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Sample records for bibliography ethical legal

  1. ELSI Bibliography: Ethical legal and social implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesley, M.S. [comp.

    1993-11-01

    This second edition of the ELSI Bibliography provides a current and comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Since the first edition of the ELSI Bibliography was printed last year, new publications and earlier ones identified by additional searching have doubled our computer database of ELSI publications to over 5600 entries. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography reflects this growth of the underlying computer database. Researchers should note that an extensive collection of publications in the database is available for public use at the General Law Library of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  2. ELSI Bibliography: Ethical, legal and social implications of the Human Genome Project. 1994 Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesley, M.S.; Ossorio, P.N. [comps.

    1994-09-01

    This report updates and expands the second edition of the ELSI Bibliography, published in 1993. The Bibliography and Supplement provides a comprehensive resource for identifying publications on the major topics related to the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. The Bibliography and Supplement are extracted from a database compiled at Los Alamos National Laboratory with the support of the Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy. The second edition of the ELSI Bibliography was dated May 1993 but included publications added to the database until fall 1993. This Supplement reflects approximately 1,000 entries added to the database during the past year, bringing the total to approximately 7,000 entries. More than half of the new entries were published in the last year, and the remainder are earlier publications not previously included in the database. Most of the new entries were published in the academic and professional literature. The remainder are press reports from newspapers of record and scientific journals. The topical listing of the second edition has been followed in the Supplement, with a few changes. The topics of Cystic Fibrosis, Huntington`s Disease, and Sickle Cell Anemia have been combined in a single topic, Disorders. Also, all the entries published in the past year are included in a new topic, Publications: September 1993--September 1994, which provides a comprehensive view of recent reporting and commentary on the science and ELSI of genetics.

  3. Ethics: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Today. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004. 338pp. (BT304.2 .C69 2004) Coyle, Sean. From Positivism to Idealism: A Study of the Moral Dimensions of... Legality . Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007. 187pp. (K331 .C59 2007) Delsol, Chantal. Unjust Justice: Against the Tyranny of International Law. Translated...ProQuest) Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Law Center. Quarterly. (Wilson OmniFile) Hastings Center

  4. Ethics: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Morality and Beyond. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. (BJ1251 T6) 291. TolstoY, Lev N. Tolstoy’s Writings on Civil Disobedience and Non- Violence . 0 New York...Translated by R.H.M. Elwes. New York: Philosophi- cal Library, 1957. (B3973 E5E4) 265. Stack, George J. Kierkegaard’s Existential Ethics. University: Univer...271. Storer, Morris B., ed. Humanist Ethics: Dialogue on Basics. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1980. (BJ1360 1185) /4. Stratford, Michael C. Political

  5. Legal Information Sources: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Ronald C.

    This 25-page annotated bibliography describes the legal reference materials in the special collection of a medium-sized public library. Sources are listed in 12 categories: cases, dictionaries, directories, encyclopedias, forms, references for the lay person, general, indexes, laws and legislation, legal research aids, periodicals, and specialized…

  6. Choice: Ethical and Legal Rehabilitation Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…

  7. Legal and Political Aspects of Satellite Telecommunication: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervis, Katherine, Comp.

    The potential of satellites for telecommunication is enormous; however, it is possible that political and legal barriers rather than technological considerations will ultimately shape the utilization of satellite systems. This annotated bibliography is designed for use by lawyers, political scientists, technicians, engineers, and scholars who need…

  8. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  9. Solar energy legal bibliography. Final report. [160 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, D.; Euser, B.; Joyce, C.; Morgan, G. H.; Laitos, J. G.; Adams, A.

    1979-03-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography is a compilation of approximately 160 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (through October 1978). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  10. Ethical and Legal Responsibilities of Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Robert E.

    In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, each profession is reviewing its ethical practices. This paper assists in this renewal by citing the code of ethical standards of APGA; reviewing the laws of the State of Nevada regarding privileged communications; and covering the legal aspects which relate to counseling situations. (Author)

  11. Do ethics committees need a legal framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The question "do ethics committees need a legal framework" may then raise fundamental discussion in the case of developing countries: will an ethical framework bring them a better capacity to assume their task? And what should this task be if we consider the particularities of clinical research conducted in developing countries?

  12. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  13. Ethical Issues in Health Services: A Report and Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, James

    This publication identifies, discusses, and lists areas for further research for five ethical issues related to health services: 1) the right to health care; 2) death and euthanasia; 3) human experimentation; 4) genetic engineering; and, 5) abortion. Following a discussion of each issue is a selected annotated bibliography covering the years 1967…

  14. Legal and ethical issues in robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroforou, A; Michalodimitrakis, E; Hatzitheo-Filou, C; Giannoukas, A

    2010-02-01

    With the rapid introduction of revolutionary technologies in surgical practice, such as computer-enhanced robotic surgery, the complexity in various aspects, including medical, legal and ethical, will increase exponentially. Our aim was to highlight important legal and ethical implications emerged from the application of robotic surgery. Search of the pertinent medical and legal literature. Robotic surgery may open new avenues in the near future in surgical practice. However, in robotic surgery, special training and experience along with high quality assessment are required in order to provide normal conscientious care and state-of-the-art treatment. While the legal basis for professional liability remains exactly the same, litigation with the use of robotic surgery may be complex. In case of an undesirable outcome, in addition to physician and hospital, the manufacturer of the robotic system may be sued. In respect to ethical issues in robotic surgery, equipment safety and reliability, provision of adequate information, and maintenance of confidentiality are all of paramount importance. Also, the cost of robotic surgery and the lack of such systems in most of the public hospitals may restrict the majority from the benefits offered by the new technology. While surgical robotics will have a significant impact on surgical practice, it presents challenges so much in the realm of law and ethics as of medicine and health care.

  15. Ethical and legal dilemmas in infertility treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragojević-Dikić Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.

  16. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  17. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  18. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  19. Ethical and Legal Considerations of Healthcare Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ALUAŞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet, cloud computing, social networks and mobile technology, all facilitate information transfer. Healthcare professionals, physicians and patients can use informatic devices in order to simplify their access to medical information, to streamline testing, and to understand clinical results. The use of computers and software facilitate doctor-patient interactions by optimizing communication and information flow. However, digital interfaces also increase the risks that information specialists use information without fully complying with ethical principles and laws in force. Our premise is that these information specialists should: 1 be informed of the rights, duties, and responsibilities linked to their profession and laws in force; 2 have guidelines and ethical tutoring on what they need to do in order to avoid or prevent conflict or misconduct; 3 have renewed specific training on how to interpret and translate legal frameworks into internal rules and standards of good practice. The purpose of this paper was: 1 to familiarize professionals who work in healthcare informatics with the ethical and legal issues related to their work; 2 to provide information about codes of ethics and legal regulations concerning this specific area; 3 to summarize some risks linked to wrong or inadequate use of patient information, such as medical, genetic, or personal data.

  20. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, G.; Malone, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  1. Ethical and Legal Issues in Gestational Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Terracciano, Lucia; Delbon, Paola; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Policino, Fabio; Niola, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    This study originated from events that occurred in 2014 in an Italian hospital, where the embryos of a couple, obtained by means of homologous insemination, were mistakenly implanted into the uterus of another woman who, along with her husband, underwent the same treatment. Faced with this serious adverse circumstance, that gives rise to ethical and legal issues, the authors conducted a comparative examination of how to consider the division of maternity (between biological mother and uterine mother) and the related division of paternity (between genetic father and legal father, husband or partner of the gestational mother). Some preliminary observations are made concerning parenthood and filiation within the context of currently applicable Italian law. The following is a detailed analysis of the arguments in favour of the parental figures involved (gestational mother/genetic mother).

  2. Ethical and Legal Issues in Gestational Surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Claudia; Capasso, Emanuele; Terracciano, Lucia; Delbon, Paola; Fedeli, Piergiorgio; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Policino, Fabio; Niola, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study originated from events that occurred in 2014 in an Italian hospital, where the embryos of a couple, obtained by means of homologous insemination, were mistakenly implanted into the uterus of another woman who, along with her husband, underwent the same treatment. Faced with this serious adverse circumstance, that gives rise to ethical and legal issues, the authors conducted a comparative examination of how to consider the division of maternity (between biological mother and uterine mother) and the related division of paternity (between genetic father and legal father, husband or partner of the gestational mother). Some preliminary observations are made concerning parenthood and filiation within the context of currently applicable Italian law. The following is a detailed analysis of the arguments in favour of the parental figures involved (gestational mother/genetic mother). PMID:29675478

  3. Surrogacy: ethical, legal, and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, D R

    1995-09-01

    In considering the interrelated ethical, legal and social aspects of surrogacy we acknowledge that society has long accepted the delegation of various parenteral functions and explore the role of a surrogate in relationship to this as well as alluding to commoner comparisons with prostitution and adultery. In particular, the "birth mother" rule, the public antipathy to "commercial" surrogacy and restrictive legislation are explored and found to be inappropriate. It is concluded that the regulation, surveillance and assessment needed to ensure the best outcome for all concerned would perhaps be easiest achieved in programmes that are formally licensed under permissive legislation and adequately funded by "commercial" means.

  4. Legal, ethical,and economic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libassi, F.P.; Donaldson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the legal, ethical, and economic constraints to developing a comprehensive knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. These constraints are not fixed and immutable; rather they are determined by the political process. Political issues cannot be evaded. The basic objective of developing a comprehensive knowledge about the biological effects of ionizing radiation exists as an objective not only because we wish to add to the store of human knowledge but also because we have important use for that knowledge. It will assist our decision-makers to make choices that affect us all. These choices require both hard factual information and application of political judgment. Research supplies some of the hard factual information and should be as free as possible from political influence in its execution. At the same time, the political choices that must be made influence the direction and nature of the research program as a whole. Similarly, the legal, ethical, and economic factors that constrain our ability to expand knowledge through research reflect a judgment by political agents that values other than expansion of knowledge should be recognized and given effect

  5. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

    1992-01-01

    RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems

  6. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors......, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value...... disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency...

  7. Implications of the ethical-legal framework for adolescent HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    Fourthly, the institutional framework for establishing research priorities and regulation of ethical review is being strengthened with the establishment of new institutions such as the National. Health Research Ethics Committee. The South African ethical-legal framework and its implications for adolescent HIV vaccine trials ...

  8. Legal and institutional impediments to geothermal energy resource development: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography contains 485 references to literature on the subject of legal and institutional constraints to the development and use of geothermal resources. In addition to government-sponsored reports, journal articles, and books, the bibliography includes specific state and Federal laws and regulations, court cases of interest, and conference proceedings. For each reference, abstract or a listing of subject descriptors is given along with the complete bibliographic citation. Corporate, author, subject, and report number indexes are included. (LS)

  9. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the e...

  10. Women, children and advertising - legal and ethical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Stejskalová, Radka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis titled "Women, children and advertising - legal and ethical aspects" deals with the portrayal of women and children in advertising. The aim of the thesis is to analyze advertising with a focus on the portrayal of women and children present to Arbitration Committee in the reporting period and propose recommendations for the future. The work also deals with the importance of legal and ethical rules that regulate advertising and focuses on content regulation of women and children.

  11. The legal ethics of pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Doriane Lambelet

    2007-12-01

    Since the mid- to late 1990s, the scientific and medical research community has sought to increase its access to healthy children for research protocols that involve harm or a risk of harm. This move reverses longstanding policy within that community generally to exclude healthy children from such protocols on the grounds that the research as to them is non-therapeutic, that they are particularly vulnerable to research-related abuses, and that they are unable themselves to give informed consent to their participation. The research community's new posture has been supported by prominent pediatric bioethicists who have argued that unless healthy children are included as research subjects in harmful or risky research, the pediatric population will continue to suffer relative to the adult population in the extent to which it benefits from modern advances in science and medicine. In their view, it is possible for the research community to self-administer a rule that strikes a balance between protecting healthy children from research-related abuses and allowing their inclusion in cutting-edge pediatric research. In this scheme, parental consent is central to the research community's claims about child protection. This Article explores the flaws inherent in this ethics of pediatric research. Specifically, it challenges the view from ethics that the law permits parents to consent to their children's inclusion in harmful or risky research to the extent that related invasions would meet legal maltreatment standards. More broadly, it challenges the movement to increase access to healthy children for harmful and risky research on the ground that it risks two important regressions: First, in its willingness to risk harm to individual children in the interests of the group, it threatens the progress the law has made in its development of the concept of the child as an individual worthy of respect in his or her own right, a concept that imagines parents as fiduciaries and that

  12. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-11

    Aug 11, 2012 ... KEYWORDS: Ethical, Islamic perspective, legal, Nigeria, .... preservation solution and then placed in two plastic bags and stored at 0-4°C. Samples of donor spleen and ..... transplants: Ethical, social and religious issues in a multi cultural society. Asia Pac J .... Submit good quality color images. Each image ...

  13. Implications of the ethical-legal framework for adolescent HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethical-legal framework in South Africa is in a period of transition, with a number of new developments changing the substantive principles and procedures for health research in the country. Some of the changing dynamics include both law reform and the review of ethical guidelines. This changing environment poses ...

  14. Cyberspace in the Curricula: New Legal and Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethers, J. Steven

    1998-01-01

    Finds that most journalism and mass communication programs integrate legal and ethical issues surrounding cyberspace and interactive media into existing courses, especially into ethics and communication law courses, but also into introductory survey courses, communication technology, and reporting classes. Details reasons why some programs do not…

  15. Legal and ethical issues arising with preimplantation human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J A

    1992-04-01

    The development of in vitro fertilization has led to ethical and legal controversies concerning actions with externalized preembryos. A legal and ethical consensus is emerging that preembryos are not legal persons or moral subjects, although they are owed special respect because of their ability to implant and come to term. In addition, gamete providers are recognized as having dispositional authority over whether preembryos will be created, cryopreserved, placed in a uterus, discarded, donated, or used in research. Prior agreements over preembryo disposition are the best way to minimize disputes between the gamete providers.

  16. Legal Bibliography for Juvenile and Family Courts. Supplement 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, William H.; Freer, Alice B.

    This bibliography provides a listing of journal articles on such topics as: the abused child, adoptions, case decisions, confessions, constitutional law, counsel, court administration and organization, courts, criminal law and procedure, custody, delinquency, domestic relations, due process for juveniles, evidence, family court and family law,…

  17. Legal and ethical issues regarding social media and pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media.

  18. Limits Legal Ethics of Biotechnology in XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Cabrini Morgato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the ethical and legal consequences of developments in biotechnological science, with a focus on the field of genetic engineering. We classify situations originating from developments in biotechnological science depending on their ethical and legal justification, based on Habermas’ reflections in his work “The future of human nature”, and differentiate between negative eugenics, representing ethically and legally justified situations, given their therapeutic potential of bringing benefits to human beings; and positive eugenics, describing situations, which are not justified by Ethics and Law, since they represent risks for the ethical self-understanding of the human species and are also incompatible with the imperative nature of human life protection, which is struc- tured by the Ibero-American constitutional states. We conclude that all moral judgments must follow the principle of human dignity as a major guideline, because the prevention of harmful practices against human beings requires, apart from legal and ethical rules, the responsibility to exclusively employ technologies for therapeutic purposes and to impede that the consumer society and its by-products completely artificialize the human nature.

  19. Ethical and legal challenges associated with disaster nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Hammad, Karen; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh

    2015-06-01

    In disaster situations, nurses may face new and unfamiliar ethical and legal challenges not common in their everyday practice. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian nurses' experience of disaster response and their perception of the competencies required by nurses in this environment. This article discusses the findings of a descriptive study conducted in Iran in 2012. This research was conducted in Iran in 2012. Participants included 35 nurses who had experience in healthcare delivery following a disaster event in the past 10 years, either in a hospital or out-of-hospital context. This research study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From this study, five themes emerged as areas that nurses require competence in to work effectively in the disaster setting. This article focusses on one theme, the ethical and legal issues that arise during disaster response. Within the theme of ethical and legal issues, two sub-themes emerged. (1) Professional ethics explores professional responsibility of nurses as well as sense of ethical obligation. (2) Adherence to law refers to nurses' familiarity with and observation of legal requirements. This article adds to a growing pool of literature which explores the role of nurses in disasters. The findings of this study emphasize the need for nurses working in the disaster setting to be aware of professional responsibilities and familiar with legal requirements and the challenges related to observing ethical responsibilities. In highlighting these issues, this article may provide a useful starting point for the development of an educational framework for preparing nurses and other health professionals to work in the disaster setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Ethical and legal issues in aesthetic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and expansion of plastic surgery in general and aesthetic surgery in particular in the past decade has brought in its wake some confusions particularly raising questions for the surgeons conduct towards his colleagues and the patients in the light of ethical requirements. Some thoughts from eminent thinkers form a backdrop to consideration of theories of medical ethics. In this article raging and continuous debates on these subjects have been avoided to maintain the momentum. Apart from the western thoughts, directions from our old scriptures on ethical conduct have been included to accommodate prevelant Indian practices. The confusion created by specialists advertising their abilities directly to the lay public following removal of ethical bars by the American Courts as also latitudes allowed by the General Medical Council of Great Britain have been discussed. The medical fraternity however has its reservations. Unnecessary skirmishes with the law arose in cosmetic surgery from the freedom exercised by the police to file criminal proceedings against attending doctors in the event of a patient′s death with or without any evidence of wrong doing. This has now been curtailed in the judgement of the Supreme Court of India[1] where norms have been laid down for such prosecution. This has helped doctors to function without fear of harassment. An effort has been made to state a simple day-to-day routine for an ethical doctor-patient relationship.

  1. Teamwork and the legal and ethical responsibility of the anaesthetist.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, L.H.D.J.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anaesthetists are members of the operating team. Although the surgeons usually consider themselves to be the leaders of the team, all members, including the anaesthetist, have their own legal, ethical and professional responsibilities. RECENT FINDINGS: Good communication and

  2. Social Media and Professional School Counselors: Ethical and Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Patrick R.; Griffith, Catherine; Greene, Jennifer H.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social media continues to expand in prevalence and is a medium of communication for individuals of all ages. Schools are using social media to engage their stakeholders at increasing rates. Therefore, school counselors require the knowledge and appreciation of ethical and legal issues regarding the use of such technology. The purpose of…

  3. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

  4. Ethical and medico-legal aspects of dementia | Potocnik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical and medico-legal aspects of dementia. FCV Potocnik. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  5. Medical safety in boxing: administrative, ethical, legislative, and legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael B

    2009-10-01

    The roles and responsibilities of the ringside physician are complex and have evolved into a unique specialty in sport medicine. In addition to the medical aspects of ringside medicine, the doctor is now responsible for many administrative, ethical, and legal considerations. This article reviews and details the numerous roles the ringside physician plays in the sport of boxing.

  6. The Terri Schiavo case: legal, ethical, and medical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Joshua E; Churchill, Larry R; Kirshner, Howard S

    2005-11-15

    Although tragic, the plight of Terri Schiavo provides a valuable case study. The conflicts and misunderstandings surrounding her situation offer important lessons in medicine, law, and ethics. Despite media saturation and intense public interest, widespread confusion lingers regarding the diagnosis of persistent vegetative state, the judicial processes involved, and the appropriateness of the ethical framework used by those entrusted with Terri Schiavo's care. First, the authors review the current medical understanding of persistent vegetative state, including the requirements for patient examination, the differential diagnosis, and the practice guidelines of the American Academy of Neurology regarding artificial nutrition and hydration for patients with this diagnosis. Second, they examine the legal history, including the 2000 trial, the 2002 evidentiary hearing, and the subsequent appeals. The authors argue that the law did not fail Terri Schiavo, but produced the highest-quality evidence and provided the most judicial review of any end-of-life guardianship case in U.S. history. Third, they review alternative ethical frameworks for understanding the Terri Schiavo case and contend that the principle of respect for autonomy is paramount in this case and in similar cases. Far from being unusual, the manner in which Terri Schiavo's case was reviewed and the basis for the decision reflect a broad medical, legal, and ethical consensus. Greater clarity regarding the persistent vegetative state, less apprehension of the presumed mysteries of legal proceedings, and greater appreciation of the ethical principles at work are the chief benefits obtained from studying this provocative case.

  7. Legal deposit of ebooks in France and its bearings on cataloguing and the National Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Derrot , Sophie; Koskas , Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    International audience; French law on digital legal deposit covers websites and online content as well as ebooks. It imposes no obligation to produce a bibliography in the traditional form, indexing being sufficient. But despite their innovative characteristics, ebooks are still books, and their bibliographic metadata is closer to that of printed materials than to the indexation of web archives. To set up a complete ebook deposit workflow, the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) benefits f...

  8. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.

  9. Legal and legal-ethical aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, H.

    1991-01-01

    The article examines why human beings accept risks. An assessment of risk is always carried out in connection with the benefits to be had from an action which is a potential risk. Decisions on the acceptability of risks are the consequence of political assessments. An assessment of risk on a legal basis is only possible to a limited degree. What is important are the criteria according to which the acceptability of risks is determined. In this context, the concept of damage proves itself to be of central importance; this concept includes the question as to the degree to which such damage can be tolerated socially and politically, the question of future damage as well as the degree to which such damage is reversible. It would be ideal if those persons who are affected by potential damage were to be the ones to make such decisions, but this is extremely difficult to put into practice. Special care must be taken in regard to decisions which have repercussions for future generations or for the state of nature. In this case, the decision which those persons who are potentially affected would most probably make must be anticipated and taken into account as if they were here to participate in the decision-making process. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Ethical Issues of Reproductive Technologies: Legal and Ethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammler, Kim

    Ethical issues which surround the reproductive technologies being used to assist infertile couples include social impact, surrogacy, access to service and confidentiality. The use of reproductive technologies does not appear to cause harm, and often does a lot of good for the family and society. Surrogacy could be a valuable tool for the infertile…

  11. Medicine beyond borders: the legal and ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie J

    2009-09-01

    The ease and affordability of international travel has contributed to the rapid growth of the healthcare industry where people from all around the world are traveling to other countries to obtain medical, dental, and surgical care while at the same time touring, vacationing and fully experiencing the attractions of the countries that they are visiting. A combination of many factors has led to the recent increase in popularity of medical tourism such as exorbitant costs of healthcare in industrialized nations, favorable currency exchange rates in the global economy, rapidly improving technology in many countries of the world and most importantly proven safety of healthcare in selected foreign nations. Nevertheless, the development of medical tourism has certainly awakened many ethical and legal issues, which must be addressed. Issues pertaining to malpractice, consumer protection, organ trafficking, alternative medicine and telemedicine need comprehensive legal regulatory framework to govern them. Ethical issues are also been raised by the promotion of medical tourism in particular those pertaining to doctor and patient relationship. A future, where medical law is subsumed into various legal and ethical dimensions, poses serious challenges for the practice and ethics of medicine.

  12. Retrospective research: What are the ethical and legal requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, V; Elger, B

    2010-07-25

    Retrospective research is conducted on already available data and/or biologic material. Whether such research requires that patients specifically consent to the use of "their" data continues to stir controversy. From a legal and ethical point of view, it depends on several factors. The main criteria to be considered are whether the data or the sample is anonymous, whether the researcher is the one who collected it and whether the patient was told of the possible research use. In Switzerland, several laws delineate the procedure to be followed. The definition of "anonymous" is open to some interpretation. In addition, it is debatable whether consent waivers that are legally admissible for data extend to research involving human biological samples. In a few years, a new Swiss federal law on human research could clarify the regulatory landscape. Meanwhile, hospital-internal guidelines may impose stricter conditions than required by federal or cantonal law. Conversely, Swiss and European ethical texts may suggest greater flexibility and call for a looser interpretation of existing laws. The present article provides an overview of the issues for physicians, scientists, ethics committee members and policy makers involved in retrospective research in Switzerland. It aims at provoking more open discussions of the regulatory problems and possible future legal and ethical solutions.

  13. [Abortion: legal, deontological and ethical framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy interruption before fetal viability limit is inherent to a multidisciplinary reflection, due to the conflicts involved. Portuguese laws have been altered along time in the way of women's health protection, allowing the needed information and support towards a free, informed and enlightened decision. Deontological determinants about health professionals towards abortion indicate the practice accordingly the law. Nevertheless, it is safeguarded their right to consciousness objection. Ethical discussion about abortion, in its different ways, includes the concern about the value of intrauterine human life, and also the respect for individual autonomy. Even though the debate about intrauterine human life moral status is viewed from different theories and points of view, it is concluded that different perspectives about this matter are acceptable, in an interpersonal diversity valorization point of view.

  14. Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Graf

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.

  15. Ethics and medico legal aspects of "Not for Resuscitation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sulakshan Salins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Not for resuscitation in India still remains an abstract concept with no clear guidelines or legal frame work. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a complex medical intervention which is often used inappropriately in hospitalized patients and usually guided by medical decision making rather than patient-directed choices. Patient autonomy still remains a weak concept and relatives are expected to make this big decision in a short time and at a time of great emotional distress. This article outlines concepts around ethics and medico legal aspects of not for resuscitation, especially in Indian setting.

  16. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter-though they may not identify-victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case scenario: criminal law, with a focus on conspiracy; service provider regulations, with a focus on mandatory reporting laws; and human rights law. In addition to imposing a legal mandate, the law can inform ethical considerations about how health care professionals should respond to human trafficking. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, V I O

    2009-02-01

    A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

  18. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Physician Encounters with Human Trafficking: Legal Consequences and Ethical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Todres, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition and evidence that health care professionals regularly encounter - though they may not identify - victims of human trafficking in a variety of health care settings. Identifying and responding appropriately to trafficking victims or survivors requires not only training in trauma-informed care but also consideration of the legal and ethical issues that arise when serving this vulnerable population. This essay examines three areas of law that are relevant to this case...

  20. Ethical and legal consideration of prisoner's hunger strike in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos

    2011-03-01

    Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Technological innovations in forensic genetics: social, legal and ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage the participation of scientific actors in the development of anticipatory governance deliberations concerning the widening application of forensic genetics in an increasing number of criminal and civil jurisdictions.

  2. Towards a European code of medical ethics. Ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patuzzo, Sara; Pulice, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of a common European code of medical ethics is discussed, with consideration and evaluation of the difficulties such a project is going to face, from both the legal and ethical points of view. On the one hand, the analysis will underline the limits of a common European code of medical ethics as an instrument for harmonising national professional rules in the European context; on the other hand, we will highlight some of the potentials of this project, which could be increased and strengthened through a proper rulemaking process and through adequate and careful choice of content. We will also stress specific elements and devices that should be taken into consideration during the establishment of the code, from both procedural and content perspectives. Regarding methodological issues, the limits and potentialities of a common European code of medical ethics will be analysed from an ethical point of view and then from a legal perspective. The aim of this paper is to clarify the framework for the potential but controversial role of the code in the European context, showing the difficulties in enforcing and harmonising national ethical rules into a European code of medical ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Tissue banking in Hungary: legal, ethical and technical frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.; Ternesi, A.

    1999-01-01

    Hungary is a small country in the middle of Europe with a population of 10 million. Many religions are represented in the country but the majority of the population is Christian. The Hungarian medical education and practice based on the 'German School' and the modem medicine has been started more than 200 years ago. At the same time some of the medical school have been established first in Nagyszombat and the school for surgery in Kolozsyar, later in Debrecen 80 years ago. Recently we have four medical faculties. From the beginning of implementation of modern medicine many efforts were taken to establish the relevant legal frame and ethical rules to help and make understandable and acceptable for the society of various medical interventions. The previous mentioned structure was before and presently conformed with the political and social structure of the country. The initial of tissue for transplantation in medicine was widely accepted by medical fraternity since the middle of the century. Recently tissue grafts are performed daily is in burn, reconstructive surgery, in bone and nerve surgery, unfortunately we use commercial products in heart surgery. At the initial phase of our tissue banking activity, we first followed the American Association Tissue Banking procedures based on our personal contact with leading US Tissue Bank and the American Association of Tissue Banks. Later after joining the Europe Association of Tissue Bank we played an active role in the establishing of the Europe recommendations related to legal, ethical and technical rules of tissue banking. In this presentation the legal frame and the recent ethical concept for tissue donation as well as the technical possibilities and the donor recreation programme of tissue banks will be introduced to the audience. Also the problems of legal harmonization will be mentioned to which we are facing as an associated country to the European Union

  4. Future issues in transplantation ethics: ethical and legal controversies in xenotransplantation, stem cell, and cloning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S

    2008-07-01

    With little prospect of developing a sufficient supply of human transplantable organs to meet the large and growing demand, attention has turned to xenotransplantation, as well as stem cell and cloning research, as possible approaches for alleviating this allograft shortage. This article explores ethical and legal issues that surround developments in these fields.

  5. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in

  6. Organ transplantation: Legal, ethical and Islamic perspective in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar A Bakari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ

  7. Organ transplantation: legal, ethical and islamic perspective in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-07-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in

  8. Dispensing with conscience: a legal and ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernow, Jerome R; Grant, Donald G

    2008-11-01

    For over 30 years, pharmacists have exercised the right to dispense medications in accordance with moral convictions based upon a Judeo-Christian ethic. What many of these practitioners see as an apparent shift away from this time-honored ethic has resulted in a challenge to this right. To review and analyze pharmacy practice standards, legal proceedings, and ethical principles behind conflicts of conscientious objection in dispensing drugs used for emergency contraception. We first searched the terms conscience and clause and Plan B and contraception and abortion using Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft Networks (2006-September 26, 2008). Second, we used Medscape to search professional pharmacy and other medical journals, restricting our terms to conscience, Plan B, contraceptives, and abortifacients. Finally, we employed Loislaw, an online legal archiving service, and did a global search on the phrase conscience clause to determine the status of the legal discussion. To date, conflicts in conscientious objection have arisen when a pharmacist believes that dispensing an oral contraceptive violates his or her moral understanding for the promotion of human life. Up to this time, cases in pharmacy have involved only practitioners from orthodox Christian faith communities, primarily devout Roman Catholics. A pharmacist's right to refuse the dispensing of abortifacients for birth control according to moral conscience over against a woman's right to reproductive birth control has created a conflict that has yet to be reconciled by licensing agents, professional standards, or courts of law. Our analysis of prominent conflicts suggests that the underlying worldviews between factions make compromise improbable. Risks and liabilities are dependent upon compliance with evolving state laws, specific disclosure of a pharmacist's moral objections, and professionalism in the handling of volatile situations. Objecting pharmacists and their employers should have clear policies and

  9. Ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of microdose clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chieko

    2011-06-19

    A "microdose clinical trial" (microdosing) is one kind of early phase exploratory clinical trial, administering the compound at doses estimated to have no pharmacological or toxicological effects, aimed at screening candidates for further clinical development. This article's objective is to clarify the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of such an exploratory minimum-risk human trial. The definition and non-clinical study requirements for microdosing have been harmonized among the European Union (EU), United States (US), and Japan. Being conducted according to these regulations, microdosing seems to be ethically well justified in terms of respect for persons, beneficence, justice, human dignity, and animal welfare. Three big projects have been demonstrating the predictability of therapeutic dose pharmacokinetics from microdosing. The article offers suggestions as how microdosing can become a more useful and socially accepted strategy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Posthumous sperm procurement and use--ethical and legal dilemmas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crha, I; Dostál, J; Ventruba, P; Kudela, M; Záková, J

    2004-07-01

    To present a review of bioethical discussion and recommendations concerning posthumous sperm procurement and postmortem parenthood. Review article. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Masaryk University, Brno, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University, Olomouc. Literature search in Database of Abstracts of Reviews of the Evidence (DARE) and MEDLINEplus. Posthumous sperm procurement and cryopreservation must be performed within 36 hours after death. To established appropriate medical practice, it is important to consider all stakeholders in the decision-making process: the deceased, the requesting party, the child, the physician and the society. There are only few legislative measures concerning postmortem parenthood and posthumous sperm procurement. The essential elements for postmortem reproduction are: judicial order, ethics committee approval, bereavement period of at least 6 month before use. Posthumous sperm procurement is fraught with ethical and legal implications. All stakeholder should be considered. Society for reproductive medicine should prepare acceptable standard protocol.

  11. Multinational repositories: Ethical, legal and political/public aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutellier, C.; McCombie, C.; Mele, I.

    2006-01-01

    Concepts for shared multinational repositories face a great challenge in achieving acceptance, despite the fact that they promise advantages in safety, security, environmental protection and costs. When considering advantages of shared multinational repositories, it is instructive to examine which are the ethical, legal and political issues that mostly affect the feasibility of implementing such facilities. This paper addresses the key questions from two opposite sides. The early part takes a 'top-down' view, looking at the international debate on ethical issues, summarising a wide range of national political attitudes and identifying relevant international legislation and treaties. The latter looks 'bottom-up' at the problem, by discussing the situation of a small country, Slovenia. Slovenia has limited financial resources for implementing disposal - but it has a firm commitment to fulfilling its responsibilities for safely managing all Radioactive Wastes (RAW) arising in the country. Strategies considered to do so are laid out in this paper. (author)

  12. Ethics in the Legal and Business Practices of Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Terry J

    2017-10-01

    Ethical issues arise when a professional endeavor such as medicine, which seeks to place the well-being of others over the self-interest of the practitioner, meets granular business and legal decisions involved in making a livelihood out of a professional calling. The use of restrictive covenants, involvement in self-referral patterns, and maintaining appropriate comity among physicians while engaged in the marketplace are common challenges in radiation oncology practice. A paradigm of analysis is presented to help navigate these management challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Legal Status Of The Election Organizer Ethics Council An Analysis Of Indonesian Election Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify and to analyze the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in the General Election in Indonesia. This research is a normative research by using statute approach official records and the judges verdict which is then described qualitatively. These results indicate that the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in the general election in Indonesia as supporting organ that serves to uphold ethics rule of ethics and guarding democracy. The authority of Election Organizer Ethics Council in the general election in Indonesia sometimes out of authority. Ideal concept of the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in general elections was as supporting organ which have the infrastructure secretary general and administrative staff so it has a public legal entity as similar to the Election organizers serve as code of ethics enforcement agencies code of ethics and can equated to other state institutions.

  14. The legal and ethical issues in the techniques of blood transfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the legal and ethical issues that may arise and the principles that should be considered in the clinical practice for the transfusion of red blood cells and plasma into adults and children. Generally, the legal and ethical principles that apply to the medical transfusion therapy are not different from those ...

  15. Discussing options between patients and health care professionals in genetic diagnosis: ethical and legal criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Pilar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The specific characteristics of genetic data lead to ethical-legal conflicts in the framework of genetic diagnosis. Several international organisations, including UNESCO and the Council of Europe, have enacted rules referring to the use of genetic information. This paper discusses possible legal and ethical criteria that could be used in genetic testing.

  16. Ethical, legal, and social issues in the translation of genomics into health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badzek, Laurie; Henaghan, Mark; Turner, Martha; Monsen, Rita

    2013-03-01

    The rapid continuous feed of new information from scientific discoveries related to the human genome makes translation and incorporation of information into the clinical setting difficult and creates ethical, legal, and social challenges for providers. This article overviews some of the legal and ethical foundations that guide our response to current complex issues in health care associated with the impact of scientific discoveries related to the human genome. Overlapping ethical, legal, and social implications impact nurses and other healthcare professionals as they seek to identify and translate into practice important information related to new genomic scientific knowledge. Ethical and legal foundations such as professional codes, human dignity, and human rights provide the framework for understanding highly complex genomic issues. Ethical, legal, and social concerns of the health provider in the translation of genomic knowledge into practice including minimizing harms, maximizing benefits, transparency, confidentiality, and informed consent are described. Additionally, nursing professional competencies related to ethical, legal, and social issues in the translation of genomics into health care are discussed. Ethical, legal, and social considerations in new genomic discovery necessitate that healthcare professionals have knowledge and competence to respond to complex genomic issues and provide appropriate information and care to patients, families, and communities. Understanding the ethical, legal, and social issues in the translation of genomic information into practice is essential to provide patients, families, and communities with competent, safe, effective health care. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. A Qualitative Examination of Ethical and Legal Considerations Regarding Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April; Walley, Cynthia; Hays, Danica G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased attention to dating violence among adolescents and young adults, limited information is available on ethical and legal considerations specific to this population. Therefore, this qualitative study explores 21 trainees' and practitioners' conceptualization of ethical and legal issues pertaining to adolescent dating violence.…

  18. Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsted, Ann L., Comp.

    1983-01-01

    Two annotated bibliographies of books are compiled, one devoted to Roosevelt and the New Deal, the other concerned with Hitler, the Weimar Republic, and the rise of Nazism. Annotations indicate scope of the work and occasionally point out bias or point of view. (CS)

  19. Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Joly, Yann; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-10-01

    The biggest challenge in twenty-first century data-intensive genomic science, is developing vast computer infrastructure and advanced software tools to perform comprehensive analyses of genomic data sets for biomedical research and clinical practice. Researchers are increasingly turning to cloud computing both as a solution to integrate data from genomics, systems biology and biomedical data mining and as an approach to analyze data to solve biomedical problems. Although cloud computing provides several benefits such as lower costs and greater efficiency, it also raises legal and ethical issues. In this article, we discuss three key 'points to consider' (data control; data security, confidentiality and transfer; and accountability) based on a preliminary review of several publicly available cloud service providers' Terms of Service. These 'points to consider' should be borne in mind by genomic research organizations when negotiating legal arrangements to store genomic data on a large commercial cloud service provider's servers. Diligent genomic cloud computing means leveraging security standards and evaluation processes as a means to protect data and entails many of the same good practices that researchers should always consider in securing their local infrastructure.

