Sample records for biaxial stress

  1. Biaxial stress effects on magnetization perpendicular to the stress plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Burkhardt, G.L. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Langman, R.A. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)


    Effects of biaxial stress in steel on magnetization in a direction normal to the stress plane were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The two results, which agreed qualitatively, showed that the magnetization in the normal direction generally decreased with the absolute value of the sum of the two principal stresses. The implication to nondestructive measurements of biaxial stress is discussed.

  2. Analysis of Biaxially Stressed Bridge Deck Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, Tommi Højer


    The ultimate state analysis of bridge deck plates at the intersection zone between main girders and transverse beams is complicated by biaxial membrane stresses, which may be in compression or tension in either direction depending on the bridge configuration and the specific location. This paper...... presents a detailed investigation of the ultimate capacity of simply supported plates subjected to biaxial loads. The full interaction domain of combinations of compressive and tensile loads has been investigated including a large number of imperfections. It was found that non-standard imperfection modes...

  3. Acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation in biaxially stressed plates. (United States)

    Gandhi, Navneet; Michaels, Jennifer E; Lee, Sang Jun


    Acoustoelasticity, or the change in elastic wave speeds with stress, is a well-studied phenomenon for bulk waves. The effect of stress on Lamb waves is not as well understood, although it is clear that anisotropic stresses will produce anisotropy in the Lamb wave dispersion curves. Here the theory of acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation is developed for isotropic media subjected to a biaxial, homogeneous stress field. It is shown that, as expected, dispersion curves change anisotropically for most stresses, modes, and frequencies. Interestingly, for some mode-frequency combinations, changes in phase velocity are isotropic even for a biaxial stress field. Theoretical predictions are compared to experimental results for several Lamb wave modes and frequencies for uniaxial loads applied to an aluminum plate, and the agreement is reasonably good.

  4. Non-destructive testing of biaxial stress state in ferromagnetic materials (United States)

    Vengrinovich, V. L.; Vintov, D. A.; Dmitrovich, D. V.


    The technique for biaxial stress state quantitative non destructive testing using magnetic, namely Barkhausen Noise, measurements is developed and checked experimentally. The main elaboration concerns the application of uni-axial calibration data for bi-axial stress measurement in the material which treatment pre-history is not definitely known. The article is aimed to get over difficulties, accompanying factual nondestructive stress evaluation, implied from its tensor nature. The developed technique of stress calibration and measurement assumes the bi-axial stress components recovery from uni-axial magnetic and Barkhausen noise measurement results. The complete technology, based on new calibration procedure with grid diagrams is considered in the article.

  5. Mechanism of biaxial pre-stress method on welding residual stress and hot cracks controlling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuesong; ZHOU Guangtao; WANG Ping; LIU Haoyuan; FANG Hongyuan


    Based on the conventional uniaxial pre-tensile stress method during welding, this study presents a new method of welding with biaxial pre-stress. With the help of numerical simulation, experiments were carried out on the self-designed device. Except for the control on residual stress and distortion as-welded, the experimental results also show its effect on the prevention of hot cracks, thus this method can make up for the disadvantage of the conventional pre-stress method. Hot cracks

  6. Acoustoelastic Lamb Wave Propagation in Biaxially Stressed Plates (Preprint) (United States)


    particularly as compared to most bulk wave NDE methods, Lamb wave are particularly sensitive to changes in the propagation environment, such as... Wilcox , and J. E. Michaels, “Efficient temperature compensation strategies for guided wave structural health monitoring,” Ultrasonics, 50, pp. 517...Liu, “Effects of residual stress on guided waves in layered media,” Rev. Prog. Quant. NDE , 17, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti (Eds.), Plenum Press

  7. A novel biaxial specimen for inducing residual stresses in thermoset polymers and fibre composite material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik; Jensen, Martin


    A new type of specimen configuration with the purpose of introducing a well-defined biaxial residual (axisymmetric) stress field in a neat thermoset or a fibre composite material is presented. The ability to experimentally validate residual stress predictions is an increasing need for design...... engineers when they challenge the material limits in present and future thermoset and composite component. In addition to the new specimen configuration, this paper presents an analytical solution for the residual stress state in the specimen. The analytical solution assumes linear elastic and isotropic...... material behaviour. Experimental strain release measurements and the analytical solution determine the residual stress state present in the material. A demonstration on neat epoxy is conducted and residual stress predictions of high accuracy and repeatability have been achieved. The precise determination...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Yang; Jike Liu; Chengwu Cai


    The stress concentration problem in structures with a circular or elliptic hole can be investigated by analytical methods.For the problem with a rectangular hole,only approximate results are derived.This paper deduces the analytical solutions to the stress concentration problem in plates with a rectangular hole under biaxial tensions.By using the U-transformation technique and the finite element method,the analytical displacement solutions of the finite element equations are derived in the series form.Therefore,the stress concentration can then be discussed easily and conveniently.For plate problem the bilinear rectangular element with four nodes is taken as an example to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.The stress concentration factors for various ratios of height to width of the hole are obtained.

  9. Numerical and experimental analysis of the directional stability on crack propagation under biaxial stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RodrIguez-MartInez, R; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Merchan-Cruz, E A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Sandoval-Pineda, J M, E-mail: rrodriguezm@ipn.m, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: jsandovalp@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME). Unidad profesional, AZCAPOTZALCO, Av. de las Granjas No. 682, Col. Sta. Catarina Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02550, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    In this paper, the case of Single Edge Notch (SEN) specimens subject to opening/compressive loading was analyzed; The loads are applied in several ratios to evaluate the influence of the specimen geometry, and the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) K{sub 1} values on the directional stability of crack propagation. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the behaviour of the fracture propagation, when modifying the geometry of the SEN specimen and different relationships of load tension/compression are applied. Additionally, the precision of the numerical and experimental analysis is evaluated to determine its reliability when solving this type of problems. The specimens are subjected to biaxial opening/compression loading; both results (numerical and experimental) are compared in order to evaluate the condition of directional stability on crack propagation. Finally, an apparent transition point related to the length of specimens was identified, in which the behaviour of values of SIF changes for different loading ratios.

  10. Stress concentration analysis in functionally graded plates with elliptic holes under biaxial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawakol A. Enab


    Full Text Available Stress concentration factors (SCFs at the root of an elliptic hole in unidirectional functionally graded material (UDFGM plates under uniaxial and biaxial loads are predicted. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL was used to build the finite element models for the plates and to run the analysis. A parametric study is performed for several geometric and material parameters such as the elliptic hole major axis to plate width ratio, the elliptical shape factor, the gradation direction of UDFGM. It is shown that, SCF in the finite plate can be significantly reduced by choosing the proper distribution of the functionally graded materials. The present study may provide designers an efficient way to estimate the hole effect on plate structures made of functionally graded materials.

  11. Application of magnetomechanical hysteresis modeling to magnetic techniques for monitoring neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Rollwitz, W.L.; Cadena, D.


    The objective is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the effects of neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress on magnetic properties in steels, using various magnetic measurement techniques. Interaction between experiment and modeling should suggest efficient magnetic measurement procedures for determining neutron embrittlement biaxial stress. This should ultimately assist in safety monitoring of nuclear power plants and of gas and oil pipelines. In the first six months of this first year study, magnetic measurements were made on steel surveillance specimens from the Indian Point 2 and D.C. Cook 2 reactors. The specimens previously had been characterized by Charpy tests after specified neutron fluences. Measurements now included: (1) hysteresis loop measurement of coercive force, permeability and remanence, (2) Barkhausen noise amplitude; and (3) higher order nonlinear harmonic analysis of a 1 Hz magnetic excitation. Very good correlation of magnetic parameters with fluence and embrittlement was found for specimens from the Indian Point 2 reactor. The D.C. Cook 2 specimens, however showed poor correlation. Possible contributing factors to this are: (1) metallurgical differences between D.C. Cook 2 and Indian Point 2 specimens; (2) statistical variations in embrittlement parameters for individual samples away from the stated men values; and (3) conversion of the D.C. Cook 2 reactor to a low leakage core configuration in the middle of the period of surveillance. Modeling using a magnetomechanical hysteresis model has begun. The modeling will first focus on why Barkhausen noise and nonlinear harmonic amplitudes appear to be better indicators of embrittlement than the hysteresis loop parameters.

  12. Photoluminescence spectra and biaxial stress effects of yellow 1S excitons in Cu{sub 2}O thin films recrystallized epitaxially between paired MgO plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S., E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Ota, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Iwamitsu, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Ichikawa, F.; Isobe, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimamoto, T.; Akai, I. [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)


    We investigated biaxial stress effects on the yellow 1S ortho excitons in Cu{sub 2}O thin films recrystallized between paired MgO plates by measuring photoluminescence spectra, X-ray diffraction and polarization microscope images. On the MgO (001) surface, we found two kinds of epitaxial growth modes of the Cu{sub 2}O thin films. In such thin films, the yellow 1S ortho exciton states split into two or three levels depending on the respective epitaxial growth modes due to the different biaxial stresses owing to the lattice mismatches between Cu{sub 2}O and MgO. By using effective Hamiltonians including such biaxial stress effects, we estimated the strengths of the biaxial stresses from the energy splittings of the 1S ortho excitons and confirmed the two kinds of epitaxial growth modes in our Cu{sub 2}O thin films. - Highlights: • Two different oriented Cu{sub 2}O thin films were epitaxially grown between paired MgO (001) plates. • The thin films were applied biaxial stresses due to lattice mismatch between Cu{sub 2}O and MgO. • The lattice mismatch stresses can change yellow 1S exciton states in Cu{sub 2}O thin films. • We report the biaxial stress strengths by analyzing splitting energies of the 1S ortho excitons.

  13. Biaxial-stress-driven full spin polarization in ferromagnetic hexagonal chromium telluride (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang-Bo; Li, Jun; Liu, Bang-Gui


    It is important to spintronics to achieve fully-spin-polarized magnetic materials that are stable and can be easily fabricated. Here, through systematical density-functional-theory investigations, we achieve high and even full spin polarization for carriers in the ground-state phase of CrTe by applying tensile biaxial stress. The resulting strain is tensile in the xy plane and compressive in the z axis. With the in-plane tensile strain increasing, the ferromagnetic order is stable against antiferromagnetic fluctuations, and a half-metallic ferromagnetism is achieved at an in-plane strain of 4.8%. With the spin-orbit coupling taken into account, the spin polarization is equivalent to 97% at the electronic transition point, and then becomes 100.0% at the in-plane strain of 6.0%. These make us believe that the full-spin-polarized ferromagnetism in this stable and easily-realizable hexagonal phase could be realized soon, and applied in spintronics.

  14. Biaxial stress evaluation in GeSn film epitaxially grown on Ge substrate by oil-immersion Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuma; Suda, Kohei; Yokogawa, Ryo; Usuda, Koji; Sawamoto, Naomi; Ogura, Atsushi


    GeSn is being paid much attention as a next-generation channel material. In this work, we performed the excitation of forbidden transverse optical (TO) phonons from strained GeSn, as well as longitudinal optical (LO) phonons, under the backscattering geometry from the (001) surface by oil-immersion Raman spectroscopy. Using the obtained LO/TO phonons, we derived the phonon deformation potentials (PDPs), which play an important role in the stress evaluation, of the strained Ge1- x Sn x for the first time. The results suggest that PDPs are almost constant for the Ge1- x Sn x (x < 0.032). Biaxial stress calculated using the derived PDPs reasonably indicated the isotropic states.

  15. Tuning the Exciton Binding Energies in Single Self-Assembled InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Dots by Piezoelectric-Induced Biaxial Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, F.; Singh, R.; Plumhof, J.D.; Zander, T.; Křápek, V.; Chen, Y.H.; Benyoucef, M.; Zwiller, V.; Dörr, K.; Bester, G.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O.G.


    We study the effect of an external biaxial stress on the light emission of single InGaAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots placed onto piezoelectric actuators. With increasing compression, the emission blueshifts and the binding energies of the positive trion (X+) and biexciton (XX) relative to the neutral exc

  16. Biaxial stress relaxation of semilunar heart valve leaflets during simulated collagen catabolism: Effects of collagenase concentration and equibiaxial strain state. (United States)

    Huang, Siyao; Huang, Hsiao-Ying Shadow


    Heart valve leaflet collagen turnover and remodeling are innate to physiological homeostasis; valvular interstitial cells routinely catabolize damaged collagen and affect repair. Moreover, evidence indicates that leaflets can adapt to altered physiological (e.g. pregnancy) and pathological (e.g. hypertension) mechanical load states, tuning collagen structure and composition to changes in pressure and flow. However, while valvular interstitial cell-secreted matrix metalloproteinases are considered the primary effectors of collagen catabolism, the mechanisms by which damaged collagen fibers are selectively degraded remain unclear. Growing evidence suggests that the collagen fiber strain state plays a key role, with the strain-dependent configuration of the collagen molecules either masking or presenting proteolytic sites, thereby protecting or accelerating collagen proteolysis. In this study, the effects of equibiaxial strain state on collagen catabolism were investigated in porcine aortic valve and pulmonary valve tissues. Bacterial collagenase (0.2 and 0.5 mg/mL) was utilized to simulate endogenous matrix metalloproteinases, and biaxial stress relaxation and biochemical collagen concentration served as functional and compositional measures of collagen catabolism, respectively. At a collagenase concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, increasing the equibiaxial strain imposed during stress relaxation (0%, 37.5%, and 50%) yielded significantly lower median collagen concentrations in the aortic valve (p = 0.0231) and pulmonary valve (p = 0.0183), suggesting that relatively large strain magnitudes may enhance collagen catabolism. Collagen concentration decreases were paralleled by trends of accelerated normalized stress relaxation rate with equibiaxial strain in aortic valve tissues. Collectively, these in vitro results indicate that biaxial strain state is capable of affecting the susceptibility of valvular collagens to catabolism, providing a basis for further investigation of

  17. Interference of wedge-shaped protrusions on the faces of a Griffith crack in biaxial stress. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, J.A.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)


    An initial investigation of the influence of protrusion interference on the fracture toughness required to prevent unstable propagation of a Griffith crack in a brittle material is described. The interference is caused by relative shear displacement of the crack faces when subjected to remote biaxial stress with neither principal stress parallel to the crack. It is shown that for room temperature cracks smaller than about one centimeter in silicon carbide, or about one millimeter in silicon nitride, the presence of interference changes the fracture stress. A mathematical model based on linear elasticity solutions and including multiple interference sites at arbitrarily specified positions on the crack is presented. Computations of the change in required fracture toughness and its dependence on wedge geometry (size and vertex angle), applied stresses (orientation and magnitude), and location of the interference site are discussed. Results indicate that a single interference site has only a slight effect on required toughness. However, the influence of interference increases monotonically with the number of interference sites. The two-dimensional model described herein is not accurate when the interference sites are closely spaced.

  18. A numerical analysis of stress intensity factors for cracks emanating from an elliptical hole in a rectangular plate under biaxial loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Concerns with stress intensity factors for cracks emanating from an elliptical hole in a rectangular plate under biaxial loads by means of a boundary element method which consists of non-singular displacement discontinuity element presented by Crouch and Starfied[6] and crack-tip displacement discontinuity elements proposed by the author. In the boundary elenent implementation the left or the right crack-tip displacement discontinuity element is placed locally at the corresponding left or right crack tip on top of the constant displacement discontinuity elements that cover the entire crack surface and other boundaries. The present numerical results further illustrate that the present numerical approach is very effective and accurate for calculating stress intensity factors of complex cracks in a finite plate and can reveal the effect of the biaxial load and the cracked body geometry on stress intensity factors.

  19. Development and validation of an experimental procedure for studying the biaxial stress corrosion. Application to the systems: alloy-600/air and 316L/MgCl{sub 2}; Developpement et validation d'une procedure experimentale pour l'etude de la corrosion sous contrainte biaxiale. Application aux couples alliage 600 / air et 316L / MgCl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farre, M.Th


    One of the main preoccupation for maintaining EdF's nuclear pressurised water reactors is intergranular stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubing (alloy 600: NC 15Fe). The most affected areas (first row U-bend and roll transition zone) are in biaxial stress state. The crack propagation is often axial and sometimes circumferential. The actual life prediction criterion for these structures depends on the maximal principal stress. The purpose of this study is to determine whether it is safe to use such a criterion in a case of biaxial stress state. A procedure is proposed and experimentally validated for designing specimen in a controlled biaxial stress state when submitted to traction. Quadrants I an IV of the stress space are the only ones explored. The aim is to use these specimens in order to realize stress corrosion tests in primary water with alloy 600. The procedure involves studying the biaxial behavior of the material. This shows the effect of hardening on the shape of the yield stress surface. The hardening of alloy 600 is mainly kinematic. The yield stress surface becomes concave in the hardening stress direction and flat in the opposite direction. The geometry of the specimen stems from parameterized shape optimisation. An elasto-viscoplastic behavior law is identified for alloy 600. Use of the law for calculating the strain state of one specimen is experimentally validated. This entire procedure has been successfully validated with biaxial stress corrosion cracking tests, using 316L and MgCl{sub 2} boiling at 154 deg C. In this case it is difficult to determine a life time criterion. It is shown that the criterion of the maximal principal stress is invalid in case of a biaxial stress state. (author)

  20. Raman-strain relations in highly strained Ge: Uniaxial ⟨100⟩, ⟨110⟩ and biaxial (001) stress (United States)

    Gassenq, A.; Tardif, S.; Guilloy, K.; Duchemin, I.; Pauc, N.; Hartmann, J. M.; Rouchon, D.; Widiez, J.; Niquet, Y. M.; Milord, L.; Zabel, T.; Sigg, H.; Faist, J.; Chelnokov, A.; Rieutord, F.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.


    The application of high values of strain to Ge considerably improves its light emission properties and can even turn it into a direct band gap semiconductor. Raman spectroscopy is routinely used for strain measurements. Typical Raman-strain relationships that are used for Ge were defined up to ˜1% strain using phonon deformation potential theory. In this work, we have studied this relationship at higher strain levels by calculating and measuring the Raman spectral shift-strain relations in several different strain configurations. Since differences were shown between the usual phonon deformation potential theory and ab-initio calculations, we highlight the need for experimental calibrations. We have then measured the strain in highly strained Ge micro-bridges and micro-crosses using Raman spectroscopy performed in tandem with synchrotron based micro-diffraction. High values of strain are reported, which enable the calibration of the Raman-strain relations up to 1.8% of in plane strain for the (001) biaxial stress, 4.8% strain along ⟨100⟩, and 3.8% strain along ⟨110⟩. For Ge micro-bridges, oriented along ⟨100⟩, the nonlinearity of the Raman shift-strain relation is confirmed. For the ⟨110⟩ orientation, we have shown that an unexpected non-linearity in the Raman-strain relationship has also to be taken into account for high stress induction. This work demonstrates an unprecedented level of strain measurement for the ⟨110⟩ uniaxial stress and gives a better understanding of the Raman-strain relations in Ge.

  1. Shape transformations of soft matter governed by bi-axial stresses. (United States)

    Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse; Moshe, Michael; Sharon, Eran; Kumacheva, Eugenia


    Rational design of the programmable soft matter requires understanding of the effect of a complex metric on shape transformations of thin non-Euclidean sheets. In the present work, we explored experimentally and using simulations how simultaneous or consecutive application of two orthogonal perturbations to thin patterned stimuli-responsive hydrogel sheets affects their three-dimensional shape transformations. The final shape of the sheet is governed by the metric, but not the order, in which the perturbations are applied to the system, and is determined by the competition of small-scale bidirectional stresses. In addition, a new, unexpected transition from a planar state to an equilibrium helical shape of the hydrogel sheet is observed via a mechanism that is yet to be explained.

  2. On the fracture of high temperature alloys by creep cavitation under uniaxial or biaxial stress states (United States)

    Sanders, John W.; Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Stubbins, James F.; Sofronis, Petros


    It is well known that creep rupture in high temperature alloys is caused by grain boundary cavitation: the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids along grain boundaries. However, it has been observed recently that the multiaxial rupture behavior of a promising class of high temperature alloys (Tung et al., 2014) cannot be captured by a well-known empirical creep rupture model due to Hayhurst. In an effort to gain a better understanding of rupture in these materials, we depart from empirical models and simulate the underlying rupture mechanisms directly, employing two related models of void growth from the literature: one due to Sham and Needleman (1983), and an extension of Sham and Needleman's model due to Van der Giessen et al. (1995). Our results suggest that the experimental observations might be explained in terms of the interplay between bulk creep and gain boundary diffusion processes. Furthermore, we find that Sham and Needleman's original void growth model, combined with our rupture model, is well suited to capture the experimental data considered here. Such a mechanism-based understanding of the influence of multiaxial stress states on the creep rupture behavior of high temperature alloys promises to be of value and to provide a basis for the qualification of these alloys for extended service in a variety of elevated temperature applications.

  3. Biaxial fatigue of metals the present understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Schijve, Jaap


    Problems of fatigue under multiaxial fatigue loads have been addressed in a very large number of research publications. The present publication is primarily a survey of biaxial fatigue under constant amplitude loading on metal specimens. It starts with the physical understanding of the fatigue phenomenon under biaxial fatigue loads. Various types of proportional and non-proportional biaxial fatigue loads and biaxial stress distributions in a material are specified. Attention is paid to the fatigue limit, crack nucleation, initial micro crack growth and subsequent macro-crack in different modes of crack growth. The interference between the upper and lower surfaces of a fatigue crack is discussed. Possibilities for predictions of biaxial fatigue properties are analysed with reference to the similarity concept. The significance of the present understanding for structural design problems is considered. The book is completed with a summary of major observations.

  4. Application of magnetomechanical hysteresis modeling to magnetic techniques for monitoring neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress. Progress report, June 1991--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Rollwitz, W.L.; Cadena, D.


    The objective is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the effects of neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress on magnetic properties in steels, using various magnetic measurement techniques. Interaction between experiment and modeling should suggest efficient magnetic measurement procedures for determining neutron embrittlement biaxial stress. This should ultimately assist in safety monitoring of nuclear power plants and of gas and oil pipelines. In the first six months of this first year study, magnetic measurements were made on steel surveillance specimens from the Indian Point 2 and D.C. Cook 2 reactors. The specimens previously had been characterized by Charpy tests after specified neutron fluences. Measurements now included: (1) hysteresis loop measurement of coercive force, permeability and remanence, (2) Barkhausen noise amplitude; and (3) higher order nonlinear harmonic analysis of a 1 Hz magnetic excitation. Very good correlation of magnetic parameters with fluence and embrittlement was found for specimens from the Indian Point 2 reactor. The D.C. Cook 2 specimens, however showed poor correlation. Possible contributing factors to this are: (1) metallurgical differences between D.C. Cook 2 and Indian Point 2 specimens; (2) statistical variations in embrittlement parameters for individual samples away from the stated men values; and (3) conversion of the D.C. Cook 2 reactor to a low leakage core configuration in the middle of the period of surveillance. Modeling using a magnetomechanical hysteresis model has begun. The modeling will first focus on why Barkhausen noise and nonlinear harmonic amplitudes appear to be better indicators of embrittlement than the hysteresis loop parameters.

  5. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther


    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  6. TRIP钢单双向应力状态下的材料行为%Investigation on the material behaviors of TRIP steels under uniaxial and biaxial stress state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海; 李先超; 马金龙; 李洪洋


    TRIP钢中残余奥氏体的马氏体相变是TRIP钢相变增塑的重要基础,与材料的宏观应力应变状态密切相关.为探索这一微观材料行为与宏观变形条件间的对应关系,该文对低碳Si-MnTRIP600钢杯突变形顶部与过渡区的材料行为进行研究.研究结果表明,杯突过程中变形区顶部为等双拉平面应力状态,过渡区为单拉平面应力状态;TRIP钢的马氏体相变对应变条件非常敏感,随变形量的增加,无论变形区顶部还是过渡区的残余奥氏体体积分数,均呈近线性降低趋势,但随应变的增加则呈逐渐饱和趋势;与底部相比,顶部等双拉平面应力状态更利于残余奥氏体的马氏体相变,在近相同应变条件下,等双拉平面应力状态下的残余奥氏体含量明显低于单拉平面应力状态.Si-Mn TRIP600钢在6%应变条件下,等双拉平面应力状态与单拉平面应力状态的残余奥氏体含量相差约7%.%The martensitic transformation of retained austenite in TRIP steels is the fundamental of TRIP steels phase transformation plasticity,which depend on the macroscopic stress and strain condition greatly.To investigate the relationship between microscopic material behaviors and macroscopic deformation conditions,low-carbon Si-Mn TRIP600 steel material behaviors of top and transitional section in cupping test was studied.It is shown that during cupping test,the stress state of the top section of the deformation area is equal biaxial stretching plane stress,meanwhile,the transitional section is uniaxial stretching plane stress.The martensitic transformation in TRIP steels was sensitive to strain condition,the retained austenite volume fraction in both top and transitional section shows a nearly linear decrease trend with the increasing of strain.But the trend of gradual saturation can also be found with the increasing of strain.Compared with the bottom,the equal biaxial stretching plane stress condition in the top

  7. A local constitutive model with anisotropy for various homogeneous 2D biaxial deformation modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, S.; Perdahcioglu, E.S.


    A local constitutive model for granular materials with anisotropy is proposed and applied to different biaxial box deformation modes. The simplified version of the model (in the coordinate system of the biaxial box) involves only scalar values for hydrostatic and shear stresses, for the isotropic an

  8. Topology Optimization of Stressed Capacitive RF MEMS Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, Mandy A.; Sigmund, Ole; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.


    Geometry design can improve a capacitive radio-frequency microelectromechanical system switch's reliability by reducing the impacts of intrinsic biaxial stresses and stress gradients on the switch's membrane. Intrinsic biaxial stresses cause stress stiffening, whereas stress gradients cause out...

  9. Fragmentation in Biaxial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G H; Archbold, G C; Hurricane, O A; Miller, P L


    We have carried out an experiment that places a ductile stainless steel in a state of biaxial tension at a high rate of strain. The loading of the ductile metal spherical cap is performed by the detonation of a high explosive layer with a conforming geometry to expand the metal radially outwards. Simulations of the loading and expansion of the metal predict strain rates that compare well with experimental observations. A high percentage of the HE loaded material was recovered through a soft capture process and characterization of the recovered fragments provided high quality data, including uniform strain prior to failure and fragment size. These data were used with a modified fragmentation model to determine a fragmentation energy.

  10. Biaxial Fatigue Cracking from Notch (United States)


    Leevers (reference 11) noticed that the variation in  from 0 to 2 has little effect on the da/dN in PVC ( polyvinyl - chloride ), but reduces the da/dN...under biaxial rotating and bending. Ahmad (reference 2) formulated a model for the biaxial fatigue crack growth in aggressive environment, outlined by...1962, Vol. 90, pp. 238-239. 20. ASM Handbook , Vol. 12 Fractography: 1992, p. 430, 438. 21. Metals Handbook , Vol. 9 Fractography and Atlas of

  11. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues: Part II: In-Plane Biaxial Experiments. (United States)

    Freed, Alan D; Einstein, Daniel R; Sacks, Michael S


    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue.

  12. Biaxial fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ackermann


    had partially mode II orientation (tilted 45° to the loading axes and afterwards bifurcated into two pairs of mode I cracks. Another shear test revealed a major crack of mode I orientation (parallel to the loading axes. These results are in good agreement to the literature. Micro cracks after shear fatigue were longer than those after biaxial fatigue with strain ratios of 1 and 0.5. Major and minor cracks after equibiaxial and shear loading showed crack branching and crack coalescence. The results on fatigue crack behavior support the assumption that the period of stage I (mode II crack propagation is much longer under shear loading than under other biaxial conditions due to absence of tensile stress normal to the planes of maximum shear strain under shear loading

  13. Biaxial mechanical characterization of bat wing skin. (United States)

    Skulborstad, A J; Swartz, S M; Goulbourne, N C


    The highly flexible and stretchable wing skin of bats, together with the skeletal structure and musculature, enables large changes in wing shape during flight. Such compliance distinguishes bat wings from those of all other flying animals. Although several studies have investigated the aerodynamics and kinematics of bats, few have examined the complex histology and mechanical response of the wing skin. This work presents the first biaxial characterization of the local deformation, mechanical properties, and fiber kinematics of bat wing skin. Analysis of these data has provided insight into the relationships among the structural morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality of wing skin. Large spatial variations in tissue deformation and non-negligible fiber strains in the cross-fiber direction for both chordwise and spanwise fibers indicate fibers should be modeled as two-dimensional elements. The macroscopic constitutive behavior was anisotropic and nonlinear, with very low spanwise and chordwise stiffness (hundreds of kilopascals) in the toe region of the stress-strain curve. The structural arrangement of the fibers and matrix facilitates a low energy mechanism for wing deployment and extension, and we fabricate examples of skins capturing this mechanism. We propose a comprehensive deformation map for the entire loading regime. The results of this work underscore the importance of biaxial field approaches for soft heterogeneous tissue, and provide a foundation for development of bio-inspired skins to probe the effects of the wing skin properties on aerodynamic performance.

  14. Design and Use of a Novel Bioreactor for Regeneration of Biaxially Stretched Tissue-Engineered Vessels. (United States)

    Huang, Angela Hai; Lee, Yong-Ung; Calle, Elizabeth A; Boyle, Michael; Starcher, Barry C; Humphrey, Jay D; Niklason, Laura E


    Conventional bioreactors are used to enhance extracellular matrix (ECM) production and mechanical strength of tissue-engineered vessels (TEVs) by applying circumferential strain, which is uniaxial stretching. However, the resulting TEVs still suffer from inadequate mechanical properties, where rupture strengths and compliance values are still very different from native arteries. The biomechanical milieu of native arteries consists of both circumferential and axial loading. Therefore, to better simulate the physiological stresses acting on native arteries, we built a novel bioreactor system to enable biaxial stretching of engineered arteries during culture. This new bioreactor system allows for independent control of circumferential and axial stretching parameters, such as displacement and beat rate. The assembly and setup processes for this biaxial bioreactor system are reliable with a success rate greater than 75% for completion of long-term sterile culture. This bioreactor also supports side-by-side assessments of TEVs that are cultured under three types of mechanical conditions (static, uniaxial, and biaxial), all within the same biochemical environment. Using this bioreactor, we examined the impact of biaxial stretching on arterial wall remodeling of TEVs. Biaxial TEVs developed the greatest wall thickness compared with static and uniaxial TEVs. Unlike uniaxial loading, biaxial loading led to undulated collagen fibers that are commonly found in native arteries. More importantly, the biaxial TEVs developed the most mature elastin in the ECM, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The presence of mature extracellular elastin along with the undulated collagen fibers may contribute to the observed vascular compliance in the biaxial TEVs. The current work shows that biaxial stretching is a novel and promising means to improve TEV generation. Furthermore, this novel system allows us to optimize biomechanical conditioning by unraveling the interrelationships among the

  15. Fatigue of Clip connectors for offshore drilling risers under biaxial tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Vidit


    Full Text Available Drilling riser connectors designed by IFPEN undergo cyclic in-phase biaxial tension in their critical area. This type of loading was reproduced on steel tubular specimens loaded in cyclic tension and internal pressure. The fatigue lives were substantially reduced when the load biaxiality was increased from 0 to 0.4 and then further to 1, which was not captured by existing fatigue criteria. A deeper investigation is thus in progress. Emphasis is laid on the separate evaluation of mean stress and biaxiality effects, often treated in the same way in existing criteria. The influence of load biaxiality on the resistance of the steel to fatigue-corrosion in seawater will also be investigated.

  16. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.


    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  17. Design of Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves using biaxial test data. (United States)

    Dabiri, Y; Paulson, K; Tyberg, J; Ronsky, J; Ali, I; Di Martino, E; Narine, K


    Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves (BAVs) do not have the serious limitations of mechanical aortic valves in terms of thrombosis. However, the lifetime of BAVs is too short, often requiring repeated surgeries. The lifetime of BAVs might be improved by using computer simulations of the structural behavior of the leaflets. The goal of this study was to develop a numerical model applicable to the optimization of durability of BAVs. The constitutive equations were derived using biaxial tensile tests. Using a Fung model, stress and strain data were computed from biaxial test data. SolidWorks was used to develop the geometry of the leaflets, and ABAQUS finite element software package was used for finite element calculations. Results showed the model is consistent with experimental observations. Reaction forces computed by the model corresponded with experimental measurements when the biaxial test was simulated. As well, the location of maximum stresses corresponded to the locations of frequent tearing of BAV leaflets. Results suggest that BAV design can be optimized with respect to durability.

  18. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates (United States)

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit


    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  19. An ultrasonic guided wave method to estimate applied biaxial loads (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Lee, Sang Jun


    Guided waves propagating in a homogeneous plate are known to be sensitive to both temperature changes and applied stress variations. Here we consider the inverse problem of recovering homogeneous biaxial stresses from measured changes in phase velocity at multiple propagation directions using a single mode at a specific frequency. Although there is no closed form solution relating phase velocity changes to applied stresses, prior results indicate that phase velocity changes can be closely approximated by a sinusoidal function with respect to angle of propagation. Here it is shown that all sinusoidal coefficients can be estimated from a single uniaxial loading experiment. The general biaxial inverse problem can thus be solved by fitting an appropriate sinusoid to measured phase velocity changes versus propagation angle, and relating the coefficients to the unknown stresses. The phase velocity data are obtained from direct arrivals between guided wave transducers whose direct paths of propagation are oriented at different angles. This method is applied and verified using sparse array data recorded during a fatigue test. The additional complication of the resulting fatigue cracks interfering with some of the direct arrivals is addressed via proper selection of transducer pairs. Results show that applied stresses can be successfully recovered from the measured changes in guided wave signals.

  20. Engineering piezoresistivity using biaxially strained silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Richter, Jacob; Brandbyge, Mads;


    We calculate the shear piezocoefficient of p-type silicon with grown-in biaxial strain using a 66 k·p method. We find a significant increase in the value of the shear piezocoefficient for compressive grown-in biaxial strain, while tensile strain decreases the piezocoefficient. The dependence...... of the piezocoefficient on temperature and dopant density is altered qualitatively for strained silicon. In particular, we find that a vanishing temperature coefficient may result for silicon with grown-in biaxial tensile strain. These results suggest that strained silicon may be used to engineer the iezoresistivity...

  1. Stabilisation problem in biaxial platform (United States)

    Lindner, Tymoteusz; Rybarczyk, Dominik; Wyrwał, Daniel


    The article describes investigation of rolling ball stabilization problem on a biaxial platform. The aim of the control system proposed here is to stabilize ball moving on a plane in equilibrium point. The authors proposed a control algorithm based on cascade PID and they compared it with another control method. The article shows the results of the accuracy of ball stabilization and influence of applied filter on the signal waveform. The application used to detect the ball position measured by digital camera has been written using a cross platform .Net wrapper to the OpenCV image processing library - EmguCV. The authors used the bipolar stepper motor with dedicated electronic controller. The data between the computer and the designed controller are sent with use of the RS232 standard. The control stand is based on ATmega series microcontroller.

  2. Stabilisation problem in biaxial platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindner Tymoteusz


    Full Text Available The article describes investigation of rolling ball stabilization problem on a biaxial platform. The aim of the control system proposed here is to stabilize ball moving on a plane in equilibrium point. The authors proposed a control algorithm based on cascade PID and they compared it with another control method. The article shows the results of the accuracy of ball stabilization and influence of applied filter on the signal waveform. The application used to detect the ball position measured by digital camera has been written using a cross platform .Net wrapper to the OpenCV image processing library - EmguCV. The authors used the bipolar stepper motor with dedicated electronic controller. The data between the computer and the designed controller are sent with use of the RS232 standard. The control stand is based on ATmega series microcontroller.

  3. Semiautomatic device tests components with biaxial leads (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.


    Semiautomatic device with a four-terminal network tests quantities of components having biaxial leads. The four-terminal network permits the testing of components in different environments. This device is easily modified for completely automatic operation.

  4. On Some Elastic Instabilities in Biaxial Nematics


    Sukumaran, Sreejith; G. Ranganath


    Within the framework of the continuum elastic theory of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we have addressed ourselves to the structure, stability and energetics of some singular and non–singular topological defects, and certain director configurations. We find that certain non–singular hybrid disclinations could be energetically favourable relative to certain half–strength disclinations. The interaction between singular hybrids depends strongly on the biaxial elastic anisotropy. We suggest pos...


    KAUST Repository

    Pancheri, Francesco Q.


    We present a new experimental method and provide data showing the response of 40A natural rubber in uniaxial, pure shear, and biaxial tension. Real-time biaxial strain control allows for independent and automatic variation of the velocity of extension and retraction of each actuator to maintain the preselected deformation rate within the gage area of the specimen. Wealso focus on the Valanis-Landel hypothesis that is used to verify and validate the consistency of the data.Weuse a threeterm Ogden model to derive stress-stretch relations to validate the experimental data. The material model parameters are determined using the primary loading path in uniaxial and equibiaxial tension. Excellent agreement is found when the model is used to predict the response in biaxial tension for different maximum in-plane stretches. The application of the Valanis-Landel hypothesis also results in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  6. Biaxially stretchable silver nanowire conductive film embedded in a taro leaf-templated PDMS surface (United States)

    Wu, Chunhui; Jiu, Jinting; Araki, Teppei; Koga, Hirotaka; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Wang, Hao; Suganuma, Katsuaki


    A biaxially wave-shaped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface was developed simply by using a taro leaf as the template. The resulting leaf-templated PDMS (L-PDMS) possesses a micro-sized curved interface structure, which is greatly beneficial for the exact embedding of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network conductive film covering the L-PDMS surface. The intrinsically curved AgNW/L-PDMS film surface, without any dangling nanowire, could prevent the fracture of AgNWs due to stretching stress even after cyclic stretching. More importantly, it also exhibited a biaxial stretchability, which showed ultra-stable resistance after continuous stretching for 100 cycles each in X- and Y-directions. This biaxially stretchable AgNW/L-PDMS film could extend the application fields in stretchable electronics.

  7. A confocal rheoscope to study bulk or thin-film material under uniaxial or biaxial shear

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Neil Y C; Cheng, Xiang; Leahy, Brian; Cohen, Itai


    We present a new design of a confocal rheoscope that enables us to precisely impose a uniform uniaxial or biaxial shear. The design consists of two precisely-positioned parallel plates. Our design allows us to adjust the gap between the plates to be as small as 2$\\pm$0.1 $\\mu$m, allowing for the exploration of confinement effects. By using our shear cell in conjunction with a biaxial force measurement device and a high-speed confocal microscope, we are able to measure the real-time biaxial stress while simultaneously imaging the material 3D structure. We illustrate the importance of the instrument capabilities by discussing the applications of this instrument in current and future research topics in colloidal suspensions.

  8. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Rahul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Riley, Michael [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina [US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Benet Labs, Watervliet, New York 12189 (United States); Lu, Toh-Ming [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)


    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  9. Biaxial tension on polymer in thermoforming range (United States)

    Becker, S.; Combeaud, C.; Fournier, F.; Rodriguez, J.; Billon, N.


    This paper presents an experimental characterization of mechanical properties of a polyethylene terephtalate (PET) resin classically used in stretch blow moulding process. We have applied on such a material a well established experimental protocol at CEMEF, including new and relevant biaxial tensile tests. The experimental set-up relative to biaxial tension will be presented and described in a first part of the paper. Furthermore, we will focus on the experimental DMTA preliminary tests which are required to estimate the resin sensibility to temperature and strain rate in linear viscoelasticity domain. Finally, we will be interested in the material large strain behaviour: biaxial tensile results are presented and discussed. Finally, such an experimental approach should allow a relevant modelling of polymer physics and mechanics; this point will not be discussed here because of a lack of time.

  10. Biaxial tension on polymer in thermoforming range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billon N.


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental characterization of mechanical properties of a polyethylene terephtalate (PET resin classically used in stretch blow moulding process. We have applied on such a material a well established experimental protocol at CEMEF, including new and relevant biaxial tensile tests. The experimental set-up relative to biaxial tension will be presented and described in a first part of the paper. Furthermore, we will focus on the experimental DMTA preliminary tests which are required to estimate the resin sensibility to temperature and strain rate in linear viscoelasticity domain. Finally, we will be interested in the material large strain behaviour: biaxial tensile results are presented and discussed. Finally, such an experimental approach should allow a relevant modelling of polymer physics and mechanics; this point will not be discussed here because of a lack of time.

  11. Growth of inclined fatigue cracks using the biaxial CJP model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Laboviciute


    Full Text Available The CJP model of crack tip stresses is a modified version of the Williams crack tip stress field which takes account of simplified stress distributions that arise from the presence of a zone of plastic deformation associated with the crack flanks and crack tip, and that act on the elastic field responsible for driving crack growth. The elastic stress field responsible for crack growth is therefore controlled by the applied loading and by the induced boundary stresses at the interface with the plastic zone. This meso-scale model of crack tip stresses leads to a modified set of crack tip stress intensity factors that include the resultant influence of plastic wake-induced crack tip shielding, and which therefore have the potential to help resolve some longstanding controversies associated with plasticity-induced closure. A full-field approach has now been developed for stress using photoelasticity and also for displacement using digital image correlation. This paper considers the characterisation of crack growth rate data with the biaxial CJP model, using compact tension specimens that contain inclined cracks at the notch tip with initial angles of 30°, 45° and 60° to the horizontal axis. Significant experimental difficulties are experienced in growing cracks in a biaxial field under uniaxial tensile loading, as the natural tendency of the crack is to turn so that it becomes perpendicular to the maximum principal stress direction. However, crack angle is not an issue in the CJP model which calculates the stress field parallel with, and perpendicular to, the crack plane. These stress components can be rotated into directions comparable with the usual KI and KII directions and used to calculate stress intensity parameters that should be directly comparable with the standard stress intensity formulations. Another difficulty arises, however, in finding published expressions for KI and KII for CT specimens with curved or kinked cracks. The CJP model

  12. Towards the biaxial nematic phase via specific intermolecular interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Omnes, L


    The work described in this thesis has been focussed on the search of an elusive liquid crystal phase, known as the biaxial nematic phase. Indeed, despite nearly thirty years of intense research, no-one has been able to characterise unambiguously a biaxial nematic phase in a low-molar-mass thermotropic system. Our research is based on the concept of molecular biaxiality as distinct from shape biaxiality. Thus, we are seeking to design palladium complexes where specific intermolecular interactions could exist. Therefore, a few original synthetic strategies were developed to tackle the challenge of discovering the biaxial nematic phase

  13. Structural stability and theoretical strength of Cu crystal under equal biaxial loading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jian-Min Zhang; Zhong-Liang Lin; Yan Zhang; Vincent Ji


    Cu has been used extensively to replace Al as interconnects in ULSI and MEMS devices. However, because of the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between the Cu film and the Si substrate, large biaxial stresses will be generated in the Cu film. Thus, the Cu film becomes unstable and even changes its morphologies which affects the device manufacturing yield and ultimate reliability. The structural stability and theoretical strength of Cu crystal under equal biaxial loading have been investigated by combining the MAEAM with Milstein-modified Born stability criteria. The results indicate that, under sufficient tension, there exists a stress-free BCC phase which is unstable and slips spontaneously to a stress-free metastable BCT phase by consuming internal energy. The stable region ranges from −15.131 GPa to 2.803 GPa in the theoretical strength or from −5.801% to 4.972% in the strain respectively.

  14. Failure Investigation for QP Steel Sheets under uniaxial and Equal-Biaxial Tension Conditions (United States)

    Zou, Danqing; Li, Shuhui; He, Ji; Cui, Ronggao


    The Quenching and Partitioning (QP) steel sheet is new generation material to induce phase transformation for plasticity in forming vehicle parts. The phase transformation is strongly stress state dependent behavior in experiments, which should affect the failure timing and limit strain in forming processes. In this paper, Nakajima test with QP980 and DP1000 steel sheets under equal-biaxial loading condition is performed for failure behavior. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is adopted to obtain the volume fraction of retained austenite (fA). Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is used to record the surface strain field and its evolution during equal-biaxial tension deformation. The same level Dual Phase (DP) steel is also employed for the purpose of comparison. The results show that phase transformation in QP steel gives small impact on failure strain under equal biaxial tension condition which is contradicted with our understanding. It suggests that failure behavior under uniaxial tension of QP980 is strongly phase transformation dependent. But it shows almost independent under equal biaxial tension condition.

  15. Mechanical characterisation of porcine rectus sheath under uniaxial and biaxial tension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Mathew


    Incisional hernia development is a significant complication after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is known to initiate the extrusion of intestines through the abdominal wall, but there is limited data on the mechanics of IAP generation and the structural properties of rectus sheath. This paper presents an explanation of the mechanics of IAP development, a study of the uniaxial and biaxial tensile properties of porcine rectus sheath, and a simple computational investigation of the tissue. Analysis using Laplace׳s law showed a circumferential stress in the abdominal wall of approx. 1.1MPa due to an IAP of 11kPa, commonly seen during coughing. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were conducted on samples of porcine rectus sheath to characterise the stress-stretch responses of the tissue. Under uniaxial tension, fibre direction samples failed on average at a stress of 4.5MPa at a stretch of 1.07 while cross-fibre samples failed at a stress of 1.6MPa under a stretch of 1.29. Under equi-biaxial tension, failure occurred at 1.6MPa with the fibre direction stretching to only 1.02 while the cross-fibre direction stretched to 1.13. Uniaxial and biaxial stress-stretch plots are presented allowing detailed modelling of the tissue either in silico or in a surrogate material. An FeBio computational model of the tissue is presented using a combination of an Ogden and an exponential power law model to represent the matrix and fibres respectively. The structural properties of porcine rectus sheath have been characterised and add to the small set of human data in the literature with which it may be possible to develop methods to reduce the incidence of incisional hernia development.

  16. Viscoelasticity of brain corpus callosum in biaxial tension (United States)

    Labus, Kevin M.; Puttlitz, Christian M.


    Computational models of the brain rely on accurate constitutive relationships to model the viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. Current viscoelastic models have been derived from experiments conducted in a single direction at a time and therefore lack information on the effects of multiaxial loading. It is also unclear if the time-dependent behavior of brain tissue is dependent on either strain magnitude or the direction of loading when subjected to tensile stresses. Therefore, biaxial stress relaxation and cyclic experiments were conducted on corpus callosum tissue isolated from fresh ovine brains. Results demonstrated the relaxation behavior to be independent of strain magnitude, and a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model was able to accurately fit the experimental data. Also, an isotropic reduced relaxation tensor was sufficient to model the stress-relaxation in both the axonal and transverse directions. The QLV model was fitted to the averaged stress relaxation tests at five strain magnitudes while using the measured strain history from the experiments. The resulting model was able to accurately predict the stresses from cyclic tests at two strain magnitudes. In addition to deriving a constitutive model from the averaged experimental data, each specimen was fitted separately and the resulting distributions of the model parameters were reported and used in a probabilistic analysis to determine the probability distribution of model predictions and the sensitivity of the model to the variance of the parameters. These results can be used to improve the viscoelastic constitutive models used in computational studies of the brain.

  17. Biaxial crystal-based optical tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Andrew P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.;


    We suggest an optical tweezer setup based on an optically biaxial crystal. To control movements of opaque particles, we use shifts. The results of experimental studies are reported which are concerned with this laser tweezer setup. We demonstrate a movement of microparticles of toner using...... a singular-optical trap, rotation of particles due to orbital angular momentum of the field, and converging or diverging of two different traps when changing transmission plane of polariser at the input of our polarisation interferometer....

  18. Biaxial testing for fabrics and foils optimizing devices and procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Beccarelli, Paolo


    This book offers a well-structured, critical review of current design practice for tensioned membrane structures, including a detailed analysis of the experimental data required and critical issues relating to the lack of a set of design codes and testing procedures. The technical requirements for biaxial testing equipment are analyzed in detail, and aspects that need to be considered when developing biaxial testing procedures are emphasized. The analysis is supported by the results of a round-robin exercise comparing biaxial testing machines that involved four of the main research laboratories in the field. The biaxial testing devices and procedures presently used in Europe are extensively discussed, and information is provided on the design and implementation of a biaxial testing rig for architectural fabrics at Politecnico di Milano, which represents a benchmark in the field. The significance of the most recent developments in biaxial testing is also explored.

  19. Biaxial shear of confined colloidal hard spheres: the structure and rheology of the vorticity-aligned string phase. (United States)

    Lin, Neil Y C; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai


    Using a novel biaxial confocal rheoscope, we investigate the flow of the shear induced vorticity aligned string phase [X. Cheng et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2011, 109, 63], which has a highly anisotropic microstructure. Using biaxial shear protocols we show that we have excellent control of the string phase anisotropic morphology. We choose a shear protocol that drives the system into the string phase. Subsequently, a biaxial force measurement device is used to determine the suspension rheology along both the flow and vorticity directions. We find no measurable dependence of the suspension stress response along the shear and vorticity directions due to the hydrodynamically induced string morphology. In particular, we find that the suspension's high frequency stress response is nearly identical along the two orthogonal directions. While we do observe an anisotropic stress response at lower shear frequencies associated with shear thinning, we show that this anisotropy is independent of the shear induced string structure. These results suggest that for the range of flows explored, Brownian and hydrodynamic contributions to the stress arising from the anisotropic suspension microstructure are sufficiently weak that they do not significantly contribute to the rheology. Collectively, this study presents a general and powerful approach for using biaxial confocal rheometry to elucidate the relationship between microstructure and rheology in complex fluids driven far-from-equilibrium.

  20. Behavior of High Water-cement Ratio Concrete under Biaxial Compression after Freeze-thaw Cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Huaishuai; SONG Yupu; OU Jinping


    The high water-cement ratio concrete specimens under biaxial compression that completed in a triaxial testing machine were experimentally studied.Strength and deformations of plain concrete specimens after 0,25,50 cycles of freeze-thaw.Influences of freeze-thaw cycles and stress ratio on the peak stress and deformation of this point were analyzed aecording to the experimental results.Based on the test data,the failure criterion expressed in terms of principal stress after difierent cycles of freeze-thaw,and the failure criterion with consideration of the influence of freeze-thaw cycle and sffess ratio were proposed respectively.

  1. Time-dependent biaxial mechanical behavior of the aortic heart valve leaflet. (United States)

    Stella, John A; Liao, Jun; Sacks, Michael S


    Despite continued progress in the treatment of aortic valve (AV) disease, current treatments continue to be challenged to consistently restore AV function for extended durations. Improved approaches for AV repair and replacement rests upon our ability to more fully comprehend and simulate AV function. While the elastic behavior the AV leaflet (AVL) has been previously investigated, time-dependent behaviors under physiological biaxial loading states have yet to be quantified. In the current study, we performed strain rate, creep, and stress-relaxation experiments using porcine AVL under planar biaxial stretch and loaded to physiological levels (60 N/m equi-biaxial tension), with strain rates ranging from quasi-static to physiologic. The resulting stress-strain responses were found to be independent of strain rate, as was the observed low level of hysteresis ( approximately 17%). Stress relaxation and creep results indicated that while the AVL exhibited significant stress relaxation, it exhibited negligible creep over the 3h test duration. These results are all in accordance with our previous findings for the mitral valve anterior leaflet (MVAL) [Grashow, J.S., Sacks, M.S., Liao, J., Yoganathan, A.P., 2006a. Planar biaxial creep and stress relaxatin of the mitral valve anterior leaflet. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 34 (10), 1509-1518; Grashow, J.S., Yoganathan, A.P., Sacks, M.S., 2006b. Biaxial stress-stretch behavior of the mitral valve anterior leaflet at physiologic strain rates. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 34 (2), 315-325], and support our observations that valvular tissues are functionally anisotropic, quasi-elastic biological materials. These results appear to be unique to valvular tissues, and indicate an ability to withstand loading without time-dependent effects under physiologic loading conditions. Based on a recent study that suggested valvular collagen fibrils are not intrinsically viscoelastic [Liao, J., Yang, L., Grashow, J., Sacks, M.S., 2007

  2. On the Use of Biaxial Properties in Modeling Annulus as a Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes eMomeni Shahraki


    Full Text Available Besides the biology, stresses and strains within the tissue greatly influence the location of damage initiation and mode of failure in an intervertebral disc. Finite element models of a functional spinal unit (FSU that incorporate reasonably accurate geometry and appropriate material properties are suitable to investigate such issues. Different material models and techniques have been used to model the anisotropic annulus fibrosus, but the abilities of these models to predict damage initiation in the annulus and to explain clinically observed phenomena are unclear. In this study a hyperelastic anisotropic material model for the annulus with two different sets of material constants, experimentally determined using uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions, were incorporated in a 3D finite element model of a ligamentous FSU. The purpose of the study was to highlight the biomechanical differences (e.g., intradiscal pressure, motion, forces, stresses and strains, etc. due to the dissimilarity between the two sets of material properties (uniaxial and biaxial. Based on the analyses, the biaxial constants simulations resulted in better agreements with the in-vitro and in-vivo data, and thus are more suitable for future damage analysis and failure prediction of the annulus under complex multiaxial loading conditions.

  3. Biaxial thermal creep of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C (United States)

    Tung, Hsiao-Ming; Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F.


    The biaxial thermal creep behavior of Inconel 617 and Haynes 230 at 850 and 950 °C was investigated. Biaxial stresses were generated using the pressurized tube technique. The detailed creep deformation and fracture mechanism have been studied. Creep curves for both alloys showed that tertiary creep accounts for a greater portion of the materials' life, while secondary creep only accounts for a small portion. Fractographic examinations of the two alloys indicated that nucleation, growth, and coalescence of creep voids are the dominant micro-mechanisms for creep fracture. At 850 °C, alloy 230 has better creep resistance than alloy 617. When subjected to the biaxial stress state, the creep rupture life of the two alloys was considerably reduced when compared to the results obtained by uniaxial tensile creep tests. The Monkman-Grant relation proves to be a promising method for estimating the long-term creep life for alloy 617, whereas alloy 230 does not follow the relation. This might be associated with the significant changes in the microstructure of alloy 230 at high temperatures.

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.


    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.


    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  6. Characterization Of Biaxial Strain Of Poly(L-Lactide) Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard;


    . Through further WAXS analysis it was found that the SEQ biaxial strain yields larger interplanar spacing and distorted crystals and looser packing of chains. However, this does not influence the mechanical properties negatively. A loss of orientation in SEQ biaxial strained samples at high degrees...

  7. Numerical development of a new correlation between biaxial fracture strain and material fracture toughness for small punch test (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Dutta, B. K.; Chattopadhyay, J.


    The miniaturized specimens are used to determine mechanical properties of the materials, such as yield stress, ultimate stress, fracture toughness etc. Use of such specimens is essential whenever limited quantity of material is available for testing, such as aged/irradiated materials. The miniaturized small punch test (SPT) is a technique which is widely used to determine change in mechanical properties of the materials. Various empirical correlations are proposed in the literature to determine the value of fracture toughness (JIC) using this technique. bi-axial fracture strain is determined using SPT tests. This parameter is then used to determine JIC using available empirical correlations. The correlations between JIC and biaxial fracture strain quoted in the literature are based on experimental data acquired for large number of materials. There are number of such correlations available in the literature, which are generally not in agreement with each other. In the present work, an attempt has been made to determine the correlation between biaxial fracture strain (εqf) and crack initiation toughness (Ji) numerically. About one hundred materials are digitally generated by varying yield stress, ultimate stress, hardening coefficient and Gurson parameters. Such set of each material is then used to analyze a SPT specimen and a standard TPB specimen. Analysis of SPT specimen generated biaxial fracture strain (εqf) and analysis of TPB specimen generated value of Ji. A graph is then plotted between these two parameters for all the digitally generated materials. The best fit straight line determines the correlation. It has been also observed that it is possible to have variation in Ji for the same value of biaxial fracture strain (εqf) within a limit. Such variation in the value of Ji has been also ascertained using the graph. Experimental SPT data acquired earlier for three materials were then used to get Ji by using newly developed correlation. A reasonable

  8. Biaxial Flexural Strength and Estimation of Size on the Strength Properties of FRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Saraf


    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastics (FRP are widely used as structural materials. For designing structural components, a designer is provided with data based on unidirectional testing. But in real structural applications the component is subjected to multiaxial stress throughout the material. Hence a multiaxial test is a better gauge of the behaviour of FRP components in service. In the present paper a ring-on-ring method was adopted which produces biaxial flexural stress on the FRP specimen. Wubull's statistical weakest link theory was applied to standardize the complexity and to assess the reliability of the results.

  9. Characterization Of Biaxial Strain Of Poly(L-Lactide) Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard;


    Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in its L-form has promising mechanical properties. Being a semi-crystalline polymer, it can be subjected to strain-induced crystallization at temperatures above Tg and can thereby become oriented. Following a simultaneous (SIM) biaxial strain process or a sequential (SEQ......) biaxial strain process, the mechanical properties of biaxial strained tubes can be further improved. This study investigated these properties in relation to their morphology and crystal orientation. Both processes yield the same mechanical strength and modulus, yet exhibit different crystal orientation...

  10. Tensile Property of Bi-axial Warp Knitted Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The tensile property of bi-axial warp knitted fabrics is tested and compared with that of the plain weave fabric. The results show that there are obvious differences between the tensile property of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric and that of a plain weave fabric.The former can give fuller play to the property of a high modulus yarn than the latter. The tensile strength of a bi-axial warp knitted fabric is linear with the number of yarns in the direction of force.

  11. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates (United States)

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN


    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete under Biaxial Compression%双轴压下活性粉末混凝土的力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余自若; 安明喆; 王志建


    为了满足对活性粉末混凝土(RPC)结构进行非线性分析和设计的需要,通过试验研究了RPC试件在双轴受压状态下的强度和变形特性,分析了RPC的破坏形态、双轴抗压极限强度、峰值应变、应力-应变曲线等变化规律,给出了RPC的二轴峰值应力包络图与峰值应变包络图,建立了主应力空间下RPC的双轴破坏准则,为RPC按多轴强度理论进行设计提供了试验依据.%For purpose of performing the nonlinear analysis and designing reactive powder concrete(RPC) structure, experimental investigation of the deformation and strength of RPC specimens with size of 150 mmX 150 mmX50 mm under biaxial compression was carried out. The stresses and strains at the biaxial loading directions of RPC specimens were obtained under biaxial strain controlled loading condition. Based on the test data, the change rule of the failure modes, biaxial comprehensive stress, peak strain and the stress-strain curves were studied. The biaxial strength envelop and peak strain envelops of RPC were obtained. The formula of Kupfer-Gerstle failure criterion for RPC under biaxial compression is proposed, which provide experimental base for the design of RPC structure considering the multi-axial strength.

  13. Shear Piezoelectricity in Poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene): Full Piezotensor Coefficients by Molecular Modeling, Biaxial Transverse Response, and Use in Suspended Energy-Harvesting Nanostructures. (United States)

    Persano, Luana; Catellani, Alessandra; Dagdeviren, Canan; Ma, Yinji; Guo, Xiaogang; Huang, Yonggang; Calzolari, Arrigo; Pisignano, Dario


    The intrinsic flexible character of polymeric materials causes remarkable strain deformations along directions perpendicular to the applied stress. The biaxial response in the shear piezoelectricity of polyvinylidenefluoride copolymers is analyzed and their full piezoelectric tensors are provided. The microscopic shear is exploited in single suspended nanowires bent by localized loading to couple flexural deformation and transverse piezoelectric response.

  14. Evaluation of the plastic yield locus for embossed sheet using biaxial tensile tests (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Oh, Seok-Hwan; Do, Van-Cuong; Lee, Bong-Hyun


    3D-structured (embossed) aluminium sheets have been used as heat insulation materials in automotive exhaust parts because the embossments on the sheets increase the surface area and reinforce the stiffness of exhaust components. Unlike the press-forming process for flat (non-embossed) sheets, however, that for embossed aluminium sheets is constrained by many restrictions given the distinct mechanical properties and geometric 3D shape of the latter. In designing sheet-stamping tools, manufacturers have recently used CAE technologies based on finite element analysis. Guaranteeing the effectiveness of CAE technologies necessitates information about the plastic yield criterion, which is determined primarily by performing a biaxial tensile test on cruciform-shaped specimens. We measured the yield locus of an embossed aluminium 3004-P sheet by using the camera vision method instead of strain gauge measurement because of the difficulty in attaching a strain gauge to the central region of the aluminium body. The measured yield locus of the studied sheet shows that its yield stress in equi-biaxial stress is smaller than the flat sheet yield locus measured by the strain gauge method. The shape of the yield locus of the embossed aluminium sheet also adequately corresponds with Logan-Hosford anisotropic yield function.

  15. Nondestructive measurement of esophageal biaxial mechanical properties utilizing sonometry (United States)

    Aho, Johnathon M.; Qiang, Bo; Wigle, Dennis A.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Urban, Matthew W.


    Malignant esophageal pathology typically requires resection of the esophagus and reconstruction to restore foregut continuity. Reconstruction options are limited and morbid. The esophagus represents a useful target for tissue engineering strategies based on relative simplicity in comparison to other organs. The ideal tissue engineered conduit would have sufficient and ideally matched mechanical tolerances to native esophageal tissue. Current methods for mechanical testing of esophageal tissues both in vivo and ex vivo are typically destructive, alter tissue conformation, ignore anisotropy, or are not able to be performed in fluid media. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical properties of swine esophageal tissues through nondestructive testing utilizing sonometry ex vivo. This method allows for biomechanical determination of tissue properties, particularly longitudinal and circumferential moduli and strain energy functions. The relative contribution of mucosal-submucosal layers and muscular layers are compared to composite esophagi. Swine thoracic esophageal tissues (n  =  15) were tested by pressure loading using a continuous pressure pump system to generate stress. Preconditioning of tissue was performed by pressure loading with the pump system and pre-straining the tissue to in vivo length before data was recorded. Sonometry using piezocrystals was utilized to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain on five composite esophagi. Similarly, five mucosa-submucosal and five muscular layers from thoracic esophagi were tested independently. This work on esophageal tissues is consistent with reported uniaxial and biaxial mechanical testing and reported results using strain energy theory and also provides high resolution displacements, preserves native architectural structure and allows assessment of biomechanical properties in fluid media. This method may be of use to characterize mechanical properties of tissue engineered esophageal

  16. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.


    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  17. Detection of an intermediate biaxial phase in the phase diagram of biaxial liquid crystals: Entropic sampling study (United States)

    Kamala Latha, B.; Jose, Regina; Murthy, K. P. N.; Sastry, V. S. S.


    We investigate the phase sequence of biaxial liquid crystals, based on a general quadratic model Hamiltonian over the relevant parameter space, with a Monte Carlo simulation which constructs equilibrium ensembles of microstates, overcoming possible (free) energy barriers (combining entropic and frontier sampling techniques). The resulting phase diagram qualitatively differs from the universal phase diagram predicted earlier from mean-field theory (MFT), as well as the Monte Carlo simulations with the Metropolis algorithm. The direct isotropic-to-biaxial transition predicted by the MFT is replaced in certain regions of the space by the onset of an additional intermediate biaxial phase of very low order, leading to the sequence NB-NB1-I. This is due to inherent barriers to fluctuations of the components comprising the total energy, and may explain the difficulties in the experimental realization of these phases.

  18. High Tc YBCO superconductor deposited on biaxially textured Ni substrate (United States)

    Budai, John D.; Christen, David K.; Goyal, Amit; He, Qing; Kroeger, Donald M.; Lee, Dominic F.; List, III, Frederick A.; Norton, David P.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Sales, Brian C.; Specht, Eliot D.


    A superconducting article includes a biaxially-textured Ni substrate, and epitaxial buffer layers of Pd (optional), CeO.sub.2 and YSZ, and a top layer of in-plane aligned, c-axis oriented YBCO having a critical current density (J.sub.c) in the range of at least 100,000 A/cm.sup.2 at 77 K.

  19. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.


    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low...

  20. Impact of Bi-Axial Shear on Atherogenic Gene Expression by Endothelial Cells. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amlan; Chakraborty, Sutirtha; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Thomas, Jonathan M; Sharp, M Keith; Berson, R Eric; Haribabu, Bodduluri


    This study demonstrated the effects of the directionality of oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) on proliferation and proatherogenic gene expression (I-CAM, E-Selectin, and IL-6) in the presence of inflammatory mediators leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from endothelial cells grown in an orbiting culture dish. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to quantify the flow in the dish, while an analytical solution representing an extension of Stokes second problem was used for validation. Results indicated that WSS magnitude was relatively constant near the center of the dish and oscillated significantly (0-0.9 Pa) near the side walls. Experiments showed that LTB4 dominated the shear effects on cell proliferation and area. Addition of LPS didn't change proliferation, but significantly affected cell area. The expression of I-CAM1, E-Selectin and IL-6 were altered by directional oscillatory shear index (DOSI, a measure of the biaxiality of oscillatory shear), but not shear magnitude. The significance of DOSI was further reinforced by the strength of its interactions with other atherogenic factors. Hence, directionality of shear appears to be an important factor in regulating gene expression and provides a potential explanation of the propensity for increased vascular lesions in regions in the arteries with oscillating biaxial flow.

  1. Time-evolving collagen-like structural fibers in soft tissues: biaxial loading and spherical inflation (United States)

    Topol, Heiko; Demirkoparan, Hasan; Pence, Thomas J.; Wineman, Alan


    This work considers a previously developed constitutive theory for the time dependent mechanical response of fibrous soft tissue resulting from the time dependent remodeling of a collagen fiber network that is embedded in a ground substance matrix. The matrix is taken to be an incompressible nonlinear elastic solid. The remodeling process consists of the continual dissolution of existing fibers and the creation of new fibers. Motivated by experimental reports on the enzyme degradation of collagen fibers, the remodeling is governed by first order chemical kinetics such that the dissolution rate is dependent upon the fiber stretch. The resulting time dependent mechanical response is sensitive to the natural configuration of the fibers when they are created, and different assumptions on the nature of the fiber's stress free state are considered here. The response under biaxial loading, a type of loading that has particular significance for the characterization of biological materials, is studied. The inflation of a spherical membrane is then analyzed in terms of the equal biaxial stretch that occurs in the membrane approximation. Different assumptions on the natural configuration of the fibers, combined with their time dependent dissolution and reforming, are shown to emulate alternative forms of creep and relaxation response. This formal similarity to viscoelastic phenomena occurs even though the underlying mechanisms are fundamentally different from the mechanism of macromolecular reconfiguration that one typically associates with viscoelastic response.

  2. Numerical simulations of biaxial experiments on damage and fracture in sheet metal forming (United States)

    Gerke, Steffen; Schmidt, Marco; Brünig, Michael


    The damage and failure process of ductile metals is characterized by different mechanisms acting on the micro-scale as well as on the macro-level. These deterioration processes essentially depend on the material type and on the loading conditions. To describe these phenomena in an appropriate way a phenomenological continuum damage and fracture model has been proposed. To detect the effects of stress-state-dependent damage mechanisms, numerical simulations of tests with new biaxial specimen geometries for sheet metals have been performed. The experimental results including digital image correlation (DIC) show good agreement with the corresponding numerical analysis. The presented approach based on both experiments and numerical simulation provides several new aspects in the simulation of sheet metal forming processes.

  3. DEM Simulation of Biaxial Compression Experiments of Inherently Anisotropic Granular Materials and the Boundary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Xia Tong


    Full Text Available The reliability of discrete element method (DEM numerical simulations is significantly dependent on the particle-scale parameters and boundary conditions. To verify the DEM models, two series of biaxial compression tests on ellipse-shaped steel rods are used. The comparisons on the stress-strain relationship, strength, and deformation pattern of experiments and simulations indicate that the DEM models are able to capture the key macro- and micromechanical behavior of inherently anisotropic granular materials with high fidelity. By using the validated DEM models, the boundary effects on the macrodeformation, strain localization, and nonuniformity of stress distribution inside the specimens are investigated using two rigid boundaries and one flexible boundary. The results demonstrate that the boundary condition plays a significant role on the stress-strain relationship and strength of granular materials with inherent fabric anisotropy if the stresses are calculated by the force applied on the wall. However, the responses of the particle assembly measured inside the specimens are almost the same with little influence from the boundary conditions. The peak friction angle obtained from the compression tests with flexible boundary represents the real friction angle of particle assembly. Due to the weak lateral constraints, the degree of stress nonuniformity under flexible boundary is higher than that under rigid boundary.

  4. Analysis of Deformation Mechanisms Associated with Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene Films (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Hsu, Shaw Ling


    Biaxially oriented samples can be prepared either by simultaneous or sequential deformation along two orthogonal directions. Generally speaking the orientation achieved in the plane of the film is independent of the method. In this study, we demonstrate that for sequential deformation, the degree of orientation achieved in the two orthogonal directions is dependent on initial sample morphology and deformation parameters. The achievable orientation is strongly dependent on the degree of crystallinity and initial crystallite dimensions. Samples containing small crystallites can achieve significantly higher orientation in the transverse direction (restretching step). The ultimate morphology is dictated by the temperature at which second drawing occurs. At lower deformation temperature, rotation of stacked crystalline lamellae can be accomplished to form biaxially oriented films. At higher temperatures, the dominant mechanism is unfolding of crystalline chain segments followed by recrystallization into units aligned with the restretching direction. X-ray diffraction, polarized infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and calorimetric techniques were employed to analyze these structural transformations.

  5. Scaling rules for critical current density in anisotropic biaxial superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingxu, E-mail: [Applied Mechanics and Structure Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Kang, Guozheng [Applied Mechanics and Structure Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)


    Recent researches highlight the additional anisotropic crystallographic axis within the superconducting plane of high temperature superconductors (HTS), demonstrating the superconducting anisotropy of HTS is better understood in the biaxial frame than the previous uniaxial coordinates within the superconducting layer. To quantitatively evaluate the anisotropy of flux pinning and critical current density in HTS, we extend the scaling rule for single-vortex collective pinning in uniaxial superconductors to account for flux-bundle collective pinning in biaxial superconductors. The scaling results show that in a system of random uncorrected point defects, the field dependence of the critical current density is described by a unified function with the scaled magnetic field of the isotropic superconductor. The obtained angular dependence of the critical current density depicts the main features of experimental observations, considering possible corrections due to the strong-pinning interaction.

  6. Theory of nine elastic constants of biaxial nematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hong


    In this paper, a rotational invariant of interaction energy between two biaxial-shaped molecules is assumed and in the mean field approximation, nine elastic constants for simple distortion patterns in biaxial nematica are derived in terms of the thermal averagewhere D(l)mn is the Wigner rotation matrix.In the lowest order terms, the elastic constants depend on coefficients г,г',λ, order parameters Q0=Q0+Q2vj'j''j(r12) and probability function fk'k'' k (r12), where r12 is the distance between two molecules, andλis proportional to temperature. Q0 and Q2 are parameters related to multiple moments of molecules. Comparing these results with those obtained from Landau-de Gennes theory, we have obtained relationships between coefficients, order parameters used in both theories. In the special case of uniaxial nematics, both results are reduced to a degenerate case where K11=K33.

  7. Design of a biaxial mechanical loading bioreactor for tissue engineering. (United States)

    Bilgen, Bahar; Chu, Danielle; Stefani, Robert; Aaron, Roy K


    We designed a loading device that is capable of applying uniaxial or biaxial mechanical strain to a tissue engineered biocomposites fabricated for transplantation. While the device primarily functions as a bioreactor that mimics the native mechanical strains, it is also outfitted with a load cell for providing force feedback or mechanical testing of the constructs. The device subjects engineered cartilage constructs to biaxial mechanical loading with great precision of loading dose (amplitude and frequency) and is compact enough to fit inside a standard tissue culture incubator. It loads samples directly in a tissue culture plate, and multiple plate sizes are compatible with the system. The device has been designed using components manufactured for precision-guided laser applications. Bi-axial loading is accomplished by two orthogonal stages. The stages have a 50 mm travel range and are driven independently by stepper motor actuators, controlled by a closed-loop stepper motor driver that features micro-stepping capabilities, enabling step sizes of less than 50 nm. A polysulfone loading platen is coupled to the bi-axial moving platform. Movements of the stages are controlled by Thor-labs Advanced Positioning Technology (APT) software. The stepper motor driver is used with the software to adjust load parameters of frequency and amplitude of both shear and compression independently and simultaneously. Positional feedback is provided by linear optical encoders that have a bidirectional repeatability of 0.1 μm and a resolution of 20 nm, translating to a positional accuracy of less than 3 μm over the full 50 mm of travel. These encoders provide the necessary position feedback to the drive electronics to ensure true nanopositioning capabilities. In order to provide the force feedback to detect contact and evaluate loading responses, a precision miniature load cell is positioned between the loading platen and the moving platform. The load cell has high accuracies of 0

  8. Design of a Biaxial Mechanical Loading Bioreactor for Tissue Engineering (United States)

    Bilgen, Bahar; Chu, Danielle; Stefani, Robert; Aaron, Roy K.


    We designed a loading device that is capable of applying uniaxial or biaxial mechanical strain to a tissue engineered biocomposites fabricated for transplantation. While the device primarily functions as a bioreactor that mimics the native mechanical strains, it is also outfitted with a load cell for providing force feedback or mechanical testing of the constructs. The device subjects engineered cartilage constructs to biaxial mechanical loading with great precision of loading dose (amplitude and frequency) and is compact enough to fit inside a standard tissue culture incubator. It loads samples directly in a tissue culture plate, and multiple plate sizes are compatible with the system. The device has been designed using components manufactured for precision-guided laser applications. Bi-axial loading is accomplished by two orthogonal stages. The stages have a 50 mm travel range and are driven independently by stepper motor actuators, controlled by a closed-loop stepper motor driver that features micro-stepping capabilities, enabling step sizes of less than 50 nm. A polysulfone loading platen is coupled to the bi-axial moving platform. Movements of the stages are controlled by Thor-labs Advanced Positioning Technology (APT) software. The stepper motor driver is used with the software to adjust load parameters of frequency and amplitude of both shear and compression independently and simultaneously. Positional feedback is provided by linear optical encoders that have a bidirectional repeatability of 0.1 μm and a resolution of 20 nm, translating to a positional accuracy of less than 3 μm over the full 50 mm of travel. These encoders provide the necessary position feedback to the drive electronics to ensure true nanopositioning capabilities. In order to provide the force feedback to detect contact and evaluate loading responses, a precision miniature load cell is positioned between the loading platen and the moving platform. The load cell has high accuracies of 0

  9. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  10. 纬编针织物双向拉伸性能测试与分析%Testing and analysis of biaxial tensile performance of weft knitted fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一平; 龙海如


    为研究影响纬编针织物双向拉伸性能的结构因素,采用国产双向拉伸测试仪对4个系列的纬编针织物进行双向等速拉伸测试,并对各参数变化下的应力与应变曲线进行比较.结果表明:不间原料的纬平针织物的拉伸曲线非常类似;常见的纬编组织,如平针、罗纹、双罗纹等具有不同的双向拉伸应力与应变曲线;相同原料、不同密度织物的双向拉伸应力与应变曲线有一定的不同;此外,纬编织物经过染色、整理后其拉伸应力增加,变形减少,织物尺寸稳定.%To investigate the influence of structural parameters on the biaxial tensile performance of weft knitted fabrics, the biaxial tension at same constant speed of four series of weft knitted fabrics were undertaken by a domestic biaxial tensile tester. The stress-strain curves as functions of parameters were compared. It was found that the tensile curves of the plain weft knitted fabrics made of different raw materials were very similar. Common weft-knitting stitches such as plain, rib, interlock showed different stress-strain curves under biaxial tension. When different densities were adopted, the weft knitted fabrics made of same materials also showed different stress-strain curves. Besides, dyeing and finishing reduced deformation, and improved tensile stress and dimensional stability of weft knitted fabrics.

  11. Quantification of Coupled Stiffness and Fiber Orientation Remodeling in Hypertensive Rat Right-Ventricular Myocardium Using 3D Ultrasound Speckle Tracking with Biaxial Testing (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo; Sebastiani, Andrea; Yap, Choon Hwai; Simon, Marc A.; Kim, Kang


    Mechanical and structural changes of right ventricular (RV) in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) are inadequately understood. While current standard biaxial testing provides information on the mechanical behavior of RV tissues using surface markers, it is unable to fully assess structural and mechanical properties across the full tissue thickness. In this study, the mechanical and structural properties of normotensive and pulmonary hypertension right ventricular (PHRV) myocardium through its full thickness were examined using mechanical testing combined with 3D ultrasound speckle tracking (3D-UST). RV pressure overload was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by pulmonary artery (PA) banding. The second Piola–Kirchhoff stress tensors and Green-Lagrangian strain tensors were computed in the RV myocardium using the biaxial testing combined with 3D-UST. A previously established non-linear curve-fitting algorithm was applied to fit experimental data to a Strain Energy Function (SEF) for computation of myofiber orientation. The fiber orientations obtained by the biaxial testing with 3D-UST compared well with the fiber orientations computed from the histology. In addition, the re-orientation of myofiber in the right ventricular free wall (RVFW) along longitudinal direction (apex-to-outflow-tract direction) was noticeable in response to PH. For normotensive RVFW samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test spiraled from 20° at the endo-cardium to -42° at the epi-cardium (Δ = 62°). For PHRV samples, the average fiber orientation angles obtained by 3D-UST with biaxial test had much less spiral across tissue thickness: 3° at endo-cardium to -7° at epi-cardium (Δ = 10°, P<0.005 compared to normotensive). PMID:27780271

  12. Analysis of Pre-tension Level upon Biaxial Behaviour of Fused Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Zubauskiene


    Full Text Available The results of fused multilayer systems pre-tension level upon biaxial loading are presented in this research work. The values of initial pre-tension of fused multilayer systems in longitudinal and transverse directions were: 0.0 %, 0.4 %, 0.8 %, 1.2 %, 1.7 % and 2.1 %. The results of the investigations have shown that deformational characteristics (F, N and Hmax, mm in longitudinal and transverse directions differ with the increase of pre-tension level. Thus, seam allowances can be defined more accurately in more deformable direction at the stage of product development. Cotton fabric (100 % of plain weave was used as base material for fused systems. Biaxial tension testing was performed with three types of interlinings: woven, nonwoven and knitted, which differed not only in surface density, but in the density of adhesive layer, which was 52 and 76 dots/cm2, as well. The samples of fused systems were punched from the side of the main cotton fabric in order to maintain the same friction force between the punch and the specimen. Obtained results have shown that different number of force peaks, i.e. breakings is characteristic for different fused systems. For initial pre-tension from 0.0 % to 2.1 % the first breaking always appears in longitudinal direction irrespectfully to longitudinal or transverse pre-tension direction. It means that at low levels of pre-tension, e.g. 2.1 % it is possible to control the height of punching deformation, but not to change the location of critical stresses.DOI:

  13. Fatigue Behavior of Plain Concrete Under Biaxial Compression:Experiments and Theoretical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱劲松; 宋玉普; 曹伟


    The effects of different lateral confinement stress on the fatigue behavior of and cumulative damage to plain concrete are investigated experimentally. Eighty 100 mm×100 mm×100 mm specimens of ordinary strength concrete are tested under constant- or variable-amplitude fatigue loading and lateral confinement pressure in two orthogonal directions. A fatigue equation is developed by modifying the classical Aas-Jakobsen S-N equation for taking into account the effect of the confined stress on fatigue strength of plain concrete. The results of variable-amplitude fatigue tests indicate that the linear damage theory proposed by Palmgren and Miner is unreasonable in the biaxial stress state. A nonlinear cumulative damage model that could model the effects of the magnitude and sequence of variable-amplitude fatigue loading and lateral confinement pressure is proposed on the basis of the evolution laws of the residual strains in the longitudinal direction during fatigue tests. The residual fatigue life predicted by this model is found to be in good agreement with the results of the experimental research.

  14. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.


    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  15. Lattice Spin Simulations of Topological Defects in Biaxial Nematic Films with Homeotropic Surface Alignment (United States)

    Preeti, Gouripeddi Sai; Zannoni, Claudio; Chiccoli, Cesare; Pasini, Paolo; Sastry, Vanka S. S.


    We present a detailed Monte Carlo study of the effects of biaxiality on the textures of nematic films with specific homeotropic boundary conditions. We have used the Straley generalized Hamiltonian for a wide range of biaxial parameters and the differences obtained in the polarized microscopy images are analyzed for the various cases.

  16. Sol-gel deposition of buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substances (United States)

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit


    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  17. Implementation of a Biaxial Resonant Fatigue Test Method on a Large Wind Turbine Blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowberg, D.; Dana, S.; Hughes, S.; Berling, P.


    A biaxial resonant test method was utilized to simultaneously fatigue test a wind turbine blade in the flap and edge (lead-lag) direction. Biaxial resonant blade fatigue testing is an accelerated life test method utilizing oscillating masses on the blade; each mass is independently oscillated at the respective flap and edge blade resonant frequency. The flap and edge resonant frequency were not controlled, nor were they constant for this demonstrated test method. This biaxial resonant test method presented surmountable challenges in test setup simulation, control and data processing. Biaxial resonant testing has the potential to complete test projects faster than single-axis testing. The load modulation during a biaxial resonant test may necessitate periodic load application above targets or higher applied test cycles.

  18. Competition between capillarity, layering and biaxiality in a confined liquid crystal. (United States)

    Varga, S; Martinez-Ratón, Y; Velasco, E


    The effect of confinement on the phase behaviour and structure of fluids made of biaxial hard particles (cuboids) is examined theoretically by means of Onsager second-order virial theory in the limit where the long particle axes are frozen in a mutually parallel configuration. Confinement is induced by two parallel planar hard walls (slit-pore geometry), with particle long axes perpendicular to the walls (perfect homeotropic anchoring). In bulk, a continuous nematic-to-smectic transition takes place, while shape anisotropy in the (rectangular) particle cross-section induces biaxial ordering. As a consequence, four bulk phases, uniaxial and biaxial nematic and smectic phases, can be stabilised as the cross-sectional aspect ratio is varied. On confining the fluid, the nematic-to-smectic transition is suppressed, and either uniaxial or biaxial phases, separated by a continuous transition, can be present. Smectic ordering develops continuously from the walls for increasing particle concentration (in agreement with the supression of nematic-smectic second-order transition at confinement), but first-order layering transitions, involving structures with n and n + 1 layers, arise in the confined fluid at high concentration. Competition between layering and uniaxial-biaxial ordering leads to three different types of layering transitions, at which the two coexisting structures can be both uniaxial, one uniaxial and another biaxial, or both biaxial. Also, the interplay between molecular biaxiality and wall interactions is very subtle: while the hard wall disfavours the formation of the biaxial phase, biaxiality is against the layering transitions, as we have shown by comparing the confined phase behaviour of cylinders and cuboids. The predictive power of Onsager theory is checked and confirmed by performing some calculations based on fundamental-measure theory.

  19. Nanomechanics of phospholipid bilayer failure under strip biaxial stretching using molecular dynamics (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Horstemeyer, M. F.; Gwaltney, Steven R.; Stone, Tonya; LaPlaca, Michelle; Liao, Jun; Williams, Lakiesha; Prabhu, R.


    The current study presents a nanoscale in silico investigation of strain rate dependency of membrane (phospholipid bilayer) failure when placed under strip biaxial tension with two planar areas. The nanoscale simulations were conducted in the context of a multiscale modelling framework in which the macroscale damage (pore volume fraction) progression is delineated into pore nucleation (number density of pores), pore growth (size of pores), and pore coalescence (inverse of nearest neighbor distance) mechanisms. As such, the number density, area fraction, and nearest neighbor distances were quantified in association with the stress-strain behavior. Deformations of a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer were performed using molecular dynamics to simulate mechanoporation of a neuronal cell membrane due to injury, which in turn can result in long-term detrimental effects that could ultimately lead to cell death. Structures with 72 and 144 phospholipids were subjected to strip biaxial tensile deformations at multiple strain rates. Formation of a water bridge through the phospholipid bilayer was the metric to indicate structural failure. Both the larger and smaller bilayers had similar behavior regarding pore nucleation and the strain rate effect on pore growth post water penetration. The applied strain rates, planar area, and cross-sectional area had no effect on the von Mises strains at which pores greater than 0.1 nm2 were detected (0.509  ±  7.8%) or the von Mises strain at failure (ɛ failure  =  0.68  ±  4.8%). Additionally, changes in bilayer planar and cross-sectional areas did not affect the stress response. However, as the strain rate increased from 2.0  ×  108 s-1 to 1.0  ×  109 s-1, the yield stress increased from 26.5 MPa to 66.7 MPa and the yield strain increased from 0.056 to 0.226.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun He; Yupu Song


    An orthotropic constitutive relationship with temperature parameters for plain highstrength high-performance concrete (HSHPC) under biaxial compression is developed. It is based on the experiments performed for characterizing the strength and deformation behavior at two strength levels of HSHPC at 7 different stress ratios including α = σ2 : σ3 = 0.00 : -1, -0.20 : -1, -0.30 : -1, -0.40 : -1, -0.50 : -1, -0.75 : -1, -1.00 : -1, after the exposure to normal and high temperatures of 20, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600℃, and using a large static-dynamic true triaxial machine. The biaxial tests were performed on 100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm cubic specimens, and friction-reducing pads were used consisting of three layers of plastic membrane with glycerine in-between for the compressive loading plane. Based on the experimental results, failure modes of HSHPC specimens were described. The principal static compressive strengths, strains at the peak stress and stress-strain curves were measured; and the influence of the temperature and stress ratios on them was also analyzed. The experimental results showed that the uniaxial compressive strength of plain HSHPC after exposure to high temperatures does not decrease dramatically with the increase of temperature. The ratio of the biaxial to its uniaxial compressive strength depends on the stress ratios and brittleness-stiffness of HSHPC after exposure to different temperature levels. Comparison of the stress-strain results obtained from the theoretical model and the experimental data indicates good agreement.

  1. Resonant biaxial 7-mm MEMS mirror for omnidirectional scanning (United States)

    Hofmann, U.; Aikio, M.; Janes, J.; Senger, F.; Stenchly, V.; Weiss, M.; Quenzer, H.-J.; Wagner, B.; Benecke, W.


    Low-cost automotive laser scanners for environment perception are needed to enable the integration of advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) into all automotive vehicle segments, a key to reducing the number of traffic accidents on roads. An omnidirectional 360 degree laser scanning concept has been developed based on combination of an omnidirectional lens and a biaxial large aperture MEMS mirror. This omnidirectional scanning concept is the core of a small sized low-cost time-of-flight based range sensor development. This paper describes concept, design, fabrication and first measurement results of a resonant biaxial 7mm gimbal-less MEMS mirror that is electrostatically actuated by stacked vertical comb drives. Identical frequencies of the two resonant axes are necessary to enable the required circle scanning capability. A tripod suspension was chosen since it allows minimizing the frequency splitting of the two resonant axes. Low mirror curvature is achieved by a thickness of the mirror of more than 500 μm. Hermetic wafer level vacuum packaging of such large mirrors based on multiple wafer bonding has been developed to enable to achieve a large mechanical tilt angle of +/- 6.5 degrees in each axis. The 7mm-MEMS mirror demonstrates large angle circular scanning at 1.5kHz.

  2. Biaxial testing of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under changing salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. Huyghe


    Full Text Available The in vivo mechanics of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is one of biaxial rather than uniaxial loading. The material properties of the annulus are intimately linked to the osmolarity in the tissue. This paper presents biaxial relaxation experiments of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under stepwise changes of external salt concentration. The force tracings show that stresses are strongly dependent on time, salt concentration and orientation. The force tracing signature of are sponse to a change instrain, is one of a jumpin stress that relaxes partly as the new strain is maintained. The force tracing signature of a stepwise change in salt concentration is a progressive monotonous change in stress towards a new equilibrium value. Although the number of samples does not allow any definitive quantitative conclusions, the trends may shed light on the complex interaction among the directionality of forces, strains and fiber orientation on one hand, and on the other hand, the osmolarity of the tissue. The dual response to a change in strain is understood as an immediate response before fluid flows in or out of the tissue, followed by a progressive readjustment of the fluid content in time because of the gradient in fluid chemical potential between the tissue and the surrounding solution.A mecânica in vivo do anel fibroso do disco intervertebral é baseada em carregamento biaxial ao invés de uniaxial. As propriedades materiais do anel estão intimamente ligadas à osmolaridade no tecido. O artigo apresenta experimentos de relaxação biaxiais do anel fibroso de um tecido canino sob mudanças abruptas na concentração externa de sal. A assinatura da força devido à mudança brusca de salinidade resulta em uma progressiva e monótona mudança na tensão em direção a um novo valor de equilíbrio. Embora o número de amostras não permita nenhuma conclusão quantitativa, as tendências podem abrir uma luz no entendimento das intera

  3. Mechanical Behaviors and Elastic Parameters of Laminated Fabric URETEK3216LV Subjected to Uniaxial and Biaxial Loading (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Chen, Wujun; Wang, Mingyang; Ding, Yong; Zhou, Han; Zhao, Bing; Fan, Jin


    A comprehensive experimental study of the laminated fabric URETEK3216LV subjected to mono-uniaxial, uniaxial cyclic and biaxial cyclic loading was performed to expose the detailed mechanical behaviors and determine proper elastic parameters for the laminated fabrics under specific stress states. The elastic modulus-strain curves and elastic parameter response surfaces were used to reveal the mechanical behaviors, and a weighted average method of integrals was proposed to calculate the elastic parameters for different stress states. Results show that typical stress-strain curves consist of three distinct regions during loading: crimp region, nonlinear transition region and yarn extension region, which is consistent with those of the constitutive yarns. The elastic parameters and mechanical behaviors of the laminated fabric are stress-state specific, and they vary noticeably with the experimental protocols, stress ratios and stress levels. The proposed method is feasible to evaluate the elastic parameters no matter what stress states the materials are subjected to, and thus it may offer potential access to obtain accurate design and analysis of the airship structures under different loading conditions.

  4. Characteristics of Plane Wave Propagation in Biaxially Anisotropic Gyrotropic Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wei-Tao; LIU Song-Hua; QIU Zhi-Liang


    Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves at the interface between an isotropic regular medium and a biaxially anisotropic gyrotropic medium are investigated.The results indicate that the reflection and refract ionproperties of electromagnetic waves are closely dependent on the dispersion relation of the gyrotropic media,and that anomalous total reflection and negative refraction may occur.The existence conditions of total transmission are also considered.It is found that total transmission arises when the TE-polarized incident waves are normal to the interface and the physical parameters of the two media are chosen properly,which are quite different from the existence conditions of total transmission at the anisotropic left-handed material interface.Numerical resul tsare given to validate our theoretical analysis.

  5. A resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil employing a fractal capacitor bank (United States)

    Martin, James E.


    The design and construction of a series resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil for the production of magnetic fields as large as 500 G in the range of 100-2500 Hz is described. Important aspects of ac coil design are discussed, including: minimizing power losses due to the expected Joule heating, self-induced eddy currents, and skin resistance; controlling the stray capacitance; maximizing field homogeneity; and keeping peak voltages at acceptable levels. The design and construction of a computer-controlled, optically isolated fractal capacitor bank is then treated, and various aspects of capacitor selection and characterization were discussed. The system performance is demonstrated, including stability and the possibility of field component dephasing with typical magnetic samples.

  6. A resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil employing a fractal capacitor bank. (United States)

    Martin, James E


    The design and construction of a series resonant biaxial Helmholtz coil for the production of magnetic fields as large as 500 G in the range of 100-2500 Hz is described. Important aspects of ac coil design are discussed, including: minimizing power losses due to the expected Joule heating, self-induced eddy currents, and skin resistance; controlling the stray capacitance; maximizing field homogeneity; and keeping peak voltages at acceptable levels. The design and construction of a computer-controlled, optically isolated fractal capacitor bank is then treated, and various aspects of capacitor selection and characterization were discussed. The system performance is demonstrated, including stability and the possibility of field component dephasing with typical magnetic samples.

  7. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth (United States)

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir


    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  8. Calculation of band structure in (101)-biaxially strained Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The structure model used for calculation was defined according to Vegard’s rule and Hooke’s law. Calculations were performed on the electronic structures of(101)-biaxially strained Si on relaxed Si1-X GeX alloy with Ge fraction ranging from X = 0 to 0.4 in steps of 0.1 by CASTEP approach. It was found that [±100] and [00±1] valleys(-4) splitting from the [0±10] valley(-2) constitute the conduction b0and(CB) edge,that valence band(VB) edge degeneracy is partially lifted and that the electron mass is un-altered under strain while the hole mass decreases in the [100] and [010] directions. In addition,the fitted dependences of CB splitting energy,VB splitting energy and indirect bandgap on X are all linear.

  9. Spatial-angular modeling of ground-based biaxial lidar (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil R.


    Results of spatial-angular LIDAR modeling based on an efficiency criterion introduced are represented. Their analysis shows that a low spatial-angular efficiency of traditional VIS and NIR systems is a main cause of a low S/BR ratio at the photodetector input. It determines the considerable measurements errors and the following low accuracy of atmospheric optical parameters retrieval. As we have shown, the most effective protection against intensive sky background radiation for ground-based biaxial LIDAR's consist in forming of their angular field according to spatial-angular efficiency criterion G. Some effective approaches to high G-parameter value achievement to achieve the receiving system optimization are discussed.

  10. Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil R.; Comeron, Adolfo


    Results of lidar modeling based on spatial-angular filtering efficiency criteria are presented. Their analysis shows that the low spatial-angular filtering efficiency of traditional visible and near-infrared systems is an important cause of low signal/background-radiation ratio (SBR) at the photodetector input. The low SBR may be responsible for considerable measurement errors and ensuing the low accuracy of the retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters. As shown, the most effective protection against sky background radiation for groundbased biaxial lidars is the modifying of their angular field according to a spatial-angular filtering efficiency criterion. Some effective approaches to achieve a high filtering efficiency for the receiving system optimization are discussed.

  11. Maier-Saupe model for a mixture of uniaxial and biaxial molecules (United States)

    Nascimento, E. S.; Henriques, E. F.; Vieira, A. P.; Salinas, S. R.


    We introduce shape variations in a liquid-crystalline system by considering an elementary Maier-Saupe lattice model for a mixture of uniaxial and biaxial molecules. Shape variables are treated in the annealed (thermalized) limit. We analyze the thermodynamic properties of this system in terms of temperature T , concentration c of intrinsically biaxial molecules, and a parameter Δ associated with the degree of biaxiality of the molecules. At the mean-field level, we use standard techniques of statistical mechanics to draw global phase diagrams, which are shown to display a rich structure, including uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases, a reentrant ordered region, and many distinct multicritical points. Also, we use the formalism to write an expansion of the free energy in order to make contact with the Landau-de Gennes theory of nematic phase transitions.



  13. Suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructures for enhancing biaxial tensile strain (United States)

    Ishida, Satomi; Kako, Satoshi; Oda, Katsuya; Ido, Tatemi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko


    We fabricate a suspended germanium cross-shaped microstructure to biaxially enhance residual tensile strain using a germanium epilayer directly grown on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Such a suspended germanium system with enhanced biaxial tensile strain will be a promising platform for incorporating optical cavities toward the realization of germanium lasers. We demonstrate systematic control over biaxial tensile strain and photoluminescence peaks by changing structural geometry. The photoluminescence peaks corresponding to the direct recombination between the conduction Γ valley and two strain-induced separated valence bands have been clearly assigned. A maximum biaxial strain of 0.8% has been achieved, which is almost half of that required to transform germanium into a direct band-gap semiconductor.

  14. Two-Particle Cluster Theory for Biaxial Nematic Phase Based on a Recently Proposed Interaction Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Dong; ZHANG Yan-Jun; SUN Zong-Li


    @@ Two-particle cluster theory is applied to study the biaxial nematic phase formed by biaxial molecules interacting with a simplified model proposed by Sonnet et al. [Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003) 061701]. For the temperature dependences of the internal energy per particle and of the order parameters, the two-particle theory yields an improved result compared with mean field theory. Concerning the phase diagram, the two-particle theory gives the numerical result in qualitative agreement with the mean field theory.

  15. Biaxial Mechanical Behavior of Swine Pelvic Floor Ligaments: Experiments and Modeling


    Becker, Winston Reynolds


    Although mechanical alterations to pelvic floor ligaments, such as the cardinal and uterosacral ligaments, are one contributing factor to the development and progression of pelvic floor disorders, very little research has examined their mechanical properties. In this study, the first biaxial elastic and viscoelastic tests were performed on uterosacral and cardinal ligament complexes harvested from adult female swine. Biaxial elastic testing revealed that the ligaments undergo large strains an...

  16. Magnetic-Field-Induced Weak Order in Nematic Liquid Crystals Formed by Biaxial Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Dong; ZHANG De-Xian; SUN Yu-Bao


    Nematic liquid crystal system of interacting biaxial particles via dispersion forces is studied. The molecular orienting potential form in a magnetic field is given for the first time. Weakly ordered isotropic phase is treated in the two-particle cluster approximation. Taking account of the molecular biaxiality, it is found that the ratio of the lowest supercooling temperature T* to the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature TC approaches the observed value, and the validity of the mean field theory is clarified.

  17. Fatigue Test Design: Scenarios for Biaxial Fatigue Testing of a 60-Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Current practice in commercial certification of wind turbine blades is to perform separate flap and lead-lag fatigue tests. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been researching and evaluating biaxial fatigue testing techniques and demonstrating various options, typically on smaller-scale test articles at the National Wind Technology Center. This report evaluates some of these biaxial fatigue options in the context of application to a multimegawatt blade certification test program at the Wind Technology Testing Center in Charlestown, Massachusetts.

  18. Physical properties of biaxially oriented poly(ethylene terephtalate) irradiated at different temperatures and doses with electron beam (United States)

    Adem, E.; Hernández-Sampelayo, A. Rubio; Báez, J. E.; Miranda, J.; Labrada-Delgado, G. J.; Marcos-Fernández, A.


    The electron beam irradiation of a biaxially oriented PET film was carried out in air over a range of 50-3000 kGy at different temperatures and a dose rate of 4.48 kGy min-1. The effects of the irradiation at temperatures above and below the glass transition temperature (Tg) on the thermal and mechanical properties were studied. Melting temperature decreased slightly and crystallization temperature and crystallinity increased significantly with the increase in dose, more at higher irradiation temperature, whereas Tg did not show any significant change with dose or temperature. Mechanical properties were adversely affected by irradiation. Stress and strain at break were strongly reduced, more at higher irradiation temperature, and Young's Modulus slightly increased with the increase in dose. The changes in properties were related to the chain scission produced by the electron beam irradiation leading to a decrease in molecular weight.

  19. Prediction of crack growth direction by Strain Energy Sih's Theory on specimens SEN under tension-compression biaxial loading employing Genetic Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-MartInez R; Lugo-Gonzalez E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa G; Hernandez-Gomez L H; Romero-Angeles B; Torres-San Miguel Ch, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [INSTITUTO POLITECNICO NACIONAL Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion (SEPI), Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME), Edificio 5. 2do Piso, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos ' Zacatenco' Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Crack growth direction has been studied in many ways. Particularly Sih's strain energy theory predicts that a fracture under a three-dimensional state of stress spreads in direction of the minimum strain energy density. In this work a study for angle of fracture growth was made, considering a biaxial stress state at the crack tip on SEN specimens. The stress state applied on a tension-compression SEN specimen is biaxial one on crack tip, as it can observed in figure 1. A solution method proposed to obtain a mathematical model considering genetic algorithms, which have demonstrated great capacity for the solution of many engineering problems. From the model given by Sih one can deduce the density of strain energy stored for unit of volume at the crack tip as dW = [1/2E({sigma}{sup 2}{sub x} + {sigma}{sup 2}{sub y}) - {nu}/E({sigma}{sub x}{sigma}{sub y})]dV (1). From equation (1) a mathematical deduction to solve in terms of {theta} of this case was developed employing Genetic Algorithms, where {theta} is a crack propagation direction in plane x-y. Steel and aluminium mechanical properties to modelled specimens were employed, because they are two of materials but used in engineering design. Obtained results show stable zones of fracture propagation but only in a range of applied loading.

  20. Atomic force microscopy study of biaxially oriented polypropylene films (United States)

    Nie, H.-Y.; Walzak, M. J.; McIntyre, N. S.


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) uses a very sharp pointed mechanical probe to collect real-space morphological information of solid surfaces. AFM was used in this study to image the surface morphology of a biaxially oriented polypropylene film. The polymer film is characterized by a nanometer-scale, fiberlike network structure, which reflects the drawing process used during the fabrication of the film. AFM was used to study polymer-surface treatment to improve wettability by exposing the polymer to ozone with or without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Surface-morphology changes observed by AFM are the result of the surface oxidation induced by the treatment. Due to the topographic features of the polymer film, the fiberlike structure has been used to check the performance of the AFM tip. An AFM image is a mixture of the surface morphology and the shape of the AFM tip. Therefore, it is important to check the performance of a tip to ensure that the AFM image collected reflects the true surface features of the sample, rather than contamination on the AFM tip.

  1. Modeling of biaxial gimbal-less MEMS scanning mirrors (United States)

    von Wantoch, Thomas; Gu-Stoppel, Shanshan; Senger, Frank; Mallas, Christian; Hofmann, Ulrich; Meurer, Thomas; Benecke, Wolfgang


    One- and two-dimensional MEMS scanning mirrors for resonant or quasi-stationary beam deflection are primarily known as tiny micromirror devices with aperture sizes up to a few Millimeters and usually address low power applications in high volume markets, e.g. laser beam scanning pico-projectors or gesture recognition systems. In contrast, recently reported vacuum packaged MEMS scanners feature mirror diameters up to 20 mm and integrated high-reflectivity dielectric coatings. These mirrors enable MEMS based scanning for applications that require large apertures due to optical constraints like 3D sensing or microscopy as well as for high power laser applications like laser phosphor displays, automotive lighting and displays, 3D printing and general laser material processing. This work presents modelling, control design and experimental characterization of gimbal-less MEMS mirrors with large aperture size. As an example a resonant biaxial Quadpod scanner with 7 mm mirror diameter and four integrated PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuators is analyzed. The finite element method (FEM) model developed and computed in COMSOL Multiphysics is used for calculating the eigenmodes of the mirror as well as for extracting a high order (n tested using the original FEM model as well as the micromirror.

  2. Preparation of biaxially oriented TlCu-1234 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, N A; Tateai, F; Kojima, T; Ishida, K; Terada, N; Ihara, H


    The single phase of TlCu-1234 superconductor thin films is prepared for the first time by the amorphous phase epitaxy (APE) method, which is thallium treatment of sputtered amorphous phase at 900 degrees C for 1 h. The amorphous $9 phase is prepared by sputtering from the stoichiometric target composition CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/. The films on the SrTiO/sub 3/ substrate are aligned biaxially after the thallium treatment. Highly reproducible $9 TlCu-1234 films are prepared by this method. The XRD reflected a predominant single phase with the c-axis lattice constant of 18.74 AA. This lattice constant value is in between that of Cu-1234 (17.99 AA) and Tl-1234 (19.11 AA) . The $9 pole figure measurements of (103) reflection of the films showed a-axis-oriented crystals with Delta phi =0.8 degrees . The composition of the films after energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements is Tl/sub 0.8/Cu/sub 0.2/Ba/sub $9 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O /sub 12-y/. From the resistivity measurements, the T/sub c/ is 113 K...

  3. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model of brain white matter in biaxial tension and structural-mechanical relationships. (United States)

    Labus, Kevin M; Puttlitz, Christian M


    Computational models of the brain require accurate and robust constitutive models to characterize the mechanical behavior of brain tissue. The anisotropy of white matter has been previously demonstrated; however, there is a lack of data describing the effects of multi-axial loading, even though brain tissue experiences multi-axial stress states. Therefore, a biaxial tensile experiment was designed to more fully characterize the anisotropic behavior of white matter in a quasi-static loading state, and the mechanical data were modeled with an anisotropic hyperelastic continuum model. A probabilistic analysis was used to quantify the uncertainty in model predictions because the mechanical data of brain tissue can show a high degree of variability, and computational studies can benefit from reporting the probability distribution of model responses. The axonal structure in white matter can be heterogeneous and regionally dependent, which can affect computational model predictions. Therefore, corona radiata and corpus callosum regions were tested, and histology and transmission electron microscopy were performed on tested specimens to relate the distribution of axon orientations and the axon volume fraction to the mechanical behavior. These measured properties were implemented into a structural constitutive model. Results demonstrated a significant, but relatively low anisotropic behavior, yet there were no conclusive mechanical differences between the two regions tested. The inclusion of both biaxial and uniaxial tests in model fits improved the accuracy of model predictions. The mechanical anisotropy of individual specimens positively correlated with the measured axon volume fraction, and, accordingly, the structural model exhibited slightly decreased uncertainty in model predictions compared to the model without structural properties.

  4. Analytical Study of Response of Multi-Storey Building under Biaxial Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Y. Kalshetty


    Full Text Available Conventional practice of dynamic analysis using seismic codes recommends that the dynamic analysis is done by considering earthquake force in one direction at a time i.e. uniaxial excitation. But the simultaneous effect of asymmetricities in both orthogonal directions is neglected because of uniaxial excitation approach. Also the behaviour of building during earthquake depends upon its shape size and overall geometry. The partial and complete collapse of reinforced concrete buildings in recent earthquakes has raised the need to design the building considering biaxial forces. Limited research has been carried out on effect of such biaxial excitation. To get reliable results a regular and C shape model of multi-storey building is analysed using various timehistories in SAP2000 v17. The angle of incidence of earthquake forces will be varying between 0 to 360 degrees. The influence of the orthogonal horizontal component of input ground motion on seismic response of reinforced concrete building is analysed by comparing the response of biaxial excitation with the response of uniaxial excitation. Change in maximum displacement values, considering this as the basic criteria, comparison of the responses due biaxial excitation and uniaxial excitation is done. Time history analysis has been carried out using SAP2000 after validating the model with results available in reference literature. It is observed and recommended that considering biaxial forces is necessary for an accurate determination of response and also to reach an adequate design for serviceability earthquakes.

  5. A new bi-axial cantilever beam design for biomechanics force measurements. (United States)

    Lin, Huai-Ti; Trimmer, Barry A


    The demand for measuring forces exerted by animals during locomotion has increased dramatically as biomechanists strive to understand and implement biomechanical control strategies. In particular, multi-axial force transducers are often required to capture animal limb coordination patterns. Most existing force transducers employ strain gages arranged in a Wheatstone bridge on a cantilever beam. Bi-axial measurements require duplicating this arrangement in the transverse direction. In this paper, we reveal a method to embed a Wheatstone bridge inside another to allow bi-axial measurements without additional strain gages or additional second beams. This hybrid configuration resolves two force components from a single bridge circuit and simplifies fabrication for the simultaneous assessment of normal and transverse loads. This design can be implemented with two-dimensional fabrication techniques and can even be used to modify a common full bridge cantilever force transducer. As a demonstration of the new design, we built a simple beam which achieved bi-axial sensing capability that outperformed a conventional half-bridge-per-axis bi-axial strain gage design. We have used this design to measure the ground reaction forces of a crawling caterpillar and a caterpillar-mimicking soft robot. The simplicity and increased sensitivity of this method could facilitate bi-axial force measurements for experimental biologists.

  6. Tuning magnetism by biaxial strain in native ZnO. (United States)

    Peng, Chengxiao; Wang, Yuanxu; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Guangbiao; Wang, Chao; Yang, Gui


    Magnetic ZnO, one of the most important diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), has attracted great scientific interest because of its possible technological applications in optomagnetic devices. Magnetism in this material is usually delicately tuned by the doping level, dislocations, and local structures. The rational control of magnetism in ZnO is a highly attractive approach for practical applications. Here, the tuning effect of biaxial strain on the d(0) magnetism of native imperfect ZnO is demonstrated through first-principles calculations. Our calculation results show that strain conditions have little effect on the defect formation energy of Zn and O vacancies in ZnO, but they do affect the magnetism significantly. For a cation vacancy, increasing the compressive strain will obviously decrease its magnetic moment, while tensile strain cannot change the moment, which remains constant at 2 μB. For a singly charged anion vacancy, however, the dependence of the magnetic moment on strain is opposite to that of the Zn vacancy. Furthermore, the ferromagnetic state is always present, irrespective of the strain type, for ZnO with two zinc vacancies, 2VZns. A large tensile strain is favorable for improving the Curie temperature and realizing room temperature ferromagnetism for ZnO-based native semiconductors. For ZnO with two singly charged oxygen vacancies, 2Vs, no ferromagnetic ordering can be observed. Our work points the way to the rational design of materials beyond ZnO with novel non-intrinsic functionality by simply tuning the strain in a thin film form.

  7. The elusive thermotropic biaxial nematic phase in rigid bent-core molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat R Acharya; Andrew Primak; Theo J Dingemans; Edward T Samulski; Satyendra Kumar


    The biaxial nematic liquid crystalline phase was predicted several decades ago. Several vigorous attempts to find it in various systems resulted in mis-identifications. The results of X-ray diffraction and optical texture studies of the phases exhibited by rigid bent-core molecules derived from 2,5-bis-(-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole reveal that the biaxial nematic phase is formed by three compounds of this type. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the nematic phase of these compounds has the achiral symmetry D2h, in which the overall long axes of the molecules are oriented parallel to each other to define the major axis of the biaxial phase. The apex of the bent-cores defines the minor axis of this phase along which the planes containing the bent-cores of neighboring molecules are oriented parallel to each other.

  8. Formation of biaxially textured molybdenum thin films under the influence of recrystallization conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Rahul, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Riley, Michael [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina [US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Benet Labs, Watervliet, NY 12189 (United States); Lu, Toh-Ming [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)


    This article highlights the formation of biaxially textured body centered cubic Mo nanorods under recrystallization conditions using glancing angle deposition. The flux incidence angle has been changed ({alpha} = 0 deg., 70 deg. and 85 deg. away from the surface normal) to observe its effect on the formation of biaxial texture under a constant low Ar pressure environment (0.306 Pa). Only at a glancing flux incidence ({alpha} = 85 deg.), the directional diffusion overcomes the effect of recrystallization to yield a highly biaxial texture. In another study, a normal flux incidence ({alpha} = 0 deg.) was kept constant and the Ar pressure was changed (0.67, 1.33 and 2.67 Pa) to see its influence on the film morphology and the resulting texture. The Ar pressure variation was aimed at attempting a zone transformation in accordance with the structure zone model. While the morphology appeared to agree with the expected zone transformation, the texture did not.

  9. Formability and cavitation behavior of superplastic AA5083 aluminum alloy under biaxial tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ying-bing; LI Da-yong; PENG Ying-hong


    The superplastic forming potential of two fine-grained 5083 aluminum alloys were studied under biaxial tension using a pneumatic bulge test. Experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 475 to 525 ℃ with three different strain paths ranging from equi-biaxial to approaching plane strain. The shape of the forming limited diagram(FLD) is found to be significantly different from FLDs commonly used in room temperature stamping. The effects of temperature on final thickness distribution, dome height and cavitation were investigated for the case of equi-biaxial stretching. Increasing temperature in free bulge forming can improve the thickness distribution of final parts but have no significant effect on dome height. The results indicate that determination of forming limits in SPF cannot be represented with a simple FLD and additional metrics such as external thinning and internal cavitation needed to determine the SPF potential of a material.

  10. Carbon composites based on multiaxial multiply stitched preforms. Part 3: Biaxial tension, picture frame and compression tests of the preforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomov, S.V.; Barburski, M.; Stoilova, Tz.; Verpoest, I.; Akkerman, R.; Loendersloot, R.; Thije, ten R.H.W.


    Deformability of bi- and quadri-axial multi-axial multiply stitched preforms is studied in biaxial tension, shear (picture frame test) and compression. The results complement KES-F measurements in the low load range, reported in the Part 2 of the series (Compos A, 34, 2003, 359–70). The biaxial tens

  11. Scratch resistance anisotropy in biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) films (United States)

    Nie, H.-Y.; Walzak, M. J.; McIntyre, N. S.


    Using a diamond-tipped stylus, scratch tests were conducted on biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) films in the two draw directions, i.e., the machine-direction (MD) and the transverse-direction (TD) along which the draw ratios are different. Atomic force microscopy study of those scratches revealed a significant anisotropy in the scratch resistance between the MD and TD for both of the polymer films. We confirmed that the scratch resistance of polymer strands is closely related to the draw ratios, which determine the mechanical strength and optical clarity of biaxially oriented polymer films.

  12. Effective-Field Theory on High Spin Systems with Biaxial Crystal Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wei; GUO An-Bang; LI Xin; WANG Xi-Kun; BAI Bao-Dong


    Based on the effective-field theory with self-spin correlations and the differential operator technique,physical properties of the spin-2 system with biaxial crystal field on the simple cubic, body-centered cubic, as well as faced-centered lattice have been studied. The influences of the external longitudinal magnetic field on the magnetization,internal energy, specific heat, and susceptibility have been discussed in detail. The phenomenon that the magnetization in the ground state shows quantum effects produced by the biaxial transverse crystal field has been found.

  13. An anisotropic constitutive model with biaxial-tension coupling for woven composite reinforcements (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Huang, Xiaoshuang; Peng, Xiongqi; Gong, Youkun


    Based on fiber reinforced continuum mechanics theory, an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model with biaxial tension coupling for woven composite reinforcements is developed. Experimental data from literature are used to identify material parameters in the constitutive model for a specific balanced plain woven fabric. The developed model is validated by comparing numerical results with experimental biaxial tension data under different stretch ratios and picture-frame shear data, demonstrating that the developed constitutive model is highly suitable to characterize the highly non-linear and strongly anisotropic mechanical behaviors of woven composite reinforcements under large deformation.

  14. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer


    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  15. The effect of biaxial strain on impurity diffusion in Si and SiGe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Zangenberg, Nikolaj; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob


    Results from diffusion studies of different impurities in biaxially strained Si and Si"1"-"xGe"x for low x-values will be presented. The structures are all molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) grown on strain-relaxed Si"1"-"xGe"x layers, and the impurity profiles are introduced during growth. We have...

  16. 2D nonlocal versus 3D bifurcation studies for biaxially loaded plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benallal, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo


    The main objective of this work is to analyse how a two-dimensional second gradient plasticity model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional bifurcation behaviour for a biaxially loaded flat plate. While it is found that the simple model used here is able to capture them qualitatively for the ...

  17. Large-deformation properties of wheat dough in uni- and biaxial extension. Part I. Flour dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.


    Rheological and fracture properties of optimally mixed flour doughs from three wheat cultivars which perform differently in cereal products were studied in uniaxial and biaxial extension. Doughs were also tested in small angle sinusoidal oscillation. In accordance with previously published results t

  18. Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.


    Results from a detailed numerical investigation of the post-buckling behaviour of rectangular simply supported steel plates subjected to biaxial in-plane loading are presented. The Steel plates are loaded through forced edge displacements. The effects of initial imperfections, aspect ratio, plate...

  19. Derivation of the Bi-axial Bending, Compression and Shear Strengths of Timber Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Put, T.A.C.M.


    The derivation is given of the combined bi-axial bending, compression and shear strength of timber beams. As for other materials the elastic–full plastic limit design approach applies, which is known to precisely explain and predict uniaxial bending strength behaviour. The derivation is based on cho

  20. Large-deformation properties of wheat dough in uni- and biaxial extension. Part II. Gluten dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Hoef, van der M.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.


    Glutens were isolated from flour of three European wheat cultivars which perform differently in cereal products. The rheological and fracture properties of gluten-water doughs were determined in uniaxial and biaxial extension at large deformations and small angle sinusoidal oscillation tests and com

  1. Numerical Investigations on the Influence of Superimposed Double-Sided Pressure on the Formability of Biaxially Stretched AA6111-T4 Sheet Metal (United States)

    Liu, Jianguang; Wang, Zhongjin; Meng, Qingyuan


    Lightweight materials have been widely used in aerospace, automobile industries to meet the requirement of structural weight reduction. Due to their limited plasticity at room temperature, however, lightweight materials always exhibit distinctly poor forming capability in comparison with conventional deep drawing steels. Based on the phenomenon that the superimposed hydrostatic pressure can improve the plasticity of metal, many kinds of double-sided pressure forming processes have been proposed. In the present study, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model combined with finite element method is used to investigate the influence of double-sided pressure on the deformation behavior of biaxially stretched AA6111-T4 sheet metal, including nucleation and growth of microvoids, evaluation of stress triaxiality, and so forth. The Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) localized necking model is used to predict the right-hand side of the forming limit diagram (FLD) of sheet metal under superimposed double-sided pressure. It is found that the superimposed double-sided pressure has no obvious effect on the nucleation of microvoids. However, the superimposed double-sided pressure can suppress the growth and coalescence of microvoids. The forming limit curve (FLC) of the biaxially stretched AA6111-T4 sheet metal under the superimposed double-sided pressure is improved and the fracture locus shifts to the left. Furthermore, the formability increase value is sensitive to the strain path.

  2. Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Mohammed Abdullah Al-Makramani


    Full Text Available Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995 were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8±87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4±28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7±12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001. There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05. Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N. CONCLUSIONS: Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

  3. Simulation of the viewing properties and optical compensation of the biaxial nematic in-plane switching mode. (United States)

    Benzie, Philip W; Corbett, Daniel; Elston, Steve J


    Using Berreman 4 × 4 optical methods and continuum theory, we investigate the theoretical viewing properties of a potential homeotropically aligned biaxial nematic display switched with in-plane fields. We determine the isocontrast, isotransmission viewing characteristics for wide-angle viewing for in-plane switching and consider the necessary requirements for optical compensation to produce a high transmission in the bright state and low transmission in the dark state. We show how compensation can be achieved with biaxial compensation layers using a homogeneous biaxial film or from birefringence.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of biaxial structure in thin hybrid nematic film based upon spatially anisotropic pair potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhi-Dong; Chang Chun-Rui; Ma Dong-Lai


    Hybrid nematic films have been studied by Monte Carlo simulations using a lattice spin model,in which the pair potential is spatially anisotropic and dependent on elastic constants of liquid crystals.We confirm in the thin hybrid nematic film the existence of a biaxially nonbent structure and the structarc transition from the biaxial to the bent-director structure,which is similar to the result obtained using the Lebwohl-Lasher model.However,the step-like director's profile,characteristic for the biaxial structure,is spatially asymmetric in the film because the pair potential leads to K1≠K3.We estimate the upper cell thickness to be 69 spin layers,in which the biaxial structure can be found.

  5. Room temperature growth of biaxially aligned yttria-stabilized zirconia films on glass substrates by pulsed-laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Li Peng; Mazumder, J


    Room temperature deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films on amorphous glass substrates was successfully achieved by conventional pulsed-laser deposition. The influence of the surrounding gases, their pressure and the deposition time on the structure of the films was studied. A columnar growth process was revealed based on the experimental results. The grown biaxial texture appears as a kind of substrate independence, which makes it possible to fabricate in-plane aligned YSZ films on various substrates.

  6. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension (United States)

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  7. New classes of bi-axially symmetric solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sundell, Per


    We present new infinite-dimensional spaces of bi-axially symmetric asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions to four-dimensional Vasiliev higher spin gravity, obtained by modifications of the Ansatz used in arXiv:1107.1217, which gave rise to a Type-D solution space. The current Ansatz is based on internal semigroup algebras (without identity) generated by exponentials formed out of the bi-axial symmetry generators. After having switched on the vacuum gauge function, the resulting generalized Weyl tensor is given by the sum of two generalized Petrov type-D tensors, and the twistor space connections are smooth in twistor space over finite regions of spacetime. We provide evidence for that the linearized twistor space connection can be brought to Vasiliev gauge.

  8. Lasing with conical diffraction feature in the KGd(WO4)2:Nd biaxial crystal (United States)

    Brenier, Alain


    With an experimental set-up designed to record simultaneously the far-field and the near-field patterns, we got lasing with feature of conical diffraction in the biaxial Nd3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 crystal. The key-point is that the lasing direction is not single and is constituted by an angular distribution including the optical axis. Very slight changes of crystal orientation leads to crescent shape 1068-nm light distributions in the near-field. The beam launched towards the biaxial crystal is mainly linear polarized with its intensity in agreement with the Nd fluorescence angular distribution. A theoretical background is provided, including the monoclinic and triclinic symmetries and laser amplification including elliptical modes and cavity round trip.

  9. Mechanical properties of stanene under uniaxial and biaxial loading: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojumder, Satyajit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Amin, Abdullah Al [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case western Reverse University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Islam, Md Mahbubul, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)


    Stanene, a graphene like two dimensional honeycomb structure of tin has attractive features in electronics application. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using modified embedded atom method potential to investigate mechanical properties of stanene. We studied the effect of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties of α-stanene for both uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions. Our study suggests that with the increasing temperature, both the fracture strength and strain of the stanene decrease. Uniaxial loading in zigzag direction shows higher fracture strength and strain compared to the armchair direction, while no noticeable variation in the mechanical properties is observed for biaxial loading. We also found at a higher loading rate, material exhibits higher fracture strength and strain. These results will aid further investigation of stanene as a potential nano-electronics substitute.

  10. Tunable biaxial in-plane compressive strain in a Si nanomembrane transferred on a polyimide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Munho; Mi, Hongyi; Cho, Minkyu; Seo, Jung-Hun; Ma, Zhenqiang, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zhou, Weidong [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States); Gong, Shaoqin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)


    A method of creating tunable and programmable biaxial compressive strain in silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) transferred onto a Kapton{sup ®} HN polyimide film has been demonstrated. The programmable biaxial compressive strain (up to 0.54%) was generated utilizing a unique thermal property exhibited by the Kapton HN film, namely, it shrinks from its original size when exposed to elevated temperatures. The correlation between the strain and the annealing temperature was carefully investigated using Raman spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. It was found that various amounts of compressive strains can be obtained by controlling the thermal annealing temperatures. In addition, a numerical model was used to evaluate the strain distribution in the Si NM. This technique provides a viable approach to forming in-plane compressive strain in NMs and offers a practical platform for further studies in strain engineering.

  11. Genuine effectively biaxial left-handed metamaterials due to extreme coupling. (United States)

    Menzel, Christoph; Alaee, Rasoul; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Helgert, Christian; Chipouline, Arkadi; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Pertsch, Thomas; Lederer, Falk


    Most left-handed metamaterials cannot be described by local effective permittivity or permeability tensors in the visible or near-infrared due to the mesoscopic size of the respective unit cells and the related strong spatial dispersion. We lift this problem and propose a metamaterial exhibiting artificial magnetism that does not suffer from this restriction. The artificial magnetism arises from the extreme coupling between both metallic films forming the unit cell. We show that its electromagnetic response can be properly described by biaxial local constitutive relations. A genuine biaxial left-handed fishnet metamaterial is suggested, which can be realized by atomic layer deposition to fabricate the nanoscaled spacing layers required for extreme coupling.

  12. Universal mean-field phase diagram for biaxial nematics obtained from a minimax principle. (United States)

    Bisi, Fulvio; Virga, Epifanio G; Gartland, Eugene C; De Matteis, Giovanni; Sonnet, André M; Durand, Georges E


    We study a class of quadratic Hamiltonians which describe both fully attractive and partly repulsive molecular interactions, characteristic of biaxial liquid crystal molecules. To treat the partly repulsive interactions we establish a minimax principle for the associated mean-field free energy. We show that the phase diagram described by Sonnet [Phys. Rev. E 67, 061701 (2003)] is universal. Our predictions are in good agreement with the recent observations on both V-shaped and tetrapodal molecules.

  13. Cyclic plasticity of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel under biaxial non proportional loading; Plasticite cyclique d'un acier inoxydable austeno-ferritique sous chargement biaxial non-proportionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, V


    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are supplied since about 30 years only, so they are yet not well-known. Their behaviour in cyclic plasticity was studied under uniaxial loading but not under multiaxial loading, whereas only a thorough knowledge of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of a material enables to simulate and predict accurately its behaviour in a structure. This work aims to study and model the behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under cyclic biaxial loading. A three step method was adopted. A set of tension-torsion tests on tubular specimen was first defined. We studied the equivalence between loading directions, and then the influence of loading path and loading history on the stress response of the material. Results showed that duplex stainless steel shows an extra-hardening under non proportional loading and that its behaviour depends on previous loading. Then, in order to analyse the results obtained during this first experimental stage, the yield surface was measured at different times during cyclic loading of the same kind. A very small plastic strain offset (2*10{sup -5}) was used in order not to disturb the yield surface measured. The alteration of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables were deduced from these measures. Finally, three phenomenological constitutive laws were identified with the experimental set. We focused our interest on the simulation of stabilized stress levels and on the simulation of the cyclic hardening/softening behaviour. The comparison between experimental and numerical results enabled the testing of the relevance of these models. (authors)

  14. Effect of uni- and biaxial strain on phase transformations in Fe thin films (United States)

    Sak-Saracino, Emilia; Urbassek, Herbert M.


    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the phase transformations in Fe thin films induced by uni- and biaxial strain. Both the austenitic transformation of a body-centered cubic (bcc) film at the equilibrium temperature of the face-centered cubic (fcc)-bcc transformation and the martensitic transformation of an undercooled fcc film are studied. We demonstrate that different strain states (uni- or biaxial) induce different nucleation kinetics of the new phase and hence different microstructures evolve. For the case of the austenitic transformation, the direction of the applied strain selects the orientation of the nucleated grains of the new phase; the application of biaxial strain leads to a symmetric twinned structure. For the martensitic transformation, the influence of the strain state is even more pronounced, in that it can either inhibit the transformation, induce the homogeneous nucleation of a fine-dispersed array of the new phase resulting in a single-crystalline final state, or lead to the more conventional mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation of grains at the free surfaces, which grow and result in a poly-crystalline microstructure of the transformed material.

  15. Measurement of the biaxial properties of nineteenth century canves primings using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (United States)

    Young, Christina


    This paper reports on the use of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) for the measurement of the biaxial tensile properties of English 19th century canvas primings and their constituent materials. Typically, such primings are comprised of a complex structure of layers, each with different mechanical properties. ESPI has been shown to be an effective technique for investigating complex composite structures and it is especially useful for understanding the behaviour of heterogeneous materials in which non-uniform strains can occur. The flexibility of canvas primings presents a more difficult application for both biaxial tensile testing and ESPI strain measurements. A series of experiments have been carried out to measure the Poisson's ratio of the three main constituents of a 19th Century priming as composites and of an original 19th century primed canvas. The samples have been uniaxially tensioned on a biaxial tensile tester designed specifically to investigate the mechanical properties of paintings on canvas. Measurements of deformation have made using a two-dimensional in-plane ESPI configuration. The results have shown that Poisson's ratio decreases as the constituents of a painting are built up. Preliminary tests on thermally aged and original primings suggest that for a painting without cracks it is the embrittled paint which determines the mechanical response of the painting at an relative humidity of 35-40%.

  16. Biaxial CdTe/CaF{sub 2} films growth on amorphous surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, W., E-mail: yuanw@rpi.ed [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110, 8th St., Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Tang, F.; Li, H.-F.; Parker, T. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110, 8th St., Troy, NY 12180 (United States); LiCausi, N. [Department of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110, 8th St., Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lu, T.-M. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110, 8th St., Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Bhat, I. [Department of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110, 8th St., Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Wang, G.-C. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110, 8th St., Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lee, S. [US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Benet Labs, Watervliet, NY 12189 (United States)


    A continuous and highly biaxially textured CdTe film was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on an amorphous substrate using biaxial CaF{sub 2} nanorods as a buffer layer. The interface between the CdTe film and CaF{sub 2} nanorods and the morphology of the CdTe film were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy. Both the TEM and X-ray pole figure analysis clearly reveal that the crystalline orientation of the continuous CdTe film followed the {l_brace}111{r_brace}<121> biaxial texture of the CaF{sub 2} nanorods. A high density of twin faults was observed in the CdTe film. Furthermore, the near surface texture of the CdTe thin film was investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and RHEED surface pole figure analysis. Twinning was also observed from the RHEED surface pole figure analysis.

  17. Fabrication and reliable implementation of an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) biaxial bending actuator (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Yong; Choi, Jung-Oh; Kim, Myeungseon; Ahn, Sung-Hoon


    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are one of the most popular types of electro-active polymer actuator, due to their low electric driving potential, large deformation range, and light weight. IPMCs have been used as actuators or sensors in many areas of biomedical and robotic engineering. In this research, IPMCs were studied as a biaxial bending actuator capable of smart and flexible motion. We designed and fabricated this bending actuator and implemented it to have a reliable actuating motion using a systematic approach. The resulting device was bar shaped with a square cross section and had four insulated electrodes on its surface. By applying different voltages to these four electrodes, a biaxial bending motion can be induced. To construct this actuator, several fabrication processes were considered. We modified the Nafion stacking method, and established a complete sequence of actuator fabrication processes. Using these processes, we were able to fabricate an IPMC biaxial bending actuator with both high actuating force and high flexibility. Several experiments were conducted to investigate and verify the performance of the actuator. The IPMC actuator system was modeled from experimentally measured data, and using this actuator model, a closed-loop proportional integral (PI) controller was designed. Reference position tracking performances of open-loop and closed-loop systems were compared. Finally, circular motion tracking performances of the actuator tip were tested under different rotation frequencies and radii of a reference trajectory circle.

  18. Effect of metal chloride solutions on coloration and biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized zirconia (United States)

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lee, Kwangmin; Lee, Doh-Jae; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Ban, Jae-Sam; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Fisher, John G.; Park, Sang-Won


    The effect of three kinds of transition metal dopants on the color and biaxial flexural strength of zirconia ceramics for dental applications was evaluated. Presintered zirconia discs were colored through immersion in aqueous chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions and then sintered at 1450 °C. The color of the doped specimens was measured using a digital spectrophotometer. For biaxial flexural strength measurements, specimens infiltrated with 0.3 wt% of each aqueous chloride solution were used. Uncolored discs were used as a control. Zirconia specimens infiltrated with chromium, molybdenum and vanadium chloride solutions were dark brown, light yellow and dark yellow, respectively. CIE L*, a*, and b* values of all the chromium-doped specimens and the specimens infiltrated with 0.1 wt% molybdenum chloride solution were in the range of values for natural teeth. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three kinds of metal chloride groups were similar to the uncolored group. These results suggest that chromium and molybdenum dopants can be used as colorants to fabricate tooth colored zirconia ceramic restorations.

  19. Effects of Coupled Biaxial Tension and Shear Stresses on Decrimping Behavior in Pressurized Woven Fabrics (United States)


    Fabric Forces F .., .. and Fiief Versus Aet for 3000-Denier. 1:1 TDR Plain-Woven D S P F ab ric...As did Freeston et al.,I this research found that visual inspections were insufficient for determining if the fabric specimens were initially square

  20. Instability of a Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystal Formed by Homeotropic Anchoring on Surface Grooves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Dong; XUAN Li


    A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition.Employing some approximations for the elastic constants,we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves,with a period of π/2.This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable.Our theoretical study explains why the homeotropic alignment method developed for uniaxial liquid crystals loses efficacy for biaxial nematics.In most liquid crystal devices,the liquid crystals are sandwiched between two substrates coated with alignment layers.In the absence of externally applied fields,the orientation of the liquid crystal in the cell is determined by the anchoring condition of the alignment layer.[1-3] One usually distinguishes three main types of liquid crystalline director alignment near solid walls:homeotropic,homogeneous (or planar) and tilted orientations.Here we study the first of these and consider the biaxial nematic phase,which was observed in lyotropic systems as early as 1980[4] and has been confirmed by deuterium NMR spectroscopy.%A method used to treat the elastic distortion of a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal induced by homogeneous anchoring on the surface grooves is generalized to biaxial nematic liquid crystals under the homeotropic anchoring condition. Employing some approximations for the elastic constants, we obtain an additional term in the elastic energy per unit area which depends on the angle between the minor director at infinity and the direction of the grooves, with a period of π/2. This leads to instability on the surface grooves so that two states with crossed minor directors are energetically indistinguishable. Our

  1. 双向应力状态下IC10高温合金的屈服行为研究%Measurement and Analysis of Yield Locus of Superalloy IC10 Under Biaxial Tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷; 温卫东; 崔海涛


    为了研究Ni3Al基金属间化合物IC10高温合金的屈服行为,对其进行了不同加载路径下的双向拉伸试验.试验采用十字形双向拉伸试验件在Zwick/Roell Z010双向拉伸试验机上进行,得到的最大等效应变为0.02.试验加载方向与材料塑性各向异性主轴重合,采用位移控制方法让两个夹头的加载速率比保持不变,得到不同线性加载路径下的应力-应变曲线.根据单位体积塑性功相等原理获得了IC10合金在双向拉伸应力状态下的屈服轨迹,并与目前常用的几种正交各向异性屈服准则及von Mises屈服准则预测结果进行了对比.结果表明,IC10合金的试验屈服轨迹呈外凸性,以双向等拉线为界的上下部分屈服轨迹不对称,显示出明显的塑性各向异性.各向同性von Mises屈服准则只包含一个材料常数,无法描述IC10合金的塑性各向异性行为;Hill二次式屈服准则在双向等拉应力状态附近低估了材料的屈服强度;Logan&Hosford屈服准则在从双向等拉到横向单拉的应力状态下都低估了材料的屈服强度,与试验结果相差较大.Banabic-Balan屈服准则和Barlat (1989)屈服准则的预测值与试验结果吻合很好,能很好地描述IC10合金在双向应力状态下的屈服行为.%Biaxial tensile tests of directionally solidified superalloy IC10 are carried out using cruciform specimens. The specimens are deformed under linear loading path on a Zwick/Roell 2010 biaxial tensile testing machine. The maximum equivalent strain attained is 0.02. The loading directions remain coaxial with the plastic orthotropy throughout every experiment. Contours of plastic work in the biaxial stress space are successfully determined and compared with the yield loci calculated from several existing yield criteria. It is found that the yield locus of superalloy IC10 is asymmetric about the balanced biaxial tension line, which indicates strong plastic anisotropy of the material

  2. Ductile Tearing of Thin Aluminum Plates Under Blast Loading. Predictions with Fully Coupled Models and Biaxial Material Response Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gullerud, Arne S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.

  3. A Nanomembrane-Based Bandgap-Tunable Germanium Microdisk Using Lithographically-Customizable Biaxial Strain for Silicon-Compatible Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhdeo, David S; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L; Saraswat, Krishna C


    Strain engineering has proven to be vital for germanium-based photonics, in particular light emission. However, applying a large permanent biaxial strain to germanium has been a challenge. We present a simple, CMOS-compatible technique to conveniently induce a large, spatially homogenous strain in microdisks patterned within ultrathin germanium nanomembranes. Our technique works by concentrating and amplifying a pre-existing small strain into the microdisk region. Biaxial strains as large as 1.11% are observed by Raman spectroscopy and are further confirmed by photoluminescence measurements, which show enhanced and redshifted light emission from the strained microdisks. Our technique allows the amount of biaxial strain to be customized lithographically, allowing the bandgaps of different microdisks to be independently tuned in a single mask process. Our theoretical calculations show that this platform can deliver substantial performance improvements, including a >200x reduction in the lasing threshold, to bia...

  4. Void nucleation in biaxially strained ultrathin films of face-centered cubic metals (United States)

    Kolluri, Kedarnath; Gungor, M. Rauf; Maroudas, Dimitrios


    We report an analysis of void nucleation as a relaxation mechanism in freestanding biaxially strained ultrathin films of face-centered cubic metals based on large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations. Above a critical strain level, multiple threading dislocations are emitted from the film surface. The surface step traces formed by gliding dislocations on intersecting and on adjacent parallel glide planes lead to formation and growth of surface pits and grooves, while vacancies form due to gliding of jogged dislocations and dislocation intersections. Coalescence of the surface pits with vacancy clusters is the precursor to the formation of a larger void extending across the film.

  5. Improving directivity of laser beams by employing the effect of conical refraction in biaxial crystals. (United States)

    Peet, V


    The far-field pattern of Gaussian beams transformed by conical refraction in biaxial crystal is analyzed. It is shown that one of the two outgoing beam components acquires, under certain conditions, a profile with a dominating central peak. The width of this peak can be made significantly smaller than the width of the parent diffraction-limited Gaussian beam at the same propagation distance. The formation of such structurally-stable sub-diffraction beam core improves the beam directivity. Another component is a charge-one optical vortex, that forms the annular shell of the beam and carries the rest of the beam power.

  6. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen


    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the

  7. Application of Bi-axial Warp Knitted Structures in Concrete Constructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜; 陈南梁


    The warp knitted bi-axial directionally oriented structure (D. O. S. ) reinforcement substrates applied to building construction are discussed in comparison to woven fabrics. One of usage barriers of reinforced cement with gloss-grid is its sensitivity to alkali existed in the cement which will lead to the reduction of its service-life. The tests show that the treatment by sol-gel method to protect the composite from alkali corrosion is effective. Then two formulae of sol-gel solution are also recommended here for application.

  8. Transformation of vector beams with radial and azimuthal polarizations in biaxial crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Turpin, Alex; Lizana, Angel; Torres-Ruiz, Fabián; Estévez, Irene; Moreno, Ignacio; Campos, Juan; Mompart, Jordi


    We present both experimentally and theoretically the transformation of radially and azimuthally polarized vector beams when they propagate through a biaxial crystal and are transformed by the conical refraction phenomenon. We show that, at the focal plane, the transverse pattern is formed by a ring-like light structure with an azimuthal node, being this node found at diametrically opposite points of the ring for radial/azimuthal polarizations. We also prove that the state of polarization of the transformed beams is conical refraction-like, i.e. that every two diametrically opposite points of the light ring are linearly orthogonally polarized.

  9. Biaxial-Type Concentrated Solar Tracking System with a Fresnel Lens for Solar-Thermal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Chieh Cheng


    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromechanical, biaxial-type concentrated solar tracking system was designed for solar-thermal applications. In our tracking system, the sunlight was concentrated by the microstructure of Fresnel lens to the heating head of the Stirling engine and two solar cells were installed to provide the power for tracking system operation. In order to obtain the maximum sun power, the tracking system traces the sun with the altitude-azimuth biaxial tracing method and accurately maintains the sun’s radiation perpendicular to the plane of the heating head. The results indicated that the position of heating head is an important factor for power collection. If the sunlight can be concentrated to completely cover the heating head with small heat loss, we can obtain the maximum temperature of the heating head of the Stirling engine. Therefore, the temperature of heating head can be higher than 1000 °C in our experiment on a sunny day. Moreover, the results also revealed that the temperature decrease of the heating head is less than the power decrease of solar irradiation because of the latent heat of copper and the small heat loss from the heating head.

  10. Practical approach in surface modification of biaxially oriented polypropylene films for gravure printability (United States)

    Nuntapichedkul, Boonchai; Tantayanon, Supawan; Laohhasurayotin, Kritapas


    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film is one of the most popularly used materials for the gravure printing process in flexible packaging industry. The skin layers of BOPP film were associated with 3-6 weight % of propylene-ethylene copolymer. These films were completely biaxial-oriented by sequential stretching process after which the film surfaces were subjected to corona treatment integrated in the production line. The FT-IR results exhibited that polar functional groups as carbonyl molecules were established on the corona-treated BOPP film. The contact angles of these BOPP films were measured; the surface free energies (SFE) were then calculated. AFM topographical images also agreed well with the SFE which increased as the contents of propylene-ethylene copolymer increased. An approximated 20% increased SFE was obtained for the BOPP film that was associated with 6% propylene-ethylene copolymer. The printing quality on BOPP films was tested by light microscope which confirmed that the chromatic resolution of the printed images improved down to even more smaller groove sizes, 10 or 5 dot%. This improvement was also examined and found to correspond well with the interfacial tensions and work of adhesion between the inks and the modified BOPP films.

  11. Robust control for a biaxial servo with time delay system based on adaptive tuning technique. (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Chi; Yu, Chih-Hsien


    A robust control method for synchronizing a biaxial servo system motion is proposed in this paper. A new network based cross-coupled control and adaptive tuning techniques are used together to cancel out the skew error. The conventional fixed gain PID cross-coupled controller (CCC) is replaced with the adaptive cross-coupled controller (ACCC) in the proposed control scheme to maintain biaxial servo system synchronization motion. Adaptive-tuning PID (APID) position and velocity controllers provide the necessary control actions to maintain synchronization while following a variable command trajectory. A delay-time compensator (DTC) with an adaptive controller was augmented to set the time delay element, effectively moving it outside the closed loop, enhancing the stability of the robust controlled system. This scheme provides strong robustness with respect to uncertain dynamics and disturbances. The simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed control structure adapts to a wide range of operating conditions and provides promising results under parameter variations and load changes.

  12. Effects of Arbitrarily Directed Field on Spin Phase Oscillations in Biaxial Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; ZHU JiaLin; LU Rong; XIONG JiaJiong


    Quantum phase interference and spin-parity effects are studied in biaxial molecular magnets in a magnetic field at an arbitrarily directed angle. The calculations of the ground-state tunnel splitting are performed on the basis of the instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, and complemented by exactly numerical diagonalization. Both the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and the pre-exponential factor are obtained for the entire region of the direction of the field. Our results show that the tunnel splitting oscillates with the field for the small field angle, while for the large field angle the oscillation is completely suppressed. This distinct angular dependence, together with the dependence of the tunnel splitting on the field strength, provides an independent test for spin-parity effects in biaxial molecular magnets. The analytical results for the molecular Fes magnet are found to be in good agreement with the numerical simulations, which suggests that even the molecular magnet with total spin S = 10 is large enough to be treated as a giant spin system.``

  13. Upregulation of matrix synthesis in chondrocyte-seeded agarose following sustained bi-axial cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pingguan-Murphy


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in threedimensional cultures. METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period. RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05. The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05, indicating cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

  14. Fracture Propagation Characteristic and Micromechanism of Rock-Like Specimens under Uniaxial and Biaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-wei Liu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of uniaxial and biaxial compression tests on the rock-like material specimens with different fracture geometries through a rock mechanics servo-controlled testing system (RMT-150C. On the basis of experimental results, the characteristics of fracture propagation under different fracture geometries and loading conditions are firstly obtained. The newly formed fractures are observed propagating from or near the preexisting crack tips for different specimens, while the propagation paths are affected by the loading condition obviously. Then, by adopting acoustic emission (AE location technique, AE event localization characteristics in the process of loading are investigated. The locations of AE events are in good agreement with the macroscopic fracture propagation path. Finally, the micromechanism of macroscopic fracture propagation under uniaxial and biaxial compression conditions is analyzed, and the fracture propagation can be concluded as a result of microdamage accumulation inside the material. The results of this paper are helpful for theory and engineering design of the fractured rock mass.

  15. Equi-biaxial loading effect on austenitic stainless steel fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gourdin


    Full Text Available Fatigue lifetime assessment is essential in the design of structures. Under-estimated predictions may result in unnecessary in service inspections. Conversely, over-estimated predictions may have serious consequences on the integrity of structures. In some nuclear power plant components, the fatigue loading may be equibiaxial because of thermal fatigue. So the potential impact of multiaxial loading on the fatigue life of components is a major concern. Meanwhile, few experimental data are available on austenitic stainless steels. It is essential to improve the fatigue assessment methodologies to take into account the potential equi-biaxial fatigue damage. Hence this requires obtaining experimental data on the considered material with a strain tensor in equibiaxial tension. Two calibration tests (with strain gauges and image correlation were used to obtain the relationship between the imposed deflection and the radial strain on the FABIME2 specimen. A numerical study has confirmed this relationship. Biaxial fatigue tests are carried out on two austenitic stainless steels for different values of the maximum deflection, and with a load ratio equal to -1. The interpretation of the experimental results requires the use of an appropriate definition of strain equivalent. In nuclear industry, two kinds of definition are used: von Mises and TRESCA strain equivalent. These results have permitted to estimate the impact of the equibiaxiality on the fatigue life of components

  16. The effect of machining the gage section on Biaxial Tension/Shear plasticity experiments of DP780 sheet steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.


    An experimental approach for determining the effect of machining the gage section of specimens for quasi-static, biaxial tension/shear testing of sheet steels is described. This method is demonstrated by comparing the results found by an existing testing method with a reduced thickness (Mohr and Osw

  17. Biaxial flexural strength of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements heat-cured with an LED lamp during setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G. Fabian; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L. Brain; Frencken, J.E.F.M.


    Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ket

  18. Structural mechanisms as revealed by real time mechano optical behavior of polylactic acid films in uni and biaxial deformation and heat setting processes (United States)

    Ou, Xuesong

    In this study, structural development during PLA film processing was investigated with a new instrumented biaxial stretcher capable of real time monitoring of true stress, true strain and in-plane as well as out-of-plane birefringence under fast deformation rates. The effects of stretching rate and mode on mechano-optical behaviors and correspondent morphology development were investigated. At low deformation levels, a linear regime I associated with orientation of amorphous chains was observed in all modes of deformation. Following regime I, a steeper regime II associated with stress induced crystallization was observed during uniaxial constrained width (UCW) stretching under low rates before birefringence begins to level off in regime III due to finite extensibility of chains. During UCW stretching under high rate, regime I transformed directly into regime III, and this is associated with the formation of a very stable nematic mesophase. Direct transformation from regime I to regime III is observed during simultaneous biaxial (SIM) stretching under all rates. The kinetics of structural changes during heat setting from a pre-oriented state was investigated by rapid tracking of in and out-of-plane birefringence of pre-oriented films with a new instrumented annealing chamber capable of fast sample insertion and removal. Development of birefringence, which reflects overall chain orientation, and associated structural evolution during constrained annealing of extended PLA films were clarified. Structural evolution is determined by the competition between chain relaxation and registration of segments into well oriented nuclei that grow during annealing, leading to formation of a long range network of chains that arrests the chains in their oriented state. At low deformation the temporal evolution of birefringence first involves relaxation followed by a rapid increase associated with crystallization. The initial relaxation disappears with increase in deformation in the

  19. Investigation of the Residual Stress State in an Epoxy Based Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik


    observations. In the present work, the formation of the residual stresses/strains are captured from experimental measurements and numerical models. An epoxy/steel based sample configuration is considered which creates an in-plane biaxial stress state during curing of the resin. A hole drilling process......Abstract. Process induced residual stresses may play an important role under service loading conditions for fiber reinforced composite. They may initiate premature cracks and alter the internal stress level. Therefore, the developed numerical models have to be validated with the experimental...... material models, i.e. cure kinetics, elastic modulus, CTE, chemical shrinkage, etc. together with the drilling process using the finite element method. The measured and predicted in-plane residual strain states are compared for the epoxy/metal biaxial stress specimen....

  20. Stresses in sulfuric acid anodized coatings on aluminum (United States)

    Alwitt, R. S.; Xu, J.; Mcclung, R. C.


    Stresses in porous anodic alumina coatings have been measured for specimens stabilized in air at different temperatures and humidities. In ambient atmosphere the stress is tensile after anodic oxidation and is compressive after sealing. Exposure to dry atmosphere causes the stress to change to strongly tensile, up to 110 MPa. The stress increase is proportional to the loss of water from the coating. These changes are reversible with changes in humidity. Similar reversible effects occur upon moderate temperature changes. The biaxial modulus of the coating is about 100 GPa.

  1. Abrasion resistance of biaxially oriented polypropylene films coated with nanocomposite hard coatings (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Yaofeng; Fu, Yaqin


    KMnO4-treated, functionalized, biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films coated with nano-silica hybrid material were synthesized. The abrasion resistance of the films was examined using a reciprocating fabric abrasion tester. Functional groups were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Contact angle measurements were performed on the BOPP film surface to quantify the effectiveness of the functionalization. Results indicate that the abrasion resistance and roughness of the composite film were significantly affected by the modification of the BOPP film. Water surface contact angle of the modified BOPP films decreased from 90.1° to 71.4°,when KMnO4 concentration increased from 0 M to 0.25 M. Wettability of the BOPP films clearly improved after KMnO4 treatment. Abrasion resistance of the functionalized films coated with hybrid materials improved by 27.4% compared with that of the original film.

  2. Piezoresistive Properties of Suspended Graphene Membranes under Uniaxial and Biaxial Strain in Nanoelectromechanical Pressure Sensors (United States)


    Graphene membranes act as highly sensitive transducers in nanoelectromechanical devices due to their ultimate thinness. Previously, the piezoresistive effect has been experimentally verified in graphene using uniaxial strain in graphene. Here, we report experimental and theoretical data on the uni- and biaxial piezoresistive properties of suspended graphene membranes applied to piezoresistive pressure sensors. A detailed model that utilizes a linearized Boltzman transport equation describes accurately the charge-carrier density and mobility in strained graphene and, hence, the gauge factor. The gauge factor is found to be practically independent of the doping concentration and crystallographic orientation of the graphene films. These investigations provide deeper insight into the piezoresistive behavior of graphene membranes. PMID:27797484

  3. Fabrication of YBCO Coated Conductors on Biaxial Textured Metal Substrate by All-Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Han; Jing-Tan He; Jie Xiong; Bo-Wan Tao


    CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer layers were prepared on biaxial textured Ni-5at.%W substrate by direct-current magnetron reactive sputtering with the optimum process. YBCO thin films were deposited on CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffered Ni-5at.%W substrate at temperature ranging from 500°C to 700°C by diode dc sputtering. By optimizing substrate temperature, pure c-axis oriented YBCO films were obtained. The microstructures of CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 buffer layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction. A smooth, dense and crack-free surface morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy. The critical current density Jc about 0.75 MA/cm2 at 77 K was obtained.

  4. Measurement of refractive index of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate crystal plate using reflection spectroscopic ellipsometry technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Chaudhary; A Molla; A Asfaw


    The paper reports the measurement of refractive indices and anisotropic absorption coefficients of biaxial potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal in the form of thin plate using reflection ellipsometry technique. This experiment is designed in the Graduate Optics Laboratory of the Addis Ababa University and He–Ne laser ( = 632.8 nm), diode laser ( = 670.0 nm) and temperature-tuned diode laser ( = 804.4 and 808.4 nm), respectively have been employed as source. The experimental data for , are fitted to the Marquardt–Levenberg theoretical model of curve fitting. The obtained experimental data of refractive indices are compared with different existing theoretical and experimental values of KTP crystals and found to be in good agreement with them.

  5. Fatigue damage rule of LY12CZ aluminium alloy under sequential biaxial loading (United States)

    Wang, YingYu; Zhang, DaChuan; Yao, WeiXing


    A series of biaxial two-level variable amplitude loading tests are conducted on smooth tubular specimens of LY12CZ aluminium alloy. The loading paths of 90° out-of-phase, 45° out-of-phase and 45° in-phase are utilized. The fatigue damage cumulative rules under two-level step loading of three loading paths are analyzed. By introducing a parameter α which is a function of the phase lag angle between the axial and the torsional loading, a new multiaxial nonlinear fatigue damage cumulative model is proposed. The proposed model is evaluated by the experimental data for two-level loading, multi-level loading of LY12CZ aluminium alloy, and multi-level loading of 45 steel. Fatigue lives predicted are within a factor of 2 scatter band.

  6. The Landau-de Gennes theory of nematic liquid crystals: Uniaxiality versus Biaxiality

    KAUST Repository

    Majumdar, Apala


    We study small energy solutions within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions. We consider two-dimensional and three-dimensional domains separately. In the two-dimensional case, we establish the equivalence of the Landau-de Gennes and Ginzburg-Landau theory. In the three-dimensional case, we give a new definition of the defect set based on the normalized energy. In the threedimensional uniaxial case, we demonstrate the equivalence between the defect set and the isotropic set and prove the C 1,α-convergence of uniaxial small energy solutions to a limiting harmonic map, away from the defect set, for some 0 < a < 1, in the vanishing core limit. Generalizations for biaxial small energy solutions are also discussed, which include physically relevant estimates for the solution and its scalar order parameters. This work is motivated by the study of defects in liquid crystalline systems and their applications.

  7. Magnetic thermal stability of permalloy microstructures with shape-induced bi-axial anisotropy (United States)

    Telepinsky, Yevgeniy; Sinwani, Omer; Mor, Vladislav; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior


    We study the thermal stability of the magnetization states in permalloy microstructures in the form of two crossing elongated ellipses, a shape which yields effective bi-axial magnetic anisotropy in the overlap area. We prepare the structure with the magnetization along one of the easy axes of magnetization and measure the waiting time for switching when a magnetic field favoring the other easy axis is applied. The waiting time for switching is measured as a function of the applied magnetic field and temperature. We determine the energy barrier for switching and estimate the thermal stability of the structures. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations. The results indicate exceptional stability which makes such structures appealing for a variety of applications including magnetic random access memory based on the planar Hall effect.

  8. Facet-mediated growth of silver nanoparticles on biaxial calcium fluoride nanorod arrays (United States)

    Auer, Mathias; Ye, Dexian


    The surface orientation of metal nanoparticles is critical to their physical and chemical properties. This study aims on the understanding of the effect of surface orientation as well as heterogeneous epitaxy of metal nanoparticles at an interface between two materials with a large lattice mismatch. Silver nanoparticles of different diameters were grown on arrays of calcium fluoride (CaF2) nanorods using oblique angle deposition as a model system for this study. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging were used to verify that the nanoparticles were selectively grown on the desired {111} facets of the nanorod tips. Using selected area diffraction and dark field imaging in TEM, it was shown that the nanoparticles were grown at a (111) orientation at the CaF2 interface with large lattice strains. Thus biaxially textured CaF2 nanorod arrays can be used as a catalytic support.

  9. Comparison of calculation methods for the tunnel splitting at excited states of biaxial spin models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xiao-Bo; Chen Zhi-De


    We present the calculation and comparison of tunnel splitting at excited levels of biaxial spin models by various methods, including the generalized instanton method, the generalized path integral method for coherent spin states,the perturbation method, and the exact method by numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. It is found that,for integer spin with spin number around 10, tunnel splitting predicted by the generalized path integral for coherent spin states is about 10-n times of the exact numerical result for the nth excited level, while the ratio of the results of the perturbation method and the exact numerical method diverges in the large spin limit. We thus conclude that the generalized instanton method is the best approximate way for calculating tunnel splitting in spin models.

  10. Low-κ' dielectric properties of UV-treated bi-axially oriented polypropylene films (United States)

    Dervos, C. T.; Tarantili, P. A.; Athanassopoulou, M. D.


    A 40 µm multilayer bi-axially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film, was fabricated by the tenter process and its dielectric response was investigated after applying combined action of UV, humidity and heat. Dissipation factor (tan δ) and relative dielectric constant measurements were performed via the capacitance method for frequencies 20Hz-1 GHz. These results show that the relative dielectric constant (κ') reduces towards ultra low values (1.8) with an increasing number of applied UV-condensation cycles without any subsequent increase in the dielectric loss. Having no added physical porosity and absence of fluorine atoms, the irradiated BOPP structures offer significant advantages over poly(tetrafluoroethylene) PTFE due to reduced polarization effects, lower dielectric constant values and chemical stability to the adjacent copper or aluminium conductors. Possible application fields are dry type high-voltage capacitors and insulation within electronic components.

  11. Biaxial lidar efficiency rising based on improving of spatial selectivity and stability against background radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agishev, R.R.; Bajazitov, R.A.; Galeyev, M.M. [Kazan State Technical Univ., Tatarstan (Russian Federation). Dept. of Radioelectronic and Quantum Systems


    A criterion of spatial-angular efficiency (SAE) of remote electro-optical systems for atmosphere monitoring is formulated. The dependencies of the SAE from normalized range and minimal operating range for different optical receiving schemes of ground-based biaxial lidar are analyzed. It is shown that low SAE of traditional VIS and NIR systems are a main cause of a low signal-to-background-noise ratio at the photodetector input, the considerable measurements errors. and the following low accuracy of atmospheric optical parameters reconstruction. The most effective protection against sky background radiation in such systems consists in forming an angular field according to the introduced SAE criterion. Some approaches to achieve high value of the SAE-parameter for receiving system optimization are discussed.

  12. Biaxial lidar efficiency increase based on improving spatial selectivity and stability against background radiation (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil R.; Bajazitov, Ravil A.; Galeyev, Marat M.


    A criterion of spatial-angular efficiency (SAE) of remote electro-optical systems for atmosphere monitoring is formulated. The dependencies of the SAE from normalized range and minimal operating range for different optical receiving schemes of ground-based biaxial LIDAR are analyzed. It is shown that low SAE of traditional VIS & NIR systems is a main cause of a low signal-to-background-noise ratio at the photodetector input, the considerably measurements errors, and the following low accuracy of atmospheric optical parameters reconstruction. The most effective protection against sky background radiation in such systems consists in forming an angular field according to the introduced SAE criterion. Some approaches to achieve high value of the SAE-parameter for receiving system optimization are discussed.

  13. Hydration and radiation effects on the residual stress state of cortical bone. (United States)

    Tung, Patrick K M; Mudie, Stephen; Daniels, John E


    The change in the biaxial residual stress state of hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen fibrillar structure in sections of bovine cortical bone has been investigated as a function of dehydration and radiation dose using combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. It is shown that dehydration of the bone has a pronounced effect on the residual stress state of the crystalline phase, while the impact of radiation damage alone is less dramatic. In the initial hydrated state, a biaxial compressive stress of approximately -150 MPa along the bone axis exists in the hydroxyapatite crystals. As water evaporates from the bone material, the stress state moves to a tensile state of approximately 100 MPa. The collagen fibrillar structure is initially in a tensile residual stress state when the bone is hydrated and the state increases in magnitude slightly with dehydration. Radiation dose in continually hydrated samples also reduces the initial biaxial compressive stress magnitude in the hydroxyapatite phase; however, the stress remains compressive. Radiation exposure alone does not appear to affect the stress state of the collagen fibrillar structure.

  14. UV protective zinc oxide coating for biaxially oriented polypropylene packaging film by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kääriäinen, Tommi, E-mail: [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Johansson, Petri, E-mail: [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kotkamo, Sami, E-mail: [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp, E-mail: [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Seppänen, Tarja, E-mail: [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kuusipalo, Jurkka, E-mail: [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Cameron, David C., E-mail: [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland)


    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) packaging film was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) coatings by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to protect the film from UV degradation. The coatings were made at a process temperature of 100 °C using diethylzinc and water as zinc and oxygen precursors, respectively. The UV protective properties of the coatings were tested by using UV–VIS and infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a mechanical strength tester, which characterised the tensile and elastic properties of the film. The results obtained with 36 and 67 nm ZnO coatings showed that the ZnO UV protective layer is able to provide a significant decrease in photodegradation of the BOPP film under UV exposure. While the uncoated BOPP film suffered a complete degradation after a 4-week UV exposure, the 67 nm ZnO coated BOPP film was able to preserve half of its original tensile strength and 1/3 of its elongation at break after a 6-week exposure period. The infrared analysis and DSC measurements further proved the UV protection of the ZnO coatings. The results show that a nanometre scale ZnO coating deposited by ALD is a promising option when a transparent UV protection layer is sought for polymer substrates. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposited zinc oxide coatings were used as UV protection layers. • Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film was well protected against UV light. • Formation of UV degradation products in BOPP was significantly reduced. • Mechanical properties of the UV exposed BOPP film were significantly improved.

  15. Free vibration and biaxial buckling analysis of magneto-electro-elastic microplate resting on visco-Pasternak substrate via modified strain gradient theory (United States)

    Jamalpoor, A.; Ahmadi-Savadkoohi, A.; Hosseini-Hashemi, Sh


    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of free vibration and biaxial buckling of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) microplate resting on Kelvin-Voigt visco-Pasternak foundation and subjected to initial external electric and magnetic potentials, using modified strain gradient theory (MSGT). Kirchhoff plate model and Hamilton’s principle are employed to extract the governing equations of motion. Governing equations were analytically solved to obtain clear closed-form expression for complex natural frequencies and buckling loads using Navier’s approach. Numerical results are presented to reveal variations of natural frequency and buckling load ratio of MEE microplate against different amounts of the length scale parameter, initial external electric and magnetic potentials, aspect ratio, damping and transverse and shear stiffness parameters of the visco-Pasternak foundation, length to thickness ratio, microplate thickness and higher modes. Numerical results of this study illustrate that by increasing thickness-to-material length scale parameter ratio, both natural frequency and buckling load ratio predicted by MSGT and modified couple stress theory are reduced because the non-dimensional length scale parameter tends to decrease the stiffness of structures and make them more flexible. In addition, results show that initial external electric and initial external magnetic potentials have no considerable influence on the buckling load ratio and frequency of MEE microplate as the microplate thickness increases.

  16. Transient and residual stresses in a pressable glass-ceramic before and after resin-cement coating determined using profilometry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    The effect of heat-pressing and subsequent pre-cementation (acid-etching) and resin-cementation operative techniques on the development of transient and residual stresses in different thicknesses of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were characterised using profilometry prior to biaxial flexure strength (BFS) determination.

  17. Core Structure and Non-Abelian Reconnection of Defects in a Biaxial Nematic Spin-2 Bose-Einstein Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Borgh, Magnus O


    We calculate the energetic structure of defect cores and propose controlled methods to imprint a nontrivially entangled vortex pair that undergoes non-Abelian vortex reconnection in a biaxial nematic spin-2 condensate. For a singular vortex, we find three superfluid cores in addition to depletion of the condensate density. These exhibit order parameter symmetries that are different from the discrete symmetry of the biaxial nematic phase, forming an interface between the defect and the bulk superfluid. We provide a detailed analysis of phase mixing in the resulting vortex cores and find an instability dependent upon the orientation of the order parameter. We further show that the spin-2 condensate is a promising system for observing spontaneous deformation of a point defect into an "Alice ring" that has so far avoided experimental detection.

  18. The effect of melt infiltration of borosilicate glass on biaxial flexural strength of porcelain-veneered zirconia (United States)

    Joo, Kyu Ji; Song, Kyung Woo; Jung, Jong Hyun; Ahn, Hyo Jin; Park, Il Song; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Tae Sung


    To evaluate the effect of melt infiltration on the biaxial flexural strength of porcelain-bonded zirconia, borosilicate glasses were used in this study. Presintered yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) blocks were milled and used for disc specimens. Prior to veneering of porcelain, the infiltration of borosilicate glass on zirconia was performed at 1,100 °C for 1 h. After a biaxial flexural test with the crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/min, fractured surfaces and interfaces between zirconia and veneer porcelain were observed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The fracture strength of sintered zirconia and veneer porcelain was significantly increased by the melt infiltration of borosilicate glass (P porcelain increased slightly. The sintered zirconia group showed a smooth fracture surface containing many pores, but the glass-infiltrated zirconia group showed a rough fracture surface.

  19. Reexamination of the mean-field phase diagram of biaxial nematic liquid crystals: Insights from Monte Carlo studies (United States)

    Kamala Latha, B.; Jose, Regina; Murthy, K. P. N.; Sastry, V. S. S.


    Investigations of the phase diagram of biaxial liquid-crystal systems through analyses of general Hamiltonian models within the simplifications of mean-field theory (MFT), as well as by computer simulations based on microscopic models, are directed toward an appreciation of the role of the underlying molecular-level interactions to facilitate its spontaneous condensation into a nematic phase with biaxial symmetry. Continuing experimental challenges in realizing such a system unambiguously, despite encouraging predictions from MFT, for example, are requiring more versatile simulational methodologies capable of providing insights into possible hindering barriers within the system, typically gleaned through its free-energy dependences on relevant observables as the system is driven through the transitions. The recent paper from this group [Kamala Latha et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 050501(R) (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.050501], summarizing the outcome of detailed Monte Carlo simulations carried out employing an entropic sampling technique, suggested a qualitative modification of the MFT phase diagram as the Hamiltonian is asymptotically driven toward the so-called partly repulsive regions. It was argued that the degree of (cross) coupling between the uniaxial and biaxial tensor components of neighboring molecules plays a crucial role in facilitating a ready condensation of the biaxial phase, suggesting that this could be a plausible factor in explaining the experimental difficulties. In this paper, we elaborate this point further, providing additional evidence from curious variations of free-energy profiles with respect to the relevant orientational order parameters, at different temperatures bracketing the phase transitions.

  20. Spontaneous ordering of magnetic particles in liquid crystals: From chains to biaxial lamellae. (United States)

    Peroukidis, Stavros D; Klapp, Sabine H L


    Using Monte Carlo computer simulations we explore the self-assembly and ordering behavior of a hybrid, soft magnetic system consisting of small magnetic nanospheres in a liquid-crystalline (LC) matrix. Inspired by recent experiments with colloidal rod matrices, we focus on conditions where the sphere and rod diameters are comparable. Already in the absence of a magnetic field, the nematic ordering of the LC can stabilize the formation of magnetic chains along the nematic or smectic director, yielding a state with local (yet no macroscopic) magnetic order. The chains, in turn, increase the overall nematic order, reflecting the complex interplay of the structure formation of the two components. When increasing the sphere diameter, the spontaneous uniaxial ordering is replaced by biaxial lamellar morphologies characterized by alternating layers of rods and magnetic chains oriented perpendicular to the rod's director. These ordering scenarios at zero field suggest a complex response of the resulting hybrid to external stimuli, such as magnetic fields and shear forces.

  1. A Parametric Study of Mixing in a Granular Flow a Bi-Axial Spherical Tumbler

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C; Ottino, Julio M; Sturman, Rob


    We report on a computational parameter space study of mixing protocols for a half-full bi-axial spherical granular tumbler. The quality of mixing is quantified via the intensity of segregation (concentration variance) and computed as a function of three system parameters: angles of rotation about each tumbler axis and the flowing layer depth. Only the symmetric case is considered in which the flowing layer depth is the same for each rotation. We also consider the dependence on $\\bar{R}$, which parametrizes the concentric spheroids ("shells") that comprise the volume of the tumbler. The intensity of segregation is computed over 100 periods of the mixing protocol for each choice of parameters. Each curve is classified via a time constant, $\\tau$, and an asymptotic mixing value, $bias$. We find that most choices of angles and most shells throughout the tumbler volume mix well, with mixing near the center of the tumbler being consistently faster (small $\\tau$) and more complete (small $bias$). We conclude with ex...

  2. Numerical analysis of soil-rock mixture's meso-mechanics based on biaxial test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-yang; XU Wen-jie; YU Yu-zhen


    Soil-rock mixture(S-RM)is a widely distributed geotechnical medium composed of "soil" and "rock block" different both in size and strength. Internal rock blocks form special and variable meso-structural characteristics of S-RM. The objective of this work was to study the control mechanism of meso-structural characteristics on mechanical properties of S-RM. For S-RM containing randomly generated polygonal rock blocks, a series of biaxial tests based on DEM were conducted. On the basis of research on the effects of rock blocks' breakability and sample lateral boundary type (rigid, flexible) on macroscopic mechanical behavior of S-RM, an expanded Mohr-Coulomb criterion in power function form was proposed to represent the strength envelop. At the mesoscopic level, the variations of meso-structure such as rotation of rock block, and the formation mechanism and evolution process of the shear band during tests were investigated. The results show that for S-RM with a high content of rock block, translation, rotating and breakage of rock blocks have crucial effects on mechanical behavior of S-RM. The formation and location of the shear band inside S-RM sample are also controlled by breakability and arrangement of rock blocks.

  3. Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing. (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P


    Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Three test conditions were evaluated: submerged, non-submerged and marker. Surface strains were calculated for the two non-marker conditions based on motion of virtual tracking points. Tracking algorithm parameters (grid resolution and template size) were varied to determine the effect on estimated strains. Accuracy of point tracking was assessed through a comparison of the non-marker conditions to a condition involving markers placed on tissue surface. Grid resolution had a larger effect on local strain than template size. Average local strain error ranged from 3% to 9.25% and 0.1% to 2.0%, for the non-submerged and submerged conditions, respectively. Local strain estimation has a relatively high potential for error. Submerging the tissue provided superior strain estimates.

  4. The formation of vertically aligned biaxial tungsten nanorods using a novel shadowing growth technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, R [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Parker, T; Lu, T-M [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Lee, S [US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Benet Labs, Watervliet, NY 12189 (United States)


    Biaxially textured tungsten nanorods (A15 crystal structure) have been grown by oblique angle DC magnetron sputtering using a novel rotation mode called 'two-step rotation'. In this mode, the substrate is given a fast rotation through 180{sup 0} at 90 rpm and this is followed by a rest period of 30 s. These nanorods are vertically aligned and have a [100] texture normal to the substrate along with preferential in-plane texture as shown by x-ray pole figure analysis. In contrast, the tungsten nanorods obtained without substrate rotation are slanted at an angle of {approx}45{sup 0} and have a [100] texture tilted 16{sup 0} with respect to the substrate normal. The flux is incident from two diametrically opposite points on the sample at an oblique angle, averaging out the growth into vertical columns that retain the in-plane texture. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the tungsten nanorods have a mixture of {l_brace}211{r_brace} and {l_brace}421{r_brace} crystal habits; these planes are both minimum surface energy planes for a cubic A15 crystal structure.

  5. Transverse-electric/transverse-magnetic polarization converter using 1D finite biaxial photonic crystal. (United States)

    Ouchani, Noama; Bria, Driss; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Nougaoui, Abdelkarim


    We show that by using a one-dimensional anisotropic photonic structure, it is possible to realize optical wave polarization conversion by reflection and transmission processes. Thus a single incident S(P) polarized plane wave can produce a single reflected P(S) polarized wave and a single transmitted P(S) polarized wave. This polarization conversion property can be fulfilled with a simple finite superlattice (SL) constituted of anisotropic dielectric materials. We discuss the appropriate choices of the material and geometrical properties to realize such structures. The transmission and reflection coefficients are calculated in the framework of the Green's function method. The amplitude and the polarization characteristics of reflected and transmitted waves are determined as functions of frequency, wave vector k(parallel) (parallel to the interface), and the orientations of the principal axes of the layers constituting the SL. Specific applications of these results are given for a SL consisting of alternating biaxial anisotropic layers NaNO(2)/SbSI sandwiched between two identical semi-infinite isotropic media.

  6. Evaluation of Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Aortic Media Based on the Lamellar Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Taghizadeh


    Full Text Available Evaluation of the mechanical properties of arterial wall components is necessary for establishing a precise mechanical model applicable in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as remodeling. In this contribution, a new approach for the evaluation of the mechanical properties of aortic media accounting for the lamellar structure is proposed. We assumed aortic media to be composed of two sets of concentric layers, namely sheets of elastin (Layer I and interstitial layers composed of mostly collagen bundles, fine elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells (Layer II. Biaxial mechanical tests were carried out on human thoracic aortic samples, and histological staining was performed to distinguish wall lamellae for determining the dimensions of the layers. A neo-Hookean strain energy function (SEF for Layer I and a four-parameter exponential SEF for Layer II were allocated. Nonlinear regression was used to find the material parameters of the proposed microstructural model based on experimental data. The non-linear behavior of media layers confirmed the higher contribution of elastic tissue in lower strains and the gradual engagement of collagen fibers. The resulting model determines the nonlinear anisotropic behavior of aortic media through the lamellar microstructure and can be assistive in the study of wall remodeling due to alterations in lamellar structure during pathological conditions and aging.

  7. Buffer layers on metal surfaces having biaxial texture as superconductor substrates (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan; Lee, Dominic F.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit


    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, (RE=Rare Earth), RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, and RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, and RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approaches, which include chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

  8. Biaxial Solar Tracking System Based on the MPPT Approach Integrating ICTs for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Gregor


    Full Text Available The smart grid and distributed generation based on renewable energy applications often involve the use of information and communication technology (ICT coupled with advanced control and monitoring algorithms to improve the efficiency and reliability of the electrical grid and renewable generation systems. Photovoltaic (PV systems have been recently applied with success in the fields of distributed generation due to their lower environmental impact where the electrical energy generation is related to the amount of solar irradiation and thus the angle of incident ray of the sun on the surface of the modules. This paper introduces an integration of ICTs in order to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT using a biaxial solar tracking system for PV power applications. To generate the references for the digital control of azimuth and elevation angles a Global Positioning System (GPS by satellites is used which enables acquiring the geographic coordinates of the sun in real-time. As a total integration of the system a communication platform based on the 802.15.4 protocol for the wireless sensor networks (WSNs is adopted for supervising and monitoring the PV plant. A 2.4 kW prototype system is implemented to validate the proposed control scheme performance.

  9. Modeling of stored charge in metallized biaxially oriented polypropylene film capacitors based on charging current measurement (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wang, Bowen; Li, Zhiwei; Liu, De; Lin, Fuchang; Dai, Ling; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Yaohong


    Metallized biaxially oriented polypropylene film (BOPP) capacitors are widely used in pulsed power systems. When the capacitor is used as the energy storage equipment under high electric field, more charges should be provided to maintain the voltage of the capacitor. This should be ascribed to the completion of the slow polarization which may take several hours or even longer. This paper focuses on the stored charge in metallized BOPP film capacitors. The modeling of the stored charge by the equivalent conversion of circuits is conducted to analyse the slow polarization in the BOPP film. The 3-RC network is proposed to represent the time-dependent charge stored in the capacitor. A charging current measurement system is established to investigate the charge storage property of the capacitor. The measurement system can measure the long time charging current with a sampling rate of 300Hz. The total charge calculated by the charging current indicates that the stored charge in the capacitor under the electric field of 400 V/μm is 13.5% larger than the product of the voltage and the capacitance measured by the AC bridge. The nonlinear effect of the electric field on the slow polarization charge is also demonstrated. And the simulation of charge storage based on the 3-RC network can match well with the trend of the stored charge increasing with the time.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Faxing; Yu Zhiwu


    A new unified strength criterion in the principal stress space has been proposed for use with normal strength concrete (NC) and high strength concrete (HSC) in compressioncompression-tension, compression-tension-tension, triaxial tension, and biaxial stress states. The study covers concrete with strengths ranging from 20 to 130 Mpa. The conception of damage Poisson's ratio is defined and the expression for damage Poisson's ratio is determined basically.The failure mechanism of concrete is illustrated, which points out that damage Poisson's ratio is the key to determining the failure of concrete. Furthermore, for the concrete under biaxial stress conditions, the unified strength criterion is simplified and a simplified strength criterion in the form of curves is also proposed. The strength criterion is physically meaningful and easy to calculate, which can be applied to analytic solution and numerical solution of concrete structures.

  11. 单向及双轴向压缩载荷下的圆竹径向力学性能%Mechanical properties of bamboo with diametric uniaxial and biaxial compression tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈复明; 江泽慧; 王戈; 程海涛


    -Weibull distribution functions. Failure occurs at an about 45° position with x/y axial firstly when conducting biaxial compression. The χ-strain distribution was uniform. The range of variation was -0.138 ~0. 096, and the mean value was -0. 006. However, variation of y-strain field presented a more fluctuation compared with χ-strain filed, as the range of variation was —0. 138 ~0.096, the mean was -0.006. The location at 45° near the inner circle of bamboo ring suffered compression stress, conversely, the position close to the outside of the ring was given stretched effect. As the increase of length-diameter ratio, 25th ~ 75th percentiles of strain value and absolute value of mean, as a whole, presented a decreasing trend under biaxial loads 0 -300 N.

  12. Synthesis and real-time magnetic manipulation of a biaxial superparamagnetic colloid. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Osterloh, Frank E; Hiramatsu, Hiroki; Dumas, R K; Liu, Kai


    Superparamagnetic colloidal plates were synthesized from tetrabutylammonium stabilized Ca(2)Nb(3)O(10) nanosheets and oleic acid-stabilized Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. Modification with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane produces amine-terminated Ca(2)Nb(3)O(10) with an amine concentration of 0.43 +/- 0.06 groups per Ca(2)Nb(3)O(10) unit as follows from spectroscopic quantification with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid as a dye. Treatment of the modified sheets in THF/ethanol with 5.3 nm oleic acid-stabilized magnetite nanoparticles yields pseudo-2D assemblies that consist of 2 nm thick nanosheets decorated on both sides with a dense collection (9.3 +/- 0.5 x 10(3) particles per square micrometer per side) of magnetite particles. In noncoordinating or weakly coordinating solvents, these composite particles further aggregate into stacked aggregates with a mean edge length of 1.6 +/- 0.7 microm and a thickness of 79 +/- 30 nm. The colloidal plates were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, and infrared and UV/vis spectroscopy. SQUID measurements show that films of the aligned particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The magnetic hysteresis that is observed at 5 K reveals that the plates have a magnetic anisotropy with the easy axis in the plane of the plates and the hard axis perpendicular to it. Calculations show that the magnetic anisotropy is a direct consequence of the two-dimensional distribution of the magnetic nanoparticles on the sheets. Optical microscopy reveals that when suspended in ethanol or THF, the colloidal plates can be rotated in real time with a variable external magnetic field (200 Oe). Magnetic alignment of the particles in suspensions also produces asymmetric light scattering patterns and magnetic birefringence. These effects and the observed magneto-orientational properties make the biaxial colloids interesting as components in displays and as magnetic actuators.

  13. Effects of the depolarization field in a perforated film of the biaxial ferroelectric (United States)

    Levanyuk, A. P.; Misirlioglu, I. B.; Mishina, E. D.; Sigov, A. S.


    The domain structure in a biaxial ferroelectric layer perforated by cylindrical channels has been investigated using the numerical simulation based on the phenomenological theory of ferroelectricity and the equations of electrostatics in the framework of the Gauss-Seidel iterative method. Both polar axes lie in the plane of the film, which is characteristic of thin epitaxial films of BaTiO3 and (Ba1 - x Sr x )TiO3 on a MgO substrate. The calculations have been performed using the parameters of BaTiO3, which does not matter because of the qualitative character of the results: the electrostatic problem is two-dimensional and formally applies to infinitely thick layers rather than to thin layers. The primary attention has been paid to the systems containing sixteen channels. Two different orientations of the polar axes with respect to the lattice channels have been considered. It has been shown that, for these orientations, the domain structure has a different character: when the line with the minimum distance between the channels is perpendicular to the bisector of the angle between the polar axes, this structure contains a single channel in the repeating motif and a polarization vortex; when one of the polar axes is perpendicular to the line with the minimum distance between the channels, the situation is less clear. There are indications that the repeating motif of the domain structure in a system of many channels contains two channels and does not contain vortices. The strong influence of the electrodes on the domain structure in this case has been noted.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Wang; D. Xu; B.C. Cai


    TiNi thin films were sputter-deposited on circular single-crystal silicon substrates un-der various sputtering parameters. The crystal structure and residual stress of the as-deposited films were determined by X-ray diffraction and substrate-curvature method.The phenomenon of stress-suppressed martensitic transformation was observed. It isconsidered that the residual stresses in SMA thin films based on circular substratesact as balanced biaxial tensile stresses. The status of equilibrant delays the align-ment of self-accommodated variants and the volume shrinkage during the martensitictransformation.

  15. Apparent Dependence of Rate- and State-Dependent Friction Parameters on Loading Velocity and Cumulative Displacement Inferred from Large-Scale Biaxial Friction Experiments (United States)

    Urata, Yumi; Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Noda, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Kazuo


    We investigated the constitutive parameters in the rate- and state-dependent friction (RSF) law by conducting numerical simulations, using the friction data from large-scale biaxial rock friction experiments for Indian metagabbro. The sliding surface area was 1.5 m long and 0.5 m wide, slid for 400 s under a normal stress of 1.33 MPa at a loading velocity of either 0.1 or 1.0 mm/s. During the experiments, many stick-slips were observed and those features were as follows. (1) The friction drop and recurrence time of the stick-slip events increased with cumulative slip displacement in an experiment before which the gouges on the surface were removed, but they became almost constant throughout an experiment conducted after several experiments without gouge removal. (2) The friction drop was larger and the recurrence time was shorter in the experiments with faster loading velocity. We applied a one-degree-of-freedom spring-slider model with mass to estimate the RSF parameters by fitting the stick-slip intervals and slip-weakening curves measured based on spring force and acceleration of the specimens. We developed an efficient algorithm for the numerical time integration, and we conducted forward modeling for evolution parameters (b) and the state-evolution distances (L_{c} ), keeping the direct effect parameter (a) constant. We then identified the confident range of b and L_{c} values. Comparison between the results of the experiments and our simulations suggests that both b and L_{c} increase as the cumulative slip displacement increases, and b increases and L_{c} decreases as the loading velocity increases. Conventional RSF laws could not explain the large-scale friction data, and more complex state evolution laws are needed.

  16. Incremental stress-strain law for graphite under multiaxial loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzung, F.


    An incremental stress-strain law for describing the nonlinear, compressible and asymmetric behavior of graphite under tension and compression as well as complex loadings is derived based on a dry friction model in the theory of plasticity. Stress-strain relations are defined by longitudinal-lateral strain measurements for specimens under uniaxial tension-compression. Agreements with experimentally determined curves from biaxial loading experiments are shown. Agreements in finite element computations using the present model with strain measurements for diametral compression and 4-point bend tests of graphite are also obtained.

  17. Active-flux based motion sensorless vector control of biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coroban-Schramel, Vasile; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel


    This paper proposes a novel, active-flux based, motion-sensorless vector control structure for biaxial excitation generator for automobiles (BEGA) for wide speed range operation. BEGA is a hybrid excited synchronous machine having permanent magnets on q-axis and a dc excitation on daxis. Using...... the active-flux concept the estimated rotor position is given by the sum of the active flux angle and torque angle. The active flux is calculated by subtracting the term Lq i s from the estimated stator flux vector. The experimental results validate the active flux-principle and show good performance...

  18. Development of Biaxial Oriented Polyethylene Film%双向拉伸聚乙烯薄膜的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯润财; 伍杰锋; 张广强; 傅强


    对影响双向拉伸聚乙烯(BOPE)薄膜质量的因素进行深入的讨论,同时也就BOPE生产过程中经常出现的问题进行了讨论并提出了相应的解决方法.%The effects on the quality of biaxial oriented polyethylene ( BOPE) and general practical problems in the production were analyzed. The methods to solve the general defects were put forward.

  19. Catalytic surface modification of roll-milled poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) biaxially stretched to ultra-thin dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, H.L. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Taniguchi, A. [Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Yu, H. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Okano, T. [Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Tokyo Women' s Medical University (Japan); Teoh, S.H. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)]. E-mail:


    A novel roll-milling polymer processing technique along with biaxial stretching was used to fabricate 10 {mu}m thick poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) films. A less invasive collagen surface modification was used, involving a reaction between corona-preactivated membranes and ferrous-containing acrylic acid solution at the low temperature of 42 {sup o}C. Successful modified films were characterized by Toluidine Blue O assay and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells also showed both higher proliferation rate and differentiated cobblestone morphology on these collagen-immobilized substrates.

  20. Stress-strain curves for different loading paths and yield loci of aluminum alloy sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiang-dong; WAN Min; HAN Fei; WANG Hai-bo


    To carry out biaxial tensile test in sheet metal, the biaxial tensile testing system was established. True stress-true strain curves of three kinds of aluminum alloy sheets for loading ratios of 4:1, 4:2, 4:3, 4:4, 3:4, 2:4 and 1:4 were obtained by conducting biaxial tensile test in the established testing systems. It shows that the loading path has a significant influence on the stress-strain curves and as the loading ratio increases from 4:1 to 4:4, the stress-strain curve becomes higher and n-value becomes larger.Experimental yield points for three aluminum alloy sheets from 0.2% to 2% plastic strain were determined based on the equivalent plastic work. And the geometry of the experimental yield loci were compared with the yield loci calculated from several existing yield criteria. The analytical result shows that the Barlat89 and Hosford yield criterion describe the general trends of the experimental yield loci of aluminum alloy sheets well, whereas the Mises yield criterion overestimates the yield stress in all the contours.

  1. Modeling of CMUTs with Multiple Anisotropic Layers and Residual Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Thomsen, Erik Vilain


    Usually the analytical approach for modeling CMUTs uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. A highly accurate model is developed for analytical characterization of CMUTs taking an arbitrary number of layers...... and residual stress into account. Based on the stress-strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular...... clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress. From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated and by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method the natural frequency is estimated....


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of two calcium-silicate based cements: Portland cement and biodentine. (United States)

    Alhodiry, W; Lyons, M F; Chadwick, R G


    This study evaluated the effect of contamination with saliva and blood on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of pure gray Portland cement and Biodentine (Septodont, Allington, UK). A one-way ANOVA showed that contamination caused no significant difference between the cements in bi-axial flexural strength (P> 0.05). However there was a significant difference in setting time (Pcement taking longer than Biodentine, regardless of the contaminant, and contamination with blood increased the setting time of both materials. Biodentine was similar in strength to Portland cement, but had a shorter setting time for both contaminated and non-contaminated samples.

  4. Texture mechanisms and microstructure of biaxial thin films grown by oblique angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, A.R.; Karimi, A. [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Condensee (IPMC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)


    In order to understand the texture formation mechanism in thin films grown under oblique angle deposition (OAD), TiAlN films were deposited at room temperature (RT) under various incident angles. We show that both in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic orientations respond strongly to the deposition angle. For {alpha} = 0 , the pole figures show a (111) and (200) mixed out-of-plane orientation with random in-plane alignment. In contrast, under OAD, inclined textures are observed with the (111) direction moving toward the incident flux direction and the (200) moving away, showing substantial in-plane alignment. This observation suggests that TiAlN crystals prefer to grow with the (200) direction perpendicular to the substrate while maintaining the minimization of the surface free energy by maximizing the (111) surface area toward the incident flux. The in-plane texture, which is randomly oriented at normal incidence, gives rise to two preferred orientations under oblique angles - one along the direction of flux and other away from the deposition source. The biaxial texture results from a competition among texture mechanism related to surface mobilities of adatoms, geometrical and directional effects. The surface and cross-section of the films were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OAD films develop a kind of smooth tiles of a roof structure, with no faceted crystallites. The columns of these films were tilted toward the direction of incident flux. The dependence of (111) texture tilt angle and column angle {beta} on the incidence flux angle {alpha} is evaluated using four well-known models. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study reveals a voided, intercolumnar structure with oblique growth toward the flux direction. The selected area diffraction pattern (SAED) pattern supports the pole figure observations. Measurements of the nanoindentation test were performed in order to discuss the change of mechanical properties as a function of incident

  5. Toward a biaxial model of "bipolar" affective disorders: further exploration of genetic, molecular and cellular substrates. (United States)

    Askland, Kathleen


    Current epidemiologic and genetic evidence strongly supports the heritability of bipolar disease. Inconsistencies across linkage and association analyses have been primarily interpreted as suggesting polygenic, nonMendelian and variably-penetrant inheritance (i.e., in terms of interacting disease models). An equally-likely explanation for this genetic complexity is that trait, locus and allelic heterogeneities (i.e., a heterogeneous disease model) are primarily responsible for observed variability at the population level. The two models of genetic complexity are not mutually-exclusive, and are in fact likely to co-exist both in trait determination and disease expression. However, the current model proposes that, while both types of complex genetics are likely central to observable affective trait spectra, inheritance patterns, gross phenotypic categories and treatment-responsiveness in affective disease (as well as the widespread inconsistencies across such studies) may be primarily explained in terms of a heterogeneous disease model. Gene-gene, gene-protein and protein-protein interactions, then, are most likely to serve as trait determinants and 'phenotypic modifiers' rather than as primary pathogenic determinants. Moreover, while locus heterogeneity indicates the presence of multiple susceptibility genes at the population level, it does not necessitate polygenic inheritance at the individual or pedigree level. Rather, it is compatible with the possibility of mono- or bigenic determination of disease susceptibility within individuals/pedigrees. More specifically, the biaxial model proposes that integration of specific findings from genetic linkage and association studies, ion channels research as well as pharmacologic mechanism, phenotypic specificity and effectiveness studies suggests that each gene of potential etiologic significance in primary affective illness might be categorized into one of two classes, according to their primary role in neuronal

  6. Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon (United States)

    Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.

    This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness meridional tendons This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent Upon inflation and pressurization the instantaneous i e linear-elastic strain and stress distributions in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction However over time and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the gore material the em hoop strains increase and the em meridional stresses decrease whereas the em remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature The results show good correlation with a numerical study using the ABAQUS finite-element package that includes a widely used model of

  7. Modeling of plates with multiple anisotropic layers and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain


    Usually the analytical approach for modeling of plates uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. Based on the stress–strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general...... multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress.From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated......, and an excellent agreement between the two models is seen with a relative difference of less than 2% for all calculations. The model was also used to extract the cell capacitance, the parasitic capacitance and the residual stress of a pressure sensor composed of a multilayered plate of silicon and silicon oxide...

  8. Preparation of Porous GaN Buffer and Its Influence on the Residual Stress of GaN Epilayers Grown by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The preparation of porous structure on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown mixed-polarity GaN epilayers was reported by using the wet chemical etching method. The effect of this porous structure on the residual stress of subsequent-growth GaN epilayers was studied by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum.Substantial decrease in the biaxial stresse can be achieved by employing the porous buffers in the hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) epilayer growth.

  9. Biaxial mechanics and inter-lamellar shearing of stem-cell seeded electrospun angle-ply laminates for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering. (United States)

    Driscoll, Tristan P; Nakasone, Ryan H; Szczesny, Spencer E; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L


    The annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disk plays a critical role in vertebral load transmission that is heavily dependent on the microscale structure and composition of the tissue. With degeneration, both structure and composition are compromised, resulting in a loss of AF mechanical function. Numerous tissue engineering strategies have addressed the issue of AF degeneration, but few have focused on recapitulation of AF microstructure and function. One approach that allows for generation of engineered AF with appropriate (+/-)30° lamellar microstructure is the use of aligned electrospun scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and assembled into angle-ply laminates (APL). Previous work indicates that opposing lamellar orientation is necessary for development of near native uniaxial tensile properties. However, most native AF tensile loads are applied biaxially, as the disk is subjected to multi-axial loads and is constrained by its attachments to the vertebral bodies. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the biaxial mechanical response of engineered AF bilayers, and to determine the importance of opposing lamellar structure under this loading regime. Opposing bilayers, which replicate native AF structure, showed a significantly higher modulus in both testing directions compared to parallel bilayers, and reached ∼60% of native AF biaxial properties. Associated with this increase in biaxial properties, significantly less shear, and significantly higher stretch in the fiber direction, was observed. These results provide additional insight into native tissue structure-function relationships, as well as new benchmarks for engineering functional AF tissue constructs.

  10. Effect of Low Pressure Nitrogen DC Plasma on Optical Properties of Biaxial-Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP), Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Films (United States)

    Mortazavi, S. H.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Faryadras, S.


    In this paper properties of Biaxial-Oriented Polypropylene, Poly Vinyl Chloride and Poly Methyl Methacrylate samples treated by DC glow discharge of N2 plasma have been investigated by UV-Vis_NIR spectrophotometer. It was found that plasma treatment change chemical structure of polymer surfaces. In addition, absorption coefficient, refractive index and extinction coefficient of all treated samples have been slightly changed.

  11. Electronic and optical properties of beryllium sulfide monolayer: Under stress and strain conditions (United States)

    Jalilian, Jaafar; Safari, Mandana


    Electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional graphene-like structure of beryllium sulfide (BeS) have been studied in the framework of the density functional theory. Different values of stress and strain are exerted for tuning electronic and optical parameters. The electronic results show that both biaxial stress and strain effects cause band gap reduction with different rates. Also, we have red and blue shifts in the optical absorption spectrum peaks by applying strain and stress, respectively. Our results express that BeS monolayer can be the promising candidate for the future nano-devices.

  12. Most effective way to improve the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated BN sheets: applying external biaxial strain and an electric field. (United States)

    Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Xiaofeng


    Density functional calculations were used to investigate the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-atoms-decorated BN sheets under both external biaxial strain and a vertical electric field. The Na atom generally has the weakest binding strength to a given substrate compared with the other elements in the periodic table [PANS, 2016, 113, 3735]. Consequently, it is understudied in comparison to other elements and there are few reports about the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated nanomaterials. We calculated that the average binding energy (Eb) of Na atoms to the pure BN sheet is 1.08 eV, which is smaller than the cohesive energy of bulk Na (1.11 eV). However, the Eb can be increased to 1.15 eV under 15% biaxial strain, and further up to 1.53 eV with the control of both 15% biaxial strain and a 5.14 V nm(-1) electric field (E-field). Therefore, the application of biaxial strain and an external upward E-field can prevent clustering of the Na atoms on the surface of a BN sheet, which is crucial for the hydrogen storage. Each Na atom on the surface of a BN sheet can adsorb only one H2 molecule when no strain or E-field is applied; however, the absorption increases to five H2 molecules under 15% biaxial strain and six H2 molecules under both 15% biaxial strain combined with a 5.14 V nm(-1)E-field. The average adsorption energies for H2 of BN-(Na-mH2) (m = 1-6) are within the range of practical applications (0.2-0.6 eV). The hydrogen gravimetric density of the periodic BN-(Na-6H2)4 structure is 9 wt%, which exceeds the 5.5 wt% value that should be met by 2017 as specified by the US Department of Energy. On the other side, removal of the biaxial strain and E-field can help to desorb the H2 molecule. These findings suggest a new route to design hydrogen storage materials under near-ambient conditions.

  13. Tuning of the electronic and optical properties of single-layer indium nitride by strain and stress (United States)

    Jalilian, Jaafar; Naseri, Mosayeb; Safari, Shima; Zarei, Mina


    Using first principles calculations, electronic and optical properties of indium nitride graphene-like structure have been studied under various stress and strain values. The results exhibit that this compound in the range of ±6 applied biaxial strain remains a direct band gap semiconductor. Also, exerting stress and strain reduces the energy band gap of the considered materials. The optical calculations illustrate that applying stress and strain on system results in blue and red shift in optical spectra. All obtained results presented that we can tune the optoelectronic properties of indium nitride by applying stress and strain.

  14. Investigation of the interface characteristics of Y2O3/GaAs under biaxial strain, triaxial strain, and non-strain conditions (United States)

    Shi, Li-Bin; Liu, Xu-Yang; Dong, Hai-Kuan


    We investigate the interface behaviors of Y2O3/GaAs under biaxial strain, triaxial strain, and non-strain conditions. This study is performed by first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). First of all, the biaxial strain is realized by changing the lattice constants in ab plane. Averaged electrostatic potential (AEP) is aligned by establishing Y2O3 and GaAs (110) surfaces. The band offsets of Y2O3/GaAs interface under biaxial strain are investigated by generalized gradient approximation and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functionals. The interface under biaxial strain is suitable for the design of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices because the valence band offsets (VBO) and conduction band offsets (CBO) are larger than 1 eV. Second, the triaxial strain is applied to Y2O3/GaAs interface by synchronously changing the lattice constants in a, b, and c axis. The band gaps of Y2O3 and GaAs under triaxial strain are investigated by HSE functional. We compare the VBO and CBO under triaxial strain with those under biaxial strain. Third, in the absence of lattice strain, the formation energies, charge state switching levels, and migration barriers of native defects in Y2O3 are assessed. We investigate how they will affect the MOS device performance. It is found that VO+2 and Oi-2 play a very dangerous role in MOS devices. Finally, a direct tunneling leakage current model is established. The model is used to analyze current and voltage characteristics of the metal/Y2O3/GaAs.

  15. Biaxial (Tension-Torsion) Testing of an Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composite (United States)


    the laminate in the test section, used for producing circum- ferential or axial stresses, should be minimized to avoid adding a high radial stress...without introducing significant surface defects or leaving cleaning products residuals such as strands of textiles or paper byproducts from cleaning and...useful estimates of the failure of typical isotropic, ductile, monolithic aerospace alloys, but are less useful in evaluating anisotropic, laminate

  16. Evaluation of Crack-tip Stress in Titanium Oxide Film Using Piezo-spectroscopy Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Keshu; ZHU Wenliang; PEZZOTTI Giuseppe; MIAO Lei; TANEMURA Sakae


    The biaxial piezo-spectroscopic coefficient of 530 nm cathodoluminescence band of polycrystalline anatase titanium oxide film was measured using a local calibration procedure. Firstly, the crack-tip stress intensity factor in titanium oxide was measured from the crack opening displacement of a Vickers indentation crack using both Irwin's formula and Fett's formula, and the validity of these two formulas was evaluated. The obtained value was about Ktip =1 MPa √m. In such a brittle material, the fracture toughness can be considered to be very close to the stress intensity factor measured in an equilibrium indentation crack (Ktip= Kc). From the Ktip value, we calculated the stress distribution ahead of the crack tip using principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. An important finding was that the cathodoluminescence 530 nm band that originated from excitons self-trapped on TiO6 octahedra, is sensitive to stress. Using the shift of this peak and the calculated stress from linear elastic fracture mechanics, the biaxial piezo-spectroscopic coefficient of this band was determined (40 nm/GPa with a 20% error rate). Using this piezo-spectroscopic coefficient, approximate stress maps can be collected of unknown stress fields within thin films with high spatial resolution into the scanning electron microscope. The present experiments provide a vivid example of quantitative micromechanical stress analysis by piezo-spectroscopic techniques.

  17. Impact of biaxial compressive strain on the heterostructures of paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang


    Full Text Available We have performed density functional theory calculations to explore the impact of biaxial compressive strain on the heterostructures of paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3. We find that the strain induces strong ferroelectric distortion in KTaO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures and it stabilizes the heterostructures in ferroelectric states.The strain influences the distribution of doped holes and leads to the localization of holes in TiO2 layer. It is very interesting that ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism simultaneously present in the strained heterostructures formed by the paraelectrics KTaO3 and SrTiO3. The reversal of ferroelectric polarization changes the interface magnetization and thus results in magnetoelectric coupling effect in the heterostructures.

  18. Monte Carlo investigation of critical properties of the Landau point of a biaxial liquid-crystal system. (United States)

    Ghoshal, Nababrata; Shabnam, Sabana; DasGupta, Sudeshna; Roy, Soumen Kumar


    Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to investigate the critical properties of a special singular point usually known as the Landau point. The singular behavior is studied in the case when the order parameter is a tensor of rank 2. Such an order parameter is associated with a nematic-liquid-crystal phase. A three-dimensional lattice dispersion model that exhibits a direct biaxial nematic-to-isotropic phase transition at the Landau point is thus chosen for the present study. Finite-size scaling and cumulant methods are used to obtain precise values of the critical exponent ν=0.713(4), the ratio γ/ν=1.85(1), and the fourth-order critical Binder cumulant U^{*}=0.6360(1). Estimated values of the exponents are in good agreement with renormalization-group predictions.

  19. Effect of external stress on phase diagrams and dielectric properties of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films grown on orthorhombic substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Ye-gang; DENG Shui-feng; GONG Lun-jun; YANG Jian-tao


    A Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire(LD)-type thermodynamic theory was used to describe the effect of external stress on phase diagrams and dielectric properties of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films grown on orthorhombic substrates which induce nonequally biaxial misfit strains in the films plane. The "misfit strain-external stress" and "external stress-temperature" phase diagrams were constructed for single-domain BaTiO3(BT) and PbTiO3(PT) thin films. It is shown that the external stress may lead to the rotation of the spontaneous polarization and a gradual change of its magnitude, which may result in phase transition. Nonequally biaxial misfit strains dependence of the stability of polarization states may be governed by external stress. At room temperature,stress-induced ferroelectric/paraelectric phase transition which occurs in film on cubic substrate does not take place in the ferroelectric thin film grown on orthorhombic substrate. It is also shown that the nonequally misfit strains in the film plane may lead to the appearance of new phases which do not form in films grown on cubic substrates under external stress. The dependence of the dielectric response on the external stress is also studied. It is shown that the dielectric constants of single-domain PT and BT films are very sensitive to the external stress under the given anisotropic misfit strains-temperature conditions. It presents theoretical evidence that the external stress and anisotropic misfit strains can be employed for improving the thin films physical properties.

  20. 土工织物双向可拉伸多功能渗透试验装置%Multifunctional permeability test apparatus for geotextiles under biaxial tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷国辉; 吴纲; 姜红; 茅加峰


    为揭示土工织物工程应用时处于拉伸状态下的渗透和反滤特性,自主研制了一套多功能渗透试验装置。采用两套独立的、稳定可靠的砝码和杠杆加载机构,可以实现土工织物在单向和双向不同拉伸应力作用情况下的渗透试验。设计开发了一种多功能渗透仪,可以开展纯土工织物以及覆土土工织物在垂向无压和有压情况下的常水头和变水头渗透试验。初步应用结果表明,该试验装置在土工织物无拉伸和无垂向压力情况下的渗透试验结果与满足国标和国际标准要求的渗透仪的试验结果基本一致,且能够实现试验装置设计的所有功能,为后续开展土工织物拉伸条件下渗透和反滤特性的试验研究奠定了基础。%A multifunctional permeability test apparatus is developed to investigate the permeability and filtration properties of geotextiles under tension as encountered in practice. By adopting two individual sets of stable and reliable counterweight-and-lever loading assemblies, permeability tests can be carried out for geotextiles under either uni-axial or biaxial tension with different tensile stresses. A multifunctional permeameter is designed and developed for performing constant head and falling head permeability tests on geotextiles or soil-covered geotextiles with and without vertical load. The preliminary experimental results show that the permeability of geotextiles without tension and vertical load obtained from the newly developed apparatus is generally consistent with that obtained from a permeameter conform to the national and international standards. Moreover, all functions designed for this apparatus can be accomplished. This provides a basis for future studies on the permeability and filtration properties of geotextiles under tension.

  1. Fractal Patterns of Fracture in Sandwich Composite Materials under Biaxial Tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingFANG; XuefengYAO; 等


    The paper presents a successful experiment to generate a fractal pattern of branching cracks in a brittle material sandwiched in ductile pates.A glass sheet bonded between two polycarbonate plates was heated at different levels of temperatures and the stress field due to the difference of thermal coefficients of the materials was solved by combining the results from isochromatic fringes and thermal stress analysis.At a critical degree of temperature,a crack was initiated at a point and soon produced crack branches to release the stored energy.A tree-like fractal patterns of the branch cracks was then developed with the growth of the branches that subsequently produced more branches on their ways of propagation.The fractakl dimension of the fracture pattern was evaluated and the mechanism of the fragmentation was analyzed with the help of the residual stress field of isochromatic and isoclinic patterns.

  2. Acoustoelastic effect in stressed heterostructures. (United States)

    Osetrov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Fröhlich, Heinz-Jürgen; Koch, Reinhold; Chilla, Eduard


    Mechanical stresses influence the phase velocity of acoustic waves, known as the AE (acoustoelastic) effect. In order to calculate the AE effect of biaxially stressed layered systems, we extended the transfer matrix method for acoustic wave propagation by considering the change of the density, the influence of residual stress, and the modification of the elastic stiffness tensor by residual strain and by third-order constants. The generalized method is applied to the calculation of the angular dispersion of the AE effect for transverse bulk modes and surface acoustic waves on Ge(001). Our calculations reveal that the AE effect significantly depends on the propagation direction and can even change sign. The maximal velocity change occurs for transversally polarized waves propagating parallel to the [110] direction. For the layered Ge/Si(001) system, the AE effect is investigated for Love modes propagating in the [100] and [110] directions. The AE effect increases rapidly with increasing layer thickness and almost reaches its maximal value when the wave still penetrates into the unstressed substrate.

  3. Effect of biaxial strain and external electric field on electronic properties of MoS2 monolayer: A first-principle study (United States)

    Nguyen, Chuong V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.


    In this work, making use of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we systematically investigate the effect of biaxial strain engineering and external electric field applied perpendicular to the layers on the band gaps and electronic properties of monolayer MoS2. The direct-to-indirect band gaps and semiconductor-to-metal transition are observed in monolayer MoS2 when strain and electric field are applied in our calculation. We show that when the biaxial strain and external electric field are introduced, the electronic properties including band gaps of monolayer MoS2 can be reduced to zero. Our results provide many useful insights for the wide applications of monolayer MoS2 in electronics and optoelectronics.

  4. Bifurcation of a periodic instanton and quantum-classical transition in the biaxial nano-ferromagnet with a magnetic field along hard axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂一行; 李志坚; 梁九卿; 严启伟


    Crossover from classical to quantum regimes of the barrier transition rate in a biaxial ferromagnetic magnet with a magnetic field applied along hard anisotropy axis is investigated. We show that the type of action-temperature diagrams can be determined by counting the number of bifurcation points. The model possesses not only the known type Ⅰ and Ⅱ, but also the interesting type Ⅲ and Ⅳ of transition which do not occur in general.

  5. Residual stress in nano-structured stainless steel (AISI 316L) prompted by Xe+ ion bombardment at different impinging angles (United States)

    Cucatti, S.; Droppa, R.; Figueroa, C. A.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Alvarez, F.


    The effect of low energy (316L steel) is reported. The results take into account the influence of the ion incident angle maintaining constant all other bombarding parameters (i.e., ion energy and current density, temperature, and doses). The bombarded surface topography shows that ions prompt the formation of nanometric regular patterns on the surface crystalline grains and stressing the structure. The paper focalizes on the study of the surface residual stress state stemming from the ion bombardment studied by means of the "sin2 ψ" and "Universal Plot" methods. The analysis shows the absence of shear stress in the affected material region and the presence of compressive in-plane residual biaxial stress (˜200 MPa) expanding up to ˜1 μm depth for all the studied samples. Samples under oblique bombardment present higher compressive stress values in the direction of the projected ion beam on the bombarded surface. The absolute value of the biaxial surface stress difference (σ11-σ22) increases on ion impinging angles, a phenomenon associated with the momentum transfer by the ions. The highest stress level was measured for ion impinging angles of 45° ( σ 11 = -380 ± 10 MPa and σ 22 = -320 ± 10 MPa). The different stresses obtained in the studied samples do not affect significantly the formation of characteristic surface patterns.

  6. Ferromagnetic resonance in thin films submitted to multiaxial stress state: application of the uniaxial equivalent stress concept and experimental validation (United States)

    Gueye, M.; Zighem, F.; Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M.; Tiusan, C.; Faurie, D.


    In this paper a unique expression of the anisotropy field induced by any multiaxial stress state in a magnetic thin film and probed by ferromagnetic resonance is derived. This analytical development has been made using the uniaxial equivalent stress concept, for which correspondances between definitions given by different authors in the literature is found. The proposed model for the anisotropy field has been applied to \\text{C}{{\\text{o}}2}\\text{FeAl} thin films (25 nm) stressed both by piezoelectric actuation (non-equi-biaxial) or by bending tests (uniaxial) and measured with a broadband ferromagnetic resonance technique. The overall exprimental data can be easily plotted on a unique graph from which the magnetostriction coefficient has been estimated.

  7. Wrinkle-to-fold transition in soft layers under equi-biaxial strain: A weakly nonlinear analysis (United States)

    Ciarletta, P.


    Soft materials can experience a mechanical instability when subjected to a finite compression, developing wrinkles which may eventually evolve into folds or creases. The possibility to control the wrinkling network morphology has recently found several applications in many developing fields, such as scaffolds for biomaterials, stretchable electronics and surface micro-fabrication. Albeit much is known of the pattern initiation at the linear stability order, the nonlinear effects driving the pattern selection in soft materials are still unknown. This work aims at investigating the nature of the elastic bifurcation undertaken by a growing soft layer subjected to a equi-biaxial strain. Considering a skin effect at the free surface, the instability thresholds are found to be controlled by a characteristic length, defined by the ratio between capillary energy and bulk elasticity. For the first time, a weakly nonlinear analysis of the wrinkling instability is performed here using the multiple-scale perturbation method applied to the incremental theory in finite elasticity. The Ginzburg-Landau equations are derived for different superposing linear modes. This study proves that a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation drives the observed wrinkle-to-fold transition in swelling gels experiments, favoring the emergence of hexagonal creased patterns, albeit quasi-hexagonal patterns might later emerge because of an expected symmetry break. Moreover, if the surface energy is somewhat comparable to the bulk elastic energy, it has the same stabilizing effect as for fluid instabilities, driving the formation of stable wrinkles, as observed in elastic bi-layered materials.

  8. Research on robot manipulator uncalibrated visual serving under two-camera bi-axial parallel vision configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Niu


    Full Text Available This article presents a two-camera bi-axial parallel vision configuration to realize robot manipulator uncalibrated visual serving. The intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the camera and the model of robot manipulator are not known, as well as without real-time computes the inverse of image Jacobian when image-based dynamic control of a robot manipulator in this article. First, the proposed vision configuration is applied to transform the Cartesian posture information into the point and angle parameters in the two image planes. After that, a qualitative mathematical model was established which analyzes the relationship between the feature point and line of the robot manipulator in the Cartesian space and the corresponding specific point and angle in the image plane. In addition, the monotonic property of the point and line features in the mathematic model has been proved. Then, the controller was designed based on image and realized the five-degrees of freedom of the robot manipulator uncalibrated visual serving control in the simulation platform. Moreover, the Lyapunov theory was used to prove the global asymptotic stability of proposed method in the image plane. Finally, the proposed method was compared with the method of image Jacobian matrix in the actual platform experiment, and the comparative experiment results show the effectiveness of the robot manipulator uncalibrated visual serving under the proposed vision configuration.

  9. Strain mapping near a triple junction in strained Ni-based alloy using EBSD and biaxial nanogauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, A. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Foucault, M.; Calonne, O. [Areva ANP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l' industrie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Lacroute, Y.; Markey, L.; Salazar, M.; Vignal, V. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Finot, E., E-mail: [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)


    Research highlights: > Surface strains measured using nanogauge were compared to the texture obtained by EBSD. > Statistics of the principal strain discern the grains according to the Schmid factor. > Strain hotspots were localized near a triple junction of alloy 600 under tensile loading. > Asymetrical profile of the GB strains is a criterion for surface cracking initiation. - Abstract: A key element for analyzing the crack initiation in strained polycrystalline alloys is the local quantification of the surface strain distribution according to the grain texture. Using electron backscattered diffraction, the local microstructure was determined to both localize a triple junction and deduce the local Schmid factors. Kernel average misorientation (KAM) was also used to map the areas of defect concentration. The maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain were quantified using the biaxial nanogauge. Distortions of the array of nanodots used as spot markers were analyzed near the triple junction. The crystallographic orientation and the surface strain were then investigated both statistically for each grain and locally at the grain boundaries. The superimposition of microstructure and strain maps allows the high strain gradient (reaching 3-fold the applied strain) to be localized at preferential grain boundaries near the triple junction. The Schmid factors and the KAM were compared to the maximum principal strain and the in-plane shear strain respectively. The polycrystalline deformation was attributable first to the rotation of some grains, followed by the elongation of all grains along their preferential activated slip systems.

  10. Characterisation of the mechanical properties of infarcted myocardium in the rat under biaxial tension and uniaxial compression. (United States)

    Sirry, Mazin S; Butler, J Ryan; Patnaik, Sourav S; Brazile, Bryn; Bertucci, Robbin; Claude, Andrew; McLaughlin, Ron; Davies, Neil H; Liao, Jun; Franz, Thomas


    Understanding the passive mechanical properties of infarcted tissue at different healing stages is essential to explore the emerging biomaterial injection-based therapy for myocardial infarction (MI). Although rats have been widely used as animal models in such investigations, the data in literature that quantify the passive mechanical properties of rat heart infarcts is very limited. MI was induced in rats and hearts were harvested immediately (0 day), 7, 14 and 28 days after infarction onset. Left ventricle anterioapical samples were cut and underwent equibiaxial and non equibiaxial tension followed by uniaxial compression mechanical tests. Histological analysis was conducted to confirm MI and to quantify the size of the induced infarcts. Infarcts maintained anisotropy and the nonlinear biaxial and compressive mechanical behaviour throughout the healing phases with the circumferential direction being stiffer than the longitudinal direction. Mechanical coupling was observed between the two axes in all infarct groups. The 0, 7, 14 and 28 days infarcts showed 438, 693, 1048 and 1218kPa circumferential tensile moduli. The 28 day infarct group showed a significantly higher compressive modulus compared to the other infarct groups (p=0.0060, 0.0293, and 0.0268 for 0, 7 and 14 days groups). Collagen fibres were found to align in a preferred direction for all infarct groups supporting the observed mechanical anisotropy. The presented data are useful for developing material models for healing infarcts and for setting a baseline for future assessment of emerging mechanical-based MI therapies.

  11. Self-Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic and White-Light Generation in a Biaxial Zinc Tungstate Single Crystal (United States)

    Osewski, Pawel; Belardini, Alessandro; Petronijevic, Emilija; Centini, Marco; Leahu, Grigore; Diduszko, Ryszard; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Sibilia, Concita


    Second-order nonlinear optical materials are used to generate new frequencies by exploiting second-harmonic generation (SHG), a phenomenon where a nonlinear material generates light at double the optical frequency of the input beam. Maximum SHG is achieved when the pump and the generated waves are in phase, for example through birefringence in uniaxial crystals. However, applying these materials usually requires a complicated cutting procedure to yield a crystal with a particular orientation. Here we demonstrate the first example of phase matching under the normal incidence of SHG in a biaxial monoclinic single crystal of zinc tungstate. The crystal was grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the (102) plane perpendicular to the growth direction. Additionally, at the same time white light was generated as a result of stimulated Raman scattering and multiphoton luminescence induced by higher-order effects such as three-photon luminescence enhanced by cascaded third-harmonic generation. The annealed crystal offers SHG intensities approximately four times larger than the as grown one; optimized growth and annealing conditions may lead to much higher SHG intensities. PMID:28338074

  12. A Study in Three-Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics: Granular Flow and Transport in a Bi-Axial Spherical Tumbler

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C; Ottino, Julio M; Sturman, Rob


    We study 3D chaotic dynamics through an analysis of transport in a granular flow in a half-full spherical tumbler rotated sequentially about two orthogonal axes (a bi-axial "blinking" tumbler). The flow is essentially quasi-2D in any vertical slice of the sphere during rotation about a single axis, and we provide an explicit exact solution to the model in this case. Hence, the cross-sectional flow can be represented by a twist map, allowing us to express the 3D flow as a linked twist map (LTM). We prove that if the rates of rotation about each axis are equal, then (in the absence of stochasticity) particle trajectories are restricted to 2D surfaces consisting of a portion of a hemispherical shell closed by a "cap"; if the rotation rates are unequal, then particles can leave the surface they start on and traverse a volume of the tumbler. The period-one structures of the governing LTM are examined in detail: analytical expressions are provided for the location of period-one curves, their extent into the bulk of...

  13. Above-bandgap optical properties of biaxially strained GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D’Costa, Vijay, E-mail:; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qian; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Soon Tok, Eng [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)


    The complex dielectric function of biaxially strained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) alloys grown on Ge (100) has been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry from 1.2 to 4.7 eV. The effect of substitutional Sn incorporation and the epitaxial strain on the energy transitions E{sub 1}, E{sub 1} + Δ{sub 1}, E{sub 0}′, and E{sub 2} of GeSn alloys is investigated. Our results indicate that the strained GeSn alloys show Ge-like electronic bandstructure with all the transitions shifted downward due to the alloying of Sn. The strain dependence of E{sub 1} and E{sub 1} + Δ{sub 1} transitions is explained using the deformation potential theory, and values of −5.4 ± 0.4 eV and 3.8 ± 0.5 eV are obtained for the hydrostatic and shear deformation potentials, respectively.

  14. Molecular ordering in a biaxial smectic-A phase studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). (United States)

    Kaznacheev, Konstantin; Hegmann, Torsten


    Results of STXM investigations of a binary mixture (-TNF = 2 : 1; SmA(b) 140 M 180 Iso) known to form a SmA(b) phase [T. Hegmann, J. Kain, S. Diele, G. Pelzl and C. Tschierske, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2001, 40, 887] are presented. Near edge X-ray absorption fine spectra (NEXAFS) of the -TNF board-like aggregates, in particular the intensity of the low energy peaks associated with aromatic ring pi* orbitals (284.5-286.5 eV), show that the molecular plane of these aggregates is very sensitive to the relative orientation of electric field vector E of linearly polarized light, which is used to determine the molecular orientation in the LC phase. The observed strong in-plane dichroic signal suggests the predominant orientation of the -TNF aggregates to be along the smectic layer normal as well as long-range ordering of the in-plane molecular orientation (biaxiality). Orientational maps derived from series of measurements at different sample rotation angles around the specimen normal clearly show a Schlieren-type texture, and permit a detailed examination of exclusive +/-(1/2) disclination theoretically predicted for the SmA(b) phase.

  15. Partial hydrophilic modification of biaxially oriented polypropylene film by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with the allylamine monomer (United States)

    Chen, W. X.; Yu, J. S.; Hu, W.; Chen, G. L.


    In this paper, the partial modification of the biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film for potential biological and packaging applications was achieved via hydrophilic modification using atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In the APPJ system, the allylamine (ALA) monomer was polymerized on the BOPP surface by either the Ar/O2 or the He/O2 plasma. The results showed that plasmatic modification created many micro/nano sized holes on the BOPP film, which increased the surface roughness dramatically and the increased roughness enhanced the combining intensity between the BOPP film and the ALA polymer. However, such a plasmatic modification increased the water vapor permeability. The FTIR and XPS characterizations showed that the amine groups were grafted onto the BOPP film, and the contact angle of the BOPP film decreases from 98.5° to 8°. Compared with the BOPP films treated by the Ar or He plasma, the barrier property of the modified BOPP film increased significantly when the ALA polymer was incorporated. The bio-affinity/toxicity of ALA polymer was illustrated by the attachment of the cultured SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells on the modified BOPP film. The significant enhancement in the cell density indicated that modified BOPP film was highly bio-compatible and non-toxic, especially treated with the Ar/O2/ALA plasma.

  16. Self-Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic and White-Light Generation in a Biaxial Zinc Tungstate Single Crystal (United States)

    Osewski, Pawel; Belardini, Alessandro; Petronijevic, Emilija; Centini, Marco; Leahu, Grigore; Diduszko, Ryszard; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Sibilia, Concita


    Second-order nonlinear optical materials are used to generate new frequencies by exploiting second-harmonic generation (SHG), a phenomenon where a nonlinear material generates light at double the optical frequency of the input beam. Maximum SHG is achieved when the pump and the generated waves are in phase, for example through birefringence in uniaxial crystals. However, applying these materials usually requires a complicated cutting procedure to yield a crystal with a particular orientation. Here we demonstrate the first example of phase matching under the normal incidence of SHG in a biaxial monoclinic single crystal of zinc tungstate. The crystal was grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the (102) plane perpendicular to the growth direction. Additionally, at the same time white light was generated as a result of stimulated Raman scattering and multiphoton luminescence induced by higher-order effects such as three-photon luminescence enhanced by cascaded third-harmonic generation. The annealed crystal offers SHG intensities approximately four times larger than the as grown one; optimized growth and annealing conditions may lead to much higher SHG intensities.

  17. Stress Management: Job Stress (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  18. Mechanics of Stabbing: Biaxial Measurement of Knife Stab Penetration of Skin Simulant

    CERN Document Server

    Gilchrist, Michael D; Curtis, Michael; Cassidy, Mary; Byrne, Greg; Destrade, Michel; 10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.10.010


    In medicolegal situations, the consequences of a stabbing incident are described in terms that are qualitative without being quantitative. Here, the mechanical variables involved in knife-tissue penetration events are used to determine the parameters needed to be controlled in a measurement device. They include knife geometry, in-plane mechanical stress state of skin, angle and speed of knife penetration, and underlying fascia. Four household knives with different geometries were used. Synthetic materials were used to simulate the response of skin, fat and cartilage: polyurethane, foam, and ballistic soap, respectively. The force and energy applied by the blade and the skin displacement were used to identify skin penetration. The skin tension is shown to have a direct effect on the force and energy for knife penetration and on the depth of displacement of the simulant prior to penetration: larger levels of in-plane tension in the skin are associated with lower penetration forces, energies and displacements. L...

  19. A criterion for high-cycle fatigue life and fatigue limit prediction in biaxial loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ukasz Pejkowski; Dariusz Skibicki


    This paper presents a criterion for high-cycle fatigue life and fatigue strength estimation under periodic proportional and non-proportional cyclic loading. The cri-terion is based on the mean and maximum values of the second invariant of the stress deviator. Important elements of the criterion are: function of the non-proportionality of fatigue loading and the materials parameter that expresses the materials sensitivity to non-proportional loading. The methods for the materials parameters determination uses three S–N curves: tension–compression, torsion, and any non-proportional loading proposed. The criterion has been verified using experimental data, and the results are included in the paper. These results should be considered as promis-ing. The paper also includes a proposal for multiaxial fatigue models classification due to the approach for the non-proportionality of loading.

  20. Evaluation of multiaxial stress in textured cubic films by x-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian-Min; Xu Ke-Wei


    X-ray diffraction is used extensively to determine the residual stress in bulk or thin film materials on the assumptions that the material is composed of fine crystals with random orientation and the stress state is biaxial and homogeneous through the x-ray penetrating region. The stress is calculated from the gradient of ε~ sin2 ψ linear relation. But the method cannot be used in textured films due to nonlinear relation. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for measuring the multiaxial stresses in cubic films with any [hkl] fibre texture. As an example, a detailed analysis is given for measuring three-dimensional stresses in FCC films with [111] fibre texture.

  1. Evaluation of biaxial flexural strength and modulus of filled and unfilled adhesive systems = Avaliação da resistência flexural biaxial e módulo de flexão de sistemas adesivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberti, Michele Santana


    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência flexural e o módulo de flexão de dois sistemas adesivos, através de ensaio de resistência flexural biaxial. Metodologia: Os adesivos (Pentron Clinical Technologies estudados foram: Bond 1 (B1 e NanoBond (NB. Treze discos de cada adesivo foram preparados com dimensões aproximadas de 6,1 mm de diâmetro e 0,6 mm de espessura. Os discos de adesivos foram confeccionados utilizando-se moldes de teflon e fotopolimerizados com aparelho XL 3000 (3M ESPE. Após armazenamento por 10 dias, os discos foram testados em máquina universal de ensaio (Instron 5844, com velocidade de 1,27 mm/min. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (1 fator ao nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Os valores médios (±DP de resistência flexural para os adesivos foram (em MPa: B1- 89,7±7,6 e NB- 131,1±9,5. Os valores médios de módulo flexural (±DP foram (em MPa: B1- 1999,9±258,4 e NB- 2314,5±271,0. Conclusão: O adesivo contendo partículas de carga (NB mostrou maiores valores de resistência flexural e módulo de flexão que o adesivo B1

  2. Biaxial Flexural Strength of High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomer Cements Heat-Cured with an LED Lamp during Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabián Molina


    Full Text Available Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n=30: without heating (Group 1, heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 30 s while setting (Group 2, and heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 60 s while setting (Group 3. Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (α=0.05. Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400 mW/cm2 during setting for 30 s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30 s and 60 s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times.

  3. Effect of Alumina Addition to Zirconia Nano-composite on Low Temperature Degradation Process and Biaxial Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moluk Aivazi


    Full Text Available Ceramic dental materials have been considered as alternatives to metals for dental implants application. In this respect, zirconia tetragonal stabilized with %3 yttrium, is of great importance among the ceramic materials for endosseous dental implant application. Because of its good mechanical properties and color similar to tooth. The aim and novelty of this study was to design and prepare Y-TZP nano-composite to reduce the degradation process at low temperature by alumina addition and maintaining submicron grain sized. Also, flexural strength of nano-composite samples was evaluated. Toward this purpose, alumina-Y-TZP nano-composites containing 0–30 vol% alumina (denoted as A-Y-TZP 0-30 were fabricated using α-alumina and Y-TZP nano-sized by sintering pressure less method. The synthesized samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Nano-composite samples with high density (≥96% and grain sized of ≤ 400 nm was obtained by sintering at 1270 °C for 170 min. After low temperature degradation test (LTD, A-Y-TZP20 and A-Y-TZP30 not showed monoclinic phase and the flexural strength in all of samples were higher than A-Y-TZP0. It was concluded that the grains were remained in submicron sized and A-Y-TZP20 and A-Y-TZP30 did not present biaxial strength reduction after LTD test.

  4. Effect of Ceramic Surface Treatments After Machine Grinding on the Biaxial Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM Dental Ceramics (United States)

    Bagheri, Hossein; Aghajani, Farzaneh


    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments after machining grinding on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of machinable dental ceramics with different crystalline phases. Materials and Methods: Disk-shape specimens (10mm in diameter and 1.3mm in thickness) of machinable ceramic cores (two silica-based and one zirconia-based ceramics) were prepared. Each type of the ceramic surfaces was then randomly treated (n=15) with different treatments as follows: 1) machined finish as control, 2) machined finish and sandblasting with alumina, and 3) machined finish and hydrofluoric acid etching for the leucite and lithium disilicate-based ceramics, and for the zirconia; 1) machined finish and post-sintered as control, 2) machined finish, post-sintered, and sandblasting, and 3) machined finish, post-sintered, and Nd;YAG laser irradiation. The BFS were measured in a universal testing machine. Data based were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results: The mean BFS of machined finish only surfaces for leucite ceramic was significantly higher than that of sandblasted (P=0.001) and acid etched surfaces (P=0.005). A significantly lower BFS was found after sandblasting for lithium disilicate compared with that of other groups (P<0.05). Sandblasting significantly increased the BFS for the zirconia (P<0.05), but the BFS was significantly decreased after laser irradiation (P<0.05). Conclusions: The BFS of the machinable ceramics was affected by the type of ceramic material and surface treatment method. Sandblasting with alumina was detrimental to the strength of only silica-based ceramics. Nd:YAG laser irradiation may lead to substantial strength degradation of zirconia. PMID:27148372

  5. 1.9% bi-axial tensile strain in thick germanium suspended membranes fabricated in optical germanium-on-insulator substrates for laser applications (United States)

    Gassenq, A.; Guilloy, K.; Osvaldo Dias, G.; Pauc, N.; Rouchon, D.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Widiez, J.; Tardif, S.; Rieutord, F.; Escalante, J.; Duchemin, I.; Niquet, Y.-M.; Geiger, R.; Zabel, T.; Sigg, H.; Faist, J.; Chelnokov, A.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.


    High tensile strains in Ge are currently studied for the development of integrated laser sources on Si. In this work, we developed specific Germanium-On-Insulator 200 mm wafer to improve tolerance to high strains induced via shaping of the Ge layers into micro-bridges. Building on the high crystalline quality, we demonstrate bi-axial tensile strain of 1.9%, which is currently the highest reported value measured in thick (350 nm) Ge layer. Since this strain is generally considered as the onset of the direct bandgap in Ge, our realization paves the way towards mid-infrared lasers fully compatible with CMOS fab technology.

  6. Fourier space method for calculating the propagation of laser radiation in biaxial crystals taking into account the angle between the eigenpolarisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechin, S G; Nikolaev, P P [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Okhrimchuk, A G [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We have proposed a technique for calculating the propagation of laser radiation in biaxial optical crystals in arbitrary directions. The technique is based on the use of the Fourier space method and takes into account both diffraction and angle beween the eigenpolarisations of the spatial spectrum components, phase shift differences for them with account for all orders of the spatial dispersion and also the features of the boundary conditions at the input and output facets. Using internal conical refraction as an example, we have compared the results of calculations with experimental data. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. On the determination of Poisson's ratio of stressed monolayer and bilayer submicron thick films

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, P; Brida, S; Barbier, D


    In this paper, the bulge test is used to determine the mechanical properties of very thin dielectric membranes. Commonly, this experimental method permits to determine the residual stress (s0) and biaxial Young's modulus (E/(1-u)). Associating square and rectangular membranes with different length to width ratios, the Poisson's ratio (u) can also be determined. LPCVD Si3N4 monolayer and Si3N4/SiO2 bilayer membranes, with thicknesses down to 100 nm, have been characterized giving results in agreement with literature for Si3N4, E = 212 $\\pm$ 14 GPa, s0 = 420 $\\pm$ 8 and u = 0.29.

  8. Stress and structural damage sensing piezospectroscopic coatings validated with digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Freihofer


    Full Text Available The piezospectroscopic effect, relating a material’s stress state and spectral signature, has recently demonstrated tailorable sensitivity when the photo-luminescent alpha alumina is distributed in nanoparticulate form within a matrix. Here, the stress-sensing behavior of an alumina-epoxy nanoparticle coating, applied to a composite substrate in an open hole tension configuration, is validated with the biaxial strain field concurrently determined through digital image correlation. The coating achieved early detection of composite failure initiation at 77% failure load, and subsequently tracked stress distribution in the immediate vicinity of the crack as it progressed, demonstrating non-invasive stress and damage detection with multi-scale spatial resolution.

  9. Semicrystalline Structure-Dielectric Property Relationship and Electrical Conduction in a Biaxially Oriented Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film under High Electric Fields and High Temperatures. (United States)

    Yang, Lianyun; Ho, Janet; Allahyarov, Elshad; Mu, Richard; Zhu, Lei


    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based homopolymers and copolymers are attractive for a broad range of electroactive applications because of their high dielectric constants. Especially, biaxially oriented PVDF (BOPVDF) films exhibit a DC breakdown strength as high as that for biaxially oriented polypropylene films. In this work, we revealed the molecular origin of the high dielectric constant via study of a commercial BOPVDF film. By determination of the dielectric constant for the amorphous phase in BOPVDF, a high value of ca. 21-22 at 25 °C was obtained, and a three-phase (i.e., lamellar crystal/oriented interphase/amorphous region) semicrystalline model was proposed to explain this result. Meanwhile, electronic conduction mechanisms in BOPVDF under high electric fields and elevated temperatures were investigated by thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) spectroscopy and leakage current studies. Space charge injection from metal electrodes was identified as a major factor for electronic conduction when BOPVDF was poled above 75 °C and 20 MV/m. In addition, when silver or aluminum were used as electrodes, new ions were generated from electrochemical reactions under high fields. Due to the electrochemical reactions between PVDF and the metal electrode, a question is raised for practical electrical applications using PVDF and its copolymers under high-field and high-temperature conditions. A potential method to prevent electrochemical degradation of PVDF is proposed in this study.

  10. Distribution and viability of fetal and adult human bone marrow stromal cells in a biaxial rotating vessel bioreactor after seeding on polymeric 3D additive manufactured scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eLeferink


    Full Text Available One of the conventional approaches in tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds in combination with cells to obtain mechanically stable tissue constructs in vitro prior to implantation. Additive manufacturing by fused deposition modeling is a widely used technique to produce porous scaffolds with defined pore network, geometry, and therewith defined mechanical properties. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are promising candidates for tissue engineering based cell therapies due to their multipotent character. One of the hurdles to overcome when combining additive manufactured scaffolds with MSCs is the resulting heterogeneous cell distribution and limited cell proliferation capacity. In this study, we show that the use of a biaxial rotating bioreactor, after static culture of human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs seeded on synthetic polymeric scaffolds, improved the homogeneity of cell and extracellular matrix (ECM distribution and increased the total cell number. Furthermore, we show that the relative mRNA expression levels of indicators for stemness and differentiation are not significantly changed upon this bioreactor culture, whereas static culture shows variations of several indicators for stemness and differentiation. The biaxial rotating bioreactor presented here offers a homogeneous distribution of hfMSCs, enabling studies on MSCs fate in additive manufactured scaffolds without inducing undesired differentiation.

  11. On the Novel Biaxial Strain Relaxation Mechanism in Epitaxial Composition Graded La1−xSrxMnO3 Thin Film Synthesized by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishu Wang


    Full Text Available We report on a novel method to fabricate composition gradient, epitaxial La1−xSrxMnO3 thin films with the objective to alleviate biaxial film strain. In this work, epitaxial, composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3, and pure LaMnO3 and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films were deposited by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The crystalline and epitaxy of all films were first studied by symmetric θ–2θ X-ray diffraction (XRD and low angle XRD experiments. Detailed microstructural characterization across the film thickness was conducted by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Four compositional gradient domains were observed in the La1−xSrxMnO3 film ranging from LaMnO3 rich to La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 at the surface. A continuous reduction in the lattice parameter was observed accompanied by a significant reduction in the out-of-plane strain in the film. Fabrication of the composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3 thin film was found to be a powerful method to relieve biaxial strain under critical thickness. Besides, the coexistence of domains with a composition variance is opening up various new possibilities of designing new nanoscale structures with unusual cross coupled properties.

  12. An evaluation of the processing conditions, structure, and properties (biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy) of sintered strontium-zinc-silicate glass ceramics. (United States)

    Looney, Mark; Shea, Helen O'; Gunn, Lynda; Crowley, Dolores; Boyd, Daniel


    The use of artificial bone grafts has increased in order to satisfy a growing demand for bone replacement materials. Initial mechanical stability of synthetic bone grafts is very advantageous for certain clinical applications. Coupled with the advantage of mechanical strength, a material with inherent antibacterial properties would be very beneficial. A series of strontium-doped zinc silicate (Ca-Sr-Na-Zn-Si) glass ceramics have been characterized in terms of their crystalline structure, biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy based on the identification of optimum sintering conditions. All three glass ceramics, namely, BT110, BT111, and BT112 were found to be fully crystalline, with BT111 and BT112 comprising of biocompatible crystalline phases. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three glass ceramics ranged from 70 to 149 MPa and were shown to be superior to those of clinically established ceramics in dry conditions and following incubation in simulated physiological conditions. The bacteriostatic effect for each glass ceramic was also established, where BT112 showed an inhibitory effect against three of the most common bacteria found at implantation sites, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of the evaluation suggest that the materials studied offer advantages over current clinical materials and indicate the potential suitability of the glass ceramics as therapeutic bone grafts.

  13. Distribution and Viability of Fetal and Adult Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in a Biaxial Rotating Vessel Bioreactor after Seeding on Polymeric 3D Additive Manufactured Scaffolds. (United States)

    Leferink, Anne M; Chng, Yhee-Cheng; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Moroni, Lorenzo


    One of the conventional approaches in tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds in combination with cells to obtain mechanically stable tissue constructs in vitro prior to implantation. Additive manufacturing by fused deposition modeling is a widely used technique to produce porous scaffolds with defined pore network, geometry, and therewith defined mechanical properties. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering-based cell therapies due to their multipotent character. One of the hurdles to overcome when combining additive manufactured scaffolds with MSCs is the resulting heterogeneous cell distribution and limited cell proliferation capacity. In this study, we show that the use of a biaxial rotating bioreactor, after static culture of human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs) seeded on synthetic polymeric scaffolds, improved the homogeneity of cell and extracellular matrix distribution and increased the total cell number. Furthermore, we show that the relative mRNA expression levels of indicators for stemness and differentiation are not significantly changed upon this bioreactor culture, whereas static culture shows variations of several indicators for stemness and differentiation. The biaxial rotating bioreactor presented here offers a homogeneous distribution of hfMSCs, enabling studies on MSCs fate in additive manufactured scaffolds without inducing undesired differentiation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石艳柯; 张克实; 胡桂娟


    采用晶体塑性理论并结合多晶集合体模型来研究多晶Cu的塑性变形,用双向加载方式模拟材料的双向应力状态和分段加载路径,得到了材料的初始屈服而及在预剪切和预拉伸2种情况下的后继屈服面.通过对后继屈服面形状及其演化趋势的研究,探讨了用晶体塑性理论分析多品材料塑性流动规律的方法.结果表明:后继屈服面的形状和是否出现尖角与屈服点的定义有关,同时还与π平面上的预加载方向有关;通过对多晶集合体代表性单元的塑性流动方向与后继屈服面法向的差异进行统计分析,发现塑性流动的正交性不仅与屈服定义相关,也与预加载方向有关.%The yield characteristic and the plastic flow direction of a polycrystal copper are investigated, in which the anisotropy and random orientation of each grain in the polycrystal are taken into account, while the microstructure evolvement and the slip deformation mechanism are also analyzed. Applying the crystal plasticity theory associated with representative volume element(RVE) of a polycrystal aggregate, which consists of 200 polyhedral grains with irregular shape and orientation, the plastic deformation of polycrystalline copper is calculated through applying biaxial load along different paths to the RVE aggregate, stage by stage to simulate the material's biaxial stress state and the sub-stage load path. Then the yield surface and the subsequent yield surface for the RVE under preloading are obtained by the simulation through FEM calculation with the user crystalline material subroutine. The calculation results of the subsequent yield surface shape and the plastic flow direction are resolved and are discussed further. According to the results of yield surface and plastic flow direction of the polycrystal RVE, it can be concluded that the corner may appear on the subsequent yield surface at the preload point and the corner's appearance is dependent on

  15. Edge wrinkling in elastically supported pre-stressed incompressible isotropic plates (United States)

    Destrade, Michel; Fu, Yibin; Nobili, Andrea


    The equations governing the appearance of flexural static perturbations at the edge of a semi-infinite thin elastic isotropic plate, subjected to a state of homogeneous bi-axial pre-stress, are derived and solved. The plate is incompressible and supported by a Winkler elastic foundation with, possibly, wavenumber dependence. Small perturbations superposed onto the homogeneous state of pre-stress, within the three-dimensional elasticity theory, are considered. A series expansion of the plate kinematics in the plate thickness provides a consistent expression for the second variation of the potential energy, whose minimization gives the plate governing equations. Consistency considerations supplement a constraint on the scaling of the pre-stress so that the classical Kirchhoff-Love linear theory of pre-stretched elastic plates is retrieved. Moreover, a scaling constraint for the foundation stiffness is also introduced. Edge wrinkling is investigated and compared with body wrinkling. We find that the former always precedes the latter in a state of uni-axial pre-stretch, regardless of the foundation stiffness. By contrast, a general bi-axial pre-stretch state may favour body wrinkling for moderate foundation stiffness. Wavenumber dependence significantly alters the predicted behaviour. The results may be especially relevant to modelling soft biological materials, such as skin or tissues, or stretchable organic thin-films, embedded in a compliant elastic matrix.

  16. Nuclear stress test (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  17. Film stresses and electrode buckling in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali


    We investigate the film stresses that develop in the polymer films and metal electrodes of poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. A compressive biaxial stress of ∼-36 MPa was measured in PEDOT:PSS while a tensile stress of ∼6 MPa was measured in the BHJ layer. We then analyze the effect of electrode deposition rate on the film stresses in the Al electrode. Compressive stresses of ∼-100 to -145 MPa in the Al electrode lead to a buckling instability resulting in undulating electrode surface topography. The BHJ layer was found to have the lowest cohesion (∼1.5-1.8 J/m 2) among the layers of the solar cell and dependent on the Al electrode deposition rate. The cohesive failure path in the BHJ layer exhibited the same periodicity and orientation of the Al electrode buckling topography. We discuss the implications of the film stresses on damage processes during device fabrication and operation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Caregiver Stress (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Caregiver stress Caregiver stress > A-Z Health Topics Caregiver fact sheet (PDF, ... receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Caregiver stress Caregivers care for someone with an illness, injury, ...

  19. Effect of state of stress on the cavitation behavior of Al 5083 superplastic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Namas; Kalu, Peter [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Khraisheh, Marwan K. [Dept. of MEch. Eng., Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)


    In this paper we address the controversial issue of nucleation of cavities in Al 5083 alloys and their subsequent growth to coalescence and failure. We focus on the origin and growth of cavities not only during the primary processing of Al 5083 in sheet forms, but also during the manufacture of these sheets into SPF (superplastic forming) components. Experimental observations of pre-existing cavities in this alloy are made using optical and electron microscopy. The role of sheet rolling direction, and the state of stress during superplastic deformation on the cavity formation and coalescence are also discussed. The effect of the state of stress (uniaxial, plane strain, balanced biaxial, and tri-axial) on the growth characteristics of cavitation is also examined. It is found that the uniaxial model based cavitation cannot directly be extended to predict the behavior of more complex stress states, unless great care is taken to identify the right strain measure for the mapping process. (orig.)

  20. Effect of biaxial strain induced by piezoelectric PMN-PT on the upconversion photoluminescence of BaTiO₃:Yb/Er thin films. (United States)

    Wu, Zhenping; Zhang, Yang; Bai, Gongxun; Tang, Weihua; Gao, Ju; Hao, Jianhua


    Thin films of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped BaTiO3 (BTO:Yb/Er) have been epitaxially grown on piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Biaxial strain can be effectively controlled by applying electric field on PMN-PT substrate. A reversible, in situ and dynamic modification of upconversion photoluminescence in BTO:Yb/Er film was observed via converse piezoelectric effect. Detailed analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction indicate that such modulations are possibly due to the change in the lattice deformation of the thin films. This result suggests an alternative method to rationally tune the upconversion emissions via strain engineering.

  1. The biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB3O6 as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Halevy, A; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S; Becker, P; Bohatý, L


    We describe the full characterization of the biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB3O6 (BiBO) as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. We consider the relevant parameters for crystal design, such as cutting angles, polarization of the photons, effective nonlinearity, spatial and temporal walk-offs, crystal thickness and the effect of the pump laser bandwidth. Experimental results showing entanglement generation with high rates and a comparison to the well investigated beta-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal are presented as well. Changing the down-conversion crystal of a polarization entangled photon source from BBO to BiBO enhances the generation rate as if the pump power was increased by more than three times. Such an improvement is currently required for the generation of multiphoton entangled states.

  2. The biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB₃O₆ as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. (United States)

    Halevy, A; Megidish, E; Dovrat, L; Eisenberg, H S; Becker, P; Bohatý, L


    We describe the full characterization of the biaxial nonlinear crystal BiB₃O₆ (BiBO) as a polarization entangled photon source using non-collinear type-II parametric down-conversion. We consider the relevant parameters for crystal design, such as cutting angles, polarization of the photons, effective nonlinearity, spatial and temporal walk-offs, crystal thickness and the effect of the pump laser bandwidth. Experimental results showing entanglement generation with high rates and a comparison to the well investigated β-BaB₂O₄ (BBO) crystal are presented as well. Changing the down-conversion crystal of a polarization entangled photon source from BBO to BiBO enhances the generation rate as if the pump power was increased by 2.5 times. Such an improvement is currently required for the generation of multiphoton entangled states.

  3. Cyclic uniaxial and biaxial hardening of type 304 stainless steel modeled by the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (United States)

    Yao, David; Krempl, Erhard


    The isotropic theory of viscoplasticity based on overstress does not use a yield surface or a loading and unloading criterion. The inelastic strain rate depends on overstress, the difference between the stress and the equilibrium stress, and is assumed to be rate dependent. Special attention is paid to the modeling of elastic regions. For the modeling of cyclic hardening, such as observed in annealed Type 304 stainless steel, and additional growth law for a scalar quantity which represents the rate independent asymptotic value of the equilibrium stress is added. It is made to increase with inelastic deformation using a new scalar measure which differentiates between nonproportional and proportional loading. The theory is applied to correlate uniaxial data under two step amplitude loading including the effect of further hardening at the high amplitude and proportional and nonproportional cyclic loadings. Results are compared with corresponding experiments.

  4. Contraction stress, elastic modulus, and degree of conversion of three flowable composites. (United States)

    Cadenaro, Milena; Codan, Barbara; Navarra, Chiara O; Marchesi, Giulio; Turco, Gianluca; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo


    The aim of this study was to measure the contraction stress of three flowable resin composites and to correlate the stress with the elastic modulus and the degree of conversion. One low-shrinkage (Venus Diamond Flow) and two conventional (Tetric EvoFlow and X-Flow) flowable composites were polymerized for 40s with a light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit. Contraction force was continuously recorded for 300s using a stress-analyser, and stress values were calculated at 40s and at 300s. The maximum stress rate was also calculated for each specimen. The elastic modulus of each composite was assayed using a biaxial flexural test, and degree of conversion was analysed with Raman spectroscopy. X-Flow exhibited higher stress values than the other tested materials. Venus Diamond Flow showed the lowest stress values at 40s and at 300s, and the lowest maximum stress rate. Stress values were correlated with elastic modulus but not with degree of conversion, which was comparable among all tested materials.

  5. Comparison of Some Mechanical and Physical Methods for Measurement of Residual Stresses in Brush-Plated Nickel Hardened Gold and Silver Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri LILLE


    Full Text Available Hard gold and silver are applied in coating owing to their high hardness, good wear and corrosion resistance for engineering application (e.g. on generators slip rings, sliding contacts and small machine parts and are typically plated on copper (mostly, brass and bronze. The studied nickel-hardened gold and silver coatings were brush plated on open thin-walled copper ring substrates. Residual stresses in the coatings were calculated from the curvature changes of the substrates. Biaxial intrinsic residual stresses were also determined by nanoindentation testing and by the X-ray technique. The values of the residual stresses represented tensile stresses and when determined by the techniques used they were comparable within a maximum limit of measurement uncertainty. These stresses relax; the dependence of relaxation time was approximated by a linear-fractional function.DOI:

  6. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior at Notched Hole in 7075-T6 Under Biaxial and Uniaxial Fatigue with Different Phases (United States)


    stopped and the specimen was considered a failure. After conducting the tests, “uSCOPE” software was used to measure the crack lengths from the images...Structural Integrity: Stress Corrosion Cracking, Corrosion Fatigue.” Universidad Polytecnica de Madrid, Clausthal University of Technology, May 2012. 148

  7. Modeling of delayed strains of concrete under biaxial loadings. Application to the reactor containment of nuclear power plants; Modelisation des deformations differees du beton sous sollicitations biaxiales. application aux enceintes de confinement de batiments reacteurs des centrales nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benboudjema, F


    The prediction of delayed strains is of crucial importance for durability and long-term serviceability of concrete structures (bridges, containment vessels of nuclear power plants, etc.). Indeed, creep and shrinkage cause cracking, losses of pre-stress and redistribution of stresses, and also, rarely, the ruin of the structure. The objective of this work is to develop numerical tools, able to predict the long-term behavior of concrete structures. Thus, a new hydro mechanical model is developed, including the description of drying, shrinkage, creep and cracking phenomena for concrete as a non-saturated porous medium. The modeling of drying shrinkage is based on an unified approach of creep and shrinkage. Basic and drying creep models are based on relevant chemo-physical mechanisms, which occur at different scales of the cement paste. The basic creep is explicitly related to the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water between inter-hydrates and intra-hydrates and the capillary pores, and the sliding of the C-S-H gel at the nano-porosity level. The drying creep is induced by the micro-diffusion of the adsorbed water at different scales of the porosity, under the simultaneous effects of drying and mechanical loadings. Drying shrinkage is, therefore, assumed to result from the elastic and delayed response of the solid skeleton, submitted to both capillary and disjoining pressures. Furthermore, the cracking behavior of concrete is described by an orthotropic elastoplastic damage model. The coupling between all these phenomena is performed by using effective stresses which account for both external applied stresses and pore pressures. This model has been incorporated into a finite element code. The analysis of the long-term behavior is also performed on concrete specimens and prestressed concrete structures submitted to simultaneous drying and mechanical loadings. (author)

  8. Manage Stress (United States)

    ... Action: Relax 3. Relax with deep breathing or meditation. Deep breathing and meditation are 2 ways to relax your muscles and ... time, stress can lead to serious problems like depression, anxiety, or PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder). If ...

  9. Stress Management (United States)

    ... with regions of your brain that control mood, motivation and fear. The body's stress-response system is ... events. People who were neglected or abused as children tend to be particularly vulnerable to stress. The ...

  10. Computer simulations of 3C-SiC under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stresses. (United States)

    Guedda, H Z; Ouahrani, T; Morales-García, A; Franco, R; Salvadó, M A; Pertierra, P; Recio, J M


    The response of 3C-SiC to hydrostatic pressure and to several uni- and bi-axial stress conditions is thoroughly investigated using first principles calculations. A topological interpretation of the chemical bonding reveals that the so-called non-covalent interactions enhance only at high pressure while the nature of the covalent Si-C bonding network keeps essentially with the same pattern. The calculated low compressibility agrees well with experimental values and is in concordance with the high structural stability of this polymorph under hydrostatic pressure. Under uniaxial [001] stress, the c/a ratio shows a noticeable drop inducing a closure of the band gap and the emergence of a metallic state around 40 GPa. This behavior correlates with a plateau of the electron localization function exhibiting a roughly constant and non-negligible value surrounding CSi4 and SiC4 covalent bonded units.

  11. Hypervelocity Impact of Unstressed and Stressed Titanium in a Whipple Configuration in Support of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Propellant Tanks (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Christiansen, Eric; Piekutowski, Andrew; Lyons, Frankel; Keddy, Christopher; Salem, Jonathan; Poormon, Kevin; Bohl, William; Miller, Joshua; Greene, Nathanael; Rodriquez, Karen


    Hypervelocity impacts were performed on six unstressed and six stressed titanium coupons with aluminium: shielding in order to assess the effects of the partial penetration damage on the post impact micromechanical properties of titanium and on the residual strength after impact. This work is performed in support of the defInition of the penetration criteria of the propellant and oxidizer tanks dome surfaces for the service module of the crew exploration vehicle where such a criterion is based on testing and analyses rather than on historical precedence. The objective of this work is to assess the effects of applied biaxial stress on the damage dynamics and morphology. The crater statistics revealed minute differences between stressed and unstressed coupon damage. The post impact residual stress analyses showed that the titanium strength properties were generally unchanged for the unstressed coupons when compared with undamaged titanium. However, high localized strains were shown near the craters during the tensile tests.

  12. X-ray diffraction residual stress calculation on textured La 2/3Sr 1/3MnO 3 thin film (United States)

    Meda, Lamartine; Dahmen, Klaus H.; Hayek, Saleh; Garmestani, Hamid


    Residual stresses and texture in La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) thin films have been investigated. The films were deposited on (1 0 0) LaAlO3 (LAO) and (1 0 0) MgO single crystals by liquid delivery-metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LD-MOCVD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pole figures showed (0 0 1)LSMO//(0 0 1)LAO and (0 0 1)LSMO//(0 0 1)MgO preferred orientation. Residual stresses were calculated using a modified sin2 ψ method, crystallite group method (CGM), assuming a biaxial stress state. Compressive stresses on the order of 224 and 1150 MPa were obtained for LSMO films deposited on LAO (LSMO/LAO) and MgO (LSMO/MgO), respectively.

  13. Intrinsic stress in ZrN thin films: Evaluation of grain boundary contribution from in situ wafer curvature and ex situ x-ray diffraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsokeras, L. E. [Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS-Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, UPR 3346, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Bd M et P Curie, F 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Abadias, G. [Departement Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Institut Pprime, CNRS-Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, UPR 3346, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Bd M et P Curie, F 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)


    Low-mobility materials, like transition metal nitrides, usually undergo large residual stress when sputter-deposited as thin films. While the origin of stress development has been an active area of research for high-mobility materials, atomistic processes are less understood for low-mobility systems. In the present work, the contribution of grain boundary to intrinsic stress in reactively magnetron-sputtered ZrN films is evaluated by combining in situ wafer curvature measurements, providing information on the overall biaxial stress, and ex situ x-ray diffraction, giving information on elastic strain (and related stress) inside crystallites. The thermal stress contribution was also determined from the in situ stress evolution during cooling down, after deposition was stopped. The stress data are correlated with variations in film microstructure and growth energetics, in the 0.13-0.42 Pa working pressure range investigated, and discussed based on existing stress models. At low pressure (high energetic bombardment conditions), a large compressive stress is observed due to atomic peening, which induces defects inside crystallites but also promotes incorporation of excess atoms in the grain boundary. Above 0.3-0.4 Pa, the adatom surface mobility is reduced, leading to the build-up of tensile stress resulting from attractive forces between under-dense neighbouring column boundary and possible void formation, while crystallites can still remain under compressive stress.

  14. Use of biaxially oriented polypropylene film for evaluating and cleaning contaminated atomic force microscopy probe tips: An application to blind tip reconstruction (United States)

    Nie, H.-Y.; Walzak, M. J.; McIntyre, N. S.


    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of a surface is basically a convolution of the probe tip geometry and the surface features; it is important to know this tip effect to ensure that an image truly reflects the surface features. We have found that a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film is suitable for checking tip performance and for cleaning contaminated tips, thus making it possible to collect images of the same area of a BOPP film surface before and after the tip was cleaned. Therefore, the difference between the two different images is solely due to the contamination of the tip. We took advantage of our ability to collect AFM images of the same area using the same tip, in one instance, contaminated and, in the other, after being cleaned. First we used blind reconstruction on the image collected using the contaminated tip. Blind tip reconstruction allows one to extract the geometry of the tip from a given image. Once we had estimated the geometry of the contaminated tip, we used it to simulate the tip effect using the image collected using the cleaned tip. By comparing the simulation result with the image collected using the contaminated tip we showed that the blind reconstruction routine works well. Prior to this, there was no de facto method for testing blind reconstruction algorithms.

  15. Effect of Low-Pressure Nitrogen DC Plasma Treatment on the Surface Properties of Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene, Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) and Polyvinyl Chloride Films (United States)

    S. Hamideh, Mortazavi; Mahmood, Ghoranneviss; Soheil, Pilehvar; Sina, Esmaeili; Shamim, Zargham; S. Ebrahim, Hashemi; Hamzeh, Jodat


    In this study, commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were treated with nitrogen plasma over different exposure times in a Pyrex tube surrounded by a DC variable magnetic field. The chemical changes that appeared on the surface of the samples were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy after treatment for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min in a nitrogen plasma chamber. Effects of the plasma treatment on the surface topographies and contact angles of the untreated and plasma treated films were also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a contact angle measuring system. The results show that the plasma treated films become more hydrophilic with an enhanced wettability due to the formation of some new polar groups on the surface of the treated films. Moreover, at higher exposure times, the total surface energy in all treated films increased while a reduction in contact angle occurred. The behavior of surface roughness in each sample was completely different at higher exposure times.

  16. Phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarized transmission intensity studies of wide-gap biaxial CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Yonggu; Mamedov, Nazim; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki


    Differently prepared natural (100)-oriented cleavage planes of the orthorhombic wide-gap (E{sub o}{approx}4.1 eV) single crystalline CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} were examined in two symmetric positions at room temperature over the photon energies 0.8-6.5 eV by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Complimentary, polarized transmission intensity technique was applied. The data obtained by both techniques were further treated within standard biaxial approach and the major refraction indices were restored for the practically important range below energy gap. The structure and polarization peculiarities of the obtained pseudo-dielectric function were related with apparently four critical points of interband electronic transitions in ZZ (E{sub 1}=4.49 eV, E{sub 3}=5.34 eV) and YY (E{sub 2}=5.00 eV, E{sub 4}=6.21 eV) configurations, respectively.

  17. Three-Dimensional Packing Structure and Electronic Properties of Biaxially Oriented Poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophene-2-yl)thieno[3,2- b ]thiophene) Films

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Eunkyung


    We use a systematic approach that combines experimental X-ray diffraction (XRD) and computational modeling based on molecular mechanics and two-dimensional XRD simulations to develop a detailed model of the molecular-scale packing structure of poly(2,5-bis (3-tetradecylthiophene-2-yl) thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT-C 14) films. Both uniaxially and biaxially aligned films are used in this comparison and lead to an improved understanding of the molecular-scale orientation and crystal structure. We then examine how individual polymer components (i.e., conjugated backbone and alkyl side chains) contribute to the complete diffraction pattern, and how modest changes to a particular component orientation (e.g., backbone or side-chain tilt) influence the diffraction pattern. The effects on the polymer crystal structure of varying the alkyl side-chain length from C 12 to C 14 and C 16 are also studied. The accurate determination of the three-dimensional polymer structure allows us to examine the PBTTT electronic band structure and intermolecular electronic couplings (transfer integrals) as a function of alkyl side-chain length. This combination of theoretical and experimental techniques proves to be an important tool to help establish the relationship between the structural and electronic properties of polymer thin films. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Geopotential Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral...

  19. Analysis of linear elasticity and non-linearity due to plasticity and material damage in woven and biaxial braided composites (United States)

    Goyal, Deepak

    fiber type on the degree of plasticity induced non-linearity in a +/-25° braid depend on the measure of non-linearity. Investigations about the mechanics of load flow in textile composites bring new insights about the textile behavior. For example, the reasons for existence of transverse shear stress under uni-axial loading and occurrence of stress concentrations at certain locations were explained.

  20. Growth of thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on biaxially oriented polymer films by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaehae-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kauppi, Emilia, E-mail: [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Sahagian, Khoren, E-mail: [Anasys Instruments, 121 Gray Avenue, Suite 100, Santa Barbara, CA 93101 (United States); Johansson, Leena-Sisko, E-mail: [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland); Peresin, Maria Soledad; Sievaenen, Jenni; Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)


    The effects of thin film nucleation and initial growth on roughness, chemistry and thermomechanical properties of polymer film surfaces were studied. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited onto commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene and polylactic acid films at 80 Degree-Sign C by using atomic layer deposition technique. Both substrates, especially the more hydrophobic polypropylene, showed initial growth through Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} clusters. There was a faster deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on polylactic acid film than on polypropylene at the early stages of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition. There were also indications of chemical interactions between polylactic acid and trimethyl aluminum used as a precursor for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Changes in the thermo-mechanical properties of the polymer surfaces with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} also evidenced the differences between the substrate polymer films. The near surface interphase formed in polylactic acid probably contributed to the strong increase and scattering in the softening temperature during the early thin film growth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 80 Degree-Sign C was studied on commercial films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both substrate films showed early Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth through clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial growth rate depends on the nature of the substrate film surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were indications of chemical interactions between substrate and precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film thickness and chemical interactions affect thermo-mechanical properties.

  1. Is there a reliable and invariant set of muscle synergy during isometric biaxial trunk exertion in the sagittal and transverse planes by healthy subjects? (United States)

    Sedaghat-Nejad, Ehsan; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Hadizadeh, Maliheh; Narimani, Roya; Khalaf, Kinda; Campbell-Kyureghyan, Naira; Parnianpour, Mohamad


    It has been suggested that the central nervous system simplifies muscle control through basic units, called synergies. In this study, we have developed a novel target-matching protocol and used non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) technique to extract trunk muscle synergies and corresponding torque synergies. Isometric torque data at the L5/S1 level and electromyographic patterns of twelve abdominal and back muscles from twelve healthy participants (five females) were simultaneously recorded. Each participant performed a total number of 24 isometric target-matching tasks using 12 different angular directions and 2 levels of uniaxial and biaxial exertions. Within- and between-subject similarities were assessed by considering both the data of different pairs of participants, where the activation coefficients of one participant were used in the NMF analysis of another participant, and the Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) between muscle synergy vectors. The results showed that, for a healthy person, a set of four muscles (overall variance accounted for (VAF) of 97.9 ± 0.53%) and four corresponding torque synergies (overall VAF of 92.2 ± 3.03%) could efficiently decompose the sagittal and transverse torque planes into their main directions. Furthermore, the correlation coefficients were 0.77 ± 0.12, 0.86 ± 0.08, 0.78 ± 0.12, and 0.93 ± 0.04, for all synergies, reflecting the consistency of muscle synergies across participants. Overall, our results suggest that by taking advantage of muscle synergies we could potentially overcome the redundancy inherent to control strategies of the trunk neuromuscular system. In future studies, the synergies identified in patients with low back pain could be compared with those extracted from healthy participants towards various clinical and rehabilitation applications.

  2. Comparative studies of band structures for biaxial (100)-, (110)-, and (111)-strained GeSn: A first-principles calculation with GGA+U approach (United States)

    Huang, Wenqi; Cheng, Buwen; Xue, Chunlai; Liu, Zhi


    Experiments and calculations performed in previous studies indicate that compressive strain will increase (100)-strained GeSn's need for Sn to realize a direct bandgap when it is pseudomorphically grown on Ge buffers. To eliminate this negative effect, we systematically investigate the band structures of biaxial (100)-, (110)-, and (111)-strained GeSn using a first-principle calculation combined with supercell models and the GGA+U approach. This method has proven to be efficient and accurate for calculating the properties of GeSn. The calculated lattice constants and elastic constants of Ge and Sn are in good agreement with the experimental results. The crossover value of Sn concentration which is required to change the bandgap of unstrained GeSn from indirect to direct is found to be 8.5%, which is very close to the recent experimental result of 9%. The calculated bandgaps of strained GeSn show that the moving rate of the Γ valley is higher than those of the L and X valleys in (100)- and (110)-strained GeSn. However, the moving rate of the L valley is higher than those of Γ and X valleys in (111)-strained GeSn. Tensile strain has a positive effect on the transition of (100)- and (110)-strained GeSn, changing the bandgap from indirect to direct, whereas compressive strain has a positive effect for (111)-strained GeSn. The use of the (111) orientation can reduce GeSn's need for Sn and greatly increase the energy difference between the L valley and Γ valley. Thus, for strained GeSn grown on Ge buffers, the (111) orientation is a good choice to take advantage of compressive strain.

  3. Stress echocardiography (United States)

    ... P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 14. Read More Exercise stress test Review Date 4/20/2015 Updated ...

  4. Stressing academia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    short of individual need while high degrees of fit will mitigate stress. The analysis is based on a stratified random sample including 2127 researchers at 64 Danish university departments and covering all main areas of research and all academic staff categories. The results show that fit with regard......Incongruences between the individual and the organizational work context are potential stressors. The present study focuses on the relationship between a complementary need-supply fit and Danish researchers’ self-perceived job stress. Strain is expected to increase as organizational supplies fall...... to “soft” dimensions as freedom and independence in the job, personal and professional development at work, and receiving peer recognition is highly significant for the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The better the fit is the lower stress-levels the researchers’ on average report. On the other...

  5. Childhood Stress (United States)

    ... Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias How to Talk to Your Child About the ... on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © ...

  6. Cold Stress (United States)

    ... . Workplace Safety and Health Topics Cold Stress Cold Related Illnesses Cold Water Immersion Recommendations Resources Keeping Workers Hydrated and Cool Despite the Heat Read " Keeping Workers Hydrated and Cool Despite the ...

  7. Stress Incontinence (United States)

    ... muscles weaken, anything that exerts force on the abdominal and pelvic muscles — sneezing, bending over, lifting, laughing hard, for instance — ... is associated with higher rates of the later development of stress incontinence. Many of these women may ...

  8. Analysis of Automatic Crack Propagation Under Biaxial Loading Condition Based on Finite Element Method%基于有限元的双轴载荷状态下自动裂纹扩展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志贤; 王生楠; 詹福宇


    利用Python脚本语言对Abaqus进行了二次开发,预测双轴载荷状态下裂纹扩展轨迹.对双轴载荷下中心带孔板的裂纹扩展进行了模拟,并与FRANC2D得到的计算结果进行比较.结果表明利用二次开发程序计算得到的裂纹扩展轨迹及其断裂参数与FRANC2D得到的结果基本一致,计算结果是可靠的;利用二次开发程序对双轴载荷状态下的进行裂纹扩展分析能够有效减少计算时间,提高计算效率.%This paper uses Python scripting language for second - development of Abaqus to predict crack propagation path under biaxial loading condition. The crack propagation of plane with a center hole under biaxial loading condition is analyzed using the second - development program and the results are compared with those obtained by FRANC2D. The conclusion is that the results based on Abaqus second- development are basically agreed with those by FRANC2D,which shows that the results by the secondary- development program are reliable. Using the program to analyze the crack propagation under biaxial loading condition can effectively reduce the computation time,improve calculation efficiency.

  9. An improved exceedance theory for combined random stresses (United States)

    Lester, H. C.


    An extension is presented of Rice's classic solution for the exceedances of a constant level by a single random process to its counterpart for an n-dimensional vector process. An interaction boundary, analogous to the constant level considered by Rice for the one-dimensional case, is assumed in the form of a hypersurface. The theory for the numbers of boundary exceedances is developed by using a joint statistical approach which fully accounts for all cross-correlation effects. An exact expression is derived for the n-dimensional exceedance density function, which is valid for an arbitrary interaction boundary. For application to biaxial states of combined random stress, the general theory is reduced to the two-dimensional case. An elliptical stress interaction boundary is assumed and the exact expression for the density function is presented. The equations are expressed in a format which facilitates calculating the exceedances by numerically evaluating a line integral. The behavior of the density function for the two-dimensional case is briefly discussed.

  10. A critical analysis of the Mises stress criterion used in frequency domain fatigue life prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Niesłony


    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue failure criteria are formulated in time and frequency domain. The number of frequency domain criteria is rather small and the most popular one is the equivalent von Mises stress criterion. This criterion was elaborated by Preumont and Piefort on the basis of well-known von Mises stress concept, first proposed by Huber in 1907, and well accepted by the scientific community and engineers. It is important to know, that the criterion was developed to determine the yield stress and material effort under static load. Therefore the direct use of equivalent von Mises stress criterion for fatigue life prediction can lead to some incorrectness of theoretical and practical nature. In the present study four aspects were discussed: influence of the value of fatigue strength of tension and torsion, lack of parallelism of the SN curves, abnormal behaviour of the criterion under biaxial tensioncompression and influence of phase shift between particular stress state components. Information contained in this article will help to prevent improper use of this criterion and contributes to its better understanding

  11. Prediction of matrix-to-cell stress transfer in heart valve tissues. (United States)

    Huang, Siyao; Huang, Hsiao-Ying Shadow


    Non-linear and anisotropic heart valve leaflet tissue mechanics manifest principally from the stratification, orientation, and inhomogeneity of their collagenous microstructures. Disturbance of the native collagen fiber network has clear consequences for valve and leaflet tissue mechanics and presumably, by virtue of their intimate embedment, on the valvular interstitial cell stress-strain state and concomitant phenotype. In the current study, a set of virtual biaxial stretch experiments were conducted on porcine pulmonary valve leaflet tissue photomicrographs via an image-based finite element approach. Stress distribution evolution during diastolic valve closure was predicted at both the tissue and cellular levels. Orthotropic material properties consistent with distinct stages of diastolic loading were applied. Virtual experiments predicted tissue- and cellular-level stress fields, providing insight into how matrix-to-cell stress transfer may be influenced by the inhomogeneous collagen fiber architecture, tissue anisotropic material properties, and the cellular distribution within the leaflet tissue. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study reporting on the evolution of stress fields at both the tissue and cellular levels in valvular tissue and thus contributes toward refining our collective understanding of valvular tissue micromechanics while providing a computational tool enabling the further study of valvular cell-matrix interactions.

  12. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity (United States)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  13. Imaging stress. (United States)

    Brielle, Shlomi; Gura, Rotem; Kaganovich, Daniel


    Recent innovations in cell biology and imaging approaches are changing the way we study cellular stress, protein misfolding, and aggregation. Studies have begun to show that stress responses are even more variegated and dynamic than previously thought, encompassing nano-scale reorganization of cytosolic machinery that occurs almost instantaneously, much faster than transcriptional responses. Moreover, protein and mRNA quality control is often organized into highly dynamic macromolecular assemblies, or dynamic droplets, which could easily be mistaken for dysfunctional "aggregates," but which are, in fact, regulated functional compartments. The nano-scale architecture of stress-response ranges from diffraction-limited structures like stress granules, P-bodies, and stress foci to slightly larger quality control inclusions like juxta nuclear quality control compartment (JUNQ) and insoluble protein deposit compartment (IPOD), as well as others. Examining the biochemical and physical properties of these dynamic structures necessitates live cell imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution, and techniques to make quantitative measurements with respect to movement, localization, and mobility. Hence, it is important to note some of the most recent observations, while casting an eye towards new imaging approaches that offer the possibility of collecting entirely new kinds of data from living cells.

  14. What Is Stress Management? (United States)

    ... Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit What Is Stress Management? Updated:Jul 7,2016 What is Stress Management? ... FAQs About Stress Last reviewed - 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction FAQs ...

  15. Stress Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)......The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)...

  16. Determination of global and local residual stresses in SOFC by X-ray diffraction (United States)

    Villanova, Julie; Sicardy, Olivier; Fortunier, Roland; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Bleuet, Pierre


    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a high-performance electrochemical device for energy conversion. A single cell is composed of five layers made of different ceramic materials: anode support, anode functional layer, electrolyte, cathode functional layer and cathode. The mechanical integrity of the cell is a major issue during its lifetime, especially for the electrolyte layer. Damage of the cells is mainly due to the high operating temperature, the "redox" behaviour of the anode and the brittleness of the involved materials. Since residual stresses are known to play a significant role in the damage evolution, it is important to determine them. For this purpose, residual stresses in an anode-supported planar SOFC were measured by X-ray diffraction. Firstly, macroscopic stresses in each phase of each layer were studied using the sin 2ψ method on a laboratory X-ray goniometer at room temperature. This technique enables the calculation of residual stress of the material from the measurement of the crystal lattice deformation. The electrolyte has been found under bi-axial compressive stress of -920 MPa. Secondly, X-ray measurements controlling depth penetration were made in the electrolyte using grazing incidence method. The results show that the stress is not homogenous in the layer. The first five micrometers of the electrolyte have been found less constrained (-750 MPa) than the complete layer, suggesting a gradient of deformation in the electrolyte from the interface with the Anode Functional Layer to the free surface. Finally, local stress measurements were made on the electrolyte layer by X-ray synchrotron radiation that allows high accuracy measurement on the (sub-) micrometer scale. Polychromatic and monochromatic beams are used to determine the complete strain tensor from grain to grain in the electrolyte. First results confirm the macroscopic stress trend of the electrolyte. These X-ray techniques at different scales will contribute to a better understanding of

  17. Research and Test on Technology of Teamwork Biaxial Rototilling, Fertilizing and Seeding%双轴旋耕施肥播种复式作业技术研究与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱松; 金亦富; 张瑞宏; 缪宏; 张剑峰; 陶德清


    针对秸秆全量还田对耕深的要求,分析了双轴分层旋耕技术的可行性,设计了一种双轴旋耕施肥播种复式作业机。该机采用双轴Z形阶梯状立体空间布置结构和双轴分层旋耕切土工艺,实现了深旋耕及秸秆深埋技术的突破,平均耕深大于20 cm,耕深稳定性约为90%。该机实现了深旋耕、碎土、施肥播种一次性作业,大大节省了耕作能耗和成本。%To the depth requirement in straw returning, the feasibility of biaxial rototilling is analyzed and a teamwork machine biaxial rototilling, fertilizing and seeding is designed.Two-axis adopts Z shaped and ladder three-dimensional structure, the technology of double layered cutting is adopted, the technical breakthrough of deep tillage and deep straw-buried is actualized.The average depth is more than 20 centimeters and the stability of the tilling depth is about 90%. Deep tillage, crushing soil, fertilizing and seeding are accomplished by one time, the energy consumption and the cost of farming are greatly saved.

  18. Berreman近似下任意形状表面沟槽对双轴向列相方位锚定的影响%Effect of Grooved Surface with Arbitrary Shape on Anchoring Energy of Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑桂丽; 李根堂; 张志东


    Under the approximation of Berreman, any grooved surface with arbitrary shape can be described in terms of Fourier series.Based on the theory of Fukuda et al, the expression of anchoring energy with an additional term was obtained, taking into the surfacelike elastic term in biaxial nematic liquid crystal.The figures of reduced anchoring energies versus the angle between the direction of the grooves and main director were simulated under the different values of surfacelike elastic constant in certain cases and the effect of biaxial elastic constant on easy axes was discussed.%通过把Berreman近似下任意形状的表面沟槽用傅里叶级数展开,写成正弦函数和的形式,将Fukuda等人的理论应用于双轴向列相液晶中,考虑表面弹性项的作用后得到了任意形状的沟槽对双轴液晶产生的方位锚定能.在一定的近似条件下得到约化锚定能随着沟槽的方向与液晶主指向矢之间的夹角的变化情况,讨论了双轴弹性常数对液晶易取向方向的影响.

  19. Stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Salustri (Alessandro)


    textabstractIn the studies reported in this thesis, stress echocardiography (either with exercise or with pharmacological agents) and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy have been performed in different groups of patients and in different clinical conditions. Some practical aspects on the protocols of

  20. Heat Stress (United States)

    ... result of accidental contact with hot surfaces or steam. Workers at risk of heat stress include outdoor workers and workers in hot environments such as firefighters, bakery workers, farmers, construction workers, miners, boiler room workers, factory workers, and others. Workers at ...

  1. Stress incontinence (United States)

    ... incontinence URL of this page: // Stress urinary incontinence To use the ... irritation. Smoking also increases your risk for bladder cancer. Avoid alcohol ... keep the muscle around your urethra strong and working well. This may help keep ...

  2. 钇稳定氧化锆-饰面瓷结构双轴弯曲强度的研究%Study on bi-axial flexure strength of Upcera zirconia core/veneer ceramic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周珊羽; 王琳琳; 胡琛; 邵龙泉


    Objective To study the bi-axial flexure slrenglh of bilayered Upcera zirconia core and the veneering porcelain. Methods Forty disk specimens were made from different core and veneering porcelain, and divided inlo four groups as follows( n = 10) :Upcera core + Cercon ceram kiss veneer( group A) , Upcera core + IPS e. Max Ceram veneer( group B) , Cercon Brain Expert core + Cercon ceram kiss veneer( group C)and IPS e. Max CAD core + IPS e. Max Ceram veneer ( group D). The bi-axial flexure slrenglh were measured by ball-on-ring tesl. Results The value of bi-axial flexure slrenglh were ( 132. 03 ± 3. 05 ) Mpa for group A, ( 129. 91 ± 2. 06 ) Mpa for group B, ( 123. 97 ± 3. 04 ) Mpa for group C, ( 120. 96 ± 2. 09 ) Mpa for group D. There were significant differences among 4 groups( P < 0. 05 ). The bi-axial flexure slrenglh of group A and B were significantly higher than that of group C and D. The specimens displayed mainly crack propagalion ihrough ihe composite interface withoul delaminalion. Conclusions Veneering porcelain has no influence on bi-axial flexure slrenglh, failure mode of 4-group bi-layers slruclures is complete fraclure, there is a good bonding properly between Upcera zirconia core and the veneering porcelain.%目的 检测国产钇稳定氧化锆与饰面瓷双层结构的双轴弯曲强度,分析双层瓷结构的失败模式.方法 制作40个核瓷-饰面瓷的双层瓷结构试件,根据材料不同分为4组:A组:Upcera核瓷+Cercon ceram kiss饰面瓷;B组:Upcera核瓷+IPS e.max Ceram饰面瓷;C组:Cercon Brain Expert核瓷+Cercon ceram kiss饰面瓷;D组:IPS e.max CAD核瓷+IPS e.max Ceram饰面瓷(n=10).采用球-环法测定试件的双轴弯曲强度.结果 双轴弯曲强度分别为A组:(132.03±3.05)MPa;B组:(129.91±2.06)MPa;C组:(123.97±3.04)MPa;D组:(120.96±2.09)MPa.组间有统计学差异(P<0.05).A组和B组的双轴弯曲强度显著性高于C组和D组.失败模式主要为核瓷-饰面瓷的完全断裂.结论 饰面瓷对钇

  3. Effect of stress-triaxiality on void growth in dynamic fracture of metals: a molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppala, E T; Belak, J; Rudd, R E


    The effect of stress-triaxiality on growth of a void in a three dimensional single-crystal face-centered-cubic (FCC) lattice has been studied. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using an embedded-atom (EAM) potential for copper have been performed at room temperature and using strain controlling with high strain rates ranging from 10{sup 7}/sec to 10{sup 10}/sec. Strain-rates of these magnitudes can be studied experimentally, e.g. using shock waves induced by laser ablation. Void growth has been simulated in three different conditions, namely uniaxial, biaxial, and triaxial expansion. The response of the system in the three cases have been compared in terms of the void growth rate, the detailed void shape evolution, and the stress-strain behavior including the development of plastic strain. Also macroscopic observables as plastic work and porosity have been computed from the atomistic level. The stress thresholds for void growth are found to be comparable with spall strength values determined by dynamic fracture experiments. The conventional macroscopic assumption that the mean plastic strain results from the growth of the void is validated. The evolution of the system in the uniaxial case is found to exhibit four different regimes: elastic expansion; plastic yielding, when the mean stress is nearly constant, but the stress-triaxiality increases rapidly together with exponential growth of the void; saturation of the stress-triaxiality; and finally the failure.

  4. Comparison of computational analysis with clinical measurement of stresses on below-knee residual limb in a prosthetic socket. (United States)

    Zhang, M; Roberts, C


    Interface pressures and shear stresses between a below-knee residual limb and prosthetic socket predicted using finite element analyses were compared with experimental measurements. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model, based on actual residual geometry and incorporating PTB socket rectification and interfacial friction/slip conditions, was developed to predict the stress distribution. A system for measuring pressures and bi-axial shear stresses was used to measure the stresses in the PTB socket of a trans-tibial amputee. The FE-predicted results indicated that the peak pressure of 226 kPa occurred at the patellar tendon area and the peak shear stress of 50 kPa at the anterolateral tibia area. Quantitatively, FE-predicted pressures were 11%, on average, lower than those measured by triaxial transducers placed at all the measurement sites. Because friction/slip conditions between the residual limb and socket liner were taken into consideration by using interface elements in the FE model, the directions and magnitudes of shear stresses match well between the FE prediction and clinical measurements. The results suggest that the nonlinear mechanical properties of soft tissues and dynamic effects during gait should be addressed in future work.

  5. Vibration and Stability of Thick Simply Supported Shallow Shells Subjected to In-Plane Stresses (United States)



    The effects of higher order deformations on natural frequencies and buckling stresses of a thick shallow shell with reactangular planform subjected to uniaxial and biaxial in-plane stresses are studied. Based on the power series expansion of displacement components, a set of fundamental dynamic equations of a two-dimensional higher order shallow shell theory is derived through Hamilton's principle. Several sets of truncated approximate theories which can take into account the complete effects of higher order deformations such as shear deformations with thickness changes and rotatory inertia are applied to solve the vibration and stability problems of a thick shallow shell. Three types of simply supported shallow shells with positive, zero and negative Gaussian curvatures are considered. In order to assure the accuracy of the present theory, convergence properties of the lowest two natural frequencies for the first vibration moder=s=1 are examined in detail. The present results are also compared with those of existing theories. In the case of a simply supported shallow shell, buckling stresses can be calculated from the natural frequencies without in-plane stresses.

  6. Biaxial tests on Sandvik Nanoflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, E.S.


    Sandvik Nanoflex (ASTM-A 564) is a metastable steel that undergoes strain induced martensitic transformation during a mechanical deformation process. The aim of the experiments is to observe the transformation by recording the amount of martensite via a magnetic sensor. The physics underlying the pr

  7. Biaxial prestressing of brittle materials (United States)

    Greszczuk, L.; Miller, R.; Netter, W.


    Strengthening of chemically consolidated zirconia with tungsten fibers, graphite fibers, sapphire whiskers, and silicon carbide whiskers is investigated. Addition of silicon carbide whiskers gives the highest increase in strength of zirconia at room and elevated temperatures. Prestressing with tungsten cables increases tensile strength and ductility

  8. The effect of stress state on zirconium hydride reorientation (United States)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut Nedim

    correlating the finite element stress-state results with the spatial distribution of hydride microstructures observed within the optical micrographs for each sample. Experiments showed that the hydride reorientation was enhanced as the stress biaxiality increased. The threshold stress decreased from 150 MPa to 80 MPa when stress biaxiality ratio increased from uniaxial tension to near-equibiaxial tension. This behavior was also predicted by classical nucleation theory based on the Gibbs free energy of transformation being assisted by the far-field stress. An analysis of in situ X-ray diffraction data obtained during a thermo-mechanical cycle typical of vacuum drying showed a complex lattice-spacing behavior of the hydride phase during the dissolution and precipitation. The in-plane hydrides showed bilinear lattice expansion during heating with the intrinsic thermal expansion rate of the hydrides being observed only at elevated temperatures as they dissolve. For radial hydrides that precipitate during cooling under stress, the spacing of the close-packed {111} planes oriented normal to the maximum applied stress was permanently higher than the corresponding {111} plane spacing in the other directions. This behavior is believed to be a result of a complex stress state within the precipitating plate-like hydrides that induces a strain component within the hydrides normal to its "plate" face (i.e., the applied stress direction) that exceeds the lattice spacing strains in the other directions. During heat-up, the lattice spacing of these same "plate" planes actually contract due to the reversion of the stress state within the plate-like hydrides as they dissolve. The presence of radial hydrides and their connectivity with in-plane hydrides was shown to increase the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature during tensile testing. This behavior can be understood in terms of the role of radial hydrides in promoting the initiation of a long crack that subsequently propagates under

  9. Stress and Mood (United States)

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  10. Overcoming job stress (United States)

    ... or not advancing in your career. How Job Stress Affects Your Health Like any kind of stress, job stress that continues for a long time can affect your health. Job stress may increase your risk for health problems such ...

  11. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka


    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  12. Anisotropy effect on the stress-based fracture forming limit diagram using a modified Lou-Huh ductile fracture criterion (United States)

    Park, Namsu; Huh, Hoon


    This paper is concerned with the anisotropy effect on the stress-based fracture forming limit diagram using a modified Lou-Huh ductile fracture criterion. In sheet metal forming process, a usage of advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs) has been remarkably increasing for the lightweight car body and good formability. It is, however, unable to evaluate the formability of AHSS with the conventional forming limit diagram during complex forming processes since it is obtained by assuming the proportional loading path and AHSS shows sudden fracture involving little amount of necking. The stress-based fracture forming limit diagram was constructed using a modified Lou-Huh ductile fracture criterion in order to evaluate the formability of AHSS accurately. The anisotropy effect on the fracture strain is also evaluated to reflect the material behavior of sheet metals in constructing the criterion for the prediction of onset of the fracture. The constructed stress-based fracture forming limit diagrams deal with the stress state ranging from pure shear to equi-biaxial tension with the variation of orientation of sheet metals. It is clearly observed that the stress-based fracture forming limit diagrams are varied with the change of orientation of sheet metals.

  13. Formaldehyde stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Formaldehyde,one of the most toxic organic compounds,is produced and processed in human cells.The level of human endogenous formaldehyde is maintained at a low concentration(0.01-0.08 mmol L-1 in blood) under physiological conditions,but the concentration increases during ageing(over 65 years old).Clinical trials have shown that urine formaldehyde concentrations are significantly different between elderly Alzheimer’s patients(n=91) and normal elderly volunteers(n=38)(P<0.001).Abnormally high levels of intrinsic formaldehyde lead to dysfunction in cognition such as learning decline and memory loss.Excess extracellular and intracellular formaldehyde could induce metabolic response and abnormal modifications of cellular proteins such as hydroxymethylation and hyperphosphorylation,protein misfolding,nuclear translocation and even cell death.This cellular response called formaldehyde stress is dependent upon the concentration of formaldehyde.Chronic impairments of the brain resulted from formaldehyde stress could be one of the mechanisms involved in the process of senile dementia during ageing.

  14. Anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model with biaxial tension coupling for woven fabric composites%考虑双拉耦合的复合材料编织物各向异性超弹性本构模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小双; 姚远; 彭雄奇; 龚友坤; 张必超


    为了准确描述复合材料编织物的各向异性力学特性,首先,基于纤维增强复合材料连续介质力学理论提出了一种考虑纤维双拉耦合的复合材料编织物各向异性超弹性本构模型,该模型中单位体积的应变能被解耦为便于参数识别的纤维拉伸变形能、双拉耦合引起的挤压变形能和纤维间角度变化产生的剪切变形能;然后,给出了模型参数的确定方法,并通过拟合单轴拉伸、双轴拉伸和镜框剪切实验数据得到了本构模型参数;最后,利用该模型对双轴拉伸和镜框剪切实验进行了数值仿真,并将模拟结果与实验结果对比分析。结果表明:提出的本构模型适用于表征复合材料编织物在成型过程中由于大变形引起的非线性各向异性力学行为。所得结论表明提出的本构模型具有简单、实用的优点,且材料参数容易确定,可为复合材料编织物成型的数值模拟和工艺优化奠定理论基础。%In order to characterize the anisotropic mechanical behaviors of woven fabric composites precisely,based on fiber reinforced composite continuum medium mechanics theory,an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model with biaxial tension coupling of fiber for woven fabric composites was proposed firstly.The unit-volume strain ener-gy in the model was decomposed into the deformation energy of fiber elongation,the compaction deformation energy due to biaxial tension coupling and shear deformation energy due to the change of angels between fibers.Then,de-termination approach for model parameters was given,and parameters of constitutive model were obtained by fitting the uni-axial tensile,biaxial tensile and picture-frame shear experiment data.Finally,the numerical simulation of bi-axial tensile and picture-frame shear experiments was conducted by the model,and the simulation results were con-trasted and analyzed with experiment data.The results show that the

  15. 双向不等轴拉应变对有纺织物开孔面积率的影响%Effect of unsymmetrically biaxial tension on percent open area of geotextiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文芳; 唐晓武; 白彬


    Geotextiles are widely used in people's living and project construction, mainly for water proof, filtration, heat preservation, isolation and many other aspects. The percent open area is one of the most important parameters which reflect the performance of geotextiles. The change laws of the percent open area in unsymmetrically biaxial tension tests are explored through the imagine analysis, and the results are more applicable than those of the uniaxial tension tests and symmetrically biaxial tension tests by the previous researchers. The difference between the theoretical and experimental values is compared, and the idea of“Projective Poissons ratio” is proposed.%土工织物应用于防水、反滤、保温、隔离等方面,土工织物的开孔面积率是反映土工织物性能的重要参数,前人对此已有研究,主要集中在单轴拉伸和等双轴拉伸试验。通过双向不等轴拉伸试验,运用白彬推导的公式,采用图像法测试土工织物在双向拉应变下的开孔面积率POA(Percent Open Area)的变化,分析理论值与试验值之间的偏差并加以修正,提出“投影泊松比”的概念,同时探究投影泊松比对开孔面积率的影响。

  16. 双轴向列相Fréedericksz转变的Monte Carlo模拟%Monte Carlo Simulation of Fréedericksz Transitions in Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英涛; 周璇; 张志东


    With Monte Carlo simulation, this paper investigated Freedericksz transitions of biaxial nematics induced by an external magnetic field. In the simulation process, the pair potential in London's dispersion forces approximation was used. With three different orientations, nine different Freedericksz transitions were discussed by changing the molecular magnetic susceptibility and the directions of magnetic field. The transition of two short axes u and v, the transition of long axis iv and short axis w, and the transition of long axis xv and short axis v were all simulated. With the result of simulations, relations of the nine elastic constants can be discussed and they are fit with one elastic constant approximation. The result is practical in the sense that it works as a theoretical basis for developing biaxial display device.%通过Monte Carlo方法研究了在磁场诱导下的双轴向列相液晶的Freedericksz转变,在模拟的过程中采用了London色散力近似.考虑3种不同的排列方式,通过改变3个分子轴的磁化率和磁场方向,讨论了9种不同的Fréedericksz转变并分别给出了相应的阈值磁场,通过计算机的模拟实现了短轴u和v的转变,长轴w和短轴u的转变以及长轴w和短轴v的转变.模拟结果表明,在给定假设的情况下满足单一弹性常数近似.研究结果对发展双轴液晶显示器件有一定的理论指导意义.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兆; 陈南梁; 刘黎民; 魏贺


    为了探讨玻璃纤维捆绑纱对复合材料拉伸性能的影响,对使用高性能玻璃纤维作为捆绑纱的双轴向碳纤维织物以及复合材料进行了拉伸性能测试,分析了材料的破坏模式以及影响因素.结果表明,使用玻纤捆绑纱并未提高增强织物的经向和45.的拉伸强度;玻纤捆绑纱可改善树脂浸渍,减少捆绑纱附近的应力集中,增强碳纤维层间的结合,大大提高碳纤维断裂同时性,从而提高其拉伸性能.捆绑纱相同时,经平组织试样经向强度优于编链组织,凸显了玻纤纱的优势,材料的拉伸性能更好.%In order to study the effect of glass-fiber binder yarn on tensile properties of composites,we tested the tensile properties of biaxial carbon warp-knitted fabrics and its reinforced composites which use high performance glass-fiber as binder yarn, analyzed failure modes of materials and influencing factors. The results show that glass-fiber doesnt improve the tensile properties of reinforced fabrics in warp and 45°direction. However, glass-fiber binder yarn improves impregnation of resin, decreases stress concentration around binder yarn, enhances the interlayer bonding of carbon fabric, and greatly increases carbon fibers'fracture simultaneity. Thus tensile properties of composites are improved. Tensile properties in warp of tricot stitch structure are better than chain stitch structure when binder yarns are the same. So tricot stitch structure could display the advantage of glass-fiber yarn and higner the tensile properties of composite.

  18. Phase transformations and residual stresses in environmental barrier coatings (United States)

    Harder, Bryan J.

    Silicon-based ceramics (SiC, Si3N4) are promising materials for high-temperature structural applications in turbine engines. However, the silica layer that forms on these materials is susceptible to attack from water vapor present in combustion environments. To protect against this degradation, environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) were developed to protect the underlying substrate. In the case of silicon carbide (SiC), multilayer coating systems consist of a Ba1-xSrxAl2Si 2O8 (BSAS) topcoat, a mullite or mullite + SrAl2Si 2O8 (SAS) interlayer, and a silicon bond coat. In this work, biaxial strains were measured on as-sprayed and heat-treated samples to analyze the stress and phase evolution in the coating system as a function of depth and temperature. Models were used to compare the results with an ideal coating system. In the assprayed state, tensile stresses as high as 175 MPa were measured, and cracking was observed. After thermally cycling the samples, stresses were significantly reduced and cracks in the topcoat had closed. The addition of SAS to the interlayer increased the compressive stress in the BSAS topcoat in thermally-cycled samples, which was desirable for EBC applications. The BSAS topcoat transformed from the as-deposited hexacelsian state to the stable celsian above 1200°C. This phase transformation is accompanied by a CTE reduction. The kinetics of the hexacelsian-to-celsian transformation were quantified for freestanding plasma-sprayed BSAS. Activation energies for bulk bars and crushed powder were determined to be ˜340 kJ/mol and ˜500 kJ/mol, respectively. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction were used to establish how microstructural constraints reduce the transformation energy. Barrier coating lifetime and stability are also influenced by exposure to reactive, low-melting point calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) deposits formed from dust and sand. Multilayer doped aluminosilicate coatings and bulk BSAS material were

  19. Managing Leadership Stress

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Vidula; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon


    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less . . . and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to look for and having a strategy for increasing your resources will help you manage leadership stress and be more effective over a long career.Table of ContentsThe Stress of Leadership 7Why Is Leadership Stressful? 8Stress Assessment 13When Stress Is Wh

  20. Learn to manage stress (United States)

    ... the tips below to find healthy ways to reduce your stress. FIND HEALTHY STRESS BUSTERS There are many healthy ways to manage stress. Try a few and see which ones work best for you. Recognize the things you can' ...

  1. Stress and Heart Health (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress and Heart Health Updated:Jun 13,2014 When ... Health and Heart Health Last reviewed 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction ...

  2. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.


    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  3. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters. (United States)

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry


    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÎLCU Adrian


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the tensile behavior of woven fabrics made from 45%Wool + 55% PES used for garments. Analysis of fabric behavior during wearing has shown that these are submitted to simple and repeated uni-axial or bi-axial tensile strains. The level of these strains is often within the elastic limit, rarely going over yielding. Therefore the designer must be able to evaluate the mechanical behavior of such fabrics in order to control the fabric behavior in the garment. This evaluation is carried out based on the tensile testing, using certain indexes specific to the stress-strain curve. The paper considers an experimental matrix based on woven fabrics of different yarn counts, different or equal yarn count for warp and weft systems and different structures. The fabrics were tested using a testing machine and the results were then compared in order to determine the fabrics’ tensile behavior and the factors of influence that affect it.From the point of view of tensile testing, the woven materials having twill weave are preferable because this type of structure is characterized by higher durability and better yarn stability in the fabric. In practice, the woven material must exhibit an optimum behavior to repeated strains, flexions and abrasions during wearing process. The analysis of fabrics tensile properties studied by investigation of stress-strain diagrams reveals that the main factors influencing the tensile strength are: yarns fineness, technological density of those two systems of yarns and the weaving type.

  5. Voltage controlled biaxial strain in VO{sub 2} films grown on 0.72Pb(Mg{sub 1∕3}Nb{sub 2∕3})-0.28PbTiO{sub 3} crystals and its effect on the transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petraru, A., E-mail:; Soni, R.; Kohlstedt, H. [Nanoelektronik, Technische Fakultät, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel 24143 (Germany)


    Vanadium oxide thin films (VO{sub 2}) were deposited on 0.72Pb(Mg{sub 1∕3}Nb{sub 2∕3})-0.28PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) crystalline substrates using pulsed laser deposition method. Due to their huge piezoelectric coefficients in the order of 2500 pm/V, the PMN-PT substrates are used to impose additional amount of biaxial strain to the VO{sub 2} films by applying an external bias to the substrates. The influence of the biaxial strain on the transition temperature and on the conductive properties of the VO{sub 2} films is investigated in this work. Thus, a change in the biaxial strain of −0.8 × 10{sup −3} applied in the (110) plane of the rutile cell of the VO{sub 2} lowered the metal-to-insulator transition temperature by 1.35 °C.

  6. Effect of laser shock peening on residual stress and fatigue life of clad 2024 aluminium sheet containing scribe defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, M. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Beds, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Toparli, M.B. [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Smyth, N.; Cini, A. [Department of Materials, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Beds, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Fitzpatrick, M.E. [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Irving, P.E., E-mail: [Department of Materials, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Beds, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of laser peen intensity on local residual stress fields in 2024 aluminium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peening induces significant changes in surface topography and local hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residual stress at peen spot centre in tension, spot overlap in compression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notched fatigue lives increased; crack morphology correlated to residual stress field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large peening power densities can cause fatigue life reduction in notched samples. - Abstract: Laser peening at a range of power densities has been applied to 2 mm-thick sheets of 2024 T351 aluminium. The induced residual stress field was measured using incremental hole drilling and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Fatigue samples were subjected to identical laser peening treatments followed by scribing at the peen location to introduce stress concentrations, after which they were fatigue tested. The residual stresses were found to be non-biaxial: orthogonal to the peen line they were tensile at the surface, moving into the desired compression with increased depth. Regions of peen spot overlap were associated with large compression strains; the centre of the peen spot remaining tensile. Fatigue lives showed moderate improvement over the life of unpeened samples for 50 {mu}m deep scribes, and slight improvement for samples with 150 {mu}m scribes. Use of the residual stress intensity K{sub resid} approach to calculate fatigue life improvement arising from peening was unsuccessful at predicting the relative effects of the different peening treatments. Possible reasons for this are explored.

  7. Stress og insomni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Zachariae, Bobby


    Insomnia and stress are two conditions, which are strongly associated and appear to be pathophysiologically integrated: the occurrence of stress increases the risk of insomnia, insomnia exacerbates stress, and coexistence of both factors has a negative influence on their prognosis. Stress...

  8. Processing effects for integrated PZT: Residual stress, thickness, and dielectric properties (United States)

    Ong, Ryan Jason

    This dissertation focuses on the integration of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films on Pt/Ti/SiO2//Si, and the effect of on properties. Direct deposition of PZT on Si will lead to on-chip power capacitors, non-volatile memory cells, and vibration sensors. However, previous research indicates that the dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric response characteristics for the devices are often inferior to bulk specimens. Property variations have been attributed to changes in several major variables including, chemical composition, phase content, grain size, crystallographic orientation, film thickness, and stress, each of which, in turn, can depend on processing. The first goal of this work was to design a sol-gel processing methodology to control all major variables except film thickness and stress, thus isolating their respective effects on properties. All specimens were verified to be of the Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 composition, in the perovskite structure, with a constant grain size of 110nm, and with (111) fiber texture. PZT film thickness was varied from 95nm to 500nm and residual stress was measured to be either 150 or 180MPa, biaxial tensile, depending on thickness. These specimens allowed for new insights into the fundamental differences between bulk materials and thin films. A series-capacitor model accounted for the observed dilution in room-temperature K from >900 to ˜600 as film thickness decreased, but could not account for the absence of the expected dielectric anomaly at high temperatures. Instead, a stress-induced distributed phase transformation related to the polycrystalline nature of the film was proposed to account for the observed behavior. Residual stress reduced the spontaneous polarization values in these specimens to 32muC/cm 2 from the predicted stress-free value of 50muC/cm2. An increase in coercive field was attributed to interfacial capacitance and residual stress, whereas a decrease of 30MPa tensile stress resulted in an increase of d33

  9. Stress og aldring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen


    Accumulating evidence supports the popular notion that psychological stress states may accelerate aging. Stress has been shown to influence cellular systems known to be involved in the aging process. Furthermore, stress is associated with an increased risk of various age-related medical disorders....... These effects are likely mediated by the secretion of stress hormones. In this short review we focus on biochemical and epidemiological evidence for a link between stress and aging....

  10. A Servo-Control System for Biaxial Wheel Indoor Service Robots%一种双轴轮室内服务机器人小车伺服控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李硕明; 陈越; 吴雄英


    基于32位ARM7微型处理器LPC2119开发移动机器人伺服控制系统,设计了适应于双轴独立驱动的移动小车伺服控制PI算法,采用PWM脉宽调速技术结合光电编码反馈来构成闭环电机伺服系统.系统方案在自主设计的室内移动机器人小车XMU-3上进行了验证,实验结果能达到室内服务机器人平台应用的控制精度要求.%This paper designs a servo-control system for mobile robots based on 32-bit ARM7 micro-proces-ser.The approach designs PI algorithm which suits biaxial wheel mobile robots servo-control system,adopting PWM speed control and utilizing light-electronic devices for feed-backing components to set up a closed motor servo-con-trol system.The system is tested on the self-designed XMU-3 indoor intelligent mobile robots vehicle,which proves to be able to match the control accuracy requirements and meet the potential application platform needs of indoor service robot.

  11. Control and Data Acquisition System for R500B Biaxial Centrifuge Shaker%R500B大型土工离心机双向振动台控制及数据采集系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋献慧; 侯瑜京; 梁建辉


    介绍了中国水利水电科学研究院建成的大型土工离心机双向(水平+垂直)振动台控制和数据采集系统,介绍了系统采用控制软件的基本功能、控制原理,以及操作程序等.目前已成功实现了在高速旋转的离心机中进行振动台的控制和数据采集,但随着各类不同试验的具体要求,系统功能仍需要进一步开发和完善.%The authors introduce the control and data acquisition system for the R500B biaxial (horizontal and vertical) shaker table of the IWHR (China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research) Geotechnical Centrifuge. The control theory, the function of the software and the working procedures of the system are presented in this paper. This system has been successfully operated at 80 g centrifugal acceleration, and is needed to be improved to meet different requirements of experiments in the future.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    ... Child Is Raped Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Sadness and Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Phobias Five Steps for Fighting Stress Going to a Psychologist, Psychiatrist, or Therapist Being ...

  13. Coping with College Stress (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160792.html Coping With College Stress Parents can help make the transition easier for ... 5, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress and anxiety are common among new college students, ...

  14. Stress in childhood (United States)

    ... of stress in your children and teens. . Accessed July 8, ... verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. ...

  15. Cultural Stress Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hastings; K; Shula; Aizhong; Liu


    Cultural stress is no longer a rare phenomenon because the world has been reduced to the size of a village due to modern technology and advancements. It is a concept that grows in magnitude each year. More and more people are affected. In this paper, we discuss the assessment of cultural stress by combining some instruments like the Perceived Stress Scale, the Depression Anxiety, and Stress Scale with the Cultural Stress Scale. They appear to be valid and can be used across different cultures. We discuss the need to come up with a standard instrument for measuring cultural stress as opposed to having so many. We also outline ways of coping with cultural stress as it occurs at different stages. There is need for more research to counter the negative effects of cultural stress.

  16. Stresses of Single Parenting (United States)

    ... ways to avoid the stress of being a single parent? Single parenthood can bring added pressure and stress ... share day-to-day responsibilities or decision-making, single parents must provide greater support for their children while ...

  17. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare (United States)

    ... page: // Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... that connect your ankle to your toes. A stress fracture is a break in the bone that ...

  18. Relaxation techniques for stress (United States)

    ... problems such as high blood pressure, stomachaches, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Using relaxation techniques can help you feel calm. These exercises can also help you manage stress and ease the effects of stress on your body.

  19. Stress og insomni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Zachariae, Bobby


    Insomnia and stress are two conditions, which are strongly associated and appear to be pathophysiologically integrated: the occurrence of stress increases the risk of insomnia, insomnia exacerbates stress, and coexistence of both factors has a negative influence on their prognosis. Stress...... and insomnia thus share complex interactions and the mechanisms involved are insufficiently understood but involve both psychological and physiological processes. First choice interventions involve behavioural and cognitive strategies and, to a lesser extent, pharmacological treatment....

  20. Chronic Stress and Performance (United States)


    to the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist HU-210 following chronic stress. European Journal of Pharmacology, 499(3), 291-295. Holscher, C. (1999...learning and memory, has the highest concentration of GC receptors in the brain and is involved in the stress response. Extensive research has... receptor levels than stressed male rodents (Konkle, 2003; Figueiredo, 2002; Handa, 1994). Males and females react to stress differently, so two models

  1. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  2. Ocean surface wind stress (United States)

    Harrison, D. E.


    The need for improved surface wind and wind stress data is discussed. The collection of wind data using ship reports, research buoys, and cloud motion vectors is examined. The need for data on surface-wind stress fields is emphasized. Accurate stress data are required for studying: (1) the normal seasonal cycle and the intraannual events; (2) wind stress curls and the forcing of ocean circulation; (3) El Nino events; and (4) the low response of the midlatitude ocean circulation.

  3. Nonlinear viscoelastic response of highly filled elastomers under multiaxial finite deformation (United States)

    Peng, Steven T. J.; Landel, Robert F.


    A biaxial tester was used to obtain precise biaxial stress responses of highly filled, high strain capability elastomers. Stress-relaxation experiments show that the time-dependent part of the relaxation response can be reasonably approximated by a function which is strain and biaxiality independent. Thus, isochronal data from the stress-relaxation curves can be used to determine the stored energy density function. The complex behavior of the elastomers under biaxial deformation may be caused by dewetting.

  4. Slab stress field in the Hellenic subduction zone as inferred from intermediate depth earthquakes (United States)

    Rontogianni, S.; Konstantinou, K.; Melis, N. S.; Evangelidis, C.


    In this study we investigate the stress regime of the subducting slab beneath the Hellenic Arc aiming to answer two fundamental questions; a) How does the slab deformation vary horizontally and vertically along this large curvature arc? b) Which are the mechanisms inferred from global observations that can explain this deformation and have not been identified previously due to dataset limitations. The data are selected from various seismic networks, global and local seismic catalogues and the newly established Hellenic broadband seismic network ( An updated view of the geometry of the Hellenic Wadati-Benioff zone (WBZ) is gained by the spatial distribution of intermediate depth earthquakes (40 km≤ depth ≤ 180km). Stress tensor inversion is performed on 100 fault plane solutions of intermediate depth earthquakes after quality control has been applied. The stress field parameters are determined along the arc for several depth ranges. The slab is divided into four subsets, each containing enough focal mechanisms for stress inversion to be performed successfully. The Peloponnese segment shows for depths 50-80 km σ1 almost normal to the slab and σ3 steeper than the slab dip that might indicate suction force-the component of the slab pull force that is unbalanced by the subduction resistance. The Kithira-Western Crete segment shows for depths 50-100 km a biaxial deviatoric compression or a state of confined compression with the σ1 along strike. The stress regime in this section of the slab might be related to its complex shape and geometry (width, curvature) reflecting changes in the slab dip between the Peloponnese-Kithira strait and the Crete region as has also been identified by teleseimic receiver functions. The third segment below Crete shows σ1 along strike and σ3 almost subvertical to slab direction. The stress field for the forth segment below Karpathos and Rhodos has been divided into two depth ranges. The shallow subset (50

  5. Oxidative Stress in BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Savas


    The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative stress, prostate

  6. The price of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen, van den H.


    In this paper an economic approach is taken to the analysis of work-related stress. This economic approach not only allows us to infer the monetary equivalent of stress, it also enables us to test some of the psychological theories on stress, such as the demand/control theory. Evidence is found that

  7. Leadership and Occupational Stress (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly


    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  8. Neuropathology of stress. (United States)

    Lucassen, Paul J; Pruessner, Jens; Sousa, Nuno; Almeida, Osborne F X; Van Dam, Anne Marie; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Swaab, Dick F; Czéh, Boldizsár


    Environmental challenges are part of daily life for any individual. In fact, stress appears to be increasingly present in our modern, and demanding, industrialized society. Virtually every aspect of our body and brain can be influenced by stress and although its effects are partly mediated by powerful corticosteroid hormones that target the nervous system, relatively little is known about when, and how, the effects of stress shift from being beneficial and protective to becoming deleterious. Decades of stress research have provided valuable insights into whether stress can directly induce dysfunction and/or pathological alterations, which elements of stress exposure are responsible, and which structural substrates are involved. Using a broad definition of pathology, we here review the "neuropathology of stress" and focus on structural consequences of stress exposure for different regions of the rodent, primate and human brain. We discuss cytoarchitectural, neuropathological and structural plasticity measures as well as more recent neuroimaging techniques that allow direct monitoring of the spatiotemporal effects of stress and the role of different CNS structures in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in human brain. We focus on the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, key brain regions that not only modulate emotions and cognition but also the response to stress itself, and discuss disorders like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, Cushing syndrome and dementia.

  9. Cyclic Testing on Rectangular Hollow Bridge Piers Under Axial Load and Biaxial Bending%双向压弯状态下矩形空心桥墩循环试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩强; 杜修力; 赵彦; 王利辉


    To investigate the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) rectangular hollow bridge piers, cyclic testing on five well-confined specimens was performed under constant axial load and biaxial bending. The test variables included axial load ratio, longitudinal reinforcement ratio and lateral reinforcement ratio. The results show that these specimens are flexural failure modes; biaxial force and displacement hysteretic loops show significant stiffness and strength degradation, pinching effect and coupling interaction of the structural seismic resistances in both directions; the ductility coefficient, varying from 3. 5 to 5. 7, and the equivalent viscous damping ratio, varying from 0. 19 to 0. 26, can meet the requirements of seismic design; RC rectangular hollow bridge piers with configurations of lateral reinforcement subject to bi-directional earthquake components have excellent earthquake resistance, and can substitute for current hollow RC rectangular section configurations described in the Chinese Guideline for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges (JTG/T B02-01-2008); and the length of the plastic hinge region is found to approach one sixth of the the hollow RC rectangular bridge pier height for all specimen piers, which is far less than the currently specified minimum value in Chinese Guideline, so the length of plastic hinge region is more concentrated for RC rectangular hollow bridge piers.%为了研究水平双向地震作用下矩形空心桥墩的抗震性能,对约束良好但轴压比和纵向、横向配筋率不同的5个钢筋混凝土(RC)矩形空心桥墩在轴力和双向弯曲作用下的性能进行了循环试验研究.结果表明:试件破坏形态为桥墩底部形成塑性铰的弯曲形破坏,桥墩双向力-位移滞回曲线显示了双向压弯状态下RC矩形空心桥墩刚度和强度退化、捏拢效应以及2个水平方向抗震性能的相互影响;试件桥墩的延性系数在3.5~5.7之间,等效粘滞阻尼系数在0

  10. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej


    suicide. The relationship between chronic stress and mortality is probably due to a combination of etiological pathways affecting disease incidence and factors such as treatment seeking behavior and individual vulnerability, which are likely to affect disease progression. Several experimental studies......Background Stress is an important public health issue. One in ten Danish adults experience high levels of stress in their daily lives and stress is one of the main occupational health problems in Europe. The link between stress and health is still debated in the scientific literature...... and the pathways underlying these potential health effects are far from elucidated. The dissertation contributions to the literature on stress and health by empirically testing the relationship between stress and major chronic disorders and by providing new evidence on the underlying physiological, psychological...

  11. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shukla


    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. This paper begins with an overview of how oxidative stress occurs, discussing various oxidants and antioxidants, and role of oxidative stress in diseases in general. It highlights the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The last part of the paper describes the role of oxidative stress causing deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 hyperactivity associated with neurodegeneration.

  12. Stress and Protists: No life without stress (United States)

    Slaveykova, Vera; Sonntag, Bettina; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos


    We report a summary of the symposium “Stress and Protists: No life without stress”, which was held in September 2015 on the VII European Congress of Protistology in partnership with the International Society of Protistologists (Seville, Spain). We present an overview on general comments and concepts on cellular stress which can be also applied to any protist. Generally, various environmental stressors may induce similar cell responses in very different protists. Two main topics are reported in this manuscript: (i) metallic nanoparticles as environmental pollutants and stressors for aquatic protists, and (ii) ultraviolet radiation – induced stress and photoprotective strategies in ciliates. Model protists such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Tetrahymena thermophila were used to assess stress caused by nanoparticles while stress caused by ultraviolet radiation was tested with free living planktonic ciliates as well as with the symbiont-bearing model ciliate Paramecium bursaria. For future studies, we suggest more intensive analyses on protist stress responses to specific environmental abiotic and/or biotic stressors at molecular and genetic levels up to ecological consequences and food web dynamics. PMID:27365178

  13. 基于像素小基团增强的网络课件图像清晰化算法%Based on Pixel Small Group Enhanced Network Courseware Image Biaxial Streching Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Network video image double distance is far, the environment is complex, it was difficult to ensure that the compression reduction after the image quality, makes the image contains a large number of random multidimensional noise, the noise characteristics attribute present diversity, leading to transfer image distortion. Therefore, this paper pro-poses a based on pixel small group enhanced network courseware image biaxial streching algorithm. Using discrete wavelet transform algorithm for image denoising processing, remove the outside factors on image caused by the interfer-ence. Use pixel group energy point of view to do image enhancement processing, guarantee the dynamic image transfer their respective crisp equivalents. The experimental results show that, this algorithm improves the remote network video education dynamic image resolution.%网络视频图像的双距离较远,环境复杂,很难保证压缩还原后的图像质量,使得图像包含大量的随机多维噪声,噪声特征属性呈现多元性,导致传递图像失真。为此,提出了一种基于像素小基团增强的网络课件图像清晰化算法。利用离散小波变换算法对图像进行去噪处理,去除外界因素对图像造成的干扰。利用像素基团能量的观点对图像进行增强处理,保证传递的动态图像的清晰化。实验结果表明,这种算法提高了远程网络视频教育动态图像的清晰度。

  14. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony


    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  15. Interoception and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eSchulz


    Full Text Available Afferent neural signals are continuously transmitted from visceral organs to the brain. Interoception refers to the processing of visceral-afferent neural signals by the central nervous system, which can finally result in the conscious perception of bodily processes. Interoception can, therefore, be described as a prominent example of information processing on the ascending branch of the brain-body axis. Stress responses involve a complex neuro-behavioral cascade, which is elicited when the organism is confronted with a potentially harmful stimulus. As this stress cascade comprises a range of neural and endocrine pathways, stress can be conceptualized as a communication process on the descending branch of the brain-body axis. Interoception and stress are, therefore, associated via the bi-directional transmission of information on the brain-body axis. It could be argued that excessive and/or enduring activation (e.g. by acute or chronic stress of neural circuits, which are responsible for successful communication on the brain-body axis, induces malfunction and dysregulation of these information processes. As a consequence, interoceptive signal processing may be altered, resulting in physical symptoms contributing to the development and/or maintenance of body-related mental disorders, which are associated with stress. In the current paper, we summarize findings on psychobiological processes underlying acute and chronic stress and their interaction with interoception. While focusing on the role of the physiological stress axes (HPA axis and autonomic nervous system, psychological factors in acute and chronic stress are also discussed. We propose a feed-forward model involving stress (in particular early life or chronic stress, as well as major adverse events, the dysregulation of physiological stress axes, altered perception of bodily sensations, and the generation of physical symptoms, which may in turn facilitate stress.

  16. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  17. The World Stress Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Knowledge of the stress field in the Earth's crust is a key issue for the understanding of geodynamic processes,seismic hazard assessment, and stability of underground openings such as waste disposals, tunnels, mines or wells, and reservoir management. The World Stress Map project is a collaborative project of academia,industry and governmental organizations that aims to understand the states and sources of tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust. We present the Worm Stress Map at 1:46,000,000 scale as a result of more than two decades of international collaboration. The map reveals that the first-order pattern of stress is of plate-wide scale, indicating that plate boundary forces are the major control of the stress orientations and the tectonic regime.

  18. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology]. (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre


    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  19. Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou; Howell, Gary L.


    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... for structural integrity. The paper presents the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrumented Dolosse. Static stresses and wave generated stresses were studied as well as model and scale effects. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse is presented as well....

  20. Stress effects in ferroelectric perovskite thin-films (United States)

    Zednik, Ricardo Johann

    The exciting class of ferroelectric materials presents the engineer with an array of unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications; these applications include infra-red detectors ("night-vision imaging", pyroelectricity), micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, piezoelectricity), and non-volatile memory (NVM, ferroelectricity). Realizing these modern devices often requires perovskite-based ferroelectric films thinner than 100 nm. Two such technologically important material systems are (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST), for tunable dielectric devices employed in wireless communications, and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), for ferroelectric non-volatile memory (FeRAM). In general, the material behavior is strongly influenced by the mechanical boundary conditions imposed by the substrate and surrounding layers and may vary considerably from the known bulk behavior. A better mechanistic understanding of these effects is essential for harnessing the full potential of ferroelectric thin-films and further optimizing existing devices. Both materials share a common crystal structure and similar properties, but face unique challenges due to the design parameters of these different applications. Tunable devices often require very low dielectric loss as well as large dielectric tunability. Present results show that the dielectric response of BST thin-films can either resemble a dipole-relaxor or follow the accepted empirical Universal Relaxation Law (Curie-von Schweidler), depending on temperature. These behaviors in a single ferroelectric thin-film system are often thought to be mutually exclusive. In state-of-the-art high density FeRAM, the ferroelectric polarization is at least as important as the dielectric response. It was found that these properties are significantly affected by moderate biaxial tensile and compressive stresses which reversibly alter the ferroelastic domain populations of PZT at room temperature. The 90-degree domain wall motion observed by high resolution

  1. Neuropathology of stress


    Lucassen, P J; Pruessner, J; Sousa, N.; Almeida, O. F. X.; Van Dam, A.M.; Rajkowska, G.; Swaab, D.F.; Czéh, B.


    Environmental challenges are part of daily life for any individual. In fact, stress appears to be increasingly present in our modern, and demanding, industrialized society. Virtually every aspect of our body and brain can be influenced by stress and although its effects are partly mediated by powerful corticosteroid hormones that target the nervous system, relatively little is known about when, and how, the effects of stress shift from being beneficial and protective to becoming deleterious. ...

  2. Stress, Sleep, and Allergy


    Jernelöv, Susanna


    Allergic diseases have recently increased dramatically in the western world, now affecting about 30% of the Swedish population. The reasons for this increase are unclear, but some of the suspects are behavioral factors, such as stress and sleep. Problems with stress are also common today, and stress may change the set-points for the functioning of the body, for instance in the immune system. Sleep, on the other hand, is important for recuperation, and disturbed sleep acts a ...

  3. Stresses in nanocrystalline materials


    Sheng, Jianfeng


    Residual, mechanical stresses in thin films are of great importance for the reliability and performance of film systems in technological applications. The residual stresses can be due to the deposition process, the mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the thin film(s) and the substrate upon cooling or heating (thermal stresses), interdiffusion (differences in the molar volumes and differences in the atomic fluxes of the diffusing species), (continued) grain growth, excess vaca...

  4. Management of Occupational Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trandafir Lenuţa


    Full Text Available Stress is an important problem in the majority of countries. Apart from the fact that it is responsible for numerous diseases, it also causes much suffering. Stress appears as an adaptation reaction of our body to those external factors that we perceive as being agressive and which frequently lead us to an alarm state, felt both psychically (tension, fear, anxiety, and physically (increase of the adrenaline secretion, intensity of heartbeats, sweating. It isn’t actually a disease, but it can lead to sickness in time. This is why it is good to know what stresses us and how we can escape stress.

  5. Stress fractures in runners. (United States)

    McCormick, Frank; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Provencher, Matthew T


    Stress fractures are a relatively common entity in athletes, in particular, runners. Physicians and health care providers should maintain a high index of suspicion for stress fractures in runners presenting with insidious onset of focal bone tenderness associated with recent changes in training intensity or regimen. It is particularly important to recognize “high-risk” fractures, as these are associated with an increased risk of complication. A patient with confirmed radiographic evidence of a high-risk stress fracture should be evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon. Runners may benefit from orthotics, cushioned sneakers, interval training, and vitamin/calcium supplementation as a means of stress fracture prevention.

  6. The teacher under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.


    Full Text Available Empirical records consistently point to the fact that the phenomenon of stress is characteristic of service professions, especially of teacher’s. Although stress in teachers is a problem of public interest, it is still a relatively new field of empirical investigations. Data available show that stress in teachers can have negative effects on school as an organization teacher professional achievement, his/her and his/her family psychosocial status. The most frequent symptoms of a prolonged professional stress are anxiety, depression, frustration, unfriendly behavior towards students and colleagues, emotional weariness, and extreme tension. Health and psychological problems cause, most frequently, the reduction of self-esteem job dissatisfaction, job resignation, absenteeism, and wrong decision-making. In an attempt to call professional public attention to negative effects of stress on the outcomes of teacher work, we have analyzed four important aspects of stress teachers experience in their everyday work (a definition and measurement of stress, (b distribution and sources of stress (problem behaviors in students, poor working conditions, lack of time, poor school ethos, (c teacher personality traits (sex, age, work experience, locus of control, job satisfaction, intention to resign absenteeism, (d strategies for overcoming and reducing negative effects of stress (direct action techniques, palliative techniques.

  7. Stress at Work Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Shahrour


    Full Text Available One of hardest forms of stresses to avoid is that work place or job stress Job stress refers to stress experienced by an individual at or because of issues at their work place The term work related stress has many meanings and it causes different levels of anxiety. Not all challenges at work can be called stress as some of these challenges drive employees upward, and empower them to learn new skills or push them to work harder to achieve a certain goal. So, this type of challenges cannot be considered as true stress True job stress is a condition that not only destroys employee desire to work, but also his or her energy, getting them to suffer both emotionally and physically. Warning signs of stress at work when people feel overwhelmed they feel lacking confidence, become irritated or withdrawn, less productive, less effective and their work less rewarding if these warning passed unnoticed then signs and symptoms of stress will appear. Signs and Symptoms of Excessive 4. Personal conflicts with supervisors Workplace Stress or other employees 5. Feeling insecure at work ( 1. Feeling anxious, agitated, constantly threatened with criticism depressed or apathetic or job loss 2. Loss of interest at work 6. Discrimination ( race, sex or age 3. Difficulty in attention and 7. Discouragement (to feel concentration incompetent and worthless 4. Insomnia and sleep problems 8. Sexual harassment 5. Feeling fatigue 9. Lack of flexibility in work hours 6. Muscle tension and headaches 10. Poor work environment 7. Stomach problems or different 11. Developments in technology body aches 8. Social withdrawal How to Deal with Work Place Stress 9. Loss of sex drive 10. Using alcohol or drugs to cope Fortunately, there is a lot that you can do to manage and reduce stress at work. Different Causes of Job Stress General Guidelines: 1. Poor work conditions and having no say over such conditions A. Taking responsibility for 2. Unreasonable demands from improving your


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena, GHEORDUNESCU


    Full Text Available Taking into account the changes that are currently taking place in our country, it is clear that these changes, which occur in almost all companies, lead to new stress factors for both employees and the organization. Occupational stress is a major problem for employees and managers, but also for the whole society. The issue of stress in organizations has given birth to many debates and studies. It is a common theme that is addressed by managers, employees and consultants from different perspectives. According to a study by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, in the European Union, work-related stress is the second work-related health issue after dorsal disorders. It affects 28% of EU employees. The European Parliament is fully involved in addressing issues related to the psychological support of the staff. Preventing work-related stress is one of the objectives set out in the Communique of the European Commission for Employment and Social Affairs regarding their new health and safety at work strategy. Manifestations of stress in organizations are easily observable, being manifested by behaviors such as: difficulties in adapting to the changes required to work or the dramatic drop in labor productivity. Also a double action is met: both the person who passes through the stressful situation and at the organization level on which it is reflected the existence of a stressful environment. This paper aims to address the implications of workplace stress, symptoms of stress in the workplace and strategies to eliminate and prevent stress at work This paper represents an exploratory research based on qualitative methods, being consulted various sources of information: the literature, case studies, media articles, reports of relevant organizations, etc.

  9. The issue of stress state during mechanical tests to assess cladding performance during a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) (United States)

    Desquines, J.; Koss, D. A.; Motta, A. T.; Cazalis, B.; Petit, M.


    The mechanical test procedures that address fuel cladding failure during a RIA are reviewed with an emphasis on the development of test procedures that determine the deformation and fracture behavior of cladding under conditions similar to those reached in a RIA. An analysis of cladding strain data from experimental research reactor test programs that have simulated the RIA is presented. These data show that the cladding undergoes deformation characterized by hoop extension subject to a range of multiaxial stress states and strain paths comprised between plane-strain (no axial extension of the cladding tube) and equal-biaxial tension (equal strain in both the hoop and the axial orientations). Current mechanical test procedures of cladding material are then reviewed with a focus on their ability to generate the appropriate deformation response and to induce the prototypical multiaxial stress states and failure modes activated during a RIA. Two main groups of tests currently exist. In the first group, the deformation behavior of the cladding is examined by several variations of hoop tensile tests in which an axial contraction of the specimen gage section occurs such that a near-uniaxial tension stress state results; finite element analyses are then usually employed to deduce the deformation response, often under conditions of an assumed coefficient of friction between the specimen and test fixtures. The second group includes test procedures which attempt to reproduce the deformation and failure conditions close to those seen during a RIA such that any stress-state corrections of the failure conditions are comparatively small. The advantages and disadvantages of all of these deformation/fracture tests are discussed with special reference to testing high burnup fuel cladding.

  10. Stress Management for Sport. (United States)

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.

    Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi…

  11. Stress of stoicism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W.


    The present longitudinal study examined the combined effects of task persistence and negative emotionality (NE) on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. In line with John Henryism theory, we hypothesized that high persistence combined with low NE may be indicative...... persistence was associated with higher physiological stress. Our results have implications for both clinical and intervention contexts....

  12. Photobiomodulation on Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu


    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a nondamaged modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI on a biosystem function. It depends on whether the function is in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH. An FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific conditions inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A function in its FSH is called a normal function. A function far from its FSH is called a dysfunctional function. The process of a function from dysfunctional to normal is called a functional normalization. For a normal function in its FSH, there are FSH-essential subfunctions (FESs, FSH-nonessential subfunctions (FNSs, and an FES/FNS-specific homeostasis (FESH/FNSH. A FSH can resist internal/external disturbances under the threshold, but can be disrupted by an FSH-specific stress (FSS. A normal/dysfunctional FSS is called a successful/chronic stress. An FESH/FNSH-specific stress was called an extraordinary/ordinary stress. A low level LI (LLL cannot directly affect a normal function, but can modulate a chronic stress. A normal function may have a chronic ordinary stress, and an LLL may modulate the chronic ordinary stress so that it promotes the normalization of the dysfunctional FNS and then upgrades the normal function. A high level LI can modulate a normal function and may be a successful stress.

  13. Videnarbejde og stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    . Videnarbejde kan for den enkelte være vejen til selvrealisering og begejstring, men rummer også i sig kimen til stress og udbrændthed. Og det er netop i spændingsfeltet - i kampen - mellem begejstring og belastning, at bogen ser stress i det moderne arbejdsliv, som en uoverensstemmelse mellem ydre krav og...

  14. Stress Management: Social Support (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and maintain these ... ll reap a plethora of rewards. References Stress management: How to strengthen your social support network. American ...

  15. Stress Management: Massage (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Massage can be a powerful tool to help you take charge of your health and well-being. See if ... article: . Mayo Clinic Footer ...

  16. Reassess the stress. (United States)

    Wright, Stephen; Sayre-Adams, Jean

    The second article in our series on leadership examines stress and burnout. Nurses who are burnt out need to reassess work and relationships. Stress will pass when its cause is removed, but burnout is a 'spiritual crisis'. Self-aware, contemplative leaders are able to prevent burnout and recognise it in others.

  17. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve


    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  18. Helping Children Manage Stress. (United States)

    Robson, Maggie; And Others


    Describes interventions used to enhance coping and stress management to children and adolescents. Argues that the model of stress upon which the intervention is based dictates the intervention. Implications are discussed of the acceptance of an extended Lazarus/Folkman model for interventions in schools. (CFR)

  19. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted


    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  20. Leveraging Stress Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK


    Full Text Available Stress is a costly business expense that affects both employee health and company profits. At the backdrop of this, the present research study is an attempt to explore and analysis the findings of the research studies which have been concluded in resolving and managing conflict arising through variances in stress level at the organizational hierarchy.

  1. Neuropathology of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, Paul J; Pruessner, Jens; Sousa, Nuno; Almeida, Osborne F X; Van Dam, Anne Marie; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Swaab, Dick F; Czéh, Boldizsár


    Environmental challenges are part of daily life for any individual. In fact, stress appears to be increasingly present in our modern, and demanding, industrialized society. Virtually every aspect of our body and brain can be influenced by stress and although its effects are partly mediated by powerf

  2. Oxidative stress and myocarditis. (United States)

    Tada, Yuko; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide are produced highly in myocarditis. ROS, which not only act as effectors for pathogen killing but also mediate signal transduction in the stress responsive pathways, are closely related with both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand, oxidative stress overwhelming the capacity of anti-oxidative system generated in severe inflammation has been suggested to damage tissues and exacerbate inflammation. Oxidative stress worsens the autoimmunological process of myocarditis, and suppression of the anti-oxidative system and long-lasting oxidative stress could be one of the pathological mechanisms of cardiac remodeling leading to inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is considered to be one of the promising treatment targets of myocarditis. Evidences of anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis have not been fully established. Basic strategies of anti-oxidative treatments include inhibition of ROS production, activation of anti-oxidative enzymes and elimination of generated free radicals. ROS are produced by mitochondrial respiratory chain reactions and enzymes including NADPH oxidases, cyclooxygenase, and xanthine oxidase. Other systems involved in inflammation and stress response, such as NF-κB, Nrf2/Keap1, and neurohumoral factors also influence oxidative stress in myocarditis. The efficacy of anti-oxidative treatments could also depend on the etiology and the phases of myocarditis. We review in this article the pathological significance of ROS and oxidative stress, and the potential anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis.

  3. Actively stressed marginal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, M; MacKintosh, F C


    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field, effective medium theory, scaling analysis and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of non-affine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  4. Actively stressed marginal networks. (United States)

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C


    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three-dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field theory, scaling analysis, and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of nonaffine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  5. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut...... of up to 34% is found, still with the standard International Organization for Standardization thread. The design changes suggested in this article also have the positive advantage of reducing the joint stiffness factor. The reduction in the bolt shank directly reduces the bolt stiffness but the design...

  6. Application of SSA analysis technique in biaxially oriented polypropylene specialty resin production%SSA 分析技术在双向拉伸聚丙烯专用料生产过程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴旺; 朱宝兴; 赵爱利


    The isotacticity and its sequence distribution of several biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) specialty resins were characterizated by successive self - nucleation annealing ( SSA ) method , and the relationship between crystallization and film forming performance was researched. On the basis of this,the cause for film breaking of BOPP resin manufactured in a 300 kt/a polypropylene unit of Lanzhou Petrochemical Company occurred during its extruding was analyzed, and the process parameters of the polymerization were optimized. The results showed that the film forming stability of BOPP resin was dependent on the isotacticity sequence distribution , that was the content of high isotacticity molecules needed to be decreased, and the content of low isotacticity molecules needed to be increased. The IPeakl/Peak2 ratio should be less than 1. With increasing the mass ratio of catalyst to external electron do-nor(T/D) ,the content of high isotacticity molecules decreased,the content of low and medium isotacticity molecules inceased,the lamellar became thinner, the isotacticity sequence distribution became broader , and the performance of film forming was improved.%采用连续自成核退火法(SSA)对几种不同双向拉伸聚丙烯(BOPP)树脂进行了等规度及等规序列分布表征,研究了其结晶行为与成膜稳定性之间的关系,据此分析了中国石油兰州石化公司30万t/a聚丙烯装置初期所产BOPP产品在使用过程中存在易破膜问题的原因,并进行了装置聚合工艺参数的优化.结果表明,BOPP树脂的成膜稳定性取决于其等规度分布情况,即高等规度组分含量应较低,低等规度组分含量应较高,峰高比值(Ipeak1/Ipeak2)以小于1为宜;随着催化剂与外给电子体质量比(T/D)的增大,BOPP树脂的高等规度组分含量逐渐降低,中、低等规度组分含量相对上升,晶片厚度变薄,分布加宽,成膜性能得以改善.

  7. Stress and Visceral Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel M Delvaux


    Full Text Available Functional bowel disorders are characterized by the presence of a visceral hyperalgesia in most patients. This visceral hyperalgesia is related to an enhanced perception of sensations originating from the gut. Stressful events can dramatically influence the course of functional bowel disorders, and patients suffering from these syndromes appear to be more susceptible to the stressful events of daily life. However, until now, few studies have evaluated the relationship between stress and visceral perception. Some studies of healthy volunteers indicated contradictory results, but the studies used different methodologies. During stress conditions, either physical or mental, thresholds of perception of rectal distension were increased, suggesting a ‘distraction effect’, or were decreased, supporting a sensitizing effect of stress. In most studies, rectal compliance was not affected, but stress has been shown to alter the rectal tone, as measured by a barostat. One study comparing irritable bowel syndrome patients with controls demonstrated the importance of cognitive processes in the modulation of visceral perception by stress. Animal studies have also demonstrated the sensitizing effect of stress on the perception of rectal distension. Mediators involved may be numerous, but corticotropin-releasing factor has been demonstrated to play a major role at the central level. Mast cells and histamine release may play a role at the peripheral level. Stress can thus be included in an integrative model explaining the pathophysiology of functional bowel disorders. Advances in the understanding of the relationship between stress and visceral perception may constitute a basis for a therapeutic approach of functional bowel disorders targeted on the central nervous system.

  8. [Stress and feeding behavior]. (United States)

    Burlet, C


    It has been easy to demonstrate, both in humans and animals, that the stresses which disturbed either the physiological homeostasis, the behavioural homeostasis or both simultaneously, induced the modifications of the food intake; these disorders often found expression in the inappropriate eating or, less frequently, in temporary anorectic phases. The most relevant hypotheses localized, in the anterior and median hypothalamus (paraventricular nuclei, ventral median nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area), the neurobiological mechanisms which were involved in this stress/eating behaviour relationship. In the brain, both aminergic and peptidergic systems were concerned; the stress-induced hyperphagia required the functionality of the dopamine, dorsal noradrenergic bundle and endogenous opioids of the central nervous system. The dramatic stress-induced anorexia was based upon the reciprocal actions of serotonin, norepinephrine and CRF systems. Other peptides, which some of them belonged to the brain-gut peptide group, could interfere with these mechanisms. The neuropeptides being common in the stress and eating physiological systems, the regulatory mechanisms were most coherent; nevertheless, the precise nervous structures and neurochemical circuits that produced the stress-induced hyperphagia or stress-induced anorexia, remain unknown.

  9. Stress, atopy and allergy (United States)

    Liezmann, Christiane; Klapp, Burghard


    Since the early days of psychosomatic thinking, atopic disease was considered exemplary. In the 70s and 80s numerous reports stated increased anxiety, depression or ill stresscoping in atopics in correlation with enhanced disease activity. Employed patient groups however were small and diverse and controls rare. Therefore, the question remained, whether psychopathological findings in atopics were of pathogenetic relevance or an epiphenomenon of chronic inflammatory disease. Recently, the discussion has been revived and refocused by psychoneuroimmunological findings. We now know that atopic disease is characterized by an imbalance of the classical stress-axis response along the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the sympathetic axis (SA). This imbalance can be found shoulder-to-shoulder with enhanced expression of newly emerging neuroendocrine stress mediators such as substance P (SP) and nerve growth factor that form up to a third stress axis (neurotrophin neuropeptide axis: NNA). Together they can alter the inflammatory as well as the neuroendocrine stress-response on several levels. In skin, the immediate inflammatory response to stress involves neuropeptide release and mast cell degranulation, in short neurogenic inflammation. Systemically, antigen-presentation and TH2 cytokine bias are promoted under the influence of cortisol and neuropeptides. Imbalanced stress-responsiveness may therefore be at the core of exacerbated allergic disease and deserves re-evaluation of therapeutic options such as neutralization of SP-signaling by antagonists against its receptor NK1, cortisol treatment as supplementation and relaxation techniques to balance the stress-response. PMID:21519408

  10. Assessment of Workplace Stress: Occupational Stress, Its Consequences, and Common Causes of Teacher Stress. (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    This chapter introduces teachers and other education professionals to the assessment of occupational stress. It begins with a brief discussion of what occupational stress is, and overview of the consequences of prolonged stress, and a review of the common causes of teacher stress. Next, it presents methods for reducing occupational stress through…

  11. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search ... Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is ...

  12. [Stress and allergy]. (United States)

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana


    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.

  13. Children and stress


    Johansson, Camilla


    Abstract This paper is about children and stress. Stress among children is a serious problem and to be aware of that as a preschool teacher is very important. I’ve focused on the youngest children in preschool. I’ve searched for information in litterateur and articles. To fins literature is not a problem because it is a lot written about this subject. I did two interviews with three preschool teachers. All my sources agree that stress among children is a problem that we must try to work again...

  14. Pacing stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrusta Marco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-rate pacing is a valid stress test to be used in conjunction with echocardiography; it is independent of physical exercise and does not require drug administration. There are two main applications of pacing stress in the echo lab: the noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease through induction of a regional transient dysfunction; and the assessment of contractile reserve through peak systolic pressure/ end-systolic volume relationship at increasing heart rates to assess global left ventricular contractility. Methods The pathophysiologic rationale of pacing stress for noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease is obvious, with the stress determined by a controlled increase in heart rate, which is a major determinant of myocardial oxygen demand, and thereby tachycardia may exceed a fixed coronary flow reserve in the presence of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. The use of pacing stress echo to assess left ventricular contractile reserve is less established, but promising. Positive inotropic interventions are mirrored by smaller end-systolic volumes and higher end-systolic pressures. An increased heart rate progressively increases the force of ventricular contraction (Bowditch treppe or staircase phenomenon. To build the force-frequency relationship, the force is determined at different heart rate steps as the ratio of the systolic pressure (cuff sphygmomanometer/end-systolic volume index (biplane Simpson rule. The heart rate is determined from ECG. Conclusion Two-dimensional echocardiography during pacing is a useful tool in the detection of coronary artery disease. Because of its safety and ease of repeatability noninvasive pacing stress echo can be the first-line stress test in patients with permanent pacemaker. The force-frequency can be defined as up- sloping (normal when the peak stress pacing systolic pressure/end-systolic volume index is higher than baseline and intermediate stress

  15. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J


    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  16. Phase field approach with anisotropic interface energy and interface stresses: Large strain formulation (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Warren, James A.


    A thermodynamically consistent, large-strain, multi-phase field approach (with consequent interface stresses) is generalized for the case with anisotropic interface (gradient) energy (e.g. an energy density that depends both on the magnitude and direction of the gradients in the phase fields). Such a generalization, if done in the "usual" manner, yields a theory that can be shown to be manifestly unphysical. These theories consider the gradient energy as anisotropic in the deformed configuration, and, due to this supposition, several fundamental contradictions arise. First, the Cauchy stress tensor is non-symmetric and, consequently, violates the moment of momentum principle, in essence the Herring (thermodynamic) torque is imparting an unphysical angular momentum to the system. In addition, this non-symmetric stress implies a violation of the principle of material objectivity. These problems in the formulation can be resolved by insisting that the gradient energy is an isotropic function of the gradient of the order parameters in the deformed configuration, but depends on the direction of the gradient of the order parameters (is anisotropic) in the undeformed configuration. We find that for a propagating nonequilibrium interface, the structural part of the interfacial Cauchy stress is symmetric and reduces to a biaxial tension with the magnitude equal to the temperature- and orientation-dependent interface energy. Ginzburg-Landau equations for the evolution of the order parameters and temperature evolution equation, as well as the boundary conditions for the order parameters are derived. Small strain simplifications are presented. Remarkably, this anisotropy yields a first order correction in the Ginzburg-Landau equation for small strains, which has been neglected in prior works. The next strain-related term is third order. For concreteness, specific orientation dependencies of the gradient energy coefficients are examined, using published molecular dynamics

  17. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  18. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod


    of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally......Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...

  19. What Is Stress Testing? (United States)

    ... from exercising long enough (for example, lung disease, anemia , or poor general fitness). Doctors also may use stress testing to assess other problems, ... INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG ...

  20. Stress and your heart (United States)

    ... you feel unable to do anything about it. Loneliness. Stress can be more harmful if you do ... what works best for you, such as: Practicing yoga or meditation Spending time outdoors in nature Getting ...

  1. Bolt Thread Stress Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    Designs of threaded fasteners are controlled by different standards, and the number of different thread definitions is large. The most commonly used thread is probably the metric ISO thread, and this design is therefore used in this paper. Thread root design controls the stress concentration factor...... of threads and therefore indirectly the bolt fatigue life. The root shape is circular, and from shape optimization for minimum stress concentration it is well known that the circular shape is seldom optimal. An axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) formulation is used to analyze the bolted connection, and a study...... is performed to establish the need for contact modeling with regard to finding the correct stress concentration factor. Optimization is performed with a simple parameterization with two design variables. Stress reduction of up to 9% is found in the optimization process, and some similarities are found...

  2. Stress tolerant plants



    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    ... the lights on or take a favorite stuffed animal to bed, it might help them get through ... Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress About Teen Suicide Sadness and Depression Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Phobias Five ...

  4. Cancer and Stress (United States)

    ... addition to a support network, there are potential benefits from programs that help you learn how to manage stress. Such programs include: Cognitive behavioral therapy “Mindfulness” Yoga Alternative therapies such as Healing Touch Medication Such ...

  5. [Stress and cognitivism]. (United States)

    Márquez, Coral


    In this article, a brief account of the psychological sense of stress is referred. Richard Lazarus' transaccional theory is described in detail; his first transaccional cognitive theory and his last cognitive-emotional transaccional theory. Stress is also described from other points of view, such as Grenberg's emotional theory. The new construct Psychofortology is defined and some references about the principal authors are made. Psychotherapeutic possibilities from the different psychological schools mentioned are described.

  6. Student under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan


    Full Text Available Stress is a natural phenomenon, sooner or later experienced by the most Rapid increase in the number of students with health problems, seeking health and advisory services, causes deep concern to parents, schools and wider community. This, in turn, arouses the interest in the research of the negative effects of poor physical and mental health on academic success. Considering the fact that school age population was rarely the subject of research, this paper deals with psycho-social and developmental aspects of stress, namely, with causes, consequences and the strategies for overcoming stressful events in the education of children and adolescents. Life events in which children most often participate and which are also potential sources of stress (stressors can be classified into familial, interpersonal, personal and academic. Out of numerous identified sources of stress, we have focused our attention on several less researched ones in the field of school life starting school, transition from primary school to secondary and from secondary school to university, peer rejection and problems concerning financing school education. Anxiety, depression and anger were analyzed as the most frequent consequences of unfavorable life events. The following strategies for overcoming stress are most often used by children and adolescents: seeking social support, problem-solving orientation, reduction and avoidance of tension as well as sport and recreation.

  7. Stress and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadiya Baqutayan


    Full Text Available Background: This is an experimental study and it discusses the effectiveness of social support in managing academic stress among students. Aim: The purpose of this study is to understand the importance of social support in managing stress. Materials and Methods: Simple random sampling was assigned to a number of 120 students, equally divided into an experimental and a control group. Classes on social support as coping mechanisms were given to the experimental group only. The accumulated data were then analyzed, descriptive statistics were used to interpret and evaluate the prevalence of academic stress, and social support. Correlation analysis was employed in the examination of the relationship between stress and social support. Results: The findings of this study indicate that there are significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in relation to stress and social support. Eventually, the experimental group proved to cope with academic stress better than the control group, and they were satisfied with their academic performance during the experimentation. Conclusion: Hence, it is highly advisable to encourage the students to use social support as coping mechanisms.

  8. Stress and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Nagata


    Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.

  9. Evaluation of a Biaxial Test Fixture. (United States)


    AND ADORE5S Flight Dynamics Laboratory (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFSC) Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433...34 the Flight Dynamics Laboratory by Anamet son (AFWAL/ FIBRA ) is the project engineer. The work was done by the Applied Mechanics Division of Anamet

  10. Bi-axial Vibration Energy Harvesting (United States)


    layer of beeswax [50] was employed at the interface between the ME transducer and the upper magnet to minimise shear movement. Measurements of the...Measurement of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Beeswax ,” Mat. Sci. and Tech., Vol. 18, p. 463, 2002. 51. Material Data Matrix, Ferroperm

  11. Composite biaxially textured substrates using ultrasonic consolidation (United States)

    Blue, Craig A; Goyal, Amit


    A method of forming a composite sheet includes disposing an untextured metal or alloy first sheet in contact with a second sheet in an aligned opposing position; bonding the first sheet to the second sheet by applying an oscillating ultrasonic force to at least one of the first sheet and the second sheet to form an untextured intermediate composite sheet; and annealing the untextured intermediate composite sheet at a temperature lower than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the second sheet and higher than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the first sheet to convert the untextured first sheet into a cube textured sheet, wherein the cube texture is characterized by a .phi.-scan having a FWHM of no more than in all directions, the second sheet remaining untextured, to form a composite sheet.

  12. Measurement of large deformation of nylon cord-rubber composite and effects of perpendicular loads on its stress-strain behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丰发; 杜星文; 于增信


    Effects of transverse loads on longitudinal stress-strain behaviors and longitudinal constant tensile loads on transverse stress-strain behaviors of single ply of nylon cord-rubber composite are studied respectively under biaxial tensile condition with cruciform specimen. Effects of transverse constant tensile load on longitudinal tensile mechanical properties are indistinctive compared with corresponding uniaxial longitudinal tensile mechanical properties. It can be relative to larger difference between longitudinal and transverse mechanical properties. Its dominating failure mode is typical fiber-dominated mode; However, Experiment results indicate that transverse mechanical properties of nylon cord-rubber composite with longitudinal constant tensile loads are distinct from its uniaxial transverse tensile mechanical properties. It can be attribute to action of longitudinal tension that makes material rigidify in the direction perpendicular to fiber, Mode of failure is representative of matrix-dominated failure. For the measurement of large deformation up to 50 percent, a special CCD imaging method is employed in the experimental investigation that makes measurement of large deformations more precise.

  13. Lifestyle, stress and cortisol response: Review I: Mental stress


    Fukuda, Sanae; Morimoto, Kanehisa


    The incidences of diseases related to mental stress are increasing in Japan. Mental stress, unacknowledged for long periods, has been shown to lead to the development of a number of diseases. Thus, an index for mental stress is important to induce awareness of its presence. We focused on the relationship between cortisol and mental stress in this review. We will discuss both the usefulness and problems of cortisol as a mental stress index by summarizing the relationship between cortisol and m...

  14. Stress in hard metal films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Kamminga, J.D.


    In the absence of thermal stress, tensile stress in hard metal films is caused by grain boundary shrinkage and compressive stress is caused by ion peening. It is shown that the two contributions are additive. Moreover tensile stress generated at the grain boundaries does not relax by ion bombardment

  15. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp


    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  16. Stress and eating behaviors. (United States)

    Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N


    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  17. Erythropoietin and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen


    Unmitigated oxidative stress can lead to diminished cellular longevity, accelerated aging, and accumulated toxic effects for an organism. Current investigations further suggest the significant disadvantages that can occur with cellular oxidative stress that can lead to clinical disability in a number of disorders, such as myocardial infarction, dementia, stroke, and diabetes. New therapeutic strategies are therefore sought that can be directed toward ameliorating the toxic effects of oxidative stress. Here we discuss the exciting potential of the growth factor and cytokine erythropoietin for the treatment of diseases such as cardiac ischemia, vascular injury, neurodegeneration, and diabetes through the modulation of cellular oxidative stress. Erythropoietin controls a variety of signal transduction pathways during oxidative stress that can involve Janus-tyrosine kinase 2, protein kinase B, signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, Wnt proteins, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, caspases, and nuclear factor kappaB. Yet, the biological effects of erythropoietin may not always be beneficial and may be poor tolerated in a number of clinical scenarios, necessitating further basic and clinical investigations that emphasize the elucidation of the signal transduction pathways controlled by erythropoietin to direct both successful and safe clinical care.

  18. Urban stress in China. (United States)

    Lin, N; Lai, G


    The stress-distress model is examined in the context of a Chinese urban center, Tianjin. Conceptually, the relationship between stress (as reflected in life events) and distress (as reflected in depressed symptoms) is hypothesized to hold across societies. At the same time, the measures of stress must reflect the social reality of a particular community of society. In the case of urban China, the politically-imposed stratification system arranges individuals and family lives around work units. These work units dictate all aspects of the life of the worker and his or her family, ranging from housing, major purchases, access to local and distance facilities, schooling and employment for children, to retirement pension and funeral expenses. As a result, relationships in the work context are expected to produce stress-inducing conflicts. Results from a community survey of Tianjin residents in 1986 support both the generality of the stress-distress model and the specificity of the effects of work-related stressors.

  19. Stress and allergy. (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Jáuregui, I; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Sastre, J; Valero, A


    In recent years it has been seen that the nervous and immune systems regulate each other reciprocally, thus giving rise to a new field of study known as psychoneuroimmunology. Stress is defined as a general body response to initially threatening external or internal demands, involving the mobilization of physiological and psychological resources to deal with them. In other words, stress is characterized by an imbalance between body demands and the capacity of the body to cope with them. The persistence of such a situation gives rise to chronic stress, which is the subject of the present study, considering its repercussions upon different organs and systems, with special emphasis on the immune system and--within the latter--upon the implications in relation to allergic disease. Activation of the neuroendocrine and sympathetic systems through catecholamine and cortisol secretion exerts an influence upon the immune system, modifying the balance between Th1/Th2 response in favor of Th2 action. It is not possible to affirm that chronic stress is intrinsically able to cause allergy, though the evidence of different studies suggests than in genetically susceptible individuals, such stress may favor the appearance of allergic disease on one hand, and complicate the control of existing allergy on the other.

  20. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism. (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C


    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  1. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou


    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  2. Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field


    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.


    Knowledge about the Earth's stress field and its sources can provide better understanding and interpretation of geodynamic and tectonic processes and regimes in the Earth's lithosphere. Stresses can be measured with different in-situ techniques and analysed by the study of focal mechanisms and stress induced geological structures. Quantifying single stress sources however remains a difficult and not uncommonly vague procedure. Modelling stress contributions can provide principle insight into ...

  3. Research on seismic stress triggering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新


    This paper briefly reviews basic theory of seismic stress triggering. Recent development on seismic stress triggering has been reviewed in the views of seismic static and dynamic stress triggering, application of viscoelastic model in seismic stress triggering, the relation between earthquake triggering and volcanic eruption or explosion, other explanation of earthquake triggering, etc. And some suggestions for further study on seismic stress triggering in near future are given.

  4. Stress, externality, and depression. (United States)

    Ganellen, R J; Blaney, P H


    Previous research has found mixed support for the possibility that locus of control moderates the effects of life stress on depression. Two methodological choices may have influenced previous findings: the use of a unidimensional rather than a multidimensional locus of control scale, and reliance on linear statistical methods using median splits. We attempted to correct these choices by using the Levenson IPC scale (1974) and multiple regression analyses in a female undergraduate population (N = 158). The results supported use of a multidimensional scale, since Stress, Internality, and Powerful Others were found to have main effects on depression whereas Chance interacted with life stress. The question of whether locus of control refers to responsibility for causing an event, i.e., self-blame, or belief in control over future events, i.e., coping behavior, was discussed.

  5. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL


    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  6. ER Stress and Angiogenesis. (United States)

    Binet, François; Sapieha, Przemyslaw


    Proper tissue vascularization is vital for cellular function as it delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and immune cells and helps to clear cellular debris and metabolic waste products. Tissue angiogenesis occurs to satisfy energy requirements and cellular sensors of metabolic imbalance coordinate vessel growth. In this regard, the classical pathways of the unfolded protein response activated under conditions of ER stress have recently been described to generate angiomodulatory or angiostatic signals. This review elaborates on the link between angiogenesis and ER stress and discusses the implications for diseases characterized by altered vascular homeostasis, such as cancer, retinopathies, and atherosclerosis.

  7. Stress and reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H


    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy...... heterosexual men would work to consume erotic images of women versus men and also measured their exposure to endogenous cortisol in the prior two months. We used linear models to predict the strength of sexual preference from cortisol level, after accounting for other potential explanations. Heterosexual...

  8. Flow stress anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.


    stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely better...

  9. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)


    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  10. Stress and personality. (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vukovic, O; Stepanovic, J


    Stress is an adaptation reaction of living organisms in response to internal or external threats to homeostasis. It is considered as a complex defence mechanism representing the final endpoint of numerous dynamic and interconnected factors of biological, psychological and social nature. Stress is not a simple, stimulus-response reaction, but the interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Specific inherited characteristics, early experience in life, and particular, learned cognitive predispositions make individuals more or less susceptible to the effects of stressors. Resilience and vulnerability to stressors as well as intensity of stress response are greatly dependable on age, gender, intelligence, and numerous characteristics of personality, such as hardiness,locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, hostility (component of type A personality)and type D traits (negative affectivity and social inhibition). To understand the relation between personality and stress, it is essential to recognize the impact of individual differences in the following four aspects: (1) choice or avoidance of environments that are associated with specific stressors, challenges or benefits, (2) way of interpreting a stressful situation and evaluating one's own abilities and capacities for proactive behaviour so as to confront or avoid it, (3) intensity of response to a stressor,and (4) coping strategies employed by the individual facing a stressful situation. Studies have recorded considerable consistency in coping strategies employed to confront stressful situations, independentlyof situational factors and in connection with permanent personality and temperamental traits,such as neuroticism, extraversion, sense of humour, persistence, fatalism, conscientiousness, andopenness to experience. Positive affect has been associated with positive reappraisal

  11. Tectonic stress - Models and magnitudes (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; Bergman, E. A.; Richardson, R. M.


    It is shown that global data on directions of principal stresses in plate interiors can serve as a test of possible plate tectonic force models. Such tests performed to date favor force models in which ridge pushing forces play a significant role. For such models the general magnitude of regional deviatoric stresses is comparable to the 200-300 bar compressive stress exerted by spreading ridges. An alternative approach to estimating magnitudes of regional deviatoric stresses from stress orientations is to seek regions of local stress either demonstrably smaller than or larger than the regional stresses. The regional stresses in oceanic intraplate regions are larger than the 100-bar compression exerted by the Ninetyeast Ridge and less than the bending stresses (not less than 1 kbar) beneath Hawaii.

  12. Stress and Child Development (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.


    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  13. Clinical Stress Echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Karagiannis


    textabstractTwo-dimensional echocardiography is a commonly used non-invasive method for the assessment of left ventricular function. It provides precise information on both global and segmental myocardial function by displaying endocardial motion and wall thickening. Dobutamine stress echocardiograp

  14. Mobbing and Stress (United States)

    Yaman, Erkan


    Mobbing is an important construct which has impact on the numerous psychological variables. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between mobbing and stress. Participants were 436 teachers (206 (55%) were female, 230 (45%) were male) from Sakarya, Turkey. Their ages ranged from 26 to 55 years and the mean age of the…

  15. Mountaineering Away Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qinghong


    AS a longtime Beijinger,I and other big city dwellers deal with a lot of stress.It comes from everywhere:noise,air pollution,crowded subways where people are packed together like sardines,traffic congestion,rising housing prices and consumer costs,not to mention an ever-growing rich-poor divide.

  16. The stress ulcer syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. van Essen


    textabstractThe stress ulcer syndrome is described in this thesis. This syndrome is seen in patients admitted to intensive care departments or being treated in field hospitals, in disaster areas, or battle fields. Acute mucosal lesions associated with burns (Curling's ulcers) and central nervous sys

  17. Stress Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Czabała


    Of all the stress management techniques people used mostly those included in the categories of “problem solving”, “vicarious gratification” and “distancing”. This points to the use of techniques that require no effort but are not fully effective. It could be so that they have not skills to use other techniques, or are aware that such techniques exist.

  18. Stress og Socialitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig


    Ifølge de etablerede arbejdsstressteorier skal miljømæssige krav balanceres op imod individuelle kontrolmuligheder, og der peges derfor på behovet for både sociologiske og psykologiske niveauer af arbejdsstress. Selvom en niveauinddelt tilgang til stress er vigtig, risikeres en opsplitning mellem...

  19. Thermal Stresses in Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan Langkjær


    Studies of the transient temperature fields and the hereby induced deformations and stressses in a butt-welded mild steel plate modelledrespectively in 2D plane stress state (as well as plane strain state) and in full 3D have been done. The model has been implemented in the generalpurpose FE...

  20. Meditation and Teacher Stress (United States)

    Csaszar, Imre Emeric; Buchanan, Teresa


    Early childhood teachers can be relaxed and peaceful as they create playful and harmonious classrooms, even if they work in stressful contexts. However, the stressors faced by teachers may lead to negative consequences that can undermine their ability to sustain personal health and positive interactions. In the absence of positive coping…

  1. Help for Stressed Students (United States)

    Pope, Denise Clarke; Simon, Richard


    The authors argue that increased focus and pressure for high academic achievement, particularly among more highly-motivated and successful students, may have serious negative consequences. They present a number of strategies designed to help reduce both causes and consequences associated with academic stress and improve students' mental and…

  2. Subjective Stress, Salivary Cortisol, and Electrophysiological Responses to Psychological Stress


    Qi, Mingming; Gao, Heming; Guan, Lili; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Juan


    The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition) or without a time limit (the control condition). The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety,...

  3. Phychological Hardiness, Workplase Stress and Related Stress Reduction Strategies


    Lambert, Vickie A.; Lambert Jr., Clinton E.; Yamase, Hiroaki


    Contending with stressful situations in the workplace is a common occurrence for all health care providers. Stress has numerous devastating effects on the workplace environment, as well as upon individuals who become victims of stress. However, enhancing psychological hardiness may facilitate an individual's ability to deal with work place stress. Psychological hardiness, a personality style consisting of commitment, control and challenge, encourages human survival and the enrichment of life...

  4. Occupational stress and stress prevention in air traffic control


    Costa, Giovanni


    The paper indicates a number of preventive measures targeted to the elimination of the causes of stress, rather than the treatment of its effects, and how these measures can become an integral part of the necessary organizational development and eventually pay for themselves. The paper has seven chapters. 1. Introduction - What is stress? - The sources of stress in air traffic control - The consequences on health and well-being 2. How to prevent stress at work 3. Intervention on the external ...

  5. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Inoue, Nobutaka


    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  6. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar


    Full Text Available Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management.

  7. Stress revisited : a critical evaluation of the stress concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Bartolomucci, A; Buwalda, B; Flügge, G; de Boer, Sietse; Korte, S M; Meerlo, P; Murison, R; Olivier, B; Palanza, P; Richter-Levin, G; Sgoifo, A; Steimer, T; Stiedl, O; van Dijk, G; Wöhr, M; Fuchs, E


    With the steadily increasing number of publications in the field of stress research it has become evident that the conventional usage of the stress concept bears considerable problems. The use of the term 'stress' to conditions ranging from even the mildest challenging stimulation to severely aversi

  8. The Young and the Stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric W.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Lust, Katherine


    High levels of stress are common among young adults, particularly those enrolled in college. These degrees of stress have shown numerous deleterious effects across both academic and health variables. Findings regarding the role of stress in the presentation of impulse control disorders, particula...... stress and numerous aspects of mental/physical health in young adults, which could be an important consideration for individuals working with college students....... among college students, are limited. This study examined potential associations between perceived stress, academic achievement, physical/mental health, and impulse control disorders in young adults. A total of 1805 students completed an online survey and were included in the analysis. Responders were......High levels of stress are common among young adults, particularly those enrolled in college. These degrees of stress have shown numerous deleterious effects across both academic and health variables. Findings regarding the role of stress in the presentation of impulse control disorders, particular...

  9. Protecting Yourself from Heat Stress (United States)

    Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from He at Stress Heat stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke ...

  10. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...... place, the map comprises a complete graphic representation of the stress at any point....

  11. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress (United States)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury


    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  12. Ultrasonic Dynamic Vector Stress Sensor (United States)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Froggatt, Mark


    Stress inferred from measurements in specimens rather than in bonded gauges. Ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS) measures changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in material or structure at location touched by device when material or structure put under cyclic load. Includes phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe. Useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and evaluation of designs.

  13. Posttraumatisk stress efter arbejdsulykker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Lauritsen, Jens; Hansen, O N


    This study focuses on post-traumatic stress disorder in a follow up one to two years after the occupational accident. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of PTSD, changes in general health status and issues of compensation. The material was all serious accidents registered in the Danish National...... Register of Work Accidents during 1991. Seriousness was defined by type of injury, including all cases of amputations, bone fractures and extensive body lesions. Of 4745 possible, 3663 persons (77%) participated in a questionnaire study. The prevalence fulfilling the complete set of criteria...... of posttraumatic stress disorder as a chronic state was 2.8% (102 persons), of whom half had been given compensation. Among the most severe accidents the prevalence was 7.6%. In conclusion, in a large cohort of persons with moderate and severe occupational injuries this study demonstrated that post...

  14. Takotsubo or Stress Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Bounhoure


    Full Text Available Many case reports have been published of reversible left ventricular dysfunction precipitated by sudden emotional stress. We have evaluated 10 women hospitalized for acute chest pain and dyspnea, mimicking an acute coronary syndrome, after a severe emotional trigger. Those patients, postmenopausal women, presented ST segment alterations on the EKG, minor elevations of cardiac enzymes, and biomarkers levels. At the coronarography there was not coronary thrombosis or severe stenosis, but the ventriculography showed wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and midventricle, in the absence of significant obstructive coronary disease. The course was benign without complication, with a full recovery of left ventricular function in some weeks. These observations, like other reports, demonstrate the impact of emotional stress on left ventricular function and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The cause of this cardiomyopathy is still unknown, and several mechanisms have been proposed: catecholamine myocardial damage, microvascular spasm, or neural mediated myocardial stunning.

  15. Encyclopedia of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server


    The Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses is an important interdisciplinary reference work.  In addition to topics on thermal stresses, it contains entries on related topics, such as the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamics, appropriate topics on applied mathematics, and topics on numerical methods. The Encyclopedia is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and engineers. It brings together well established knowledge and recently received results. All entries were prepared  by leading experts from all over the world, and are presented in an easily accessible format. The work is lavishly illustrated, examples and applications are given where appropriate, ideas for further development abound, and the work will challenge many students and researchers to pursue new results of their own. This work can also serve as a one-stop resource for all who need succinct, concise, reliable and up to date information in short encyclopedic entries, while the extensive references will be of inte...

  16. Oxidative stress & male infertility. (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh


    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  17. Stress: a naturalistic proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Rodríguez Campuzano


    Full Text Available Some of the stress related topics, especially from the conceptual framework of Lazarus and Folkman are reviewed on this work. It is sustained that this approach is dualistic and that the research made from this view is made on the basis of morphological criteria that don’t allow studying important elements of this kind of behavior. From an interbehavioral approach three functional criteria are proposed to study this phenomenon: the functional nature of situations, aptitude levels of behavior, and its three dimensions. Emphasis is made on the singular and individual nature of stress reactions. Finally it is suggested to take into account these functional criteria to develop a generic situational taxonomy to study these reactions as parts of complex behavioral patterns.

  18. Stress relief of transition zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.


    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

  19. Stress, the hippocampus, and epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joëls, M.


    Stress is among the most frequently self-reported precipitants of seizures in patients with epilepsy. This review considers how important stress mediators like corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticosteroids, and neurosteroids could contribute to this phenomenon. Cellular effects of stress mediator

  20. Stress Conflation: Evidence from Sooke. (United States)

    Davis, Stuart

    A comparison of the application of two current theories of stress to a particular stress pattern found in the Salish language Sooke is presented. Hammond's (1986) grid-like tree structure representation of stress is compared with Halle and Vergnaud's (1986) tree-like grid structure. Examples in the Australian language Maranungku show that, in…

  1. Stress and yoga in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.


    Many children experience stress-related physical symptoms, such as fatigue, headache or abdominal complaints. This paper deals with the physical consequences of psychological stress and the possibility of reducing stress by yoga in childhood. The literature on this topic is presented. It is conclude

  2. CRF and stress in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Burg, E.H. van den; Metz, J.R.; Huising, M.O.


    The endocrine stress response is pivotal in vertebrate physiology. The stress hormone cortisol-the end product of the endocrine stress axis-(re-)directs energy flows for optimal performance under conditions where homeostasis may be or become at risk. Key players in the continuous adaptation process

  3. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John


    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged ...

  4. Contact stress sensor (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack


    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  5. UV, stress and aging


    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier


    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic—also called "photo-aging"—resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on ...

  6. Stress: a naturalistic proposal



    Some of the stress related topics, especially from the conceptual framework of Lazarus and Folkman are reviewed on this work. It is sustained that this approach is dualistic and that the research made from this view is made on the basis of morphological criteria that don’t allow studying important elements of this kind of behavior. From an interbehavioral approach three functional criteria are proposed to study this phenomenon: the functional nature of situations, aptitude levels of behavior,...

  7. Contact stress sensor (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack


    A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  8. Student under stress


    Krnjajić Stevan


    Stress is a natural phenomenon, sooner or later experienced by the most Rapid increase in the number of students with health problems, seeking health and advisory services, causes deep concern to parents, schools and wider community. This, in turn, arouses the interest in the research of the negative effects of poor physical and mental health on academic success. Considering the fact that school age population was rarely the subject of research, this paper deals with psycho-social and develop...

  9. Effect of residual stress on peak cap stress in arteries. (United States)

    Vandiver, Rebecca


    Vulnerable plaques are a subset of atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture when high stresses occur in the cap. The roles of residual stress, plaque morphology, and cap stiffness on the cap stress are not completely understood. Here, arteries are modeled within the framework of nonlinear elasticity as incompressible cylindrical structures that are residually stressed through differential growth. These structures are assumed to have a nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic response to stresses in the media and adventitia layers and an isotropic response in the intima and necrotic layers. The effect of differential growth on the peak stress is explored in a simple, concentric geometry and it is shown that axial differential growth decreases the peak stress in the inner layer. Furthermore, morphological risk factors are explored. The peak stress in residually stressed cylinders is not greatly affected by changing the thickness of the intima. The thickness of the necrotic layer is shown to be the most important morphological feature that affects the peak stress in a residually stressed vessel.

  10. Protein stress and stress proteins: implications in aging and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sőti; Péter Csermely


    Environmantal stress induces damage that activates an adaptive response in any organism. The cellular stress response is based on the induction of cytoprotective proteins, the so called stress or heat shock proteins. The stress response as well as stress proteins are ubiquitous, highly conserved mechanism, and genes, respectively, already present in prokaryotes. Chaperones protect the proteome against conformational damage, promoting the function of protein networks. Protein damage takes place during aging and in several degenerative diseases, and presents a threat to overload the cellular defense mechanisms. The preservation of a robust stress response and protein disposal is indispensable for health and longevity. This review summarizes the present knowledge of protein damage, turnover, and the stress response in aging and degenerative diseases.

  11. Scleroderma, