. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of methanogenesis in production water of high-temperature oil reservoirs amended with bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Chao eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 sequestration in deep-subsurface formations including oil reservoirs is a potential measure to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, the fate of the CO2 and the ecological influences in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CDCS facilities is not understood clearly. In the current study, the fate of CO2 (in bicarbonate form (0~90 mM with 10 mM of formate as electron donor and carbon source was investigated with high-temperature production water from oilfield in China. The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate methanogenesis under the anaerobic conditions. The bicarbonate addition induced the shift of microbial community. Addition of bicarbonate and formate was associated with a decrease of Methanosarcinales, but promotion of Methanobacteriales in all treatments. Thermodesulfovibrio was the major group in all the samples and Thermacetogenium dominated in the high bicarbonate treatments. The results indicated that CO2 from CDCS could be transformed to methane and the possibility of microbial CO2 conversion for enhanced microbial energy recovery in oil reservoirs.

  10. The effect of feeding on CO2 production and energy expenditure in ponies measured by indirect calorimetry and the 13C-bicarbonate technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R B; Kyrstein, T D; Junghans, P; Tauson, A H

    2015-11-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) can be estimated based on respiratory gas exchange measurements, traditionally done in respiration chambers by indirect calorimetry (IC). However, the (13)C-bicarbonate technique ((13)C-BT) might be an alternative minimal invasive method for estimation of CO(2) production and EE in the field. In this study, four Shetland ponies were used to explore the effect of feeding on CO(2) production and EE measured simultaneously by IC and (13)C-BT. The ponies were individually housed in respiration chambers and received either a single oral or intravenous (IV) bolus dose of (13)C-labelled sodium bicarbonate (NaH(13)CO(3)). The ponies were fed haylage 3 h before (T(-3)), simultaneously with (T(0)) or 3 h after (T(+3)) administration of (13)C-bicarbonate. The CO(2) produced and O(2) consumed by the ponies were measured for 6 h with both administration routes of (13)C-bicarbonate at the three different feeding times. Feeding time affected the CO(2) production (Phorses to avoid complex (13)C enrichment-time curves with maxima and shoulders as observed in several experiments with oral administration of (13)C-bicarbonate. PMID:26477528

  11. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of Methanogenesis in Production Water of High-temperature Oil Reservoirs Amended with Bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Chao; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    CO2 sequestration in deep-subsurface formations including oil reservoirs is a potential measure to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, the fate of the CO2 and the ecological influences in carbon dioxide capture and storage (CDCS) facilities is not understood clearly. In the current study, the fate of CO2 (in bicarbonate form; 0∼90 mM) with 10 mM of formate as electron donor and carbon source was investigated with high-temperature production water from oilfield in China. The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate methanogenesis under the anaerobic conditions. The bicarbonate addition induced the shift of microbial community. Addition of bicarbonate and formate was associated with a decrease of Methanosarcinales, but promotion of Methanobacteriales in all treatments. Thermodesulfovibrio was the major group in all the samples and Thermacetogenium dominated in the high bicarbonate treatments. The results indicated that CO2 from CDCS could be transformed to methane and the possibility of microbial CO2 conversion for enhanced microbial energy recovery in oil reservoirs. PMID:27047478

  12. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P 336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae. PMID:26960545

  13. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of Methanogenesis in Production Water of High-temperature Oil Reservoirs Amended with Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Chao; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    CO2 sequestration in deep-subsurface formations including oil reservoirs is a potential measure to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, the fate of the CO2 and the ecological influences in carbon dioxide capture and storage (CDCS) facilities is not understood clearly. In the current study, the fate of CO2 (in bicarbonate form; 0∼90 mM) with 10 mM of formate as electron donor and carbon source was investigated with high-temperature production water from oilfield in China. The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate methanogenesis under the anaerobic conditions. The bicarbonate addition induced the shift of microbial community. Addition of bicarbonate and formate was associated with a decrease of Methanosarcinales, but promotion of Methanobacteriales in all treatments. Thermodesulfovibrio was the major group in all the samples and Thermacetogenium dominated in the high bicarbonate treatments. The results indicated that CO2 from CDCS could be transformed to methane and the possibility of microbial CO2 conversion for enhanced microbial energy recovery in oil reservoirs. PMID:27047478

  14. Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M; Sharifi Tehrani, A; Ali Abadi, A Alizadeh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if the attacks of green mold on orange could be reduced by edible salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agent. For this purpose toxicity to Pantoea digitatum and practical use of sodium carbonate (SC), sodium bicarbonate (SBC) and potassium carbonate, and potassium bicarbonate alone or in combination with antagonistic bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate PN, Bacillus subtilis isolate VHN, Pantoea agglomerans isolate CA) to control green mold were determined. All were fungistatic. SC and SBC were equal and superior to the other salts for control of green mold on oranges inoculated 6h before treatment and were chosen for subsequent trails under cold storage conditions. The biocontrol agents were found completely tolerant to 3% sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate at room temperature; although their culturability was reduced by > 1000-fold after 60 min in 1% other salt solutions. Satisfactory results were also obtained with the combined treatment for control of green mold. A significant increase in biocontrol activity of all isolate was observed when combined with sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. The treatments comprising CA combined with SB was as effective as fungicide treatment. Thus, use of sodium bicarbonate treatment at 3% followed by the antagonist P. agglomerans CA could be an alternative to chemical fungicides for control of green mold on oranges. PMID:18396809

  15. Bicarbonate-mediated transcriptional activation of divergent operons by the virulence regulatory protein, RegA, from Citrobacter rodentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Hart, Emily; Tauschek, Marija; Price, G Dean; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Strugnell, Richard A; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2008-04-01

    Regulation of virulence gene expression plays a central role in the pathogenesis of enteric bacteria as they encounter diverse environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts. In this study, we investigated environmental regulation of two putative virulence determinants adcA and kfc by RegA, an AraC/XylS-like regulator, from Citrobacter rodentium, and identified bicarbonate as the environmental signal which induced transcription of adcA and kfc through RegA. Primer extension experiments showed that adcA and kfc were divergently transcribed from sigma(70) promoters. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that bicarbonate facilitated and stabilized the binding of RegA to an operator located between the two promoters. The interaction of RegA with its DNA target resulted in the formation of a nucleosome-like structure, which evidently displaced the histone-like proteins, H-NS and StpA, from the adcA and kfc promoter regions, leading to transcriptional derepression. In addition, our results indicated that RegA also behaved as a Class I activator by directly stimulating transcription initiation by RNA polymerase. This is the first report to describe the molecular mechanism by which an environmental chemical stimulates transcription of virulence-associated genes of an enteric pathogen through an AraC/XlyS-like activator. PMID:18284589

  16. Degradation of chlorophenols by supported Co-Mg-Al layered double hydrotalcite with bicarbonate activated hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Ali; Lu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhuqi; Yin, Guochuan

    2014-10-30

    Toxic and bioresistant compounds have attracted researchers to develop more efficient and cost-effective technologies for degradation of organic compounds in wastewater. This work demonstrates the degradation of 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and phenol as model compounds using bicarbonate-activated H2O2 oxidation system in the presence of supported catalysts. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was investigated in term of degradation of target compounds, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) removals both for batch mode and in fixed bed reactor using CoMgAl-HTs and CoMgAl-SHTs, respectively. The leaching of cobalt ion was efficiently prohibited because of the presence of a weakly basic medium provided by bicarbonate, and the CoMgAl-SHTs catalyst was found to retain its stability and good catalytic activity in fixed bed reactor for over 300 h. Extensive chemical probing, fluorescence, and electron paired resonance (EPR) studies were conducted to identify the actual reactive species in the degradation pathway, which revealed that the reaction proceeds through generation of superoxide, hydroxyl radical along with carbonate radical. PMID:25285582

  17. Evaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2013-11-01

    Ammonium bicarbonate has recently been demonstrated to be an excellent thermolytic solution for energy generation in reverse electrodialysis (RED) stacks. However, operating RED stacks at room temperatures can promote gaseous bubble (CO2, NH3) accumulation within the stack, reducing overall system performance. The management and minimization of bubbles formed in RED flow fields is an important operational issue which has yet to be addressed. Flow fields with and without spacers in RED stacks were analyzed to determine how both fluid flow and the buildup and removal of bubbles affected performance. In the presence of a spacer, the membrane resistance increased by ~50Ω, resulting in a decrease in power density by 30% from 0.140Wm-2 to 0.093Wm-2. Shorter channels reduced concentration polarization affects, and resulted in 3-23% higher limiting current density. Gas accumulation was minimized through the use of short vertically aligned channels, and consequently the amount of the membrane area covered by bubbles was reduced from ~20% to 7% which caused a 12% increase in power density. As ammonium bicarbonate RED systems are scaled up, attention to channel aspect ratio, length, and alignment will enable more stable performance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virensL.) muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike;

    2016-01-01

    brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). RESULTS Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry...... in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg−1 NaCl. CONCLUSION Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells...

  19. Successful recovery from iatrogenic severe hypernatremia and severe metabolic acidosis resulting from accidental use of inappropriate bicarbonate concentrate for hemodialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruprasad P Bhosale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicarbonate dialysis is the treatment modality of choice for correction of metabolic acidosis in chronic renal failure. However, improper selection of dialysate concentrate can result in life-threatening human errors. We report a case of iatrogenic severe hypernatremia (sodium 207 mEq/L and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.65 that resulted due to accidental use of inappropriate bicarbonate concentrate for hemodialysis treatment. There was successful recovery in this patient with no neurological sequelae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in adults of severe hypernatremia along with severe metabolic acidosis due to error in the preparation of dialysis fluid.

  20. BIOKID: Randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misselwitz Joachim

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. Methods/design The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the

  1. The effect of feeding on CO2 production and energy expenditure in ponies measured by indirect calorimetry and the 13C-bicarbonate technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Kyrstein, T. D.; Junghans, P;

    2015-01-01

    )C-labelled sodium bicarbonate (NaH(13)CO(3)). The ponies were fed haylage 3 h before (T(-3)), simultaneously with (T(0)) or 3 h after (T(+3)) administration of (13)C-bicarbonate. The CO(2) produced and O(2) consumed by the ponies were measured for 6 h with both administration routes of (13)C...

  2. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m-3. However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ∼1.5× to 118 W h m-3. Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m-3 or ∼1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation.

  3. Bicarbonate-rich fluid inclusions and hydrogen diffusion in quartz from the Libčice orogenic gold deposit, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrstka, Tomáš; Dubessy, J.; Zachariáš, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 281, 3-4 (2011), s. 317-332. ISSN 0009-2541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : bicarbonate * fluid inclusions * hydrogen diffusion * orogenic gold deposits * raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.518, year: 2011

  4. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with N-acetylcysteine or sodium bicarbonate in patients with ST-segment-myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Jensen, Svend Eggert;

    2014-01-01

    (CINSTEMI) trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive hydration with sodium chloride together with 1 of 4 prophylactic regimes (1) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (2) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) infusion, (3) NAC in combination with NaHCO3, or (4) hydration with sodium chloride infusion...

  5. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), HCO3-, pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO3- and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO2, end-tidal CO2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2, but correlated with arterial HCO3- and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO3- and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

  6. Changes in the quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease treated with high-efficiency bicarbonate hemodialysis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Icaza, E; Arredondo, A; Calderon, C; Hernandez, G

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the epidemiological changes in Mexico, the results of this study are intended to contribute to the evaluation of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) program of the health services in Mexico. We measured the quality of life of 21 ESRD patients before and after 6 months of exposure to treatment with high-efficiency hemodialysis with bicarbonate (HEHD/bicarbonate). We cross-sectionally assessed the Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) index and the biochemical status of the subject pool. The QALY score for patients undergoing HEHD/bicarbonate after 6 months was significantly higher than with the previous dialysis modality (0.95 and 0.74, respectively, p = 0.02). The marked similarities of the biochemical status variables indicated there was little or no effect in the improvement of the quality of life of patients. Dialysis modality likely exerts an important influence on the quality of life of chronic dialysis patients; thus we believe HEHD/bicarbonate does offer greater benefits than hemodialysis alone. Longitudinal studies are needed to better ascertain the effect of the case mix, the treatment approach, and the characteristics of the dialysis in relation to the improvement of the quality of life of ESRD patients. PMID:9044456

  7. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution. PMID:1339142

  8. Enhanced short-cut nitrification in an airlift reactor by CaCO3 attachment on biomass under high bicarbonate condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Chai, Li-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Ying; Tang, Chong-Jian; Min, Xiao-Bo; Yan, Xu; Peng, Cong; Song, Yu-Xia; Zheng, Ping

    2016-06-01

    The short-cut nitrification (SCN) performance of an airlift reactor (ALR) was investigated under increasing bicarbonate condition. The sequential increase of bicarbonate from 2.5 to 7.0 g/L accelerated the nitrite accumulation and improved the NAP to 99 %. With the increase of bicarbonate dose to 11 g/L, the ammonium removal efficiency and the ammonium removal rate (ARR) were improved to 95.1 % and 0.57 kg/m(3)/day, respectively. However, the elevation of bicarbonate concentration from 11.0 to 14.0 g/L gradually depreciated the nitrite accumulation percentage to 62.5 %. Then, the reactor was operated in increasing ammonium strategy to increase the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) to 1.1 kg/m(3)/day under 700 mg/L influent ammonium concentration. The ARR and nitrite production rate were elevated to 1.1 and 0.9 kg/m(3)/day, respectively. The SCN performance was improved to 1.8 kg/m(3)/day (NLR) by the subsequent progressive shortening of HRT to 4.8 h at ammonium concentration of 350 mg/L, which was 1.6 times higher than that of the increasing ammonium strategy. Chemical analysis with EDS, FTIR and XRD confirmed the presence of CaCO3 precipitates on biomass surface during the long-term operation under high bicarbonate conditions. The attachment of precipitates to the SCN sludge helped to improve the biomass settleability and finally enhanced the SCN performance of the ALR. PMID:27091324

  9. Heterogeneous Degradation of Organic Pollutants by Persulfate Activated by CuO-Fe3O4: Mechanism, Stability, and Effects of pH and Bicarbonate Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yang; Chen, Chuh-Shun; Tu, Yao-Jen; Huang, Yao-Hui; Zhang, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic CuO-Fe3O4 composite was fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method and characterized as a heterogeneous catalyst for phenol degradation. The effects of pH and bicarbonate ions on catalytic activity were extensively evaluated in view of the practical applications. The results indicated that an increase of solution pH and the presence of bicarbonate ions were beneficial for the removal of phenol in the CuO-Fe3O4 coupled with persulfate (PS) process. Almost 100% mineralization of 0.1 mM phenol can be achieved in 120 min by using 0.3 g/L CuO-Fe3O4 and 5.0 mM PS at pH 11.0 or in the presence of 3.0 mM bicarbonate. The positive effect of bicarbonate ion is probably due to the suppression of copper leaching as well as the formation of Cu(III). The reuse of catalyst at pH0 11.0 and 5.6 showed that the catalyst remains a high level of stability at alkaline condition (e.g., pH0 11.0). On the basis of the characterization of catalyst, the results of metal leaching and EPR studies, it is suggested that phenol is mainly destroyed by the surface-adsorbed radicals and Cu(III) resulting from the reaction between PS and Cu(II) on the catalyst. Taking into account the widespread presence of bicarbonate ions in waste streams, the CuO-Fe3O4/PS system may provide some new insights for contaminant removal from wastewater. PMID:25955238

  10. Long-term performance of bicarbonate-form anion exchange: removal of dissolved organic matter and bromide from the St. Johns River, FL, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Krystal M; Boyer, Treavor H

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate the long-term performance of magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) treatment using bicarbonate as the mobile counter ion (i.e., MIEX-HCO(3)) and sodium bicarbonate for regeneration. This work is important because there are many unknowns concerning the affinity and regeneration efficiency of bicarbonate-form anion exchange, whereas chloride-form anion exchange (i.e., MIEX-Cl resin) is well-studied. Raw water samples were collected approximately two times per month for one year from a single location on the St. Johns River (SJR), FL, USA. The SJR is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; 12-26 mg C/L) and bromide (550-1100 μg/L), and is being considered as an alternative drinking water supply. Jar tests were conducted using MIEX-HCO(3) resin, and MIEX-Cl resin was used as a baseline for comparison. The same batch of MIEX-HCO(3) and MIEX-Cl resin was used for the entire study, which was accomplished by regenerating the resins after each jar test in concentrated solutions of sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride, respectively, and resulted in 21 regeneration cycles. Maximum removal efficiency was achieved with fresh MIEX-HCO(3) resin and virgin MIEX-Cl resin. Both forms of fresh/virgin MIEX resin also had the same affinity sequence with sulfate ≈ UV-absorbing substance > DOC > bromide. The removal efficiency of both forms of MIEX resin decreased as the number of regeneration cycles increased, with MIEX-HCO(3) resin showing 7-18% lower removals than MIEX-Cl resin after 21 regeneration cycles. The affinity sequence of regenerated MIEX-HCO(3) and MIEX-Cl resins differed from fresh resin with UV-absorbing substances > DOC > sulfate > bromide. Scanning electron microscopy and simulated MIEX-HCO(3) treatment under rapidly changing water quality were also used to improve the understanding of bicarbonate-form anion exchange. The major contribution of this research is a systematic study of the extended use of

  11. Uranium value leaching with ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate plus nitrate oxidant and optionally oxidation-catalytic metal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the present invention, uranium values are extracted from solid materials containing uranium in lower valence states than its hexavalent state comprising contacting the solid materials containing uranium with an alkaline leach solution containing the ionic species NH4+ and NO3- in an amount sufficient to convert at least a portion of the uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state to its hexavalent state. In another embodiment of the present invention, the aqueous alkaline leach solution is an aqueous solution of a carbonate selected from the group consisting of ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and mixtures thereof. In a further embodiment, ionic species NO3- is supplied by an alkaline nitrate. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the aqueous alkaline leach solution additionally contains at least one catalytic compound of a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, iron, nickel, chromium and mixtures thereof adapted to assure the pesence of the ionic species Cu++, Co++, Fe+++, Ni++, Cr+++ and mixtures thereof, respectively, is present during the contacting of the solid materials containing uranium with the aqueous alkaline leach solution in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of at least a part of the uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state to its hexavalent state

  12. Effect of calcium cyanamide, ammonium bicarbonate and lime mixture, and ammonia water on survival of Ralstonia solanacearum and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijuan; Sun, Chengliang; Liu, Xingxing; He, Xiaolin; Liu, Miao; Wu, Hao; Tang, Caixian; Jin, Chongwei; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-01-01

    The inorganic nitrogenous amendments calcium cyanamide (CC), ammonia water (AW), and a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate with lime (A+L) are popularly used as fumigants to control soil-borne disease in China. However, it is unclear which of these fumigants is more effective in controlling R. solanacearum. This present study compared the efficiencies of the three nitrogenous amendments listed above at four nitrogen levels in suppressing the survival of R. solanacearum in soil. The CC showed the best ability to suppress R. solanacearum due to its highest capacity to increase soil and NO2(-) contents and pH. However, AW was more suitable to controlling bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum because it had a lower cost and its application rate of 0.25 g N kg(-1) soil could effectively suppress the survival of R. solanacearum. Additionally, soil microbial activity and community populations were restored to their initial state four weeks after the application of each fumigant, indicating that the three fumigants had few detrimental impacts on soil microbial activity and community structure with an exception of the suppression of R. solanacearum. The present study provides guidance for the selection of a suitable alkaline nitrogenous amendment and its application rate in controlling bacterial wilt. PMID:26738601

  13. Improvement in lipids extraction processes for biodiesel production from wet microalgal pellets grown on diammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Hasnain; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid

    2016-08-01

    Biomass productivity and growth kinetics for microalgae grown on sodium bicarbonate and diammonium phosphate were investigated. Different carbon and nitrogen ratios have shown different growth rates and biomass productivity and C:N ratio 50:10 as mgL(-1) has shown the best production than all. For effective lipids extraction from biomass thermolysis and sonolysis were carried out from wet biomass. Sonolysis at 2.3W intensity for 5min has released 8.58mg at neutral pH. More quantity of lipids was extracted when extraction was made at pH 4 and 10 which resulted 9mg and 9.28mg lipids respectively. Thermal treatment at 100°C for 10min has released 12.82mg lipid at neutral pH. In the same thermolysis at pH 4 and 10 more quantity of lipids was extracted which were 15.16mg and 14.81mg respectively. Finally transesterified lipids were analyzed through GC-MS for FAME composition analysis. PMID:27132228

  14. Effect of Oral Sodium Bicarbonate on Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease%口服碳酸氢钠对慢性肾病进程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进; 梅丽凡

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨口服碳酸氢钠能否延缓慢性肾病(chronic kidney disease,CKD)肾功能下降的速率.方法 110例CKD患者随机分为碳酸氢钠组或安慰剂组,分别口服碳酸氢钠或安慰剂治疗2年,估算治疗前后肾小球滤过-(eGFR)下降的速率,eGFR快速下降[>3 mL-min-1·(1.73 m)-2·y-1]和发展成终末期肾病(ESRD)患者人数[eGFR<10 mL·min-1·(1.73 m)-2]比.同时测量血清白蛋白和饮食蛋白摄入.结果 治疗2年后,与安慰剂组相比,碳酸氢钠组eGFR下降较慢(P<0.05),快速进展的患者少(P<0.05),发展成ESRD的患者也少(P<0.05).碳酸氢钠组营养参数明显改善.结论 碳酸氢钠可延缓CKD发展成ESRD的速率,且可改善CKD患者的营养状态.%OBJECTIVE To study whether orally administrated sodium bicarbonate slows the decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS All of 110 patients with CKD were randomly divided into sodium bicarbonate group and placebo group, and received the treatment with sodium bicarbonate or placebo for 2 years. Decline rate of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the ratio of patients with rapid decline of eGFR[>3 mL·min-1(1.73 m)-2·y-1] developed to end stag renal disease(ESRD) [eGFR<10mL·min-1·(1.73 m)-2] were estimated before and after the treatment. Serum albumin and dielary protein intake were measured at the same time. RESULTS Compared with placebo group, decline in eGFR was slower in sodium bicarbonate group(P<0.05) after treatment of 2 years. Patients in bicarbonate group were significantly less than experience rapid progression(P<0.05). Fewer patients in bicarbonate group developed ESRD(P<0.05). Nutritional parameters improved significantly in bicarbonate group. CONCLUSION Bicarbonate slows the rate of progression of CKD to ESRD and it improves nutrition status among patients with CKD.

  15. Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooge DM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

  16. Crystal growth of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solutions at constant PCO2 and 25°C: a test of a calcite dissolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Plummer, L. Neil; Busenberg, E.

    1981-01-01

    A highly reproducible seeded growth technique was used to study calcite crystallization from calcium bicarbonate solutions at 25°C and fixed carbon dioxide partial pressures between 0.03 and 0.3 atm. The results are not consistent with empirical crystallization models that have successfully described calcite growth at low PCO2 (crystallization rates and those calculated from the calcite dissolution rate law and mechanism proposed by Plummer et al. (1978).

  17. Elimination of bicarbonate interference in the binding of U(VI) in mill-waters to freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze-dried preparations of Chlorella vulgaris will accumulate U(Vl) from alkaline, bicarbonate-containing waters collected from uranium mill process streams, provided that the pH is pre-adjusted to between 4.0 and 6.0. Bicarbonate ion complexes the uranyl ion in these waters and seriously interferes with the binding of U(Vl) to the algal cells at pH values above 6.0. No binding of U(Vl) to the algae occurred at the natural pH of 8.0 when Chlorella vulgaris was suspended in untreated mull-waters containing up to 2.5 x 10-4M U(Vl). However, when the pH of these waters was lowered from 8.0 to near 5.0, with nitric acid, nearly quantitative binding of U(Vl) to the alga was achieved. Binding is rapid and largely unaffected by ions including Na+, Cl-, NO3-, -OAc, and SO42-. Our results indicate that provided steps are taken to eliminate bicarbonate interference, such as adjustment of the pH to near 5.0, dried algal biomass could prove useful for the removal and recovery of U(Vl) from high carbonate-containing waters

  18. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu

    2011-03-18

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  19. How Strong Is the Evidence for Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuhao; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hydration with sodium bicarbonate is one of the strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The purpose of this study was to determine how strong is the evidence for sodium bicarbonate to prevent CI-AKI after coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We conducted PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate with sodium chloride to prevent CI-AKI after CAG and/or PCI. Relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and study quality were evaluated, sensitivity analyses, cumulative analyses, and subgroup analyses were performed. The risk of random errors was assessed by trial sequential analysis (TSA). Sixteen RCTs (3537 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate showed significant beneficial effects in preventing CI-AKI (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47–0.96, P = 0.029), decreasing the change in serum creatinine (SCr) (SMD −0.31 95% CI: −0.55 to −0.07, P = 0.011) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (SMD −0.17 95% CI: −0.30 to −0.04, P = 0.013). But no significant differences were observed in the requirement for dialysis (RR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.60–2.07, P = 0.729), mortality (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.41–1.21, P = 0.204) and reducing the length of hospital stay (LHS) (WMD −1.47; 95% CI: −4.14 to 1.20, P = 0.279). The result of TSA on incidence of CI-AKI showed the required information size (RIS = 6614) was not reached and cumulative z curve did not cross TSA boundary. The result of TSA on the requirement for dialysis and mortality demonstrated the required information sizes (RIS = 170,510 and 19,516, respectively) were not reached, and the cumulative z-curve did not cross any boundaries. The evidence that sodium

  20. Biosynthesis of the proteasome inhibitor syringolin A: the ureido group joining two amino acids originates from bicarbonate

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    Schellenberg Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syringolin A, an important virulence factor in the interaction of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a with its host plant Phaseolus vulgaris (bean, was recently shown to irreversibly inhibit eukaryotic proteasomes by a novel mechanism. Syringolin A is synthesized by a mixed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase and consists of a tripeptide part including a twelve-membered ring with an N-terminal valine that is joined to a second valine via a very unusual ureido group. Analysis of sequence and architecture of the syringolin A synthetase gene cluster with the five open reading frames sylA-sylE allowed to formulate a biosynthesis model that explained all structural features of the tripeptide part of syringolin A but left the biosynthesis of the unusual ureido group unaccounted for. Results We have cloned a 22 kb genomic fragment containing the sylA-sylE gene cluster but no other complete gene into the broad host range cosmid pLAFR3. Transfer of the recombinant cosmid into Pseudomonas putida and P. syringae pv. syringae SM was sufficient to direct the biosynthesis of bona fide syringolin A in these heterologous organisms whose genomes do not contain homologous genes. NMR analysis of syringolin A isolated from cultures grown in the presence of NaH13CO3 revealed preferential 13C-labeling at the ureido carbonyl position. Conclusion The results show that no additional syringolin A-specific genes were needed for the biosynthesis of the enigmatic ureido group joining two amino acids. They reveal the source of the ureido carbonyl group to be bicarbonate/carbon dioxide, which we hypothesize is incorporated by carbamylation of valine mediated by the sylC gene product(s. A similar mechanism may also play a role in the biosynthesis of other ureido-group-containing NRPS products known largely from cyanobacteria.

  1. Role of bicarbonate as a pH buffer and electron sink in microbial dechlorination of chloroethenes

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    Delgado Anca G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buffering to achieve pH control is crucial for successful trichloroethene (TCE anaerobic bioremediation. Bicarbonate (HCO3− is the natural buffer in groundwater and the buffer of choice in the laboratory and at contaminated sites undergoing biological treatment with organohalide respiring microorganisms. However, HCO3− also serves as the electron acceptor for hydrogenotrophic methanogens and hydrogenotrophic homoacetogens, two microbial groups competing with organohalide respirers for hydrogen (H2. We studied the effect of HCO3− as a buffering agent and the effect of HCO3−-consuming reactions in a range of concentrations (2.5-30 mM with an initial pH of 7.5 in H2-fed TCE reductively dechlorinating communities containing Dehalococcoides, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and hydrogenotrophic homoacetogens. Results Rate differences in TCE dechlorination were observed as a result of added varying HCO3− concentrations due to H2-fed electrons channeled towards methanogenesis and homoacetogenesis and pH increases (up to 8.7 from biological HCO3− consumption. Significantly faster dechlorination rates were noted at all HCO3− concentrations tested when the pH buffering was improved by providing 4-(2-hydroxyethyl-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES as an additional buffer. Electron balances and quantitative PCR revealed that methanogenesis was the main electron sink when the initial HCO3− concentrations were 2.5 and 5 mM, while homoacetogenesis was the dominant process and sink when 10 and 30 mM HCO3− were provided initially. Conclusions Our study reveals that HCO3− is an important variable for bioremediation of chloroethenes as it has a prominent role as an electron acceptor for methanogenesis and homoacetogenesis. It also illustrates the changes in rates and extent of reductive dechlorination resulting from the combined effect of electron donor competition stimulated by HCO3− and the changes in pH exerted by

  2. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    The production water from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) extraction contains many constituents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established aquatic life criteria for some of these constituents, and it is therefore possible to evaluate their risk to aquatic life. However, of the major ions associated with produced waters, chloride is the only one with an established aquatic life criterion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988). The focus of this research was NaHCO3, a compound that is a major constituent of coalbed natural gas produced waters in the Tongue and Powder River Basins. This project included laboratory experiments, field in situ experiments, a field mixing zone study, and a fishery presence/absence assessment. Though this investigation focuses on the Tongue and Powder River Basins, the information is applicable to other watersheds where sodium bicarbonate is a principle component of product water either from CBNG or from traditional or unconventional oil and gas development. These data can also be used to separate effects of saline discharges from those potentially posed by other constituents. Finally, this research effort and the additional collaboration with USGS Water Resources and Mapping, Bureau of Land Management, US Environmental Protection Agency, State of Montana, State of Wyoming, Montana State University, University of Wyoming, and others as part of a Powder River Aquatic Task Group, can be used as a model for successful approaches to studying landscapes with energy development. The laboratory acute toxicity experiments were completed with a suite of organisms, including 7 species of fish, 5 species of invertebrates, and 1 amphibian species. Experiments performed on these multiple species resulted in LC50s that ranged from 1,120 to greater than (>) 8,000 milligrams sodium bicarbonate per liter (mg NaHCO3/L) (also defined as 769 to >8,000 milligrams bicarbonate per liter (mg HCO3-/L) or total alkalinity expressed as 608 to >4

  3. Bicarbonate leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alkaline leach process for extracting uranium from uranium ores is reviewed. This process is dependent on the chemistry of uranium and so is independent on the type of mining system (conventional, heap or in-situ) used. Particular reference is made to the geochemical conditions at Crownpoint. Some supporting data from studies using alkaline leach for remediation of uranium-contaminated sites is presented

  4. Comparative transcriptional profiling of Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains during growth in CO2-bicarbonate and aerobic atmospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla D Passalacqua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus species are spore-forming bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and display a range of virulent and avirulent phenotypes. This range is particularly evident in the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group; where closely related strains cause anthrax, food-borne illnesses, and pneumonia, but can also be non-pathogenic. Although much of this phenotypic range can be attributed to the presence or absence of a few key virulence factors, there are other virulence-associated loci that are conserved throughout the B. cereus group, and we hypothesized that these genes may be regulated differently in pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report transcriptional profiles of three closely related but phenotypically unique members of the Bacillus cereus group--a pneumonia-causing B. cereus strain (G9241, an attenuated strain of B. anthracis (Sterne 34F(2, and an avirulent B. cereus strain (10987--during exponential growth in two distinct atmospheric environments: 14% CO(2/bicarbonate and ambient air. We show that the disease-causing Bacillus strains undergo more distinctive transcriptional changes between the two environments, and that the expression of plasmid-encoded virulence genes was increased exclusively in the CO(2 environment. We observed a core of conserved metabolic genes that were differentially expressed in all three strains in both conditions. Additionally, the expression profiles of putative virulence genes in G9241 suggest that this strain, unlike Bacillus anthracis, may regulate gene expression with both PlcR and AtxA transcriptional regulators, each acting in a different environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that homologous and even identical genes within the genomes of three closely related members of the B. cereus sensu lato group are in some instances regulated very differently, and that these differences can have important implications for virulence. This study

  5. Infusing sodium bicarbonate suppresses hydrogen peroxide accumulation and superoxide dismutase activity in hypoxic-reoxygenated newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Qin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB has recently been questioned although it is often used to correct metabolic acidosis of neonates. The aim of the present study was to examine its effect on hemodynamic changes and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 generation in the resuscitation of hypoxic newborn animals with severe acidosis. METHODS: Newborn piglets were block-randomized into a sham-operated control group without hypoxia (n = 6 and two hypoxia-reoxygenation groups (2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by 4 h room-air reoxygenation, n = 8/group. At 10 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. SB (2 mEq/kg, or saline (hypoxia-reoxygenation controls in a blinded, randomized fashion. Hemodynamic data and blood gas were collected at specific time points and cerebral cortical H(2O(2 production was continuously monitored throughout experimental period. Plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase and brain tissue glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nitrotyrosine and lactate levels were assayed. RESULTS: Two hours of normocapnic alveolar hypoxia caused cardiogenic shock with metabolic acidosis (PH: 6.99 ± 0.07, HCO(3(-: 8.5 ± 1.6 mmol/L. Upon resuscitation, systemic hemodynamics immediately recovered and then gradually deteriorated with normalization of acid-base imbalance over 4 h of reoxygenation. SB administration significantly enhanced the recovery of both pH and HCO(3- recovery within the first hour of reoxygenation but did not cause any significant effect in the acid-base at 4 h of reoxygenation and the temporal hemodynamic changes. SB administration significantly suppressed the increase in H(2O(2 accumulation in the brain with inhibition of superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, activity during hypoxia-reoxygenation as compared to those of saline-treated controls. CONCLUSIONS: Despite enhancing the normalization of acid-base imbalance, SB administration during resuscitation did not provide any beneficial

  6. Measurement of energy expenditure in overweight men and women using [C-14]-bicarbonate-urea before and after weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Many studies have demonstrated significant declines in 24-hour energy expenditure (TEE) measured by whole body calorimetry with either the process of weight loss or the maintenance of reduced body weight. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of weight loss and two weeks of weight maintenance on TEE using [14C]-bicarbonate-urea, Eleven subjects (6 males, 5 females), mean (±SE) age 50 ± 3 years, BMI 34.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 and body fat 38.7 ± 3% were studied before and after a decrease in body weight of > 8% over a period of 8 weeks, followed by two weeks of weight maintenance. Weight loss was induced using the combination of Modifast and one small meal a day (∼3.34 MJ/day). Body composition (DEXA), resting energy expenditure (REE) and the thermic effect of a 2.7 MJ test meal (TEF) were measured in addition to TEE at week 2 and again at week 12. Diet was assessed using diaries and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was calculated from the equation: 0.9 x TEE-REE, which assumes that 10% of TEE is accounted for by the TEE. Body weight decreased by 11.8 ± 1.0% from week 2 to 10, and remained stable thereafter. Total fat mass, abdominal fat mass and lean mass decreased by 19.7 ± 1.8%, 21.8 ± 2.3% and 6.0 ± 1.1 % respectively. At week 12, REE decreased by 5.7 ± 1.3% (p < 0.002). The decreases in TEF (13.3 ± 13.7%), PAEE (31 ± 57.5%) and TEE (0.18 + 3.68%) were not significant. There was a significant relationship between the change in REE and overall body weight (p < 0.026) but not lean mass. It is concluded that in free-living subjects, after weight loss and two weeks of weight maintenance, REE but not TEE decreases, although there is substantial variability between individuals.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  8. Manganese(II) catalyzes the bicarbonate-dependent oxidation of amino acids by hydrogen peroxide and the amino acid-facilitated dismutation of hydrogen peroxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Berlett, B S; Chock, P B; Yim, M B; Stadtman, E. R.

    1990-01-01

    In bicarbonate/CO2 buffer, Mn(II) and Fe(II) catalyze the oxidation of amino acids by H2O2 and the dismutation of H2O2. As the Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio is increased, the yield of carbonyl compounds per mole of leucine oxidized is essentially constant, but the ratio of alpha-ketoisocaproate to isovaleraldehyde formed increases, and the fraction of H2O2 converted to O2 increases. In the absence of Fe(II), the rate of Mn(II)-catalyzed leucine oxidation is directly proportional to the H2O2, Mn(II), an...

  9. Deletion of the anion exchanger Slc26a4 (pendrin) decreases apical Cl−/HCO3− exchanger activity and impairs bicarbonate secretion in kidney collecting duct

    OpenAIRE

    Amlal, Hassane; Petrovic, Snezana; Xu, Jie; Wang, Zhaohui; Sun, Xuming; Barone, Sharon; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2010-01-01

    The anion exchanger Pendrin, which is encoded by SLC26A4 (human)/Slc26a4 (mouse) gene, is localized on the apical membrane of non-acid-secreting intercalated (IC) cells in the kidney cortical collecting duct (CCD). To examine its role in the mediation of bicarbonate secretion in vivo and the apical Cl−/HCO3− exchanger in the kidney CCD, mice with genetic deletion of pendrin were generated. The mutant mice show the complete absence of pendrin expression in their kidneys as assessed by Northern...

  10. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted. PMID:26988768

  11. 非PVC软袋包装碳酸氢钠注射液的可行性探讨%The Feasibility of Non-PVC bags Used for Infusion and Sodium Bicarbonate Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡春阳; 何玲利

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究非PVC软袋包装碳酸氢钠注射液的可行性.方法 配制碳酸氢钠注射液包装于非PVC软袋中,考察膜的透过性对碳酸氢钠注射液pH值的影响.结果 用隔离膜保护非PVC软袋装碳酸氢钠注射液,可以保持溶液pH值稳定.结论 非PVC软袋可用于碳酸氢钠注射液的包装.%Objective To study the feasibility of non-PVC bags used for infusion and sodium bicarbonate injection. Methods Sodium bicarbonate injection was prepared by the production process filled by non-PVC bags, studying the effect of pH value for sodium bicarbonate injection about leaking capability of layer. Rusults Sodium bicarbonate injection filled by non-PVC bags was protected by isolated films and the stability of the pH value could be restained. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate injection could be installed suitably by non-PVC bags.

  12. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg(-1) of L and 0.428 g kg(-1) of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  13. A study of X100 pipeline steel passivation in mildly alkaline bicarbonate solutions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under potentiodynamic conditions and Mott-Schottky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadala, Ibrahim M.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-12-01

    The key steps involved in X100 pipeline steel passivation in bicarbonate-based simulated soil solutions from the pre-passive to transpassive potential regions have been analyzed here using a step-wise anodizing-electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) routine. Pre-passive steps involve parallel dissolution-adsorption in early stages followed by clear diffusion-adsorption control shortly before iron hydroxide formation. Aggressive NS4 chlorides/sulfate promote steel dissolution whilst inhibiting diffusion in pre-passive steps. Diffusive and adsorptive effects remain during iron hydroxide formation, but withdraw shortly thereafter during its removal and the development of the stable iron carbonate passive layer. Passive layer protectiveness is evaluated using EIS fitting, current density analysis, and correlations with semiconductive parameters, consistently revealing improved robustness in colder, bicarbonate-rich, chloride/sulfate-free conditions. Ferrous oxide formation at higher potentials results in markedly lower impedances with disordered behavior, and the involvement of the iron(III) valence state is observed in Mott-Schottky tests exclusively for 75 °C conditions.

  14. X-ray diffraction studies on merohedrally twinned Δ1–62NtNBCe1-A crystals of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A truncated mutant missing the first 62 residues of the N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the sodium-bicarbonate NBCe1-A cotransporter crystallizes in space group P31 with pseudo-P3121 symmetry and a hemihedral twin fraction of 33.0%. Twinned fractions and twin-pair statistics over binned resolutions confirm that the calculated twin fraction is associated with hemihedral twinning and not to non-crystallographic symmetry. NBCe1-A membrane-embedded macromolecules that cotransport sodium and bicarbonate ions across the bilayer serve to maintain acid–base homeostasis throughout the body. Defects result in a number of renal and eye disorders, including type-II renal tubular acidosis and cataracts. Here, crystals of a human truncated mutant of the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of NBCe1 (Δ1–62NtNBCe1-A) are reported that diffract X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal symmetry of Δ1–62NtNBCe1-A is of space group P31 with pseudo-P3121 symmetry and it has a hemihedral twin fraction of 33.0%. The crystals may provide insight into the pathogenic processes observed in a subset of patients with truncating and point mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1

  15. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion augments the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression during recovery from intense interval exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Michael E; Martin, Brian J; Gillen, Jenna B; Skelly, Lauren E; MacInnis, Martin J; Green, Alex E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery. In a double-blind, crossover manner, subjects ingested a total of 0.4 g/kg body weight NaHCO3 before exercise (BICARB) or an equimolar amount of a placebo, sodium chloride (PLAC). Venous blood bicarbonate and pH were elevated at all time points after ingestion (P 0.05). However, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression after 3 h of recovery was higher in BICARB vs. PLAC (approximately sevenfold vs. fivefold compared with rest, P HIIT alters the mRNA expression of this key regulatory protein associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. The elevated PGC-1α mRNA response provides a putative mechanism to explain the enhanced mitochondrial adaptation observed after chronic HIIT supplemented with NaHCO3 in rats. PMID:26384407

  16. Influences of Temperature and pH Value on the Corrosion Behaviors of X80 Pipeline Steel in Carbonate/Bicarbonate Buffer Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Jin-Bo; ZUO,Jian-E

    2008-01-01

    The joint effect of temperature and pH value on the corrosion behavior of X80 steel in carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solution was detected by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky analysis. The results show that an unstable corrosion film will be formed on the X80 steel surface in low pH value solutions, and a better protective corrosion film can be formed on the X80 steel surface in high pH value solutions. On the whole, the corrosion film resistance and transfer resistance increase with the increment of pH value, and decrease with increase of solution temperature, which indicates that the protective effect of the corrosion film on X80 steel is enhanced with increasing pH value and decreasing the solution temperature. The corrosion film formed on X80 steel surface in carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solution has an n-type semi-conductive character, and the donor density decreases with increasing the pH value, and increases with increasing the solution temperature. The flat-band potential and pH value have a linear relationship with a positive slope.

  17. Bicarbonate as tracer for plant assimilated C and homogeneity of 14C and 15N distribution in ryegrass and white clover tissue by alternative labeling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Kusliene, Gedrime; Jacobsen, Ole Stig;

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Application of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes is an essential tool to study C and N flows in plant-soil-microorganisms systems. When targeting single plants in a community the tracers need to be added via e.g., leaf-labeling or stem-feeding approaches. In this study we: (i) investigated...... if bicarbonate can be used to introduce 14C (or 13C) into white clover and ryegrass, and (ii) compared the patterns of 14C and 15N allocation in white clover and ryegrass to evaluate the homogeneity of tracer distribution after two alternative labeling approaches. Methods Perennial ryegrass and white...... clover were pulse labeled with 15N urea via leaf-labeling and 14C either via a 14CO2 atm or with 14C bicarbonate through leaf-labeling. Plants were sampled 4 days after labeling and prepared for bulk isotope analysis and for 14C imaging to identify plant parts with high and low 14C activity. Subsequently...

  18. One case of sodium bicarbonate-induced allergy and the review of literatures%口服碳酸氢钠过敏1例报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡辉; 卓莉; 李文歌

    2014-01-01

    碳酸氢钠为临床上常用的药物,其不良反应较少,过敏反应罕有报道,本文报告1例在应用碳酸氢钠后出现药物过敏患者的临床症状、处理方法及过程,并查阅相关文献进行总结,为临床安全应用碳酸氢钠提供参考。%Sodium bicarbonate is commonly used in clinical, the adverse effect is rarely, drug allergic were more rarely reported. We report a case of clinical symptoms after application of sodium bicarbonate, processing methods and procedures of the relevant literature to summarize, in order to provide a preference of clinical safe use of sodium bicarbonate.

  19. Evaluation of the oral 13C-bicarbonate technique for measurements of energy expenditure in dogs before and after body weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Vitger, Anne; Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    was to validate and evaluate the suitability of the oral 13C-bicarbonate technique (o13CBT) for measuring EE in dog obesity studies. A further objective was to investigate the impact of body weight (BW) reduction and changes in body composition on the EE when measured under conditions corresponding to...... unchanged. There was no effect of the BW reduction on the determined EE expressed in kJ/kg BW/d, or in kJ/kg BW0.75/d. However, EE was lower (P¿<¿0.001) after the BW reduction program when expressed in relation to FFM (kJ/kg FFM/d).ConclusionsResults from the present study show that the o13CBT can be a used...

  20. Band 3, the human red cell chloride/bicarbonate anion exchanger (AE1, SLC4A1), in a structural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithmeier, Reinhart A F; Casey, Joseph R; Kalli, Antreas C; Sansom, Mark S P; Alguel, Yilmaz; Iwata, So

    2016-07-01

    The crystal structure of the dimeric membrane domain of human Band 3(1), the red cell chloride/bicarbonate anion exchanger 1 (AE1, SLC4A1), provides a structural context for over four decades of studies into this historic and important membrane glycoprotein. In this review, we highlight the key structural features responsible for anion binding and translocation and have integrated the following topological markers within the Band 3 structure: blood group antigens, N-glycosylation site, protease cleavage sites, inhibitor and chemical labeling sites, and the results of scanning cysteine and N-glycosylation mutagenesis. Locations of mutations linked to human disease, including those responsible for Southeast Asian ovalocytosis, hereditary stomatocytosis, hereditary spherocytosis, and distal renal tubular acidosis, provide molecular insights into their effect on Band 3 folding. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations of phosphatidylcholine self-assembled around Band 3 provide a view of this membrane protein within a lipid bilayer. PMID:27058983

  1. Enhancing the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate MRS studies by infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer; Butt, Sadia Asghar;

    2013-01-01

    A change in myocardial metabolism is a known effect of several diseases. MRS with hyperpolarized 13C‐labelled pyruvate is a technique capable of detecting changes in myocardial pyruvate metabolism, and has proven to be useful for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in vivo. However, during...... fasting, the myocardial glucose oxidation is low and the fatty acid oxidation (β‐oxidation) is high, which complicates the interpretation of pyruvate metabolism with the technique. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium (GIK) could increase the...... myocardial glucose oxidation in the citric acid cycle, reflected as an increase in the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate MRS measurements in fasted rats. Two groups of rats were infused with two different doses of GIK and investigated by MRS after injection of hyperpolarized...

  2. Evaluation of stainless steel cathodes and a bicarbonate buffer for hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells using a new method for measuring gas production

    KAUST Repository

    Ambler, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are often examined for hydrogen production using non-sustainable phosphate buffered solutions (PBS), although carbonate buffers have been shown to work in other bioelectrochemical systems with a platinum (Pt) catalyst. Stainless steel (SS) has been shown to be an effective catalyst for hydrogen evolution in MECs, but it has not been tested with carbonate buffers. We evaluated the combined using of SS cathodes and a bicarbonate buffer (BBS) at the applied voltages of 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 V using a new inexpensive method for measuring gas production called the gas bag method (GBM). This method achieved an average error of only 5.0% based on adding known volumes of gas to the bag. Using the GBM, hydrogen production with SS and a BBS was 26.6 ± 1.8 mL which compared well to 26.4 ± 2.8 mL using Pt and BBS, and 26.8 ± 2.5 mL with a Pt cathode and PBS. Electrical energy efficiency was highest with a SS cathode and BBS at 159 ± 17%, compared to 126 ± 14% for the Pt cathode and BBS, and 134 ± 17% for a Pt cathode and PBS. The main disadvantage of the SS was a lower gas production rate of 1.1 ± 0.3 m3 H2-m-3 d-1 with BBS and 1.2 ± 0.3 m3 H2-m-3 d -1 with PBS, compared to 1.7 ± 0.4 m3 H 2-m-3 d-1 with Pt and PBS. These results show that the GBM is an effective new method for measuring gas production of anaerobic gas production processes, and that SS and bicarbonate buffers can be used to effectively produce hydrogen in MECs. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The synthesis technology of aminoguanidine bicarbonate%氨基胍重碳酸盐的合成工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁吉连; 吴广文; 解世伟

    2011-01-01

    以水合肼、石灰氮、硫酸、碳酸氢铵为原料合成氨基胍重碳酸盐.考察了原料比、水的用量、pH、反应温度等影响因素,优化了反应条件.实验结果表明,较佳的反应条件为:用水量100 mL,反应温度45℃,n(水合肼)∶n(石灰氮)=1∶2,pH7.2~ 7.5,70℃保温3h;结晶反应的较佳条件为:结晶温度10℃,结晶时间4h.在此条件下,产品收率高达96.07%,产品纯度达98%.%Aminoguanidine bicarbonate was synthesized using hydrazine hydrate, lime nitrogen, sulfuric acid and ammonium bicarbonate as raw materials. Factors were investigated including the material ratio( hydrazine hydrate;lime nitrogen) ,water consumption,pH value and reaction temperature. The results show that optimum reaction conditions; is follow;the dose of water is 100 mL,reaction temperature is 451 ,the mole ratio of hydrazine hydrate to lime nitrogen is 1:2, pH value is 7. 2 - 7. 5, heat for three hours at 70T. The optimum conditions of crystallization are the crystallization temperature of 10℃ and the crystallization time of 4 hours. In this condition, the yield of products is 96. 07% and the product purity is 98% .

  4. Intraocular Irrigating Solutions. A Clinical Study of BSS Plus ® and Dextrose Bicarbonate Fortified BSS ® as an Infusate during Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Michael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effect of Balanced Salt Solution Plus (BSS Plus, Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA and fortified regular BSS on the cornea and lens, when used for continuous irrigation in pars plana vitrectomy (PPV surgery. Methods: Prospective, investigator masked, randomised study. Forty patients were randomly assigned to undergo PPV using BSS Plus (n=20 or fortified BSS (n=20 [regular BSS, fortified with 10.5 cc. of dextrose in water (D5W and 13.1cc. of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate]. Intraoperative features of the corneal epithelium, postoperative changes in the corneal endothelial cell denstiy (ECD at 3 months, and clarity of the lens during surgery and postoperatively were evaluated. Results: Intraoperative epithelial changes were similar in both groups with 7 (35% of the cases having the epithelium removed in the BSS Plus group and 8 (40% in the BSS fortified group (P=0.23. The mean differences in ECD (3 months versus preoperative in the operated eyes when adjusted for changes in the control eye showed no difference with the type of BSS (P=0.98. Intraoperative lens changes were more significant (P=0.018 in the BSS fortified group. Postoperative lens status at 3 months was similar for both groups. Though there was a trend towards worse postoperative nuclear sclerosis change in the BSS fortified group, it was not significant (P=0.160. Conclusion: Standard BSS fortified with dextrose and bicarbonate is an efficacious infusion fluid during pars plana vitrectomy. Both solutions showed comparable effects on postoperative corneal endothelial cell density and corneal epithelial changes intraoperatively. BSS fortified has more lenticular changes intraoperatively than BSS Plus although no lens had to be removed in either group. The study implications are important since BSS fortified is significantly less expensive than BSS Plus.

  5. Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Sodium Bicarbonate/Carbonate Buffer in an Open Aqueous Carbon Dioxide System and Corollary Electrochemical/Chemical Reactions Relative to System pH Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Thomas W.; Wilson, Mark E.; Glasscock, Brad; Holt, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) experienced a number of chemical changes driven by system absorption of CO2 which altered the coolant’s pH. The natural effects of the decrease in pH from approximately 9.2 to less than 8.4 had immediate consequences on system corrosion rates and corrosion product interactions with specified coolant constituents. The alkalinity of the system was increased through the development and implementation of a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer that would increase coolant pH to 9.0 – 10.0 and maintain pH above 9.0 in the presence of ISS cabin concentrations of CO2 up to twenty times higher than ground concentrations. This paper defines how a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer works in an open carbon dioxide system and summarizes the analyses performed on the buffer for safe and effective application in the on-orbit system. The importance of the relationship between the cabin environment and the IATCS is demonstrated as the dominant factor in understanding the system chemistry and pH trends before and after addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The paper also documents the corollary electrochemical and chemical reactions the system has experienced and the rationale for remediation of these effects with the addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer.

  6. The effect of buffering dairy cow diets with limestone, calcareous marine algae, or sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH profiles, production responses, and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, C W; Taylor, S; Beya, M M; Calitz, T

    2015-08-01

    Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of 2 dietary buffers on rumen pH, milk production, milk composition, and rumen fermentation parameters. A high concentrate total mixed ration [35.2% forage dry matter (DM)], formulated to be potentially acidotic, was used to construct 3 dietary treatments in which calcareous marine algae (calcified remains of the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum) was compared with limestone (control) and sodium bicarbonate plus limestone. One basal diet was formulated and the treatment diets contained either 0.4% of dietary DM as Acid Buf, a calcified marine algae product (AB treatment), or 0.8% of dietary DM as sodium bicarbonate and 0.37% as limestone (BC treatment), or 0.35% of dietary DM as limestone [control (CON) treatment]. Cows were randomly allocated to treatments according to a double 3×3 Latin square design, with 3 treatments and 3 periods. The total experimental period was 66 d during which each cow received each treatment for a period of 15 d before the data collection period of 7 d. Rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, and ammonia concentrations. Rumen pH was monitored every 10min for 2 consecutive days using a portable data logging system fitted with in-dwelling electrodes. Milk samples were analyzed for solid and mineral contents. The effect of treatment on acidity was clearly visible, especially from the period from midday to midnight when rumen pH dropped below 5.5 for a longer period of time (13 h) in the CON treatment than in the BC (8.7 h) and AB (4 h) treatments. Daily milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk yields differed among treatments, with AB being the highest, followed by BC and CON. Both buffers increased milk fat content. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content, but protein yield was increased in the AB treatment. Total rumen volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate was lower in the AB

  7. Experimental urolithiasis : Part V - Role of dietary carbonate in the etiology of the disease using radioactive 14C-potassium bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporation of 14C-potassium bicarbonate in rat kidney, bladder, blood and bladder contents was assessed to study the role of dietary carbonate in urolithiasis. Male rats (23) were fed carbonate-free diet and water, 19 of which were surgically induced for bladder stones and the remaining sham-operated. Total elimination of carbonate both from diet and drinking water lowered the incidence of stone by 63% as compared with a parallel group fed normal diet and tap water. At sacrifice, 5 μCi of 14C-KHCO3 were injected (ip) into each animal. Higher counts in the serum and kidney, than that in the contents of the bladder were noted on both types of diet. Feeding of normal diet and tap water, led to a significant increase (P14C uptake, and their relative distribution (as indicated by the total counts incorporated) in the various tissues of stoneformers and non-stoneformers as compared to controls, reflects individual differences in the handling of carbonate by each tissue. (auth.)

  8. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from ·OH and ·NO2 radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. - Highlights: → In this study, we found that p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can be removed by simulated solar irradiation from water. → Influence of environmental components on the photodegradation of PABA was further studied. → We verified using LC/MS that PABA was transformed into four compounds. → We proposed the possible reaction pathways probably resulting from ·OH and ·NO2 radicals attack to PABA.

  9. Sodium bicarbonate induces crystalline wax generation, activates host-resistance, and increases imazalil level in rind wounds of oranges, improving the control of green mold during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Antonio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Venditti, Tullio; D'Hallewin, Guy

    2010-06-23

    Imazalil (IMZ) was quantified in the flavedo and albedo (Citrus fruits outer and inner tissue of the exocarp) of wounded and unwounded Valencia L. Olinda oranges following a 2 min immersion at 25 degrees C in 50, 100, or 250 microg mL(-1) of the fungicide mixture with or without 3% sodium bicarbonate (SBC). The addition of SBC significantly reduced the decay incidence throughout 30 d of storage at 10 degrees C with 95% RH and 6 d of simulated marketing period at 25 degrees C and 75% RH. In unwounded oranges, IMZ uptake was not changed by the coapplication of SBC, and the fungicide was predominantly recovered in the flavedo. To the contrary, in the albedo of wounded fruit, the residue level increased by about 6-fold when the fungicide was applied with SBC. When SBC was coapplied to wounded fruit, the phytoalexin scoparone was induced in the albedo and the accumulation was not affected by IMZ. When fruit was treated with SBC, scanning electron microscopy observations evidenced a production of crystalline wax patches with branched stripes and the magnitude was positively correlated to the salt concentration in the mixture. The generation as fast as 24 h post-treatment, and the different morphology of the new wax suggests a displacement of intracuticular waxes which can affect the fungicide sorption and diffusion coefficient into the rind. PMID:20486661

  10. The influencing factors of Sodium Bicarbonate Injection and the controlling measures%影响碳酸氢钠注射液质量的因素与控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯燕

    2015-01-01

    To study the factors that affect the quality of Sodium Bicarbonate Injection from the producing procedure;To discuss and analyze the stability problems and the existance of visible foreign matters confronted in the procedure of Sodium Bicarbonate Injection producing. To raise the improving measures,ensure and improve product quality.%从制剂生产过程探讨影响碳酸氢钠质量的影响因素及改进措施。对碳酸氢钠注射液生产中常面临的稳定性问题、可见异物问题进行分析讨论,提出改进措施,保证和提高产品质量。

  11. In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Rico Pires; Carlos Rossa Junior; Antonio Carlos Pizzolitto

    2007-01-01

    Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mut...

  12. The clinical observation 40 cases of pectolas union sodium bicarbonate treat gastrolithiasis%果胶酶联合小苏打治疗胃石症40例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新建; 夏敏; 王红

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察果胶酶联合小苏打治疗胃石症的疗效。方法将2008年1月-2013年6月经胃镜确诊的胃石症患者80例,随机分为对照组(只口服小苏打)和观察组(口服果胶酶联合小苏打),对2组治愈时间、治愈率进行比较。结果观察组的治愈时间、治愈率明显优于对照组(P<0.05﹚。结论果胶酶联合小苏打治疗胃石症疗效显著,值得推广。%Objective The goal observation pectolase union sodium bicarbonate treats the gastrolithiasis the curative effect.Methods January, 2008-June, 2013 after gastroscope diagnosis for gastrolithiasis patient 80 examples. Divides into the control group (only to take orally sodium bicarbonate) stochastically and the observation group (oral administration pectolase union sodium bicarbonate), to two groups of clinical curative effects, the cure time, the cure rate carries on the comparison. Results The control group compare observation group's cure time, the cure rate surpass the control group obviously (P<0.05﹚. Conclusion Pectolase union sodium bicarbonate treats the gastrolithiasis curative effect to be remarkable, is worth promoting.

  13. The effect of low serum bicarbonate values on the onset of action of local anesthesia with vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block in patients with End-stage renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-mustafa Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block is utilized in patients with chronic renal failure at the time of creation of an arterio-venous fistula (AVF. The aim of this study is to test the effect of impaired renal function, with the resulting deranged serum electrolytes and blood gases, on the success rate and the onset of action of the local anesthetics used. In this prospective clinical study, we investigated the effect of the serum levels of sodium, potassium, urea, crea-tinine, pH, and bicarbonate on the onset of action of a mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine administered to create infraclavicular brachial plexus block. A total of 31 patients were studied. The success rate of the block was 93.5 % (29 patients. The mean onset time for impaired or re-duced sensation was found to be 8.9 ± 4.7 mins and for complete loss of sensation, was 21.2 ± 6.7 mins. There was no significant association with serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine or the blood pH level (P> 0.05. The bivariate correlation between serum bicarbonate level and the partial and complete sensory loss was -0.714 and -0.433 respectively, with significant correlation (P= 0.00, 0.019. Our study suggests that infraclavicular block in patients with chronic renal failure carries a high success rate; the onset of the block is delayed in patients with low serum bicarbonate levels.

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1404) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sodium bicarbonate. The Panel considers that sodium bicarbonate is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “blood pressure reduction”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the...... substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure....

  15. Catalytic Kinetic Determination of Bicarbonate and Carbonate in Leather Water by FIA%FIA-催化动力学法在线测定制革用水HCO3-和CO32-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞凌云; 尚永昌; 安胜波; 卢艳青; 张新申

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection catalytic kinetic spectrophotometic method was developed for the rapid determination of bicarbonate and carbonate in water. The chromogenic reaction of trivalent chromium and xylenol orange is catalysed by bicarbonate and carbonate under heating condition. The optimum analysis conditions are as follows: detection wavelength is 550nm, temperature is 75 ℃;the length of the reaction coil is 3.9m; the volume of the sampling loop is 250μL; the concentration of chromogenic reagent R1 ( xylenol orange) is 0.004g/L and the concentration of chromogenic reagent R2 ( Chromium Nitrate) is 0.04mol/L. When the concentration of bicarbonate and carbonate was between 10mg/L and 220mg/L, the peak height was proportional was to the content of bicarbonate; the linear correlation coefficient is 0. 998 7; the relative standard deviation is 0. 609% measuring 10 times repeatedly. And the method is used to determine the content of bicarbonate in several samples, and it shows its good reproducibility and accuracy, with the recoveries of standard addition between 97.88% and 99.47%.%根据三价铬与二甲酚橙在碳酸氢根或碳酸根的催化作用下发生的显色反应,建立了流动注射催化动力学分光光度法,对水中的碳酸氢根和碳酸根浓度进行了检测.通过对各种影响因素进行优化,确定最佳分析条件为:波长550nm,温度75℃,反应圈3.9m,进样环体积250μL,R1显色液二甲酚橙的浓度为0.004g/L,R2显色液硝酸铬的浓度为0.04mol/L.HCO3-和CO32-含量在10~220mg/L范围内峰高与浓度成正比,线性相关系数为R2=0.9987,精密度RSD=0.609%(n=10).用该法检测实际水样中的碳酸氢根时,加标回收率为97.88%~99.47%,具有良好的重现性和准确性.

  16. Optimizing the Processing Technology to Prepare Sodium Bicarbonate with Rhubarb by Orthogonal Test%正交试验法优选小苏打制大黄的炮制工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 徐常本

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the best processing technology for preparing Rhubarb with Sodium Bicarbonate. Methods:The main ingredients of Rhubarb are determined by HPLC, such as rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, aloe emodin ether. With its ingredients as the index, the impact of the three key factors of processing technology: the concentration of Sodium Bicarbonate solution (A) ,the amount of Sodium Bicarbonate solution ( B)and the cooked temperature (C) ,on the quality of the finished product were studied and evaluated. Thus, the optimized technology parameters for making Rhubarb by Sodium Bicarbonate were obtained. Results : A and C had a significant effect on the result and B had no significant effect. According to the degree of their effect they can be put in the following order; A > C > B. Conclusion:The best processing technology is A2B1C2. Rhubarb Pieces are put in Sodium Bicarbonate solution(concentration; 15% ;amount:10% of that of Rhubarb Pieces)and mixed well. When the solution is exhausted, they will be fried dry,removed and cooled.%目的:优选小苏打制大黄的最佳炮制工艺.方法:HPLC测定大黄的主要成分大黄酸、大黄素、大黄酚、芦荟大黄素和大黄素甲醚,以其成分含量为指标综合评判,研究炮制工艺的3个关键因素即小苏打溶液浓度(A)、小苏打溶液用量(B)和炮制温度(C)对成品质量的影响,优选小苏打制大黄工艺的技术参数.结果:小苏打溶液浓度和炮制温度对结果有显著影响,小苏打溶液用量对结果无显著影响,影响程度大小顺序为A>C>B.结论:最佳炮制工艺为A2BIC2:取净大黄饮片,加入浓度为15%、用量为药材重量10%的小苏打溶液拌匀,闷润至液体被吸尽后,120℃炒干,取出,晾凉.

  17. Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate, lactate, and glucose in pleural fluid from horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, G W; Benson, P A

    1990-07-01

    Samples of pleural fluid from 20 horses with effusive pleural diseases of various causes were evaluated; samples from 19 horses were used for the study. There were differences for pH (P = 0.001) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) between arterial blood and nonseptic pleural fluid (P = 0.0491), but there were no differences for pH, PO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO3-), lactate, and glucose between venous blood and nonseptic pleural fluid. Paired comparisons of venous blood and nonseptic pleural fluid from the same horse indicated no differences. There were differences (P = 0.0001, each) for pH, PO2, PCO2, and concentrations of HCO3- between arterial blood and septic pleural fluid. Differences also existed for pH (P = 0.0001), PCO2 (P = 0.0003), and concentrations of HCO3- (P = 0.0001), lactate (P = 0.0051), and glucose (P = 0.0001) between venous blood and septic pleural fluid. Difference was not found for values of PO2 between venous blood and septic pleural fluid, although 4 samples of septic pleural fluid contained virtually no oxygen. Paired comparisons of venous blood and septic pleural fluid from the same horse revealed differences (P less than 0.05) for all values, except those for PO2. These alterations suggested functional and physical compartmentalization that separated septic and healthy tissue. Compartmentalization and microenvironmental factors at the site of infection should be considered when developing therapeutic strategies for horses with septic pleural disease. PMID:2389879

  18. Potentiometric and spectrophotometric study of the stability of magnesium carbonate and bicarbonate ion pairs to 150 °C and aqueous inorganic carbon speciation and magnesite solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Bénézeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

    2014-08-01

    The formation constants of magnesium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pairs have been experimentally determined in dilute hydrothermal solutions to 150 °C. Two experimental approaches were applied, potentiometric acid-base titrations at 10-60 °C and spectrophotometric pH measurements using two pH indicators, 2-naphthol and 4-nitrophenol, at 25 and 80-150 °C. At a given temperature, the first and second ionization constants of carbonic acid (K1, K2) and the ion pair formation constants for MgHCO3+(aq) (KMgHCO3+) and MgCO3(aq) (KMgCO3) were simultaneously fitted to the data. Results of this study compare well with previously determined values of K1 and K2. The formation constants of MgHCO3+(aq) and MgCO3(aq) ion pairs increased significantly with increasing temperature, with values of logKMgHCO3+ = 1.14 and 1.75 and of logKMgCO3 = 2.86 and 3.48 at 10 °C and 100 °C, respectively. These ion pairs are important aqueous species under neutral to alkaline conditions in moderately dilute to concentrated Mg-containing solutions, with MgCO3(aq) predominating over CO32-(aq) in solutions at pH >8. The predominance of magnesium carbonate over carbonate is dependent on the concentration of dissolved magnesium and the ratio of magnesium over carbonate. With increasing temperature and at alkaline pH, brucite solubility further reduced the magnesium concentration to levels below 1 mmol kg-1, thus limiting availability of Mg2+(aq) for magnesite precipitation.

  19. A randomized, crossover pharmacodynamic study of immediate-release omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and delayed-release lansoprazole in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratha, Vijayalakshmi S; McGraw, Thomas; Tobin, William

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively block gastric acid secretion and are the treatment of choice for heartburn. PPIs differ, however, in onset of action and bioavailability. In this single-center, open-label, three-way crossover study, onset of action of immediate-release omeprazole 20 mg/sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg (IR-OME) and delayed-release (DR) lansoprazole 15 mg was evaluated in 63 healthy fasting adults. Subjects were randomized to once daily IR-OME, or DR-lansoprazole, or no treatment for 7 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the earliest time where a statistically significant difference was observed between IR-OME and DR-lansoprazole in median intragastric pH scores for three consecutive 5-min intervals on day 7. Secondary endpoints compared effects of active treatments on days 1 and 7 (e.g., time to sustained inhibition, percentage of time with pH >4). A significant difference in median intragastric pH favoring IR-OME was observed on day 7 starting at the 10- to 15-min interval postdosing (P = 0.024) and sustaining through the 115- to 120-min interval (P = 0.017). On day 1, IR-OME achieved sustained inhibition of intragastric acidity significantly faster than DR-lansoprazole. IR-OME maintained pH >4 significantly longer than DR-lansoprazole over a 24-h period (P = 0.007) on day 7. Overall, results of this study demonstrate IR-OME is safe and well tolerated and that treatment with IR-OME results in significantly faster onset of action and better gastric acid suppression at steady state than DR-lansoprazole. PMID:27433347

  20. Common variants in the Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure: the GenSalt study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L; Liu, F; Chen, S; Yang, X; Huang, J; He, J; Jaquish, C E; Zhao, Q; Gu, C C; Hixson, J E; Gu, D

    2016-09-01

    The current study comprehensively examined the association between common variants in the Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) genes and blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium intervention. A 7-day low-sodium followed by a 7-day high-sodium dietary intervention was conducted among 1906 Han participants from rural areas of northern China. Nine BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. A mixed-effect model was used to assess the additive associations of 76 common variants in five NCBT genes, including SLC4A4, SLC4A5, SLC4A7, SLC4A8 and SLC4A10, with salt sensitivity phenotypes. The Bonferroni method was used to adjust for multiple testing. SLC4A4 marker rs4254735 was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-sodium intervention (P=5.05 × 10(-4)), with mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) response of -2.91 (-3.21, -2.61) and -0.40 (-1.84, 1.05) mmHg for genotype AA and AG, respectively. In addition, BP responses to high-sodium intervention significantly increased with the number of minor C alleles of SLC4A4 marker rs10022637. Mean systolic BP responses among those with genotypes TT, CT and CC were 4.62 (4.29, 4.99), 5.94 (5.31, 6.58) and 6.00 (3.57, 8.43) mmHg (P=1.14 × 10(-4)); mean DBP responses were 1.72 (1.41, 2.03), 3.22 (2.52, 3.92) and 3.94 (1.88, 5.99) mmHg (P=2.26 × 10(-5)) and mean arterial pressure responses were 2.69 (2.40, 2.97), 4.13 (3.57, 4.70) and 4.61 (2.51, 6.71) mmHg (P=2.07 × 10(-6)), respectively. In brief, the present study indicated that common variants in the SLC4A4 gene might contribute to the variation of BP responses to dietary sodium intake in Han Chinese population. PMID:26582410

  1. 碳酸氢钠与氟康唑联合治疗口腔真菌感染的临床效果分析%Clinical efficacy of sodium bicarbonate and fluconazole in the treatment of oral fungal infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋俊发; 张一兵; 石巧云; 李文博; 张晓明

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨联合碳酸氢钠及氟康唑在口腔真菌感染治疗中的应用效果,为临床有效治疗口腔真菌提供临床参考依据。方法选择医院2014年1月-2015年6月收治90例口腔真菌感染患者作为观察对象,并以随机数字表法将患者分为3组,接受生理盐水治疗患者为对照组,接受碳酸氢钠治疗患者为碳酸氢钠组,接受联合碳酸氢钠及氟康唑治疗患者为联合组,各30例;对比3组患者治疗效果,数据采用SPSS 19.0软件进行统计分析。结果患者治疗7 d后联合组总有效率为93.33%,明显高于对照组和碳酸氢钠组的30.00%、60.00%,3组间临床治疗总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);3组间药物不良反应发生率比较,差异无统计学意义。结论口腔真菌感染治疗过程中,联合碳酸氢钠及氟康唑可在不增加药物不良反应的同时,有效的提高临床治疗效果,可在临床推广应用。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of the joint application of sodium bicarbonate and fluconazole in the treatment of oral fungal infections ,in order to provide reference for clinically effective treatment of oral fungal . METHODS Totally 90 patients with oral fungal infections treated in the hospital from Jan .2014-Jun .2015 were included for observation .The patients were randomly divided into three groups ,patients received saline treatment were in control group ,patients received sodium bicarbonate were in sodium bicarbonate group .Patients received combination of sodium bicarbonate and fluconazole treatment were in joint group .Each group had 30 cases .Clini‐cal effects of 3 groups were compared .Data were analyzed with SPSS 19 .0 .RESULTS After treatment of 7 days , total effective rate of joint group was 93 .33% ,which was significantly higher than control group (30 .00% ) and sodium bicarbonate group (60 .00% ) (P<0 .05) .The incidences of adverse reactions among

  2. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?

    OpenAIRE

    Schoppen, S.; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.; A. M.ª Pérez-Granados; Gómez-Gerique, J.A.; Sarriá, B.; S. Navas-Carretero; M.ª Pilar Vaquero

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood sam...

  3. Caracterização por XPS de filmes passivos formados sobre aços de baixa liga em meio de bicarbonato XPS characterization of passive films formed on mild steels in bicarbonate medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Almeida Alves

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive films formed in bicarbonate solutions on carbon steel, chromium steel and high speed steel have been characterized by XPS. The passive films formed on chromium and high speed steels showed superior protective properties than those formed on carbon steel. It was confirmed by XPS that the steel composition influences the passive film composition. Chromium oxide and hydroxide, as well as molybdenum and tungsten oxides and hydroxides are present in the passive film of chromium steel and high speed steel, respectively, besides iron oxide and hydroxide. The more complex composition of the oxide film on high speed steel explains its electrochemical behaviour and highest corrosion resistance.

  4. Effect of adding sodium bicarbonate during tumbling on chicken breast meat quality%滚揉过程中添加碳酸氢钠对鸡胸肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 张艳芳; 韩剑飞; 黄训文; 荐家强; 朱桂清

    2015-01-01

    研究了滚揉过程中添加碳酸氢钠对鸡胸肉品质的影响。宰后15min 取下成对鸡胸,其中右鸡胸用2%食盐溶液进行滚揉30min(对照),左鸡胸用2%食盐溶液+3%碳酸氢钠溶液滚揉30min,滚揉液总量为原料肉重10%。然后在宰后3h 和24h 测定肉色(L∗,a∗,b∗值)、pH 值和保水能力(滴水损失、蒸煮损失、压榨汁液损失、解冻汁液损失)。实验结果表明:碳酸氢钠溶液能显著降低蒸煮损失和解冻汁液损失;显著提高 pH3h值和 pH24h值;显著降低 L∗24h值。从本研究结果可知,添加碳酸氢钠溶液可以作为改善鸡胸肉品质的一种手段。%The effect of adding sodium bicarbonate during tumbling on chicken breast meat quality was studied. Coupled breasts were removed from chicken after slaughtering for 15 minutes. Right breast was tumbled with 2% sodium chloride solution (control group). Left breast was tumbled with 2% sodi⁃um chloride solution + 3% sodium bicarbonate solutions. Tumbling time was 30 minutes. Tumbling solu⁃tion was 10% weight of raw meat. Then color values (L∗, a∗, b∗), pH value and water retention ca⁃pability (drip loss, cook loss, expressible moisture loss, thaw loss) of the meat were measured after slaughtering for 3h and 24 h. The results showed that sodium bicarbonate solution could significantly de⁃crease the cook loss, thaw loss and L∗ after 24 h. The pH after 3h and pH after 24h of chicken breast meat were increased significantly. From the results of the study, the addition of sodium bicarbonate solu⁃tion could be used as a measure to improve the quality of chicken breast.

  5. 碳酸氢钠在清洗气管内套管中的应用研究%RESEARCH ON THE APPLICATION OF SODIUM BICARBONATE FOR ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE CLEANING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂颖; 宗媛; 董玉梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the methods and effects of sodium bicarbonate on endotracheal tube cleaning. Methods Visual and bacteriological examination methods were used to evaluate cleaning effect of endotracheal tube that immersed in sodium bicarbonate, with hydrogen peroxide cleaning method for comparison. Results Experimental group endotracheal tube was soaked with 15 g/L sodium bicarbonate solution and was washed before immersing disinfection into 75% alcohol, qualified rate of visual method was 100% and living bacteria was not detected . Control groups of endotracheal tube were cleaned by immersion with 30g/L of hydrogen peroxide solution and then immersing disinfection in the same concentration of hydrogen peroxide solution. The passing rate of visual method was 91 % , surviving bacteria was 2 cfu/item. Conclusion Cleaning effect of endotracheal tube by sodium bicarbonate has the same or slightly better effect than hydrogen peroxide cleaning method.%目的 研究碳酸氢钠应用于清洗气管内套管的方法与效果.方法 通过目测法和细菌检验方法,评价碳酸氢钠浸泡清洗气管内套管清洗效果,同时与过氧化氢清洗法作平行比较.结果 实验组气管内套管先用15 g/L碳酸氢钠溶液浸泡清洗后再放入75%酒精浸泡消毒,目测法合格率为100%,未检测到存活细菌.对照组气管内套管用30 g/L过氧化氢溶液浸泡清洗后再放人相同浓度过氧化氢溶液中浸泡消毒,目测法合格率91%,检测出存活菌数为2cfu/件.结论 用碳酸氢钠浸泡清洗气管内套管与过氧化氢清洗法效果基本一致,或略优于过氧化氢清洗法.

  6. 关节镜下射频气化联合碳酸氢钠灌洗治疗膝痛风性关节炎%The Treatment of Knee Gouty Arthritis with Radio Frequency and Sodium Bicarbonate by Arthroscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧学慧; 高立华; 孙辉; 苗贵强

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨关节镜下射频气化联合酸氢钠灌洗治疗膝痛风性关节炎的疗效。方法对56例痛风性关节炎患者,术前碳酸氢钠灌洗,利用关节镜下射频气化清理膝关节痛风结石。结果56例患者膝关节疼痛均消失,随访时间16~38(24±4)个月,无复发。根据Lysholm膝关节评分方法,术前评分平均43.6分;术后终末复查评分平均89.8分,两者相比,差异有显著性(<0.05)。结论关节镜下利用射频气化联合碳酸氢钠灌洗清除关节内痛风结晶,具有效率高、清除完全,是一种见效快、创伤小、效果确切的治疗方法。%Objective To explore the effect of radio frequency and sodium bicarbonate by arthroscope in treatment of knee gouty arthritis .Methods 56 patients with knee gouty arthritis were treated by sodium bicarbonate preoperatively and then gouty stone was cleared out with radio frequency and sodium bicarbonate by arthroscope.Results Pain in 56 patients was significantly alleviated postoperatively and no case recurred after fol owing up 16~38 (24±4)months . Lysholm score improved from 43.6 preoperatively to 89.8 postoperatively and the dif erence was statistical y significant ( <0.05).Conclusion That the treatment of knee gouty arthritis with radio frequency and sodium bicarbonate by arthroscope is rapid,micro-traumatic and effective for high ef iciency and completely clearing up.

  7. Polarized Solution Treatment and Sodium Bicarbonate on Hyperkalemia in Rabbits%极化液及纠正酸中毒对家兔高钾血症的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨黎黎; 金会艳; 余志诚; 李树清

    2011-01-01

    目的 探究一种稳定的高钾血症造模方法比较,极化液治疗及NaHCO3治疗对家兔实验性高钾血症的疗效并探讨其可能机制.方法 将30例家兔随机平均分成3组,运用“深静脉滴注法”造模成功后,分别进行生理盐水治疗,极化液治疗和碳酸氢钠治疗.结果 30例家兔通过颈外静脉滴注3%的氯化钾后均出现了典型的心电图变化,并且血清钾显著升高(P<0.01);分组治疗后,静脉滴注极化液和4%碳酸氢钠均可使心电图基本恢复正常血钾浓度明显下降(P<0.05).结论 深静脉滴注法是一种稳定可靠,易于操作的高钾血症模型复制方法,极化液和碳酸氢钠对高钾血症有抢救治疗作用.%Objective To investigate a steady way which named "intravenously guttae" of preparation of hyperkalemia in rabbit, and compare two different treatment methods polarized solution treatment and sodium bicarbonate treatment. Methods 30 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: Saline group, polarized solution (glucose-insulin) group and sodium bicarbonate group (n = 10 in each group). All rabbits were injected with 3% KC1 and were treated with different ways. Results Typical ECG changes were found, and serum levels of [K+]were increased (P <0.05) in all 30 rabbits in three groups after injection of 3% KCL. After treatment, compared with Saline group, serum levels of [k+] were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) and ECG recovered to normal in glucose-insulin group and sodium bicarbonate group. Conclusion "Intravenously guttae is a simple and steady way of preparation of hyperkalemia model. Glucose-insulin and sodium bicarbonate are effective methods for the treatment of hyperkalemia.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  9. Study on the Dissolution of Omeprazole Sodium Bicarbonate Magnesium Hydroxyl Tablets by HPLC%HPLC法测定奥美拉唑碳酸氢钠氢氧化镁片溶出度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭东明; 王福东; 卢茂芳; 刘艳飞

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立奥美拉唑碳酸氢钠氢氧化镁片溶出度测定方法.方法:以水为溶出介质,采用高效液相色谱法测定奥美拉唑碳酸氢钠氢氧化镁片的溶出度.结果:奥美拉唑线性方程为A =5.45×105C -7.58×104 (r =0.999 9)线性范围:4.0~40.0μg·ml-1.平均回收率为99.86%;RSD为0.42%.结论:本法可用于奥美拉唑碳酸氢钠氢氧化镁片溶出度测定.%Objective; To establish a dissolution determination method for omeprazole sodium bicarbonate magnesium hydroxyl tablets. Method; The dissolution was determined by HPLC using water as the dissolution medium. Result; A good linear relationship was within the range of 4.0 ~40.0 jig Ml'' (r = 0.999 1, r = 0.999 8). The average recovery was 99. 86% ( RSD = 0.42% ). Conclusion; The method can be used in the dissolution determination of omeprazole sodium bicarbonate magnesium hydroxyl tablets.

  10. 不同浓度碳酸氢钠液洗胃对新生儿咽下综合症的影响%THE CURATIVE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION SODIUM BICARBONATE GASTRIC LAVAGE ON THE SWALLOW SYNDROME OF NEWBORN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易玉娟; 陈赤霞; 陈思婷

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察不同浓度的碳酸氢钠液洗胃对新生儿咽下综合征疗效的影响.方法 将我院儿科88例咽下综合征患儿,随机分为对照组(A组)和实验组(B、C、D、E四组),分别采用温开水和浓度为1.0%、1.5%、2.0%、2.5%的碳酸氢钠液洗胃.观察患儿呕吐、腹胀、胃潴留情况及体重变化情况.结果 治疗组在呕吐、腹胀、胃潴留等方面都明显优于对照组,有显著性差异(p0.05).实验组患者体重与对照组比较无差异(p>0.05).结论 1.0%的碳酸氢钠治疗新生儿咽下综合征疗效满意,并发症少,值得临床优先应用.%Objective To observe the effect of different concentration sodium bicarbonate gastric lavage on newborn with swallow syndrome.Methods 88 patients from our hospital were enrolled in this study.They were randomly divided into control group (A group) and experimental groups(B、C、D、E group) according to numerical table.Separately using water and 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5% sodium bicarbonate solution gastric lavage.Vomiting, abdominal distention, gastric retention and weight changes was observed.Results The result showed that the vomiting, abdominal distention, gastric retention of patients in experimental group were better than that of patients in control group, and there were significant differences between them(p0.05).And there were no significant difference among experimental and control groups in weight changes(p>0.05).Conclusion 1%sodium bicarbonate can much shorten the time to stop vomit and reduce complication.Therefore it is highly recommended and popularized.

  11. The Investigation of Compatibility Stability of 5% Glucose Injection and 5% Sodium Bicarbonate Solution%5%葡萄糖注射液和5%碳酸氢钠注射液配伍稳定性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诚; 罗建华; 杜娆

    2011-01-01

    目的:考察5%葡萄糖注射液和5%碳酸氢钠注射液配伍的稳定性.方法:模拟临床液体疗法用药情况,将5%葡萄糖注射液和5%碳酸氢钠注射液配制成不同配比的输液,在各个不同时间测定输液pH值、葡萄糖含量和5-羟甲基糠醛限量.结果:在实验时段内,pH值超过5%葡萄糖的规定范围,葡萄糖含量略有下降,5-羟甲基糠醛限量未见异常升高,紫外扫描未见5-羟甲基糠醛吸收峰增大.结论:5%葡萄糖注射液和5%碳酸氢钠注射液配伍使用,建议临用时配制,一旦配制应尽快用完.%Objective: To investigate the compatibility stability of 5% glucose injection and 5% sodium bicarbonate injection. Methods: Imitating the fluid therapy status in clinic and admixing different proportion transfusion of 5% glucose injection and 5% sodium bicarbonate injection. The pH value of infusion, glucose level and the limits of 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural were determined in different time. Results: The pH values were higher than the prescribed limit of 5% glucose injection and glucose content declined slightly during the experiment. There was no obvious abnormality in the limits of 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural and the ultraviolet scanning absorbance of 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural did not increase. Conclusions: It is suggested that the compatibility use of 5% glucose injection and 5% sodium bicarbonate injection should be mixed before using and be used as soon as possible after mixing.

  12. Efeito de bicarbonato de potássio sobre a severidade do oídio em plantas de soja Effect of potassium bicarbonate on the severity of powdery mildew in soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Medice

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O oídio da soja, causado por Erysiphe diffusa, é considerado uma doença esporádica podendo ocasionar perdas quando atinge proporções epidêmicas. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de bicarbonato de potássio (Kaligreen® no controle do oídio da soja. As pulverizações do bicarbonato de potássio nas concentrações de 0; 0,25%, 0,5%, 0,75% e 1,0% e do fungicida (piraclostrobina + epoxiconazole e as avaliações foram semanais. Folhas foram coletadas para análise ultraestrutural através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O bicarbonato de potássio controlou a doença em todas as concentrações, mas causou fitotoxicidade a partir de 0,5%. Na analise ultraestrutural pode-se observar que o produto apresentou ação direta sobre o patógeno ocasionando murchamento e redução na germinação dos conídios. O produto apresenta potencial para controlar a doença, porém deve ser adequada a concentração a ser recomenda, bem como a frequência de aplicação para evitar os problemas de fitotoxicidade.The soybean powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe diffusa, is considered a sporadic disease which can cause losses when it reaches epidemic proportions. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of potassium bicarbonate (Kaligreen® in controlling soybean powdery mildew. Sprays of both potassium bicarbonate at concentrations of 0, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% and fungicide (pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, as well as assessments, were weekly carried out. Leaves were collected for ultrastructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy. Potassium bicarbonate controlled the disease at all concentrations but caused phytotoxicity from 0.5%. In the ultrastructural analysis, the product had a direct action on the pathogen, causing wilting and reduction in conidium germination. The product has the potential to control the disease, but the concentration to be recommended should be adequate, as well as the frequency of application to

  13. Extração de ferro de esmectita brasileira com emprego do método ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato Iron extraction from Brazilian smectite by dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Quezada M. Leite

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A natural clay from Campina Grande region (Paraíba, Brazil, with 8.57% of Fe2O3, was used to study the most appropriate condition to carry out the iron extraction, without altering the clay structure in a significant way. Samples were treated with the Dithionite-Citrate-Bicarbonate method (DCB for 30 and 120 minutes (pH=9.1, and also with citric acid (pH=1.8; time=15min, at 75°C. Conductivity measurements, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectrometry, electron-diffraction with transmission electron microscopy and textural evaluation by nitrogen adsorption were done. The treatment in a basic medium was more selective for iron removal than in acid condition. The time of 30 minutes, with 1.6 g Na2S2O4/10 g clay, was the best condition for the iron extraction.

  14. Clinical application of natrium bicarbonate solution as a humidification agent in artificial airway of mechanically ventilated patients%碳酸氢钠作为机械通气患者气道湿化剂的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓慧; 郑俊波; 王希臻; 赵士宏; 高春兴; 王孝艳; 于凯江

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of sodium bicarbonate solution as a humidification agent in artificial airway so as to provide references of artificial airway nursing. Methods A total of 200 patients with artificial airway were enrolled. 2. 5% natrium bicarbonicum and 0. 9% saline liquid were used as airway instillation solution before suction respectively in every patient. Blood pressure,heart rate,blood gas analysis and the condition of sputum were collected before and after suction. Results There were statistically significant differences in characteristics of sputum, before and after instillation of two kinds of airway humidiflcation fluid in airway. BE and HCO3- had statistically significance before and after instillation of sodium bicarbonate in airway (P <0.05),but the blood pressure and heart rate had no effect (P >0.05). Conclusion Application of sodium bicarbonate solution as a humidification agent in artificial airway can dilute sputum and is beneficial for sputum suction. At the same time, it has no effect on heart rate and blood pressure, but it can act on BE and HCO3 . So sodium bicarbonate solution should be cautious to use as humidifier in artificial airway management.%目的 探讨碳酸氢钠作为人工气道湿化液的效果,为人工气道护理提供依据.方法 采用自身前后对照,对200例人工气道应用机械通气患者,分别应用0.9%生理盐水和2.5%碳酸氢钠气道滴入吸痰,比较吸痰前后血压、心率、血气分析结果及痰液性状的变化.结果 气道滴入两种气道湿化液吸痰前后痰液性状差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);气道滴人碳酸氢钠后剩余碱值及碳酸氢根值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而对血压、心率无影响(p>0.05).结论 应用碳酸氢钠气道滴入后可以稀释痰液利于痰液吸出,同时对患者的血压、心率无影响,但是能够影响剩余碱值及碳酸氢根值,因此临床上应谨慎使用碳酸氢钠作为人工气道湿化液.

  15. Complex application of sodium bicarbonate hydrogen peroxide and nystatin in denture stomatitis therapy%碳酸氢钠、双氧水、制霉菌素联合治疗义齿性口炎的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雅能

    2012-01-01

      Objective To survey the complex application of sodium bicarbonate hydrogen peroxide and nystatin in denture stomatitis therapy and provide a feasible method in denture stomatitis therapy. Methods 56 cases of denture stomatitis patients were separated into two groups randomly, group control 28 cases, gargle with sodium bicarbonate solution three times a day, take off denture before sleep, dip in clean water; experimental group 28 cases, gargle with sodium bicarbonate solution three times a day, smear nystatin on denture surface, put on dentures, take off denture before sleep and dip it in hydrogen peroxide, compare therapy effect after 15 and 30 days. Results After 15 days therapy effect was group control 35.71%, experimental group 71.43%(χ2=7.18, P<0.01), after 30 days of therapy group control 57.14%, experimental group 89.29%, effect rate of experimental group was significantly higher than group control(χ2=7.38, P<0.01). Conclusion Complex therapy with sodium bicarbonate hydrogen peroxide and nystatin may cure denture stomatitis effectively.%  目的探讨碳酸氢钠、双氧水、制霉菌素联合治疗义齿性口炎的疗效,为义齿性口炎患者提供一种简便易行的治疗方法.方法将56例义齿性口炎患者随机分成两组,对照组28人采用传统方法,以碳酸氢钠漱口,3次/d,睡前摘掉义齿,置于清水中浸泡;实验组28人以碳酸氢钠漱口,3次/d,义齿上涂抹制霉菌素,戴上义齿,睡前摘掉义齿,浸于双氧水中.于15d、30d观察治疗效果.结果治疗15d,实验组治愈率71.43%,高于对照组的35.71%(χ2=7.18,P<0.01),治疗30d,实验组治愈率89.29%,高于对照组的57.14%(χ2=7.38,P<0.01).结论使用碳酸氢钠、双氧水、制霉菌素联合治疗义齿性口炎,简单易行,较传统方法能明显提高治愈率.

  16. The Calculation of Phase Diagram of Manufacturing Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Carbonate By Trona Carbonation%天然碱碳化法制小苏打(或纯碱)相图计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红旺; 武朝军; 刘忠义; 张红秀

    2000-01-01

    According to reference data and manufacturing in practice the phase diagrams of trona system in Inner Mongolia at carbonation temperature are analysed in this paper. And the emphasis is paid on discussion about those diagrams' application in manufacturing sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate by trona and a calculation example is given.%结合生产实际,依据文献数据,对碳化温度下的内蒙古天然碱体系作了相图分析,重点讨论了相图在天然碱碳化法制小苏打(或纯碱)工艺计算中的应用,并给出了计算实例。

  17. Therapeutic Effect of Miconazole Nitrate Cream plus Sodium Bicarbonate in Otomycosis External:23 cases%达克宁霜联合碳酸氢钠治疗外耳道真菌病23例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽辉; 郑明秀; 韩璐

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨达克宁霜联合5%NaHCO3注射液治疗外耳道真菌病的临床疗效.方法:用达克宁霜联合碳酸氢钠治疗我院就诊的23例外耳道真菌病患者.结果:23例连续治疗15天后,其中治愈14例(21耳),显效5例(8耳),好转4例(6耳).显效好转者再连续治疗一个疗程后痊愈.结论:采用5%NaHCO3配合使用达克宁霜治疗外耳道真菌疗效好.%Objectives:Observe the therapeutic effect of Mieronazole Nitrate Cream associated wish 5% Sodium Bicarbonate Solution in otomycosis external.Methods:23 out-patients with otomycosis external were treated by Micronazole Nitrate Cream and associated with 5% Sodium Bicarbonate Solution,which were applied to external acoustic meatus.Results:After 15- days continuous course treatment,14 cases (21 ears) were cured,symptoms and clinical signs of 5 cases (8 ears) were both improved,symptoms of 4 cases (6 ears) were improved.The cases,not cured,were prescribed to take Itraconazole,0.1,twice a day.6 of 9 cases were cured after 2 weeks,3 cases of that were cured after 1 week.Conclusions:These results demonstrated that the topical medication is important in the treatment of otomycosis external.

  18. Atients with tracheal intubation using sodium bicarbonate flushing effect of airway%气管插管患者应用碳酸氢钠冲洗气道的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭锐; 廖容; 徐万琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective Effect of rinsing airway on patients with tracheal intubation using 1.25% sodium bicarbonate.Methods 52 patients of tracheal intubation offline extracted by simple random sampling method,were divided into observation group(OG) and control group(CG)(n=26) using the method of random digits table. The OG with 1.25% sodium bicarbonate rinsing airway q2h, the CG with 0.45% saline rinsing airway q2h.Comparing the changes of patients sputum in the 3rd day, 5th day, 7th day, and comparing the incidence of humidification of airway complications within 7 days.Results The volume of expectoration drainage of the OGwas less than that of the CG, and the sputum viscosity of the OG is lower than that of the CG, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). The incidence of pulmonary infection within 7 days of the OG was 15.4%, but 42.3% of the CG, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) too.Conclusions The method of rinsing airway with 1.25% sodium bicarbonate on endotracheal intubation patients can effectively reduce the sputum viscosity and the incidence of humidification of airway complications.%目的:探讨气管插管患者应用1.25%碳酸氢钠冲洗气道的效果。方法用简单随机抽样法抽取气管插管脱机患者52例,采用随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组各26例。观察组用1.25%碳酸氢钠冲洗气道q 2 h,对照组用0.45%氯化钠溶液冲洗气道q 2 h。比较2组患者第3天、第5天、第7天痰黏度和日排痰量(g),7 d内气道湿化并发症的发生率。结果观察组日排痰量明显优于对照组,第7天痰黏度低于对照组,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。观察组7 d内肺部感染发生率为15.4%,对照组为42.3%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论气管插管患者用1.25%碳酸氢钠冲洗气道能有效降低痰液黏度和气道并发症的发生率。

  19. The application of 5% Sodium Bicarbonate co-infusion of oxytocin in the delivery%5%碳酸氢钠联合缩宫素静脉滴注在分娩中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于合珍; 完颜亚丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨5%碳酸氢钠静脉滴注在产妇分娩过程中宫缩乏力伴极度疲劳应用的疗效.方法 将2009年7月~2010年3月在我院经阴道分娩出现宫缩乏力伴极度疲劳的初产妇300例,随机分为观察组和对照组,各150例.观察组在静滴缩宫素后,在第一产程中测定产妇血二氧化碳结合力(CO2CP)并给予5%碳酸氢钠200 mL快速静滴;对照组仅给予缩宫素静脉滴注,观察两组宫缩情况、血CO2CP值、产程进展、产后出血及新生儿窒息率.结果观察组显效率及总有效率明显优于对照组(P < 0.05);观察组产妇血CO2CP明显高于对照组,产程时间、产后出血率及新生儿窒息率均低于对照组(P < 0.05),且有效提高阴道分娩率.结论 在产妇极度疲劳伴宫缩乏力情况下应用碳酸氢钠联合缩宫素,能有效改善产妇酸中毒情况并加速产程进展,减少产后出血.%Objective To explore the effect of 5% Sodium Bicarbonate infusion during delivery in maternal uterine inertia associated with the application of extreme fatigue. Methods 300 primipara patients appeared vaginal delivery with uterine inertia and extreme fatigue from July 2009 to March 2010 in our hospital were randomly divided into two groups, observation group and control group, each had 150 cases. In the observation group, patients were given 5% Sodium Bicarbonate 200 Ml by rapid intravenous infusion after intravenous infusion of oxytocin in the first stage to determine maternal blood CO2CP; the control group were given intravenous infusion of oxytocin, the contraction, the blood CO2CP value, the progress of labor, postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia were observed. Results The efficiency rate and total efficiency rate in the observation group were better than those of the control group (P < 0.05); in observation group, the maternal blood CO2CP was higher than that of the control group, the time, labor, postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia were lower

  20. 碳酸氢钠雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘的疗效观察%The curative effects of jet nebulization with sodium bicarbonate on the patients withbronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of jet nebulization with sodium bicarbonate on the children with bronchial asthma.Methods 128 children with bronchial asthma were collected and randomly divided into observation group and control group. Conventional treatment by anti-infection and jet nebulization with hormone and bronchodilators were used in control group. Jet nebulization with sodium bicarbonate combination with conventional treatment was used in observation group. The therapeutic efficacy, clinical symptom, physical sign, the stay time, the occurrence of adverse reaction and the levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in peripheral blood were observed. Results There were no severity adverse reactions happened in the two groups. The excellence rate was 59.4% and total effective rate was 95. 3% in observation group which were significantly higher that in control group( P < 0. 05 ). The extinction time of clinical symptom and physical sign were significantly shorter than that in control group. The levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in peripheral blood decreased notably after therapy than before treatment in the two groups. The decreased changes in observation group were significant than that in control group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Jet nebulization with sodium bicarbonate could improve the clinical symptom and physical sign and shorten the course of disease of children with bronchial asthma. It also could decrease the secrete of inflammatory factor and get satisfactory curative effect.%目的 观察碳酸氢钠雾化吸入在儿童支气管哮喘治疗中的作用。方法 支气管哮喘急性发作患儿128例,随机分为观察组和对照组。对照组给予常规抗感染和激素、支气管扩张剂雾化吸入治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用碳酸氢钠雾化吸入治疗。观察患儿治疗前后治疗效果以及外周血白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、白细胞介素-8(IL-8)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)等的水平的变化。结果

  1. Effects of Adding Sodium Bicarbonate in Feed with Appropriate Amount on the Milking Performance of Yak%饲料中适量添加小苏打对牦牛产奶性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明会

    2012-01-01

    The effects of adding sodium bicarbonate in the feed of yak with appropriate amount on the milk yield and related indices of yak were studied. The results showed that the milk yield of yak in three test groups had no significant change with control group, pH of yak milk had no significant change before and after the experiment. The milk fat percentage of yak in test group 1, 2, 3 significantly increased 2.52%, 2.95% and 3.08% respectively.%研究在牦牛饲料中适量添加小苏打后,对牦牛产奶量及相关指标的影响。试验结果表明,与对照组相比,3个试验组牦牛产奶量变化不显著,试验前后牦牛奶的pH值也变化不显著,但是试验1组、试验2组、试验3组牦牛乳中的乳脂率有显著提高,分别提高了2.52%、2.95%、3.08%。

  2. Clinical observation on 50 cases of constipation in Type 2 diabetes treated with Rhubarb Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets and Mosapride%大黄碳酸氢钠片联合莫沙必利治疗2型糖尿病便秘50例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立文; 杜改焕

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of Rhubarb Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets combined with Mosapride on constipation in Type 2 diabetes. Methods:150 cases diagnosed as Type 2 diabetes with different clinical gastroparesis manifestations including postprandial fullness, acid regurgitation, nausea, anorexia, abdominal discomfort, early satiety, belching, upper abdominal pain, constipation were randomly divided into a treatment group, a rhubarb Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets group and a mosapride group, 50 cases in each group. The cases in the treatment group were treated with rhubarb Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets combined with mosapride citrate, the cases in the control group respectively with Rhubarb Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets and Mosapride, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. After 4 weeks, the improvement of clinical symptoms and curative effects were observed. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, the symptoms of patients in the three groups were alleviated, the defecation cycle shortened, the shape of stool changed, especially in the treatment group. Conclusion: rhubarb Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets combined with mosapride has a significant effect on diabetic constipation.%目的:探讨大黄碳酸氢钠片联合莫沙必利治疗2型糖尿病便秘的临床疗效。方法:选择符合2型糖尿病诊断的150例伴随有食后饱胀、反酸、恶心、厌食、上腹不适、早饱、嗳气、上腹痛、便秘等不同程度的胃轻瘫临床表现患者,随机分为治疗组、大黄碳酸氢钠片组、莫沙必利组3组,每组50例,治疗组用大黄碳酸氢钠片联合枸橼酸莫沙必利,对照组分别选用大黄碳酸氢钠片、莫沙必利治疗,4周为一疗程,四周后观察各组临床症状改善情况及治疗效果。结果:三组治疗4周后患者临床症状均有缓解,排便周期缩短,大便性状改变,尤以治疗组疗效更佳。结论:大黄碳酸氢钠片联合莫沙必利治疗糖尿病便秘疗效显著。

  3. 重碳酸盐碱度对电吸附脱盐效果的影响研究%Research on the Influence of Bicarbonate Alkalinity on Desalination Effect of Electro - sorption.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石文忠; 孙英战; 谢海燕

    2012-01-01

    为了解重碳酸盐碱度对电吸附设备脱盐效果的影响,以乌鲁木齐高新区北区再生水厂的出水作为原水,对不同HCO3^-浓度情况下电吸附设备连续运行的脱盐效果进行了研究。结果表明,进水HCO3^-浓度为170、260和440mg/L三种工况下,电吸附设备连续运行6个周期,除第1周期对TDS、氯离子和总硬度的去除率较低外,其余5个周期对三者及HCO3^-的去除率均呈逐渐下降的趋势,在HCO3^-浓度为440mg/L时,去除率下降最为明显;与其他离子不同的是,进水HCO3^-浓度越高,HCO3^-去除率越高,且第1周期去除率最高。分析认为在高重碳酸盐碱度工况下,HCO3^-与钙等硬度离子相互作用,导致电极板结垢,从而影响电吸附设备的脱盐效果。另外,在极板结垢的基础上,对原水中的重碳酸盐进行酸化吹脱,在进水HCO3^-浓度为100mg/L条件下设备连续运行,结果发现进水HCO3^-浓度较低时,可改善电吸附设备的脱盐效果。%To recognize the influence of bicarbonate alkalinity on desalination effect of electro - sorption, this article using the resurgent water of North district recycling plant of Urumqi High - teeh Zone as raw water, researches on desalination effect of electro - sorption equipment continuous operation under the different concentration of HCO3 The result shows that, the influent HCO3 - concentration is controlled in three conditions which are 170 mg/L, 260 mg/L and 440 mg/L. Electro - sorption equipment continuous runs for 6 cycles, in addition to TDS, Cl^ - and total bardhess removal rates are low in the first cycle, removal rates of three ions and HCO3 - are gradually downtrend in the re- maining 5 cycles. Qhen HCO3 - concentration is 440 mg/L, the removal rate decreases significantly. The difference with other ions is that the higher the concentration of influent HCO3 ^-, the higher the removal rate of HCO3^- , and the highest rate of

  4. Study of Crystallization Process during La and La2(CO3)3 Precipitation with Sodium Bicarbonate%碳酸氢钠沉淀镧及碳酸镧的结晶过程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦小燕; 罗贤满; 杨宇俊; 辜子英; 李永绣

    2001-01-01

    Based on pH situ-determination data,together with the results of variation in precipitation volume and precipitation partical size,the properties of lanthanum carbonate precipitated with sodium bicarbonate were investigated.The results show that crystalliazation active zone of lanthanum carbonate is in low molar ratio zone,where the moalr ratio is between 0.541~2.828.However,the crystallization of lanthanum carbonate in high molar ratio zone is inactive.At the same tine,the influence of stirring on the crystallization of lanthanum carbonate was examined ,the crystallization mechanism was discussed and the corresponding reaction equations were proposed.%以pH值原位测定法为基础,结合沉淀体积变化、沉淀粒度及外观形貌分析结果,对NaHCO3沉淀镧的性能及碳酸镧的结晶过程进行了研究。结果表明:碳酸镧结晶活性区域位于低配比区0.541~2.828之间,而在高配比区其结晶是惰性的。同时还考察了搅拌对结晶过程的影响,讨论了NaHCO3沉淀镧时的沉淀反应和结晶化机理。并给出了相关的化学反应方程式。

  5. Duodenal Intracellular Bicarbonate and the 'CF Paradox'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaunitz JD

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available HCO(3(- secretion, which is believed to neutralize acid within the mucus gel, is the most studied duodenal defense mechanism. In general, HCO(3(- secretion rate and mucosal injury susceptibility correlate closely. Recent studies suggest that luminal acid can lower intracellular pH (pH(i of duodenal epithelial cells and that HCO(3(- secretion is unchanged during acid stress. Furthermore, peptic ulcers are rare in cystic fibrosis (CF, although, with impaired HCO(3(- secretion, increased ulcer prevalence is predicted, giving rise to the 'CF Paradox'. We thus tested the hypothesis that duodenal epithelial cell protection occurs as the result of pH(i regulation rather than by neutralization of acid by HCO(3(- in the pre-epithelial mucus. Cellular acidification during luminal acid perfusion, and unchanged HCO(3(- secretion during acid stress are inconsistent with pre-epithelial acid neutralization by secreted HCO(3(-. Furthermore, inhibition of HCO(3(- secretion by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino benzoic acid (NPPB despite preservation of pH(i and protection from acid-induced injury further question the pre-epithelial acid neutralization hypothesis. This decoupling of HCO(3(- secretion and injury susceptibility by NPPB (and possibly by CF further suggest that cellular buffering, rather than HCO(3(- exit into the mucus, is of primary importance for duodenal mucosal protection, and may account for the lack of peptic ulceration in CF patients.

  6. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L

    1986-10-01

    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli. PMID:3766731

  7. In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rico Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi

  8. Treatment of sodium bicarbonate combined with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal uric acid stone and review of the literature%碳酸氢钠联合ESWL治疗双J管末端尿酸结石1例报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩勇; 梁培育; 周治彦; 宋鹏; 彭晓晖; 颜毅; 刘继红

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨采用1.5%碳酸氢钠溶液联合ESWL治疗尿酸结石的疗效.方法:采用ESWL联合输尿管导管逆行插管后持续灌注1.5%碳酸氢钠溶石治疗1例43岁双肾尿酸结石男性患者.结果:治疗1周后,尿酸结石完全消失,双J管顺利拔出,无逆行感染.结论:1.5%碳酸氢钠溶液联合ESWL治疗尿酸结石疗程短,费用低,疗效确切,是一种治疗尿酸结石快速、安全和有效的治疗方法.%Objective:To investigate the treatment effects of 1. 5% sodium bicarbonate combined with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) for renal uric acid stone. Method: A single case of renal uric acid stone was report, a 43-year-old male patients with bilateral renal uric acid stone, and extremity of bilateral double J tube formed uric stone. Patient was treated by ESWL and 1. 5% sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy. Result: All uric acid stone disappeared without any retrograde infection, bilateral double J tube were extracted successfully after a week. Conclusion:This method is perfect for renal uric acid stone. It might also served as an optimal treat procedure of sodium bicarbonate combined with ESWL for renal uric acid stone.

  9. Effects of different bicarbonate concentrations on the reduction of nitrobenzene by zero-valent iron in simulated groundwater%模拟地下水中重碳酸盐浓度对零价铁还原硝基苯的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 陈日; 张海涛; 洪梅

    2014-01-01

    Batch experiments were designed to investigate the influence of different concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500 and 800mg/L) of bicarbonate on nitrobenzene degradation by zero valent iron in subsurface environment. The concentrations of nitrobenzene and aniline were monitored at interval time during the reaction progress, and the variations of pH, Eh, Fe2+, CO32- during the reaction were examined. The results indicated that bicarbonate can enhance the zero-valent iron activity at lower concentration (100~500 mg/L), and as the increasing of bicarbonate concentration, the promoting effect increases. in 500 mg/L system, the highest nitrobenzene reduction was 88% and aniline formation was 173 mg/L, the buffering capacity for pH was the strongest, the decline range of Eh was the largest, and the concentration of Fe2+was the highest. The system of bicarbonate concentration of 800 mg/L was not conducive to the reduction of nitrobenzene.%通过静态试验研究了重碳酸盐浓度在0,100,300,500,800mg/L时对零价铁还原硝基苯的影响,检测反应过程中硝基苯和苯胺的浓度变化,同时检测溶液中pH值、Eh、Fe2+、CO32-的变化,结果表明,重碳酸盐浓度较低(100~500mg/L)时对零价铁还原硝基苯有促进作用,且促进作用随着重碳酸盐浓度的升高而增强。重碳酸盐浓度为500mg/L 的反应体系中硝基苯去除率及苯胺生成率最高分别为88%,173mg/L,且在该体系中重碳酸盐对pH值的缓冲能力最强、Eh下降幅度最大,Fe2+浓度最高。重碳酸盐浓度为800mg/L的体系不利于硝基苯的还原。

  10. 碳酸氢钠联合乌司他丁治疗急性辛硫磷农药中毒胆碱酯酶活力的变化%The influence of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 杨兰菊; 肖磊; 孙宝泉; 邹宪宝; 高冬梅; 菅向东

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning.Methods A total of 67 eligible patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,Who were admitted to the emeryency department of hospital from March 2011 to February 2014,Acording to different treatments au patients were randomly divided into the conventional treatment group (n=34) and the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group (n=35).The conventional treatment group were given thorough gastric lavage with water,the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were given gastric lavage with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution.Both groups were given such treatments as catharsis,administration of oxygen,fluid infusion,diuresis,and antidotes such as atropine and pralidoxime methylchloride.On the basis of comprehensive treatment,people in the sodium bicarbonate+ulinastatin group were given 5% sodium bicarbonate injection and ulinastatin.The clinical effect of the two groups were compared.Results The serum cholinesterase activity of the sodium bicarbonate +ulinastatin group was significantly higher than the conventional treatment group from the 5th day,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The total atropine dosage,total pralidoxime methylchloride dosage and hospitalization days were better than the conventional treatment group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).The difference in the time of atropinization between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05).The results of arterial blood pH,HCO3-of the sodium bicarbonate + ulinastatin group were higher than the conventional treatment group,and the difference of HCO3-at the 10th day was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusions Sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin can improve the therapeutic effect and reduce complications in the treatment of acute phoxim pesticide poisoning,and have beneficial

  11. Clinical Curative Effect Comparison of Fluconazole Versus Nystatin Combined with Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of 44 Cases Pediatric Thrush%氟康唑与制霉菌素联合碳酸氢钠治疗小儿鹅口疮44例临床疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄王滨

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察氟康唑与制霉菌素联合碳酸氢钠注射液治疗小儿鹅口疮临床疗效比较,为临床治疗鹅口疮用药选择提供指导.方法:将88 例鹅口疮患者随机分为两组,氟康唑组采用氟康唑胶囊(5mg/kg.d,每日1 次,午餐后服),制霉菌素组采用制霉菌素联合碳酸氢钠注射液(2.5%碳酸氢钠溶口腔护理后,制霉菌素研粉口腔内涂沫),5d 后比较两组的效果,口腔体征改善的情况.结果:氟康唑组治疗总有效率88.63%,制霉菌素组治疗总有效率84.09%,统计学分析显示两组疗效无显著差异.(P>0.05).结论:氟康唑与制霉菌素联合碳酸氢钠注射液治疗鹅口疮疗效相近,可以根据病人经济状况、不良反应、病人耐药性、舒适性等具体情况选择用药.%Objective: To observe clinical curative effect the fluconazole versus nystatin combine with sodium bicarbonate injection in treatment of infant thrush, for clinical treatment of thrush drug selection guide. Method: 88 cases of thrush were randomly divided into two groups, fluconazole group using flucon-azole capsule ( 5mg/ kg. D, once a day, after lunch, clothing ) , nystatin nystatin group combined with sodium bicarbonate injection ( 2.5% sodium bicarbonate solution of oral care, oral nystatin levigation smear ) , 5 days later comparison of two group effect, oral signs to improve the situation. Result: Total effective rate was fluconazole treatment group 88. 63% , total effective rate was 84. 09% in nystatin treatment group , statistical analysis showed no significant differences between the two groups. ( P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion; Fluconazole versus nystatin combined with sodium bicarbonate injection in the treatment of oral thrush similar results, according to the patients economic conditions, adverse reactions, drug resistance, comfort and other specific circumstances to choose medicine.

  12. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoppen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2, junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina evaluada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA. Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2 y un agua mineral débil (LMW junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY. Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p < 0,0001. Las concentraciones de insulina

  13. Therapeutic effect of sodium bicarbonate and furosemide injection on kidney calculus induced by melamine in rats%碳酸氢钠与呋塞米注射液对大鼠三聚氰胺肾脏结石治疗作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟德光; 牛培; 王晶; 李双成

    2013-01-01

    目的 利用三聚氰胺复制大鼠肾结石模型,通过碳酸氢钠和呋塞米注射液对三聚氰胺所致大鼠肾脏结石进行治疗,观察两种药物单独应用及联合应用对大鼠三聚氰胺肾结石的治疗作用.方法 健康成年SD大鼠56只,随机分为7组,每组8只,分别为A组:空白对照组,B组:模型组,C组:5%碳酸氢钠注射液15 ml/kg治疗组,D组:呋塞米注射液2 mg/kg治疗组,E组:5%碳酸氢钠注射液15 ml/kg加呋塞米注射液2 mg/kg治疗组,F组:5%碳酸氢钠注射液20 ml/kg加呋塞米注射液1 mg/kg治疗组,G组:5%碳酸氢钠注射液10 ml/kg加呋塞米注射液4 mg/kg治疗组.造模成功后,7组进行相应治疗,连续7 d,治疗结束后对7组血清尿素、肌酐水平及肾脏超声学改变进行检测.结果 A组血清尿素、肌酐水平较A组明显升高.与B组相比,各组均能明显降低大鼠血清尿素水平;除G组的血清肌酐出现升高外,其他6组血清肌酐水平均明显减低;各治疗组大鼠肾脏超声学与模型组及治疗前比较,集合系统显示比较清晰,肾内结石明显减少,以碳酸氢钠联合呋塞米注射液治疗组更为明显.结论 碳酸氢钠与呋塞米注射液单独应用及联合应用对三聚氰胺所致大鼠肾结石都有较好的治疗作用,对肾功能具有一定的保护作用.%Objective To establish kidney calculus model of rats through melamine induction, then to treat the rats with kidney calculus by sodium bicarbonate and furosemide injection, and to observe the therapeutic effect of simple drug or associated treatment of two drugs. Methods 56 adult SD rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, with 7 rats in each group, black control group( group A ), model group( group B ), sodium bicarbonate treatment group( group C,5% sodium bicarbonate injection 15ml/kg ), furosemide treatment group( group D, furosemide injection 2mg/kg ), associated treatment group l( group E,5% sodium bicarbonate injection 15ml/kg plus furosemide

  14. Clinical effects of lidocaine and dexamethasone on treatment of tissue damage caused by extravasation of sodium bicarbonate%利多卡因加地塞米松治疗碳酸氢钠外渗性组织损伤的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素珍; 唐吉荣

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨利多卡因加地塞米松对碳酸氢钠外渗性组织损伤的治疗作用,寻找最佳的治疗方法.方法 将25例因碳酸氢钠外渗所导致的组织损伤患者随机分成观察组13例和对照组12例.观察组采用2%利多卡因2.5 ml+地塞米松5mg+NS2.5 ml局部封闭,对照组采用50%硫酸镁局部湿敷.观察两组局部组织损伤好转情况.结果 观察组局部组织损伤好转情况明显优于对照组(P<0.05).结论 利多卡因加地塞米松对多碳酸氢钠外渗性组织损伤的治疗作用明显,疗效发生较快,是安全可靠的处理方法.%Objective To explore the curative effects of 2% lidocaine and dexamethasone treatment of tissue damage caused by extravasation of sodium bicarbonate,and to find the best treatment method.Methods A total of 25 patients with tissue damage caused by extravasation of sodium bicarbonate were randomly divided into two groups:observation group ( 13 cases) and control group ( 12 cases).50% magnesium sulfate was used in the control group and 2% lidocaine combined with dexamethasone was used in the observation group.The changes of tissue damage were observed.Results The improvement of tissue damage in observed group was better than that in control group,and there were significant differences between them ( P < 0.05).Conclusions 2% lidocaine and dexamethasone are an effective and convenient method which can accelerate the cure of tissue damage caused by extravasation of sodium bicarbonate.

  15. 氨溴索与碳酸氢钠序贯灌洗佐治支气管扩张感染疗效分析%Adjunctive treatment of bronchiectasis infection with ambroxol and sodium bicarbonate through sequential lavage: an efficacy analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平满; 程正文; 许攀峰; 周建英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and significance of ambroxol and sodium bicarbonate through sequential lavage in treatment of bronchiectasis infection. Method Hie patients were randomly divided into conventional treatment group (control group) and the other group which combined conventional therapy with adjunctive therapy of ambroxol and sodium bicarbonate through sequential lavage (observation group). The clinical efficacy ofthe two groups were analyzed after 2 weeks and the frequency of exacerbation were followed up in six months. Result The total effective rate and half year frequency of exacerbation of the observation group, compared with the control group, were significantly different ( P <0.05, P <0.01). Conclusion The adjunctive therapy of ambroxol and sodium bicarbonate through sequential lavage based on conventional therapy can enhance the curative effectiveness, reduce the frequency of acute exacerbation, and improve the half-year quality of life in bronchiectasis infection.%目的 探讨氨溴索与碳酸氢钠灌洗治疗支气管扩张反复感染的疗效及意义.方法将支气管扩张反复感染住院患者,分为灌洗组(常规治疗方法+支气管局部注药灌洗34例)、对照组(常规治疗方法38例),治疗2周后进行临床评估,随访半年.结果灌洗组总有效率与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),半年急性加重次数与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论在常规治疗基础上局部氨溴索、碳酸氢钠序贯灌洗能提高支气管扩张感染疗效、减少半年急性加重次数、改善生活质量,通过改善微环境来维持菌群平衡值得借鉴、推广.

  16. 亚叶酸钙与碳酸氢钠含漱预防大剂量甲氨蝶呤致口腔溃疡的效果研究%Study on effect of calcium folinate and sodium bicarbonate gargle on the prevention of oral ulcer by using high dose methotrexate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李尚娣; 周月琼; 曾飞燕; 李小洁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effectiveness of preventing oral ulcer by using high dose methotrexate with calcium folinate and sodium bicarbonate gargle alternatively.Methods Sixty patients of high dose methotrexate chemotherapy were randomly divided into experiment group and control group, with 30 patients in each group, Normal saline was given to those in the control group for gargle, and calcium folinate and sodium bicarbonate gargle alternatively for those in the experiment group, The incidence and grade of oral ulcer were observed.Results The incidence of oral ulcer and grade were markedly lower in the experiment group than that in control group. The difference between the two groups was significant(P<0.01).Conclusions Alternate gargling with calcium folinate and sodium bicarbonate is effective in the prevention of incidence of oral ulcer in patients with high dose methotrexate chemotherapy.%目的 探讨亚叶酸钙与碳酸氢钠溶液交替含漱预防大剂量甲氨蝶呤所致口腔溃疡的效果.方法 将60例大剂量甲氨蝶呤化疗的患儿随机分为实验组及对照组,每组30例.对照组给予生理盐水含漱,实验组给予0.1%亚叶酸钙与1%碳酸氢钠溶液交替漱口.观察两组患者口腔溃疡发生率及溃疡发生程度.结果 实验组口腔溃疡发生率、程度明显低于对照组,两者比较差异有显著差异(P<0.01).结论 大剂量甲氨蝶呤化疗的患儿使用0.1%亚叶酸钙与1%碳酸氢钠溶液交替漱口,可以有效预防口腔溃疡的发生.

  17. Gout Decoction Combined with Celebrex and Sodium Bicarbonate Treat Gout Arthritis 32 Cases%痛风方联合西乐葆及碳酸氢钠治疗痛风性关节炎32例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琦

    2012-01-01

    [目的]观察自拟痛风方联合西药西乐葆及碳酸氢钠治疗痛风性关节炎的临床疗效.[方法]将2008年10月至2011年10月我院门诊就诊的64例痛风性关节炎患者随机分成2组,对照组32例在基础治疗上口服西乐葆胶囊和碳酸氢钠片;治疗组32例在对照组治疗的基础上,加服自拟痛风方,治疗4周后判定疗效.[结果]治疗组临床痊愈7例,显效12例,有效12例,无效1例,总有效率为96.88%;与对照组总有效率为75.0%比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]自拟痛风方联合西药西乐葆及碳酸氢钠治疗痛风性关节炎可明显增强疗效,减少痛风复发和西药的副作用.降低血尿酸及血沉水平.%[Objective] To observe the clinical effect of Gout Decoction combined with Celebrex and Sodium Bicarbonate on gout arthritis. [Method] Randomly divide 64 cases into 2 groups; control one takes Celebrex and Sodium Bicarbonate; other group was added with Gout Decoction; observe their effects after 4w. [Result] In treatment group, 7 cases were cured, 12 had marked effect, 12 were effective, 1 failed, total effective rate was 96.88%; while the total effective rate 75.0% for other group, the difference was of statistical meaning. [Conclusion] The self-made Gout Decoction combined with Celebrex and Sodium Bicarbonate can strengthen cure effect, reduce the side effects of western medicine and recurrence of gout, and also decrease UA and ESR.

  18. 饲粮添加碳酸氢钠对蛋鸡生产性能和血液学指标的影响%Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate on Performance and Hymnological Indices of Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗爱琼; 杨俊花; 刘丹; 谢晶; 缪德年; 赵志辉

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary NaHCO3 on performance, hematologi-cal indices, serum biochemical parameters and blood gas indices of laying hens, and to identify the safe dose range of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in the diets of laying hens. Nine hundred 21-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 6 replicates per group and 30 birds per replicate. Laying hens were fed a basal diet with 0 (control group) , 1, 5, 25 and 50 g/kg NaHCO3 for 10 weeks, respectively. The results showed as follows: the performance of laying hens was not influenced by dietary NaHCO3 supplemental level at ≤5 g/kg (P >0. 05) , but the laying rate, egg mass, feed intake, and average egg weight were significantly reduced (P 0.05). Moreover, the supplementation of NaHCO3 did not affect the number of red blood cells and white blood cells, the activities of alkaline phosphatase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and the concentrations of total protein, albumin, total bilirubin in serum of laying hens (P > 0. 05). However, blood hematocrit and the concentrations of hemoglobin in blood, creatinine and usea nitrogen in serum (P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01) were markedly increased and the concentration of blood glucose in serum (P <0. 05) was also significantly decreased by the supplementation of 25 to 50 g/kg NaHCO3. Furthermore, the number of platelet in blood of laying hens in 50 g/kg NaHCO3 group was notably lower than that in the other groups (P <0. 05). It is concluded that excessive supplementation of NaHCO3 (≥25 g/kg) can cause the decrease of performance, change of blood gas indices, and disorder of physiological functions of laying hens. However, the supplementation of NaHCO3 at <5 g/kg can support the performance and assistant to maintain hematological levels in the physiological ranges of laying hens. Therefore, it is suggested that the safe dose of NaHCO3 in diets of laying hens should be lower

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member....../base balance and bone health” and “bone density/bone health”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to the maintenance of normal bone by maintaining acid-base balance. The Panel considers that...... maintenance of normal bone is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the...

  20. 制霉菌素联合碳酸氢钠与氟康唑治疗口腔白色念珠菌感染临床疗效比较%Nystatin Combined Treatment of Oral Sodium Bicarbonate and Candida Albicans Fluconazole Clinical Effects of Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵荣静

    2013-01-01

    目的观察制霉菌素联合碳酸氢钠注射与氟康唑治疗口腔白色念珠菌感染临床疗效比较,为临床治疗口腔念珠菌的感染用药选择提供指导。方法将64例口腔白色念珠菌感染患者随机分为两组,制霉菌素组采用制霉菌素联合碳酸氢钠注射液(2.5%碳酸氢钠溶口腔护理后,制霉菌素研粉口腔内涂沫),氟康唑组采用氟康唑胶囊(100 mg/次,1次/d,午餐后服),5d后比较两组的效果,口腔体征改善的情况。结果制霉菌素组治疗总有效率81.25%,氟康唑组治疗总有效率87.5%,统计学分析显示两组疗效无显著差异。(P>0.05)。结论制霉菌素联合碳酸氢钠注射液与氟康唑治疗口腔白色念珠菌病疗效相近,可以根据患者经济状况、不良反应、患者耐药性等具体情况选择用药。%Objective To observe the combined nystatin and fluconazole treatment of oral sodium bicarbonate injection of Candida albicans clinical ef ects of infection for the clinical treatment of oral Candida infections to guide drug choice. Methods 64 cases of oral Candida albicans infection were randomly divided into two groups, group nystatin were treated with nystatin combined with injection of sodium bicarbonate (2.5%sodium bicarbonate solution after oral care,oral smear powdered nystatin), fluconazole group were treated with fluconazole capsules (each 100 mg,1 day,after lunch service),5 days after the results were compared, signs of improvement in the oral cavity. Results nystatin group total ef ective rate was 81.25%,fluconazole treatment group 87.5%,statistical analysis showed no significant dif erence between two groups. (P>0.05). Conclusion nystatin combined sodium bicarbonate injection and treatment of oral candidiasis fluconazole similar ef icacy,based on economic status of patients,side ef ects,patient specific conditions such as choice of drug resistance drug.

  1. Vitamin B6,654-2,Sodium Bicarbonate Respectively in the Comparison of Azithromycin in Gastrointestinal Reaction%维生素B6、654-2、碳酸氢钠减轻阿奇霉素胃肠道反应效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the vitamin B6,654-2,sodium bicarbonate in the azithromycin reaction of gastrointestinal tract effect. Method:Selected 150 cases whose respiratory tracted infection randomly from pediatric.And they were divided into group A,group B and group C, each group had 50 cases.On the basic treatment using azithromycin,supplemented with vitamin B6,654-2,sodium bicarbonate,in order to reduce gastrointestinal reaction,then compared the overall situation of gastrointestinal adverse reaction and occurrence degree of three groups after treatment using drug.Result:In nausea,vomiting,diarrhea and abdominal pain several adverse symptoms,group A was significantly lower than the group B, with significant difference(P0.05);the occurrence of the adverse reactions, group A was significantly lower(P0.05).Overall,the group A of adverse reaction incidence and degree of occurrence were relatively lower,with significant difference(P0.05);在不良反应发生程度上,A 组较之 B 组发生程度明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。整体比较,A 组不良反应情况发生率和发生程度均相对更低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:在减轻阿奇霉素胃肠道反应中,维生素 B6较之654-2和碳酸氢钠整体效果相对更佳,更值得临床推广应用。

  2. 碳酸氢钠水化预防心肌梗死急诊经皮冠状动脉介入术后发生造影剂肾病分析%Effect of sodium bicarbonate on preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刚; 曹树军; 张银; 胡硕强; 王峙峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether hydration with sodium bicarbonate reduces the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Methods From October 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014, 87 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI in Daxing Hospital of Capital Medical University were consecutively enrolled in this study. All patients were randomly divided into sodium bicarbonate hydration (SB) group and control (NSB) group. The serum creatinine (SCr), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum potassium, N-terminal pro brain natriureic peptide (NT-pro BNP) levels and the pH value, the concentration of standard bicarbonate in arterial blood sample were measured on admission and at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after primary PCI. The incidences of CIN, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis were analyzed in each group. Results Forty-three patients were included in SB group while the other forty-four patients were included in NSB group. The average intake volume of 1.4%sodium bicarbonate solution in SB group was (583.2±87.7) ml. There was no significant difference in contrast volume administered during the process of primary PCI between two groups (SB:237±95 ml vs. NSB:249±102 ml, P>0.05). Within 72 h after primary PCI, the incidence of CIN in SB group was significantly lower than that in NSB group (2/43;4.7%vs 10/44;22.7%, P0.05), the incidences of hypokalemia (SB:6/43;14.0%vs NSB:4/44;9.1%, P>0.05) and metabolic alkalosis (SB:5/43;11.6%vs NSB:3/44;6.8%, P>0.05). Conclusion This study shows that using standard hydration regimen of sodium bicarbonate can effectively reduce the incidence of CIN in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI without increasing incidences of hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis, and additional intake of sodium bicarbonate solution does not worsen the heart function further in STEMI patients.%目的:评价标准碳酸氢钠水化

  3. Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves da Silva

    2010-09-01

    contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%, use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

  4. 1.4%Sodium Bicarbonate Retention Enema on Scavenging Channel Bezoars in Contrast to Digest%1.4%的碳酸氢钠保留灌肠清除小儿下消化道粪石对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢立新

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the 1.4% sodium bicarbonate retention enema on road bezoar clear under the ef ect of digestion in children. Methods 70 patients in our department from 2012 January to selection method in 2013 December during hospitalization as evaluation object, Were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, two groups were given conventional anti infection,Spectrum ir adiation for two times a day to promote intestinal peristalsis, The experimental group adopted the first 1.4%sodium bicarbonate retention enema for half an hour after reflux enema once a day, The control group adopted reflux enema once a day, to compare the treatment ef ect of the two groups. Results The experimental group remove bezoar is bet er than the control group, The experimental group of independent defecation time earlier than the control group ( <0.5). Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate retention enema for half an hour after reflux enema than simple reflux enema can accelerate the bezoar ileus bezoar discharge, Reduce the bezoar ileus complications, reduce the conservative treatment is invalid for the incidence of operation, Shorten the hospitalization time, improve the cure rate of bezoar ileus.%目的探讨1.4%的碳酸氢钠保留灌肠对清除小儿下消化道粪石的效果。方法选取我科2012年1月~2013年12月期间住院的70例患儿作为评估对象,随机分为实验组及对照组,两组均给予常规抗感染,频谱仪照射2次/d促进肠蠕动,实验组采取先1.4%的碳酸氢钠保留灌肠30min后再回流灌肠1次/d,对照组采取回流灌肠1次/d,对两组的治疗效果进行对比分析。结果实验组清除粪石的效果优于对照组,实验组自主排便的时间早于对照组﹙<0.5﹚。结论碳酸氢钠保留灌肠30min后再回流灌肠比单纯回流灌肠更能加快粪石性肠梗阻的粪石排出,降低粪石性肠梗阻的并发症的发生,减少因保守治疗无效需做手术的发病率,缩短住院时间,提

  5. 新生儿应用碳酸氢钠口腔护理预防呼吸机肺炎的护理效果评价%To evaluate the application of sodium bicarbonate nursing effect of oral care on prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈羽

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价新生儿应用碳酸氢钠口腔护理预防呼吸机肺炎的护理效果.方法:将我院2013年9月~2015年3月在我院新生儿重症监护室实施气管插管呼吸机通气治疗48h以上且最终治愈出院的50例患儿按照随机数字法编为研究组和对照组 ,每组25人.所有患儿均送入新生儿重症监护室 ,常规生命体征监护 ,特级护理.实施经口气管插管 ,给予机械通气进行治疗 ,而后应用口腔护理液(对照组用生理盐水 ,研究组用2% 碳酸氢钠溶液)及专用口腔护理棉签对患儿开展口腔护理.对比两组患儿呼吸机肺炎的发生率、口腔感染率及住院天数.结果:研究组呼吸机肺炎发病率及口腔感染率均显著低于对照组(P<0 .05 ) ,住院天数显著少于对照组(P<0 .05 ).结论:新生儿应用碳酸氢钠溶液实施口腔护理可显著降低呼吸机肺炎发生率 ,极大地预防了口腔感染的发生 ,促进患儿的早日康复.%Objective :To evaluate the application of sodium bicarbonate oral nursing to prevent neonatal ventilator -associated pneumonia and nursing effects .Methods :50 children with 48h and 25 patients were treated with~2015 in our hospital from September March to 2012 in our hospital . All the children were sent to the neonatal intensive care unit ,the routine vital signs monitoring ,and the grade nursing .Implementation of orotracheal intubation ,given mechanical ventilation treatment .Then ,by applying the oral care solution (the control group with physiological saline ,the study group with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution) and special oral care cotton swab for children to carry out oral care .The incidence rate ,oral infection rate and length of hospital stay were compared between the two groups .Results :the incidence rate and prevalence of respiratory infection in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0 .05) ,and the length of hospital stay was significantly less than

  6. Investigation of Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets in curing secondary hyperparathyroidism of patients with renal failure%碳酸氢钠片在治疗慢性肾功能衰竭患者继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莲琴

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of Sodium Bicarbonate in curing secondary hyperpara-thyroidism (SHPT) of patients with chronic renal failure (CFR). Methods: 80 patients with CRF were divided into two groups randomly. Experimental group (40 cases) was given therapy of Sodium Bicarbonate combined with Calcitriol and control group (40 cases) was giv -en Calcitriol only. The serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was examined every month among the period before therapy and half a year after the therapy. The level of PTH was compared between the two groups, and the compliance rate of PTH which was defined by a target value of 110 ng/L was compared too. Results: The level of PTH between two groups was both descended after therapy, but the rate of decline of experimental group was larger than control group in 1 to 3 month, which made experimental group show lower PTH and higher compliance rate (P<0.05) than control group in the second, third and fourth month. In 5 and 6 month there was no difference of PTH and compliance rate between the two groups. Conclusion: Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets plays a positive role in curing SHPT, which makes PTH reach target value in shorter time.%目的:探讨碳酸氢钠片在治疗慢性肾功能衰竭(CRF)患者继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进(SHPT)中的作用.方法:将80例伴有SHPT的CRF患者随机分为两组,实验组(40例)接受碳酸氢钠和骨化三醇联合治疗,对照组(40例)仅接受骨化三醇治疗.于治疗前和治疗后6个月,每月检测血甲状旁腺激素(PTH).逐月比较治疗后两组患者PTH的水平,以PTH<110 ng/L为标准,比较两组PTH的达标率.结果:治疗后两组PTH都呈下降趋势,第1~3个月实验组PTH下降速度大于对照组,使得在第2~4个月时实验组PTH小于对照组(P<0.05),PTH的达标率大于对照组(P<0.05).5个月和6个月时,两组PTH水平和达标率无差异.结论:口服碳酸氢钠片在SHPT的治疗中具有积极的作用,可以使PTH尽早达到目标值.

  7. The Application of 2.5% Sodium Bicarbonate on Severe Neurological Diseases Patients in Oral Care%2.5%碳酸氢钠在重症神经疾病患者口腔护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽婷

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the application value of the application of 2.5% Sodium Bicarbonate on oral care for severe neurological diseases patients.MethodsRandomly dividing 68 cases of severe neurological diseases patients from our hospital into observation group (35 cases) and model group (33 cases), for which treating with observation group with 2.5% Sodium Bicarbonate oral care and with normal saline for model group. Same oral care operational approach for the two groups, that is, twice a day, 14 days’ treatment, and examinations for incidence rate of nosocomial pneumonia for the two groups on 7th day and 14th day respectively, sputum culture examinations to compare incidence rate of fungal infections in lungs for the two groups.ResultsThe incidence rate for patients from oberservation group to receive nosocomial pneumonia and fungal infections in lungs is lower than that of model group, and the two groups are statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion Oral care with 2.5% sodium bicarbonate injection can effectively reduce incidence rate of nosocomial pneumonia and fungal infections in lungs for severe neurological diseases patients, which is worth popularizing in clinical practice.%目的:探讨2.5%碳酸氢钠在重症神经疾病患者口腔护理中的应用价值。方法把收住在我附院神经外科的68例重症神经疾病患者,随机分成观察组(35例)和对照组(33例);观察组予2.5%碳酸氢钠注射液口腔护理,对照组予生理盐水。口腔护理操作方法相同,每天操作2次,疗程均为14天,分别于第7天及第14天观察两组患者医院获得性肺炎的发生率;及行痰真菌培养检查,观察两组肺部真菌感染发生率。结果观察组医院获得性肺炎及肺部真菌感染率少于对照组,两组比较有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论以2.5%碳酸氢钠注射液进行口腔护理,能有效减少重症神经疾病患者医院获得性肺炎及肺部真菌感染的发生率。

  8. 靶动脉灌注NaHCO3提高部分抗肿瘤药物疗效的基础及临床研究%Basic and clinical study of increased effect of partial anti-tumor agents by infusing sodium bicarbonate through target artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingsheng Fan; Shicun Wang; Lin Xiu; Jide Li; Kehai Feng; Feihu Chen; Xinmin Lin; Jiansheng Zhuang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of pH value on the proliferation of LAK cells and on the killing effect of rIL-2,IFN-α2b, TNF-α, LAK cells and doxorubicin on malignant tumor cells, and investigate the possibility of increasing the efficacy of rIL-2 or IFN-α2b and doxorubicin by infusing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) through target arteries. Methods: Separating single nucleus cells from peripheral blood of healthy men, and observing the influence of pH on the activation of single nucleus cells by rIL-2. MTT assay was used to measure the killing effect of rIL-2, IFN-α2b and TNF-α on 7404 cells and the increased effect of doxorubicin on rIL-2 and IFN-α2b, the cytotoxity of LAK cells in different pH. Forty-two patients with advanced primary liver cancer were obtained by stratified random, NaHCO3, rIL-2/IFN-α2b and doxorubicin were infused through target arteries. The efficacy was estimated after two cycles. Results: The conditions of pH 7.3 and pH 7.6 in vitro helped the proliferation of LAK cells and the killing effect of rIL-2, IFN-α2b and LAK cells on 7404 cells. In the condition of pH 6.8 there was almost no killing effect for LAK cells. In the condition of pH 7.0, 7.2, 7.4 and 7.6, the killing rate of TNF-α to 7404 cells increased by degrees, and in pH 7.4 the killing effect was the optimum. After two cycles treatments in the 42 patients with advanced primary liver cancer,the response rate (CR+PR) was 88% (37/42). The median overall response and median overall survival were increased, and no complication associated with infusing sodium bicarbonate was observed. Conclusion: The killing effect of rIL-2, IFN-α2b, TNF-αand doxorubicin on malignant tumor cells was enhanced by increasing the pH value.

  9. The use of sodium bicarbonate in stages in treating hypoperfusion induced lactic acidemia in septic shock%碳酸氢钠在感染性休克致低灌注性乳酸酸中毒时的分阶段应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小枫; 叶纪录; 朱志云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the use of sodium bicarbonate in stages in treating hypoperfusion induced lactic acidemia due to septic shock.Methods In this prospective randomized,double-blind,controlled clinical trial,a total of 65 patients of hypoperfusion induced lactic acidemia due to septic shock admitted between April 2006 and April 2010 were assigned to two groups.Thirty-five patients of "stage" group sodium bicarbonate was used in two stages:in first stage sodium bicarbonate was given by venous drip until pH ≥7.15,and in second stage sodium bicarbonate was given by intravenous drip till pH ≥7.25 after 6 hours.Thirty patients in control group intravenous drip of sodium bicarbonate was used till pH ≥7.15.Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) was used in the first 6 hours of fluid resuscitation.The number of dysfunction organ,time of mechanical ventilation,maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score,delta SOFA score,durations of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital,and mortality were recorded in two groups.Blood gas analysis and index of hemodynamics were monitored at 0 hour and 8 hours in both groups.Results Compared with control group,"stage" group was associated with a lower number of dysfunction organ,time of mechanical ventilation (days),maximum SOFA score,delta SOFA score,durations of stay in ICU (days) and in hospital (days),and mortality (number of dysfunction organ:2.68 ± 0.79 vs.3.28 ± 0.80,time of mechanical ventilation:10.32 ± 2.26 vs.13.80 ± 2.56,maximum SOFA score:11.01 ± 2.26 vs.13.11 ± 2.26,delta SOFA score:1.71 ± 1.25 vs.3.43 ± 1.27,duration of stay in ICU:14.0 ±3.6 vs.20.0 ±3.7,duration of stay in hospital:28.3 ± 12.9 vs.41.9 ± 13.2,mortality:34.28% vs.60.00%,P<0.05 or P<0.01).There were no significant differences in blood gas analysis and index of hemodynamics at 0 hour,and they were improved at 8 hours.Compared with control group,in "stage" group,lactic acid (Lac,mmol/L) was significantly lowered (1

  10. 2.5% sodium bicarbonate solution line oral prevention ICU ventilator-associated pneumonia%2.5%碳酸氢钠溶液行口腔冲洗预防ICU呼吸机相关性肺炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志兰; 苏冰连; 谢月霞; 李锦

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effective oral nursing methods of critically ill patients with orotracheal intubatton in order to reduce oral infection,reduce oral colonization,cut off the stomach-oral-pulmonary infection route,and reduce the number of ventilator-associated pneumonia.Methods Research methods for prospective cohort study.According to the random number will be subject,the cases were divided into experimental group and control group.Experimental group was given 2.5% sodium bicarbonate solution line cleaning,washing and rinsing the oral cavity,three times a day.The control group was given normal saline line cleaning,washing,cotton mouth.Two groups were made at the oral care before and after determination of the pH value after 48 hours.Sicksinus sputum culture and oral monitoring colonization were analyzed of two sets of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence..Results The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in experimental group was reduced (P,and the fungal infection rate was significantly decreased..Conclusions With 2.5% sodium bicarbonate solution line of oral rinse can effectively reduce oral colonization and decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia.%目的 探讨经口气管插管危重患者口腔护理方法,以减少口腔感染,减少口腔定植菌,切断胃-口腔-肺感染途径,减少呼吸机相关性肺炎.方法 采用前瞻性队列研究,按随机数字将受试对象分实验组和对照组.实验组每天采用2.5%碳酸氢钠溶液行口腔擦洗加冲洗,每天3次,对照组用生理盐水棉球行口腔擦洗,两组均在口腔护理前后测定pH值,48 h后行痰培养及口腔定植菌监测,分析两组患者呼吸机相关性肺炎(VAP)发生率、病原学检测结果.结果 实验组呼吸机相关性肺炎发生率降低(P<0.05),真菌感染率明显降低,口腔定植菌减少.结论 采用2.5%碳酸氢钠溶液行口腔冲洗可有效减少口腔定植菌,降低呼吸机相关性肺炎发生率.

  11. Utilização de Resíduos Gerados por Indústria do Setor Sucroalcoleiro, Pela RAUDI Indústria e Comércio LTDA, na Produção de Bicarbonato de Sódio. = Use of Residues Generated for the Sugar-Alcohol Industry Sector, by The RAUDI Industry and Commerce Limited, in the Sodium Bicarbonate Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico F. da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A consciência ecológica está intimamente ligada à preservação do meio ambiente. A importância da preservação dos recursos naturais passou a ser preocupação mundial e nenhum país pode eximir-se de sua responsabilidade. Essa necessidade de proteção do ambiente é antiga e surgiu quando o homem passou a valorizar a natureza, mas não de maneira tão acentuada como nos dias de hoje. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo, passar ao leitor como é possível a utilização de resíduos na obtenção de novos produtos ecologicamente corretos, como o uso de resíduos poluentes de uma usina de álcool transformando-os em matéria prima no processo de fabricação do bicarbonato de sódio. = The ecological conscience is intimately linked to the preservation of the environment. The importance of the preservation of the natural resources became a world-wide concern and no country can be exempted of its responsibility. This necessity of protection of the environment is not a new thing and appeared when man started to value nature, but not in an accentuated way as nowadays. This work has as objective, to inform the reader as to the use of residues in the attainment of new ecologically correct products possible, as the use of pollutant residues of an alcohol plant transforming them into substance in the process of manufacturing sodium bicarbonate.

  12. 缺锌和 HCO3-处理对诸葛菜和油菜有机酸特征的影响%Effects of zinc deficiency and bicarbonate treatments on the characteristics of organic acids of Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宽; 吴沿友; 周葆华

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of organic acids in plant organs (roots,stems and leaves),and root exudates of seedlings of Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus were investigated under the stress of Zn deficiency and excessive bicarbonate by ion chromatography,the two plant species were hydroponically grown and cultured in four different treatments:+Zn0 (the treatment of adequate Zn and none HCO3 - ),+Zn10 (the treatment of adequate Zn and HCO3 - addition),-Zn0 (the treatment of Zn deficiency and none HCO3 -),and -Zn10 (the treatment of Zn defi-ciency and HCO3 - addition),respectively.The results were as follows:(1)The total content of organic acids in plant organs and root exudations of the two plant species were significantly increased under excessive bicarbonate treat-ment,particularly under the dual treatment of Zn deficiency and excessive bicarbonate conditions (- Zn10 treat-ment),the organic acids in organs and root exudates of O .violaceus were more sensitive than that of B .napus ,oxal-ic,citric and malic acids were the dominant organic acids in organs and root exudates of O .violaceus ,the content of these three organic acids took account for more than seventy five percent of the total content of organic acids in organs and root exudates of O .violaceus ;(2)The leave was the maln region of organic acids production of the two plant species,the content and the allocated proportion of organic acids decreased from aboveground parts (leaves and stems)to belowground parts;(3)The variation trends of organic acids contents of organs were identical with that of root exudates in O .violaceus and B .napus ,and the source of organic acids in leaves of the two plant species was de-rived from the processes of dark respiration and photorespiration,while the source of organic acids in other organs such as stems and roots,as well as the source of organic acids in root exudates were come from the process of dark respiration;(4)The adaptability to the environment of low Zn and

  13. Active transport and accumulation of bicarbonate by a unicellular cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A G; Colman, B

    1980-09-01

    The rates of inorganic carbon accumulation and carbon fixation in light by the unicellular cyanobacterim Coccohloris peniocystis have been determined. Cells incubated in the light in medium containing H14CO3- were rapidly separated from the medium by centrifugation through silicone oil into a strongly basic terminating solution. Samples of these inactivated cells were assayed to determine total 14C accumulation, and acid-treated samples were assayed to determine 14C fixation. The rate of transport of inorganic into illuminated cells was faster than the rate of CO2 production in the medium from HCO3- dehydration. This evidence for HCO3- transport in these cells is in agreement with our previous results based upon measurements of photosynthetic O2 evolution. A substantial pool of inorganic carbon was bulit up within the cells presumably as HCO3- before the onset of the maximum rate of photosynthesis. Large accumulation ratios were observed, greater than 1,000 times the external HCO3- concentration. Accumulation did not occur in the dark and was greatly suppressed by the photosynthesis inhibitors 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea and 3-chloro-carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone. These results indicate that the accumulation of inorganic carbon in these cells involves a light-dependent active transport process. PMID:6773925

  14. Bicarbonate and ammonia changes in brain during spreading depression1

    OpenAIRE

    Kraig, R.P.; Cooper, A. J. L.

    1987-01-01

    An alkaline, followed by an acid-going transient, characterizes acid–base changes in the interstitial space during spreading depression in a variety of brain structures. In rat, such changes are associated with a significant rise in brain lactate content. How brain proton buffers behave during spreading depression is unknown. Techniques to significantly improve the response time of gas permeable membrane semnimicroelectrodes for carbon dioxide and ammonia are reported. Measurements with such ...

  15. The 13C bicarbonate method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghans, Peter; Larsson, Caroline; Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2015-01-01

    2 production calculated by the (13)C-BM, RaCO2((13)C) is compared to the result from the indirect calorimetry, RCO2(IC). In an interspecies comparison (dog, goat, horse, cattle, children, adult human; body mass ranging from 15 to 350 kg, resting and fasting conditions) we found an excellent...

  16. Dissolution experiments of commercial PWR (52 MWd/kgU) and BWR (53 MWd/kgU) spent nuclear fuel cladded segments in bicarbonate water under oxidizing conditions. Experimental determination of matrix and instant release fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, E.; Serrano-Purroy, D.; Sureda, R.; Casas, I.; de Pablo, J.

    2015-10-01

    The denominated instant release fraction (IRF) is considered in performance assessment (PA) exercises to govern the dose that could arise from the repository. A conservative definition of IRF comprises the total inventory of radionuclides located in the gap, fractures, and the grain boundaries and, if present, in the high burn-up structure (HBS). The values calculated from this theoretical approach correspond to an upper limit that likely does not correspond to what it will be expected to be instantaneously released in the real system. Trying to ascertain this IRF from an experimental point of view, static leaching experiments have been carried out with two commercial UO2 spent nuclear fuels (SNF): one from a pressurized water reactor (PWR), labelled PWR, with an average burn-up (BU) of 52 MWd/kgU and fission gas release (FGR) of 23.1%, and one from a boiling water reactor (BWR), labelled BWR, with an average BU of and 53 MWd/kgU and FGR of 3.9%. One sample of each SNF, consisting of fuel and cladding, has been leached in bicarbonate water during one year under oxidizing conditions at room temperature (25 ± 5)°C. The behaviour of the concentration measured in solution can be divided in two according to the release rate. All radionuclides presented an initial release rate that after some days levels down to a slower second one, which remains constant until the end of the experiment. Cumulative fraction of inventory in aqueous phase (FIAPc) values has been calculated. Results show faster release in the case of the PWR SNF. In both cases Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Y, Tc, La and Nd dissolve congruently with U, while dissolution of Zr, Ru and Rh is slower. Rb, Sr, Cs and Mo, dissolve faster than U. The IRF of Cs at 10 and 200 days has been calculated, being (3.10 ± 0.62) and (3.66 ± 0.73) for PWR fuel, and (0.35 ± 0.07) and (0.51 ± 0.10) for BWR fuel.

  17. 鞘内注射误用碳酸氢钠注射液为溶媒致下肢麻木、高热及尿潴留%Lower extremity numbness, fever, and urinary retention due to misuse of sodium bicarbonate for intrathecal injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏; 张文; 席亚明

    2013-01-01

    1例61岁男性急性淋巴细胞白血病患者行化疗药物鞘内注射,因医生配药时拿错药物,误将5%碳酸氢钠注射液用作化疗药物溶媒.鞘内注射完毕后患者即出现下肢麻木,继之出现寒战、高热(体温最高40.1℃)、大汗、血压升高(190~210/106~110 mm Hg,1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)、心率增快(170~ 180次/min)、尿潴留.给予甲泼尼龙、甘露醇静脉滴注,同时给予补液及导尿等处理.4h后患者体温、血压、心率恢复正常,6h后下肢麻木消失,12 h后可自行排尿.随访1周,患者未再出现类似症状.%A 61-year-old male patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia received intrathecal injection of chemotherapy drugs.A doctor in charge took mistakenly the 5% sodium bicarbonate injection as solvent.After intrathecal injection,the patient presented lower limbs numbness,followed by chills,fever (peak temperature 40.1 ℃),sweating,elevated blood pressure (190-210/106-110 mm Hg),increased heart rate (170-180 beats/min),and urinary retention.The patient was given an Ⅳ infusion of methylprednisolone and mannitol,and at the same time,fluid supplement and urethral catheterization were given.The patient's temperature,blood pressure,and heart rate returned to normal 4 hours later,numbness of lower limbs disappeared 6 hours later,and urinated on himself 12 hours later.There was no similar symptoms recurrence at one-week follow up.

  18. Efeito do bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento de vinhaça em AnSBBR operado a 55 e 35ºC Effect of the sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of vinasse in AnSBBR operated at 55 and 35ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ribas Döll

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3 no desempenho do reator anaeróbio batelada sequencial com biomassa imobilizada tratando vinhaça a 55 e a 35ºC. O reator foi preenchido com espuma de poliuretano e agitado a 300 rpm. A adaptação a 55ºC estendeu-se por 50 dias, tendo o reator sido alimentado com vinhaça (DQO de 0,3 a 1,0 g/L. Para a operação a 35ºC, procedeu-se inicialmente ao enriquecimento da população metanogênica, durante 21 dias, com substrato à base de etanol (2,5 gDQO/L. Posteriormente, cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV de 0,85 a 5,70 gDQO/L.d foram aplicadas no reator a 55ºC, com suplementação de 1,2 a 0,4 gHCO3-/gDQO. A 35ºC, o reator foi submetido a COV de 2,85 a 36,0 gDQO/L.d com 0,4 a 0,2 gHCO3-/gDQO. A remoção de DQO variou de 43 a 78% a 55ºC e de 75 a 85% a 35ºC. A suplementação de alcalinidade mostrou-se essencial para a estabilidade do processo, sendo requerida em menor quantidade a 35ºC.The influence of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating vinasse at 55 and 35ºC was evaluated. The reactor was filled with polyurethane foam and agitated at 300 rpm. The acclimatization period at 55ºC lasted 50 days, and the reactor was fed with vinasse (COD from 0.3 to 1.0 g/L. A previous enrichment of methanogenic population was provided for the reactor operated at 35ºC, feeding it with an ethanol based substrate (2.5 gCOD/L during 21 days. Further on, organic loading rates (OLR ranging from 0.85 to 5.70 gCOD/L.d were applied to the reactor at 55ºC, supplemented with 1.2 to 0.4 gHCO3-/gCOD. At 35ºC the reactor was subjected to OLR ranging from 2.85 to 36.0 gCOD/L.d with 0.4 to 0.2 gHCO3-/gCOD. COD removal ranged from 43 to 78% at 55ºC and from 75 to 85% at 35ºC. Alkalinity supplementation was found to be essential for process stability, but the amount required was lower at 35ºC.

  19. Avaliação da acurácia de diversos métodos para determinação de ácidos graxos voláteis e alcalinidade a bicarbonato para monitoramento de reatores anaeróbios Evaluation of the accuracy of several methods for determination of volatile fatty acids and bicarbonate alkalinity for the monitoring of anaerobic reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ferreira Ribas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de tratamento anaeróbios são sensíveis às mudanças de condições ambientais que influenciam no metabolismo dos microrganismos responsáveis pela estabilidade do processo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram (i avaliar a acurácia de métodos que determinam os parâmetros de controle ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV e alcalinidade a bicarbonato (AB em amostras preparadas com concentrações de 50 a 1000 mg/L e, (ii verificar diferentes procedimentos de remoção de CO2 formado durante titulação ácida das amostras. A partir do teste estatístico de Tukey aplicado aos resultados obtidos, observou-se que os métodos Kapp e DiLallo & Albertson com utilização de ultra-som para a remoção de CO2 do meio líquido apresentaram os melhores resultados para AGV. Os métodos da Condutividade, Kapp e Jenkins se destacaram na determinação de AB.Anaerobic treatment systems are sensitive to the environmental condition changes. Such changes may have influence on the metabolism of the microorganisms responsible for the process stability. The aims of this work were (i to evaluate the accuracy of methods to determine control parameters volatile fatty acids (VFA and bicarbonate alkalinity (BA in samples prepared with concentrations from 50 to 1000 mg/L and, (ii to verify different procedures of the CO2 removal formed during the acid titration of the samples. From the Tukey statistical test applied to the obtained results it was observed that the Kapp and DiLallo & Albertson methods using sonic equipment to remove CO2 from the liquid presented better results for VFA. The Conductivity, Kapp and Jenkins methods were considered the most reliable for BA determination.

  20. Np(V)/Np(IV) in concentrated carbonate/bicarbonate solutions; Np(V)/Np(IV) en solutions carbonate/bicarbonate concentrees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.; Vitorge, P.; Capdevila, H.

    1996-01-01

    A 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution of Np(V) is electrolysed to Np(IV) at -2.0 V/SHE. -1g(H{sup +}) is decreased from 10.4 to 7.2 by bubbling CO{sub 2} in these solutions, where Np(IV) spectra can be interpreted with the only lost of one CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anion from the Np(IV) limiting complex. From these spectral changes, the following parameters are fitted: 20.5 {+-} 2.1, 8.44 {+-} 0.9 and 28.9 {+-} 2.9 l/mol./cm for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} molar absorptivity at 823, 990 and 1013 nm respectively, and 54.5 {+-} 5.5, 40.6 {+-} 4.1 and 8.53 {+-} 0.9 for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-} ones, and log((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-}) / ((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-})(CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}))) = 1.47 {+-} 0.08, 1.63 {+-} 0.05, 1.80 {+-} 0.04, 1.79 {+-} 0.10 and 2.21 {+-} 0.03 at the half point reaction in initially 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. These values are extrapolated to 0 ionic strength by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT). The redox potential of 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions of Np(V) and Np(IV) mixtures, is stable usually after three hours at T from 5 to 60 deg C, and then for up to three weeks at 21.5 deg C. At 25 deg C, its values are 0.247, 0.234, 0.244 and 0.228 V/SEH in 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. When the tonic strength is equal to 0: E = 0.52 {+-} 0.1 V/SEH and {Delta}S/F = -1.1 {+-} 0.7 mV. deg C{sup -1}. Assuming this potential is controlled by the NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 5-} + 2 CO{sub 2} + e{sup -} {r_reversible} Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} equilibrium, the formation constant of the limiting complex is deduced by using published values of the other needed equilibria: log {Beta}{sub 5}{sup d}eg = 38 {+-} 4. Qualitative results on the preparation and on the spectra of Np(IV) are used to explain the apparent contradictions between some published results. (authors). 39 refs., figs., tabs.

  1. Np(V) and Np(VI) in bicarbonate/carbonate aqueous solutions; Np(V) et Np(VI) en solution aqueuse bicarbonate/carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorge, P.; Capdevila, H

    1998-12-31

    Formation constants for NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub i}{sup l2i} (i = 1, 2 and 3), NaNpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3(s)} and Na{sub 3}NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2(s)} are deduced from Simakin`s et al. (1977), Maya`s (1983), and Vitorge`s et al. data, who also found evidence for a mixed Np(V)-OH-CO{sub 3} soluble complex. Simakin (1977) found NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup -4}, it was confirmed by Riglet (1989), and by Offerle, Capdevilla and Vittorge (1995). Temperature influence was studied by Ullman and Schreiner (1988), and by Offerle, Capdevila and Vittorge (1995). Grenthe, Riglet and Vitorge (1986 and 1989) proved the existence of the trinuclear species (NpO{sub 2}){sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -6}. Maya (1984) mis-interpreted his data; nevertheless they show evidence of a new polynuclear mixed species, certainly (NpO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OH){sub 3}CO{sub 3}{sup -1}, as initially proposed by Maya. No other Np(V) or Np(VI) soluble complex could be detected, the proposed ones quantitatively account for all published works. Unpublished data allowed to estimate the stability of intermediary mononuclear complexes and NpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3(s)} solubility product. M{sub 4}NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3(s)} (M{sup +} = K{sup +} or NH{sub 4}{sup +}) ones are deduced from Gorbenko-Germanov and Klimov (1966), and Moskvin (1975) data as respectively interpreted and reinterpreted by this review. Thermodynamic data determined in this report are under discussion within OECD-NEA-TDB. (author)

  2. CFTR mediates bicarbonate-dependent activation of miR-125b in preimplantation embryo development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Chao Lu; Alvin Chun Hang Ma; Anskar Yu Hung Leung; He Feng Huang; Hsiao Chang Chan; Hui Chen; Kin Lam Fok; Lai Ling Tsang; Mei Kuen Yu; Xiao Hu Zhang; Jing Chen; Xiaohua Jiang; Yiu Wa Chung

    2012-01-01

    Although HCO3-is known to be required for early embryo development,its exact role remains elusive.Here we report that HCO3-acts as an environmental cue in regulating miR-125b expression through CFTR-mediated influx during preimplantation embryo development.The results show that the effect of HCO3-on preimplantation embryo development can be suppressed by interfering the function of a HCO3--conducting channel,CFTR,by a specific inhibitor or gene knockout.Removal of extracellular HCO3-or inhibition of CFTR reduces miR-125b expression in 2 cell-stage mouse embryos.Knockdown of miR-125b mimics the effect of HCO3-removal and CFTR inhibition,while injection of miR-125b precursor reverses it.Downregulation of miR-125b upregulates p53 cascade in both human and mouse embryos.The activation of miR-125b is shown to be mediated by sAC/PKA-dependent nuclear shuttling of NF-KB.These results have revealed a critical role of CFTR in signal transduction linking the environmental HCO3-to activation of miR-125b during preimplantation embryo development and indicated the importance of ion channels in regulation of miRNAs.

  3. Effect of Cl- on photosynthetic bicarbonate uptake in two cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Synechocystis PCC6803

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhen; CHENG HuiMin; CHEN XiongWen

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthetic inorganic carbon utilization was investigated in two cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Synechocystis PCC6803 grown in standing culture. Photosynthetic rates for the two algae reached about 10 times the theoretical CO2 supply rate at low dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of 100 μmol/L, and the rates were unaffected by the addition of 20 mmol/L Na+, indicating that the two algae possessed Na+-independent HCO3- utilization for photosynthesis under low DIC. Their photo-synthetic rates at low DIC were inhibited by higher Cl-and the degrees of inhibition were increased with the rise of Cl- concentration, and in the presence of Diphenylamine-2-carboxylate (DPC), a reported Cl-channel inhibitor, the rates decreased by 74%-82%, implying that putative DPC-sensitive Cl- channels participate In Na+-indepandent HCO3- uptake for photosynthesis. The experiment of intracellular 14C-DIC accumulation for photosynthesis showed that internal DIC pools decreased by about 80% with 200 pmol/L DPC and by 64%-70% with 100 mmol/L Cl-. The experiment of chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching showed that initial rates and extents of fluorescence quenching obviously decreased with 200 μmol/L DPC or 100 mmol/L Cl-. The two experiments gave further evidence that putative DPC-sen-sitive Cl- channels participate in Na+-independent HCO3- uptake for photosynthesis in the two algae grown in standing culture.

  4. Effect of bicarbonate on potassium conductance of isolated perfused rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Greger, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the K+ conductance in unstimulated and stimulated pancreatic ducts and to see how it is affected by provision of exogenous HCO3-/CO2. For this purpose we have applied electrophysiological techniques to perfused pancreatic ducts, which were diss...

  5. Process of attack of uraniferous ores by a solution of potassium carbonate and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidizing attack process of uraniferous ores by an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate and dicarbonate in which is introduced a gas containing oxygen under pressure. This process allowing a high solubilization of uranium in a soluble salt form

  6. Design requirements for uranium ion exchange from ammonium bicarbonate solutions in a fluidized system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluidized countercurrent ion-exchange system was developed, operated, and evaluated. The system consisted of integrated multiple-compartment absorption and elution columns in which the solution flows were continuous except for short periods when resin increments were withdrawn. The exchange of uranyl carbonate between a simulated in situ uranium leach liquor and a strong-base ion-exchange resin together with the subsequent elution with an ammonium chloride solution was studied. The effects of the number of sections, section height, amount of resin withdrawal, solution flow rate, and column diameter were investigated. The kinetic and equilibrium relationships for the absorption and elution steps were also examined. The experimental data indicate a strong interdependence between variables. Solution retention time appears to be a major limiting variable in the absorption process, while resin residence time is the determining factor in the elution process. The column was efficient over a range of conditions, but close control was needed for optimum operation. 30 figures

  7. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Mohamed Abouzeid; Hossam E ElHossary

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalini- zation medium, and this has been...

  8. Simultaneous Blood–Tissue Exchange of Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Bicarbonate, and Hydrogen Ion

    OpenAIRE

    Dash, Ranjan K.; BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, JAMES B.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed nonlinear four-region (red blood cell, plasma, interstitial fluid, and parenchymal cell) axially distributed convection-diffusion-permeation-reaction-binding computational model is developed to study the simultaneous transport and exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood–tissue exchange system of the heart. Since the pH variation in blood and tissue influences the transport and exchange of O2 and CO2 (Bohr and Haldane effects), and since most ...

  9. IL-17A Induces Pendrin Expression and Chloride-Bicarbonate Exchange in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Kelly M.; Abraham, Valsamma; Spielman, Daniel; Kolls, Jay K.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Conner, Gregory E.; Cohen, Noam A.; Kreindler, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to ...

  10. Effect of ingested sodium bicarbonate on muscle force, fatigue, and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitsky, O; Mizrahi, J; Levin, M; Isakov, E

    1997-08-01

    The influence of acute ingestion of NaHCO3 on fatigue and recovery of teh quadriceps femoris muscle after exercise was studied in six healthy male subjects. A bicycle ergometer was used for exercising under three loading conditions: test A, load corresponding to maximal oxygen consumption; test B, load in test A + 17%; test C, load in test B but performed 1 h after acute ingestion of NaHCO3. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was applied to provoke isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris. The resulting knee torque was monitored during fatigue (2-min chronic FES) and recovery (10-s FES every 10 min, for 40 min). Quadriceps torques were higher in the presence of NaHCO3 (P < 0.05): with NaHCO3 the peak, residual, and recovery (after 40 min) normalized torques were, respectively, 0.68 +/- 0.05 (SD), 0.58 +/- 0.05, and 0.73 +/- 0.05; without NaHCO3 the values were 0.45 +/- 0.04, 0.30 +/- 0.06, and 0.63 +/- 0.06. The increased torques obtained after acute ingestion of NaHCO3 indicate the possible existence of improved nonoxidative glycolysis in isometric contraction, resulting in reduced fatigue and enhanced recovery. PMID:9296948

  11. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface on copper foil based on ammonium bicarbonate and paraffin wax coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and low cost approach was developed to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface on copper foil. The oxidation and etching of the copper foil surface were promoted in NH4HCO3 solution using a water and ethanol admixture as a component solvent. After 28 h in this solution, a hydrophilic rough surface structure was obtained on the copper foil surface. With modification using a paraffin wax coating, the hydrophilic rough copper surface changed to become hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. The surface morphology and wettability were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements, respectively. When the optimum concentration of paraffin wax was about 2 g L−1, its water contact angle could reach about 152 ± 1.5° and its sliding angle was around 7°. The formation mechanism of the rough copper surface was also explored in detail. Both the experimental process and the material are environmentally friendly. (paper)

  12. Np(V) and Np(VI) in bicarbonate/carbonate aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation constants for NpO2(CO3)il2i (i = 1, 2 and 3), NaNpO2CO3(s) and Na3NpO2(CO3)2(s) are deduced from Simakin's et al. (1977), Maya's (1983), and Vitorge's et al. data, who also found evidence for a mixed Np(V)-OH-CO3 soluble complex. Simakin (1977) found NpO2(CO3)3-4, it was confirmed by Riglet (1989), and by Offerle, Capdevilla and Vittorge (1995). Temperature influence was studied by Ullman and Schreiner (1988), and by Offerle, Capdevila and Vittorge (1995). Grenthe, Riglet and Vitorge (1986 and 1989) proved the existence of the trinuclear species (NpO2)3(CO3)6-6. Maya (1984) mis-interpreted his data; nevertheless they show evidence of a new polynuclear mixed species, certainly (NpO2)2(OH)3CO3-1, as initially proposed by Maya. No other Np(V) or Np(VI) soluble complex could be detected, the proposed ones quantitatively account for all published works. Unpublished data allowed to estimate the stability of intermediary mononuclear complexes and NpO2CO3(s) solubility product. M4NpO2(CO3)3(s) (M+ = K+ or NH4+) ones are deduced from Gorbenko-Germanov and Klimov (1966), and Moskvin (1975) data as respectively interpreted and reinterpreted by this review. Thermodynamic data determined in this report are under discussion within OECD-NEA-TDB. (author)

  13. A host defense mechanism involving CFTR-mediated bicarbonate secretion in bacterial prostatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostatitis is associated with a characteristic increase in prostatic fluid pH; however, the underlying mechanism and its physiological significance have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study a primary culture of rat prostatic epithelial cells and a rat prostatitis model were used. Here we reported the involvement of CFTR, a cAMP-activated anion channel conducting both Cl(- and HCO(3(-, in mediating prostate HCO(3(- secretion and its possible role in bacterial killing. Upon Escherichia coli (E. coli-LPS challenge, the expression of CFTR and carbonic anhydrase II (CA II, along with several pro-inflammatory cytokines was up-regulated in the primary culture of rat prostate epithelial cells. Inhibiting CFTR function in vitro or in vivo resulted in reduced bacterial killing by prostate epithelial cells or the prostate. High HCO(3(- content (>50 mM, rather than alkaline pH, was found to be responsible for bacterial killing. The direct action of HCO(3(- on bacterial killing was confirmed by its ability to increase cAMP production and suppress bacterial initiation factors in E. coli. The relevance of the CFTR-mediated HCO(3(- secretion in humans was demonstrated by the upregulated expression of CFTR and CAII in human prostatitis tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The CFTR and its mediated HCO(3(- secretion may be up-regulated in prostatitis as a host defense mechanism.

  14. Mechanism for high PCO2 in gastric juice: roles of bicarbonate secretion and CO2 diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M H; Thirlby, R C; Feldman, M

    1987-10-01

    The partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in gastric juice often exceeds the PCO2 of blood. CO2 in gastric juice may originate from blood and enter luminal fluid by diffusion, or CO2 may be produced in the lumen of the stomach from the reaction of HCO3- and H+. Because CO2 production from HCO3- is dependent on acid (low pH), we suppressed acid secretion with intravenous cimetidine to estimate to what extent appearance of CO2 in luminal fluid is due to production from HCO3-. When denervated fundic pouches of dogs were distended with saline, the PCO2 of the solution increased to the PCO2 of blood in approximately 20 min, with the initial rate of appearance of CO2 in the pouch solution only minimally affected by cimetidine. Thereafter, PCO2 of luminal fluid continued to increase to 50-60 mmHg in the absence of cimetidine, whereas PCO2 of luminal fluid remained approximately equal to that of blood when cimetidine was infused (P less than 0.001, cimetidine vs. control). The mean pH in the pouch solution remained between 6.3 and 6.9 during cimetidine infusion but decreased to 4.75 without cimetidine (P less than 0.001). In additional experiments, an acidic solution with high PCO2 (242 +/- 3 mmHg) was infused into the fundic pouches. PCO2 in luminal fluid decreased rather slowly toward plasma PCO2, requiring 240 min for luminal fluid PCO2 to decrease to 56 +/- 2 mmHg. Thus the permeability of the gastric mucosa to luminal CO2 was relatively low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3116857

  15. 13C NMR spectra of the uranyl tricarbonate-bicarbonate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13C NMR identification of the uranyl tricarbonate complex (important in solution mining of U from ore and conventional carbonate leaching) is reported. The NMR spectra show the transition from slow to fast carbonate exchange between uranyl ion and bulk water in an accessible temperature range. The taller NMR peak at 162.31 ppM is frm HCO3- and the smaller peak at 168.86 ppM is from the uranyl tricarbonate complex

  16. Photooxidation of americium(III) by water in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) and visible light on aqueous Am(III) solutions (1.1 x 10-4 mol/l) containing KHCO3 or K2CO3 or K2CO3 + KHCO3 were studied by spectrophotometry. It was found that Am(IV) was gradually formed upon irradiation with UV light. Its concentration settled at a value of approximately 60% of the initial Am(III) concentration within 6 h. Specially prepared Am (IV) was partially reduced to Am(III) concentration, pH, and total concentration of HCO3- and CO32-. The presence of oxygen had no effect on the rate of the process. Laser radiation of a wavelength of 510.6 nm produced no oxidation of Am(III). It was suggested that the excited complex ion of Am(III) forms an excimer with the unexcited ion Am(III); H2 elimnation from this excimer yields Am(IV)

  17. Corrosion control using hydroxide and bicarbonate alkalising agents in water drinking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Torres-Lozada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The water supply industry is faced with three phenomena of great importance: the aggressiveness, corrosion, and incrustation of water distribution systems (WDS, which are primarily due to the low alkalinity of water sources and the addition of chemicals used in water treatment processes, which require pH adjustments during the last stage of the treatment process before going into the WDS. This article presents the results of using Ca(OH2 and NaOH with doses between 2 and 20 mg L−1 and NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 between 10 and 250 mg L−1 to adjust the pH of water treated from the Cauca River, which is located in Cali, Colombia, using stabilisation indices normally used in water treatment plants for pH monitoring processes and to better predict the behaviour of water in the WDS. The results indicate that for the case of the surface water source studied, which exhibits low alkalinity levels, the evaluated alkalising agents, with the exception of NaHCO3, can create conditions that lead to the precipitation of a~protective calcium carbonate film. Because the pH values that guarantee an adequate pH adjustment are higher (8.7–9.0 than those specified by the Colombian water code and because other international rules indicate that these values do not compromise the health of consumers, it is advisable to review and adjust the code in this respect.

  18. Np(V)/Np(IV) in concentrated carbonate/bicarbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1.5 M Na2CO3 solution of Np(V) is electrolysed to Np(IV) at -2.0 V/SHE. -1g(H+) is decreased from 10.4 to 7.2 by bubbling CO2 in these solutions, where Np(IV) spectra can be interpreted with the only lost of one CO32- anion from the Np(IV) limiting complex. From these spectral changes, the following parameters are fitted: 20.5 ± 2.1, 8.44 ± 0.9 and 28.9 ± 2.9 l/mol./cm for the Np(CO3)56- molar absorptivity at 823, 990 and 1013 nm respectively, and 54.5 ± 5.5, 40.6 ± 4.1 and 8.53 ± 0.9 for the Np(CO3)44- ones, and log((Np(CO3)56-) / ((Np(CO3)44-)(CO32-))) = 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.63 ± 0.05, 1.80 ± 0.04, 1.79 ± 0.10 and 2.21 ± 0.03 at the half point reaction in initially 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M Na2CO3 solutions. These values are extrapolated to 0 ionic strength by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT). The redox potential of 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na2CO3 solutions of Np(V) and Np(IV) mixtures, is stable usually after three hours at T from 5 to 60 deg C, and then for up to three weeks at 21.5 deg C. At 25 deg C, its values are 0.247, 0.234, 0.244 and 0.228 V/SEH in 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na2CO3 solutions. When the tonic strength is equal to 0: E = 0.52 ± 0.1 V/SEH and ΔS/F = -1.1 ± 0.7 mV. deg C-1. Assuming this potential is controlled by the NpO2(CO3)35- + 2 CO2 + e- ↔ Np(CO3)56- equilibrium, the formation constant of the limiting complex is deduced by using published values of the other needed equilibria: log Β5deg = 38 ± 4. Qualitative results on the preparation and on the spectra of Np(IV) are used to explain the apparent contradictions between some published results. (authors). 39 refs., figs., tabs

  19. The Effect of Potassium Bicarbonate on Bone and Several Physiological Systems During Immobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Bone Metabolism; Acid- Base Balance; Muscle Metabolism; Muscle Strenght, Muscle Power and Muscle Volume; Protein Metabolim; Body Weight and Body Composition; Cardiovascular System; Neuro- Vestibular System

  20. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on site and extent of digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    Six yearling Hereford X Angus steers (avg 272 kg), each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 6 X 6 Latin-square metabolism trial to evaluate the impact of NaHCO3 and trona (a ground, nonrefined ore with chemical composition NaHCO3-Na2CO3-2H2O) on site and extent of digestion of nutrients in the digestive tract. The diets were 50:50 or 90:10 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3, or 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Dry matter (DM) and starch digestibility (via indigestible acid detergent fiber) before the duodenum was decreased (P less than .10) with trona in the 50:50 diet. Digestibility of DM, crude protein and starch before the ileum were greater (P less than .05) in the 90:10 diet vs 50:50 diet. Total tract digestibility was similar across buffer treatments in the 90:10 diet. Addition of NaHCO3 increased (P less than .05) digestibility of dry matter and cell solubles in the 50:50 diet. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were also increased (P less than .10) with NaHCO3. Apparent crude protein and cell solubles digestibility were greater (P less than .10) with trona than NaHCO3 in the 50:50 diet. This trial indicates that buffers provide overall enhancement of diet digestibility in mixed grain/roughage diets. PMID:3038822

  1. The divergence, actions, roles, and relatives of sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mark D; Boron, Walter F

    2013-04-01

    The mammalian Slc4 (Solute carrier 4) family of transporters is a functionally diverse group of 10 multi-spanning membrane proteins that includes three Cl-HCO3 exchangers (AE1-3), five Na(+)-coupled HCO3(-) transporters (NCBTs), and two other unusual members (AE4, BTR1). In this review, we mainly focus on the five mammalian NCBTs-NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2. Each plays a specialized role in maintaining intracellular pH and, by contributing to the movement of HCO3(-) across epithelia, in maintaining whole-body pH and otherwise contributing to epithelial transport. Disruptions involving NCBT genes are linked to blindness, deafness, proximal renal tubular acidosis, mental retardation, and epilepsy. We also review AE1-3, AE4, and BTR1, addressing their relevance to the study of NCBTs. This review draws together recent advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic origins and physiological relevance of NCBTs and their progenitors. Underlying these advances is progress in such diverse disciplines as physiology, molecular biology, genetics, immunocytochemistry, proteomics, and structural biology. This review highlights the key similarities and differences between individual NCBTs and the genes that encode them and also clarifies the sometimes confusing NCBT nomenclature. PMID:23589833

  2. Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Pimenta; J.F.M. Silva; Coelho, C. M.; Morais, P B; Rosa, C.A.; Corrêa Jr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in ass...

  3. Electron transfer across anodic films formed on tin in carbonate-bicarbonate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impedance and steady-state data were recorded in order to study the kinetics of electron transfer between passive tin electrodes and an electrolytic solution containing the K3Fe(CN)6-K4Fe(CN)6 redox couple. Film thickness plays a key role in determining the type of electronic conduction of these oxide covered electrodes. Electron exchange with the oxide takes place with participation of the conduction band in the semiconducting film. A mechanism involving direct electron tunneling through the space charge barrier is the most suitable to interpret the experimental evidence

  4. Apical ammonium inhibition of cAMP-stimulated secretion in T84 cells is bicarbonate dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Roger T; Best, Alison; Crawford, Oscar R; Xu, Jie; Soleimani, Manoocher; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2005-10-01

    Normal human colonic luminal (NH(4)(+)) concentration ([NH(4)(+)]) ranges from approximately 10 to 100 mM. However, the nature of the effects of NH(4)(+) on transport, as well as NH(4)(+) transport itself, in colonic epithelium is poorly understood. We elucidate here the effects of apical NH(4)(+) on cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) secretion in colonic T84 cells. In HEPES-buffered solutions, 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) had no significant effect on cAMP-stimulated current. In contrast, 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) reduced current within 5 min to 61 +/- 4% in the presence of 25 mM HCO(3)(-). Current inhibition was not simply due to an increase in extracellular K(+)-like cations, in that the current magnitude was 95 +/- 5% with 10 mM apical K(+) and 46 +/- 3% with 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) relative to that with 5 mM apical K(+). We previously demonstrated that inhibition of Cl(-) secretion by basolateral NH(4)(+) occurs in HCO(3)(-)-free conditions and exhibits anomalous mole fraction behavior. In contrast, apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of current in HCO(3)(-) buffer did not show anomalous mole fraction behavior and followed the absolute [NH(4)(+)] in K(+)-NH(4)(+) mixtures, where K(+) concentration + [NH(4)(+)] = 10 mM. The apical NH(4)(+) inhibitory effect was not prevented by 100 microM methazolamide, suggesting no role for apical carbonic anhydrase. However, apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of current was prevented by 10 min of pretreatment of the apical surface with 500 microM DIDS, 100 microM 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS), or 25 microM niflumic acid, suggesting a role for NH(4)(+) action through an apical anion exchanger. mRNA and protein for the apical anion exchangers SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] and SLC26A6 [putative anion transporter (PAT1)] were detected in T84 cells by RT-PCR and Northern and Western blots. DRA and PAT1 appear to associate with CFTR in the apical membrane. We conclude that the HCO(3)(-) dependence of apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of secretion is due to the action of NH(4)(+) on an apical anion exchanger. PMID:16002564

  5. A Comparison of Treating Metabolic Acidosis in CKD Stage 4 Hypertensive Kidney Disease with Fruits and Vegetables or Sodium Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Current guidelines recommend Na+-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) < 22 mM. Because diets in industrialized societies are typically acid-producing, we compared base-producing fruits and vegetables with oral NaHCO3 (HCO3) regarding the primary outcome of follow-up estimated GFR (eGFR) and secondary outcomes of improved metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15–29 ml/min per 1.73 m2) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level < 22 mM, and were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition were randomly assigned to 1 year of daily oral NaHCO3 at 1.0 mEq/kg per day (n=35) or fruits and vegetables dosed to reduce dietary acid by half (n=36). Results Plasma cystatin C–calculated eGFR did not differ at baseline and 1 year between groups. One-year PTCO2 was higher than baseline in the HCO3 group (21.2±1.3 versus 19.5±1.5 mM; P<0.01) and the fruits and vegetables group (19.9±1.7 versus 19.3±1.9 mM; P<0.01), consistent with improved metabolic acidosis, and was higher in the HCO3 than the fruits and vegetable group (P<0.001). One-year urine indices of kidney injury were lower than baseline in both groups. Plasma [K+] did not increase in either group. Conclusions One year of fruits and vegetables or NaHCO3 in individuals with stage 4 CKD yielded eGFR that was not different, was associated with higher-than-baseline PTCO2, and was associated with lower-than-baseline urine indices of kidney injury. The data indicate that fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia. PMID:23393104

  6. Dynamics of seasonal bicarbonate supply in a dune slack: Effects on organic matter, nitrogen pool and vegetation succession

    OpenAIRE

    Sival, FP; Grootjans, AP

    1996-01-01

    The seasonal variation in groundwater composition was studied in an old dune slack complex on the Wadden Sea island of Schiermonnikoog that recently had lost practically all rare basiphilous plant species. In order to assess its restoration perspectives the groundwater acid neutralization capacity (ANC(aq)) of various sites was discussed in relation to the decalcification depth, amount of organic matter and amount of nitrogen in the topsoil layer. The decalcification depth reflected the (form...

  7. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Tresguerres, M.; Barott, KL; Barron, ME; Roa, JN

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3 -, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3 - sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sA...

  8. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  9. Entry and exit pathways of CO2 in rat liver mitochondria respiring in a bicarbonate buffer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, E; Lehninger, A L

    1986-03-15

    The dynamics and pathways of CO2 movements across the membranes of mitochondria respiring in vitro in a CO2/HCO-3 buffer at concentrations close to that in intact rat tissues were continuously monitored with a gas-permeable CO2-sensitive electrode. O2 uptake and pH changes were monitored simultaneously. Factors affecting CO2 entry were examined under conditions in which CO2 uptake was coupled to electrophoretic influx of K+ (in the presence of valinomycin) or Ca2+. The role of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) in CO2 entry was evaluated by comparison of CO2 uptake by rat liver mitochondria, which possess carbonic anhydrase, versus rat heart mitochondria, which lack carbonic anhydrase. Such studies showed that matrix carbonic anhydrase activity is essential for rapid net uptake of CO2 with K+ or Ca2+. Studies with acetazolamide (Diamox), a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, confirmed the requirement of matrix carbonic anhydrase for net CO2 uptake. It was shown that at pH 7.2 the major species leaving respiring mitochondria is dissolved CO2, rather than HCO-3 or H2CO3 suggested by earlier reports. Efflux of endogenous CO2/HCO-3 is significantly inhibited by inhibitors of the dicarboxylate and tricarboxylate transport systems of the rat liver inner membrane. The possibility that these anion carriers mediate outward transport of HCO-3 is discussed. PMID:3081508

  10. Kinetics of conversion of celestite to strontium carbonate in solutions containing carbonate, bicarbonate and ammonium ions and dissolved ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraga Mert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Celestite concentrate (SrSO4 has been converted to SrCO3 in solutions containing CO32-, HCO3- and NH4+ ions and dissolved ammonia. The effects of stirring speed, CO32- ion concentration; temperature and particle size of SrSO4 on the reaction rate were investigated. It was found that the conversion of SrSO4 was increased by increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle size, while the reaction rate was decreased with increasing the CO32- ion concentration. However, there was no effect of the stirring speed on the reaction rate. The conversion reaction was under chemical reaction control and the Shrinking Core Model was suitable to explain the reaction kinetics. The activation energy for the conversion reaction was found to be 41.9 kJ mol-1. The amounts of the elements in the reaction solution were determined quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The characterization of the solid reactant and product was made using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction analytical techniques.

  11. Elodea canadensis under N and CO2 limitation : Adaptive changes in Rubisco and PEPCase activity in a bicarbonate user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ginkel, LC; Schutz, [No Value; Prins, HBA

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion of CO2 in water is 10,000 times slower than in air. Because of this photosynthesis in submerged aquatic macrophytes is often limited by CO2 availability. Elodea canadensis shows HCO3- utilization under conditions of CO2 limitation. A closely related species, Hydrilla verticillata, which al

  12. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation lowers bone turnover and calcium excretion in older men and women a randomized dose-finding trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acid load accompanying modern diets may have adverse effects on bone and muscle metabolism. Treatment with alkaline salts of potassium can neutralize the acid load, but the optimal amount of alkali is not established. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of two doses of potassium bic...

  13. A small synthetic molecule functions as a chloride-bicarbonate dual-transporter and induces chloride secretion in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Yun; Li, Shing-To; Shen, Fang-Fang; Ko, Wing-Hung; Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Dan

    2016-05-31

    A C2 symmetric small molecule composed of l-phenylalanine and isophthalamide was found to function as a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) dual transporter and self-assemble into chloride channels. In Ussing-chamber based short-circuit current measurements, this molecule elicited chloride-dependent short-circuit current (Isc) increase in both Calu-3 cell and CFBE41o-cell (with F508del mutant CFTR) monolayers. PMID:27188496

  14. Dynamics of seasonal bicarbonate supply in a dune slack : Effects on organic matter, nitrogen pool and vegetation succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, FP; Grootjans, AP

    1996-01-01

    The seasonal variation in groundwater composition was studied in an old dune slack complex on the Wadden Sea island of Schiermonnikoog that recently had lost practically all rare basiphilous plant species. In order to assess its restoration perspectives the groundwater acid neutralization capacity (

  15. Sodium bicarbonate versus isotonic saline solution to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andres Zapata-Chica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La nefropatía inducida por medio de contraste es una de las causas principales de lesión renal aguda, lo cual incrementa la morbilidad y mortalidad intrahospitalaria. La nefroprotección con bicarbonato de sodio ha surgido como una estrategia preventiva, sin embargo su eficacia es controversial cuando se compara con estrategias como la hidratación con solución salina al 0.9%.Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad del bicarbonato de sodio versus la hidratación con solución salina al 0.9% en la prevención de la lesión renal aguda inducida por contraste.Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de los estudios registrados en Cochrane, Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo Y Embase. Se incluyeron estudios aleatorizados, controlados donde se evaluó el uso de solución salina al 0.9% versus bicarbonato de sodio para prevenir la nefropatía por medio de contraste.Resultados: Se incluyeron 22 estudios (5,686 pacientes. El bicarbonato de sodio no disminuyó el riesgo de nefropatía inducida por contraste (DR= 0.00 IC 95%= -0.02-0.03; p= 0.83, I2= 0%. Tampoco se encontró diferencia significativa en la necesidad de terapia de reemplazo renal (DR= 0.00 IC 95%= -0.01-0-01, I2= 0%, p= 0.99; ni en la mortalidad (DR= -0.00, IC 95%= -0.001-0.001, I2= 0%, p= 0.51.Conclusiones: La administración de bicarbonato de sodio no es superior al suministro de solución salina al 0.9% en la prevención de nefropatía inducida por medio de contraste en pacientes con factores de riesgo. Su uso tampoco es superior en la reducción de mortalidad y el requerimiento de terapia de reemplazo renal.

  16. Measurement of Carbon Fixation Rates in Leaf Samples — Use of carbon-14 labeled sodium bicarbonate to estimate photosynthetic rates

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: David R. Caprette ### Generation of a Light Curve To address the hypothesis concerning photosynthetic efficiency it is necessary to expose sun and shade leaves to a range of light intensities long enough for them to fix significant amounts of carbon. It is necessary to expose identical surface areas under favorable conditions which are identical for all leaves except for light intensity (the experimental variable). A means of measuring the rate of carbon fixation is also neces...

  17. The Effect of Intraoperative Restricted Normal Saline during Orthotopic Liver Transplantation on Amount of Administered Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Sahmeddini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe metabolic acidosis occurs during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT particularly during the anhepatic phase. Although NaHCO3 is considered as the current standard therapy, there are numerous adverse effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether the restricted use of normal saline during anesthesia could reduce the need for NaHCO3. Methods: In this study we enrolled 75 patients with end-stage liver disease who underwent OLT from February 2010 until September 2010 at the Shiraz Organ Transplantation Center. Fluid management of two different transplant anesthetics were compared. The effect of restricted normal saline fluid was compared with non-restricted normal saline fluid on hemodynamic and acid-base parameters at three times during OLT: after the skin incision (T1, 15 min before reperfusion (T2, and 5 min after reperfusion (T3. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics of the donors and recipients (P>0.05. In the restricted normal saline group there was significantly lower central venous pressure (CVP than in the non-restricted normal saline group (P=0.002. No significant differences were noted in the other hemodynamic parameters between the two groups (P>0.05. In the non-restricted normal saline group arterial blood pH (P=0.01 and HCO3 (P=0.0001 were significantly less than the restricted normal saline group. The NaHCO3 requirement before reperfusion was significantly more than with the restricted normal saline group (P=0.001. Conclusion: Restricted normal saline administration during OLT reduced the severity of metabolic acidosis and the need for NaHCO3 during the anhepatic phase. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013110711662N5

  18. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NaHCO3 and trona in beef cattle diets. Trace element (n = 28) analysis revealed no toxicological or safety concerns with the use of trona. Trona was more (P less than .05) soluble in ruminal fluid than Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 and had greater (P less than .05) buffering capacity (9.6 meq/g) than NaHCO3 (6.1 meq/g) but less (P less than .05) than Na2CO3 (11.1 meq/g). Calcium carbonate was insoluble and did not buffer ruminal fluid. Six yearling (avg 272 kg) Hereford X Angus steers, each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas, were fed 50:50 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) or 90:10 concentrate diets with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3 or with 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Propionate (mmol/liter) increased (17.6 vs 13.5; P less than .05) and butyrate decreased (3.5 vs 5.2; P less than .05) with trona in the 90:10 diet as compared with no buffer. Propionate (16.8) increased (P less than .05) with NaHCO3 in the 90:10 diet. Average ruminal pH was greater (P less than .05) in 90:10 diets with trona or NaHCO3 than with no buffer (5.61, 5.61 vs 5.55); duodenal pH was greater (P less than .01) with trona than with no buffer (2.66 vs 2.55). Trona reduced ruminal pH-hours (P less than .05) and pH-area (P less than .12; time and area below mean pH of control) below control for both concentrate levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3038823

  19. The effect of bicarbonate on menadione-induced redox cycling and cytotoxicity: potential involvement of the carbonate radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuhani, Naif; Michail, Karim; Karapetyan, Zubeida; Siraki, Arno G

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of NaHCO3 on menadione redox cycling and cytotoxicity. A cell-free system utilized menadione and ascorbic acid to catalyze a redox cycle, and we utilized murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells for in vitro experiments. Experiments were performed using low (2 mmol/L) and physiological (25 mmol/L) levels of NaHCO3 in buffer equilibrated to physiological pH. Using oximetry, ascorbic acid oxidation, and ascorbyl radical detection, we found that menadione redox cycling was enhanced by NaHCO3. Furthermore, Hepa 1c1c7 cells treated with menadione demonstrated cytotoxicity that was significantly increased with physiological concentrations of NaHCO3 in the media, compared with low levels of NaHCO3. Interestingly, the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) with 2 different metal chelators was associated with a protective effect against menadione cytotoxicity. Using isolated protein, we found a significant increase in protein carbonyls with menadione-ascorbate-SOD with physiological NaHCO3 levels; low NaHCO3 or SOD-free reactions produced lower levels of protein carbonyls. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the hydrogen peroxide generated by menadione redox cycling together with NaHCO3-CO2 are potential substrates for SOD peroxidase activity that can lead to carbonate-radical-enhanced cytotoxicity. These findings demonstrate the importance of NaHCO3 in menadione redox cycling and cytotoxicity. PMID:24144048

  20. Effect of bicarbonate on fluoride reactivity with enamel = Efeito do bicarbonato na reatividade do fluoreto com esmalte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peres, Paulo Edelvar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O bicarbonato (HCO-3 é uma substância alcalina e tamponante encontrada em dentifrícios, que poderia melhorar o efeito anticárie do fluoreto (F. No entanto, HCO-3 poderia reduzir a formação de fluoreto de cálcio (CaF2, o mais importante produto da reatividade do F com esmalte, cuja formação é maior em baixo pH. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro se o HCO-3 interfere na reatividade do F com o esmalte humano. Metodologia: Cinco formulações de dentifrícios foram avaliadas: placebo de F e HCO-3 (pH 7,0; HCO-3 (pH 9,0; F (pH 7,0; F (pH 9,0 e F+HCO-3 (pH 9,0. Os dentifrícios fluoretados continham NaF e todos continham sílica como abrasivo. As concentrações de F total (FT, CaF2 e F firmemente ligado (FA, tipo flúorapatita formadas no esmalte após 1 minuto de reação com as suspensões dos dentifrícios (1:3 foram determinadas. Resultados: A formação de FT, CaF2 e FA foram reduzidas em 22,1 %; 47,9 % e 4,8 %, respectivamente, pela presença de HCO-3 na formulação do dentifrício. Conclusão: Os resultados in vitro sugerem que a adição de HCO-3 a um dentifrício pode interferir com a reatividade do F com o esmalte, principalmente reduzindo a concentração de CaF2 formado no esmalte.

  1. Effect of bicarbonate on fluoride reactivity with enamel = Efeito do bicarbonato na reatividade do fluoreto com esmalte

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Paulo Edelvar

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: O bicarbonato (HCO-3 ) é uma substância alcalina e tamponante encontrada em dentifrícios, que poderia melhorar o efeito anticárie do fluoreto (F). No entanto, HCO-3 poderia reduzir a formação de fluoreto de cálcio (CaF2), o mais importante produto da reatividade do F com esmalte, cuja formação é maior em baixo pH. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro se o HCO-3 interfere na reatividade do F com o esmalte humano. Metodologia: Cinco formulações de dentifrícios foram avaliadas:...

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition potentiates amino acid- and bile acid-induced bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Wang, Joon-Ho; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Rudenkyy, Sergiy; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2012-10-01

    Intestinal endocrine cells release gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptides (GLPs), in response to luminal nutrients. Luminal L-glutamate (L-Glu) and 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP) synergistically increases duodenal HCO3- secretion via GLP-2 release. Since L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal amino acids or bile acids stimulate duodenal HCO3- secretion via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition. We measured HCO3- secretion with pH and CO2 electrodes using a perfused rat duodenal loop under isoflurane anesthesia. L-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally coperfused with or without luminal perfusion (0.1 mM) or intravenous (iv) injection (3 μmol/kg) of the DPPIV inhibitor NVP728. The loop was also perfused with a selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA, 10 μM) or the non-bile acid type TGR5 agonist 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dimethylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (CCDC; 10 μM). DPPIV activity visualized by use of the fluorogenic substrate was present on the duodenal brush border and submucosal layer, both abolished by the incubation with NVP728 (0.1 mM). An iv injection of NVP728 enhanced L-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3- secretion, whereas luminal perfusion of NVP728 had no effect. BTA or CCDC had little effect on HCO3- secretion, whereas NVP728 iv markedly enhanced BTA- or CCDC-induced HCO3- secretion, the effects inhibited by a GLP-2 receptor antagonist. Coperfusion of the TGR5 agonist enhanced L-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3- secretion with the enhanced GLP-2 release, suggesting that TGR5 activation amplifies nutrient sensing signals. DPPIV inhibition potentiated luminal L-Glu/IMP-induced and TGR5 agonist-induced HCO3- secretion via a GLP-2 pathway, suggesting that the modulation of the local concentration of the endogenous secretagogue GLP-2 by luminal compounds and DPPIV inhibition helps regulate protective duodenal HCO3- secretion. PMID:22821947

  3. 2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. ► The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. ► 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. ► The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na2CO3/1 M NaHCO3 solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of −21.08 kJ mol−1.

  4. Bioaccessibility of some elements from wheatgrass ( Triticum aestivum L.) by in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion combined with neutron activation analysis using ammonium bicarbonate as an alternate base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on bioaccessibility of elements were carried out by in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion simulation method combined with neutron activation analysis (NAA) using NH4HCO3 as an alternate base to commonly used base of NaHCO3. The effect of two bases namely NaHCO3 and NH4HCO3 on the bioaccessibility of the elements namely Br, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sm and Zn from wheat seeds, fresh wheatgrass and commercial wheatgrass tablet was investigated. The bioaccessible concentrations of the elements were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The bioaccessible concentrations of samples digested using NH4HCO3 were found to be higher by 10-15% for most of the elements than that observed using NaHCO3. In the case of fresh wheatgrass, the differences were as high as 50%. The present study indicated that NH4HCO3 can be used as a base instead of NaHCO3 in in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion simulation method. (author)

  5. Finite Volume Scheme for Double Convection-Diffusion Exchange of Solutes in Bicarbonate High-Flux Hollow-Fiber Dialyzer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Annan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a high-flux dialyzer in terms of buffering and toxic solute removal largely depends on the ability to use convection-diffusion mechanism inside the membrane. A two-dimensional transient convection-diffusion model coupled with acid-base correction term was developed. A finite volume technique was used to discretize the model and to numerically simulate it using MATLAB software tool. We observed that small solute concentration gradients peaked and were large enough to activate solute diffusion process in the membrane. While CO2 concentration gradients diminished from their maxima and shifted toward the end of the membrane, concentration gradients peaked at the same position. Also, CO2 concentration decreased rapidly within the first 47 minutes while optimal concentration was achieved within 30 minutes of the therapy. Abnormally high diffusion fluxes were observed near the blood-membrane interface that increased diffusion driving force and enhanced the overall diffusive process. While convective flux dominated total flux during the dialysis session, there was a continuous interference between convection and diffusion fluxes that call for the need to seek minimal interference between these two mechanisms. This is critical for the effective design and operation of high-flux dialyzers.

  6. Effects Of Anodic Protection On SCC Behavior Of X80 Pipeline Steel In High-pH Carbonate-Bicarbonate Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao W; Zou Y.; Xia D.X.; Zou Z.D.

    2015-01-01

    The potentiodynamic polarization test and slow strain rate tensile tests of X80 pipeline steel were performed in 0.5M Na2CO3-1M NaHCO3 solution to study the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking properties. The results of potentiodynamic polarization test show that there is an obvious stable passive region, about from 0v to 0.8V (SCE), indicating that anodic protection is feasible. The results of slow strain rate tensile tests show that the stress corrosion cracking sensibility is hig...

  7. Impact of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic assimilation of 14C-bicarbonate and inorganic 15N-compounds by cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyanobacteria Anabaena cylindrica and Synechococcus leopoliensis (=Anacystis nidulans) were grown at different levels of UV-B radiation (439, 717, 1230 and 1405 J m-2d-1, weighted according Caldwell, 1971) for 2 days. Dry weight was hardly affected but phycocyanin content of both species decreased linearly to the level of UV-B radiation. Contents of protein, carotenoids and chlorophyll a were reduced only after exposure to high doses (1230 J m-2d-1) of UV-B radiation. Photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation of Anabaena cells was reduced linearly with increasing UV-B dose whereas no effect could be observed in Synechococcus. A depression of photosynthetic 15N-nitrate uptake was found after UV-B stress in both species. UV-B irradiance caused an increase of 15N-incorporation into glutamine, but no effect was noted for incorporation into alanine or aspartic acid. An increase of 15N-excess in glutamic acid linear with the UV-B dose was observed in Synechococcus, only. Patterns of 14C-labelled photosynthetic products were either less affected by UV-B radiation (Anabaena) or an enhancement of 14C-label in total amino acids was detected (Synechococcus). The amount of total free amino acids increased parallel to the level of UV-B radiation. Only, the high dose of UV-B (1405 J m-2 d-1, weighted) results in a decrease of the glutamine pool. Our results indicate an inhibition of glutamate synthase by UV-B irradiation in Anabaena, only. Results were discussed with reference to the damage of the photosynthetic apparatus. (orig.)

  8. The role of bicarbonate ions and of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in chloride transport by epithelial cells of bullfrog small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, W M; Youmans, S J

    1980-01-01

    In an HCO3-free medium, isolated segments of bullfrog small intestine, stripped of their external muscle layers, displayed a small, serosal positive PD that did not, on the average, differ significantly from zero. Similarly, in this medium, the mean values of Isc and of net Na+ and Cl- absorption under short-circuit conditions did not differ significantly from zero. External HCO3- (25 mM) induced a highly significant serosal negative PD and Isc and a large net absorption of Cl-. Net Cl- absorption exceeded Isc, i.e., there was a significant net flux, JR, which was consistent with a net secretion of HCO3-. The ratio of the internal Cl-activity of the absorptive cells (alpha Cli) to its equilibrium value was larger in the presence than in the absence of HCO3-. In the presence of HCO3-, cAMP, added to the serosal medium, reversed the serosal negative PD and Isc, and inhibited, though it did not completely abolish, net Cl- absorption. JR was unchanged; tissue Cl- and alpha Cli were reduced, and tissue Na+ decreased and tissue K+ increased. When HCO3- and Cl- were removed from the bathing medium, the electrical response of the tissue to cAMP, though greatly attenuated, was not completely abolished. Under these conditions, cAMP induced a significant net Na+ absorption. A model for ion transport in the absorptive cells of the small intestine is proposed that is consistent with these findings. PMID:6249145

  9. The effect of irrigation with chlorinated and bicarbonated waters of high salinity on the yields of the yields of the rose bush

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, A.; Fernández, M.; Eleizalde Luzárraga, María Benigna; Altares, M.

    1984-01-01

    Since the application of poor-quality irrigation water is frequently the cause of the salinization of the soils given over to the cultivation of roses in Tenerife we carried out an irrigation trial with two waters of high salinity at concentrations of 15,70 meq/l of Cl-, and 13,60 meq/l of CO$H- respectively. Both types of water caused a significant reduction in the yields of the cultivar "Sonia", which was greater in the treatment with chlorinated water. The quality of the flower (expressed ...

  10. A combination of whey protein and potassium bicarbonate supplements during head-down-tilt bed rest: Presentation of a multidisciplinary randomized controlled trial (MEP study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Mulder, Edwin; Noppe, Alexandra; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Angerer, Oliver; Rudwill, Floriane; Biolo, Gianni; Smith, Scott M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Heer, Martina

    2014-02-01

    Inactivity, as it appears during space flight and in bed rest, induces reduction of lean body and bone mass, glucose intolerance, and weakening of the cardiovascular system. Increased protein intake, whey protein in particular, has been proposed to counteract some of these effects, but has also been associated with negative effects on bone, likely caused by a correspondingly high ratio of acid to alkali precursors in the diet.

  11. Influence of feeding and social behaviors and the use of sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets

    OpenAIRE

    González, Luciano Adrián

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente tesis fue estudiar el efecto de algunos factores relacionados con el comportamiento, y el uso de bicarbonato sódico, sobre los procesos digestivos que afectan la función ruminal en terneros de cebo intensivo alimentados con pienso y paja ad libitum. En el primer experimento, 4 terneras Frisonas fistuladas en el rumen fueron asignadas a un Cuadrado Latino 4 × 4 para determinar el efecto del aumento en la concentración de bicarbonato sódico (0, 1,25, 2,50 y 5 % de la ...

  12. Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Novis Rocha

    2009-01-01

    A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1) analisa...

  13. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype 4 is essential for cholinergic stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion in mice - relationship to D cell/somatostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, K; Kita, K; Takahashi, K; Aihara, E; Hayashi, S

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the roles of muscarinic (M) acetylcholine receptor subtype in the cholinergic stimulation of duodenal HCO3(-) secretion using knockout (KO) mice. Wild-type and M1-M5 KO C57BL/6J mice were used. The duodenal mucosa was mounted on an Ussing chamber, and HCO3(-) secretion was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method in vitro. Carbachol (CCh) or other agents were added to the serosal side. CCh dose-dependently stimulated HCO3(-) secretion in wild-type mice, and this effect was completely inhibited in the presence of atropine. The HCO3(-) response to CCh in wild-type mice was also inhibited by pirenzepine (M1 antagonist), 4DAMP (M3 antagonist), and tropicamide (M4 antagonist), but not by methoctramine (M2 antagonist). CCh stimulated HCO3(-) secretion in M2 and M5 KO animals as effectively as in WT mice; however, this stimulatory effect was significantly attenuated in M1, M3, and M4 KO mice. The decrease observed in the CCh-stimulated HCO3(-) response in M4 KO mice was reversed by the co-application of CYN154806, a somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2) antagonist. Octreotide (a somatostatin analogue) decreased the basal and CCh-stimulated secretion of HCO3(-) in wild-type mice. The co-localized expression of somatostatin and M4 receptors was confirmed immunohistologically in the duodenum. We concluded that the duodenal HCO3(-) response to CCh was directly mediated by M1/M3 receptors and indirectly modified by M4 receptors. The activation of M4 receptors was assumed to inhibit the release of somatostatin from D cells and potentiate the HCO3(-) response by removing the negative influence of somatostatin via the activation of SST2 receptors. PMID:26084221

  14. Detection of OXA-48-type carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in diagnostic laboratories can be enhanced by addition of bicarbonates to cultivation media or reaction buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Studentova, Vendula; Papagiannitsis, Costas C.; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Chudackova, Eva; Bergerova, Tamara; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hrabak, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenemase-mediated resistance to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae has become the main challenge in the treatment and prevention of infections recently. The partially unnoticed spread of OXA-48-type carbapenemase producers is usually assigned to low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems that OXA-48-producing isolates often display. Therefore, there is an urgent need of specific and sensitive methods for isolation and detection of OXA-48 producers in clinical microbiology...

  15. Effects Of Anodic Protection On SCC Behavior Of X80 Pipeline Steel In High-pH Carbonate-Bicarbonate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The potentiodynamic polarization test and slow strain rate tensile tests of X80 pipeline steel were performed in 0.5M Na2CO3-1M NaHCO3 solution to study the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking properties. The results of potentiodynamic polarization test show that there is an obvious stable passive region, about from 0v to 0.8V (SCE, indicating that anodic protection is feasible. The results of slow strain rate tensile tests show that the stress corrosion cracking sensibility is high and cathodic protection effect is restricted due to the hydrogen permeation. However, the elongation, yielding strength and tensile strength all increase with anodic protection. The higher anodic protection potential in the stable passive region is benefit to improve tensile strength and yielding strength. However, the higher elongation is obtained at 0.5V (SCE anodic protection potential.

  16. A study of the catalytic role of a gold electrode in the electrochemical activation of four macrolide antibiotics in sodium bicarbonate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka L. Avramov Ivić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the cyclic voltammetry, it has been shown that hydrogen evolution at a gold electrode is necessary in the electrochemical activation of azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A. After four hours of the potential holding at –1.2 V vs. SCE, the pH of the electrolyte has been changed from 8.40 to 8.96; from 8.40 to 8.77 in the presence of erythromycin A, and from 8.40 to 9.18 in the presence of azithromycin, indicating the reaction of the hydrogen species with antibiotics. This effect has been confirmed by using the phenolphthalein indicator and by analysing colours of the solutions by UV-Vis, as well as by FTIR spectroscopy. Under the identical experimental conditions at the gold electrode, in contrast to azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A, roxithromycin and midecamycin electroactivity promotion has been obtained during the first forward sweep starting from the area of a double layer region.

  17. Is dialysis hypotension caused by an abnormality of venous tone?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, John R.; Evans, David B; Gore, Sheila M; Cowley, Alan J

    1988-01-01

    The role of peripheral vascular tone in the development of hypotension induced by dialysis was investigated in eight patients undergoing haemodialysis with acetate or bicarbonate buffered fluid. Each patient had two sessions of dialysis with acetate fluid and two with bicarbonate fluid in the order acetate, bicarbonate, bicarbonate, acetate or bicarbonate, acetate, acetate, bicarbonate. Mean arterial blood pressure fell at a mean rate of 3·9 mm Hg/hour during dialysis with acetate fluid and 1...

  18. Photosynthetic bicarbonate utilization by the freshwater green microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus%淡水绿藻的光合碳酸氢盐利用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支彦丽; 金相灿; 钟远; 李贺; 刘春光; 戴树桂; 庄源益

    2008-01-01

    为了探讨藻类对碳酸氢盐的利用,采用pH漂移实验技术,辅以氧测定技术和抑制剂的抑制实验,研究了斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliquus)和蛋白核小球藻(Chlorella pyrenoidosa)的光合无机碳摄取速率(PCU)和净光合速率(NPS).结果表明,PCU对pH的曲线上存在明显的转折点(简写为pHTP),在pH超过PHTP后存在第2个PCU峰,求此峰的平均值并以PCUsc表示,可以作为表征藻类碳酸氢盐利用的参数.蛋白核小球藻和斜生栅藻的PCUBC值分别为269.41和175.98μmol·g-1·h-1它们的平均NPS(pH为4.8~11.0)分别为477.5和495.9ttmol·g-1·h-1.随着碳酸酐酶抑制剂AZ(acetazolamide)浓度的增加,PCUBC减小;当AZ达到1.2mmol·L-1时,蛋白核小球藻的PCUBC减小到0.随AZ浓度增加,蛋白核小球藻PCUBC减小的速度比斜生栅藻的快.AZ和阴离子交换抑制剂DIDS(4,4'-diisothiocyanatoetilbene-2,2'-disuffonic acid)对蛋白核小球藻的PCU和NPS的抑制作用大于斜生删藻.AZ和DIDS对2株藻的PCU的抑制均大于对它们NPS的抑制.2株藻具有高的PCUBC值,都是强碳酸氢盐利用者.

  19. Biotite and chlorite weathering at 25 degrees C: the dependence of pH and (bi)carbonate on weathering kinetics, dissolution stoichiometry, and solubility; and the relation to redox conditions in granitic aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the kinetics and thermodynamics of biotite and chlorite weathering in the pH range 22-102 year); and 2. the development of characteristic Fe(III) concentrations (10-5 M in 10-1 years). The Fe(III)-bearing clay minerals formed during these experiments are similar to the fracture-filling-material observed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Such clays can provide reducing capacity to a repository. They can help maintain anoxic conditions by consuming oxygen that enters the repository during the construction and operation phases thereby helping maintain the redox stability of the repository regarding canister corrosion. The half-life of oxygen trapped in the repository at the time of closure depends on the rate of oxygen uptake by Fe(II) minerals, sulfide minerals and organic carbon. Fe(II)-clay minerals are important to the redox stability of a repository, as well as providing a sorption barrier to radionuclide migration. 107 refs, 52 figs, 35 tabs

  20. Control of red cell volume and pH in trout: Effects of isoproterenol, transport inhibitors, and extracellular pH in bicarbonate/carbon dioxide-buffered media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIKINMAA, M; STEFFENSEN, JF; TUFTS, BL;

    1987-01-01

    The effects of extracellular pH and beta-adrenergic stimula-tion on the volume and pH of rainbow. trout red cells were studied in HCO3-/ CO2 butfered media. A decrease in extracellular pH caused an increase in red cell volume and a decrease in intracellular pH. The pH-induced changes in cell volume...... were enhanced by a decrease in extracellular pH, showing that the adrenergic response is of benefit to stressed animals. DIDS markedly enhanced the effect of isoproterenol on the pHi, but abolished the increase in red cell volume. The effects of furosemide were similar to those of DIDS, suggesting that...... Na+/H+ exchanger is not activated by changes in intracellular pH alone. The adrenergic drug, isoproterenol, promoted cell swelling and proton extrusion even in the presence of 10 mM HCO3-, showing that the adrenergic response plays a significant role in the control of cytoplasmic pH. These responses...

  1. Evaluation of the oral 13C-bicarbonate tracer technique for the estimation of CO2 production and energy expenditure in dogs during rest and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Junghans, Peter; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    For feeding of working dogs during their daily life, illness, routine jobs or sporting activities, an accurate determination of their nutritional requirements is essential to ensure their optimal health and performance. To predict the appropriate guidelines about how to feed dogs, it appears esse...

  2. Treatment of dactylogyrus disease in pond with Dipterex and sodium bicarbonate%用敌百虫+面碱治疗池塘指环虫病的报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁长辉

    2009-01-01

    据调查,泰宁县几乎80%的鱼病源自于寄生虫危害,特别是近年来指环虫病对鱼类的危害越来越严重,且各种杀虫药的治疗效果都不理想,杀虫不彻底,容易复发。

  3. Efeito de bicarbonato de potássio sobre a severidade do oídio em plantas de soja Effect of potassium bicarbonate on the severity of powdery mildew in soybean plants

    OpenAIRE

    Regiane Medice; Wagner Bettiol; Uli Quirino de Mello Altéa

    2013-01-01

    O oídio da soja, causado por Erysiphe diffusa, é considerado uma doença esporádica podendo ocasionar perdas quando atinge proporções epidêmicas. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de bicarbonato de potássio (Kaligreen®) no controle do oídio da soja. As pulverizações do bicarbonato de potássio nas concentrações de 0; 0,25%, 0,5%, 0,75% e 1,0% e do fungicida (piraclostrobina + epoxiconazole) e as avaliações foram semanais. Folhas foram coletadas para análise ultraestrutural atrav...

  4. Drug: D02120 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02120 Mixture, Drug Citric acid monohydrate - potassium bicarbonate mixt; K-lyte (...TN) Citric acid monohydrate [DR:D01222], Potassium bicarbonate [DR:D02077] PubChem: 7849181 LigandBox: D02120 ...

  5. Drug: D04391 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 23 Digestive organ agents 233 Stomachics and diges...tives 2339 Others D04391 Swertia and sodium bicarbonate powder (JP16) PubChem: 17398088 ... ...D04391 Mixture, Drug Swertia and sodium bicarbonate powder (JP16); Swertia sodium b...icarbonate (TN) Swertia harb [DR:D04385], Sodium bicarbonate [DR:D01203] Therapeutic category: 2339 Therapeu

  6. Interactive effect of N form and HCO3 - on chemical and eco-physiological characteristics of snap bean in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Roosta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to alkalinity of most soil and water resources in Iran and consequently bicarbonate-induced high pH of plants’ growing medium and different effects of ammonium and nitrate on pH of plant growing medium, research about deleterious effects of factors like alkalinity and interactive effect of nitrogen with bicarbonate on chemical and ecophysiological characteristics of plants seems to be necessary. Thus, an experiment was carried out on snap bean as a factorial trial with completely randomized design and two factors of sodium bicarbonate (0, 1, 5 and 15 mM and nitrogen form (ammonium and nitrate. The results of this experiment showed that bicarbonate decreased SPAD index and plant pigments in leaves. Proline concentration in ammonium treated plants increased with bicarbonate linearly; whereas in nitrate treatment and at 1 mM bicarbonate, it decreased slightly but increased again markedly with elevating of bicarbonate content. In ammonium treatment, the photosynthesis rate, mesophyll efficiency and water use efficiency decreased with bicarbonate, whereas in nitrate treatment, they increased with low and medium concentrations of bicarbonate. It is concluded that in ammonium treatment, bicarbonate decreased photosynthesis efficiency and water utilization in snap bean at all concentrations, whereas, in nitrate-fed plants, bicarbonate at low concentration (1 mM was suitable, probably due to providing some CO2 or carbon skeleton for nitrogen assimilation in plants.

  7. STUDIES OF UPTAKE PHOSPHORUS FROM MIXED FERTILIZER OF AMMONIUM BICARBONATE AND 32P-CALCIUM SUPERPHOSPHATE%利用32P研究水稻对碳铵与磷酸一钙混肥中磷的吸收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温贤芳; 张希忠; 李东阳

    1986-01-01

    @@ 用32P标记磷酸一钙,研究碳铵与磷酸一钙混合肥料和单质肥料的不同含氮量对水稻吸收磷的影响.通过同位素示踪试验说明,当施入含氮量为2.5~6.25%的肥料时,水稻对混合肥及单质肥分施的磷肥利用率没有显著差异,当含氮量在9.98~12.42%时,水稻对单质肥分施的磷肥利用率要显著高于混合肥.

  8. Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure

    OpenAIRE

    Mafra, Denise; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2001-01-01

    A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever o mecanismo pelo qual a a...

  9. Influence of feeding and social behaviors and the use of sodium bicarbonate on ruminal PH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets Influencia del comportamiento de alimentación y social, y del uso de bicarbonato sódico sobre el PH ruminal en el cebo intensivo de terneros /

    OpenAIRE

    González, Luciano Adrián

    2008-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 28 de novembre de 2008 Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El objetivo de la presente tesis fue estudiar el efecto de algunos factores relacionados con el comportamiento, y el uso de bicarbonato sódico, sobre los procesos digestivos que afectan la función ruminal en terneros de cebo intensivo alimentados con pienso y paja ad libitum. En el primer experimento, 4 terneras Frisonas fistuladas en el rumen fueron asignadas a un Cuad...

  10. 吗啡依赖小鼠十二指肠P2Y2受体表达及其对十二指肠碳酸氢盐分泌的影响%The expression of P2Y2 receptor and its effect on duodenum mucosal bicarbonate secretion in morphine dependent mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐靖宇; 涂平; 丘成楷; 余守洋; 罗素元

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究吗啡依赖小鼠十二指肠嘌呤受体P2Y2表达及其对碳酸氢盐分泌的影响.方法 小鼠吗啡6 mg/kg颈背部皮下注射,每日1次,连续8 d,建立小鼠吗啡条件性位置偏爱(conditioned place preference,CPP)模型.确认模型建立成功后处死取十二指肠(10只),Western-blot技术检测其P2Y2受体蛋白的表达;选取十二指肠(8只),剥离浆膜后装载于Ussing Chamber上,经ATP和Surmain+ ATP分别刺激后,用 pH-stat技术测定十二指肠碳酸氢盐的分泌量.结果 CPP模型组小鼠嘌呤受体P2Y2蛋白(0.6267 ±0.0463)在十二指肠中较生理盐水对照组(1.0870 ±0.0549)的表达明显降低(P =0.036 0,*p<0.05);用P2Y2受体特异性激动剂ATP刺激后,CPP模型组小鼠的碳酸根离子分泌(0.426 7 ±0.060 6)明显低于生理盐水对照组(0.726 7 ±0.038 4) (P=0.045 0,*P<0.05),Suramin能显著抑制ATP刺激生理盐水对照组(0.216 7 ±0.020 3)和模型组(0.196 7 ±0.008 8)的碳酸氢盐分泌.结论 在吗啡依赖状态下,十二指肠嘌呤受体P2Y2蛋白的表达水平下调,并由此可介导十二指肠碳酸氢盐分泌的减少,这可能是阿片类依赖者胃肠功能失调的一个重要原因.

  11. A ingestão de bicarbonato de sódio pode contribuir para o desempenho em lutas de judô? ¿Ingerir bicarbonato de sodio puede contribuir en el mejor desempeño de competiciones de judo? Can sodium bicarbonate intake contribute to judo fights performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Giannini Artioli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da ingestão de NaHCO3 sobre o desempenho no judô. Seis atletas do sexo masculino ingeriram 0,3g x kg¹ de peso corporal de NaHCO3 ou CaCO3 (placebo 2h antes de três lutas de 5 min, intercaladas por 15 min de recuperação. Imediatamente após e 15 min após cada luta, os atletas relataram a percepção subjetiva de esforço. A concentração sanguínea de lactato foi verificada em repouso, após o aquecimento, 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 e 15 min após cada luta. O mesmo protocolo experimental foi repetido duas vezes por cada atleta, com exceção da substância ingerida. O estudo adotou o modelo duplo-cego contrabalançado. Não houve diferença significativa para as variáveis de desempenho. A percepção subjetiva de esforço não diferiu entre os tratamentos e a concentração sanguínea de lactato foi significativamente maior (p El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el de investigar el efecto sobre el desempeño en judo al ingerir NaHCO3. Seis deportistas del sexo masculino ingirieron 0,3 g x kg-1 de peso corporal de NaHCO3 o CaCO3 (placebo 2 h antes de 3 luchas de 5 min, intercaladas por 15 min de recuperación. Inmediatamente después, y 15 min después de cada lucha, los deportistas relataron la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo. La concentración sanguínea de lactato fue verificada en reposo, después del precalentamiento, 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 y 15 min después de cada lucha. El mismo protocolo experimental fue repetido dos veces en cada deportista, con excepción de la sustancia ingerida. El estudio adoptó el modelo doble-ciego contrabalanceado. No hubo diferencia significativa para las variables de desempeño. La percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo no difirió entre los tratamientos, y la concentración sanguínea de lactato fue significativamente mayor (p The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the NaHCO3 ingestion on the judo performance. Six male athletes ingested 0.3 g x kg¹ body weight of NaHCO3 or CaCO3 (placebo 2 h before 3 fights of 5 min, with 15 min recovery. Immediately afterwards, and 15 min after each fight, the athletes related their perceived exertion. The blood lactate concentration was verified in rest, after warming up, 0, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min after each fight. The same experimental protocol was repeated twice by each athlete, except for the ingested substance. The study adopted the counterbalanced double-blind model. There was no significant difference for the performance variables. The perceived exertion did not differ among the treatments, and the blood lactate concentration was significantly greater (p < 0.05 after NaHCO3 ingestion in the first moments of the protocol. In conclusion, the ergogenic effects of NaHCO3 are not enough to contribute to the improvement of the performance in judo fights. However, the model limitations must be considered when generalizing these results. Future studies should use other tools to evaluate the performance in judo.

  12. The analysis and Calculation of phase Diagram of Manufacturing Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Carbonate By Trona Carbonation%天然碱碳酸化法生产纯碱(小苏打)的相图分析与相图计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红旺; 贺占海; 刘忠义; 杜后生

    2004-01-01

    给出了又一种天然碱碳酸化相图及相图分析.以某天然碱加工厂提供的原料碱液为例,进行了相图计算,并对两种相图计算结果进行了比较.最终认为该相图同样可用于天然碱碳酸化相图分析与相图计算.

  13. Drug: D04402 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04402 Mixture, Drug Sodium bicarbonate - anhydrous monobasic sodium phosphate mixt...; New Lecicarbon (TN) Sodium bicarbonate [DR:D01203], Anhydrous monobasic sodium phosphate [DR:D04400] Thera...peutic category: 2359 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual orga...ns 23 Digestive organ agents 235 Purgatives, clysters 2359 Others D04402 Sodium bicarbonate - anhydrous monobasic sodium phosphate mixt PubChem: 17398094 ...

  14. Pattern of carbon dioxide production and retention is similar in adult pigs when fed hourly, but not when fed a single meal

    OpenAIRE

    Pencharz Paul B; Bertolo Robert FP; Moehn Soenke; Ball Ronald O

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The understanding of bicarbonate kinetics and CO2 retention in the body is necessary to conduct amino acid tracer oxidation studies in both humans and laboratory animals. Significant metabolic activity is associated with eating which can affect bicarbonate steady state kinetics. A study was conducted to assess the impact of feeding regimen on the recovery of labelled bicarbonate and energy expenditure in adult female pigs (sows). Five catheterized sows (235 ± 5 kg) were fe...

  15. Drug: D08709 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 23 Digestive organ agents 233 Stomachics and digestives 2339 Others D08709 Picrasma wood - sodium bicarbonate mixt PubChem: 96025392 ... ...D08709 Mixture, Drug Picrasma wood - sodium bicarbonate mixt Picrasma wood [DR:D06771], Sodi

  16. Drug: D08708 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08708 Mixture, Drug Licase (alpha Amylase) - aluminum hydroxide, dried - magnesium...e) [DR:D02831], Aluminum hydroxide, dried [DR:D02416], Magnesium carbonate [DR:D01446], Sodium bicarbonate [...2339 Others D08708 Licase (alpha Amylase) - aluminum hydroxide, dried - magnesium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate - precipitated calcium carbonate mixt PubChem: 96025391 ...

  17. Sequence Classification: 428713 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|17230369|ref|NP_486917.1| bicarbonate transport bicarbon...ate-binding protein || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/17230369 ...

  18. Drug: D08707 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08707 Mixture, Drug l-Menthol - gentian - scopolia extract powder - sodium bicarbo...nate mixt; Bellsan (TN) l-Menthol [DR:D00064], Gentian [DR:D06716], Scopolia extract powder [DR:D06875], Sod...digestives 2339 Others D08707 l-Menthol - gentian - scopolia extract powder - sodium bicarbonate mixt PubChem: 96025390 ...

  19. Protective effect of taurine on the light-induced disruption of isolated frog rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated frog rod outer segments (ROS) incubated in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, and illuminated for 2 h, show a profound alteration in their structure. This is characterized by distention of discs, vesiculation, and a marked swelling. The light-induced ROS disruption requires the presence of bicarbonate and sodium chloride. Replacement of bicarbonate by TRIS or HEPES protects ROS structure. Also, substitution of sodium chloride by sucrose or choline chloride maintains unaltered the ROS structure. Deletion of calcium, magnesium, or phosphate does not modify the effect produced by illumination. An increased accumulation of labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water is observed in illuminated ROS, as compared with controls in the dark. The presence of taurine, GABA, or glycine, at concentrations of 5-25 mM, effectively counteracts the light-induced ROS disruption. Taurine (25 mM) reduces labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water levels to those observed in the dark incubated ROS

  20. Metformin poisoning: which therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Casagranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious adverse effect in metformintreated- patients. The authors report a case of metformin-associated lactic acidosis and discuss the appropriated therapy. The patient was treated with bicarbonate iv and with two short dialysis session, also because of acute renal failure. Many authors do not agree with using bicarbonate, and about hemodialysis some authors suggest that the session should go on at least 12 hours. In this case the use of bicarbonate and short hemodialysis determinated a favourable outcame.

  1. Response of a natural Phytoplankton community from the Qingdao coast (Yellow Sea, China) to variable CO2 levels over a short-term incubation experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Jie, J.; Li, Y.; Zhang, G.; Zhu, Z.-Y.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, G.-L.; Li, Y.-W.; Liu, S.M.; Zhang, J.

    , prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanophytes were also present. δ13CPOM values indicated that the phytoplankton community probably utilized bicarbonate ions as dissolved inorganic carbon source through a carbon concentration mechanism (CCM...

  2. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied

  3. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  4. Sulphate removal from uraniferous liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for the recovery of uranium from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is claimed. An ion exchange resin is used to separate the uranium from the solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. The ion exchange resin is then eluted with a solution of ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate to provide an eluate containing ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and ammonium sulphate. The eluate is heated to boiling to convert the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate to ammonium uranate and/or diuranate. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor are released. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is separated from the remaining liquor and calcined to give uranium trioxide

  5. Origin and transport of CO2 in the highly mineralized water system of the Pannonian Tertiary Basin (northeast Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal waters with high bicarbonate mineralization (up to 7500 ppm) were examined. The origin and transport of CO2 are the main questions which will be addressed in discussing the evolution of this fluid system. 3 refs

  6. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Varatharajan, G.R.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Vijayakanth, S.; HarishKumar, A.; Meena, R.M.

    fungus tackles the oxidative burst i.e. hypersensitivity reaction performed by host to kill the pathogens. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Chemicals Sodium bicarbonate, Folins–Ciocalteu reagent, Gallic acid, Sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), Aluminium...

  7. Net primary productivity collected from New Horizon in Gulf of California and North Pacific Ocean from 2004-07-14 to 2008-08-06 (NCEI Accession 0130076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Net primary productivity determined from 13C-labeled in situ incubations. Water collected via Niskin bottle was incubated with labeled bicarbonate for 24 hours at...

  8. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  9. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-06-02

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied.

  10. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Absorbent Solution for Draw Solute Recovery in Forward Osmosis Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although forward osmosis desalination technology has drawn substantial attention as a next-generation desalination method, the energy efficiency of its draw solution treatment process should be improved for its commercialization. When ammonium bicarbonate is used as the draw solute, the system consists of forward-osmosis membrane modules, draw solution separation and recovery processes. Mixed gases of ammonia and carbon dioxide generated during the draws solution separation, need to be recovered to re-concentrate ammonium bicarbonate solution, for continuous operation as well as for the economic feasibility. The diluted ammonium bicarbonate solution has been proposed as the absorbent for the draw solution regeneration. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate performance and features of the absorption corresponding to absorbent concentration. It is concluded that ammonium bicarbonate solution can be used to recover the generated ammonia and carbon dioxide. The results will be applied to design and operation of pilot-scale forward-osmosis desalination system

  12. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN UDARA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MUTU TABLET EFFERVESCEN SARI BUAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Quality of Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quality of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. Sample of the passion fruit effervescent tablet was prepared from passion fruit granular, aspartame, polyetilene glycol, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Variable analyzed was dissolution rate of the tablet during storage. The results indicated that temperature and humidity significantly affect dissolution rate of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. The reason for the decrease in dissolution rate was because at high storage temperature (35oC, sodium bicarbonate was not stable. The bicarbonate amount gradually decreased because it reacted with citric acid. Consequently, when the tablet was dissolved, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was slow. At high relative humidity (85.5% of storage, the reaction occurred prior to the dissolution due to moisture intake.

  13. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  14. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  15. Sodium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and medicines such as ibuprofen or naproxen Lower ...

  16. Hidrogeoquímica convencional e isotópica de las aguas carbónicas de Cataluña

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo, R.; Yélamos, J. G.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional and isotopic hydrogeochemical techniques have been applied to a study of CO2-rich waters in the northeast of Catalonia. Two hydrogeochemical facies, a calcium-bicarbonate and another sodium-bicarbonate are clearly distinguished. The second one seems to be the result of evolution from the calcium facies. The tritium-ages support the previous division in two hydrogeochemical facies. Measurements of ,sO and deuterium ratio indicate that the carbonic waters have a meteoric origin. Th...

  17. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  18. Renal tubular acidosis secondary to jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Ladefoged, Jens; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1985-01-01

    Renal handling of acid and base was studied in patients with persistent metabolic acidosis 3-9 years after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Excretion of acid was studied before and after intravenous infusion of NH4Cl and excretion of bicarbonate after infusion of NaHCO3. Bypass patients...... groups. Fractional loss of bicarbonate in urine was higher in controls than in bypass patients. The renal impairment is classified as distal renal tubular acidosis....

  19. Hjertestopbehandling. Nyere aspekter af kardiopulmonal genoplivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlevsen, Per Ove; Andersen, H H; Jepsen, S

    1989-01-01

    compression and increase survival. Cardiac arrest results in anaerobic metabolism and combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis. On account of relatively low minute volume during external cardiac compression decrease in end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration is observed together with arterial alkalosis on...... account of hyperventilation and venous acidosis. No communications exist about the favourable effect of administration of bicarbonate during cardiac arrest. On the other hand, several conditions suggest that bicarbonate increases the intracellular acidosis with poorer possibilities for resuscitation with...

  20. Drug: D08703 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08703 Mixture, Drug L-Glutamic acid - pipethanate hydrochloride - aluminum hydroxide...ydrochloride [DR:D01521], Aluminum hydroxide-sodium bicarbonate co-precipitate Therapeutic category: 2329 Th...roxide-sodium bicarbonate co-precipitate mixt PubChem: 96025386 ... ...rgans 23 Digestive organ agents 232 Peptic ulcer agents 2329 Others D08703 L-Glutamic acid - pipethanate hydrochloride - aluminum hyd

  1. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose treated with adjunctive lipid rescue and plasmapheresis

    OpenAIRE

    Odigwe, Chibuzo Clement; Tariq, Madiha; Kotecha, Tulsi; Mustafa, Usman; Senussi, Nizar; Ikwu, Isaac; Bhattarcharya, Anirban; Ngene, John Ifeanyi; Ojiako, Kizito; Iroegbu, Nkemakolam

    2016-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of suicidal attempts. The current standard of care for treatment is the administration of sodium bicarbonate infusion. Adjunctive lipid emulsion therapy and plasmapheresis have received attention recently. We report an 18-year-old patient who was successfully managed with lipid emulsion and plasmapheresis as adjuncts to sodium bicarbonate treatment and review some of the recent lit...

  2. Voltage and cosubstrate dependence of the Na-HCO3 cotransporter kinetics in renal proximal tubule cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, E.; Hopfer, U

    1998-01-01

    The voltage dependence of the kinetics of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter was studied in proximal tubule cells. This electrogenic cotransporter transports one Na+, three HCO3-, and two negative charges. Cells were grown to confluence on a permeable support, mounted on a Ussing-type chamber, and permeabilized apically to small monovalent ions with amphotericin B. The steady-state, di-nitro-stilbene-di-sulfonate-sensitive current was shown to be sodium and bicarbonate dependent and therefo...

  3. Evidence of hydrogen ion secretion from the human gall bladder in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Plevris, J N; Hayes, P C; Harrison, D J; Bouchier, I. A.

    1992-01-01

    Gall bladder bile is more acid that hepatic bile and this has been attributed to bicarbonate absorption by the gall bladder epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the acid base changes that occur across the human gall bladder mucosa. Fresh gall bladder tissue was obtained at cholecystectomy and placed in an Ussing Chamber and perfused with Ringer-Krebs glucose bicarbonate solution. The viability of the gall bladder was assessed by measuring the potential differences acr...

  4. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release flo ating drug delivery system of Metoprolol Tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Garje Pravin K; Ratnaparkhi Mukesh P; Pongle Pravin S; Khade Ravindra B; Suryawanshi Akshay S; Somvanshi Fattesingh U.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a gastroretentive drug delivery system of Metoprolol tartrate. Sodium bicarbonate & citric acid were incorporated as a gas-generating agent. The effects of citric acid & sodium bicarbonate on drug release profile and floating properties were investigated. A 32full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. The amounts of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K15M (X1) & hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M (X2) were select...

  5. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose treated with adjunctive lipid rescue and plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigwe, Chibuzo Clement; Tariq, Madiha; Kotecha, Tulsi; Mustafa, Usman; Senussi, Nizar; Ikwu, Isaac; Bhattarcharya, Anirban; Ngene, John Ifeanyi; Ojiako, Kizito; Iroegbu, Nkemakolam

    2016-07-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of suicidal attempts. The current standard of care for treatment is the administration of sodium bicarbonate infusion. Adjunctive lipid emulsion therapy and plasmapheresis have received attention recently. We report an 18-year-old patient who was successfully managed with lipid emulsion and plasmapheresis as adjuncts to sodium bicarbonate treatment and review some of the recent literature. PMID:27365872

  6. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all principal sodium carbonate sources. The kinetics of the recrystallization as well as of the superimposed chemical reaction, the decomposition of the bicarbonate ion, have been measured, a thermodynam...

  7. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  8. Carbon dioxide metabolism by Actinomyces viscosus: pathways for succinate and aspartate production.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, A T; Breeding, L C

    1980-01-01

    14C-labeled bicarbonate was incorporated into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material by cell suspensions of A. viscosus strain M100 and also into the four-carbon fermentation product, succinate, but not into the three-carbon fermentation product, lactate. The initial step in the conversion of 14C-labeled bicarbonate into both trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material and succinate was catalyzed by the enzyme phosphoenolypyruvate carboxylase, which served to convert the glycolytic intermediate,...

  9. Anion transport and GABA signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andreas Huebner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas activation of GABAA receptors by GABA usually results in a hyperpolarizing influx of chloride into the neuron, the reversed chloride driving force in the immature nervous system results in a depolarizing efflux of chloride. This GABAergic depolarization is deemed to be important for the maturation of the neuronal network. The concept of a developmental GABA switch has mainly been derived from in vitro experiments and reliable in vivo evidence is still missing. As GABAA receptors are permeable for both chloride and bicarbonate, the net effect of GABA also critically depends on the distribution of bicarbonate. Whereas chloride can either mediate depolarizing or hyperpolarizing currents, bicarbonate invariably mediates a depolarizing current under physiological conditions. Intracellular bicarbonate is quickly replenished by cytosolic carbonic anhydrases. Intracellular bicarbonate levels also depend on different bicarbonate transporters expressed by neurons. The expression of these proteins is not only developmentally regulated but also differs between cell types and even subcellular regions. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about the role of some of these transporters for brain development and brain function.

  10. Effect of inorganic carbon on anaerobic ammonium oxidation enriched in sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Dexiang; Li Xiaoming; Yang Qi; Zeng Guangming; Guo Liang; Yue Xiu

    2008-01-01

    The present lab-scale research reveals the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation microorganism from methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge and the effect of inorganic carbon (sodium bicarbonate) on anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The enrichment of anammox bacteria was carried out in a 7.0-L SBR and the effect of bicarbonate on anammox was conducted in a 3.0-L SBR. Research results , especially the biomass, showed first signs of anammox activity after 54 d cultivation with synthetic wastewater, when the pH was controlled between 7.5 and 8.3, the temperature was 35℃. The anammox activity increased as the influent bicarbonate concentration increased from 1.0 to 1.5 g/L and then, was inhibited as the bicarbonate concentration approached 2.0 g/L. However, the activity could be restored by the reduction of bicarbonate concentration to 1.0 g/L, as shown by rapid conversion of ammonium, and nitrite and nitrate production with normal stoichiometry. The optimization of the bicarbonate concentration in the reactor could increase the anammox rate up to 66.4 mgN/(L·d).

  11. Diel variation in gene expression of the CO2-concentrating mechanism during a harmful cyanobacterial bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eSandrini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dense phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic waters often experience large daily fluctuations in environmental conditions. We investigated how this diel variation affects in situ gene expression of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM and other selected genes of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Photosynthetic activity of the cyanobacterial bloom depleted the dissolved CO2 concentration, raised pH to 10, and caused large diel fluctuations in the bicarbonate and O2 concentration. The Microcystis population consisted of three Ci uptake genotypes that differed in the presence of the low-affinity and high-affinity bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and sbtA. Expression of the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA, sbtA and cmpA (encoding a subunit of the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1, the CCM transcriptional regulator gene ccmR and the photoprotection gene flv4 increased at first daylight and was negatively correlated with the bicarbonate concentration. In contrast, genes of the two CO2 uptake systems were constitutively expressed, whereas expression of the RuBisCO chaperone gene rbcX, the carboxysome gene ccmM, and the photoprotection gene isiA was highest at night and down-regulated during daytime. In total, our results show that the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis is very responsive to the large diel variations in carbon and light availability often encountered in dense cyanobacterial blooms.

  12. Variations in short term products of inorganic carbon fixation in exponential and stationary phase cultures of Aphanocapsa 6308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, P J; Allen, M M

    1978-03-01

    Aphanocapsa 6308 metabolizes both NaHCO3 and Na2CO3. The short term incorporation (5-s) metabolic pattern and the patterns of incorporation of bicarbonate for exponential versus stationary phase cultures differ, however. Cells were equilibrated for 10 min in air and distilled water prior to injection of either NaH14CO3 at pH 8.0, or Na214CO3 at pH 11.0. Hot ethanol extracts were analyzed via paper chromatography and autoradiography for products of CO2 fixation. At 5 s, malate (51.5%) predominates slightly as a primary bicarbonate fixation product over 3-phosphoglycerate (40.3%); 3-phosphoglycerate is the primary product of carbonate fixation. At 60 s, the carbonate and bicarbonate labelling patterns are similar. Cells in stationary phase fix in 5 s a greater proportion of bicarbonate into malate (36% vs. 14% for 3-phosphoglycerate) than do cells in exponential growth. Likewise, 60 s incorporations show a large amount of bicarbonate fixed into aspartate (30.9%) in stationary phase cells over that of exponential phase (11.6%). These data suggest an operative C4 pathway for purposes not related to carbohydrate synthesis but rather as compensation for the incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle in cyanobacteria. The enhancement of both aspartate fixation and CO2 fixation into citrulline in stationary phase correlates with an increase in cyanophycin granule production which requires both aspartate and arginine. PMID:417691

  13. Cystic fibrosis: model of pathogenesis based on the apical membrane potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrica Kurbel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple model of cystic fibrosis (CF is proposed, based on the apical membrane (ApM potential. The ApM of epithelial cells is highly permeable to sodium and activation of CFTRs makes it permeable to chloride. Calculated ApM potentials of cells with activated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTRs are between the sodium and chloride Nernst values and thus allow rapid absorption of both ions in exocrine glands. In CF patients the potential is near the sodium Nernst value and thus more salt is left in the ducts. Simulation predicts that the sodium driving force increases more than 3.5 times if the ApM permeability for Cl- increases from 5-94% of the sodium permeability. In pancreatic ductal cells basolateral sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (pNBC1 allows influx of bicarbonates with sodium. Bicarbonates are exchanged for intraductal chloride by anion exchanger 1 (AE1 in the ApM. Activated CFTRs let some chloride to leak back to ducts, followed by water that dilutes ductal proteins. Replenished intraductal chloride allows more bicarbonate secretion. In CF patients, pancreatic water and bicarbonate secretion is limited by the intraductal chloride pool.

  14. On the intermediacy of carboxyphosphate in biotin-dependent carboxylations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin that is catalyzed by most biotin-dependent carboxylases, a fundamental mechanistic question is whether the ATP activates bicarbonate (via the formation of carboxyphosphate as an intermediate) or whether the ATP activates biotin (via the formation of O-phosphobiotin). The authors have resorted to three mechanistic tests using the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Escherichia coli: positional isotope exchange, intermediate trapping, and 18O tracer experiments on the ATPase activity. First, no catalysis of positional isotope exchange in adenosine 5'-([α,β-18O,β,β-18O2]triphosphate) was observed when either biotin or bicarbonate was absent, nor was any exchange seen in the presence of both N-1-methylbiotin and bicarbonate. Second, the putative carboxyphosphate intermediate could not be trapped as its trimethyl ester, under conditions of incubation and analysis where the authentic triester was shown to be adequately stable. In the third test, however, they showed that the ATPase activity of biotin carboxylase that is seen in the absence of biotin, an activity that is known to parallel the normal carboxylase reaction when biotin is present, occurs with the transfer of an 18O label directly from [18O]bicarbonate into the product Pi. This result suggests that the bicarbonate-dependent biotin-independent ATPase reaction catalyzed by biotin carboxylase goes via carboxyphosphate and that the carboxylation of biotin itself may proceed analogously

  15. Gaseous Loss of Nitrogen from Fertilizers Applied to Wheat on a Calcareous Soil in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIGUIXIN; YANGZHEN; 等

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen(N)losses from ammonium bicarbonate or urea applied to wheat and then followed immediately by irrigation were investigated.Ammonia volatilization was determined by a micrometeorological method (ammonia sampler),total N loss was estimated by the 15N mass balance method ,and denitrification loss was measured by the diference method(calculated from the difference between the total N loss and ammonia loss) and a direct method (measuring the emission of (N2+N2O)-15N).Total ammonia losses from ammonium bicarbonate and urea in 33 days were 8.7% and 0.9% of the applied nitrogen ,respectively.The corresponding total N losses were 21.6% and 29.5%,Apparent denitrification losses(by the difference method) were rather high,being 12.9% from ammonium bicarbonate and 28.6% from urea .However,no emission of (N2+N2O)-15N was detected using the direct method.

  16. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion behaviors of carbon steel in wet Na-bentonite medium were studied. Corrosion rate of carbon steel in wet bentonite was measured to be 20 μm/yr at 25 deg C using the AC impedance technique. This value is agreed with that obtained by weight loss at 40 deg C for 1 year. The effect of bicarbonate ion on the corrosion of carbon steel in wet bentonite was also evaluated. The carbon steels in wet bentonite having 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 M concentration of bicarbonate ion gave corrosion rates of 20, 8, and 0.2 μm/yr, respectively. Corrosion potentials of specimens were also measured and compared with the AC impedance results. Both results indicated that bicarbonate ion could effectively reduce the corrosion rate of carbon steels in bentonite due to the formation of protective layer on the carbon steel. (author)

  17. Preliminary analysis of some waters from the confined aquifers underlying the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.

    1978-09-01

    This report presents results of analyses available at this time from waters from some wells sampled in or near the Hanford Site. The analyses of these wells were done for various purposes and are consolidated to help define the nature of the waters found within the Columbia Plateau basaltic sequence. Results of the analyses show the waters from the unconfined aquifers underlying the Hanford Site are characterized by a high calcium--magnesium content. These waters can be described as calcium--magnesium--bicarbonate-type. Waters from deeper basaltic confined aquifers are primarily of the sodium bicarbonate type. Two waters sampled from the Grande Ronde Formation from Rattlesnake Hills Exploratory Well Number 1 are slightly different and can be described as sodium--calcium--bicarbonate--sulfate--chloride-type. Age-dating results for these water samples lead to the conclusions that waters from the confined aquifers were entrapped 15,000 to 23,000 years ago.

  18. Carbonate ions and arsenic dissolution by groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of Marshall Sandstone, a major source of groundwater with elevated arsenic levels in southeast Michigan, were exposed to bicarbonate ion under controlled chemical conditions. In particular, effects of pH and redox conditions on arsenic release were evaluated. The release of arsenic from the aquifer rock was strongly related to the bicarbonate concentration in the leaching solution. The results obtained suggest that the carbonation of arsenic sulfide minerals, including orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As2S2), is an important process in leaching arsenic into groundwater under anaerobic conditions. The arseno-carbonate complexes formed, believed to be As(CO3)2-, As(CO3)(OH)2-, and AsCO3+, are stable in groundwater. The reaction of ferrous ion with the thioarsenite from carbonation process can result in the formation of arsenopyrite which is a common mineral in arsenic-rich aquifers.Samples of Marshall Sandstone, a major source of groundwater with elevated arsenic levels in southeast Michigan, were exposed to bicarbonate ion under controlled chemical conditions. In particular, effects of pH and redox conditions on arsenic release were evaluated. The release of arsenic from the aquifer rock was strongly related to the bicarbonate concentration in the leaching solution. The results obtained suggest that the carbonation of arsenic sulfide minerals, including orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As2S2), is an important process in leaching arsenic into groundwater under anaerobic conditions. The arseno-carbonate complexes formed, believed to be As(CO3)2-, As(CO3)(OH)2-, and AsCO3+, are stable in groundwater. The reaction of ferrous ion with the thioarsenite from carbonation process can result in the formation of arsenopyrite which is a common mineral in arsenic-rich aquifers.The role of bicarbonate in leaching arsenic into groundwater was investigated by conducting batch experiments using core samples of Marshall Sandstone from southeast Michigan and different bicarbonate

  19. Effects of nuclei ambiguus and dorsal motor nuclei of vagus on gastric H+ and HCO3- secretion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Zhang; Hong-Bin Ai; Xi-Yun Cui

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of electrical stimulation of nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nuclei of vagus (DMV) on gastric acid and bicarbonate secretion in rats.METHODS: NA and DMV in rats were electrically stimulated. Pylorus ligation or esophagus perfusion was used to collect the gastric secretion. The titratable H+ quantum, H+ concentration, HCO3- secretion quantum were measured.RESULTS: Electrical stimulation of NA had no effects on the volume of gastric juice, titratable acidity and acid concentration, but elicited a pronounced increase in the total bicarbonate. However, electrical stimulation of DMV significantly increased the titratable acidity, the volume of gastric juice and the acid concentration. Similarly,electrical stimulation of either NA or DMV decreased the respiratory frequency and sinus bradycardia.CONCLUSION: NA in rats can not control the secretion of gastric acid but the secretion of bicarbonate in gastric juice, while DMV controls the secretion of gastric acid.

  20. Inositol hexa-phosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, D.; Tapia, A.; Real, A.; Morcillo, M.A. [Radiobiology Laboratory, Radiation Dosimetry Unit, Department of Environment, CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Chelation therapy is an optimal method to reduce the radionuclide-related risks. In the case of uranium incorporation, the treatment of choice is so far i.v infusion of a 1.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, but the efficacy has been proved to be not very high. In this study, we examine the efficacy of some substances: bicarbonate, citrate, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethidronate (EHBP) and inositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) to chelate uranium using a test developed by Braun et al. Different concentrations of phytic acid, an abundant component of plant seeds that is widely distributed in animal cells and tissues in substantial levels, were tested and compared to the same concentrations of sodium citrate, bicarbonate, EHBP and DTPA. The results showed a strong affinity of inositol hexa-phosphate for uranium, suggesting that it could be an effective chelating agent for uranium in vivo. (authors)

  1. Inositol hexa-phosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelation therapy is an optimal method to reduce the radionuclide-related risks. In the case of uranium incorporation, the treatment of choice is so far i.v infusion of a 1.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, but the efficacy has been proved to be not very high. In this study, we examine the efficacy of some substances: bicarbonate, citrate, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethidronate (EHBP) and inositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) to chelate uranium using a test developed by Braun et al. Different concentrations of phytic acid, an abundant component of plant seeds that is widely distributed in animal cells and tissues in substantial levels, were tested and compared to the same concentrations of sodium citrate, bicarbonate, EHBP and DTPA. The results showed a strong affinity of inositol hexa-phosphate for uranium, suggesting that it could be an effective chelating agent for uranium in vivo. (authors)

  2. Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10-4; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10-4; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10-4; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10-4; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10-4. Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10-4; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10-4. Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10-4 for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10-4 for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, B K; Bonanno, J A; Radke, C J

    2011-11-01

    Wear of low-oxygen-transmissible soft contact lenses swells the cornea significantly, even during open eye. Although oxygen-deficient corneal edema is well-documented, a self-consistent quantitative prediction based on the underlying metabolic reactions is not available. We present a biochemical description of the human cornea that quantifies hypoxic swelling through the coupled transport of water, salt, and respiratory metabolites. Aerobic and anaerobic consumption of glucose, as well as acidosis and pH buffering, are incorporated in a seven-layer corneal model (anterior chamber, endothelium, stroma, epithelium, postlens tear film, contact lens, and prelens tear film). Corneal swelling is predicted from coupled transport of water, dissolved salts, and especially metabolites, along with membrane-transport resistances at the endothelium and epithelium. At the endothelium, the Na+/K+ - ATPase electrogenic channel actively transports bicarbonate ion from the stroma into the anterior chamber. As captured by the Kedem-Katchalsky membrane-transport formalism, the active bicarbonate-ion flux provides the driving force for corneal fluid pump-out needed to match the leak-in tendency of the stroma. Increased lactate-ion production during hypoxia osmotically lowers the pump-out rate requiring the stroma to swell to higher water content. Concentration profiles are predicted for glucose, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydronium, lactate, bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride ions, along with electrostatic potential and pressure profiles. Although the active bicarbonate-ion pump at the endothelium drives bicarbonate into the aqueous humor, we find a net flux of bicarbonate ion into the cornea that safeguards against acidosis. For the first time, we predict corneal swelling upon soft-contact-lens wear from fundamental biophysico-chemical principles. We also successfully predict that hypertonic tear alleviates contact-lens-induced edema. PMID:21820076

  4. Effect of different ions on the anodic behaviour of alloy 800 chloride solutions at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of alloy 800 in sodium bicarbonate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions were studied in the temperature range from 100 degrees C to 280 degrees C by means of electrochemical techniques. The effect of phosphate or bicarbonate additions on the pitting susceptibility and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride solutions was also examined. Experiments were performed in the following solutions: 0.1M NaHCO3, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 280 degrees C; 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 280 degrees C, and 0.1M NaCl with different additions of bicarbonate ion (0.02M, 0.05M and 0.1M) and phosphate ion (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M) at 100 degrees C and 280 degrees C. The anodic polarization curves of alloy 800 in deaerated 0.1M NaHCO3 and 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4 solutions exhibited a similar shape at all the tested temperatures. No localized or generalized corrosion was detected on the metallic surface after polarization. The results obtained in chloride plus bicarbonate and chloride plus phosphate mixtures showed that the pitting potential of alloy 800 in chloride solutions was increased by the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate ions. In those solutions where the inhibitor concentration in the mixture is equal or higher than the chloride concentration , the behaviour of the alloy is similar to the one observed in the absence of chlorides. Changes in pitting morphology were found in phosphate containing solutions, while the pits found in bicarbonate containing solutions were similar to those formed in pure chloride solutions. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  5. Exploitation of a pH-sensitive hydrogel for CO2 detection

    OpenAIRE

    Herber, S; Olthuis, W.; Bergveld, P.; Berg, van den, S.J.P.L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper is described how hydrogel is exploited as sensor material for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2). A pH-sensitive hydrogel disc, which swells and deswells in response to pH changes, was clamped between a pressure sensor membrane and a porous metal screen together with a bicarbonate solution. Bicarbonate reacts with CO2 resulting in a pH change. The enclosed hydrogel will generate pressure as a response to the pH change. This pressure is a measure for the partial pressure of CO...

  6. Drug: D08706 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2339 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 23 Diges...tive organ agents 233 Stomachics and digestives 2339 Others D08706 l-Menthol - cinnamo...D08706 Mixture, Drug l-Menthol - cinnamon bark - gentian - zanthoxylum fruit - ginger - sodi...16], Zanthoxylum fruit [DR:D06733], Ginger [DR:D06744], Sodium bicarbonate [DR:D01203] Therapeutic category:...n bark - gentian - zanthoxylum fruit - ginger - sodium bicarbonate mixt PubChem: 96025389 ...

  7. Carbonate and Chloride Scavenging in S2O82-/Fe2+/Citric Acid Oxidation of PCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    referred to as scavenging reactions. Scavenger ion is one of the most common factors limiting the oxidation efficiency. Especially chloride and (bi)carbonate have the potential to impact pathway, kinetics, and efficiency of oxidation reactions both as radical scavengers and as metal complexing agents...... be treated within the next couple of years, most likely with chemical oxidation. Large amounts of sulfonamides, barbiturates, phenols, mercury, and lithium are also present. However, very high concentrations of chloride (up to 4,600 mg/l) and bicarbonate (up to 6,900 mg/l) have been observed in the...

  8. Wide complex tachycardia after bupropion overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vanessa

    2015-10-01

    Here we describe a wide complex tachycardia after bupropion overdose that was responsive to sodium bicarbonate. This rhythm was likely secondary to bupropion-induced sodium channel blockade and corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation. It is critical for the emergency medicine physician to recognize that a wide complex rhythm in a patient with bupropion overdose may be secondary to sodium channel toxicity and prolonged QTc as this rhythm may be responsive to sodium bicarbonate. Identifying this rhythm as purely ventricular tachycardia can lead to the administration of medications such as amiodarone that may further prolong QTc and contribute to sodium channel blockade, exacerbating bupropion-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:26311156

  9. Oxygen status during haemodialysis. The Cord-Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A L; Jensen, H Æ; Hegbrant, J;

    1995-01-01

    Hypoxia during haemodialysis, mainly acetate, has been reported several times. In our study we have monitored oxygen status during 258 bicarbonate haemodialyses. A significant drop below 80 mmHg in mean oxygen tension occurred. Mean oxygen saturation reflected this drop but did not reach levels...... below 90%. The mean oxygen concentration was on the whole critical low, though slightly increasing during each haemodialysis session due to ultrafiltration. It is concluded that both hypoxia and hypoxaemia do occur during bicarbonate haemodialysis. To a group of patients generally having limited cardiac...... reserves, a poor oxygen status is a potentially serious complication to haemodialysis. Monitoring oxygen status is thus advisable....

  10. Non-polluting treatment of uranium effluents from the alkaline digestion of an uranium ore containing sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New non-polluting process for treating uranium effluents from the alkaline digestion of an uranium ore containing sulphur, which makes it possible (a) to extract and obtain relatively pure uranium and (b) to process the digestion liquor freed from the uranium and containing in an aqueous solution a mixture of alkaline carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate, consisting in the selective extraction of the sodium sulphate present and the recycling of the liquor free of SO4= ions, containing in solution the sole carbonates and/or bicarbonates involved, towards the digestion of the ore

  11. A radiochemical method for carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I: application to rats fed a hyperproteic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Fernández López, José Antonio; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2012-01-01

    A method for the measurement of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I activity in animal tissues has been developed using the livers of rats under normal and hyperproteic diets. The method is based on the incorporation of 14C-ammonium bicarbonate to carbamoyl-phosphate in the presence of ATP-Mg and N-acetyl-glutamate. The reaction is stopped by chilling, lowering the pH and adding ethanol. Excess bicarbonate is flushed out under a gentle stream of cold CO2. The only label remaining in the medium w...

  12. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  13. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hypokalemic paralysis in a patient with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz Ahmad Koul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43- year- old woman on treatment for primary hypothyroidism presented with 1- day progressive weakness of all her limbs and history of similar episodes in the past. Clinical examination revealed grade 2 hyporeflexive weakness. Investigations revealed features of hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, alkaline urine, and a fractional bicarbonate excretion of 3.5%, consistent with distal renal tubular acidosis. Antithyroid peroxidase and antithroglobulin antibodies were positive, suggesting an autoimmune basis for the pathogenesis of the functional tubular defect. Bicarbonate therapy resulted in a sustained clinical recovery.

  14. Renal tubular acidosis presenting as respiratory paralysis: Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalita J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory paralysis due to renal tubular acidosis (RTA is rare. We report a 22-year-old lady who developed severe bulbar, respiratory and limb paralysis following respiratory infection. She had hypokalemia (1.6 meq/L and hyperchloremic (110 meq/l acidosis (pH 7.1. She was diagnosed as distal RTA by ammonium chloride test. She improved following sodium bicarbonate and potassium supplementation. RTA should be differentiated from familial periodic paralysis (FPP because acetazolamide used in FPP aggravates RTA and sodium bicarbonate used in RTA aggravates hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

  15. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hypokalemic paralysis in a patient with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Parvaiz Ahmad; Wahid, A

    2011-09-01

    A 43- year- old woman on treatment for primary hypothyroidism presented with 1- day progressive weakness of all her limbs and history of similar episodes in the past. Clinical examination revealed grade 2 hyporeflexive weakness. Investigations revealed features of hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, alkaline urine, and a fractional bicarbonate excretion of 3.5%, consistent with distal renal tubular acidosis. Antithyroid peroxidase and antithroglobulin antibodies were positive, suggesting an autoimmune basis for the pathogenesis of the functional tubular defect. Bicarbonate therapy resulted in a sustained clinical recovery. PMID:21912036

  16. Acid-base regulation in tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana exposed to environmental hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Morten; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Jensen, Frank B.

    1997-01-01

    Tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana were exposed to different levels of environmental hypercapnia. The acid-base regulatory response differed from that in adult amphibians in showing a high degree of pH compensation in the extracellular fluid (65-85%) and complete compensation in the intracellular fluid......). It is suggested that the large bicarbonate efflux from the animal is a consequence of the dissolution of CaCO3 stores and the delayed adjustment of bicarbonate-retaining mechanisms. Re-exposure of tadpoles to hypercapnia after 1-3 weeks of normocapnic recovery only affected transepithelial fluxes of acid-base...

  17. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate%一种新的芒硝制碱法实验室研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash.A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate,complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate,regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution,processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate,and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate.The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  18. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash. A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate, complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate, regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution, processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate, and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate. The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  19. Expression of Na+/HCO3- co-transporter proteins (NBCs) in rat and human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Sodium/bicarbonate co-transport (NBC) has been suggested to have a role in muscle pH regulation. We investigated the presence of NBC proteins in rat and human muscle samples and the fibre type distribution of the identified NBCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Western blotting of muscle homogenates and...... T-tubules. The two NBCs localized in muscle have distinct fibre type distributions. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal muscle possesses two variants of the sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter (NBC) isoforms, which have been called NBCe1 and NBCe2....

  20. Effects of Alkali Concentration and Conching Temperature on Flavour, Hardness and Colour of Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Misnawi Jati; Susijahadi .; Jinap Selamat; Teguh Wahyudi; Novrita Putriani

    2006-01-01

    Alkalization is an addition of alkali into cocoa mass to improve product quality in terms of flavour and colour appearance. Sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate are usual to be added into cocoa cotyledon prior to roasting. A study has been carried out to evaluate the effects of alkalization proceeded upon conching on chocolate sensory properties, hardness and colour. Re sponse Surface Methodology design at alkali concentrations of 1—15 g kg -1 and conching temperature of 40—80 oC have...

  1. Crystal structure of lead uranyl carbonate mineral widenmannite: Precession electron-diffraction and synchrotron powder-diffraction study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, J.; Palatinus, L.; Rohlíček, J.; Houdková, L.; Klementová, Mariana; Goliáš, V.; Škácha, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 99, 2-3 (2014), s. 276-282. ISSN 0003-004X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Widenmannite * uranyl bicarbonate * crystal structure * precession electron diffraction * synchrotron powder diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2014

  2. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  3. Evaluation of the hydrologic system in the New Leipzig coal area, Grant and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aquifers in the New Leipzig coal area consist of sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone, the Hell Creek Formation, the Cannonball and Ludlow Members of the Fort Union Formation, and the basal part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. Aquifers also occur in sandstone and lignite beds in the upper part of the Tongue River Member and Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation. Potential well yields from each of the aquifers are variable, but are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Cannonball, and Ludlow is soft and of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in basal Tongue River aquifer is either soft or very hard and generally is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in the upper Tongue River and Sentinel Butte aquifer system is very hard and generally is either of the calcium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type. There is little or no contribution of ground water to Thirty Mile Creek or the Cannonball River from the area of minable coal. Coal mining will expose sulfide minerals to oxidation, and result in an increase in dissolved solids and sulfate in water in the basal Tongue River aquifer. (USGS)

  4. Fungicides for organic cantaloupe production in Oklahoma: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides that are potentially useful in organic production were evaluated for foliar disease control in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulates ’Israeli’) during 2009 at Lane, Oklahoma. Milstop (85% potassium bicarbonate), Neem oil, Bonide liquid copper (10% copper octanoate), Serenade (QST ...

  5. Hydrogeochemistry of the Catskill Mountains of New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisio, Steven J; Halton, Casey R; Bowles, Emily K; Keimowitz, Alison R; Corey, Karen; Myers, Kellie; Adams, Morton S

    2013-09-01

    Major ion chemistry of Catskill region groundwater is characterized on the basis of 207 analyses compiled from three sources, including a web-based U.S. Geological Survey database, state agency regulatory compliance data, and sampling of trailside springs performed by the authors. All samples were analyzed for the complete set of major ions, including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. Groundwater in pristine, high-elevation areas of the Catskill Peaks was found to be predominantly of calcium bicarbonate, calcium sulfate, or calcium bicarbonate-sulfate types, with relatively low ionic strength. Groundwater at lower elevations along the margins of the region or in valley bottoms was predominantly of sodium-chloride or sodium-bicarbonate types, showing the effects of road salt and other local pollution sources. Nitrate and sulfate enrichment attributable to regional air pollution sources were most evident in the high-elevation spring samples, owing to the generally low concentrations of other major ions. Trailside springs appear to be viable low-cost sources for obtaining samples representative of groundwater, especially in remote and inaccessible areas of the Catskill forest preserve. PMID:24033485

  6. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  7. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  8. A new slurry pH model accounting for effects of ammonia and carbon dioxide volatilization on solution speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, V; Markfoged, Rikke; Hafner, Sasha;

    2014-01-01

    a reduced variable that combines time and location and an analytical approach to solving the resulting system of equations using Mathematica. To evaluate the model, we made measurements of pH at a resolution of 0.1 mm in the top 30 mm of an ammonium bicarbonate solution. These measurements show the creation...

  9. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A MONOLAYER TEMPLATE FOR MINERALIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral nucleation at a Langmuir film interface has been studied by synchrotron x-ray scattering. Diluted calcium bicarbonate solutions were used as subphases for arachidic and stearic acid monolayers, compressed in a Langmuir trough. Self-assembly of the monolayer template is observed directly, and subsequent crystal growth monitored in-situ

  10. Determination of mycophenolic acid in mest products using mixed mode reversed phase-anion exchange clean-up and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Jacobsen, Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    A method for determination of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in dry-cured ham, fermented sausage and liver pate is described. MPA was extracted from meat with bicarbonate-acetonitrile, further cleaned-up by mixed mode reversed phase-anion exchange and detected using a LC-MS system with electrospray...

  11. Evaluation of electrolyte imbalance among tuberculosis patients receiving treatments in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebimpe Wasiu Olalekan

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia, and hypochloremia characterized some of the electrolyte imbalance among TB patients receiving treatments. The raised level of bicarbonate may be attributed to overcorrection of respiratory acidosis often found in patients with tuberculosis. Monitoring electrolytes is therefore an important component of TB management.

  12. Oxydizing attack process of an uranium ore by a carbonated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous process of oxydizing attack of an uranium ore with a recycled aqueous solution of alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates containing uranium compounds at a concentration near the solubility limit at the attack temperature and recovery of the precipitated uranium in the solid phase remaining after the attack

  13. Stable isotopes' as trophic tracers: combining field sampling and manipulative labelling of food resources for macrobenthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, P.M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Widdows, J.; Lucas, C.M.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    We combined 3 different approaches to determine the relative importance of microphytobenthos production as food for intertidal macrobenthic animals: (1) the natural abundance of stable-isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen, (2) an in situ deliberate tracer addition of C-13-bicarbonate, which was tra

  14. Drug: D03901 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in Japan [BR:br08301] 7 Agents not mainly for therapeutic purpose 72 Intracorporeal diagnostic agents 721 X-ray contrast... media 7213 Adjuncts for contrast media D03901 Sodium bicarbonate - tartaric acid mixt PubChem: 17397985 ...

  15. Comparison of fumerate-pyruvate media and beef extract media for aerobically culturing Campylobacter species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Media supplemented with fumarate, pyruvate, and a vitamin-mineral solution or with beef extract were compared for the ability to support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Basal broth composed of tryptose, yeast extract, bicarbonate, and agar was supplemented with 30 mM fumarate, 100 mM pyruvate, and ...

  16. 27 CFR 24.246 - Materials authorized for the treatment of wine and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... million. 21 CFR 173.340 and 184.1505. Dimethyl dicarbonate: To sterilize and to stabilize wine... wine. 21 CFR 184.1077 (GRAS). Potassium carbonate and/or potassium bicarbonate To reduce excess natural... clarify and to stabilize wine The amount used shall not exceed 2 lbs/1000 gals. (0.24 g/L of wine. 21...

  17. 76 FR 76674 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ....940(a) for residues of didecyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate and didecyl ammonium bicarbonate.... Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code...

  18. Respiratory enzyme activities in the oxygen-deficient waters of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.

    mM), 0.1 ml of NaNO 2 (9 mM in glass - distilled water) and 0.1 ml of freshly prepared sodium dithionite - bicarbonate solution (60 mg each of sodium dithioni te and sodium b i carbonate in 2.5 ml glass - distilled water). Incubations...

  19. In vivo 13 carbon metabolic imaging at 3T with hyperpolarized 13C-1-pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, S J; Yen, Y; Wolber, J; Chen, A P; Albers, M J; Bok, R; Zhang, V; Tropp, J; Nelson, S; Vigneron, D B; Kurhanewicz, J; Hurd, R E

    2007-07-01

    We present for the first time dynamic spectra and spectroscopic images acquired in normal rats at 3T following the injection of (13)C-1-pyruvate that was hyperpolarized by the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) method. Spectroscopic sampling was optimized for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and for spectral resolution of (13)C-1-pyruvate and its metabolic products (13)C-1-alanine, (13)C-1-lactate, and (13)C-bicarbonate. Dynamic spectra in rats were collected with a temporal resolution of 3 s from a 90-mm axial slab using a dual (1)H-(13)C quadrature birdcage coil to observe the combined effects of metabolism, flow, and T(1) relaxation. In separate experiments, spectroscopic imaging data were obtained during a 17-s acquisition of a 20-mm axial slice centered on the rat kidney region to provide information on the spatial distribution of the metabolites. Conversion of pyruvate to lactate, alanine, and bicarbonate occurred within a minute of injection. Alanine was observed primarily in skeletal muscle and liver, while pyruvate, lactate, and bicarbonate concentrations were relatively high in the vasculature and kidneys. In contrast to earlier work at 1.5 T, bicarbonate was routinely observed in skeletal muscle as well as the kidney and vasculature. PMID:17659629

  20. THE CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR (CFTR) IS EXPRESSED IN MATURATION STAGE AMELOBLASTS, ODONTOBLASTS AND BONE CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Bronckers, Antonius; Kalogeraki, Lida; Jorna, Huub J.N.; Wilke, Martina; Bervoets, Theodore J.; LYARUU, DONACIAN M.; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; DenBesten, Pamela; de Jonge, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have mild defects in dental enamel. The gene mutated in these patients is CFTR, a Cl− channel involved in transepithelial salt- and water transport and bicarbonate secretion. We tested the hypothesis that Cftr channels are present and operating in the plasma membranes of mouse ameloblasts.