  20. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: part 3 - "second tradition neuroethics" - ethical issues in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Amanda; Becker, Kira; Darragh, Martina; Giordano, James

    2016-09-19

    Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). A Python code was used to eliminate duplications in the final bibliography. This bibliography consists of 1137 papers, 56 books, and 134 book chapters published from 2002 through 2014, covering ethical issues in neuroimaging, neurogenetics, neurobiomarkers, neuro-psychopharmacology, brain stimulation, neural stem cells, neural tissue transplants, pediatric-specific issues, dual-use, and general neuroscience research issues. These works contain explanations of recent research regarding neurotechnology, while exploring ethical issues in future discoveries and use.

  1. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Shroff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on

  2. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  3. Code of Ethics in a Multicultural Company and its Legal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlerová, Eva; Ďurišová, Jaroslava; Šramel, Bystrík

    2012-12-01

    The entry of foreign investors and simultaneous expansion of different national cultures, religions, rules, moral and ethical standards is bringing up problems of cooperation and coexistence of different nationalities, ethnicities and cultures. Working in an international environment therefore requires adaptation to a variety of economic, political, legal, technical, social, cultural and historical conditions. One possible solution is to define a code of ethics, guidelines which find enough common moral principles, which can become the basis for the adoption of general ethical standards, while respecting national, cultural differences and practices. In this article, the authors pay attention not only to the analysis of the common ethical rules in a multicultural company, but also to the legal aspects of codes of ethics. Each code of ethics is a set of standards, which, like the legal norms, regulate the behaviour of individuals. These standards, however, must simultaneously meet certain statutory criteria that define the boundaries of regulation of employee’s behaviour.

  4. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaram Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS, while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal.

  5. E-therapy: practical, ethical, and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhal-Baugus, M

    2001-10-01

    E-therapy is a term that has been coined to describe the process of interacting with a therapist online in ongoing conversations over time when the client and counselor are in separate or remote locations and utilize electronic means to communicate with each other. It is a relatively new modality of assisting individuals resolve life and relationship issues. E-therapy utilizes the power and convenience of the internet to allow simultaneous (synchronous) and time-delayed (asynchronous) communication between an individual and a professional. For the purposes of this paper, e-therapy is defined as a licensed mental health care professional providing mental health services via e-mail, video conferencing, virtual reality technology, chat technology, or any combination of these. It does not include self-help methods such as public bulletin boards or private listservs. E-therapy is not psychotherapy or psychological counseling per se since it does to presume to diagnose or treat mental or medical disorders. However, e-therapy is flexible enough to also address many difficulties which clients present to the online therapist. As in other types of therapy, such as bibliotherapy, occupational therapy, and rehabilitation therapy), e-therapy does assist a person in addressing specific concerns with specific skills. This article examines the following issues of e-therapy. First, the types of e-therapy and related services are described to provide a background for the article. Second, the ethical codes which have been adopted by three major professional organizations (American Counseling Association, National Board for Certified Counselors, and the International Society for Mental Health Online) pertaining to e-therapy are summarized for professional and consumer use. Finally, the practical, ethical, and legal issues of e-therapy services are discussed fully.

  6. Mitochondrial transfer: Ethical legal and social implications in assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Reznichenko

    2015-09-01

    technology. At a level of social and moral principles, many people believe that some assisted reproductive technology techniques go beyond the limits of acceptable medical intervention. It is important to take these opinions into consideration, but who ultimately decides what is acceptable and what is not? In this review we will address the ethical and social issues surrounding this emerging new technology. Additionally, legal developments regarding its clinical introduction in the United Kingdom and the USA, and the impact on technique and patient management in the future will be discussed. Legislation related to genetic manipulation in South Africa will also be considered in this context.

  7. Ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugud Abdel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at regional and local levels. The successful application of the sterile insect technique (SIT for the control of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax and several species of fruit flies has given impetus to the use of this method for suppression or elimination of malaria vectors in some areas of Africa including Northern State of Sudan. The research and development phase of the Northern State feasibility study has been started. Sudanese stakeholders are working side-by-side with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the activities of this important phase. Several ethical, legal and social issues associated with this approach arose during this phase of the project. They need to be seriously considered and handled with care. In this paper, these issues are described, and the current and proposed activities to overcome potential hurdles to ensure success of the project are listed.

  8. [The legal and ethical aspects of nerve tissue transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramka, M; Rattaj, M

    1992-01-01

    The authors have specified the following criteria for the withdrawal of embryonal tissue at their department: 1) only tissue from dead fetus is allowed to be used in neurotransplantation; 2) embryonal tissue is to be obtained after spontaneous abortions from volunteers or from women asking for artificial abortion; 3) the women should be informed about the curative purposes of embryonal tissue voluntary donorship and they must give a written consent; 4) decision on abortion should be separated from the use of embryonal tissue; 5) women should not know recipients; no payments should be made for tissue; 6) the donor is not permitted to impregnate in order to use embryos for research or clinical purposes; 7) sampling of BWR, HBsAG, anti-HIV, cytomegalovirus, herpes I and II is to be made for serologic examinations and that from the cervix for cultivation and sensitivity, as well as ultrasound verification of a germinal age is done in potential donors; 8) consent should be signed to embryonal brain transplantation by recipient or his legitimate deputy if the recipient is certifiable. The above criteria should protect both the donor and the recipient. The use of embryonal tissue cultures seems to be promising. In addition to legal and ethic problems, immunological problems and problems concerning the aseptic withdrawal of embryonal tissue are falling off.

  9. End-of-life decisions in Malaysia: Adequacies of ethical codes and developing legal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie Jahn; Alias, Fadhlina

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life decision-making is an area of medical practice in which ethical dilemmas and legal interventions have become increasingly prevalent. Decisions are no longer confined to clinical assessments; rather, they involve wider considerations such as a patient's religious and cultural beliefs, financial constraints, and the wishes and needs of family members. These decisions affect everyone concerned, including members of the community as a whole. Therefore it is imperative that clear ethical codes and legal standards are developed to help guide the medical profession on the best possible course of action for patients. This article considers the relevant ethical, codes and legal provisions in Malaysia governing certain aspects of end-of-life decision-making. It highlights the lack of judicial decisions in this area as well as the limitations with the Malaysian regulatory system. The article recommends the development of comprehensive ethical codes and legal standards to guide end-of-life decision-making in Malaysia.

  10. MEDICO-LEGAL HIV/AIDS, LAW AND ETHICS: A BRIEF ANALYSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ... are in a unique situation, as both legal and ethical rules apply to a ... Guidelines for the Management of Patients with HIV. Infection or ... process of obtaining informed consent from a patient. Not ... narrowly construed and applied. Although ...

  11. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: part 2--Neuroscientific studies of morality and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Martina; Buniak, Liana; Giordano, James

    2015-02-15

    Moral philosophy and psychology have sought to define the nature of right and wrong, and good and evil. The industrial turn of the twentieth century fostered increasingly technological approaches that conjoined philosophy to psychology, and psychology to the natural sciences. Thus, moral philosophy and psychology became ever more vested to investigations of the anatomic structures and physiologic processes involved in cognition, emotion and behavior--ultimately falling under the rubric of the neurosciences. Since 2002, neuroscientific studies of moral thought, emotions and behaviors have become known as--and a part of--the relatively new discipline of neuroethics. Herein we present Part 2 of a bibliography of neuroethics from 2002-2013 addressing the "neuroscience of ethics"--studies of putative neural substrates and mechanisms involved in cognitive, emotional and behavioral processes of morality and ethics. A systematic survey of the neuroethics literature was undertaken. Bibliographic searches were performed by accessing 11 databases, 8 literature depositories, and 4 individual journal searches, and employed indexing language for National Library of Medicine (NLM) Medical Subject Heading databases. All bibliographic searches were conducted using the RefWorks citation management program. This bibliography lists 397 articles, 65 books, and 52 book chapters that present (1) empirical/experimental studies, overviews, and reviews of neural substrates and mechanisms involved in morality and ethics, and/or (2) reflections upon such studies and their implications. These works present resources offering iterative descriptions, definitions and criticisms of neural processes involved in moral cognition and behaviors, and also provide a historical view of this field, and insights to its developing canon.

  12. ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF FUNCTIONING OF ETHIC COMMITTEES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Deliverska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research has to be based on ethical standards that promote the protection of human rights. On a national level, the domestic legislation of the Republic of Bulgaria foresees a procedure for obtaining an opinion from the Ethics Committee for Multicentre Trials in order to introduce a substantial change in a clinical trial and non-interventional study. The procedure aims to evaluate the compliance of the planned clinical trial with the norms of good clinical practice, the requirements of the Medicinal Products in Human Medicine Act. On European Union level, standards have been set down in Regulation (EC No. 1901/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on medicinal products for paediatric use. The licensing regime that has been introduced on a national level requires the performance of documentation evaluation that addresses a major change in a clinical trial and non-interventional research. Legal definitions of the terms "principal investigator" and "coordinating investigator" have been introduced. The "principal investigator" is the medical doctor or the dentist, designated by the sponsor, who leads the overall execution of the clinical trial in accordance with the approved protocol and good clinical practice guidelines and is responsible for the researchers. The "coordinating researcher" is a researcher appointed to coordinate researchers from different centres participating in a multicentre trial. Ethic committees performing review have to provide independent advice on the extent to which a biomedical research proposal complies with recognized ethical standards. Scientific research must necessarily conform to commonly accepted scientific principles and be based on thorough knowledge of scientific literature and other relevant sources of information.

  13. Psychotropics without borders: ethics and legal implications of internet-based access to psychiatric medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolina A

    2011-01-01

    Medical practitioners are revisiting many of the ethics and the legal implications surrounding the clinical frameworks within which we operate. In today's world, distinguishing between virtual and physical reality continues to be increasingly difficult. The physician may be found grappling with the decision of whether to continue to treat a patient who may be obtaining psychotropic medications through the Internet. This article approaches some of the clinical and legal implications and the ethics regarding the availability of prescription psychotropics over the Internet.

  14. Applying Legal Concepts to Business in a Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Course: The Build-a-Business Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelecki, Ryan C.; Willey, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most significant hurdles to overcome in teaching law to business students is getting them to recognize and appreciate the real-world applicability of the law, a seemingly esoteric and irrelevant discipline. This hurdle is especially challenging when teaching Legal and Ethical Environment of Business (LEEB), a course that most business…

  15. The ethical and legal regulation of HIV-vaccine research in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We discuss the general findings of the audit and the complex issues arising from HIV-vaccine research, specifically. Lastly, we propose specific ways in which the ethical/legal frameworks guiding research with human participants in these countries can be improved. Keywords: Africa, clinical trials, country profiles, ethics, ...

  16. Diabetes and Driving Safety: Science, Ethics, Legality & Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J.; Singh, Harsimran; Lorber, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes affects over 25 million people in the United States, most of whom are over the age of 16 and many of whom are licensed to drive a motor vehicle. Safe operation of a motor vehicle requires complex interactions of cognitive and motor functions and medical conditions that affect these functions often will increase the risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVA). In the case of diabetes, hypoglycemia is the most common factor that has been shown to increase MVA rates. When people with diabetes are compared with non-diabetic controls, systematic analyses show that the relative risk of MVA is increased by between 12 and 19% (RRR 1.12-1.19). In comparison, the RRR for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is 4.4 and for Sleep Apnea is 2.4. Epidemiologic research suggests that patients at risk for hypoglycemia-related MVAs may have some characteristics in common, including a history of severe hypoglycemia or of hypoglycemia-related driving mishaps. Experimental studies also have shown that people with a history of hypoglycemia-related driving mishaps have abnormal counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia and greater cognitive impairments during moderate hypoglycemia. There are medical, ethical and legal issues for health care professionals who care for people with diabetes regarding their patients’ risk of hypoglycemia-related driving mishaps. This includes identifying those at increased risk and counseling them on preventive measures, including more frequent blood glucose testing, delaying driving with low or low normal blood glucose, and carrying readily available emergency supplies in the vehicle for the treatment of hypoglycemia. PMID:23531955

  17. HIV vaccines in Canada: legal and ethical issues--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaise, David

    2002-07-01

    In July 2002 the Legal Network released an overview paper on legal and ethical issues related to an HIV vaccine in Canada. The paper, which is based on a more detailed report prepared in collaboration with the Centre for Bioethics of the Clinical Research Institute of Montréal, calls for the establishment of a Canadian HIV Vaccine Plan.

  18. Regulatory challenges of robotics : Some guidelines for addressing legal and ethical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, Ronald; Palmerini, Erica; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Bertolini, Andrea; Salvini, Pericle; Lucivero, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Robots are slowly, but certainly, entering people’s professional and private lives. They require the attention of regulators due to the challenges they present to existing legal frameworks and the new legal and ethical questions they raise. This paper discusses four major regulatory dilemmas in the

  19. The ethics of psychopharmacological research in legal minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koelch Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in psychopharmacology for children and adolescents is fraught with ethical problems and tensions. This has practical consequences as it leads to a paucity of the research that is essential to support the treatment of this vulnerable group. In this article, we will discuss some of the ethical issues which are relevant to such research, and explore their implications for both research and standard care. We suggest that finding a way forward requires a willingness to acknowledge and discuss the inherent conflicts between the ethical principles involved. Furthermore, in order to facilitate more, ethically sound psychopharmacology research in children and adolescents, we suggest more ethical analysis, empirical ethics research and ethics input built into psychopharmacological research design.

  20. Security and privacy of EHR systems--ethical, social and legal requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses social, ethical and legal concerns about security and privacy that arise in the development of international interoperable health information systems. The paper deals with these concerns under four rubrics: the ethical status of electronic health records, the social and legal embedding of interoperable health information systems, the overall information-requirements healthcare as such, and the role of health information professionals as facilitators. It argues that the concerns that arise can be met if the development of interoperability protocols is guided by the seven basic principles of information ethics that have been enunciated in the IMIA Code of Ethics for Health Information Professionals and that are central to the ethical treatment of electronic health records.

  1. A longitudinal simulation-based ethical-legal curriculum for otolaryngology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Amanda; Rappaport, Jamie; Young, Meredith; Park, Yoon Soo; Manoukian, John; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2017-11-01

    To develop, implement, and evaluate a longitudinal, simulation-based ethics and legal curriculum designed specifically for otolaryngology residents. Otolaryngology residents were recruited to participate in a yearly half-day ethical-legal module, the curriculum of which spanned 4 years. Each module included: three simulated scenarios, small-group multisource feedback, and large-group debriefings. Scenarios involved encounters with standardized patients. Residents' ethical-legal knowledge was assessed pre- and postmodule with multiple-choice questions, and ethical reasoning was assessed by a variety of evaluators during the simulated scenario using a locally developed assessment tool. Participants completed an exit survey at the end of each module. Eighteen residents completed four modules from the academic years of 2008 to 2009 to 2011 to 2012. The first year was considered a pilot module, and data were collected for the following 3 years. Knowledge of legal issues improved significantly among residents (mean at pre = 3.40 and post = 4.60, P otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents. This educational program resulted in a both objective and subjective improvement in legal and ethics knowledge and skills. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2501-2509, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Legal Ethics, Rules of Conduct and the Moral Compass – Considerations from a Law Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel Hendrik van Zyl IV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When young law graduates enter the legal profession they will undoubtedly be exposed to difficult situations that will demand of them to make difficult decisions, often having to balance conflicting systems of belief and ideas on what ethical behaviour entails. Legal ethics training in law faculties the world over often neglects teaching aspects of morality to focus on reviews of rules of professional legal conduct. This article argues that if legal education is to adequately prepare law graduates for legal practice, it must offer more than reviews of these codes of conduct. To properly assist law students in avoiding pitfalls which may lead to disciplinary action, they must be taught to appropriately use their moral compasses. This narrative aims to show that the metaphorical moral compass, with the cardinal virtues as possible main points, may serve as the crucial and underlying guide in the avoidance of the pitfalls which may result in a person being struck from the roll, but more than that, that it may aid in the pursuit of personal dreams or goals. The article contributes to the literature on legal ethics by foregrounding the virtues that pertain to sound conduct in a lawyer, as opposed to the rules and codes, in the hope that this may help legal practitioners to decide on what is right and what is wrong.

  3. WOC practice in cyberspace: legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyman, K

    2001-07-01

    WOC nurses have the opportunity to extend their practice geographically by using electronic media, also called telehealth or "practicing in cyberspace." Currently, laws and regulations affecting this aspect of practice are in rapid flux. In addition, practicing electronically makes the ethical issues of choice, privacy, and confidentiality more acute. This article describes the current status of relevant legislation, discusses relevant ethical issues, and provides guidelines for WOC nurses who are considering the use of e-mail and video conferencing within their practice.

  4. Ethical and legal perspectives on the medical practitioners use of social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Kubheka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of social media has increased exponentially throughout the world. Social media provides a platform for building social and professional relationships that can be used by all, including healthcare professionals. Alongside the benefits of creating networks and spreading information wider and faster than is possible with traditional communication channels, however, it presents ethical and legal challenges. For health professionals, it poses a threat to confidentiality and privacy owed to patients, colleagues and employers. It is vital for health professionals to acknowledge that the same ethical and legal standards apply both online and offline, and that they are accountable to professional bodies and the law for their online activities. This article seeks to explore the ethical and legal pitfalls facing health professionals using social media platforms. Importantly, it seeks to create awareness about the cyberpsychology phenomenon called the ‘online disinhibition effect’, responsible for lowering restraint during online activities.

  5. Ethical and legal perspectives on the medical practitioners use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubheka, Brenda

    2017-04-25

    Use of social media has increased exponentially throughout the world. Social media provides a platform for building social and professional relationships that can be used by all, including healthcare professionals. Alongside the benefits of creating networks and spreading information wider and faster than is possible with traditional communication channels, however, it presents ethical and legal challenges. For health professionals, it poses a threat to confidentiality and privacy owed to patients, colleagues and employers. It is vital for health professionals to acknowledge that the same ethical and legal standards apply both online and offline, and that they are accountable to professional bodies and the law for their online activities. This article seeks to explore the ethical and legal pitfalls facing health professionals using social media platforms. Importantly, it seeks to create awareness about the cyberpsychology phenomenon called the 'online disinhibition effect', responsible for lowering restraint during online activities.

  6. Ethics and legality in the Romanian political marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poţincu, C. R.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic system, the legal framework is a guarantee of the favourable development of several activities, including those regarding the implementation of the promotional techniques used in the political marketing.

  7. Ethical, legal and practical issues of establishing an adipose stem cell bank for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B

    2014-06-01

    Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC). Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The beginning of human life: ethical and legal perspectives in the context of biotechnological progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Vicente de Paulo; Lauxen, Elis Cristina Uhry

    2017-07-13

    Questions concerning the beginning of human life have pervaded society since antiquity. In the post-modern world, scientific and technological advances have fueled discussions on the issue, such that debates previously concentrated on abortion now also focus on biotechnological interventions. The article addresses the latter, reflecting on the extent to which human dignity can be considered a (hermeneutic) reference in establishing ethical and legal parameters for biotechnological advances in the definition of the beginning of human life. The study's method was critical hermeneutic ethics, with ethics at the center of the process of understanding and interpretation, observing the contours of facticity. No consensus was found on the beginning of human life, so it is essential to engage in dialogue with the new reality resulting from biotechnological advances in the process of defining ethical and legal principles for protecting the embryo and human nature, with human dignity as the reference.

  9. The legal and ethical implications of social media in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rachel; Reinisch, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Social media is a growing and popular means of communication. It is understandable that health care providers may not share identifying information on patients through these sources. Challenges arise when patients and family members wish to record the care provided in the emergency department. The health care provider may be faced with an ethical and possibly legal dilemma when social media is present in the emergency department. This article seeks to discuss the legal and ethical principles surrounding social media in the emergency department.

  10. Reneging: A Topic to Promote Engaging Discussions about Law and Ethics in a Business Law or Legal Environment Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tonia Hap

    2009-01-01

    This article is intended for business law and legal environment instructors who want to help students understand how they might react when presented with an ethical conflict, no matter how big or how small. The article discusses not only the compelling ethical issues that may arise in reneging cases, but also legal issues. The article provides…

  11. Lethal and Legal The Ethics of Drone Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    and “ PlayStation Mentality.” A further ethical consideration relates to the per- ception of the psyche of the drone operator, who is typically...referred to colloquially as “cubicle war- 22 riors.”70 One public concern is that such cubicle war- riors are likely to develop a “ PlayStation ” mentality

  12. HIV vaccine research--South Africa's ethical-legal framework and its ability to promote the welfare of trial participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Ann; Slack, Catherine; Mushariwa, Muriel

    2005-08-01

    An effective ethical-legal framework for the conduct of research is critical. We describe five essential components of such a system, review the extent to which these components have been realised in South Africa, present brief implications for the ethical conduct of clinical trials of HIV vaccines in South Africa and make recommendations. The components of an effective ethical-legal system that we propose are the existence of scientific ethical and policy-making structures that regulate research; research ethics committees (RECs) that ethically review research; national ethical guidelines and standards; laws protecting research participants; and mechanisms to enforce and monitor legal rights and ethical standards. We conclude that the ethical-legal framework has, for the most part, the necessary institutions, and certain necessary guidelines but does not have many of the laws needed to protect and promote the rights of persons participating in research, including HIV vaccine trials. Recommendations made include advocacy measures to finalise and implement legislation, development of regulations, analysis and comparison of ethical guidelines, and the development of measures to monitor ethical-legal rights at trial sites.

  13. A four-part working bibliography of neuroethics: Part 4 - Ethical issues in clinical and social applications of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kira; Shook, John R; Darragh, Martina; Giordano, James

    2017-05-31

    As a discipline, neuroethics addresses a range of questions and issues generated by basic neuroscientific research (inclusive of studies of putative neurobiological processes involved in moral and ethical cognition and behavior), and its use and meanings in the clinical and social spheres. Here, we present Part 4 of a four-part bibliography of the neuroethics literature focusing on clinical and social applications of neuroscience, to include: the treatment-enhancement discourse; issues arising in neurology, psychiatry, and pain care; neuroethics education and training; neuroethics and the law; neuroethics and policy and political issues; international neuroethics; and discourses addressing "trans-" and "post-" humanity. To complete a systematic survey of the literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). A Python code was used to eliminate duplications in the final bibliography. When taken with Parts 1-3, this bibliography aims to provide a listing of international peerreviewed papers, books, and book chapters published from 2002 through 2016. While seeking to be as comprehensive as possible, it may be that some works were inadvertently and unintentionally not included. We therefore invite commentary from the field to afford completeness and contribute to this bibliography as a participatory work-in-progress.

  14. Medication-Related Practice Roles: An Ethical and Legal Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…

  15. Lessons Learned from Litigation: Legal and Ethical Consequences of Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brous, Edie; Olsen, Douglas P

    2017-09-01

    Editor's note: To the surprise of many, a Canadian nurse's Facebook post complaining about the medical care a family member had received resulted in disciplinary action by the licensing board. We asked our legal and ethical contributing editors to provide some insight on the issues of this case.

  16. Is There Evil in Dying? Ethical and Legal Reflections concerning Induced Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Zúñiga F.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the moral dilemmas associated with death and carries out a reflection on the questions that arise when death is considered trivial from the perspective of the individual who dies. Additionally, the article analyzes the ethical and legal consequences of acknowledging the moral autonomy of those who, in extreme circumstances, decide when and how to die.

  17. Ethical Issues and Legal Constraints to the Freedom of Information Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, there are legal constraints that can hinder the smooth operation of the act. Such constraints need to be dismantled immediately. Besides, there is a great need to address various ethical issue that may equally arise among media practitioners in the course of operating within the limits of the law, posing great ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and mental illness: ethical and medico-legal issues for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Mental health, Ethical, Medico - legal. S Afr Psychiatry Rev 2003 ... Implementation of the Mental Health Care Act of 2002will entail a shift in attitudes .... (Act 17 of 2002). 13 Gauteng Health Department; Environmental and Occupational. Health and Safety Directorate: Memorandum: 7 April 2000. Guide-.

  19. Confronting the Ubiquity of Electronic Communication and Social Media: Ethical and Legal Considerations for Psychoeducational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Most U.S. children and adults use computers and the Internet on a daily basis. The pervasiveness of electronic communication in a variety of contexts, including home and school, raises ethical and legal concerns for school psychologists and those in related fields of practice, because of the risks to privacy and confidentiality, boundaries,…

  20. Counselors' Role in Preventing Abuse of Older Adults: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…

  1. Development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Patrick R.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Conley, Abigail H.

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Ethical and Legal Issues in Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (ELICSES). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the ELICSES, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used to develop the ELICSES, and (c) offer implications for future research and counselor education.

  2. Safeguards in a world of ambient intelligence: A social, economic, legal, and ethical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2011-01-01

    The book "Safeguards in a world of ambient intelligence" is unique in its kind. It discusses social, economic, legal, technological and ethical issues related to identity, privacy and security in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). It introduces AmI and, subsequently, makes it vivid by describing four

  3. [Patents and scientific research: an ethical-legal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities.

  4. Legal and medical aspects of the ethics committee’s work relating to abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponjavić Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the legal and medical aspects of the work of ethics committees on abortion. According to the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, these committees are competent to determine justifiable terms for abortion after the twentieth week of the fetus. It is well known that abortion is not only a medical but a legal, ethic, social and demographic problem as well. A liberal solution in view of abortion in the first trimester has been accepted in most European countries, as by the legislature of the Republic of Serbia. Since prenatal diagnosis cannot always determine the fetus state with certainty but at times may do so at a later stage, abortion is then required when the child is already capable of extrauterine life. The necessity for performing abortion in the third trimester is thus a result of good knowledge of techno-medicine but also from the limited information it provides. In such situations, the physician needs confirmation and justification of his standpoint with respect to abortion through a legal formulation which should contain "minimum moral". Society has found a way to protect and help him through moral and ethic forms of prevention without anybody’s emotions being affected. Ethics committees should thus help the physician in view of determining the terms for performing late abortion, since the rules of doctor’s ethics are not sufficient in this case. The article especially analyses the work of the Ethics Committee of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac in the period 2000-2010. It is stated that the largest number of cases referred to determined diseases or fetus anomalies while only a negligible number (11.29% to the illness of the mother. There were no requests for abortions due to legal reasons (pregnancies from criminal offences. A significant number (40.28% of requests submitted to the Ethics Committee related to pregnancies under the 24th week of pregnancy. Since a pregnancy of 24 weeks represents a boundary

  5. [Health system reforms, economic constraints and ethical and legal values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillol, Michel; Le Coz, Pierre; Aubry, Régis; Bréchat, Pierre-Henri

    2010-01-01

    Health system and hospital reforms have led to important and on-going legislative, structural and organizational changes. Is there any logic at work within the health system and hospitals that could call into question the principle of solidarity, the secular values of ethics that govern the texts of law and ethics? In order to respond, we compared our experiences to a review of the professional and scientific literature from 1992 to 2010. Over the course of the past eighteen years, health system organization was subjected to variations and significant tensions. These variations are witnesses to a paradigm shift: although a step towards the regionalization of the health system integrating the choice of public health priorities, consultation and participatory democracy has been implemented, nevertheless the system was then re-oriented towards the trend of returning to centralization on the basis of uniting economics, technical modernization and contracting. This change of doctrine may undermine the social mission of hospitals and the principle of solidarity. Progress, the aging population and financial constraints would force policy-makers to steer the health system towards more centralized control. Hospitals, health professionals and users may feel torn within a system that tends to simplify and minimize what is becoming increasingly complex and global. Benchmarks on values, ethics and law for the hospitals, healthcare professionals and users are questioned. These are important elements to consider when the law on the reform of hospitals, patients, health care and territories and regional health agencies is implemented.

  6. [The legal framework of the code of ethics for nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutriaux, Yves

    2017-09-01

    As with all professions with its own order, nurses now have a code of ethics written by the Order's elected leaders. These leaders oversee its application for the benefit of patients and professionals, notably when a complaint is made. The code reconciles the interests of patients and public health care with the competition law. The numerous innovations which it has introduced are beneficial to nurses employed in the public and private sectors as well as freelance nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Decubitus ulcers and wounds. Ethical and legal features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santisteban Cano, Mar

    2005-01-01

    The author presented a conference at the 5th National Symposium on Bedsores, or Decubitus Ulcers, and Chronic Injuries. In our country there is no specific regulation on the medical-sanitary responsibility regarding decubitus ulcers, or bedsores, and other injuries; rather these regulations are covered by more general legal concepts such as the civil responsibility according to articles 1902 and 1903.4 of the "CC", the patrimonial responsibility the State has for the normal or abnormal functioning of the Sanitary Administration, and penal responsibility.

  8. Resolving legal, ethical, and human rights challenges in HIV vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D

    2000-01-01

    In the absence of a cure for AIDS, attention has turned to the possibility of developing a preventive vaccine for HIV infection. Yet many scientific, ethical, legal, and economic obstacles remain. At the current rate, the development and production of an effective vaccine could take 15 to 20 years or longer. If tens of millions more HIV infections and deaths are to be avoided in the coming decades, vaccine research needs to be greatly expedited. Furthermore, it must be undertaken ethically, and the products of this research must benefit people in developing countries. This article, an edited and updated version of a paper presented at "Putting Third First," addresses challenges arising in HIV preventive vaccine research in developing countries. It does not address clinical research in developing countries relating to treatments or therapeutic vaccines. Nor does it address legal and ethical issues relating to HIV vaccine research in industrialized countries, although similar issues arise in both contexts. The article concludes that while ethical codes are silent on the obligation to undertake research and development, international law provides strong legal obligations--particularly with regard to industrialized states--that should be invoked to accelerate HIV vaccine development, and distribution.

  9. German law on circumcision and its debate: how an ethical and legal issue turned political.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurenque, Diana; Wiesing, Urban

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to illuminate the recent debate in Germany about the legitimacy of circumcision for religious reasons. The aim is both to evaluate the new German law allowing religious circumcision, and to outline the resulting conflict between the surrounding ethical and legal issues. We first elucidate the diversity of legal and medical views on religious circumcision in Germany. Next we examine to what extent invasive and irreversible physical interventions on infant boys unable to given their consent should be carried out for non-medical reasons. To this end, the potential benefits and harms of circumcision for non-medical reasons are compared. We argue that circumcision does not provide any benefits for the 'child as a child' and poses only risks to boys. We then set out to clarify and analyse political (rather than ethical) justifications of the new circumcision law. We demonstrate through this analysis how the circumcision debate in Germany has been transformed from a legal and ethical problem into a political issue, due at least in part to Germany's unique historical context. Although such a particular political sensibility is entirely comprehensible, it raises particular problems when it comes to framing and responding to medical ethical issues - as in the case of religious circumcision. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Breakdowns in communication of radiological findings: an ethical and medico-legal conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Leonard; Murphy, Daniel R; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-12-01

    Communication problems in diagnostic testing have increased in both number and importance in recent years. The medical and legal impact of failure of communication is dramatic. Over the past decades, the courts have expanded and strengthened the duty imposed on radiologists to timely communicate radiologic abnormalities to referring physicians and perhaps the patients themselves in certain situations. The need to communicate these findings goes beyond strict legal requirements: there is a moral imperative as well. The Code of Medical Ethics of the American Medical Association points out that "Ethical values and legal principles are usually closely related, but ethical obligations typically exceed legal duties." Thus, from the perspective of the law, radiologists are required to communicate important unexpected findings to referring physicians in a timely fashion, or alternatively to the patients themselves. From a moral perspective, radiologists should want to effect such communications. Practice standards, moral values, and ethical statements from professional medical societies call for full disclosure of medical errors to patients affected by them. Surveys of radiologists and non-radiologic physicians reveal that only few would divulge all aspects of the error to the patient. In order to encourage physicians to disclose errors to patients and assist in protecting them in some manner if malpractice litigation follows, more than 35 states have passed laws that do not allow a physician's admission of an error and apologetic statements to be revealed in the courtroom. Whether such disclosure increases or decreases the likelihood of a medical malpractice lawsuit is unclear, but ethical and moral considerations enjoin physicians to disclose errors and offer apologies.

  11. Ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding studies of susceptible populations and individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, C L

    1997-01-01

    Calls for professional accountability have resulted in the development of ethics guidelines by numerous specialty and subspecialty groups of scientists. Indeed, guidelines among some health professions now address vulnerable and dependent groups: but these are silent on issues related to biomarkers. In parallel, attention has been drawn to human rights concerns associated with attempts to detect hypersusceptible workers, especially in democratic countries. Despite this, concern for vulnerable populations grows as advances in biomarker technology make the identification of genetic predisposition and susceptibility markers of both exposure and outcome more attainable. In this article, the principles derived from the ethical theory of utilitarianism provide the basis for principle-based ethical analysis. In addition, the four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and social justice--are considered for biomarker studies. The need for a context in which ethical analysis is conducted and from which prevailing social values are shown to drive decisions of an ethical nature is emphasized; these include statutory regulation and law. Because biomarker studies can result in more harm than good, special precautions to inform research participants prior to any involvement in the use of biomarkers are needed. In addition, safeguards to maintain the privacy of data derived from biomarker studies must be developed and implemented prior to the application of these new technologies. Guidelines must be expanded to incorporate ethical, social, and legal considerations surrounding the introduction of new technologies for studying susceptible populations and individuals who may be vulnerable to environmental exposures. PMID:9255569

  12. BIOETHICS METHODS IN THE ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT LITERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair

    2013-01-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003-2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  13. Bibliographie (Bibliography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francais dans le Monde, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents a selective bibliography of dictionaries, books, and articles. References are grouped under three sections: I. Lexicology, II. Dictionaries and III. Didactics. Each item is followed by a concise critical note. The compilation is by the "Centre d'Etudes du Lexique" (CELEX, Paris-Villetaneuse). (MES)

  14. Analysis of the Ethical, Legal and Economic Domains of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Business Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Peláez Villada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of organizations is to achieve positioning and legitimacy through strategies of corporate social responsibility (CSR. This article focuses on the analysis of CSR practices and it seeks, through a business case, to define a method to examine the benefits of its application in society and in organizations. From the proposal of Schwartz (2011 on the domains of corporate social responsibility, where the ethical, economic, and legal dimensions of philanthropic organizations converge, financial reports and social balances of a company, were studied, where we identified, financial, ethical, and tax variables which allowed us to establish the orientation and balance between social responsibility practices and corporate image.

  15. The legal, moral and ethical aspects and problems of perception of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла Борисовна Денисова

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, when the profits from crimes by means of computer technologies, according to Interpol, in third place after the income of drugs traffickers and illegal arms suppliers, the company is aware that professionals in the field of information technology alone are not enough professional knowledge and skills. In order to prevent deviant behavior in cyberspace, and the correct address ethical issues that arise in their professional activities, legal and ethical regulation of social relations in the sphere of information technologies.

  16. Ethical and legal issues related to the donation and use of nonstandard organs for transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2013-12-01

    Transplantation of nonstandard or expanded criteria donor organs creates several potential ethical and legal problems in terms of consent and liability, and new challenges for research and service development; it highlights the need for a system of organ donation that responds to an evolving ethical landscape and incorporates scientific innovation to meet the needs of recipients, but which also safeguards the interests and autonomy of the donor. In this article, the use of deceased donor organs for transplants that fail to meet standard donor criteria and the legitimacy of interventions and research aimed at optimizing their successful donation are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Ethical and legal issues in the clinical practice of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Romero, Marcos; Vazquez-Naya, Jose Manuel; Pereira, Javier; Pazos, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since it was conceived, the notion of primary care has been a crucial concept in health services. Most health care is provided at this level and primary care clinicians have an essential role, both in terms of disease prevention and disease management. During the last decades, primary health care has evolved from a traditional paternalistic model, in which patients played the role of passive recipient of care, towards a situation in which patients are partners involved in the decision making-process. This new context opened a considerable number of new ethical and legal aspects, which need to be comprehensively analyzed and discussed in order to preserve the quality of primary health care all around the world. This work reviews the most important ethical and legal issues in primary health care. Legislation issues are explained in the context of the Spanish Health Services.

  18. Exercising restraint: clinical, legal and ethical considerations for the patient with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrien, Barry

    2007-04-01

    The number of older people using emergency care is increasing steadily and older people account for over half of all emergency admissions. In the emergency setting, nurses caring for older people with Alzheimer's disease can be faced with many complex ethical and legal challenges. Moreover, challenges such as the use of physical restraint can precipitate conflict when the nurse is placed in the precarious position of doing good, respecting autonomy and avoiding paternalism. Although, there is no complete set of "rules" that can provide nurses with an answer to each dilemma, it is of significant value for nurses to have sound knowledge of ethical and legal positions in order to analyse the many complex situations that they may encounter.

  19. NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR IN VITRO FERTILIZATION AND EMBRYO TRANSFER IN ROMANIA: ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela SIMIONESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes aspects regarding the national program for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in Romania, emphasizing on the ethical, legal and social challenges associated with assisted reproduction technologies. Romania is one of the few countries from the European Union that does not have a specific law for human assisted reproduction, but infertile couples in Romania may benefit from the national program for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer although, unfortunately, the allocated public funds are not in line with the demand. There are a series of inclusion criteria when applying for the program and unlike other countries, only one in vitro fertilization (IVF procedure may be publicly funded. Despite the legal, ethical and social challenges, this program, however, represents an extremely important step in aligning our country with the standards of other developed countries.

  20. RPA Field Simulations:Dilemma Training for Legal and Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-07

    RPA Field Simulations: Dilemma-Training for Legal and Ethical Decision-Making Professor Wilbur Scott Dept of...Sciences & Leadership all take the Capstone Experience Course (CEC)  CEC offers several different kinds of projects, one consists of RPA Field...Simulation  Two phases in RPA Field Simulation – classroom phase and field phase  Purpose: link theoretical understanding/moral reasoning with

  1. Ethics and the Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide: An American College of Physicians Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder Sulmasy, Lois; Mueller, Paul S

    2017-10-17

    Calls to legalize physician-assisted suicide have increased and public interest in the subject has grown in recent years despite ethical prohibitions. Many people have concerns about how they will die and the emphasis by medicine and society on intervention and cure has sometimes come at the expense of good end-of-life care. Some have advocated strongly, on the basis of autonomy, that physician-assisted suicide should be a legal option at the end of life. As a proponent of patient-centered care, the American College of Physicians (ACP) is attentive to all voices, including those who speak of the desire to control when and how life will end. However, the ACP believes that the ethical arguments against legalizing physician-assisted suicide remain the most compelling. On the basis of substantive ethics, clinical practice, policy, and other concerns articulated in this position paper, the ACP does not support legalization of physician-assisted suicide. It is problematic given the nature of the patient-physician relationship, affects trust in the relationship and in the profession, and fundamentally alters the medical profession's role in society. Furthermore, the principles at stake in this debate also underlie medicine's responsibilities regarding other issues and the physician's duties to provide care based on clinical judgment, evidence, and ethics. Society's focus at the end of life should be on efforts to address suffering and the needs of patients and families, including improving access to effective hospice and palliative care. The ACP remains committed to improving care for patients throughout and at the end of life.

  2. Regulating internet access in UK public libraries: legal compliance and ethical dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, Adrienne; Spacey, Rachel; Cooke, Louise; Creaser, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to consider selected results from the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) funded “Managing Access to the internet in Public Libraries” (MAIPLE) project, from 2012-2014. MAIPLE has explored the ways in which public library services manage use of the internet connections that they provide for the public. This included the how public library services balance their legal obligations and the needs of their communities in a public space and the ethical dilemmas tha...

  3. Legal, cultural and ethical considerations on the informing of the cancer patient: a perspective from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousathana, L; Kousathana, F; Karamanou, M; Kousoulis, A A

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the current official legal position of the Greek Council and the official international statement on the subject, as well as the emerging cultural and moral aspects on the issue of informing the cancer patient. Perusal of national and international legal and ethics sources, under a multidisciplinary perspective. According to the Council of State of Greece the violation of informing the patient by the physician constitutes urban liability and disciplinary offence. The Greek Code of Medical Ethics declares that the physician is obliged to inform his patient about his health and respect the desire of the patient who decides not to be informed. The UNESCO declaration does not seem to clarify the subject. In Greece, physicians have the tendency to tell the truth more often today than in the past, reflecting the global tendency, although the majority still discloses the truth to the next of kin. The difference in the tactics of informing in several nations reflects huge cultural, social, economic and religious differences in each society. Well informed and knowledgeable health-care and legal professionals, alongside with patients and ethical directors, should sit at the same table in order to productively discuss the most sensitive matters of the contemporary medical practice.

  4. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance: Coping with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency about such factors, and about the inherent trade-offs in bioenergy governance. - Highlights: • Ethical and legal challenges in governance of liquid biofuels and wood pellets. • EU sustainability criteria legal and ethical analysis—EU bioenergy policy options. • Analysis of interplay between carbon and non-carbon concerns and regulatory options. • Governance must cope with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

  5. [Consent and confidentiality in occupational health practice: balance between legal requirements and ethical values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Erika; Franco, G

    2010-01-01

    The recently introduced Italian law on the protection of workers' health states that the occupational health physician (competent physician) is required to act according to the Code of Ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH). This paper aims at examining the articles of legislative decree 81/2008 dealing with informed consent and confidentiality compared with the corresponding points of the ICOH Ethics Code. Analysis of the relationship between articles 25 and 39 (informed consent) and 18, 20 and 39 (confidentiality) of the decree shows that there are some points of disagreement between the legal requirements and the Code of Ethics, in particular concerning prescribed health surveillance, consent based on appropriate information (points 8, 10 and 12 of the Code) and some aspects of confidentiality (points 10, 20, 21, 22 and 23 of the Code). Although the competent physician is required to act according to the law, the decisional process could lead to a violation of workers' autonomy.

  6. Ethical and legal analyses of policy prohibiting tobacco smoking in enclosed public spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, Taiwo A

    2009-01-01

    A spate of legislations prohibiting cigarette smoking in enclosed public spaces, mainly on grounds of public health protection, recently swept across cities around the world. This is in tandem with a raft of increasingly restrictive national laws that emerged on the back of the ratification of the WHO Framework for Tobacco Control by more than one 168 countries in 2005. The central debate on the increasingly restrictive tobacco laws revolves on the extent to which public health interests justification should ground political intervention in a private right as basic as tobacco smoking, which interestingly is often lumped in the food and beverage category. The pertinent legal and ethical questions therefore are the following: Is or should there be a general unrestricted right to tobacco smoking? If there were such a right, should public health or ethical considerations trump private right to smoke in enclosed public spaces? And if public health interests were so paramount, should they go farther and ground tobacco smoking proscription in all private and public spheres? Using ethical principles and rights-based arguments, the paper critically examines the legal and ethical ramifications of public health justification for tobacco smoking proscription in enclosed public spaces.

  7. Is multi-level marketing of nutrition supplements a legal and an ethical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Diana; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa

    2018-06-01

    Multi-level marketing (MLM) of nutrition products has experienced dramatic growth in recent decades. 'Wellness' is the second most popular niche in the MLM industry and represents 35% of sales among all the products in 2016. This category includes dietary supplements, weight management and sports nutrition products. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether this practice is legal and ethical. An analysis of available documentary information about the legal aspects of Multi-level marketing business was performed. Ethical reflexion was based on the "principlism" approach. We argue that, while being a controversial business model, MLM is not fraudulent from a legal point of view. However, it is an unethical strategy obviating all the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and autonomy. What is at stake is the possible economic scam and the potential harm those products could cause due to unproven efficacy, exceeding daily nutrient requirements and potential toxicity. The sale of dietary and nutrition supplements products by physicians and dieticians presents a conflict of interests that can undermine the primary obligation of physicians to serve the interests of their patients before their own. While considering that MLM of dietary supplements and other nutrition products are a legal business strategy, we affirm that it is an unethical practice. MLM products that have nutritional value or promoted as remedies may be unnecessary and intended for conditions that are unsuitable for self-prescription as well. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Growing families in a shrinking world: legal and ethical challenges in cross-border surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockin, Susan L

    2013-12-01

    Crossing national borders to have children is a rapidly growing phenomenon, fuelled by restrictions on access and technologies in some countries and for some patients, by high costs in others, and all generating a burgeoning multibillion dollar international industry. Cross-border gestational surrogacy is one form of family building that challenges legal, policy and ethical norms between countries and puts both intended parents and gestational surrogates at risk, and can leave the offspring of these arrangements vulnerable in a variety of ways, including parent-child, immigration and citizenship status. The widely varying political, religious and legal views amongst countries make line drawing and rule making challenging. This article reviews recent court decisions about and explores the legal dimensions of cross-border surrogacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethical, legal and social issues of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gordon; Kosoko-Lasaki, Sade; Haynatzki, Gleb; Cook, Cynthia; O'Brien, Richard L; Houtz, Lynne E

    2008-09-01

    There is growing interest in exploring gene-environment interactions in the etiology of diseases in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Our experience working with the Sudanese immigrant population in Omaha, NE, makes clear the pressing need for geneticists and federal and local funding agencies to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research with such vulnerable populations. Our work raises several questions. How does one design research with African immigrant participants to assure it is ethical? Many immigrants may not understand the purposes, risks and benefits involved in research because of low literacy rates, one of the results of civil wars, or concepts of biologic science foreign to their cultures. Is it possible to obtain truly informed consent? Do African immigrants perceive genetic research using them as subjects as racist? Is genetic research on minorities "biopiracy" or "bio-colonialism?" In our experience, some Sudanese immigrants have challenged the legality and ethics of genetic studies with profit-making as an end. We have concluded that it is essential to educate African immigrant or any other non-English-speaking immigrant participants in research using lay language and graphic illustrations before obtaining consent. Cultural proficiency is important in gaining the trust of African immigrants; profit-sharing may encourage their participation in genetic research to benefit all; involvement of African immigrant community leaders in planning, delivery and evaluation using the community-based participatory research approach will facilitate healthcare promotion, health literacy education, as well as genetic research. It is crucial to address the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic studies with African immigrants as research subjects.

  10. [The awareness of pediatricians about ethical legal issues of medical care provision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polunina, N V; Shmelev, I A; Konovalov, O A

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of rights of under-age patients in medical institutions in many ways depends on level of awareness of pediatricians about availability and mechanisms of legal guarantees provided to them by law and hence depends quality of medical care of children population. The study was carried out to analyze opinions of pediatricians about issues of implementation of rights of patients. The results are presented concerning sociological survey of 261 pediatricians of the Samarskaia oblast. The study established inadequate awareness of respondents about ethical legal issues of medicine and rate of application of knowledge about legal acts in practical activity. The awareness was higher among pediatricians of younger age with duration of professional work lesser than 10 years. This phenomenon is explained by inclusion of courses of biomedical ethics and medical law in educational programs of medical educational institutions during last decade. The direct dependence is established between awareness of pediatricians about issues of bioethics and the level of their qualification. The most of the respondents consider that the have sufficient level of knowledge about rights of children-patients and their parents related to reservation of medical secrecy, consent or refuse of parents to medical intervention and receiving full information about child's health. The overwhelming majority of pediatricians, independently of professional category and duration of service, provided this right implementing modern informational and collegiate model of interaction with parents of ill child and informed that always obtained their consent about medical care. However, such rights of children were limited by framework of child's health and ability for apprehending information about one's health and prospective medical intervention. All respondents participated in survey insisted that they never disclosed medical secrecy. The development of legal literacy of pediatricians by

  11. Ethical, legal and social implications of prenatal and preimplantation genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-W; Hui, E C

    2009-01-01

    With the progress in cancer genetics and assisted reproductive technologies, it is now possible for cancer gene mutation carriers not only to reduce cancer mortality through the targeting of surveillance and preventive therapies, but also to avoid the birth of at-risk babies through the choice of different means of reproduction. Thus, the incidence of hereditary cancer syndromes may be decreased in the future. The integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies raises certain ethical, legal and social issues beyond either genetic testing or assisted reproductive technology itself. In this paper, the reproductive decisions/choices of at-risk young couples and the ethical, legal and social concerns of prenatal genetic testing and preimplantation genetic diagnosis for susceptibility to hereditary cancer syndromes are discussed. Specifically, three ethical principles related to the integration of cancer genetic testing and assisted reproductive technologies, i.e. informed choice, beneficence to children and social justice, and their implications for the responsible translation of these medical techniques into common practice of preventive medicine are highlighted.

  12. Extubation versus tracheostomy in withdrawal of treatment-ethical, clinical, and legal perspectives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, Sanjay Haresh

    2010-06-01

    The provision of life-sustaining ventilation, such as tracheostomy to critically ill patients, is commonly performed. However, the utilization of tracheostomy or extubation after a withdrawal of treatment decision is debated. There is a dearth of practical information available to aid clinical decision making because withdrawal of treatment is a challenging scenario for all concerned. This is further complicated by medicolegal and ethical considerations. Care of the "hopelessly ill" patient should be based on daily evaluation and comfort making it impossible to fit into general algorithms. Although respect for autonomy is important in healthcare, it is limited for patients in an unconscious state. Beneficence remains the basis for withdrawing treatment in futile cases and underpins the "doctrine of double effect." This article presents a relevant clinical case of hypoxic brain injury where a question of withdrawal of treatment arose and examines the ethical, clinical, and medicolegal considerations inherent in such cases, including beneficence, nonmaleficence, and the "sanctity of life doctrine." In addition, the considerations of prognosis for recovery, patient autonomy, patient quality of life, and patient family involvement, which are central to decision making, are addressed. The varying legal frameworks that exist internationally regarding treatment withdrawal are also described. Good ethics needs sound facts, and despite the lack of legal foundation in several countries, withdrawal of treatment remains practiced, and the principles described within this article aim to aid clinician decision making during such complex and multifaceted end-of-life decisions.

  13. Legal and Ethical Issues around Incorporating Traditional Knowledge in Polar Data Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge of the polar region is a unique blend of Western scientific knowledge and local and indigenous knowledge. It is increasingly recognized that to exclude Traditional Knowledge from repositories of polar data would both limit the value of such repositories and perpetuate colonial legacies of exclusion and exploitation. However, the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within repositories that are conceived and designed for Western scientific knowledge raises its own unique challenges. There is increasing acceptance of the need to make these two knowledge systems interoperable but in addition to the technical challenge there are legal and ethical issues involved. These relate to ‘ownership’ or custodianship of the knowledge; obtaining appropriate consent to gather, use and incorporate this knowledge; being sensitive to potentially different norms regarding access to and sharing of some types of knowledge; and appropriate acknowledgement for data contributors. In some cases, respectful incorporation of Traditional Knowledge may challenge standard conceptions regarding the sharing of data, including through open data licensing. These issues have not been fully addressed in the existing literature on legal interoperability which does not adequately deal with Traditional Knowledge. In this paper we identify legal and ethical norms regarding the use of Traditional Knowledge and explore their application in the particular context of polar data. Drawing upon our earlier work on cybercartography and Traditional Knowledge we identify the elements required in the development of a framework for the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within data infrastructures.

  14. Ethical, legal and social issues to consider when designing a surrogacy law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Merryn Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this article is to address the ethical, legal and social issues that arise when a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child with the intention of surrendering this child to another woman or couple. The secondary aim is to offer some recommendations that will be beneficial for the lawmakers, policymakers and regulators who design and enforce the rules and regulations that govern surrogacy arrangements. The article considers both commercial and altruistic surrogacy and highlights some of the similarities and differences between the two. Beginning with the initial question of whether surrogacy should be legal, the controversial questions raised relate to the time before conception, during the pregnancy and after the birth of the child. The article concludes that surrogacy arrangements are ethical and should be legal because they enable the medically and socially infertile, including singles and same-sex couples, the opportunity to become parents and to enjoy the lifelong pleasures of parenthood. For many, this will be the strongest argument for the legalisation of surrogacy and the greatest benefit to arise from surrogacy arrangements.

  15. Implications of the ethical-legal framework for adolescent HIV vaccine trials--report of a consultative forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Catherine; Strode, Ann; Grant, Catherine; Milford, Cecilia

    2005-09-01

    The ethical-legal framework in South Africa is in a period of transition, with a number of new developments changing the substantive principles and procedures for health research in the country. Some of the changing dynamics include both law reform and the review of ethical guidelines. This changing environment poses many complexities for researchers, research ethics committees and participating communities involved in planning, implementing and reviewing research with child participants, including HIV vaccine trials. This paper presents the major themes and outcomes of a consultative meeting convened by the HIV AIDS Vaccines Ethics Group in July 2004 for key stakeholder groups. At this forum participants discussed the complexities posed by a transitional and sometimes contradictory ethical-legal framework and how the framework could be improved to simultaneously promote critical research and the welfare of child participants.

  16. Introduction to the article collection 'Translation in healthcare: ethical, legal, and social implications'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Michael; Dickenson, Donna; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2016-11-14

    New technologies are transforming and reconfiguring the boundaries between patients, research participants and consumers, between research and clinical practice, and between public and private domains. From personalised medicine to big data and social media, these platforms facilitate new kinds of interactions, challenge longstanding understandings of privacy and consent, and raise fundamental questions about how the translational patient pathway should be organised.This editorial introduces the cross-journal article collection "Translation in healthcare: ethical, legal, and social implications", briefly outlining the genesis of the collection in the 2015 Translation in healthcare conference in Oxford, UK and providing an introduction to the contemporary ethical challenges of translational research in biology and medicine accompanied by a summary of the papers included in this collection.

  17. Ethical and legal implications in IVF and prenatal diagnosis in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Smith, M E

    1991-08-01

    The natural desire for couples to be parents and the medical practitioner's inability to treat most genetic diseases have been responsible for some of the most exciting research into infertility and genetic disorders. This has led in the United Kingdom to the establishment of the Warnock Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilization and its report in 1984, and to a Review of the guidance on Research Use of Fetuses and Fetal Material published in 1989 and known as the Polkinghorne Report. The Warnock Report, among other ethical issues, considers the most fundamental question which has been debated for thousands of years, namely, What is life and when does it begin? More recently, the report has been responsible for new legislation which imposes ethical and legal restrictions on the scientific and medical community. The Polkinghorne Report recommends a voluntary code of practice which is morally and ethically acceptable within our society. We are also fortunate in the U.K. to have a parliamentary structure which allows debate on such important human issues and is prepared to impose ethical restrictions.

  18. Ethical and legal issues in caring for asylum seekers and refugees in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, M; McDonald, L; Brook, G; Murphy, S

    2004-11-01

    Inward migration to the UK remains topical and controversial as numbers continue to increase. Many immigrants have specific health care needs and may shoulder a large burden of infectious disease. Imposition of legal constraints can have a huge impact on the medical care afforded to immigrants. Currently UK policy is to treat, free of charge and with NHS resources, those who fulfil specific criteria. However an increasing number are being asked to pay for their treatment. Many health care professionals are confused as to current legal restrictions and require guidance on the associated ethical issues. We concentrate on provision of care to HIV positive individuals and use cases to illustrate some of the issues. However these issues are equally pertinent to practitioners in all branches of medicine.

  19. Legal and ethical issues of using brain imaging to diagnose pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Davis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pain, by definition, is a subjective experience, and as such its presence has usually been based on a self-report. However, limitations of self-reports for pain diagnostics, particularly for legal and insurance purposes, has led some to consider a brain-imaging–based objective measure of pain. This review will provide an overview of (1 differences between pain and nociception, (2 intersubject variability in pain perception and the associated brain structures and functional circuits, and (3 capabilities and limitations of current brain-imaging technologies. I then discuss how these factors impact objective proxies of pain. Finally, the ethical, privacy, and legal implications of a brain-imaging–based objective measure of pain are considered as potential future technological developments necessary to create a so-called “painometer test.”

  20. Legal, ethical and professional aspects of duty of care for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowie, Iwan

    2017-12-13

    Duty of care is a fundamental aspect of nursing, and many nurses consider this to be an important part of their professional duties as a nurse. However, the legal underpinnings of duty of care are often overlooked, and, as such, nurses may be unsure about when to act if they encounter emergency situations or serious incidents, especially when they are off duty. This article examines the legal, ethical and professional aspects of duty of care, what these mean for nurses in practice, and how duty of care is intrinsically linked with standards of care and negligence. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  1. Operating within the legal and ethical framework to gain co-operation when imaging paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey-Lloyd, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by radiographers when imaging children. Using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a framework it presents a logical exploration of the complex issues associated with imaging children and considers the legal and ethical framework alongside the nature of motivation and importance of gaining cooperation of the child and their carer(s). It is evident that a good knowledge of child development, child psychology and distraction techniques would enhance the family experience when attending for imaging examinations. Radiographers must continually familiarise themselves with current legislation affecting their practice and ensure that they continue to provide an optimum service for children and their carer(s). It may be advisable for post-registration courses to be offered to existing practitioners and for the Society and College of Radiographers to consider appointing a professional officer with expertise in paediatric imaging to offer legal advice and to support safe practice

  2. Professional, legal, and ethical issues raised by behavioral screening for unescorted access to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.W.; Roiter, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Potential professional, legal, and ethical liabilities are addressed concerning the overall process for unescorted access at nuclear power plants. The authors suggest means by which action can be taken to reduce liability on behalf of utilities, contractors, and behavioral evaluators. Three main points are discussed based on the authors' experience in conducting behavioral evaluations and defending those evaluations. The authors hope that the process of evaluation screening can become more professional and will be considered with the same quality controls as the selection of materials and the building of a nuclear power plant

  3. Ethical, legal and social implications of incorporating personalized medicine into healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B; Rothstein, Mark A

    As research focused on personalized medicine has developed over the past decade, bioethics scholars have contemplated the ethical, legal and social implications of this type of research. In the next decade, there will be a need to broaden the focus of this work as personalized medicine moves into clinical settings. We consider two broad issues that will grow in importance and urgency. First, we analyze the consequences of the significant increase in health information that will be brought about by personalized medicine. Second, we raise concerns about the potential of personalized medicine to exacerbate existing disparities in healthcare.

  4. Brain imaging tests for chronic pain: medical, legal and ethical issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen D; Flor, Herta; Greely, Henry T; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Mackey, Sean; Ploner, Markus; Pustilnik, Amanda; Tracey, Irene; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Wager, Tor D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic pain is the greatest source of disability globally and claims related to chronic pain feature in many insurance and medico-legal cases. Brain imaging (for example, functional MRI, PET, EEG and magnetoencephalography) is widely considered to have potential for diagnosis, prognostication, and prediction of treatment outcome in patients with chronic pain. In this Consensus Statement, a presidential task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain examines the capabilities of brain imaging in the diagnosis of chronic pain, and the ethical and legal implications of its use in this way. The task force emphasizes that the use of brain imaging in this context is in a discovery phase, but has the potential to increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of chronic pain, inform the development of therapeutic agents, and predict treatment outcomes for use in personalized pain management. The task force proposes standards of evidence that must be satisfied before any brain imaging measure can be considered suitable for clinical or legal purposes. The admissibility of such evidence in legal cases also strongly depends on laws that vary between jurisdictions. For these reasons, the task force concludes that the use of brain imaging findings to support or dispute a claim of chronic pain - effectively as a pain lie detector - is not warranted, but that imaging should be used to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying pain.

  5. Protected health information on social networking sites: ethical and legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Black, Erik; Duff, W Patrick; Paradise Black, Nicole; Saliba, Heidi; Dawson, Kara

    2011-01-19

    setting of medical mission trips. Trainees need to learn to equate standards of patient privacy in all medical contexts using both legal and ethical arguments to maintain the highest professional principles. We propose three practical guidelines. First, there should be a legal resource for physicians traveling on medical mission trips such as an online list of local laws, or a telephone legal contact. Second, institutions that organize medical mission trips should plan an ethics seminar prior the departure on any trip since the legal and ethical implications may not be intuitive. Finally, at minimum, traveling physicians should apply the strictest legal precedent to any situation.

  6. Protected Health Information on Social Networking Sites: Ethical and Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    privacy, they only seem to make this lapse in the setting of medical mission trips. Trainees need to learn to equate standards of patient privacy in all medical contexts using both legal and ethical arguments to maintain the highest professional principles. We propose three practical guidelines. First, there should be a legal resource for physicians traveling on medical mission trips such as an online list of local laws, or a telephone legal contact. Second, institutions that organize medical mission trips should plan an ethics seminar prior the departure on any trip since the legal and ethical implications may not be intuitive. Finally, at minimum, traveling physicians should apply the strictest legal precedent to any situation. PMID:21247862

  7. Should commercial organ donation be legalized in Germany? An ethical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, F; Winkler, U; Mayer, J; Stracke, S

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the arguments pro and con concerning kidney sales from a German perspective. At present, we see social, medical, and ethical reasons why organ selling should not be legalized in Germany. Legalization of organ selling would weaken the principle of solidarity within the German health system. Conversely, profit making will undermine the principle of social justice. Within the present social system in Germany, there is no economic pressure to sell an organ to save life, and there is no medical need to buy a kidney. Also, there exists the risk that opening the market for organ sales will de-motivate potential directed organ donors. Relatives would have more doubts about giving their consent to donate organs of their deceased. Moreover, the historical experience with the "action T4" of the Nazi regime sensitized German society for the categorical imperative set forth by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), namely that man is not a means, but an end to himself. By selling one's kidney, the donor uses himself as a means and as an instrument for the end result of gaining money. With directed organ donation, the welfare of the recipient is the end result. The pending reform of the German health system needs a more communitarian sense, which will be eroded should organs be sold and no longer donated as gifts. Germany's special historical experience and a deeply embedded consent toward ethical values give reason for the prohibition of organ selling in Germany.

  8. The Ethical and Legal Dilemma in Terminating the Physician-Patient Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderovitch, Helen

    2016-05-01

    A physician-patient relationship is essential for the well-being of the patient, for without a strong and trusting relationship between both individuals, the patient may not receive the best care that they deserve. There are many legal policies and ethical principles a physician must follow when caring for a patient. It is both the legal and moral duty of the physician to act in the best interests of their patients, while making sure to respect them regardless of background and personal behaviours. The relationship is secured with both trust and respect, for without trust, the patient may hold back from stating their conditions which will result in the physician not providing them with all the care they require. Sometimes, lack of some of these key characteristics of the physician-patient relationship and other circumstances, may cause either the patient or the physician to terminate the relationship. Termination of a relationship creates a difficult situation for the patient, and therefore there are only specific situations where a physician may have permission to follow through and terminate their relationship. Both the law and ethical principles play a role in the decisions made by the physician in regards to their relationship with the patient, but regardless, the physician has the obligation to make sure their patient is receiving care by one means or another.

  9. Property and privacy paradigms of "marketable spit": an ethical and legal counterpart to blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernillo, Anthony Thomas; Wolpe, Paul Root

    2010-01-01

    Major advances in the testing of oral fluid (e.g., saliva) may lead to the diagnosis and treatment of previously undiagnosed conditions and may enable dentists to manage oral disease more effectively. Such use of another body fluid, blood, is already well established. Blood is a complex tissue that has been extensively researched and is now used for a wide variety of diagnostic tests. It is also regarded as a form of property with ethical and legal dimensions. If saliva is to fulfill a similar role, it should perhaps be granted those same protections. This paper advances the concept that saliva should be considered a form of property, possibly within personal biological materials law. The emerging potential for the development of marketable products from oral fluids raises the issue of protecting the research participant's ethical and legal rights. In particular, violation of privacy and genetic discrimination may arise from the testing of salivary DNA. Respect for autonomy requires that the clinician inform a patient or research participant about his or her rights to property and privacy as these may pertain to oral fluid.

  10. Regulating Gamete Donation in the U.S.: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Sabatello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the practice of gamete donation in the U.S. having in mind the larger question of what do we as a society owe children born as a result (donor-conceived children. Do recipient-parents have a duty to tell their donor-conceived child about his/her genetic origins? Should the identity of the donor be disclosed or remain anonymous? Does the child have a right to know her conception story and to receive information, including identifying information, about the donor? Furthermore, if a donor-conceived child has a right to know, who has the duty to tell her/him about it? The Article underscores the ethical, legal and social dilemmas that arise, comparing and contrasting with international developments in this arena. It highlights the market-based and more specific medical justifications for regulating this field, explores the emerging so-called right of the child to know his/her genetic origins (“the right to know”, and considers the challenges such a right evokes to existing legal culture and principles of medical ethics in the U.S. as well as other broader societal implications of such a right.

  11. Regulating Gamete Donation in the U.S.: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatello, Maya

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the practice of gamete donation in the U.S. having in mind the larger question of what do we as a society owe children born as a result (donor-conceived children). Do recipient-parents have a duty to tell their donor-conceived child about his/her genetic origins? Should the identity of the donor be disclosed or remain anonymous? Does the child have a right to know her conception story and to receive information, including identifying information, about the donor? Furthermore, if a donor-conceived child has a right to know, who has the duty to tell her/him about it? The Article underscores the ethical, legal and social dilemmas that arise, comparing and contrasting with international developments in this arena. It highlights the market-based and more specific medical justifications for regulating this field, explores the emerging so-called right of the child to know his/her genetic origins ("the right to know"), and considers the challenges such a right evokes to existing legal culture and principles of medical ethics in the U.S. as well as other broader societal implications of such a right.

  12. Personalized Medicine in a New Genomic Era: Ethical and Legal Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Maria; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Hussain, Syed Ather; Madadin, Mohammed; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2017-08-01

    The genome of two completely unrelated individuals is quite similar apart from minor variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms which contribute to the uniqueness of each and every person. These single nucleotide polymorphisms are of great interest clinically as they are useful in figuring out the susceptibility of certain individuals to particular diseases and for recognizing varied responses to pharmacological interventions. This gives rise to the idea of 'personalized medicine' as an exciting new therapeutic science in this genomic era. Personalized medicine suggests a unique treatment strategy based on an individual's genetic make-up. Its key principles revolve around applied pharmaco-genomics, pharmaco-kinetics and pharmaco-proteomics. Herein, the ethical and legal aspects of personalized medicine in a new genomic era are briefly addressed. The ultimate goal is to comprehensively recognize all relevant forms of genetic variation in each individual and be able to interpret this information in a clinically meaningful manner within the ambit of ethical and legal considerations. The authors of this article firmly believe that personalized medicine has the potential to revolutionize the current landscape of medicine as it makes its way into clinical practice.

  13. Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Farisco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Research involving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs deserves special ethical and legal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concerns about the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respecting their individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, research is an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients with DOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses on informed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from an ethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the light of the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to better assess the issue of informed consent. The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicative patients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies through video-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form has been elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project "Review of the nosography of vegetative states: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma or vegetative state" developed at the Italian National Institute of Health. Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework of the form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevant example of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studies through video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article has been sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU no. 536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001

  14. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Biometric Data Usage—Bulgarian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Deliversky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethical and legal considerations with regards to biometric data usage are directly related to the right to protection of personal data, which is part of the rights protected under the European Convention of human rights. Specific protection is required to the process and use of sensitive data which reveals certain personal characteristic and is related to the health status of individuals. Biometric data and information on individual upon which people could be identified based on specifics and distinguishing signs. Bulgaria, as a country progressing in terms of integration of digital technologies and as a European Union member state has adopted international and universal legal instruments related on the procession and use of digital data and data protection. On legislative and ethical grounds, it has been established the particular importance of not violating human rights and individual freedoms when processing and using personal data. It has been noted that the processing of special categories of personal data may be necessary for reasons of public interest in the field of public health and that is why under such circumstances it has been permitted the procession to be carried on without the consent of the data subject. Lack of transparency and lawfulness of the processing of personal data could lead to physical, tangible, or intangible damages where processing could lead to discrimination, identity theft, or identity fraud as a result of which may be significant adverse economic or social consequences. Increasingly, widespread use of biometrics in the implementation of medical activities requires the application of a new approach in terms of awareness regarding existing risks to the rights, ethics, and freedoms of all of us, as a user of medical service.

  15. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Biometric Data Usage-Bulgarian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliversky, Jordan; Deliverska, Mariela

    2018-01-01

    Ethical and legal considerations with regards to biometric data usage are directly related to the right to protection of personal data, which is part of the rights protected under the European Convention of human rights. Specific protection is required to the process and use of sensitive data which reveals certain personal characteristic and is related to the health status of individuals. Biometric data and information on individual upon which people could be identified based on specifics and distinguishing signs. Bulgaria, as a country progressing in terms of integration of digital technologies and as a European Union member state has adopted international and universal legal instruments related on the procession and use of digital data and data protection. On legislative and ethical grounds, it has been established the particular importance of not violating human rights and individual freedoms when processing and using personal data. It has been noted that the processing of special categories of personal data may be necessary for reasons of public interest in the field of public health and that is why under such circumstances it has been permitted the procession to be carried on without the consent of the data subject. Lack of transparency and lawfulness of the processing of personal data could lead to physical, tangible, or intangible damages where processing could lead to discrimination, identity theft, or identity fraud as a result of which may be significant adverse economic or social consequences. Increasingly, widespread use of biometrics in the implementation of medical activities requires the application of a new approach in terms of awareness regarding existing risks to the rights, ethics, and freedoms of all of us, as a user of medical service.

  16. Ethical Legal and Social Issues of Biobanking: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Marianna J

    2017-04-01

    The past 15 years has seen considerable changes in the research environment. These changes include the development of new sophisticated genetic and genomic technologies, a proliferation of databases containing large amount of genotypic and phenotypic data, and wide-spread data sharing among many institutions, nationally and internationally. These changes have raised new questions regarding how best to protect the participants of biobanking research. In response to these questions, best practices for addressing the legal, ethical, and social issues of biobanking have been developed. In addition, new ethical guidelines related to biobanking have been established, as well as new regulations regarding privacy and human subject protections. Finally, changes in the science and the research environment have raised complex ethical issues related to biobanking, such as questions about the most appropriate consent models to use for biobanking research, commercial use and ownership issues, and whether and how to return individual research results to biobank participants. This article reviews some of the developments over the past 15 years related to the ELSI of biobanking with a look toward the future.

  17. Genetic Testing between Private and Public Interests: Some Legal and Ethical Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Judit

    2018-01-01

    In Europe, there is a wide variety of genetic tests that various private companies offer to patients or to consumers. More and more people have become curious about their genetic predisposition and susceptibility. Most public health-care systems, however, are not adequately prepared for responding to these new demands and to the results of these genetic tests as, quite often, there is no available therapy for the identified genetic condition. This discrepancy between the newly emerging expectations and the insufficient responses contributes to a further rift between the public and private sectors of health care. Individual genetic test results may also trigger the need for personalized medicine and may open up a competition between the two fields in offering further genetic tests and medical exams. Pro-active patients may need a different kind of information on genetic tests and their implications. In this context, how should the public health system deal with the challenges of private testing? Will private genetic testing transform health care from a solidarity-based system to an individualistic one? In this paper, I would like to explore the emerging legal and ethical issues related to genetic testing and the relevant legal framework that has developed so far. In the conclusion, I will examine the possibilities of further legal development.

  18. Genetic Testing between Private and Public Interests: Some Legal and Ethical Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Sándor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, there is a wide variety of genetic tests that various private companies offer to patients or to consumers. More and more people have become curious about their genetic predisposition and susceptibility. Most public health-care systems, however, are not adequately prepared for responding to these new demands and to the results of these genetic tests as, quite often, there is no available therapy for the identified genetic condition. This discrepancy between the newly emerging expectations and the insufficient responses contributes to a further rift between the public and private sectors of health care. Individual genetic test results may also trigger the need for personalized medicine and may open up a competition between the two fields in offering further genetic tests and medical exams. Pro-active patients may need a different kind of information on genetic tests and their implications. In this context, how should the public health system deal with the challenges of private testing? Will private genetic testing transform health care from a solidarity-based system to an individualistic one? In this paper, I would like to explore the emerging legal and ethical issues related to genetic testing and the relevant legal framework that has developed so far. In the conclusion, I will examine the possibilities of further legal development.

  19. Ethical and legal aspects of medical exposure to ionizing radiation in the Netherlands in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijlaarsdam, J.

    2001-01-01

    In ancient times in Greece lived a very wise man. He told physicians; when you treat patients be aware you will 'do good and no harm'. From this specific point of view I kindly ask attention for legal and ethical dimensions of medical exposures of ionizing radiation. This paper gives first a resume of the basic safety standards for radiation protection. Second it gives the legal instruments a patient in the Netherlands has to exercise his right of self-determination. Third, it pays attention to a basic ethical norm for professional attitude. And finally, it brings forward a guideline for self regulation by professionals. (author)

  20. Should Postponing Motherhood via “Social Freezing” Be Legally Banned? An Ethical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bernstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In industrial societies, women increasingly postpone motherhood. While men do not fear a loss of fertility with age, women face the biological boundary of menopause. The freezing of unfertilized eggs can overcome this biological barrier. Due to technical improvements in vitrification, so-called “social freezing” (SF for healthy women is likely to develop into clinical routine. Controversial ethical debates focus on the risks of the technique for mother and child, the scope of reproductive autonomy, and the medicalization of reproduction. Some criticize the use of the technique in healthy women in general, while others support a legally defined maximum age for women at the time of an embryo transfer after oocyte cryopreservation. Since this represents a serious encroachment on the reproductive autonomy of the affected women, the reasons for and against must be carefully examined. We analyze arguments for and against SF from a gendered ethical perspective. We show that the risk of the cryopreservation of oocytes for mother and future child is minimal and that the autonomy of the women involved is not compromised. The negative ethical evaluation of postponed motherhood is partly due to a biased approach highlighting only the medical risks for the female body without recognizing the potential positive effects for the women involved. In critical accounts, age is associated in an undifferentiated way with morbidity and psychological instability and is thus used in a discriminatory way. We come to the conclusion that age as a predictor of risk in the debate about SF is, from an ethical point of view, an empty concept based on gender stereotypes and discriminatory connotations of aging. A ban on postponing motherhood via SF is not justified.

  1. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in Japan on the Determination of Blood Relationship via DNA Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Waki

    2017-01-01

    DNA paternity testing has recently become more widely available in Japan. The aim of this paper is to examine the issues surrounding (1) the implementing agency, whether the testing is conducted in a commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) setting or a judicial non-DTC setting, and (2) the implementation conditions and more specifically the legal capacity of the proband (test subject). Literature research in Japanese and English was conducted. Some countries prohibit commercial DNA testing without the consent of the proband or her or his legally authorized representative. But as in some cases, the results of DTC paternity testing have proven to be unreliable. I propose a complete prohibition of DTC DNA paternity testing in Japan. In many cases of paternity testing, the proband is a minor. This has led to debate about whether proxy consent is sufficient for paternity testing or whether additional safeguards (such as a court order) are required. In cases where commercial DNA testing has been conducted and the test results are produced in court as evidence, the court must judge whether or not to admit these results as evidence. Another important issue is whether or not paternity testing should be legally mandated in certain cases. If we come to the conclusion that DNA test results are the only way to conclusively establish a parent-child relationship, then our society may prioritize even more genetic relatedness over other conceptions of a parent-child relationship. This prioritization could adversely affect families created through assisted reproductive technology (ART), especially in situations where children are not aware of their biological parentage. This paper argues for a complete prohibition of DTC DNA paternity testing in Japan, and highlights that broader ethical and legal deliberation on such genetic services is required.

  2. Advance Directives of Will (Living Will: Ethical and Legal Implications Based on the Principle of Dignity of Human Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Alkimim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, with methodology of philosophical, bibliographical and documentary research intends to apply the principle of dignity of human person to the vicissitudes around the advance directives of will, to the ethical aspects disciplined by the Code of Medical Ethics, as well as to what regards the legal aspects, involving the Federal Constitution, the Civil Code, the Code of Medical Ethics and the Resolution 1995/2012 (CFM. The principle of dignity of human person along with the consequent application in the principles of bioethics is considered in a personalistic perspective. This kind of approach is indicative of the interdisciplinarity of bioethics.

  3. [Involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community: legal and ethical dilemmas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrossili, M

    2014-01-01

    continues to divide the psychiatric and legal word for it causes intense questioning from a legal, ethical, deontological and clinical aspect, as it offends fundamental rights of the individual. In a legal civilization, in which the principle of informed consent or refusal constitutes a basic rule of the lawfulness of the medical and psychiatric act, any divergence from this rule has consequences for the patients and affects a well-tempered therapeutic treatment. The above mentioned measure could be counterbalanced by the legal regulation of advance directives and the provision for the appointment of a proxy person by the mental patient.

  4. Ethical, legal, and social implications of incorporating genomic information into electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Ribhi; Brothers, Kyle B; Malin, Bradley A; Koenig, Barbara A; Sanderson, Saskia C; Rothstein, Mark A; Williams, Marc S; Clayton, Ellen W; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2013-10-01

    The inclusion of genomic data in the electronic health record raises important ethical, legal, and social issues. In this article, we highlight these challenges and discuss potential solutions. We provide a brief background on the current state of electronic health records in the context of genomic medicine, discuss the importance of equitable access to genome-enabled electronic health records, and consider the potential use of electronic health records for improving genomic literacy in patients and providers. We highlight the importance of privacy, access, and security, and of determining which genomic information is included in the electronic health record. Finally, we discuss the challenges of reporting incidental findings, storing and reinterpreting genomic data, and nondocumentation and duty to warn family members at potential genetic risk.

  5. Vaccinating health care workers against influenza: the ethical and legal rationale for a mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenberg, Abigale L; Wu, Joel T; Poland, Gregory A; Jacobson, Robert M; Koenig, Barbara A; Tilburt, Jon C

    2011-02-01

    Despite improvements in clinician education, symptom awareness, and respiratory precautions, influenza vaccination rates for health care workers have remained unacceptably low for more than three decades, adversely affecting patient safety. When public health is jeopardized, and a safe, low-cost, and effective method to achieve patient safety exists, health care organizations and public health authorities have a responsibility to take action and change the status quo. Mandatory influenza vaccination for health care workers is supported not only by scientific data but also by ethical principles and legal precedent. The recent influenza pandemic provides an opportunity for policymakers to reconsider the benefits of mandating influenza vaccination for health care workers, including building public trust, enhancing patient safety, and strengthening the health care workforce.

  6. Immunization for prevention and treatment of cocaine abuse: legal and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, P J

    1997-12-15

    A cocaine vaccine, currently under investigation by several laboratories, would be an innovative and exciting means of treating and preventing cocaine addiction. However, an approved vaccine will raise at least two major areas of concern. (1) Loss of privacy: cocaine antibodies might be used as a marker to identify, penalize, and stigmatize vaccinated individuals. (2) Selection for vaccination: should immunization be voluntary or compelled: should immunization be restricted to addicts, to those at risk of addiction, or should it be universal; should immunization be used in children? I propose to analogize cocaine addiction to an infectious disease which poses a major public health problem. This approach can provide an ethical and legal foundation on which we may begin to formulate a societal approach to the use of the cocaine vaccine.

  7. Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Mollie A; Alessi, Stephanie; Allyse, Megan; Michie, Marsha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) for chromosomal aneuploidy involving the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA became commercially available in 2011. The low false-positive rate of NIPT, which reduces unnecessary prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures, has led to broad clinician and patient adoption. We discuss the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by rapid and global dissemination of NIPT. The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision making. Ensuring that accurate and balanced information is available to all pregnant women and that access to NIPT is equitable will require policy guidance from regulators, professional societies, and payers. Empirical evidence about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences will continue to be essential in guiding policy development so that advances in NIPT can be used effectively and appropriately to improve prenatal care.

  8. Size matters: the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding large-scale genetic biobank initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.

  9. Scientific, legal, and ethical challenges of end-of-life organ procurement in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L; McGregor, Joan L

    2010-09-01

    We review (1) scientific evidence questioning the validity of declaring death and procuring organs in heart-beating (i.e., neurological standard of death) and non-heart-beating (i.e., circulatory-respiratory standard of death) donation; (2) consequences of collaborative programs realigning hospital policies to maximize access of procurement coordinators to critically and terminally ill patients as potential donors on arrival in emergency departments; and (3) ethical and legal ramifications of current practices of organ procurement on patients and their families. Relevant publications in peer-reviewed journals and government websites. Scientific evidence undermines the biological criteria of death that underpin the definition of death in heart-beating (i.e., neurological standard) and non-heart-beating (i.e., circulatory-respiratory standard) donation. Philosophical reinterpretation of the neurological and circulatory-respiratory standards in the death statute, to avoid the appearance of organ procurement as an active life-ending intervention, lacks public and medical consensus. Collaborative programs bundle procurement coordinators together with hospital staff for a team-huddle and implement a quality improvement tool for a Rapid Assessment of Hospital Procurement Barriers in Donation. Procurement coordinators have access to critically ill patients during the course of medical treatment with no donation consent and with family or surrogates unaware of their roles. How these programs affect the medical care of these patients has not been studied. Policies enforcing end-of-life organ procurement can have unintended consequences: (1) erosion of care in the patient's best interests, (2) lack of transparency, and (3) ethical and legal ramifications of flawed standards of declaring death. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PR Bibliography, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Based on searches of over 200 periodicals, this annotated bibliography of books and journal articles presents material related to the knowledge and practice of public relations published in 1992. The annotated bibliography is subdivided into more than 30 different categories ranging from business ethics to writing techniques. The largest…

  11. Prison Field Trips: Can White-Collar Criminals Positively Affect the Ethical and Legal Behavior of Marketing and MBA Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Marketing educators bear some responsibility for teaching ethics and legal issues to their students. Visits to white-collar criminals in a federal prison camp are one method of achieving this task. This article develops and empirically assesses ten objectives for such a visit by MBA and undergraduate marketing classes. Undergraduates rated the…

  12. Using Critical Literacy to Explore Genetics and Its Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues with In-Service Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michael L.; Melancon, Megan E.; Kleine, Karynne L. M.

    2010-01-01

    The described interdisciplinary course helped a mixed population of in-service secondary English and biology teacher-participants increase their genetics content knowledge and awareness of Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) that arose from discoveries and practices associated with the Human Genome Project. This was accomplished by…

  13. Ethical and Legal Issues Associated with the Use of Aversives in the Public Schools: The SIBIS Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob-Timm, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Explores four types of intervention available in treating self-injurious behavior (SIB). One effective, although controversial, treatment in reducing SIB involves use of Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS), a device which delivers a mild electric shock following a blow to the head. Reviews and explains the ethical and legal issues…

  14. Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

  15. Engaging Maori in Biobanking and Genetic Research: Legal, Ethical, and Policy Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Beaton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Publically funded biobanking initiatives and genetic research should contribute towards reducing inequalities in health by reducing the prevalence and burden of disease. It is essential that Maori and other Indigenous populations share in health gains derived from these activities. The Health Research Council of New Zealand has funded a research project (2012-2015 to identify Maori perspectives on biobanking and genetic research, and to develop cultural guidelines for ethical biobanking and genetic research involving biospecimens. This review describes relevant values and ethics embedded in Maori indigenous knowledge, and how they may be applied to culturally safe interactions between biobanks, researchers, individual participants, and communities. Key issues of ownership, privacy, and consent are also considered within the legal and policy context that guides biobanking and genetic research practices within New Zealand. Areas of concern are highlighted and recommendations of international relevance are provided. To develop a productive environment for "next-generation" biobanking and genomic research,"‘next-generation" regulatory solutions will be required.

  16. Ethical and legal points of view in parenteral nutrition – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothaermel, S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition is a part of medical treatment and is influenced by ethical and legal considerations. Patients, who cannot be sufficiently fed via the gastrointestinal tract, have the fundamental right to receive PN (parenteral nutrition even so patients who are unable to give their consent. General objectives in nutrition support are to supply adequate nutrition with regards to the prevention of malnutrition and its consequences (increased morbidity and mortality, and thereby promoting improved outcome and/or quality of life for the patient considering always the patient’s needs and wishes. The requests of the patient to renounce PN should be respected where a signed living will is helpful. During the course of a terminal illness the nutrition has to be adapted individually according to the needs and wishes of a patient in the corresponding phase. Capability of consent should be checked in each individual case and for each measure on an individual basis. Consent should only be accepted if the patient is capable of recognizing the nature, meaning and importance of the intervention as well as the consequences of relinquishment of such an intervention, and is capable to make a self-determined decision. If the patient is not capable of consenting, the patient’s living will is the most important document when determining their assumed will and legally binding. Otherwise a guardian appointed by the patient, or the representative appointed by the court (if the patient has made no provisions can make the decision.

  17. Ethical and legal points of view in parenteral nutrition - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothaermel, S; Bischoff, S C; Bockenheimer-Lucius, G; Frewer, A; Wehkamp, K H; Zuercher, G

    2009-11-18

    Adequate nutrition is a part of medical treatment and is influenced by ethical and legal considerations. Patients, who cannot be sufficiently fed via the gastrointestinal tract, have the fundamental right to receive PN (parenteral nutrition) even so patients who are unable to give their consent. General objectives in nutrition support are to supply adequate nutrition with regards to the prevention of malnutrition and its consequences (increased morbidity and mortality), and thereby promoting improved outcome and/or quality of life for the patient considering always the patient's needs and wishes. The requests of the patient to renounce PN should be respected where a signed living will is helpful. During the course of a terminal illness the nutrition has to be adapted individually according to the needs and wishes of a patient in the corresponding phase. Capability of consent should be checked in each individual case and for each measure on an individual basis. Consent should only be accepted if the patient is capable of recognizing the nature, meaning and importance of the intervention as well as the consequences of relinquishment of such an intervention, and is capable to make a self-determined decision. If the patient is not capable of consenting, the patient's living will is the most important document when determining their assumed will and legally binding. Otherwise a guardian appointed by the patient, or the representative appointed by the court (if the patient has made no provisions) can make the decision.

  18. Ethical and legal duty of anesthesiologists regarding Jehovah's Witness patient: care protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaschima, Augusto Key Karazawa; Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Takaschima, Alexandre Karazawa; Takaschima, Renata Dos Santos Teodoro; Lima, Breno José Santiago Bezerra de; Benedetti, Roberto Henrique

    Jehovah's Witnesses patients refuse blood transfusions for religious reasons. Anesthesiologists must master specific legal knowledge to provide care to these patients. Understanding how the Law and the Federal Council of Medicine treat this issue is critical to know how to act in this context. The aim of this paper was to establish a treatment protocol for the Jehovah's Witness patient with emphasis on ethical and legal duty of the anesthesiologist. The article analyzes the Constitution, Criminal Code, resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine, opinions, and jurisprudence to understand the limits of the conflict between the autonomy of will of Jehovah's Witnesses to refuse transfusion and the physician's duty to provide the transfusion. Based on this evidence, a care protocol is suggested. The Federal Council of Medicine resolution 1021/1980, the penal code Article 135, which classifies denial of care as a crime and the Supreme Court decision on the HC 268,459/SP process imposes on the physician the obligation of blood transfusion when life is threatened. The patient's or guardian's consent is not necessary, as the autonomy of will manifestation of the Jehovah's Witness patient refusing blood transfusion for himself and relatives, even in emergencies, is no not forbidden. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. [Ethical and legal duty of anesthesiologists regarding Jehovah's Witness patient: care protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaschima, Augusto Key Karazawa; Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Takaschima, Alexandre Karazawa; Takaschima, Renata Dos Santos Teodoro; de Lima, Breno José Santiago Bezerra; Benedetti, Roberto Henrique

    Jehovah's Witnesses patients refuse blood transfusions for religious reasons. Anesthesiologists must master specific legal knowledge to provide care to these patients. Understanding how the Law and the Federal Council of Medicine treat this issue is critical to know how to act in this context. The aim of this paper was to establish a treatment protocol for the Jehovah's Witness patient with emphasis on ethical and legal duty of the anesthesiologist. The article analyzes the Constitution, Criminal Code, resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine (FCM), opinions, and jurisprudence to understand the limits of the conflict between the autonomy of will of Jehovah's Witnesses to refuse transfusion and the physician's duty to provide the transfusion. Based on this evidence, a care protocol is suggested. The FCM resolution 1021/1980, the penal code Article 135, which classifies denial of care as a crime and the Supreme Court decision on the HC 268,459/SP process imposes on the physician the obligation of blood transfusion when life is threatened. The patient's or guardian's consent is not necessary, as the autonomy of will manifestation of the Jehovah's Witness patient refusing blood transfusion for himself and relatives, even in emergencies, is no not forbidden. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Aspectos ético legales del trasplante de corazón Ethical and legal aspects of heart transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernán del C Mendoza

    2007-12-01

    to perform a cardiac transplant, the donor must meet criteria for encephalic death. This is diagnosed when there is irreversible absence of the brain stem functions, determined by a clinical examination. Despite the existing controversies about the moment when a person dies, every time there is more clarity over this matter. There are other bioethical problems related to transplants, such as donation (some people during life state their will and autonomy to become donors, some others not, organ distribution, and organ and tissue trading. From the legal and ethical point of view, it is forbidden to gratify or pay the living donor, the dead donor’s family, the tissue or bone marrow bank, the hospitals, or the insurance companies for the donation or supplying of human organs or tissues. The promotion of the donation and obtainment of anatomical components must be performed stating their voluntary, altruistic and unselfish character. The principle of justice must stand out, excluding any unfair consideration of geographical, racial, sexual, or religious nature. Organs must be distributed based on medical criteria, looking for the most suitable use of the donated organ, based on a fair management, having always as a principle the respect of life and human dignity.

  1. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M; Lee, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation--deliberative public bioethics--into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bioethics offers both a how and where. Using the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications program as an example of effective incorporation of deliberative processes to integrate ethics into public health policy, we examine how deliberative public bioethics can integrate both public health and bioethics perspectives into three areas of public health practice: research, education, and health policy. We then offer recommendations for future collaborations that integrate deliberative methods into public health policy and practice.

  2. Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Considerations when Disclosing a High-Risk Syndrome for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vijay A; Dean, Derek J; Mittal, Jyoti; Saks, Elyn R

    2015-10-01

    There are complex considerations when planning to disclose an attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) diagnosis. In this review, we evaluate ethical, legal, and clinical perspectives as well as caveats related to full, non- and partial disclosure strategies, discuss societal implications, and provide clinical suggestions. Each of the disclosure strategies is associated with benefits as well as costs/considerations. Full disclosure promotes autonomy, allows for the clearest psychoeducation about additional risk factors, helps to clarify and/or correct previous diagnoses/treatments, facilitates early intervention and bolsters communication between providers but there are important considerations involving heritability, comorbidity, culture, and stigma. Non-disclosure advances nonmaleficence by limiting stigma and stress (which may inadvertently exacerbate the condition), and confusion (related to the rapidly evolving diagnosis) in a sensitive developmental period but is complicated by varying patient preferences and the possibility that, as new treatments without adverse effects become available, the risk with false positives no longer justifies the accompanying loss of autonomy. Partial disclosure balances ethical considerations by focusing on symptoms instead of labels, but evidence that laypersons may interpret this information as a pseudo-diagnosis and that symptoms alone also contribute to stigma limits the efficacy of this approach. In addition, there are notable societal considerations relating to disclosure involving conservatorship, the reach of insurance companies, and discrimination. We advocate a hybrid approach to disclosure and recommend future research aimed at understanding the effects of stigma on clinical course and a renewed focus on those help-seeking cases that do not transition but remain clinically relevant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The autism "epidemic": Ethical, legal, and social issues in a developmental spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, William D; Miller, Geoffrey; Epstein, Leon G; Rapin, Isabelle

    2017-04-04

    Classic autism has gradually evolved into the concept of a larger "spectrum disorder." The rising prevalence of autism and autism spectrum disorder (autism/ASD) diagnoses can be largely attributed to broader diagnostic criteria, adoption of dimensional assessment strategies, increased awareness, linking of services to diagnosis, and the inclusion of milder neurodevelopmental differences bordering on normality. The spectrum disorder diagnosis raises numerous bioethical issues for individuals and society. Three groups of caregivers have important ethical, legal, and social obligations to individuals with autism/ASD: (1) families and advocates of individuals with autism/ASD; (2) health care and other professionals; and (3) governments. Each group may have different views of autism/ASD diagnostic criteria, screening, testing, and the effectiveness of various interventions. All see timely diagnosis as desirable, but earlier diagnosis may not be better, morally or practically. The growing practice of genetic testing in milder ASD raises ethical questions because of its uncertain scientific validity and limited clinical utility. Individuals with autism/ASD have various kinds of needs but all want acceptance and most deserve better accommodations. Governments struggle to provide a fair allocation of appropriate special education and supportive services. This article examines the evolving dimensions of the autism/ASD diagnosis, outlines certain bioethics principles related to its evaluation and management, reviews relevant laws and disability rights, and emphasizes the societal obligation to recognize neurodevelopmental variation and human neurodiversity. Future directions in the evaluation and care of autism/ASD should attempt to integrate the roles and responsibilities of all agents caring for each unique autistic individual. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Treatment for gender dysphoria in children: the new legal, ethical and clinical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm K; Mathews, Ben

    2015-02-02

    Gender dysphoria is a condition in which a child's subjectively felt identity and gender are not congruent with her or his biological sex. Because of this, the child suffers clinically significant distress or impairment in social functioning. The Family Court of Australia has recently received an increasing number of applications seeking authorisation for the provision of hormones to treat gender dysphoria in children. Some medical procedures and interventions performed on children are of such a grave nature that court authorisation must be obtained to render them lawful. These procedures are referred to as special medical procedures. Hormonal therapy for the treatment of gender dysphoria in children is provided in two stages occurring years apart. Until recently, both stages of treatment were regarded by courts as special medical treatments, meaning court authorisation had to be provided for both stages. In a significant recent development, courts have drawn a distinction between the two stages of treatment, permitting parents to consent to the first stage. In addition, it has been held that a child who is determined by a court to be Gillick competent can consent to stage 2 treatment. The new legal developments concerning treatment for gender dysphoria are of ethical, clinical and practical importance to children and their families, and to medical practitioners treating children with gender dysphoria. Medical practitioners should benefit from an understanding of the recent developments in legal principles. This will ensure that they have up-to-date information about the circumstances under which treatment may be conducted with parental consent, and those in which they must seek court authorisation.

  5. Clinical photography in dermatology: ethical and medico-legal considerations in the age of digital and smartphone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Lauren; McMeniman, Erin; Parker, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    Clinical photography has long been an important aspect in the management of dermatological pathology and has many applications in contemporary dermatology practice. With the continuous evolution of digital and smartphone technology, clinicians must maintain ethical and medico-legal standards. This article reviews how dermatology trainees are utilising this technology in their clinical practice and what procedures they follow when taking photos of patients. We review the ethical and legal considerations of clinical photography in dermatology and present a hypothetical medico-legal scenario. Dermatology registrars were surveyed on their use of personal smartphones and digital equipment for photographing patients in their clinical practice. Numerous medico-legal providers were approached to provide medico-legal advice about a hypothetical scenario. We found that the use of these technologies is prevalent among dermatology registrars and all respondents reported regular use. Clinicians should routinely obtain and document adequate patient consent in relation to clinical photography, utilise strict privacy settings on smartphones and other digital devices and ensure that the images are stored on these devices for minimal periods. Express consent documentation in the clinical file puts the clinician in a more defensible position if a complaint is made to the medical board or privacy commissioner. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  6. Patients as consumers of health care in South Africa: the ethical and legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kirsten; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2013-03-21

    South Africa currently has a pluralistic health care system with separate public and private sectors. It is, however, moving towards a socialised model with the introduction of National Health Insurance. The South African legislative environment has changed recently with the promulgation of the Consumer Protection Act and proposed amendments to the National Health Act. Patients can now be viewed as consumers from a legal perspective. This has various implications for health care systems, health care providers and the doctor-patient relationship. Calling a recipient of health care a 'consumer' as opposed to a 'patient' has distinct connotations and may result in differential behaviour. Labels reflect the ideals of the context in which they are used. Various models of the doctor-patient relationship exist and different metaphors have been used to describe it. Increasingly there are third parties involved within the doctor-patient relationship making it more difficult for the doctor to play the fiduciary role. In certain parts of the world, there has been a shift from a traditional paternalistic model to a consumerist model. The ethical implications of the commodification of health care are complex. As health care becomes a 'product' supplied by the health care 'provider', there is the risk that doctors will replace professional ethics with those of the marketplace. Health care is a universal human need and cannot be considered a mere commodity. In modern medical ethics, great emphasis is placed on the principle of respect for patient autonomy. Patients are now the ultimate decision-makers. The new Consumer Protection Act in South Africa applies to consumers and patients alike. It enforces strict liability for harm caused by goods and services. Everyone in the supply chain, including the doctor, can be held jointly and severally liable. This may lead to enormous challenges in health care delivery. Viewing patients as consumers may be detrimental to the doctor

  7. Patients as consumers of health care in South Africa: the ethical and legal implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background South Africa currently has a pluralistic health care system with separate public and private sectors. It is, however, moving towards a socialised model with the introduction of National Health Insurance. The South African legislative environment has changed recently with the promulgation of the Consumer Protection Act and proposed amendments to the National Health Act. Patients can now be viewed as consumers from a legal perspective. This has various implications for health care systems, health care providers and the doctor-patient relationship. Discussion Calling a recipient of health care a ‘consumer’ as opposed to a ‘patient’ has distinct connotations and may result in differential behaviour. Labels reflect the ideals of the context in which they are used. Various models of the doctor-patient relationship exist and different metaphors have been used to describe it. Increasingly there are third parties involved within the doctor-patient relationship making it more difficult for the doctor to play the fiduciary role. In certain parts of the world, there has been a shift from a traditional paternalistic model to a consumerist model. The ethical implications of the commodification of health care are complex. As health care becomes a ‘product’ supplied by the health care ‘provider’, there is the risk that doctors will replace professional ethics with those of the marketplace. Health care is a universal human need and cannot be considered a mere commodity. In modern medical ethics, great emphasis is placed on the principle of respect for patient autonomy. Patients are now the ultimate decision-makers. The new Consumer Protection Act in South Africa applies to consumers and patients alike. It enforces strict liability for harm caused by goods and services. Everyone in the supply chain, including the doctor, can be held jointly and severally liable. This may lead to enormous challenges in health care delivery. Summary Viewing patients as

  8. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing: Review of Ethical, Legal and Social Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar, Hazar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA from maternal blood has recently entered clinical practice in many countries, including Canada. This test can be performed early during pregnancy to detect Down syndrome and other conditions. While NIPT promises numerous benefits, it also has challenging ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI. This paper reviews concerns currently found in the literature on the ELSI of NIPT. We make four observations. First, NIPT seems to exacerbate some of the already existing concerns raised by other prenatal tests (amniocentesis and maternal serum screening such as threats to women’s reproductive autonomy and the potential for discrimination and stigmatization of disabled individuals and their families. This may be due to the likely upcoming large scale implementation and routinization of NIPT. Second, the distinction between NIPT as a screening test (as it is currently recommended and as a diagnostic test (potentially in the future, has certain implications for the ELSI discussion. Third, we observed a progressive shift in the literature from initially including mostly conceptual analysis to an increasing number of empirical studies. This demonstrates the contribution of empirical bioethics approaches as the technology is being implemented into clinical use. Finally, we noted an increasing interest in equity and justice concerns regarding access to NIPT as it becomes more widely implemented.

  10. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: historical, ethical, and legal issues associated with prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Beth; Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai Chandran; Benghiac, Ana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of many drugs are unknown. Established risks are communicated to patients who participate in clinical trials during the informed consent process. However, unknown and unanticipated side effects of medications may occur years after treatment. Patients with metastatic bone cancer experience an imbalance between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Increased cytokine release, osteoclastic activity, and uncoupled osteoblastic activity lead to weakened bone structure and osteolytic lesions. The bisphosphonates are a class of drugs available in IV and oral formulations to treat and prevent bone loss and decrease the risk of skeletal-related events. Intravenous bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate disodium are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of bone pain and hypercalcemia of malignancy and the prevention of painful bone fractures in patients with metastatic bone cancer. Oral bisphosphonates such as alendronate, risedronate, and etidronate are used to reduce the risk of skeletal fractures in patients with osteoporosis and in breast cancer. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare but painful complication of treatment characterized by infection, exposed bone, and poor wound healing. In this article, we discuss BRONJ and identify past, present, and future ethical and legal issues surrounding bisphosphonate administration.

  11. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Legal and ethical aspects of deliberate G-induced loss of consciousness experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euretig, J G

    1991-07-01

    Informed consent is both a legal and accepted ethical prerequisite to nontherapeutic human experimentation. The informed consent obtained from the subject in G-LOC experimentation is in the same form as the risk disclosures used in high-G acceleration experiments. However, in high acceleration protocols G-LOC is a potential risk while in G-LOC experiments it is the result. The case law embodies three modern evidentiary standards (the "professional," "material fact," and "possible risks" tests) employed by common law courts when deciding whether the risk disclosures are sufficient to elicit the informed consent of the subject. Each standard is applied against the disclosures in the G-LOC protocol to determine if the elements of the requirement are met. The risk disclosures are wanting in specific identification under the three tests. The deficiency is the failure to inform the subject that G-LOC may result in a pathologic state of unconsciousness about which little is known. Without complete disclosure of this lacking state of medical knowledge, it is questionable whether informed consent can be given. If subjected to judicial scrutiny, the disclosures stated in the G-LOC protocol used in government sponsored research will probably be found deficient.

  13. The legal and ethical concerns that arise from using complex predictive analytics in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn; Amarasingham, Ruben; Shah, Anand; Xie, Bin; Lo, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Predictive analytics, or the use of electronic algorithms to forecast future events in real time, makes it possible to harness the power of big data to improve the health of patients and lower the cost of health care. However, this opportunity raises policy, ethical, and legal challenges. In this article we analyze the major challenges to implementing predictive analytics in health care settings and make broad recommendations for overcoming challenges raised in the four phases of the life cycle of a predictive analytics model: acquiring data to build the model, building and validating it, testing it in real-world settings, and disseminating and using it more broadly. For instance, we recommend that model developers implement governance structures that include patients and other stakeholders starting in the earliest phases of development. In addition, developers should be allowed to use already collected patient data without explicit consent, provided that they comply with federal regulations regarding research on human subjects and the privacy of health information. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Illicit drugs, testing, prevention and work in France: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Bossu, Bernard; Morgenroth, Thomas; Frimat, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The use of illicit drugs in the workplace raises issues pertaining to prevention and safety and the responsibility of the various members of staff. It also brings into question the interface between work and private life. If employees are in theory responsible for their own safety and risk heavy penalties in the event of the consumption of illicit drugs in the workplace, such behaviour has to be proved. In reality, the worker can only be partially and marginally held liable, given the fact that the employer is prohibited from infringing on their rights and liberties (restrictions on the searching of their personal belongings and lockers as well as on the carrying out of breath testing and saliva testing under restrictive conditions). Employers have for their part a broader range of responsibilities and, above all, an absolute obligation to achieve specific goals in terms of health and safety resulting in the need to take action. In accordance with the International Labour Organization recommendations, European and national legislation, the employer has to implement a suitable preventive policy. However, where is the balance between prevention and repression? Very few studies have raised these issues and our aim is to precisely situate the place of drug testing in the employer's repressive arsenal in France and to try to answer the legal and ethical issues raised. Thus, for example, repression can only be acceptable when it deals with moderate and non-addicted users, or it could be tantamount to discrimination.

  15. 'Biologizing' Psychopathy: Ethical, Legal, and Research Implications at the Interface of Epigenetics and Chronic Antisocial Conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamatea, Armon J

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics, a field that links genetics and environmental influences on the expression of phenotypic traits, offers to increase our understanding of the development and trajectory of disease and psychological disorders beyond that thought of traditional genetic research and behavioural measures. By extension, this new perspective has implications for risk and risk management of antisocial behaviour where there is a biological component, such as psychopathy. Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with repeat displays of antisocial behaviour, and is associated with the disproportionate imposition of harm on communities. Despite advances in our knowledge of psychopathic individuals, the construct remains complex and is hampered by a lack of integration across a range of fundamental domains. The clinical and forensic research on psychopathy is brought into conversation with the emerging field of epigenetics to highlight critical issues of (1) clinical definition and diagnosis, (2) assessment, (3) aetiology of psychopathic phenotypes, and (4) treatment and rehabilitation approaches. Broader ethical and legal questions of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the management of psychopathy beyond the criminal justice arena are also outlined. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Open disclosure: ethical, professional and legal obligations, and the way forward for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Angus J F; Stewart, Cameron L; Parker, Malcolm

    2013-05-06

    Open disclosure (OD) after adverse health care events is the subject of a national standard that has been implemented in state health policy documents, and is included in the Medical Board of Australia's code of conduct for doctors. Nevertheless, doctors have been slow to embrace the practice of OD. There is a strong ethical case for implementing OD in the primary interests of patients, and additionally from a medicolegal risk management point of view. There are no statutory requirements in relation to OD, but common law judgments have imposed a duty of OD in tort and contract. There are a number of barriers to the better uptake and implementation of OD, including perceptions of legal risk, lack of education and training, reluctance to admit error, uncertainty concerning what and how much to disclose, and the variations in state and territory "apology laws". The implementation of OD could be improved by making apology laws consistent across jurisdictions, including providing "blanket" cover for admissions of fault; by preventing insurers voiding contracts when apologies are made, either through self-regulation or legislation; and by inserting OD obligations into different structures within the health system.

  17. Ethical and legal issues regarding the action and knowledge of orthodontists before civil liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíza Valéria de Abreu Maia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ethical and legal conducts of orthodontists regarding the professional/patient relationship, documentation used and degree of knowledge on the professional liability during the exercise of their specialty. This study sought to assess whether the time since graduation of the dentist as an expert interfered with their knowledge degree about the dental professional liability. The object population of the present study consisted of 56 dental surgeons, specialized in orthodontics, from the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The research was carried out using a survey addressed to these professionals, and descriptive statistics of the data. Chi-square test was used to check independence between factors and comparisons of proportions.  100% interviewed professionals request orthodontic documentation prior to the start of treatment; 71.5% request final documentation; 91% professionals affirmed they file this documentation; however, only 21.4% keep records for over 20 years; and most professionals (86% use some sort of contract at the start of treatment, and a small percentage (30.4% regard the liability of orthodontists as objective. It can be concluded that the interviewed professionals should acquire a higher level of knowledge regarding the professional liability and current legislation involving dental surgeons.

  18. Legal and Ethical Implications of Using Social Media in Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Now more than ever we live in a society saturated with technology and media.  We are captured by the technology whirlwind such as the internet, instant messages, emails, and social media such as Twitter and Facebook.  Technologies not only are changing the way people live, work, and interact with each other but also the way companies conduct their businesses.  Social media no doubt is one of such technologies that enables companies to market their products and services in new and unique dimensions.  Beyond marketing, social media is also changing the way human resource professionals recruit and select employees.   Recruiting and selecting potential new employees using social media, is gaining popularity.  There are even software programs that capitalize on the information available on social media sites to assist human resources professionals to source, screen, and track job applicants.  Although there are many advantages in using social media networks to assist HR to select and filter job candidates, there are reasons for concerns.  In this paper, we’ll examine the legal and ethical consequences of using social media in the area of human resource management.   Keywords: Social Media, Facebook, Human Resources, Management.

  19. Ethical, legal and clinical aspects of live surgery in urology - contemporary issues and a glimpse of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumpanas, Alin Adrian; Ferician, Ovidiu Catalin; Latcu, Silviu Constantin; Pricop, Catalin; Bardan, Razvan Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Beside dry and wet lab training, simulators, video tapes, fellowships and clinical visits, live surgery has gained popularity during the last years, being an attraction point at large scientific meetings and at postgraduate courses as well. This type of surgical training raises both ethical and legal issues. Thus, there are professional societies that have banned such meetings, mainly due to safety reasons for the patient. The current article aims to identify and to discuss ethical and legal issues related to the topic, advantages, disadvantages and weak points of this emerging challenge for modern medicine, trying to analyze the issues from all relevant points of view: those of the patient, the surgeon and the session attendant.

  20. Strategies for Acing the Fundamentals and Mitigating Legal and Ethical Consequences of Poor Physician-Patient Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueck, MaryKatherine; Salib, Angelique M

    2017-03-01

    This article explores how the absence of effective verbal and nonverbal communication in the physician-patient encounter can lead to poor outcomes for patients and physicians alike. The article discusses legal and ethical topics physicians should consider during a medical encounter and provides educational and practical suggestions for improving effective communication between physicians and their patients. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Moral, Ethical and Legal Considerations with the Use of Drugs for Performance Maintenance in the Canadian Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    drugs . Most controlled drugs with performance maintenance characteristics would fall under schedule 3 of the Act. CF members’ consumption of performance...21 - 4 RTO-MP-HFM-181 Disorder (ADHD) to increase attention. Caffeine itself is the world’s most widely used psychoactive drug and by far the...RTO-MP-HFM-181 21 - 1 Moral, Ethical and Legal Considerations with the Use of Drugs for Performance Maintenance in the Canadian Forces

  2. Planning an accessible expo 2020 within Dubai’s 5 star hotel industry from legal and ethical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the accessibility laws currently in effect in the United Arab Emirates and, specifically, Dubai. Further, it recommends methods of integrating accessible hospitality and tourism in Dubai with core legal and ethical direction in preparation for EXPO 2020. Design/methodology/approach – Review of current legislation and analysis of interpretation by industry providers was used to illustrate the impact on the current accessibility environment in Dubai and to recommend a revised regulatory scheme. Findings – The paper explains how legal and ethical issues have influenced the planning and building of 5 star hotels in Dubai, and offers recommendations for amendments and additions to the region’s current laws that address needs of people with disabilities (PwD. Originality/value – Little research has been conducted in the region concerning the rights and needs of PwD. The paper significantly contributes by demonstrating how an ethical and legal framework will address the needs of PwD thereby aiding in Dubai’s successful hosting of EXPO 2020. This contribution is notably opportune in view of the anticipated changes in applicable legislation.

  3. Ethical and legal issues involved in the pro-active collection of personal information with the aim of reducing online disclosure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available aims to highlight some of the major ethical and legal issues when pro-actively collecting personal information, through a South African case study, to assist in reducing the amounts of personal information being disclosed online....

  4. From Needs to Rights : A Socio-Legal Account of Bridging Moral and Legal Universalism via Ethical Pluralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The question of the universality of human rights has much in common with the question of the universality of ethics. In the form of a multidisciplinary reflexive survey, the aim of this article is to show how human rights discourses derive from more basic principles related to basic needs. These

  5. The ethical and medico-legal issues of trauma care | Hardcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ethical issues confront trauma clinicians on a daily basis. This article highlights the similarities of trauma ethical dilemmas to those faced by other emergency care providers and takes the reader through the inpatient aspects of trauma care.

  6. Ethical and legal questions as regards filling out dental clinical charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarãe de Abreu

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate imperfections in filling out dental clinical history charts of patients attended at the “Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros – Unimontes”, in 2005, from the ethical and legal aspects. Method: Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson’s correlation, Chi-Square test (p<0.05 with Bonferroni correction in a contingency table (p<0.003 tests were performed, and Anova – Tukey (p<0.05 were calculate using SPSS software. This study was conducted using 881 clinical history charts of 19 subjects. Results: The highest percentage of charts concerned Stomatology (12% and 8 th period of the course (25%. The majority (63.3% of chartshad fields left blank and in 68% the handwriting was illegible. Unjustifiable erasures were found in 74.7% of charts. The majority of charts (98% were filled out in ink. The treatment plan was signed by course tutor in 83% of the cases. The term of consent was signed in the 94.9 % of the charts. As regards mistakes, 5.1% of documents had one error; 42% two errors; 23.5% three or more errors (average 1.89(± 0.9; percentile 25%=1; 50%=2 and 75%=2. The difference in the proportion of errors as regards filling out all fields differed statistically among the periods (p<0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that an alarming number of documents were filled out incorrectly. The worst filling out performance was shown in the 5th, 6th and 7th periods (p<0.05.

  7. Linked health data for pharmacovigilance in children: perceived legal and ethical issues for stakeholders and data guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Yvonne Marina; Bond, Christine B; Francis, Jill J; Haughney, John; Helms, Peter J

    2014-02-12

    The inclusion of the Community Health Index in the recording of National Health Service (NHS) contacts in Scotland facilitates national linkage of data such as prescribing and healthcare utilisation. This linkage could be the basis for identification of adverse drug reactions. The aim of this article is to report the views of healthcare professionals on data sharing, ownership and the legal and other applicable frameworks relevant to linkage of routinely collected paediatric healthcare data. Qualitative study using semistructured face-to-face interviews addressing the study aims. Purposive sample of professional stakeholders (n=25) including experts on ethics, data protection, pharmacovigilance, data linkage, legal issues and prescribing. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed using a framework approach. Participants identified existing data sharing systems in the UK. Access to healthcare data should be approved by the data owners. The definition of data ownership and associated legal responsibilities for linked healthcare data were seen as important factors to ensure accountability for the use of linked data. Yet data owners were seen as facilitators of the proposed data linkage. Twelve frameworks (legal, regulatory and governance) applicable to the linkage of healthcare data were identified. A large number of potentially relevant legal and regulatory frameworks were identified. Ownership of the linked data was seen as an extension of responsibility for, or guardianship of, the source datasets. The consensus emerging from the present study was that clarity is required on the definition of data sharing, data ownership and responsibilities of data owners.

  8. Resource allocation on the frontlines of public health preparedness and response: report of a summit on legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Daniel J; Taylor, Holly A; Hodge, James G; Links, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    In the face of all-hazards preparedness challenges, local and state health department personnel have to date lacked a discrete set of legally and ethically informed public health principles to guide the distribution of scarce resources in crisis settings. To help address this gap, we convened a Summit of academic and practice experts to develop a set of principles for legally and ethically sound public health resource triage decision-making in emergencies. The invitation-only Summit, held in Washington, D.C., on June 29, 2006, assembled 20 experts from a combination of academic institutions and nonacademic leadership, policy, and practice settings. The Summit featured a tabletop exercise designed to highlight resource scarcity challenges in a public health infectious disease emergency. This exercise served as a springboard for Summit participants' subsequent identification of 10 public health emergency resource allocation principles through an iterative process. The final product of the Summit was a set of 10 principles to guide allocation decisions involving scarce resources in public health emergencies. The principles are grouped into three categories: obligations to community; balancing personal autonomy and community well-being/benefit; and good preparedness practice. The 10 Summit-derived principles represent an attempt to link law, ethics, and real-world public health emergency resource allocation practices, and can serve as a useful starting framework to guide further systematic approaches and future research on addressing public health resource scarcity in an all-hazards context.

  9. The Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Field of Genomics Research: The Influence of Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Kathleen; Palmour, Nicole; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption. Our analysis highlights the tendency among genomics researchers to gradually adopt cloud technology. Efforts made by cloud service providers to promote cloud computing adoption are confronted by researchers' perpetual cost and security concerns, along with a lack of familiarity with the technology. Further underlying those fears are researchers' legal responsibility with respect to the data that is stored on the cloud. Alternative consent mechanisms aimed at increasing patients' control over the use of their data also provide a means to circumvent various institutional and jurisdictional hurdles that restrict access by creating siloed databases. However, the risk of creating new, cloud-based silos may run counter to the goal in genomics research to increase data sharing on a global scale.

  10. The Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Field of Genomics Research: The Influence of Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Charlebois

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1 Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2 Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3 Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4 Maintaining trust and 5 Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption. Our analysis highlights the tendency among genomics researchers to gradually adopt cloud technology. Efforts made by cloud service providers to promote cloud computing adoption are confronted by researchers' perpetual cost and security concerns, along with a lack of familiarity with the technology. Further underlying those fears are researchers' legal responsibility with respect to the data that is stored on the cloud. Alternative consent mechanisms aimed at increasing patients' control over the use of their data also provide a means to circumvent various institutional and jurisdictional hurdles that restrict access by creating siloed databases. However, the risk of creating new, cloud-based silos may run counter to the goal in genomics research to increase data sharing on a global scale.

  11. The Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Field of Genomics Research: The Influence of Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Kathleen; Palmour, Nicole; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the influence of the ethical and legal issues on cloud computing adoption in the field of genomics research. To do so, we adapted Diffusion of Innovation (DoI) theory to enable understanding of how key stakeholders manage the various ethical and legal issues they encounter when adopting cloud computing. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with genomics researchers, patient advocates and cloud service providers. Thematic analysis generated five major themes: 1) Getting comfortable with cloud computing; 2) Weighing the advantages and the risks of cloud computing; 3) Reconciling cloud computing with data privacy; 4) Maintaining trust and 5) Anticipating the cloud by creating the conditions for cloud adoption. Our analysis highlights the tendency among genomics researchers to gradually adopt cloud technology. Efforts made by cloud service providers to promote cloud computing adoption are confronted by researchers’ perpetual cost and security concerns, along with a lack of familiarity with the technology. Further underlying those fears are researchers’ legal responsibility with respect to the data that is stored on the cloud. Alternative consent mechanisms aimed at increasing patients’ control over the use of their data also provide a means to circumvent various institutional and jurisdictional hurdles that restrict access by creating siloed databases. However, the risk of creating new, cloud-based silos may run counter to the goal in genomics research to increase data sharing on a global scale. PMID:27755563

  12. Legal, Social, Ethical, and Medical Perspectives on the Care of the Statutory Rape Adolescent in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shiu-Lin; Acosta, Elvira; Cardenas, Toni; Sigall, Jeremy K; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Rapes involving adolescents who present to the emergency department (ED) are fraught with ethical and legal complexities and are often emotionally turbulent for patients, their families, and medical providers. Management requires a thoughtful approach from multiple standpoints, including legal, psychosocial, ethical, and medical ones. However, there is no standardized sexual assault education for emergency medicine residents, and management practices vary widely. 1,2 We present a hypothetical statutory rape case based on real cases that occurred in New York City and bring together the perspectives of an attorney on the legal parameters, two social workers on the psychosocial issues, an ethicist on the moral considerations, and a pediatric emergency physician-who is also a sexual assault forensic examiner-on the medical treatments. We aim to provide a framework for physicians to navigate issues of patient-physician privilege involving minors, privacy rules, and mandatory reporting laws. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethical, legal and societal considerations on Zika virus epidemics complications in scaling-up prevention and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Chengho, Chryseis F; Khater, Emad I M

    2017-08-25

    Much of the fear and uncertainty around Zika epidemics stem from potential association between Zika virus (ZIKV) complications on infected pregnant women and risk of their babies being born with microcephaly and other neurological abnormalities. However, much remains unknown about its mode of transmission, diagnosis and long-term pathogenesis. Worries of these unknowns necessitate the need for effective and efficient psychosocial programs and medical-legal strategies to alleviate and mitigate ZIKV related burdens. In this light, local and global efforts in maintaining fundamental health principles of moral, medical and legal decision-making policies, and interventions to preserve and promote individual and collectiveHuman Rights, autonomy, protection of the most vulnerable, equity, dignity, integrity and beneficence that should not be confused and relegated by compassionate humanitarian assistance and support. This paper explores the potential medical and ethical-legal implications of ZIKV epidemics emergency response packages and strategies alongside optimizing reproductive and mental health policies, programs and best practice measures. Further long-term cross-borders operational research is required in elucidating Zika-related population-based epidemiology, ethical-medical and societal implications in guiding evidence-based local and global ZIKV maternal-child health complications related approaches and interventions. Core programs and interventions including future Zika safe and effective vaccines for global Zika immunization program in most vulnerable and affected countries and worldwide should be prioritized.

  14. Energy transition. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites

  15. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Justin

    in space. The United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967 -the primary document governing how nations act in outer space -is now hopelessly out-of-date. There is no mention in the treaty of cultural heritage (the UNESCO convention that concerns international protection of cultural heritage on Earth was not completed until 1970), nor was there any recognition of the role private groups and individuals might play in space exploration. This paper will outline key legal and ethical issues related to cultural heritage management and protection. It will also suggest some ways in which culturally significant sites in space can be protected for future study and even touristic appreciation.

  16. Personal genome testing: Test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssens A Cecile JW

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI surrounding genetic testing, which must evolve to encompass these differences. One important development is the rise of personal genome testing on the basis of genetic profiling: the testing of multiple genetic variants simultaneously for the prediction of common multifactorial diseases. Currently, an increasing number of companies are offering personal genome tests directly to consumers and are spurring ELSI-discussions, which stand in need of clarification. This paper presents a systematic approach to the ELSI-evaluation of personal genome testing for multifactorial diseases along the lines of its test characteristics. Discussion This paper addresses four test characteristics of personal genome testing: its being a non-targeted type of testing, its high analytical validity, low clinical validity and problematic clinical utility. These characteristics raise their own specific ELSI, for example: non-targeted genetic profiling poses serious problems for information provision and informed consent. Questions about the quantity and quality of the necessary information, as well as about moral responsibilities with regard to the provision of information are therefore becoming central themes within ELSI-discussions of personal genome testing. Further, the current low level of clinical validity of genetic profiles raises questions concerning societal risks and regulatory requirements, whereas simultaneously it causes traditional ELSI-issues of clinical genetics, such as psychological and health risks, discrimination, and stigmatization, to lose part of their relevance. Also, classic notions of clinical utility are challenged by the

  17. Including People with Dementia in Research: An Analysis of Australian Ethical and Legal Rules and Recommendations for Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Nola M; Thompson, Katie A; Lowe, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules. We contend that this legislative variation precludes a consistent approach to research governance and participation and hinders research that seeks to include people with impaired capacity. In this paper, we present key ethical principles, provide a comprehensive review of applicable legal rules in Australian states and territories, and highlight significant differences and ambiguities. Our analysis includes recommendations for reform to improve clarity and consistency in the law and reduce barriers that may exclude persons with dementia from participating in ethically approved research. Our recommendations seek to advance the national decision-making principles recommended by the Australian Law Reform Commission, which emphasize the rights of all adults to make their own decisions and for those with impaired capacity to have access to appropriate supports to help them make decisions that affect their lives.

  18. E-lectra: A Bibliography for the Study and Practice of Legal, Court and Official Translation and Interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Monzó Nebot, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Scientific development presupposes the efficient communication of new findings. The increase in the number of academic journals and publications worldwide burdens schol- ars, also translation scholars, with the responsibility of keeping up to date with ever increasingly scattered relevant literature. On the other hand, legal translation profession- als need to select and find specialised documentation and reference material, which the market addresses not to translators or interpreters but to...

  19. Sexual exploitation and trafficking of the young and vulnerable: reflections on a legal, ethical, and human rights disgrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Abigail

    2011-08-01

    Sexual exploitation and trafficking of the young and vulnerable has devastating consequences for their physical and emotional development, health, and well-being. The horrific treatment they suffer bears the hallmarks of evil made manifest. Governments have enacted laws pursuant to international treaties, conventions, and protocols. Nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are working to prevent young people from being exploited and trafficked, to identify victims, and to provide services to survivors. Progress in addressing the problem is haltingly slow in relation to its magnitude. The prevalence and persistence of this phenomenon is an ethical, legal, and human rights disgrace.

  20. Telemedicine a need for ethical and legal guidelines in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and one international association have developed ethical guidelines. Several medical disciplines have established national guide-lines for their speciality. Common ethical issues identified include the doctor-patient relationship, informed consent, confidentiality, data security, adequacy of records, data standards and quality ...

  1. Students Who Self-Injure: School Counselor Ethical and Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Kress, Victoria E.; Costin, Amanda; Drouhard, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This article explores ethical considerations that school counselors may need to address when providing counseling services to self-injurious students. Ethical issues related to student confidentiality, responsibilities to parents and to the school, and professional competence are discussed in relation to the American School Counselor Association's…

  2. Withdrawal of ventilation at the patient's request in MND: a retrospective exploration of the ethical and legal issues that have arisen for doctors in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Kay; Regen, Emma; Oliver, David; McDermott, Chris; Faull, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Ventilatory support has benefits including prolonging survival for respiratory failure in motor neurone disease (MND). At some point some patients may wish to stop the intervention. The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends research is needed on ventilation withdrawal. There is little literature focusing on the issues doctors encounter when withdrawing ventilation at the request of a patient. To identify and explore with doctors the ethical and legal issues that they had encountered in the withdrawal of ventilation at the request of a patient with MND. A retrospective thematic analysis of interviews of 24 doctors (including palliative care, respiratory, neurology and general practice) regarding their experiences with withdrawal of ventilation support from patients with MND. Respondents found withdrawal of ventilation at the request of patients with MND to pose legal, ethical and moral challenges in five themes: ethical and legal rights to withdrawal from treatment; discussions with family; discussions with colleagues; experiences of legal advice; issues contributing to ethical complexity. Though clear about the legality of withdrawal of treatment in theory, the practice led to ethical and moral uncertainty and mixed feelings. Many respondents had experienced negative reactions from other healthcare professionals when these colleagues were unclear of the distinction between palliation of symptoms, withdrawal of treatment and assisted death. Legal, ethical and practical guidance is needed for professionals who support a patient with MND who wishes to withdraw from ventilation. Open discussion of the ethical challenges is needed as well as education and support for professionals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Meta-Ethics and Legal Theory : The Case of Gustav Radbruch

    OpenAIRE

    Spaak, Torben

    2009-01-01

    The received view among legal theorists has been that Gustav Radbruch’s post-war standpoint was that law and morality are conceptually connected, and that therefore laws that are intolerably unjust are flawed law and must yield to justice; whereas Radbruch’s pre-war stance had been that of a legal positivist and a moral relativist. But recently Stanley Paulson has challenged the received view, arguing that Radbruch really wasn’t a legal positivist before the war, and that Radbruch’s pre-war a...

  4. Telemedicine a need for ethical and legal guidelines in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common ethical issues identified include the doctor-patient relationship, informed consent, ... access to quality health care in rural areas by providing access to specialists ..... commercial communication software like Microsoft Outlook®, which.

  5. Brain death in the pediatric patient: historical, sociological, medical, religious, cultural, legal, and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M M; Levin, D L

    1993-12-01

    transplanted liver, a reversed coagulation system, a blocked immune system, and a paralyzed musculoskeletal system. A human being is a man, woman, or child who is a composite of two intricately related but conceptually distinguishable components: the biological entity and the person. Therefore, human beings can suffer more than one death: a biological death and decay, and another death. Biological death is a cessation of processes of biological synthesis and replication, and is an irreversible loss of integration of the biological units. The reasons for having criteria for death are to diagnose death and pronounce a person dead. Society can then begin to engage in grief, religious rites, funerals, and burials, and accept biological death. Wills can be read, property distributed, insurance claimed, individuals can remarry, succession can take place, and legal proceedings can begin. Also, organ donation can take place, which entails difficult ethical decisions. The Harvard criteria of 1968 were devised to set forth brain-death criteria with whole brain death in mind. Currently, there are several controversies regarding these criteria: a) whether they apply to infants and children; b) whether ancillary tests are necessary; c) what the intervals of observation and testing are; and d) are there exceptions to the whole brain death criteria. Concerning the use of the adult criteria for infants and children, most researchers now agree that the adult criteria apply to infants and children who are full term and > 7 days of age. Concerning ancillary tests, there has been, in our machine- and technology-oriented profession, a great deal of emphasis on the different tests and their ability to fulfill the criteria of whole brain death. However, clinical examination and the apnea test are usually sufficient to fulfill the criteria. Ancillary tests may be desired in some cases, and a variety of these tests is available. (ABSTRACT TR

  6. Breakdowns in communication of radiological findings: an ethical and medico-legal conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Leonard; Murphy, Daniel R.; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-01-01

    Communication problems in diagnostic testing have increased in both number and importance in recent years. The medical and legal impact of failure of communication is dramatic. Over the past decades, the courts have expanded and strengthened the duty imposed on radiologists to timely communicate radiologic abnormalities to referring physicians and perhaps the patients themselves in certain situations. The need to communicate these findings goes beyond strict legal requirements: there is a mor...

  7. The use of pornographic materials by adolescent male cancer patients when banking sperm in the UK: legal and ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A

    2007-09-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined.

  8. The legal and ethical aspects of the right to health of migrants in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Sultan, Géraldine; Kurt, Stefanie; Leyvraz, Didier; Sprumont, Dominique

    The right to health of migrant populations, whether they are foreign nationals, foreign workers, tourists, asylum seekers or refugees, is enshrined in international human rights treaties. The effectiveness of the implementation of this fundamental right thus lies in national legal frameworks. In spite of its long humanitarian tradition, Switzerland has a strict migration policy, and while it has established a non-discriminatory legal framework for the protection and promotion of the right to health, its laws and regulations sometimes codify differences in treatment between foreign nationals and Swiss residents based on distinct situations. On the basis of shared responsibilities between the Federal State and the 26 cantons, this article describes the Swiss legal and regulatory approach to the right to health, the ways it is currently implemented and the possible vectors for an improved integration of migrants into the health system.

  9. La huelga de hambre en el ámbito penitenciario: aspectos éticos, deontológicos y legales Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Guerrero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La huelga de hambre es una forma de reivindicación frecuente en prisiones y puede llegar a ocasionar multitud de problemas de todo tipo, tanto a la Administración penitenciaria como a los médicos encargados de la asistencia a los presos que la hacen. Asuntos como el conflicto de derechos y obligaciones en juego, así como la forma de tratarla en personas que están sujetas a la Administración, que en este caso adopta una posición de garante, han generado no poca polémica doctrinal. La objeción de conciencia y el conflicto de doble fidelidad de los médicos que trabajan en las prisiones son también asuntos muy ligados a una huelga de hambre penitenciaria. En este trabajo se revisará la solución que se da al problema del tratamiento de la huelga de hambre penitenciaria desde tres perspectivas: ética, deontológica y legal.Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  10. Telemedicine a need for ethical and legal guidelines in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    access to quality health care in rural areas by providing access to specialists, preventing ... regulatory and ethical framework procedures”. The resulting ... medical journals, the Telemedicine Information Exchange (TIE) website was searched .... all established standards of security measures have been followed to protect the ...

  11. Surrender - A Soldier’s Legal, Ethical, and Moral Obligations; with Philippine Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-02

    69 - this view. Contemporary philosophers John Rawles , Alan Gerwirth, and Henry Shue, among others, express the conviction that each person can claim a...34 Machiavelli , Management, and Moral Leadership," in Military Ethics, edited by Wakin, Wenker, and Kempf, p.38. 48 Ibid., pp. 41 and 44. 49 Morris Janowitz

  12. Calculated Risk Taking in the Treatment of Suicidal Patients: Ethical and Legal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsberger, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses discharge of suicidal patients from inpatient care from both economic and ethical perspectives. Suggests that clinicians must exercise prudence in discharging patients unlikely to recover, considering duty to preserve life. Encourages discharge when benefits outweigh risks, with careful preparation of patient and family and meticulous…

  13. Group Counseling in the Schools: Legal, Ethical, and Treatment Issues in School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Tony D.

    2009-01-01

    School psychologists are interested in providing effective and efficient direct services to children. With a wide spectrum of psychological problems impacting children, group counseling represents one viable and valuable intervention. Given the complexity of group counseling, many schools and school psychologists are interested in legal and…

  14. Legal and Ethical Implications of Working with Minors in Alabama: Consent and Confidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Michael A.; Cobia, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, there has been little guidance in the professional literature with respect to counseling minors outside of the school setting. Although most authors suggest referring to state statutes for legal limits of counseling practice, little research exists describing these requirements in Alabama. The purpose of this literature and…

  15. Health-related biotechnologies for infectious disease control in Africa: Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of transfer and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, J; Oduola, A M J

    2007-01-01

    The African continent is disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. Malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and more "neglected" diseases including African trypanosomiasis, Buruli ulcer, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma continue to dramatically impact social and economic development on the continent. Health biotechnologies provide potential to develop effective strategies for the fight against the vicious circle of poverty and infections by helping in the development and improvement of novel affordable drugs, diagnostics and vaccines against these diseases. As the prospects of this emerging biotechnology research and deployment of its products become a reality in Africa, there is a need to consider the ethical, legal and social implications of both the scientific and technological advances and their use in the communities. The article provides a short overview of the potential values of biotechnology, issues involved in its transfer and presents the rationale, design and recommendations of the international workshop/symposium held in April 2005 at the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  16. When is it permissible to dismiss a family who refuses vaccines? Legal, ethical and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Beth; Melnychuk, Ryan; Downie, Jocelyn; Macdonald, Noni

    2007-12-01

    Although immunization is one of the most important health interventions of the 20th century, cases of infectious disease continue to occur. There are parents who refuse immunization for their children, creating a dilemma for the primary care physician who must consider the best interest of the individual child as well as that of the community. Some physicians, when faced with parents who refuse immunization on behalf of their children, choose to dismiss these families from their practice. Given the existing shortage of primary care physicians across Canada, this decision to dismiss families based on vaccine refusal has far-reaching implications. The present article explores this issue in the Canadian context from a legal, ethical and public health perspective.

  17. [Analysis of barriers and legal-ethical opportunities for disclosure and apology for medical errors in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Priscila; Corbella, Josep; Rodrigo, Carmen; Comas, Mercè; Sala, Maria; Castells, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To identify opportunities for disclosing information on medical errors in Spain and issuing an apology, as well as legal-ethical barriers. A cross-sectional study was conducted through a questionnaire sent to health law and bioethics experts (n=46). A total of 39 experts (84.7%) responded that health providers should always disclose adverse events and 38 experts (82.6%) were in favour of issuing an apology. Thirty experts (65.2%) reported that disclosure of errors would not lead to professional liability. The main opportunity for increasing disclosure was by enhancing trust in the physician-patient relationship and the main barrier was fear of the outcomes of disclosing medical errors. There is a broad agreement on the lack of liability following disclosure/apology on adverse events and the need to develop a strategy for disclosure among support for physicians. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Enrolling HIV-positive adolescents in mental health research: A case study reflecting on legal and ethical complexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Woollett

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents living with HIV are an emerging group in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Mental health in this population affects HIV care, treatment, consequential morbidity and secondary transmission. There is a paucity of research regarding these youth in South Africa (SA, partly because section 71 of the National Health Act of 2003 (NHA requires parental or guardian’s consent. Objective. To explore legal and ethical issues related to conducting adolescent mental health research in SA. Methods. After obtaining a High Court order permitting research on minors aged <18 years without prior parental or guardian’s consent, we used qualitative and quantitative methods to interview adolescents in five clinics serving HIV-positive adolescents in Johannesburg. Results. Our study enrolled 343 participants; 74% were orphaned and did not have legal guardians, 27% were symptomatic for depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder, 24% were suicidal, and almost 90% did not feel that they belonged in the family with which they lived. Without court intervention, most of the participants could not have participated in this research because parental consent was impossible to obtain. This case study argues for exceptions to the parental consent requirement, which excludes orphaned and vulnerable children and youth from research. Conclusions. Recommendations are made to promote ethical integrity in conducting mental health research with adolescents. A balance is needed between protecting adolescents from exploitation and permitting access to benefits of research. Requiring parental consent for all research does not necessarily give effect to policy. For the vast majority of SA HIV-positive adolescents, parental consent is not possible. Section 71 of the NHA ought to be amended to facilitate valuable and necessary research concerning HIV-positive orphan children and adolescents.

  19. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puybasset Louis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.

  20. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

  1. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-02-08

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.

  2. Case Study of a Coffee War: Using the "Starbucks v. Charbucks" Dispute to Teach Trademark Dilution, Business Ethics, and the Strategic Value of Legal Acumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    A Harvard Business School-style teaching case can be a powerful pedagogical tool to teach law and ethics to business students because instructors can combine a traditional business case study with Socratic-style dialogue and legal analysis from a managerial perspective. This teaching note includes suggestions for several methods of using the case,…

  3. Teaching the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act to Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Undergraduate Students through a Role-Play Experiential Learning Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Konrad S.; Thue, Matthew I.

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with a description of a role-play exercise for teaching the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) to an introductory Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Law (Business Law) undergraduate class. It goes on to provide the context for consumer debt in the United States. Next, the problems of debt collection are…

  4. What Does the Right to Education Mean? A Look at an International Debate from Legal, Ethical, and Pedagogical Points of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Gonzalo

    2001-01-01

    Explores the legal, ethical, and pedagogical aspects of the right to education. Describes a study aimed at learning what the global attitudes are toward the right to an education. Discusses globalization and its effects on education and examines the impact of international caucuses such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child. (Contains 17…

  5. Current ethical and legal issues in health-related direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Emilia; Kalokairinou, Louiza; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2017-09-01

    A variety of health-related genetic testing is currently advertized directly to consumers. This article provides a timely overview of direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) and salient ethical issues, as well as an analysis of the impact of the recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices on DTC GT. DTC GT companies currently employ new testing approaches, report on a wide spectrum of conditions and target new groups of consumers. Such activities raise ethical issues including the questionable analytic and clinical validity of tests, the adequacy of informed consent, potentially misleading advertizing, testing in children, research uses and commercialization of genomic data. The recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices may limit the offers of predisposition DTC GT in the EU market.

  6. A practitioner's guide to telemental health how to conduct legal, ethical, and evidence-based telepractice

    CERN Document Server

    Luxton, David D; Maheu, Marlene M

    2016-01-01

    As telecommunication technologies and health apps become more ubiquitous and affordable, they expand opportunities for mental health professionals to provide quality care. However, physical distance as well as technology itself can create challenges to safe and ethical practice. Such challenges are manageable when following the best practices outlined in this book. Providers can use videoconference and other technologies for assessment, treatment delivery, psychoeducation, supervision, and consultation. This practical guide covers each facet of telemental health care in turn, with emphasis on:

  7. Genomics and infectious disease: a call to identify the ethical, legal and social implications for public health and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gail; Dvoskin, Rachel; Thio, Chloe L; Duggal, Priya; Lewis, Michelle H; Bailey, Theodore C; Sutherland, Andrea; Salmon, Daniel A; Kahn, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Advances in genomics are contributing to the development of more effective, personalized approaches to the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Genetic sequencing technologies are furthering our understanding of how human and pathogen genomic factors - and their interactions - contribute to individual differences in immunologic responses to vaccines, infections and drug therapies. Such understanding will influence future policies and procedures for infectious disease management. With the potential for tailored interventions for particular individuals, populations or subpopulations, ethical, legal and social implications (ELSIs) may arise for public health and clinical practice. Potential considerations include balancing health-related benefits and harms between individuals and the larger community, minimizing threats to individual privacy and autonomy, and ensuring just distribution of scarce resources. In this Opinion, we consider the potential application of pathogen and host genomic information to particular viral infections that have large-scale public health consequences but differ in ELSI-relevant characteristics such as ease of transmission, chronicity, severity, preventability and treatability. We argue for the importance of anticipating these ELSI issues in advance of new scientific discoveries, and call for the development of strategies for identifying and exploring ethical questions that should be considered as clinical, public health and policy decisions are made.

  8. Ethical, legal, and social issues in health technology assessment for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, B K; Avard, D; Entwistle, V; Kennedy, C; Chakraborty, P; McGuire, M; Wilson, B J

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening programs have been a focus of recent policy debates that have included attention to ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSIs). In parallel, there has been an ongoing discussion about whether and how ELSIs may be addressed in health technology assessment (HTA). We conducted a knowledge synthesis study to explore both guidance and current practice regarding the consideration of ELSIs in HTA for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening. As the concluding activity for this project, we held a Canadian workshop to discuss the issues with a diverse group of stakeholders. Based on key workshop themes integrated with our study results, we suggest that population-based genetic screening programs may present particular types of ELSIs and that a public health ethics perspective is potentially highly relevant when considering them. We also suggest that approaches to addressing ELSIs in HTA for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening may need to be flexible enough to respond to diversity in HTA organizations, cultural values, stakeholder communities, and contextual factors. Finally, we highlight a need for transparency in the way that HTA producers move from evidence to conclusions and the ways in which screening policy decisions are made. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Personalized Genomic Medicine Research: Current Literature and Suggestions for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Shawneequa L; Abudu, Rachel; Mehlman, Maxwell J; Singer, Mendel E; Neuhauser, Duncan; Caga-Anan, Charlisse; Wiesner, Georgia L

    2016-11-01

    This review identifies the prominent topics in the literature pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) raised by research investigating personalized genomic medicine (PGM). The abstracts of 953 articles extracted from scholarly databases and published during a 5-year period (2008-2012) were reviewed. A total of 299 articles met our research criteria and were organized thematically to assess the representation of ELSI issues for stakeholders, health specialties, journals, and empirical studies. ELSI analyses were published in both scientific and ethics journals. Investigational research comprised 45% of the literature reviewed (135 articles) and the remaining 55% (164 articles) comprised normative analyses. Traditional ELSI concerns dominated the discourse including discussions about disclosure of research results. In fact, there was a dramatic increase in the number of articles focused on the disclosure of research results and incidental findings to research participants. Few papers focused on particular disorders, the use of racial categories in research, international communities, or special populations (e.g., adolescents, elderly patients, or ethnic groups). Considering that strategies in personalized medicine increasingly target individuals' unique health conditions, environments, and ancestries, further analysis is needed on how ELSI scholarship can better serve the increasingly global, interdisciplinary, and diverse PGM research community. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Implementing risk-stratified screening for common cancers: a review of potential ethical, legal and social issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A E; Chowdhury, S; Hallowell, N; Pashayan, N; Dent, T; Pharoah, P; Burton, H

    2014-06-01

    The identification of common genetic variants associated with common cancers including breast, prostate and ovarian cancers would allow population stratification by genotype to effectively target screening and treatment. As scientific, clinical and economic evidence mounts there will be increasing pressure for risk-stratified screening programmes to be implemented. This paper reviews some of the main ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) raised by the introduction of genotyping into risk-stratified screening programmes, in terms of Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice. Two alternative approaches to data collection, storage, communication and consent are used to exemplify the ELSI issues that are likely to be raised. Ultimately, the provision of risk-stratified screening using genotyping raises fundamental questions about respective roles of individuals, healthcare providers and the state in organizing or mandating such programmes, and the principles, which underpin their provision, particularly the requirement for distributive justice. The scope and breadth of these issues suggest that ELSI relating to risk-stratified screening will become increasingly important for policy-makers, healthcare professionals and a wide diversity of stakeholders. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  11. [Review of the methodological, ethical, legal and social issues of research projects in healthcare with big data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2018-05-31

    The current model for reviewing research with human beings basically depends on decision-making processes within research ethics committees. These committees must be aware of the importance of the new digital paradigm based on the large-scale exploitation of datasets, including personal data on health. This article offers guidelines, with the application of the EU's General Data Protection Regulation, for the appropriate evaluation of projects that are based on the use of big data analytics in healthcare. The processes for gathering and using this data constitute a niche where current research is developed. In this context, the existing protocols for obtaining informed consent from participants are outdated, as they are based not only on the assumption that personal data are anonymized, but that they will continue to be so in the future. As a result, it is essential that research ethics committees take on new capabilities and revisit values such as privacy and freedom, updating protocols, methodologies and working procedures. This change in the work culture will provide legal security to the personnel involved in research, will make it possible to guarantee the protection of the privacy of the subjects of the data, and will permit orienting the exploitation of data to avoid the commodification of personal data in this era of deidentification, so that research meets actual social needs and not spurious or opportunistic interests disguised as research. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Just War Theory v/s Unconventional Weapon. An Analysis from Ethical Moral and Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Vijaya Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Just war theory deals withthe justification of how and why wars are fought. Thejustification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethicallyjustifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. The historical aspect, or the “just wartradition,” deals with the historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various warsacross the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions arehistorical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecutingtransgressors, but it is the role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for theirphilosophical coherence as well as to inquire into whether aspects of the conventions ought to bechanged. The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and lawyersthrough the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of war’s ethical limits (or absence ofand whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of conventions that have evolved to guidewar, especially nuclear warfare which is an unconventional weapon. The seriousness of suchprohibited weapon was a debatable issue not only in the contemporary law of armed conflict but, alsoin the ancient law of war. This paper shall try to evaluate the essence of just war theory in a newdimension interlinking it with ethics and moral value to judge the use of unconventional weapon andcondemn it as inhuman and against the theory of just war.

  13. The Future of Killing: Ethical and Legal Implications of Fully Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lark

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Warfare is moving towards full weapon autonomy. Already, there are weapons in service that replace a human at the point of engagement. The remote pilot must adhere to the law and consider the moral and ethical implications of using lethal force. Future fully autonomous weapons will be able to search for, identify and engage targets without human intervention, raising the question of who is responsible for the moral and ethical considerations of using such weapons. In the chaos of war, people are fallible, but they can apply judgement and discretion and identify subtle signals. For example, humans can identify when an enemy wants to surrender, are burying their dead, or are assisting non-combatants. An autonomous weapon may not be so discerning and may not be capable of being programmed to apply discretion, compassion, or mercy, nor can it adapt commanders’ intent or apply initiative. Before fully autonomous weapons use lethal force, it is argued that there needs to be assurances that the ethical implications are understood and that control mechanisms are in place to ensure that oversight of the system is able to prevent incidents that could amount to breaches of the laws of armed conflict.

  14. Choosing between possible lives: legal and ethical issues in preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosamund

    2006-01-01

    This article critically appraises the current legal scope of the principal applications of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This relatively new technique, which is available to some parents undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, aims to ensure that a child is not born with a seemingly undesirable genetic condition. The question addressed here is whether there should be serious reasons to test for genetic conditions in embryos in order to be able to select between them. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority and the Human Genetics Commission have decided that there should be such reasons by broadly aligning the criteria for PGD with those for selective abortion. This stance is critically explored, as are its implications for the possible use of PGD to select either against or for marginal features or for significant traits. The government is currently reviewing the legal scope and regulation of PGD.

  15. Ethical, legal and social issues in the context of the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Slabbert, Melodie; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    As the focus on the origin of modern man appears to be moving from eastern to southern Africa, it is recognised that indigenous populations in southern Africa may be the most genetically diverse on the planet and hence a valuable resource for human genetic diversity studies. In order to build regional capacity for the generation, analysis and application of genomic data, the Southern African Human Genome Programme was recently launched with the aid of seed funding from the national Department of Science and Technology in South Africa. The purpose of the article is to investigate pertinent ethical, legal and social issues that have emerged during the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme. A careful consideration of key issues such as public perception of genomic research, issues relating to genetic and genomic discrimination and stigmatisation, informed consent, privacy and data protection, and the concept of genomic sovereignty, is of paramount importance in the early stages of the Programme. This article will also consider the present legal framework governing genomic research in South Africa and will conclude with proposals regarding such a framework for the future.

  16. Geneletter: An Internet-based newsletter on the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics. Final report to the Department of Energy [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Philip; Wertz, Dorothy C.

    2001-05-01

    The GeneLetter (http://www.geneletter.org) is an Internet newsletter on ethical, legal, and social issues in genetics, designed for a wide and varied audience, some of whom may not be familiar with genetic science. It appears every two months, with a variety of long and short feature articles on ethics and on genetic disorders, a section on new federal and state legislation, an international section, a student corner, book and video reviews, a summary of genetics in the news, and a list of upcoming conferences. Feature articles have ventured into an area of wide general concern, behavioral genetics. The newsletter also has an interactive chatbox and the opportunity of more private communications with the editors via email. The purpose of the GeneLetter is to help fill a communication and knowledge gap on ethical, legal and social issues surrounding genetics.

  17. Ethical, financial, and legal considerations to implementing emergency department HIV screening: a report from the 2007 conference of the National Emergency Department HIV Testing Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Michael J; Popick, Rachel S; Merchant, Roland C; Rothman, Richard E; Shahan, Judy B; Almond, Gregory

    2011-07-01

    We seek to identify and analyze, from a group of participants experienced with HIV screening, the perceived challenges and solutions to the ethical, financial, and legal considerations of emergency department (ED)-based HIV screening. We performed a qualitative analysis of the focus group discussions from the ethical, financial, and legal considerations portion of the inaugural National Emergency Department HIV Testing Consortium conference. Four groups composed of 20 to 25 consortium participants engaged in semistructured, facilitated focus group discussions. The focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed. A primary reader identified major themes and subthemes and representative quotes from the transcripts and summarized the discussions. Secondary and tertiary readers reviewed the themes, subthemes, and summaries for accuracy. The focus group discussions centered on the following themes. Ethical considerations included appropriateness of HIV screening in the ED and ethics of key elements of the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV testing recommendations. Financial considerations included models of payment and support, role of health care insurance, financial ethics and downstream financial burdens, and advocacy approaches. Legal considerations included the adequacy of obtaining consent, partner notification, disclosure of HIV results, difficulties in addressing special populations, failure of not performing universal screening, failure to notify a person of being tested, failure to notify someone of their test results, liability of inaccurate tests, and failure to link to care. This qualitative analysis provides a broadly useful foundation to the ethical, financial, and legal considerations of implementing HIV screening programs in EDs throughout the United States. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  18. Crossing the line: the legal and ethical problems of foreign surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Natalie

    2009-08-01

    UK law has for many years taken a careful approach to surrogacy, neither banning it nor allowing it to develop unrestrictedly. This careful middle approach seeks to balance permitting what may be a last hope for infertile couples against a wider public policy that bars commercialized reproduction: surrogacy is allowed in the UK, provided it is consensual and involves the payment of no more than reasonable expenses. But in an increasingly globalized world, patients are crossing borders for treatment, often to places where such restrictions on the commerciality or enforceability of surrogacy arrangements do not apply. The resulting conflicts of law can be a minefield, and this makes the maintenance of the UK's careful legal balance increasingly untenable.

  19. Ethical, legal and social issues in restoring genetic identity after forced disappearance and suppression of identity in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    Human genetic identification has been increasingly associated with the preservation, defence and reparation of human rights, in particular the right to genetic identity. The Argentinian military dictatorship of 1976-1983 engaged in a savage repression and egregious violations of human rights, including forced disappearance, torture, assassination and appropriation of children of the disappeared with suppression of their identity. The ethical, legal and social nuances in the use of forensic genetics to support the right to identity in Argentina included issues such as the best interest of children being raised by criminals, the right to learn the truth of one's origin and identity, rights of their biological families, the issue of voluntary versus compulsory testing of victims, as well as the duty of the state to investigate crimes against humanity, punish perpetrators and provide justice and reparation to the victims. In the 30 years following the return to democracy in 1984, the search, localization and DNA testing of disappeared children and young adults has led, so far, to the genetic identification of 116 persons who had been abducted as babies. The high value placed on DNA testing to identify victims of identity suppression did not conflict with the social consensus that personal identity is a complex and dynamic concept, attained by the interaction of genetics with historical, social, emotional, educational, cultural and other important environmental factors. The use of genetic identification as a tool to redress and repair human rights violations is a novel application of human genetics within a developing set of ethical and political circumstances.

  20. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation – ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and

  1. Withholding differential risk information on legal consumer nicotine/tobacco products: The public health ethics of health information quarantines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T; Sweanor, David

    2016-06-01

    The United States provides an example of a country with (a) legal tobacco/nicotine products (e.g., snus, other smokeless tobacco, cigarettes) differing greatly in risks to health and (b) respected health information websites that continue to omit or provide incorrect differential risk information. Concern for the principles of individual rights, health literacy, and personal autonomy (making decisions for oneself), which are key principles of public health ethics, has been countered by utilitarian arguments for the use of misleading or limited information to protect public health overall. We argue that omitting key health relevant information for current or prospective consumers represents a kind of quarantine of health-relevant information. As with disease quarantines, the coercive effects of quarantining information on differential risks need to be justified, not merely by fears of net negative public health effects, but by convincing evidence that such measures are actually warranted, that public health overall is in imminent danger and that the danger is sufficient to override principles of individual autonomy. Omitting such health-relevant information for consumers of such products effectively blindfolds them and impairs their making informed personal choices. Moral psychological issues that treat all tobacco/nicotine products similarly may also be influencing the reluctance to inform on differential risks. In countries where tobacco/nicotine products are legally sold and also differ greatly in disease risks compared to cigarettes (e.g., smokeless tobacco and vape), science-based, comprehensible, and actionable health information (consistent with health literacy principles) on differential risks should be available and only reconsidered if it is established that this information is causing losses to population health overall. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Public Perceptions of Ethical, Legal and Social Implications of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Angelina P; Mohd Nor, Siti Nurani; Amin, Latifah; Che Ngah, Anisah

    2017-12-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) became well known in Malaysia after the birth of the first Malaysian 'designer baby', Yau Tak in 2004. Two years later, the Malaysian Medical Council implemented the first and only regulation on the use of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis in this country. The birth of Yau Tak triggered a public outcry because PGD was used for non-medical sex selection thus, raising concerns about PGD and its implications for the society. This study aims to explore participants' perceptions of the future implications of PGD for the Malaysian society. We conducted in-depth interviews with 21 participants over a period of one year, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Findings reveal that responses varied substantially among the participants; there was a broad acceptance as well as rejection of PGD. Contentious ethical, legal and social issues of PGD were raised during the discussions, including intolerance to and discrimination against people with genetic disabilities; societal pressure and the 'slippery slope' of PGD were raised during the discussions. This study also highlights participants' legal standpoint, and major issues regarding PGD in relation to the accuracy of diagnosis. At the social policy level, considerations are given to access as well as the impact of this technology on families, women and physicians. Given these different perceptions of the use of PGD, and its implications and conflicts, policies and regulations of the use of PGD have to be dealt with on a case-by-case basis while taking into consideration of the risk-benefit balance, since its application will impact the lives of so many people in the society.

  3. Cancer patient perceptions on the ethical and legal issues related to biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Claudio, Jaime O; Rachul, Christen; Wang, Jean C Y; Minden, Mark D; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-03-08

    Understanding the perception of patients on research ethics issues related to biobanking is important to enrich ethical discourse and help inform policy. We examined the views of leukemia patients undergoing treatment in clinics located in the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. An initial written survey was provided to 100 patients (64.1% response rate) followed by a follow-up survey (62.5% response rate) covering the topics of informed consent, withdrawal, anonymity, incidental findings and the return of results, ownership, and trust. The majority (59.6%) preferred one-time consent, 30.3% desired a tiered consent approach that provides multiple options, and 10.1% preferred re-consent for future research. When asked different questions on re-consent, most (58%) reported that re-consent was a waste of time and money, but 51.7% indicated they would feel respected and involved if asked to re-consent. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated they had a right to withdraw their consent, but many changed their mind in the follow-up survey explaining that they should not have the right to withdraw consent. Nearly all of the patients (98%) desired being informed of incidental health findings and explained that the information was useful. Of these, 67.3% of patients preferred that researchers inform them and their doctors of the results. The majority of patients (62.2%) stated that the research institution owns the samples whereas 19.4% stated that the participants owned their samples. Patients had a great deal of trust in doctors, hospitals and government-funded university researchers, moderate levels of trust for provincial governments and industry-funded university researchers, and low levels of trust towards industry and insurance companies. Many cancer patients surveyed preferred a one-time consent although others desired some form of control. The majority of participants wanted a continuing right to withdraw consent and nearly all wanted to be

  4. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrandeur Jane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern

  5. Navigating the legal and ethical foundations of informed consent and confidentiality in integrated primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Cathy; Rose, Sandra; Fifield, Peter Y; Arnault, Steve

    2013-03-01

    This article describes findings from ongoing research and analysis of current literature in addition to discussions with leaders in the field, communications with lawyers and administrators of advocacy and government agencies pertaining to integrated primary care (IPC). Standards of care are established based on a myriad of factors, including professional codes of ethics, case law, state and federal laws, professional standards, existing best practices, current professional guidelines, administrative rules and regulations, and licensing board regulations. Regulations may differ for behavioral health and medical providers, posing challenges in IPC settings. This article provides a review of these regulations, particularly 42CFR Part 2, a federal law governing confidentiality for substance abuse programs, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and state laws relevant to patient care in IPC settings. On the basis of findings from the study, the authors make recommendations related to patient care practices concerning informed consent and release of information procedures, treatment and warm hand-off protocols, documentation and electronic record keeping, agreements with other providers, and billing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Protecting Ideas: Ethical and Legal Considerations When a Grant's Principal Investigator Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniaris, Leonidas G; Coombs, Mary I; Meslin, Eric M; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2016-08-01

    Ethical issues related the responsible conduct of research involve questions concerning the rights and obligations of investigators to propose, design, implement, and publish research. When a principal investigator (PI) transfers institutions during a grant cycle, financial and recognition issues need to be addressed to preserve all parties' obligations and best interests in a mutually beneficial way. Although grants often transfer with the PI, sometimes they do not. Maintaining a grant at an institution after the PI leaves does not negate the grantee institution's obligation to recognize the PI's original ideas, contributions, and potential rights to some forms of expression and compensation. Issues include maintaining a role for the PI in determining how to take credit for, share and publish results that involve his or her original ideas. Ascribing proper credit can become a thorny issue. This paper provides a framework for addressing situations and disagreements that may occur when a new PI continues the work after the original PI transfers. Included are suggestions for proactively developing institutional mechanisms that address such issues. Considerations include how to develop solutions that comply with the responsible conduct of research, equitably resolve claims regarding reporting of results, and avoid the possibility of plagiarism.

  7. Nigeria's energy policy: Inferences, analysis and legal ethics toward RE development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, Oluseyi O.; Ajayi, Oluwatoyin O.

    2013-01-01

    The study critically assessed the various policy issues of sustainable energy development in Nigeria. The basic focus was to discuss and analyze some of the laws of the federation as it relates to the development of Renewable Energy in Nigeria. It surveyed the nation's energy policy statement and the vision 20:2020 of the federal government. The Renewable Energy Master Plan developed by the joint efforts of the Energy Commission of Nigeria and United Nations Development Programs were also appraised. The level of development and the index of renewable energy production as stated by the policy statement, the vision 20:2020 and the Renewable Energy Master Plan were highlighted. The study found some policy challenges which include weak government motivation, lack of economic incentives, multiple taxations, non-existent favorable customs and excise duty act to promote renewable energy technologies. Further to this, some legal reforms which may aid the promotion of renewable energy development in Nigeria and also make robust the nation's energy policy were proposed. Some of the laws that require amendment to promote renewable energy include the land use act, environmental impact assessment decree and the investment laws of the federation of Nigeria. - Highlights: • The study exposed the energy policy issues of Nigeria. • The various policy documents and the energy statement of vision 20:2020 were surveyed. • Various challenges impinging growth or renewable energy were highlighted. • Some suggestions for policy reformation were proposed

  8. "Futile Care"-An Emergency Medicine Approach: Ethical and Legal Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jeremy R; Kraus, Chadd; Rosenberg, Mark; Wang, David H; Clayborne, Elizabeth P; Derse, Arthur R

    2017-11-01

    Futility often serves as a proposed reason for withholding or withdrawing medical treatment, even in the face of patient and family requests. Although there is substantial literature describing the meaning and use of futility, little of it is specific to emergency medicine. Furthermore, the literature does not provide a widely accepted definition of futility, and thus is difficult if not impossible to apply. Some argue that even a clear concept of futility would be inappropriate to use. This article will review the origins of and meanings suggested for futility, specific challenges such cases create in the emergency department (ED), and the relevant legal background. It will then propose an approach to cases of perceived futility that is applicable in the ED and does not rely on unilateral decisions to withhold treatment, but rather on avoiding and resolving the conflicts that lead to physicians' believing that patients are asking them to provide "futile" care. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health Information Professionals in a Global eHealth World: Ethical and legal arguments for the international certification and accreditation of health information professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2017-01-01

    Issues such as privacy, security, quality, etc. have received considerable attention in discussions of eHealth, mHealth and pHealth. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to the fact that these methods of delivering health care situate Health Information Professionals (HIPs) in an ethical context that is importantly different from that of traditional health care because they assign a fiduciary role to HIPs that they did not have before, their previous technical involvement notwithstanding. Even less attention has been paid to the fact that when these methods of health care delivery are interjurisdictional, they situate HIPs in an ethical fabric that does not exist in the intra-jurisdictional setting. Privacy and other informatic patient rights in the context of traditional health care are identified and the role that HIPs play in this connection is analysed and distinguished from the role HIPs play in eHealth in order to determine whether the 2002 IMIA Code of Ethics provides sufficient guidance for HIPs in eHealth and associated settings. The position of inter-jurisdictional corporate eHealth providers is also touched upon. It is found that in eHealth, mHealth and pHealth the ethical and legal position of HIPs differs importantly from that in traditional technologically-assisted health care because HIPs have fiduciary obligations they did not have before. It is also found that the 2002 IMIA Code of Ethics, which provides the framework for the codes of ethics that are promulgated by its various member organizations, provides insufficient guidance for dealing with issues that arise in this connection because they do not acknowledge this important change. It is also found that interjurisdictional eHealth etc. raises new ethical and legal issues for the corporate sector that transcend contractual arrangements. The 2002 IMIA Code of Ethics should be revised and updated to provide guidance for HIPs who are engaged in eHealth and related methods of health

  10. [Alcohol and work: ethical-deontological and medico-legal remark upon the recent set of rules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalli, M; Guzzetti, Laura; Tavani, M

    2007-01-01

    The Disposition of the Permanent Conference for the relation among the State, the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bolzano, published in Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 75 on the 30th March 2006 the list of high-risk occupations under the influence of alcohol, activating de facto a previous law (Legge n. 125, 3017 march 2001, "Legge quadro in materia di alcol e di problemi alcolcorrelati"). We here present some ethical-deontological and medical-juridical profiles on the contents of this law and some consideration about its application. Particular attention is dedicated to deontological aspects about industrial safety rules and to medico-legal aspects about occupation under the influence of alcohol, with references to complex relations among worker's discretion right, employer's right to the protection of his own interests and qualified doctor's (or someone to him comparable) right to the respect for the deontological code, with regard to benefit recipient information before the medical treatment. Authors'purpose is to evidence critical points and interpretative ambiguities of a regulation lacking in its practical applications, to provide further proposals of consideration, available to revalue a thematic rich in questions and with a significant social impact.

  11. The Precision Medicine Initiative's All of Us Research Program: an agenda for research on its ethical, legal, and social issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela L; Parker, Lisa S

    2017-07-01

    The Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) is an innovative approach to developing a new model of health care that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles. A cornerstone of the initiative is the PMI All of Us Research Program (formerly known as PMI-Cohort Program) which will create a cohort of 1 million volunteers who will contribute their health data and biospecimens to a centralized national database to support precision medicine research. The PMI All of US Research Program is the largest longitudinal study in the history of the United States. The designers of the Program anticipated and addressed some of the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) associated with the initiative. To date, however, there is no plan to call for research regarding ELSI associated with the Program-PMI All of Us program. Based on analysis of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding announcements for the PMI All of Us program, we have identified three ELSI themes: cohort diversity and health disparities, participant engagement, and privacy and security. We review All of Us Research Program plans to address these issues and then identify additional ELSI within each domain that warrant ongoing investigation as the All of Us Research Program develops. We conclude that PMI's All of Us Research Program represents a significant opportunity and obligation to identify, analyze, and respond to ELSI, and we call on the PMI to initiate a research program capable of taking on these challenges.Genet Med advance online publication 01 December 2016.

  12. Implementation of minimal invasive gynaecological surgery certification will challenge gynaecologists with new legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanos, V; Socolov, R; Demetriou, P; Kyprianou, M; Watrelot, A; Van Belle, Y; Campo, R

    2016-06-27

    The introduction of a certification / diploma program in Minimal Invasive Surgery (MIS) is expected to improve surgical performance, patient's safety and outcome. The Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment programme (GESEA) and the ESHRE Certification for Reproductive Endoscopic Surgery (ECRES) provides a structured learning path, recognising different pillars of competence. In order to achieve a high level of competence a two steps validation is necessary: (a) the individual should be certified of having the appropriate theoretical knowledge and (b) the endoscopic psychomotor skills before entering in the diploma programme reflecting the surgical competence. The influence of such an educational and credentialing path could improve safety and offer financial benefits to the hospitals, physicians and healthcare authorities. Moreover the medicolegal consequences can be important when a significant amount of surgeons possess the different diplomas. As the programs are becoming universally accessible, recognised as the best scientific standard, included in the continuous medical education (CME) and continuous professional development (CPD), it is expected that a significant number of surgeons will soon accomplish the diploma path. The co-existence and practice of both non-certified and certified surgeons with different degrees of experience is unavoidable. However, it is expected that national health systems (NHS), hospitals and insurance companies will demand and hire doctors with high and specific proficiency to endoscopic surgery. When medico-legal cases are under investigation, the experts should be aware of the limitations that individual experience provides. The court first of all examines and then judges if there is negligence and decides accordingly. However, lack of certification may be considered as negligence by a surgeon operating a case that eventual faces litigation problems. Patients' safety and objective preoperative counselling are

  13. Implementation of minimal invasive gynaecological surgery certification will challenge gynaecologists with new legal and ethical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanos, V; Socolov, R; Demetriou, P; Kyprianou, M; Watrelot, A; Van Belle, Y; Campo, R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of a certification / diploma program in Minimal Invasive Surgery (MIS) is expected to improve surgical performance, patient’s safety and outcome. The Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment programme (GESEA) and the ESHRE Certification for Reproductive Endoscopic Surgery (ECRES) provides a structured learning path, recognising different pillars of competence. In order to achieve a high level of competence a two steps validation is necessary: (a) the individual should be certified of having the appropriate theoretical knowledge and (b) the endoscopic psychomotor skills before entering in the diploma programme reflecting the surgical competence. The influence of such an educational and credentialing path could improve safety and offer financial benefits to the hospitals, physicians and healthcare authorities. Moreover the medicolegal consequences can be important when a significant amount of surgeons possess the different diplomas. As the programs are becoming universally accessible, recognised as the best scientific standard, included in the continuous medical education (CME) and continuous professional development (CPD), it is expected that a significant number of surgeons will soon accomplish the diploma path. The co-existence and practice of both non-certified and certified surgeons with different degrees of experience is unavoidable. However, it is expected that national health systems (NHS), hospitals and insurance companies will demand and hire doctors with high and specific proficiency to endoscopic surgery. When medico-legal cases are under investigation, the experts should be aware of the limitations that individual experience provides. The court first of all examines and then judges if there is negligence and decides accordingly. However, lack of certification may be considered as negligence by a surgeon operating a case that eventual faces litigation problems. Patients’ safety and objective preoperative

  14. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  15. [Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) in Gambling Disorder and Its Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Nariakira

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare estimated the prevalence rate of gambling disorder to be 4.8 percent of the population. This rate is outstandingly higher than other countries with prevalence rates between 0.25 and 2.0 percent. It is also estimated that no fewer than 5 million Japanese suffer from the disease. In the last two years, 100 new patients visited the author's clinic. On an average, they started gambling at the age of 19.7 years, and incurring debt at the age of 25.8 years. They first visited the clinic at an average age of 38.2 years, and the average amount they had spent on gambling up to that point was 13 million yen. Twenty percent of them had taken some legal measures to reduce their burden from debts before seeking treatment. Sixty percent of pathological gamblers exclusively played pachinko and slot machine games. Patients who did not play on such machines accounted for no less than 2 percent of cases. This is not surprising, considering the fact that Japan has nearly 4.6 million pachinko and slot machines, which account for two thirds of the total electric gaming machines in the world. Japanese legislation does not regard pachinko and slot machines as gambling, but merely as gaming. Therefore, pachinko companies have no restrictions as such to promote their market. They can advertise freely in newspapers and TV commercials. Pachinko halls are filled with lighting, sounds, and visual effects to stimulate and excite gamblers. The harmful effects of gambling disorder include depression, loss of employment and friends, marital discord, fraud, embezzlement, theft in the family, and theft from non-family members. The most helpful therapy involves attending self-help group sessions at least once a week. One of the best-known self-help groups is Gamblers Anonymous (GA); there are 162 GA groups in Japan. The author believes there should be one GA group for every city across the nation. Unfortunately, psychiatrists, who should be taking

  16. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    animals often mask the signs of infection to avoid attracting predators (Wobeser 2006). Guidance specific to sterilization of electronic devices for implantation is limited in the wildlife record (Burger et al. 1994; Mulcahy 2003). Few biologists have been formally trained in aseptic technique, but most biologists know that electronic devices should be treated in some way to reduce the chance for infection of the host animal by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Most biologists (73%) who implant devices into fishes believe aseptic techniques are important (Wagner and Cooke 2005). However, I maintain that many biologists find it difficult to place the concept of asepsis into practice in their work because of confusion about what constitutes aseptic technique, a lack of surgical knowledge and training, the perception of increased costs, or the belief that aseptic surgeries are impractical or unnecessary for their application. Some have even argued that, while compromising surgical techniques in the field might result in complications or mortalities, the money saved would allow for a compensatory increase in sample size (Anderson and Talcott 2006). In this paper I define aseptic surgical techniques, document the legal and professional guidance for performing aseptic surgeries on wild animals, and present options for sterilizing electronic devices and surgical instruments for field use.

  17. Bibliography Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1983-01-01

    This annotated listing describes materials dealing with nuclear warfare, including annotated bibliographies, nonfiction, fiction, organizations, journals, newsletters, and curriculum materials for elementary and secondary schools. (RM)

  18. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo J; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2014-08-01

    How has the interface between genetics and assisted reproduction technology (ART) evolved since 2005? The interface between ART and genetics has become more entwined as we increase our understanding about the genetics of infertility and we are able to perform more comprehensive genetic testing. In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and ART and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. An interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies and experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. In March 2012, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the EuroGentest2 Coordination Action Project met to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ART. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognized and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome prior to conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and PGD may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from RCTs to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving, but still remains very

  19. Seeking an ethical and legal way of procuring transplantable organs from the dying without further attempts to redefine human death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans David

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because complex organs taken from unequivocally dead people are not suitable for transplantation, human death has been redefined so that it can be certified at some earlier stage in the dying process and thereby make viable organs available without legal problems. Redefinitions based on concepts of "brain death" have underpinned transplant practice for many years although those concepts have never found universal philosophical acceptance. Neither is there consensus about the clinical tests which have been held sufficient to diagnose the irreversible cessation of all brain function – or as much of it as is deemed relevant – while the body remains alive. For these reasons, the certification of death for transplant purposes on "brain death" grounds is increasingly questioned and there has been pressure to return to its diagnosis on the basis of cardiac arrest and the consequent cessation of blood circulation throughout the body. While superficially a welcome return to the traditional and universally accepted understanding of human death, examination of the protocols using such criteria for the diagnosis of death prior to organ removal reveals a materially different scenario in which the circulatory arrest is not certainly final and purely nominal periods of arrest are required before surgery begins. Recognizing the probably unresolvable conflict between allowing enough time to pass after truly final circulatory arrest for a safe diagnosis of death and its minimization for the sake of the wanted organs, Verheijde and colleagues follow others in calling for the abandonment of the "dead donor rule" and the enactment of legislation to permit the removal of organs from the dying, without pretence that they are dead before that surgery. While it may be doubted whether such a "paradigm change" in the ethics of organ procurement would be accepted by society, their call for its consideration as a fully and fairly informed basis for organ

  20. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  1. Values and ethical principles for practicing as magistrate/ legal advisor out of the perspective of the codes and national and international statements of principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marţian Iovan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The coordinating and regulating role of the moral values, of the Deontological Code in practicing the magistrate/ legal advisor position is analysed in this article, so that their decisions correspond the universal imperative of practical accomplishment of justice, implicitly to the audience’s expectations with regard to the efficiency and efficacy of the services delivered by the institutions in the judicial system. The subject is of obvious actuality, fact which results in the existence of a relevant number of cases of violation, deforming of the ethical principles, of the specific deontological norms for the legal advisors, especially for the magistrates, which occur in performing the act of justice. The author highlights through examples, the harmful effects of some magistrates’ side-slipping from the ethical principles (Independence, Impartiality, Integrity stipulated in the most important deontological codes, statements of principles or national and international conventions. The logical conclusion, resulting from the analyses, aims to perfection the judicial system, the moral part of the legal higher education, of the magistrates’ continuous training and assessment.

  2. A Legal and Ethical Analysis of the Effects of Triggering Conditions on Surrogate Decision-Making in End-of-Life Care in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint Parker, J; Goldberg, Daniel S

    2016-03-01

    The central claim of this paper is that American states' use of so-called "triggering conditions" to regulate surrogate decision-making authority in end-of-life care leaves unresolved a number of important ethical and legal considerations regarding the scope of that authority. The paper frames the issue with a case set in a jurisdiction in which surrogate authority to withdraw life-sustaining treatment is triggered by two specific clinical conditions. The case presents a quandary insofar as the clinical facts do not satisfy the triggering conditions, and yet both the appropriate surrogates and the care team agree that withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment is in the best interest of the patient. The paper surveys applicable law across the 50 states and weighs the arguments for and against the inclusion of such triggering conditions in relevant legal regimes. The paper concludes by assessing the various legal and policy options states have for regulating surrogate decision-making authority in light of the moral considerations (including epistemic difficulties), and notes the possibility for conflict within ethics teams arising from the potential tension between prudence, risk-aversion, and moral obligation.

  3. Cutting Edges and Weaving Threads in the Gene Editing (Я)evolution: Reconciling scientific progress with Legal, Ethical, & Social concerns 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Minssen, Timo; Holm, Sune Hannibal

    2018-01-01

    Gene editing technologies, such as CRISPR/Cas9, hold great promises for the advancement of science and technology. These foundational technologies enable to modify the genetic structure of living organisms with unprecedented precision. Potential applications include both plant, animal and human...... genetic interventions. In plant biology, gene editing introduces more precise, target- and time-efficient tools to engineer plants for multipurpose uses such as crops, medicines or biofuel. In humans, the technologies offers hope in the fight against severe genetic diseases and many other illnesses. Yet...... scientists, and physicists analyses and discusses the most problematic legal, ethical and societal implications of gene editing....

  4. Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  5. Is The Late Mandibular Fracture From Third Molar Extraction a Risk Towards Malpractice? Case Report with the Analysis of Ethical and Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weuler dos Santos Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study reports a case of late mandibular fracture due to third molar extraction and highlights the inherent clinical, ethical and legal aspects related to this surgical complication. Material and Methods: A female patient underwent surgical procedure for the extraction of the mandibular right third molar. Two days after the surgery the patient reported pain and altered occlusion in the right side of the mandible. After clinical and radiographic re-examination, the diagnosis of late mandibular fracture was established. A second surgery, under general anaesthesia, was performed for the fixation of the mandibular bone. Results: The fractured parts were reduced and fixed with locking plate systems and 2 mm screws following load-sharing principles. The masticatory function showed optimal performance within 7 and 21 days after the surgery. Complete bone healing was observed within 1 year of follow-up. Conclusions: For satisfactory surgical outcomes, adequate surgical planning and techniques must be performed. Signed informed consents explaining the risks and benefits of the treatment must be used to avoid ethical and legal disputes in dentistry.

  6. Predictive value of testing for multiple genetic variants in multifactorial diseases: implications for the discourse on ethical, legal and social issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cecile J.W. Janssens

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifactorial diseases such as type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease are caused by a complex interplay of many genetic and nongenetic factors, each of which conveys a minor increase in the risk of disease. Unraveling the genetic origins of these diseases is expected to lead to individualized medicine, in which the prevention and treatment strategies are personalized on the basis of the results of predictive genetic tests. This great optimism is counterbalanced by concerns about the ethical, legal, and social implications of genomic medicine, such as the protection of privacy and autonomy, stigmatization, discrimination, and the psychological burden of genetic testing. These concerns are translated from genetic testing in monogenic disorders, but this translation may not be appropriate. Multiple genetic testing (genomic profiling has essential differences from genetic testing in monogenic disorders. The differences lie in the lower predictive value of the test results, the pleiotropic effects of susceptibility genes, and the low inheritance of genomic profiles. For these reasons, genomic profiling may be more similar to nongenetic tests than to predictive tests for monogenic diseases. Therefore, ethical, legal, and social issues that apply to predictive genetic testing for monogenic diseases may not be relevant for the prediction of multifactorial disorders in genomic medicine.

  7. Genetic testing and genomic analysis: a debate on ethical, social and legal issues in the Arab world with a focus on Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shanti, Hatem; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Gallouzi, Imed Eddine; Gasparini, Paolo

    2015-11-14

    In 2013 both Saudi Arabia and Qatar launched genome projects with the aim of providing information for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and, ultimately to realize personalized medicine by sequencing hundred thousands samples. These population based genome activities raise a series of relevant ethical, legal and social issues general, related to the specific population structure as well as to the Islamic perspective on genomic analysis and genetic testing. To contribute to the debate, the Authors after reviewing the existing literature and taking advantage of their professional experience in the field and in the geographic area, discuss and provide their opinions. In particular, the Authors focus on the impact of consanguinity on population structure and disease frequency in the Arab world, on genetic testing and genomic analysis (i.e. technical aspects, impact, etc.) and on their regulations. A comparison between the Islamic perspective and the ethical, social and legal issues raised in other population contexts is also carried. In conclusion, this opinion article with an up-to-date contribution to the discussion on the relevance and impact of genomic analysis and genetic testing in the Arab world, might help in producing specific national guidelines on genetic testing and genomic analysis and help accelerate the implementation and roll out of genome projects in Muslim countries and more specifically in Qatar, and other countries of the Gulf.

  8. Integrating Public Health and Deliberative Public Bioethics: Lessons from the Human Genome Project Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Karen M.; Lee, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Public health policy works best when grounded in firm public health standards of evidence and widely shared social values. In this article, we argue for incorporating a specific method of ethical deliberation—deliberative public bioethics—into public health. We describe how deliberative public bioethics is a method of engagement that can be helpful in public health. Although medical, research, and public health ethics can be considered some of what bioethics addresses, deliberative public bio...

  9. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  10. Legal and Ethical Imperatives for Using Certified Sign Language Interpreters in Health Care Settings: How to "Do No Harm" When "It's (All) Greek" (Sign Language) to You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Angela M

    2016-09-01

    Communication obstacles in health care settings adversely impact patient-practitioner interactions by impeding service efficiency, reducing mutual trust and satisfaction, or even endangering health outcomes. When interlocutors are separated by language, interpreters are required. The efficacy of interpreting, however, is constrained not just by interpreters' competence but also by health care providers' facility working with interpreters. Deaf individuals whose preferred form of communication is a signed language often encounter communicative barriers in health care settings. In those environments, signing Deaf people are entitled to equal communicative access via sign language interpreting services according to the Americans with Disabilities Act and Executive Order 13166, the Limited English Proficiency Initiative. Yet, litigation in states across the United States suggests that individual and institutional providers remain uncertain about their legal obligations to provide equal communicative access. This article discusses the legal and ethical imperatives for using professionally certified (vs. ad hoc) sign language interpreters in health care settings. First outlining the legal terrain governing provision of sign language interpreting services, the article then describes different types of "sign language" (e.g., American Sign Language vs. manually coded English) and different forms of "sign language interpreting" (e.g., interpretation vs. transliteration vs. translation; simultaneous vs. consecutive interpreting; individual vs. team interpreting). This is followed by reviews of the formal credentialing process and of specialized forms of sign language interpreting-that is, certified deaf interpreting, trilingual interpreting, and court interpreting. After discussing practical steps for contracting professional sign language interpreters and addressing ethical issues of confidentiality, this article concludes by offering suggestions for working more effectively

  11. Yesterday's war; tomorrow's technology: peer commentary on 'Ethical, legal, social and policy issues in the use of genomic technologies by the US military'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas G; Moreno, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    A recent article by Maxwell J. Mehlman and Tracy Yeheng Li, in the Journal of Law and the Biosciences , sought to examine the ethical, legal, social, and policy issues associated with the use of genetic screening and germ-line therapies ('genomic technologies') by the US Military. In this commentary, we will elaborate several related matters: the relationship between genetic and non-genetic screening methods, the history of selection processes and force strength, and the consequences and ethics of, as Mehlman and Li suggest, engineering enhanced soldiers. We contend, first, that the strengths of genomic testing as a method of determining enrollment in the armed forces has limited appeal, given the state of current selection methods in the US armed forces. Second, that the vagaries of genetic selection, much like other forms of selection that do not bear causally or reliably on soldier performance (such as race, gender, and sexuality), pose a systematic threat to force strength by limiting the (valuable) diversity of combat units. Third, that the idea of enhancing warfighters through germ-line interventions poses serious ethical issues in terms of the control and ownership of 'enhancements' when members separate from service.

  12. Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoppers, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  13. Legal and ethical obligations to conduct a clinical drug trial in Australia as an investigator initiated and sponsored study for an overseas pharmaceutical company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2004-01-01

    Most multi-centre trials are both financed and sponsored by the pharmaceutical company involved. What follows will map the path adopted for an investigator initiated and sponsored study for a new indication of an established medication. The chief investigators of a company-sponsored, investigator-initiated, multi-centre, placebo-controlled study of an established medication, Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listed for treatment of one condition but trialled in the management of another condition (trial of off-label use), were approached to submit a protocol to repeat the type of study with a different compound. The new study would test a different agent, also PBS listed, for the same condition as in the initial study and with the same off-licence application. The company would finance the study, provide the medication and matched placebo but only review the investigator-initiated protocol which would be sponsored by the principal investigator. This required the investigator to implement the trial, as would normally be done by the pharmaceutical company, yet also act as its principal investigator. The principal investigator, with colleagues and a Clinical Research Organisation (CRO), developed a protocol, adapted for the new agent, and submitted it for approval. Upon acceptance a contract was negotiated with the pharmaceutical company which had to overcome jurisdictional conflicts between common law and civil law legal systems. A CRO was contracted to undertake administrative functions which dictated special contractual agreements to overcome possible conflicts of interest for a sponsor/investigator to protect patient interests. There was need to find indemnification insurance with jurisdictional problems, co-investigators, ethics committee approvals and finance management as just some of the difficulties encountered. The paper will outline how these obstacles were overcome and how ethical and legal issues were respected through compromise. The ethical and legal

  14. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  15. Legal and ethical standards for protecting women's human rights and the practice of conscientious objection in reproductive healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampas, Christina

    2013-12-01

    The practice of conscientious objection by healthcare workers is growing across the globe. It is most common in reproductive healthcare settings because of the religious or moral values placed on beliefs as to when life begins. It is often invoked in the context of abortion and contraceptive services, including the provision of information related to such services. Few states adequately regulate the practice, leading to denial of access to lawful reproductive healthcare services and violations of fundamental human rights. International ethical, health, and human rights standards have recently attempted to address these challenges by harmonizing the practice of conscientious objection with women's right to sexual and reproductive health services. FIGO ethical standards have had an important role in influencing human rights development in this area. They consider regulation of the unfettered use of conscientious objection essential to the realization of sexual and reproductive rights. Under international human rights law, states have a positive obligation to act in this regard. While ethical and human rights standards regarding this issue are growing, they do not yet exhaustively cover all the situations in which women's health and human rights are in jeopardy because of the practice. The present article sets forth existing ethical and human rights standards on the issue and illustrates the need for further development and clarity on balancing these rights and interests. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human genome education model project. Ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project: Education of interdisciplinary professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J.O. [Alliance of Genetic Support Groups, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); Lapham, E.V. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Child Development Center

    1996-12-31

    This meeting was held June 10, 1996 at Georgetown University. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the human genome education model. Topics of discussion include the following: psychosocial issues; ethical issues for professionals; legislative issues and update; and education issues.

  17. Biotechnology bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette, L.A.; McCready, R.G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four bibliographies are included in this document, covering articles and scientific papers from around the world written mostly in English. Citations are presented alphabetically by author under the topics of: acid mine drainage (coal and metals) and bioadsorption of metals; solution mining; metabolism and physiology of thiobacillus and other microorganisms; and bacterial leaching of metals.

  18. Biotechnology bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette, L.A.; McCready, R.G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography consists of articles and scientific papers on biotechnology in areas in which BIOMINET is currently involved. The reports are categorized in four areas: 1) acid mine drainage (coals and metals) and bioadsorption of metals; 2) solution mining; 3) metabolism and physiology of Thiobacillus and other microorganisms; and 4) bacterial leaching of metals.

  19. Multiphoton bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, J.H.; Gallagher, J.W.

    1981-12-01

    A bibliography is presented of approximately 275 references from literature published since 1980 on multiphoton research. A subject list is provided which divides the references into four subdivisions, i.e., ionization, bound-bound transitions, dissociation, and free-free transitions. An author index is included

  20. LOGO Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proud, Jim

    This bibliography lists 168 articles, books, and instructional materials for anyone interested in learning more about the LOGO programming language. Items listed range from research reports and program descriptions to lesson plans and activities. Specific titles include "A Beginner's Guide to LOGO"; "LOGO Music"; "Printing…

  1. The differing perspectives of workers and occupational medicine physicians on the ethical, legal and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Rauf, Sherry I; Brandt-Rauf, Elka; Gershon, Robyn; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing in the workplace holds the promise of improving worker health but also raises ethical, legal, and social issues. In considering such testing, it is critical to understand the perspectives of workers, who are most directly affected by it, and occupational health professionals, who are often directly involved in its implementation. Therefore, a series of focus groups of unionized workers (n=25) and occupational medicine physicians (n=23) was conducted. The results demonstrated strikingly different perspectives of workers and physicians in several key areas, including the goals and appropriateness of genetic testing, and methods to minimize its risks. In general, workers were guided by a profound mistrust of the employer, physician, and government, while physicians were guided primarily by scientific and medical concerns, and, in many cases, by the business concerns distrusted by the workers.

  2. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  3. A Brief Report on the Ethical and Legal Guides For Technology Use in Marriage and Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Michael; Patton, Rikki; Ray, Amber; Katafiasz, Heather

    2017-10-01

    Marriage and family therapists (MFTs) use ethical codes and state licensure laws/rules as guidelines for best clinical practice. It is important that professional codes reflect the potential exponential use of technology in therapy. However, current standards regarding technology use lack clarity. To explore this gap, a summative content analysis was conducted on state licensure laws/rules and professional ethical codes to find themes and subthemes among the many aspects of therapy in which technology can be utilized. Findings from the content analysis indicated that while there have been efforts by both state and professional organizations to incorporate guidance for technology use in therapy, a clear and comprehensive "roadmap" is still missing. Future scholarship is needed that develops clearer guidelines for therapists. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  4. ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF INFECTOLOGY AND VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS. Part 1. Bioethics and social justice in infectious pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kubar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The serial materials on the history of establishment and the modern concepts of bioethics in the field of infectious pathology is planned to present in several articles. In the current report problems of forming and compliance of social responsibility are considered. It is demonstrated the universal importance of ethic principles and specificity of their realization in the different stages of combating with infectious diseases. 

  5. 两岸律师伦理规范比较研究%A Comparison between the Legal Ethics across the Taiwan Stra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军

    2014-01-01

    Making comparative research on the competent authority and disciplinary organization,in terms of ethical content,the practice of lawyers,professional behavior,business acceptance,and the relationship between lawyer and client a, Taiwan lawyer ethics pay attention to cultivate the legal professional,and the mainland represents the relationship between law and morality,pay more attention to the theory research.%通过对两岸律师主管机关、惩戒组织、律师执业行为、专业行为、受理业务以及律师互动准则等方面进行共通性与差异性的比较研究得出:台湾律师伦理以实践中的律师为出发点,注重培育法律专业伦理;大陆律师伦理以法与道德的关系为代表,侧重于理论的研究。

  6. Cross-sectional Analysis of the Standards of Consent Applied to Anaesthesia in Ireland: Are Anaesthetists Aware of their Legal and Ethical Obligations?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2018-01-01

    Consent to a medical intervention has legally and ethically evolved to a process prioritising autonomy and patient-led decision-making. This cross-sectional analysis investigated Irish anaesthetists’ practices of taking consent. Following ethical approval, trainees and fellows of the College of Anaesthetists of Ireland were invited to participate in a 33 question online survey. One hundred and sixty responses (11.8%) were received, an equal number coming from consultants and trainees. The majority (93.7%) worked in a teaching hospital. Fifteen percent said their department had guidelines on obtaining consent for anaesthesia, but only 4.5% said their department used a separate consent form. Most (63.8%) do not usually document consent. A significant number rarely (21.8%) or never (27.8%) explained risks to patients. Lack of time was identified as the most frequent barrier (77.6%), with just under half first meeting the patient in the theatre holding-bay or the anaesthetic room. Forty-one percent felt the ultimate decision regarding which anaesthetic technique is employed should usually lie with the anaesthetist alone. These results suggest a wide variation in the practice of obtaining consent for anaesthesia. Less than half deemed their practice to be adequate in this regard, while 50% were concerned about litigation stemming from inadequate consent.

  7. [Technical statement by the Spanish Paediatric Association in relation to gender diversity in childhood and adolescence: Ethical and legal view from a multidisciplinary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño Galán, Isolina; Del Río Pastoriza, Inés; Chueca Guindulain, María; Gabaldón Fraile, Sabel; de Montalvo Jááskeläinem, Federico

    2018-03-19

    An ethical and legal view of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is presented from the perspective of the best interest of the child and the principle of protection against vulnerability. The identification of gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is a process that requires support, coordination and a multidisciplinary team that improves care and helps to obtain evidence that is lacking today. Secure, equitable and comprehensive access to care and health care should be guaranteed when required. It is necessary to promote a changing of social outlook, capable of overcoming the stereotypes that lead to discrimination and increase suffering. Respect for gender diversity in childhood and adolescence is a fundamental Human Right. The recognition of a positive value in diversity is an ethical imperative. All of this, without forgetting that we are talking about minors often in contexts of vulnerability, and currently very uncertain, so prudence is the main rule that should guide decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Evolution after 1990 of the Legal Framework with the Incidence on the Managerial Ethics of the Romanian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentia Georgeta Avram

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Firms with an ethical behaviour, which satisfy the conditions of morality, namely to respect applicable law articles, have certain characteristics: “balance between profit and ethics; ethical values underlying the daily behaviour of individual actions; penalty system which provides penalty and correction actions by unethical nature; set of values that involves treating others with respect and honesty as you want and to be treated; manufacture and marketing of the products so that you are be thankful if you use them; treating the environment as it would be your property”.                      In Romania, although the law has improved methodologically according to the European Directives, but problems arise in its implementation. The Commission report to the European Parliament and the Council on Progress in Romania under the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism {SEC (2008 2539} show that Romania continues to face important difficulties in the functioning of its judiciary and fighting the corruption. In 2013, the political clienteles and corruption have worsened the Romanian state budget, representing, however, the greatest threat to the economic growth (MCV Report - 2013 - Brussels, 30.01.2013 COM (2013 47 final. What are the solutions? There are the political stability and, not least, that constitutional.

  9. www.mydrugdealer.com: Ethics and legal implications of Internet-based access to substances of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carolina A; Kandel, Surendra

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has increasingly become an intrinsic part of everyday life, offering countless possibilities for education, services, recreation, and more. In fact, an entire virtual life within the digitalized World Wide Web is possible and common among many Internet users. Today's psychiatrists must therefore incorporate this dimension of human life into clinical practice, to achieve an adequate assessment of the tools and risks available to the patient. We focus on the Internet as a portal for the trade of and access to substances of abuse. We review the legal regulations that may inform care and standards of practice and analyze the difficulties that arise in assessment and monitoring of the current situation. We consider the potential impact of Internet-based narcotics trade on addiction morbidities and the practice of clinical psychiatry, as well as on the potential legal implications that the forensic expert may face.

  10. General practitioners' perspectives regarding competence and confidentiality in an adolescent with suspected anorexia nervosa: legal and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Terence P; Paxton, Susan J

    2003-02-01

    In Victoria, Australia, the legal position regarding young people's competence to make medical treatment decisions has not been clarified in legislation, and a number of often vague common law decisions must be relied on for guidance. This situation produces a degree of uncertainty about appropriate professional practice, while also potentially impeding young people's rights claims in health care settings. With this in mind, the present research explored general practitioners' competence and confidentiality decisions regarding a 17-year-old female who presented with symptoms of an eating disorder. Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 500 Victorian general practitioners, of whom 190 responded. After reading a case vignette, general practitioners indicated whether they would find the hypothetical patient competent and if they would maintain her confidentiality. Seventy-three per cent of respondents found the patient competent and most would have maintained confidentiality, at least initially. However, subsequent analysis of the rationales supplied for these decisions revealed a wide diversity in general practitioners' understandings and implementations of extant legal authority. This research highlights the need for general practitioners to be exposed to up-to-date and clinically relevant explanations of contemporary legal positions.

  11. Asbestos bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentschke, M

    1982-01-01

    The publication of this special bibliography meets the desire for information on the problem of asbestos from the viewpoint of safety at work. It was compiled from the information stored at the Central Institute for Safety at work in Dresden, the Central Institute of Occupational Medicine in Berlin, the Authority for Safety at Work with the Ministry of Building in Berlin and the Medical Service of the Transport Business in Berlin, as well as with specialists from the institutions mentioned and of the authority for Safety at work, occupational hygiene and toxicology in the chemical industry of Halle and the inspector of occupational hygiene of the council of the district of Schwerin. The bibliography is a selection of the information sources available at the above-mentioned institutions. It makes no claim to completeness.

  12. Open Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Pollock, Rufus; MacGillivray, Mark; O'Steen, Ben; Waites, William

    2011-01-01

    Poster presented at the VSMF Symposium held at the Unilever Centre on 2011-01-17. More research is published currently than can be understood or followed by a researcher without the aid of a computer. We need Open shareable information on research publications, an Open Bibliography, to build the services that enable researchers to explore their field and discover the research they need. Producers of bibliographic data such as libraries, publishers, universities, scholars or social referenc...

  13. Bibliography section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography contains 2180 references. They are arranged according to the following subjects: gas chromatography, column chromatography, paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and electrophoretic techniques. Each subject is in principle divided into 36 categories. The following category falls within the INIS scope: radioactive and other isotope compounds. For the above mentioned subjects there are 21 references in this category. Other categories that might be partially in scope are: reviews and books; fundamentals, theory and general; techniques; pollution

  14. Ethical and Legal Implications of Elective Ventilation and Organ Transplantation: “Medicalization” of Dying versus Medical Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Frati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical controversy surrounds the type of allowable interventions to be carried out in patients who are potential organ donors, in an attempt to improve organ perfusion and successful transplantation. The main goal is to transplant an organ in conditions as close as possible to its physiological live state. “Elective ventilation” (EV, that is, the use of ventilation for the sole purpose of retrieving the organs of patients close to death, is an option which offsets the shortage of organ donation. We have analyzed the legal context of the dying process of the organ donor and the feasibility of EV in the Italian context. There is no legal framework regulating the practice of EV, neither is any real information given to the general public. A public debate has yet to be initiated. In the Italian cultural and legislative scenario, we believe that, under some circumstances (i.e., the expressed wishes of the patient, even in the form of advance directives, the use of EV does not violate the principle of beneficence. We believe that the crux of the matter lies in the need to explore the real determination and will of the patient and his/her orientation towards the specific aim of organ donation.

  15. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume 1 (citation extracts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography was compiled by the Center for Energy Studies at The University of Texas at Austin to serve as a tool for researchers in the field of geopressured geothermal energy resources. The bibliography represents citations of papers on geopressured geothermal energy resources over the past eighteen years. Topics covered in the bibliography range from the technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to social, environmental, and legal aspects of tapping those reservoirs for their energy resources. The bibliography currently contains more than 750 entries. For quick reference to a given topic, the citations are indexed into five divisions: author, category, conference title, descriptor, and sponsor. These indexes are arranged alphabetically and cross-referenced by page number.

  16. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose

  17. Ethics in Management Consulting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Vallini

    2007-01-01

    Ethics is a relevant value in business and management consulting. The presence of recognized ethics tends to reduce the need for informative or legal-contractual precautions in the formalization of relationships, for both of the parts involved in a negotiation. Management Consulting on ethics will develop more and more. Law will consider more and more ethics in business and management consulting. The ethics of corporations influences their workers and behaviour with the customers. It is an e...

  18. Problem Behavior in Schools: A Bibliography. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H.; Raison, Susan

    The bibliography lists approximately 800 books and articles (c. 1950-1979)on 10 topics of behavior problems: theoretical foundations; incidence; characteristics of classified group (autistic/psychotic, emotionally disturbed/behavior disordered/learning disabled, brain injured/hyperactive/hyperkinetic); social context of education; legal and…

  19. Annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology, Waste Policy Institute (WPI) is conducting a five-year research project to develop a research-based approach for integrating communication products in stakeholder involvement related to innovative technology. As part of the research, WPI developed this annotated bibliography which contains almost 100 citations of articles/books/resources involving topics related to communication and public involvement aspects of deploying innovative cleanup technology. To compile the bibliography, WPI performed on-line literature searches (e.g., Dialog, International Association of Business Communicators Public Relations Society of America, Chemical Manufacturers Association, etc.), consulted past years proceedings of major environmental waste cleanup conferences (e.g., Waste Management), networked with professional colleagues and DOE sites to gather reports or case studies, and received input during the August 1996 Research Design Team meeting held to discuss the project's research methodology. Articles were selected for annotation based upon their perceived usefulness to the broad range of public involvement and communication practitioners

  20. Employers as Nightmare Readers: An Analysis of Ethical and Legal Concerns Regarding Employer-Employee Practices on SNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suder Seili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this interdisciplinary paper is to study the social reality surrounding the data processing practices employers and employees engage in on social networking sites (SNS. Considering the lack of empirical studies, as well as the considerable uncertainty in the way personal data protection is implemented across the European Union (EU, the paper offers insights on the topic. Qualitative text analysis of semi-structured interviews with employers from the service sector (N=10 and the field of media and communication (N=15, as well as employers from organisations which had experienced various problems due to things their employees had posted on social media (N=14, and employees from the financial sector (N=15 were carried out to explore whether the data protection principles, which can be viewed as the most important guidelines for employers in the EU, are actually followed in their everyday SNS data processing practices. Even though the data protection principles emphasise the need for fair, purposeful, transparent, minimal and accurate processing of personal data, our interviews with employers and employees reveal that the actual SNS processing practices rarely live up to the standards. Our findings indicate that there is a growing mismatch between the social reality and legal requirements regarding data subjects.

  1. Views of physicians in training on the ethical and legal issues in preliminary reporting of echocardiographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R W; Rice, M J; Marcella, C P; Reller, M D; Imus, R L

    1991-01-01

    Cardiac sonographers may be pressured by physicians into giving diagnostic interpretations of echocardiographic data. This study investigated the issue of preliminary reporting of echocardiographic data. A questionnaire was sent to 292 physicians; 85 physicians (29%) responded. Seventy-two physicians (87%) thought they had more than a minimal knowledge of echocardiography, 94% wanted a written or verbal preliminary report, and 84% thought that giving a preliminary report should be part of the cardiac sonographer's job. If abnormalities were found, 80% wanted the results before a cardiologist reviewed the study, and 56% would want a diagnostic rather than a descriptive report. Fifty-four physicians (64%) would pressure the cardiac sonographer into giving a preliminary echocardiographic report and would use this information to manage the patient. The majority of the physicians thought that it is legal for the cardiac sonographer to give a preliminary echocardiogram report. Eighty percent said that the cardiac sonographer would not be "practicing medicine without a license," and 82% that the sonographer would not be "aiding and abetting the unauthorized practice of medicine." This data would indicate that physicians at Oregon Health Sciences University want the cardiac sonographer to give preliminary echocardiographic results, even though the sonographer may be breaking state statutes.

  2. Education and training as prerequisites for overcoming the difficulties in the implementation of ethical and legal norms concerning gender equality in a social environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author advances the thesis that in today's Serbia there is no social consensus concerning the unequal treatment of men and women, and that 'patriarchal syndrome', stereotypes and prejudices are still widely present and are greatly influencing the functioning of social mechanisms and the achievement of gender equality. In Serbia the process of achieving the equal treatment of women de jure is still in progress. With the absence of consensus, which is a prerequisite for 'transmitting' social values encompassed by gender equality, the chances are little that equality will be attained de facto. This paper is meant as a warning that not all types of women's inequality are easily noticeable, as well as that on the social scene there are many different and intertwined social actors which influence dealing with the problem of inequality, implementation of international and domestic legal acts, ethical standards, and taking steps to introduce mechanisms for achieving women's equality in society. One of the prerequisites for overcoming these difficulties is a system of education and educational resources, which promote the idea of gender equality.

  3. Applying ethical and legal principles to new technology: the University of Auckland Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences' policy 'Taking and Sharing Images of Patients.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Monique; Malpas, Phillipa; Kersey, Kate; Merry, Alan; Bagg, Warwick

    2017-01-27

    To develop a policy governing the taking and sharing of photographic and radiological images by medical students. The Rules of the Health Information Privacy Code 1994 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights were applied to the taking, storing and sharing of photographic and radiological images by medical students. Stakeholders, including clinicians, medical students, lawyers at district health boards in the Auckland region, the Office of the Privacy Commissioner and the Health and Disability Commissioner were consulted and their recommendations incorporated. The policy 'Taking and Sharing Images of Patients' sets expectations of students in relation to: photographs taken for the purpose of providing care; photographs taken for educational or professional practice purposes and photographic or radiological images used for educational or professional practice purposes. In addition, it prohibits students from uploading images of patients onto image-sharing apps such as Figure 1. The policy has since been extended to apply to all students at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences at the University of Auckland. Technology-driven evolutions in practice necessitate regular review to ensure compliance with existing legal regulations and ethical frameworks. This policy offers a starting point for healthcare providers to review their own policies and practice, with a view to ensuring that patients' trust in the treatment that their health information receives is upheld.

  4. Shared decision-making: is it time to obtain informed consent before radiologic examinations utilizing ionizing radiation? Legal and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Leonard

    2014-03-01

    Concerns about the possibility of developing cancer due to diagnostic imaging examinations utilizing ionizing radiation exposure are increasing. Research studies of survivors of atomic bomb explosions, nuclear reactor accidents, and other unanticipated exposures to similar radiation have led to varying conclusions regarding the stochastic effects of radiation exposure. That high doses of ionizing radiation cause cancer in humans is generally accepted, but the question of whether diagnostic levels of radiation cause cancer continues to be hotly debated. It cannot be denied that overexposure to ionizing radiation beyond a certain threshold, which has not been exactly determined, does generate cancer. This causes a dilemma: what should patients be informed about the possibility that a CT or similar examination might cause cancer later in life? At present, there is no consensus in the radiology community as to whether informed consent must be obtained from a patient before the patient undergoes a CT or similar examination. The author analyzes whether there is a legal duty mandating radiologists to obtain such informed consent but also, irrespective of the law, whether there an ethical duty that compels radiologists to inform patients of potential adverse effects of ionizing radiation. Over the past decade, there has been a noticeable shift from a benevolent, paternalistic approach to medical care to an autonomy-based, shared-decision-making approach, whereby patient and physician work as partners in determining what is medically best for the patient. Radiologists should discuss the benefits and hazards of imaging with their patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. 美、英、法代孕法律规制的伦理思考%Ethical Reflection on Legal Regulation about Surrogacy in the United States, Britain and France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席欣然; 张金钟

    2011-01-01

    Surrogacy has been suffering from ethical controversy since it comes out. Should it be prohibited or be permitted? How to regulate it will be the best? Countries in the world which is represented by the United States, Britain and France take different attitudes towards the law about surrogacy. Ethical and legal problems associated with surrogacy cannot be a-voided. By analyzing the legal regulation about surrogacy in the United States, Britain and France, it points out its ethical problems and proposes that the combination of law and ethics is the essential way to regulate surrogacy.%代孕,自从其问世以来便饱受伦理争议.应当一禁了之还是包容开放?如何规范才是最佳抉择?以美、英、法为代表的世界各国对代孕采取了不同的法律态度,其伴随的伦理法律问题已不容回避.从分析美、英、法三国的代孕法律规制出发,指出其伦理难题,结合实际,提出法与伦理的结合是规范代孕的必由之路.

  6. Should Pediatric Euthanasia be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Legal, ethical, and economic implications of breaking down once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations into their single components for cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Miguel A; Llibre, Josep M

    2014-11-01

    The availability of generic lamivudine in the context of the current economic crisis has raised a new issue in some European countries: breaking up the once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations (FDAC) of efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine, tenofovir/emtricitabine, or abacavir/lamivudine, in order to administer their components separately, thereby allowing the use of generic lamivudine instead of branded emtricitabine or lamivudine. The legal, ethical, and economic implications of this potential strategy are reviewed, particularly in those patients receiving a once-daily single-tablet regimen. An unfamiliar change in antiretroviral treatment from a successful patient-friendly FDAC into a more complex regimen including separately the components to allow the substitution of one (or some) of them for generic surrogates (in the absence of a generic bioequivalent FDAC) could be discriminatory because it does not guarantee access to equal excellence in healthcare to all citizens. Furthermore, it could violate the principle of non-maleficence by potentially causing harm both at the individual level (hindering adherence and favouring treatment failure and resistance), and at the community level (hampering control of disease transmission and transmission of HIV-1 resistance). Replacing a FDAC with the individual components of that combination should only be permitted when the substituting medication has the same qualitative and quantitative composition of active ingredients, pharmaceutical form, method of administration, dosage and presentation as the medication being replaced, and a randomized study has demonstrated its non-inferiority. Finally, a strict pharma-economic study supporting this change, comparing the effectiveness and the cost of a specific intervention with the best available alternative, should be undertaken before its potential implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiolog

  8. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  9. Research Ethics: Reforming Postgraduate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Research ethics is not only a matter of doing no harm, or even abiding by the guidelines of the Ethics Review Board of the institution. While these matters are important and legal requirements, there is much more at stake in discussions of research ethics. Research ethics establish the foundation upon which research rests. Taking the social…

  10. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  11. Chernobyl bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  12. Dungeness bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, H.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a bibliography of material relating to the ecology of Dungeness in Kent and has been produced, under contract, for the Nature Conservancy Council. Since its first appearance in 1985, much new material has been published or has come to light, and is included in this 1989 edition. The area concerned comprises the system of shingle beaches between Jury's Gap and Greatstone-on-Sea on the south Kent/Sussex coast, and is a site of international conservation importance. It is one of the finest examples of an apposition shingle beach in the world and in terms of physiography, botany, entomology and ornithology it is an area of high scientific interest. As well as being of great scientific importance, Dungeness is subject to a high degree of 'human' pressure: excavation and building operations, military activity, vehicular damage and trampling threaten to destroy what is left of the natural shingle ecosystem at Dungeness. In recognition of this the Nature Conservancy Council is supporting a renewed programme of research into the ecology of the site, to try to determine how best to protect the remaining intact areas. (author)

  13. ASPECTOS ÉTICOS Y LEGALES DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA EN BRASIL ASPECTOS ÉTICOS E LEGAIS DA PESQUISA CIENTÍFICA NO BRASIL ETHICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto da Silva

    2010-06-01

    ção humana, das pesquisas com populações indígenas, das pesquisas em genética humana, dos projetos multicêntricos e das bases de dados biológicas. Pode-se concluir que existem leis de amparo à pesquisa científica no Brasil, estabelecendo prioridades nacionais, determinando direitos e deveres dos pesquisadores e dos sujeitos de pesquisa. Existe um sistema nacional de regulação ética; todavía estabelecido por resoluções do poder executivo. As resoluções incluem diversas temáticas associadas com a investigação científica, incluindo as diretrizes mundiais acerca da ética em pesquisa, considerando até a Declaração de Helsinki.This article has searched and analyzed the regulatory process of the ethics of scientific research in Brazil. The methodology consisted in a systematic review, characterized by a bibliographical and documental study, results being analyzed by the content analysis technique. Legal documents studied dealt mainly with constitutional guaranties associated with scientific research, system of ethics regulation, definition of user, clinical investigations, investigations with foreign cooperation, treatment and diagnosis safeguards, human reproduction research, research with aboriginal populations, human genetics research, multicenter projects and biological data bases. It can be concluded that there are protection laws for scientific research in Brazil, establishing national priorities, determining researchers and research subjects rights and duties. There is a national system of ethics regulation established by resolutions of legislative power. Resolutions include diverse topics associated with scientific research, in line with world guidelines for research ethics, in this case the Helsinki Declaration.

  14. The Slovenian bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian bibliography is our national bibliography. We want to show the criteria of the selection of the particular materials, which are included in the Slovenian bibliography. We described the bibliographic description and classification of the records with UDC and the descriptors. The printing and the CD-ROM issues of the Slovenian bibli¬ography are described. We compared UNESCO guidelines for the national bibliography on the field of the selection, bibliographic description and classification, arrangement of the records and the useful of the national bibliography.

  15. Ethics fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  16. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  17. Clinical, legal and ethical implications of the intra-ocular (off-label) use of bevacizumab (avastin)--a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rita-Marié; Gouws, Chris

    2009-06-01

    Choroidal neovascularisation is a potentially visually devastating element of various forms of eye pathology. Recent research has focused on neurovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as a cause. AMD can be classified as being exudative (wet) or atrophic (dry). Wet AMD is characterised by a pathological process in which new blood vessels develop in the choroids, causing leakage of fluid and haemorrhage under the retina and leading to localised serous detachment and loss of central vision. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates growth of neovascular membranes. Treatments have until recently yielded disappointing results. Ophthalmologists are using intra-ocular injections of bevacizumab (Avastin), an anti-VEGF, to treat AMD. Avastin appears to be safe and effective in the short term, but its intra-ocular administration is entirely off-label. Avastin is registered for treating metastatic colorectal and breast cancer. The off-label use of medication is an important part of mainstream, legitimate medical practice worldwide. Lawyers representing plaintiffs injured by drugs increasingly encounter off-label use claims. From a legal/ethical point of view the off-label use of medication represents a delicate balance between the statutory regulation of medication and a physician's prerogative to prescribe medication that in his or her medical opinion will be beneficial to the patient. The main reason for the controversy created by the off-label use of Avastin is that there are anti-VEGF drugs on the market that have formal approval for the treatment of AMD (and other eye conditions). Lucentis, for example, is extremely expensive, with treatment cost approximately 50 times that of Avastin. Many patients suffering from AMD and macular oedema cannot afford the registered product. The off-label use of Avastin has passed the innovative or experimental stages, as ophthalmologists have used it regularly and openly for a long time, with good success. Such use

  18. When organ donation from living donors serves as the main source of organ procurement: a critical examination of the ethical and legal challenges to Turkey's recent efforts to overcome organ shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, G; Guven, T; Gorkey, S

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that Turkey has implemented a number of legislative and regulatory efforts to increase cadaveric donations, live donors still serve as the main source of organ procurement in this country. To address this problem, Turkey's regulatory authorities have sought to increase the number of brain death declarations. A new regulation issued in 2012 repeats the criteria for brain death that were first issued in 1993. This paper argues that these efforts are far from adequate owing to a number of complicated, ethical, and legal challenges that must be addressed to increase cadaveric organ donations. After examining these factors, which are completely neglected in current policies, we conclude that Turkey needs a realistic ethically justifiable organ procurement policy that must be supported by a framework of patient rights to implement the concept of patient autonomy and respect for human dignity in health care services as the primary goal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanoethics and the breaching of boundaries: a heuristic for going from encouragement to a fuller integration of ethical, legal and social issues and science : commentary on: "Adding to the mix: integrating ELSI into a National Nanoscale Science and Technology Center".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Julio R

    2011-12-01

    The intersection of ELSI and science forms a complicated nexus yet their integration is an important goal both for society and for the successful advancement of science. In what follows, I present a heuristic that makes boundary identification and crossing an important tool in the discovery of potential areas of ethical, legal, and social concern in science. A dynamic and iterative application of the heuristic can lead towards a fuller integration and appreciation of the concerns of ELSI and of science from both sides of the divide.

  20. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This bibliography lists 630 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System in 1991. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citations are grouped into ten subject categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  1. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    : the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  2. China National Bibliography at the Crossroad

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ben

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the present status of China National Bibliography and bibliograhic control in China. In China, there isn’t any legal deposit law, but there are some regulations promulgated by the State Council and the General Administration of Press and Publications (GAPP, 新闻出版总署) under the State Council. According to these regulations, legal deposit copies of books, journals, newspapers and A/V materials should be sent to the GAPP (1 copy), the National Depository Library (NDL, 中国版本图书...

  3. Ethical Ideology and Ethical Judgments of Accounting Practitioners in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to explore the ethical ideology and ethical judgments of accounting practitioners in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, the paper intends to examine the factors that contribute to the different ethical ideology among Malaysian accounting practitioners. Second, it aims to investigate the influence of demographic factors and ethical ideology on ethical judgments of accounting practitioners. The study used Forsyth’s (1980 Ethics Position Questionnaire instrument to examine the ethical ideology of the accountants and adopted ethics vignettes used by Emerson et al. (2007 to assess the ethical judgments of the respondents. From the statistical analysis, this study found that age and gender have a significant impact on ethical judgment but not on ethical ideology. In addition, idealism and relativism have a significant influence on ethical judgment, especially in a legally unethical situation.

  4. Bibliography on transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selective bibliography of prominent publications on transuranium elements is compiled. Heading papers, symposia proceedings and the textbooks are included in the bibliography. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1)Books, Symposia Proceedings, Reviews etc., (2)Discovery, (3)Weighable Isolation, (4)Metal Preparation, (5)Nuclear Properties, (6)Plutonium as Reactor Fuel, (7)Fuel Reprocessing, (8)Solid State Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Spectroscopy, (9)Radiation Safety, (10)Applications, and (11)Some Typical Indian Papers. Total number of references cited are 298. The bibliography, though selective, will serve as a starting point for comprehensive literature search on transuranium elements. (author)

  5. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  6. Delivering social work services in collaboration with the legal representation for individual clients: An effective, ethical and economical approach to supporting families in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Robbin

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses the need to improve the quality of helping relationships between families and social workers in the child protection system and the growing body of evidence that teams of social workers and lawyers are effective at improving outcomes in child protection legal proceedings. The author presents an alternative structure of delivering social work services within the child protection systems once a court gets involved with a family, proposing that social workers should focus on individual clients in collaboration with their legal representation, rather than the traditional model of a governmental agency social worker serving the family as a unit as it also determines placement of the children. Pairing the social worker to an individual client in tandem with their legal representative would help resolve the widely observed relationship problems between service users and governmental agency social workers that include the power imbalance created by the agency's authority to determine placement of children, the conflicts of interest that agency workers face when required to manage differing family members' needs, and the lack of protection of the due process right of confidentiality for parties involved in legal proceedings. This alternative structure also impacts the need to use resources more efficiently and has been demonstrated to result in substantial returns on investment. This article concludes that when a family becomes involved in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings, the child welfare agency should shift the delivery of social work services to the individual parties, away from the governmental agency and in conjunction with their legal representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  8. Ethics on Trial: Teacher's Guide for Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater Washington Educational Telecommunications Association, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Students' understanding of lawyers and the legal system may be increased through the five law-related ethical issues presented in this document. Legal ethics is defined as: (1) the minimum standard of professional conduct in daily legal situations; and (2) a lawyer's broader responsibility to society. The ethical issues are presented in three…

  9. StranshamFord v Minister of Justice and Correctional Services and Others: Can active voluntary euthanasia and doctorassisted suicide be legally justified and are they consistent with the biomedical ethical principles Some suggested guidelines for doct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McQuoid-Mason

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent case of Stransham-Ford v Minister of Justice and Correctional Services and Others held that voluntary active euthanasia and doctor assisted suicide may be legally justified in certain circumstances. The court observed that the distinction between ‘active’ and ‘passive’ voluntary euthanasia is not legally tenable as in both instances the doctors concerned have the ‘actual’ or ‘eventual’ intention to terminate the patient’s life and have caused or hastened the patient’s death. It is argued that as the South African Constitution is the supreme law of the country, the fundamental rights of patients guaranteed in the Constitution cannot be undermined by ethical duties imposed on health care practitioners by international and national professional bodies. The court in the Stransham-Ford case did not use ethical theories and principles to decide the matter. It simply applied the values in the Constitution and the provisions of the Bill of Rights. However, in order to assist medical practitioners with practical guidelines with which many of them are familiar - rather than complicated unfamiliar philosophical arguments - the biomedical ethical principles of patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice or fairness are applied to active voluntary euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide in the context of the Stransham-Ford case. Although the case has not set a precedent or opened the floodgates to doctor-assisted voluntary active euthanasia and it is open to Parliament, the Constitutional Court or other courts to develop the concept or outlaw it, some guidelines are offered for doctors to consider should they be authorized by a court to assist with voluntary active euthanasia.

  10. Women: A Select Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.

    This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…

  11. Intracultural Communication: Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    The 63 books and journal articles listed in this bibliography address the problem of intracultural communication. A short introduction to the bibliography defines intracultural communication as the creation and sharing of meaning among citizens of the same geo-political system who come from various tributary cultures (groups distinguishable from…

  12. PR Bibliography, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books published in 2000 on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. This bibliography is subdivided into 29 categories including campaigns; community relations; corporate image; education; employee relations;…

  13. PR Bibliography, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Encompassing both the practical and the scholarly, this annotated bibliography on public relations aims to provide a window into some of each of the offerings in academic and business journals, as well as in trade and professional journals published in 1997. The introduction notes that many entries in the bibliography deal with the Internet, the…

  14. PR Bibliography, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Based on searches of nearly 200 periodicals as well as publishers' flyers and brochures from 30 major publishing houses and university presses, this annotated bibliography presents a representative collection of books and journal articles related to the knowledge and practice of public relations published in 1996. The annotated bibliography is…

  15. PR Bibliography, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books published in 2001 on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. This bibliography is subdivided into 40 categories including campaigns; consumer relations; community relations; corporate social responsibility;…

  16. PR Bibliography, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. New categories for this 1999 edition of the bibliography include Public Relations Theory, Feminist Issues in Public Relations, and Environmental Public Relations.…

  17. PR Bibliography, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Based on searches of more than 100 periodicals as well as flyers and brochures from 24 major publishing houses and university presses, this annotated bibliography presents a representative collection of books and journal articles (published in 1995) related to the knowledge and practice of public relations. The annotated bibliography is divided…

  18. Annotated Bibliography: Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo; Gøtze, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The bibliography includes the most important DaNISH BOOKS OF GENERAL INTEREST IN THE FIELD OF PUBLIC LAW IN THE PERIOD FROM 2006 - 2007.......The bibliography includes the most important DaNISH BOOKS OF GENERAL INTEREST IN THE FIELD OF PUBLIC LAW IN THE PERIOD FROM 2006 - 2007....

  19. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  20. Foundations in the Law: Classic Cases in Medical Ethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zucker, K. W; Allen, Tracy L; Boyle, Martin J; Burton, Amy R; Smyth, Vito S

    2007-01-01

    .... The converse is also true: decisions within a legal system inform, or impact, ethics -specifically medical ethics The cases discussed in this paper are at the foundation of medical ethics in the United States...

  1. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume I. Citation extracts. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrnoori, K.; Carter, F.; Schneider, R.; Street, S.; McGill, K.

    1983-05-01

    This annoted bibliography contains 1131 citations. It represents reports, papers, and articles appearing over the past eighteen years covering topics from the scientific and technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to the social, environmental, and legal considerations of exploiting those reservoirs for their energy resources. Six indexes include: author, conference title, descriptor, journal title, report number, and sponsor. (MHR)

  2. Censorship and Intellectual Freedom: A Bibliography, 1970-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busha, Charles H.

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations for 94 books and unpublished library science doctoral dissertations, the majority of which pertain to problems in the United States dealing with censorship, intellectual freedom, legal aspects of freedom of expression, and problems associated with obscenity and pornography. (EJS)

  3. Hospital ethics committees in Israel: structure, function and heterogeneity in the setting of statutory ethics committees

    OpenAIRE

    Wenger, N; Golan, O; Shalev, C; Glick, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Hospital ethics committees increasingly affect medical care worldwide, yet there has been little evaluation of these bodies. Israel has the distinction of having ethics committees legally required by a Patients' Rights Act. We studied the development of ethics committees in this legal environment.

  4. Analysis - what is legal medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-04-01

    Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right.

  5. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-01-01

    This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The artic...

  6. ACHIEVING EXCELLENCE IN THE LEGAL PROFESSION IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skills in all professions leaving the lawyer of today a person of business and ethics. ... to meet complex expectations of clients in terms of high ethical standards, personal ... practice of law to addressing legal issues and solving real life prob-.

  7. [Christian Ehrenfried Eschenbach (1712-1788)--a pioneer of legal medicine in German universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Rudolf

    2004-01-01

    Christian Ehrenfried Eschenbach (1712-1788) belongs to the forerunners of the embossed natural science scholars of legal medicine in Germany. As a principal re-elected 11 times and dean of the medical faculty at Rostock University he defended academic positions in difficult times. His bibliography comprises numerous text books, e.g. on surgery, anatomy, pathology and obstetrics as well as various fields of mathematics. His Medicina legalis (1746 and 1775) belongs to the first systematic editions of forensic medicine in the German-speaking community. Thanks to his extensive practical experience as a physician and public health officer he took a very progressive position on questions of forensic medicine, issues of professional ethics in medicine and the assessment of injuries. He has wrongly been forgotten.

  8. What are the Ethical Problems Raised by the Increase of Cognitive Capabilities in the Defence Structure: The French Legal Structure, the Ethical Position of the French Military Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    modelled in our occidental civilisation . Within this logic, ethics are defined according to laws laid down in our occidental society. The collection...includes the body and cognitive functions. Etymologically the word hailing from the Latin term “persona” reflects the actor’s voice from behind a

  9. Bibliographies: The Librarian's Bookshelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Cathleen

    2003-01-01

    This selective bibliography is organized by subject headings that include administration and personnel; bibliographic instruction/information literacy; cataloging and classification; children's and young adults; collection development; copyright; customer service; distance education; electronic libraries; evaluation of library services; fund…

  10. Bibliographies. The Librarian's Bookshelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Cathleen

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography for materials helpful to librarians includes works relating to administration and personnel; bibliographic instruction; information literacy; cataloging and classification; children's and adolescent services and materials; collection development; copyright; distance education; electronic libraries; evaluation; fund raising;…

  11. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  12. Bibliography [On Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Detroit, MI.

    A bibliography of materials on drugs is presented. The book and paper back entries are annotated. Selected technical references are listed under these major findings: (1) dependency, (2) barbiturates, (3) amphetamines, and (4) general pharmacology. (PS)

  13. Bibliography of Fynbos ecology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jarman, ML

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available References to 814 publications are presented, together with keyword listings and a keyword index. This bibliography forms part of the Phase I review and synthesis activity of the Fynbos Biome Project....

  14. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  15. The Attorney-Client Relationship as a Business Law-Legal Environment Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Murray S.

    2004-01-01

    Business school law courses should promote understanding of legal processes affecting business, help students learn to recognize legal issues and manage legal risks, increase ethical sensitivity, and help students to develop critical thinking skills. To this end, business law and legal environment textbooks tend to focus on ethical and legal…

  16. * Ethical Issues in the Use of Animal Models for Tissue Engineering: Reflections on Legal Aspects, Moral Theory, Three Rs Strategies, and Harm-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Gabriel R; Jeronimus, Bertus F; de Aquinas Liguori, Tácia T; Moreira, Luiz Felipe P; Harmsen, Martin C

    2017-12-01

    Animal experimentation requires a solid and rational moral foundation. Objective and emphatic decision-making and protocol evaluation by researchers and ethics committees remain a difficult and sensitive matter. This article presents three perspectives that facilitate a consideration of the minimally acceptable standard for animal experiments, in particular, in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine. First, we review the boundaries provided by law and public opinion in America and Europe. Second, we review contemporary moral theory to introduce the Neo-Rawlsian contractarian theory to objectively evaluate the ethics of animal experiments. Third, we introduce the importance of available reduction, replacement, and refinement strategies, which should be accounted for in moral decision-making and protocol evaluation of animal experiments. The three perspectives are integrated into an algorithmic and graphic harm-benefit analysis tool based on the most relevant aspects of animal models in TE. We conclude with a consideration of future avenues to improve animal experiments.

  17. GSV Annotated Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Randy S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jiang, Ming [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trucano, Timothy G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aragon, Cecilia R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wei, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chilton, Lawrence K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bakel, Alan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-06-14

    The following annotated bibliography was developed as part of the Geospatial Algorithm Veri cation and Validation (GSV) project for the Simulation, Algorithms and Modeling program of NA-22. Veri cation and Validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms covers a wide range of technologies. Papers in the bibliography are thus organized into the following ve topic areas: Image processing and analysis, usability and validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms, image distance measures, scene modeling and image rendering, and transportation simulation models.

  18. Cutting edges and weaving threads in the gene editing (Я)evolution: reconciling scientific progress with legal, ethical, and social concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune; Horst, Maja; Mortensen, Kell; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Gene-editing technology, such as CRISPR/Cas9, holds great promise for the advancement of science and many useful applications technology. This foundational technology enables modification of the genetic structure of any living organisms with unprecedented precision. Yet, in order to enhance its potential for societal benefit, it is necessary to adapt rules and produce adequate regulations. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in legal thinking. Any legislative initiative needs to consider both the benefits and the problematic aspects of gene editing, from a broader societal and value-based perspective. This paper stems from an interdisciplinary research project seeking to identify and discuss some of the most pressing legal implications of gene-editing technology and how to address these. While the questions raised by gene editing are global, laws and regulations are to a great extent bound by national borders. This paper presents a European perspective, written for a global audience, and intends to contribute to the global debate. The analysis will include brief references to corresponding USA rules in order to place these European debates in the broader international context. Our legal analysis incorporates interdisciplinary contributes concerning the scientific state of the art, philosophical thinking regarding the precautionary principle and dual-use issues as well as the importance of communication, social perception, and public debate. Focusing mainly in the main regulatory and patent law issues, we will argue that (a) general moratoriums and blank prohibitions do a disservice to science and innovation; (b) it is crucial to carefully consider a complex body of international and European fundamental rights norms applicable to gene editing; (c) these require further developments grounded in consistent and coherent implementation and interpretation; (d) legal development should follow a critical contextual approach capable of integrating

  19. Pulsed power bibliography. Volume 2: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemesderfer, J.; Druce, R. L.; Frantz, B.; Guenther, A. H.; Kristiansen, M.; Oloughlin, J. P.; Pendleton, W. K.

    1983-08-01

    Pulsed power and high-voltage technologies are playing an ever increasing role in weapons' effects simulation, fusion power research, power distribution, materials processing and medical research. It is a rapidly expanding field of applied physics as evidenced by the growth in published literature. Three years ago, the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) initiated a project to compile a computerized data base of pulsed power research papers. The data base is stored on our IBM System 2000. This AFWL Technical Report is the first release of the bibliography to date. It contains about 2,500 full bibliographic citations, original sources, availability, key words and abstracts. There are three indices: Subject, Personal Author, and Corporate. There are 30 main subject headings, from Breakdown Studies to Switching. Volume II contains the citations. In addition to these entries, the data base contains about 7,500 additional titles. As these titles are added to the full bibliography, they will be published.

  20. The New World of Human Genetics: A dialogue between Practitioners & the General Public on Ethical, Legal & Social Implications of the Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Amy

    2014-12-08

    The history and reasons for launching the Human Genome project and the current uses of genetic human material; Identifying and discussing the major issues stemming directly from genetic research and therapy-including genetic discrimination, medical/ person privacy, allocation of government resources and individual finances, and the effect on the way in which we perceive the value of human life; Discussing the sometimes hidden ethical, social and legislative implications of genetic research and therapy such as informed consent, screening and preservation of genetic materials, efficacy of medical procedures, the role of the government, and equal access to medical coverage.

  1. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sunčica Ivanović; Čedomirka Stanojević; Slađana Jajić; Ana Vila; Svetlana Nikolić

    2013-01-01

    The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked...

  2. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information

  3. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  4. GSV Annotated Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Randy S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jiang, Ming [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trucano, Timothy G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aragon, Cecilia R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wei, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chilton, Lawrence K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bakel, Alan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-09-14

    The following annotated bibliography was developed as part of the geospatial algorithm verification and validation (GSV) project for the Simulation, Algorithms and Modeling program of NA-22. Verification and Validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms covers a wide range of technologies. Papers in the bibliography are thus organized into the following five topic areas: Image processing and analysis, usability and validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms, image distance measures, scene modeling and image rendering, and transportation simulation models. Many other papers were studied during the course of the investigation including. The annotations for these articles can be found in the paper "On the verification and validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms".

  5. Vitrification publication bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager.

  6. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. [comp.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  7. Vitrification publication bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager

  8. Impingement: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, M.S.; Hannon, E.H.

    1979-04-01

    This bibliography of 655 annotated references on impingement of aquatic organisms at intake structures of thermal-power-plant cooling systems was compiled from the published and unpublished literature. The bibliography includes references from 1928 to 1978 on impingement monitoring programs; impingement impact assessment; applicable law; location and design of intake structures, screens, louvers, and other barriers; fish behavior and swim speed as related to impingement susceptibility; and the effects of light, sound, bubbles, currents, and temperature on fish behavior. References are arranged alphabetically by author or corporate author. Indexes are provided for author, keywords, subject category, geographic location, taxon, and title

  9. Medical Ethics Today. The BMA's Handbook of Ethics and Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethics is and leads into a framework of good ethical practice in healthcare. This section also briefly explains the theories and principles pertinent to the practice of healthcare and assists ... patient re la tionship, types of relationships in modern medicine, ... be applied in any country and the legal guidance is particularly.

  10. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  11. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  12. Immortal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John

    2004-06-01

    This article draws on ideas published in my "Intimations of Immortality" essay in Science (Vol. 288, No. 5463, p. 59, April 7, 2000) and my "Intimations of Immortality-The Ethics and Justice of Life Extending Therapies" in editor Michael Freeman's Current Legal Problems (Oxford University Press 2002: 65-97). This article outlines the ethical issues involved in life-extending therapies. The arguments against life extension are examined and found wanting. The consequences of life extension are explored and found challenging but not sufficiently daunting to warrant regulation or control. In short, there is no doubt that immortality would be a mixed blessing, but we should be slow to reject cures for terrible diseases that may be an inextricable part of life-extending procedures even if the price we have to pay for those cures is increasing life expectancy and even creating immortals. Better surely to accompany the scientific race to achieve immortality with commensurate work in ethics and social policy to ensure that we know how to cope with the transition to parallel populations of mortals and immortals as envisaged in mythology.

  13. Ethics in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Taking into account the state of the science, the ethics committee has to decide in research projects with study-related radiation exposure, whether a compelling need for the research project exists. During the critical appraisal, further ethical and legal aspects have to be considered. Even without an application according to X-ray Ordinance (RoeV) or Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), the Ethics Committee should advise the applicant whether from their perspective the project requires an approval according to RoeV and StrlSchV. This requires the regular involvement of expert members.

  14. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  15. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT. APPROXIMATELY 40 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1952 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, ACHIEVEMENT BEHAVIOR, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, AND SOCIAL-CLASS BACKGROUND. A RELATED REPORT IS ED…

  16. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 65 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LANGUAGE SKILLS, LANGUAGE PATTERNS, AND…

  17. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CREATIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CREATIVITY. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1961 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE (1) IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND MEASUREMENT OF CREATIVITY, (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CREATIVITY, (3)…

  18. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON VERBAL LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF VERBAL LEARNING. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE CONDITIONING, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, PROBLEM SOLVING, SEMANTIC SATIATION, STIMULUS DURATION, AND VERBAL…

  19. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIALS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. FORTY UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED IN SUCH AREAS AS COGNITIVE STUDIES, VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION, INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, SCIENCE STUDIES, AND…

  20. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON TEACHING. SUPPLEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEACHING. APPROXIMATELY 100 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED IN SUCH AREAS OF EDUCATION AS HEURISTIC GAMES, TEACHER EVALUATION, CURRICULUMS, TEACHING TECHNIQUES, AND…

  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MENTAL ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF HUMAN INTELLECT. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1955 TO 1966. BOOKS, REPORTS, JOURNAL MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED TITLES ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE (1) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, (2) ABILITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, RACES,…

  2. Media Literacy Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Provides an up-to-date bibliography of resources available for teaching media literacy. Groups resources into the areas of media education methodology, mass media texts, general background, television, film, the news and medium of print, advertising, gender and the media, popular culture, popular music and rock video, periodicals, and…

  3. Bibliography 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    1980-03-01

    The bibliography comprises a review of publications by the faculty staff for the period 1971 to 1978. The publications are classified into subject groups including original scientific studies, preprints and review articles, books, textbooks, research reports, patents, theses. (M.S.)

  4. Halley's Comet: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth S., Comp.

    Included in this bibliography are over 3,200 references to publications on Halley's Comet, its history, orbital motion, and physical characteristics, meteor streams associated with it, preparations for space missions to study it in 1986, and popular reaction to its appearances. Also cited are a few papers that, although they devote little…

  5. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  6. Bibliography of publications, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This issue is the bibliography of the publication by the staffs of the Radiation Effects Research Institute (RERF) in 1990. Titles in original and English language with author names are enumerated. Indexes by research areas and by author name are also attached. (J.P.N.) 126 refs

  7. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  8. PR Bibliography, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray E., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. Categories for this 2000 edition correspond to knowledge needed by public relations undergraduate majors, as determined in a study conducted by the 1999 Commission…

  9. Teleconferencing; A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Dianne, Comp.

    A bibliography lists works on two-way electronic conferencing, as well as several general works on telecommunications. It is in three parts. The record identifications (RECID) index is a list of 168 references to books, parts of books, journal articles, conference papers, news items, and unpublished papers. The author index relists the entire…

  10. The Ethics of Evaluation in Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    2015-01-01

    Ethics in research and evaluation has a long standing history, one steeped with legal and moral implications. This article addresses the technicalities of ethics in evaluation as well as highlights the importance for museum educators to prioritize adopting such practices. While understanding the myriad of ethical concerns and best practices can be…

  11. Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Uses American Psychological Association code of ethics to understand ethical issues present in the conduct of supervision. Discusses ethical issues of responsibility, client and supervisee welfare, confidentiality, competency, moral and legal standards, public statements, and professional relationships in relation to supervision. (Author/NB)

  12. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  13. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    OpenAIRE

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  14. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  15. Glosa about political ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates about political ethics aren't new. They have been present since ancient Greek philosophers. Machiavelli set some new principles, regarding amoral behavior of the prince, which could be quite legitimate and legal. He didn't invented anything new, he just admitted that, that was the reality. Some modern authors think that ethics and politics should be departed always, some other think that they should cooperate. In the end of the day, the voters are those who must face with amoral behavior of politicians, because it seems that politicians don't recognize ethics at all? Or is it just look like? In this paper, we will try in short to tell something about origins of political ethics, its burning issues, and about possible ways of implementation of political ethics and its development.

  16. "Why can't I give you my organs after my heart has stopped beating?" An overview of the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues concerning organ donation after circulatory death in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Alberto; Abelli, Massimo; Azzoni, Giampaolo; Biancofiore, Gianni; Citterio, Franco; Geraci, Paolo; Latronico, Nicola; Picozzi, Mario; Procaccio, Francesco; Riccioni, Luigi; Rigotti, Paolo; Valenza, Franco; Vesconi, Sergio; Zamperetti, Nereo

    2016-03-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is a valuable option for the procurement of functioning organs for transplantation. Clinical results are promising and public acceptance is quite good in most western countries. Yet, although DCD is widespread in Europe, several problems still persist in Italy as well as in some other countries. This paper aims to describe the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues at stake, bearing in mind the particular situation created by Italian legislation. Currently, as regards DCD, Italy is somewhat different from other countries. Therefore, every effort should be made for the safe and effective implementation of DCD programs: uncontrolled DCD programs should be promoted and encouraged, within the framework of shared and authoritative rules. At the same time, we need to tackle the question of controlled DCD, promoting debate among all involved subjects regarding the fundamental issues of end-of-life care within protocols that best integrate the highest standard of care for the dying and the legitimate interests of those awaiting a life-saving organ.

  17. Heritage ethics: Toward a thicker account of nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2016-02-01

    The key to understanding the moral identity of modern nursing and the distinctiveness of nursing ethics resides in a deeper examination of the extensive nursing ethics literature and history from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, that is, prior to the "bioethics revolution". There is a distinctive nursing ethics, but one that falls outside both biomedical and bioethics and is larger than either. Were, there a greater corpus of research on nursing's heritage ethics it would decidedly recondition the entire argument about a distinctive nursing ethics. It would also provide a thicker account of nursing ethics than has been afforded thus far. Such research is dependent upon identifying, locating, accessing and, more importantly, sharing these resources. A number of important heritage ethics sources are identified so that researchers might better locate them. In addition, a bibliography of heritage ethics textbooks and a transcript of the earliest known journal article on nursing ethics in the US are provided. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Development and Progress of Ireland's Biobank Network: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), Standardized Documentation, Sample and Data Release, and International Perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid

    2013-02-19

    Biobank Ireland Trust (BIT) was established in 2004 to promote and develop an Irish biobank network to benefit patients, researchers, industry, and the economy. The network commenced in 2008 with two hospital biobanks and currently consists of biobanks in the four main cancer hospitals in Ireland. The St. James\\'s Hospital (SJH) Biobank coordinates the network. Procedures, based on ISBER and NCI guidelines, are standardized across the network. Policies and documents—Patient Consent Policy, Patient Information Sheet, Biobank Consent Form, Sample and Data Access Policy (SAP), and Sample Application Form have been agreed upon (after robust discussion) for use in each hospital. An optimum sequence for document preparation and submission for review is outlined. Once consensus is reached among the participating biobanks, the SJH biobank liaises with the Research and Ethics Committees, the Office of the Data Protection Commissioner, The National Cancer Registry (NCR), patient advocate groups, researchers, and other stakeholders. The NCR provides de-identified data from its database for researchers via unique biobank codes. ELSI issues discussed include the introduction of prospective consent across the network and the return of significant research results to patients. Only 4 of 363 patients opted to be re-contacted and re-consented on each occasion that their samples are included in a new project. It was decided, after multidisciplinary discussion, that results will not be returned to patients. The SAP is modeled on those of several international networks. Biobank Ireland is affiliated with international biobanking groups—Marble Arch International Working Group, ISBER, and ESBB. The Irish government continues to deliberate on how to fund and implement biobanking nationally. Meanwhile BIT uses every opportunity to promote awareness of the benefits of biobanking in events and in the media.

  19. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers (supplement 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This bibliography lists 664 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1986. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citations are grouped into ten subject categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs, and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  20. The Work Ethic Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kate

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of "The Work Ethic Game" that focuses on integrity in the workplace. Explains that the game is divided into three categories: legal, judgment, and policy issues. Discusses different personality types in the typical employee population. Includes possibilities for use at different education levels. (DK)

  1. Information Warfare and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of the practice of information warfare at both the national and corporate levels. Initially examining the present and past actions of individual hackers, it moves to the more organised, future military and economic warfare scenarios. It examines the lack of legal or policy initiatives in this area.

  2. Drug product selection: legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A

    2001-01-01

    To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.

  3. Legal Change and Stigma in Surrogacy and Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John A

    2015-01-01

    Stigma marks both surrogacy and abortion. Legal change lessens stigma but may not remove it altogether. Post-legalization regulation may reinstall stigma by surrounding a legalized practice with barriers that make exercise of that right more difficult. As a result, law may reenact stigma even as it purports to take it away. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  4. Gas centrifuge bibliography 1970 - 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, G.E.; Edwards, K.J.

    1978-05-01

    A bibliography, with abstract, is presented of the gas centrifuge literature published during 1970 to 1974. It supplements PG Information Series 25 (CA) which covered the period 1895 to 1970. Following reference to bibliographies, books and pamphlets, and a few items omitted from the previous bibliography, main items are grouped under the headings Reports, Journal articles and Conference papers and are listed chronologically. There are indexes to subject, author, and document number, the latter including the issuing body. (UK)

  5. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  6. Legal Marketing and Lawyer's Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Casolaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of marketing strategies to the law firm represents a breakthrough in Italy which has struggled to establish itself as a result of a culture based on a strict code of ethics. However, in recent years there has been a turnaround and the benefits arising from the application to legal profession of the typical principles of enterprises are increasingly evident.   Il marketing legale e la comunicazione dell’avvocato L’applicazione delle strategie di marketing allo studio legale rappresenta un’innovazione che in Italia ha stentato a imporsi a causa di una cultura basata su una rigida deontologia. Tuttavia, negli ultimi anni vi è stata un’inversione di tendenza e i benefici derivanti dall’applicazione alla professione forense dei princìpi tipici delle imprese sono sempre più evidenti. Parole chiave: marketing, studio legale, comunicazione

  7. Radon: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given

  8. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  9. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety

  10. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstock, C.L.; Ross, A.B.; Helman, W.P.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography lists about 400 papers dealing solely with the production and reactivity of superoxide radical anions in irradiated aqueous and organic liquids. Only papers dealing with quantitative mechanistic, spectroscopic or kinetic data have been included. The listing was prepared by searching the RCDC bibliographic data base with SELECT keywords O 2 - or HO 2 and aqueous solution. The key words radicals (oxygen), peroxy radicals, pulse radiolysis, flash radiolysis, esr and gamma rays were also used. Additional relevant references were obtained from inspection of reviews, individual author indexes and cited references. The present bibliography excludes solid and gas phase studies, and also technical, government and in-house reports, theses, patents and some symposia proceedings. Several references prior to 1960 have been added, and the list should be reasonably comprehensive from 1965-1980. The listing is in chronological order, according to year of publication in the categories Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry, Other, and Reviews. (author)

  11. Aspectos ético-legais da retirada e transplante de tecidos, órgãos e partes do corpo humano Aspectos ético-legales de la retirada y transplante de tejidos, organos y partes del cuerpo humano Legal-ethical aspects of the removal and transplantation of tissues, organs and parts of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Dias Ribeiro de Paula Lima

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available As autoras fazem uma análise crítica da legislação em vigor relativa aos transplantes de órgãos, tecidos e partes do corpo humano, e tecem comentários sobre os artigos pertinentes a eles nos respectivos códigos de ética médica e da enfermagem, alertando os profissionais de enfermagem para a necessidade de registrarem as infrações cometidas contra o cliente, à luz desses códigos.Las autoras hacen un analisis crítico de la legislación en vigor referente a los transplantes de órganos, tejidos y partes del cuerpo humano y hacen comentarios sobre los artículos pertinentes a ellos en los respectivos códigos de ética médica y de enfermería, alertando a los profesionales de enfermería sobre la necesidad de registrar las transgresiones hechas contra el cliente, a la luz de esos códigos.The authors analise critically the current legislation related to the transplantation of organs, tissues and parts of the human body, as well as they comment the articles which refer to this topic and which are found in medical and nursing ethical codes, advising nursing professionals to the need of registration of legal infractions attempted against the clients.

  12. Uranium tailings bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holoway, C.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Eldridge, V.M.

    1975-12-01

    A bibliography containing 1,212 references is presented with its focus on the general problem of reducing human exposure to the radionuclides contained in the tailings from the milling of uranium ore. The references are divided into seven broad categories: uranium tailings pile (problems and perspectives), standards and philosophy, etiology of radiation effects, internal dosimetry and metabolism, environmental transport, background sources of tailings radionuclides, and large-area decontamination

  13. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.Z.; Ross, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order. (author)

  14. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  15. Injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóides: questões éticas e legais Intracytoplasmatic sperm injection: ethical and legal questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Oliveira dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho enfoca a técnica da fertilização in vitro por meio de injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóide (ICSI, abordando seus aspectos técnicos, bem como, questões éticas e legais que permeiam tal prática. Essa técnica se diferencia das demais por corresponder à injeção de um único espermatozóide vivo no citoplasma do ovócito, sendo uma das principais alternativas atuais para a infertilidade masculina, principalmente nos casais em que o homem tem uma diminuição significativa na quantidade ou na motilidade dos espermatozóides. Vale ressaltar, que as técnicas de reprodução assistida vêm se desenvolvendo rapidamente, dando ensejo a questões polêmicas, como as relativas ao início da vida embrionária e à manipulação genética, o que implica que se deve refletir sobre este assunto, levando-se em consideração os limites éticos. Nesse sentido, é preciso, urgentemente regulamentar o tema, mesmo com os progressos alcançados pelo novo Código Civil e pela Lei de Biossegurança.This article focuses on the in vitro fertilization technique that uses intracytoplasmatic sperm injection and addresses both the technical and ethical and legal aspects of this. This technique differs from others as it involves the injection of a single live sperm into the cytoplasm of the oocyte and is one of the principal alternative treatments for male infertility, mainly for couples where the man has a significantly reduced sperm-count or sperm-mobility. It is worth pointing out that rapid advances are being made in assisted reproduction and this has given rise to controversial issues relating to the beginning of embryonic life and genetic manipulation. It is thus important to reflect on this subject and consider where ethical boundaries lie. There is therefore urgent need for regulation in this area, despite the advances already achieved by the new Civil Code and Biosafety Law.

  16. Legality in multiple legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Pennings, F.J.L.; Prechal, A.

    2010-01-01

    This is the Introductory chapter to The Eclipse of the Legality Principle in the European Union, Edited by Leonard Besselink, Frans Pennings, Sacha Prechal [European Monographs, vol. 75], Kluwer Law International, Alphen aan den Rijn, 2011 [2010], xxv + 303 pp.

  17. Integrating Ethics across the Curriculum: A Pilot Study to Assess Students' Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Susan L.; Mansfield, Nancy Reeves; Sherman, Margaret B.

    2012-01-01

    At Georgia State University (GSU), undergraduate and graduate business students are introduced to ethical theory and decision making in the required legal environment of business course, but ethics instruction in the functional areas is sporadic and uncoordinated. After a broad overview of the history of ethics in the business curriculum in Part…

  18. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2009-01-01

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…

  19. UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory: database on ethics related legislation and guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, T.W.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten; Solbakk, J.H.; Nys, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Database on Ethics Related Legislation and Guidelines was launched in March 2007 as the fourth database of the UNESCO Global Ethics Observatory system of databases in ethics of science and technology. The database offers a collection of legal instruments searchable by region, country, bioethical

  20. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swanepoel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop a comprehensive process for identifying and addressing primarily ethical issues related to the psychology profession in South Africa. In fulfilling this purpose, research was conducted of relevant ethical and to a lesser extent, legal aspects pertaining to the psychology profession. In an attempt to prevent unprofessional conduct claims against psychologists from succeeding and to alert psychologists to the concurrent ethical problems that may lead to malpractice suits, this article offers material on some important issues – in the context of forensic psychology – such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology as a profession, the Ethical Code of Professional Conduct to which a psychologist should adhere, ethical aspects and issues pertaining to forensic psychology in general, some ethical issues pertaining to child forensic psychology, summary guidelines for ethical decision-making and some steps to follow to ensure sound ethical decisionmaking.

  1. Legal Information Resources: A Guide for Maryland Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael S., Ed.

    This guidebook and annotated bibliography is designed to provide a basic listing of sources of state (Maryland), federal, and some general law for the non-law library community, and to offer some insight into the suggested approaches for dealing with legal reference inquiries. Listings of contributors and members of the Task Force on Improving…

  2. The Hospice: An Integrated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, George E.; Sobotor, William

    This extensive bibliography of books and articles provides an interdisciplinary overview of present day terminal care and the hospice alternative. Designed to aid in the development and implementation of terminal care programs stressing palliative and supportive services for both patients and their families, the bibliography includes abstracts of…

  3. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorized according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilization of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organization of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilization. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  4. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorised according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilisation of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organisation of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilisation. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  5. Diversified Cooperative Training. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This bibliography describes 52 materials available for use in cooperative education classes and career and guidance counseling. The materials include books, pamphlets, and brochures, films, curriculum guides, study guides, and workbooks. A few are suited for use with special needs students. Materials for inclusion in the bibliography were located…

  6. Bibliography for thermal neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Masanobu; Chihara, Junzo; Gotoh, Yorio; Kadotani, Hiroyuki; Sekiya, Tamotsu.

    1979-09-01

    Bibliographic references are given for measurements, calculations, reviews and basic studies of thermal neutron scattering and dynamical properties of condensed matter. This is the sixth edition covering 3,326 articles collected up to 1978. The edition being the final issue of the present bibliography series, a forthcoming edition will be published in a new form of bibliography. (author)

  7. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  8. Persuasion: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Steven T.

    Designed to reflect the diversity of approaches to persuasion, this annotated bibliography cites materials selected for their contribution to that diversity as well as for being relatively current and/or especially significant representatives of particular approaches. The bibliography starts with a list of 17 general textbooks on approaches to…

  9. Constitutional and legal protection for life support limitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate treatment limitations towards the end of life to reduce unwanted burdens require ethical clarity that is supported by appropriate legislation. The lack of knowledge of enabling legal provisions, physicians feel vulnerable to legal misinterpretation of treatment limiting decisions. In India the lack of societal awareness, inadequate exploration of the gray areas of bio-ethics and unambiguous legal position relating to terminal illness have resulted in poor quality end of life care. Much of the perceived vulnerability by the physician is attributable to insufficient knowledge and understanding of existing constitutional and legal position in India. While we await informed legal and legislative opinion, this paper highlights possible legal liabilities arising from treatment limitation decisions with available defense. It is hoped that such clarity would lead to more confident ethical decisions and improved end of life care for patients.

  10. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 4: Bibliography (annotated only for all major reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    This bibliography contains US Department of Energy sponsored Geopressured-Geothermal reports published after 1984. Reports published prior to 1984 are documented in the Geopressured Geothermal bibliography Volumes 1, 2, and 3 that the Center for Energy Studies at the University of Texas at Austin compiled in May 1985. It represents reports, papers and articles covering topics from the scientific and technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to the social, environmental, and legal considerations of exploiting those reservoirs for their energy resources.

  11. Laser Hazards Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-31

    light on mandibular fracture healing, Stomatologiia, 57(5): 5-9 (1978). 42 Laser Hazards Bibliography 177. Van Gemert, M.J.C., Schets, G.A.C.M., Bishop...U., Laser-coagulation of ruptured fixation suture after lens implantation, J Am Intraocul Implant Soc, 4(2): 54 (1978). 49. Federman, J. L., Ando, F...laser in pediatric surgery, J Ped Surg, 3: 263-270 (April 1968). 82. Hennessy, R. T., and Leibowitz, H., Subjective measurement of accommodation with

  12. Cooling towers: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1981-02-01

    This bibliography cites 300 selected references containing information on various aspects of large cooling tower technology, including design, construction, operation, performance, economics, and environmental effects. The towers considered include natural-draft and mechanical-draft types employing wet, dry, or combination wet-dry cooling. A few references deal with alternative cooling methods, principally ponds or spray canals. The citations were compiled for the DOE Energy Information Data Base (EDB) covering the period January to December 1980. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators

  13. Waste isolation: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-12-01

    This bibliography contains information on waste isolation included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from Janurary 1981 through November 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Radioactive Waste Disposal/Salt Deposits. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  14. Women, Islam, and Pakistan: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brenda

    This bibliography features selected books, book chapters, research projects, and journal articles, published between 1953 and 1994, about the social, legal, economic, educational political, and professional position of Muslim Pakistani women. Sixteen of the references are annotated. An additional 41 bibliographic references to other materials, not…

  15. The News about High School Journalism: Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bibliography No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Margaret Haining

    This annotated bibliography contains 33 items from the ERIC database on high school journalism topics of interest to student writers and editors, journalism instructors, publications advisers, and school administrators. The first section contains overviews. Ensuing sections address how journalism benefits students; legal issues in high school…

  16. Teacher-to-Teacher: An Annotated Bibliography on DNA and Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R., Comp.

    1984-01-01

    Presented is an annotated bibliography of 24 books on DNA and genetic engineering. Areas considered in these books include: basic biological concepts to help understand advances in genetic engineering; applications of genetic engineering; social, legal, and moral issues of genetic engineering; and historical aspects leading to advances in…

  17. Educational Film Preservation Bibliography: "Old Images Never Die, They Simply Fade Away".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martha

    2002-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive bibliography on the preservation of educational films and other educational media formats. Lists significant Web meta-sites then lists resources under the subject headings of film preservation, including standards and consortia; film archives; and legal issues, including copyright. (Author/LRW)

  18. Hospital pharmacy: what is ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, R M

    1989-01-01

    Characteristics of ethical evaluations as they apply to the dilemmas faced by the pharmacist in the workplace are described, and the general principles and theories of Western normative ethics are discussed. Because ethical dilemmas are commonplace in pharmacy practice, pharmacists must develop a working knowledge of formal and systematic ethical analysis, as well as learn to distinguish ethical issues from social, psychological, political, and legal issues. Ethical evaluations are distinguished by three characteristics: They are ultimate, they possess universality, and they treat the good of everyone alike. Ethical analyses can be thought of as having four different and successive stages. The first stage is ensuring that all parties understand the facts of the specific case. If controversy remains after the facts are clear, parties to the dispute can proceed through three successive stages of general moral reflection: (1) the level of moral rules, (2) the level of ethical principles, and (3) the level of ethical theories. Specific moral rules cover groups of cases, and they generally are regarded as being derived from a shorter list of abstract moral principles. An ethical theory is a systematic position about which principles are morally significant, how the principles relate to each other, and how they should be tested. Pursuit of ethical dilemmas through the full hierarchy of levels of analysis exposes simplistic or irrational moral decisions and clarifies the nature of disputes.

  19. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  20. Parental refusal: legal and ethical considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical consent. Who can give consent when children lack the capacity ... available, the Health Professions Council of South Africa guidance suggests that the .... using nutritional supplements, diet, stress reduction techniques and integrative ...

  1. Ethical, legal and social issues SAJBL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... In April 2013 the South African Medical Research Council published a request for ... selection process in the country's universities and science councils, a rigorous ... To determine the presence and magnitude of stem cell tourism in ... also takes an in-depth look at the notion of benefit sharing. In order to ...

  2. Ethical and legal issues in gestational surrogacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casella Claudia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study originated from events that occurred in 2014 in an Italian hospital, where the embryos of a couple, obtained by means of homologous insemination, were mistakenly implanted into the uterus of another woman who, along with her husband, underwent the same treatment.

  3. Abortion: ethically inconclusive, Legally and politically feasible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Díaz Amado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente el aborto en Colombia ha sido un tema sensible y bastante controvertido en el escenario público. Aunque la Corte Constitucional descriminalizó el aborto en 2006 en tres circunstancias específi cas, la sociedad colombiana permanece polarizada alrededor de la moralidad del aborto. Sin embargo, esta decisión de la Corte es una oportunidad para ver como ética, política y derecho pueden ser en verdad combinados. De hecho, diferenciar cada campo y reconocer sus posibilidades puede ser la llave para convivir pacífi camente, incluso aunque en últimas los desacuerdos éticos no puedan resolverse completamente.

  4. ETHICS VERSUS MANIPULATION: ABOUT CHARISMA AND OTHER TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Corina R DULESCU

    2009-01-01

    The ethics of communication is the most significant branch of the applied ethics; it comprises everything that means common aspect within the other professional ethics (e.g. legal ethics, business ethics, etc.) and, moreover, it has, its own topics with their own dynamics – whom we will pay attention hereby given their significance for public communication (specific for administration). Thus, we will first address the charisma (which we rather consider a hindrance against healthy communicatio...

  5. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  6. MEDICAL LAW AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Ivanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of interest in this article is the importance of knowing and connecting medical ethics and medical law for the category of health workers. The author believes that knowledge of bioethics which as a discipline deals with the study of ethical issues and health care law as a legal discipline, as well as medical activity in general, result in the awareness of health professionals of human rights, and since the performance of activities of health workers is almost always linked to the question of life and death, then the lack of knowledge of basic legal acts would not be justified at all. The aim of the paper was to present the importance of medical ethics and medical law among the medical staff. A retrospective analysis of the medical literature available on the indexed base KOBSON for the period 2005-2010 was applied. Analysis of all work leads to the conclusion that the balance between ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, trust and cooperation between the two sides that appear over health care can be considered a goal that every health care worker should strive for. This study supports the attitude that lack of knowledge and non-compliance with the ethical principles and medical law when put together can only harm the health care worker. In a way, this is the message to health care professionals that there is a need for the adoption of ethical principles and knowledge of medical law, because the most important position of all health workers is their dedication to the patient as a primary objective and the starting point of ethics.

  7. Business Ethics: Perceptions in a Vocational Development Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthieu, Louis D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Secondary business students (n=341) responded to 19 scenarios of illegal/questionable business practices. Some students do not know what constitutes legal/ethical business practice, would knowingly or unknowingly engage in illegal/unethical practices, and perceive small business owners as less inclined to behave legally/ethically. (SK)

  8. Moral Norms in Management Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilescu Liviu

    2011-01-01

    The culture and values of a community shape its behavior with the support of all the norms, rules and institutions created for this purpose. Business environment is focused on the responsibility to company success. This philosophy is the base of business ethics, of specific rules systems, supplemented and not replaced by legal regulations. However, responsibility for business can come into conflict with the common morality of society, the public in general, creating an "ethical paradox". The ...

  9. Qualitative analysis of healthcare professionals' viewpoints on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Brian S; Shank, Gary; Carlson, Jestin N; Venkat, Arvind

    2015-03-01

    Ethics consultation is a commonly applied mechanism to address clinical ethical dilemmas. However, there is little information on the viewpoints of health care providers towards the relevance of ethics committees and appropriate application of ethics consultation in clinical practice. We sought to use qualitative methodology to evaluate free-text responses to a case-based survey to identify thematically the views of health care professionals towards the role of ethics committees in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. Using an iterative and reflexive model we identified themes that health care providers support a role for ethics committees and hospitals in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas, that the role should be one of mediation, rather than prescription, but that ultimately legal exposure was dispositive compared to ethical theory. The identified theme of legal fears suggests that the mediation role of ethics committees is viewed by health care professionals primarily as a practical means to avoid more worrisome medico-legal conflict.

  10. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moyer, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, this selected bibliography reflects books, documents, periodical articles, and a number of web sites...

  11. Strategic Vision. A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibish, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, the following bibliography reflects books, documents, and periodical articles available in our Library...

  12. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibish, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, the following bibliography reflects books, documents, and periodical articles in the Army War College Library...

  13. Bibliography of Technical Reports - 1974,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bibliography lists all Technical Reports prepared by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the year 1974. It includes an author index , and also a key relating Reports to ’Contribution Numbers’.

  14. Ethical Issues in the Mental Health Treatment of Gender Dysphoric Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Stephanie; Herbert, Sarah E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines ethical dilemmas arising when treating adolescents with gender dysphoria, discussing ethical and legal issues pertinent to treating any adolescent and highlighting gender dysphoric adolescents. Reviews legal decisions, existing data on adolescent decision making, and ethical principles for resolving complex situations. Illustrates ethical…

  15. Ethical dilemmas and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, A

    1984-08-01

    Professional responsibilities, tradition, and personal conscience along with legal, philosophical, and religious convictions dictate nursing interventions. Inevitably, these factors embrace life-sustaining therapies; however, in view of complications, prognosis, pain and suffering, and their own views of quality of life, some patients express wishes inconsistent with life-sustaining measures. In other situations, the health care provider as well as the patient may view heroic efforts as more debilitating than resortative. Resolving the conflict while preserving the patient's best interests requires a confrontation with the status of "do-not resuscitate" policies within th e nurse's institution, informed consent, refusal, and competency as the necessary underpinnings for the development of an ethical and legal posture within the profession, with which to approach significant decisions regarding life-sustaining therapies. Literally every hour of every day nurses are immediately and directly involved with resolving ethical dilemmas based upon judgements and interpretations of oral or written orders, patient and family wishes, professional training, and an infinite number of other factors. When clear policies or orders are lacking, the nurse is left with the burden of making a life or death decision. It is imperative that professional nurses assess the administrative, legal, and ethical ramifications of their actions in terms of ethical codes of practice, patients' rights, institutional and personal liability, civil and criminal laws, and private conscience. An understanding of these issues, passive and active euthansia, state and national trends, and uniform legislation can assist in resolutions of the no-code dilemma. Nursing as a profession must strive to develop sound and consistent guidelines and rationale for the scope of practice in ethical dilemmas.

  16. Selected bibliography of agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majisu, L.; Labelle, R.

    1982-01-01

    A successor to a preliminary bibliography by Teemba, L. and containing some of the same references. References (1953-1982) were selected from the 3000 reprints in the agroforestry collection in the ICRAF library, and from approximately 1500 monographs, reports etc. They are grouped in 7 main sections: Agroforestry general, including subsections on agroforestry in arid and semi-arid lands, in lowlands - humid tropics, and in highlands; Agroforestry land-use systems, including concepts from agriculture and forestry land-use systems, and agroforestry systems (cropping with trees, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems); Plants and plant management, including multipurpose trees and shrubs; Physical and ecological aspects, (desertification and deforestation, agricultural meteorology, soils and soil management); social and economic aspects, including rural development and human ecology; Training and education; and Information sources and management. A list of information centres relevant to agroforestry is given, and there are subject, species and geographical indexes. 437 references

  17. Prompt nuclear analysis bibliography 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, J.R.; Campbell, B.L.; Cawley, R.J.

    1978-05-01

    A prompt nuclear analysis bibliography published in 1974 has been updated to include literature up to the end of 1976. The number of publications has more than doubled since mid-1973. The bibliography is now operated as a computer file and searches can be made on key words and parameters. Tables of references are given for each of the categories: backscattering, ion-ion, ion-gamma, ion-neutron, neutron-gamma, neutron-neutron and gamma-ray-induced reactions

  18. Towards the bibliography of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David King

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for “life” as a whole.The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citation.The paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them.

  19. An Ethically Ambitious Higher Education Data Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    The new data sciences of education bring substantial legal, political, and ethical questions about the management of information about learners. This piece provides a synoptic view of recent scholarly discussion in this domain and calls for a proactive approach to the ethics of learning research.

  20. Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…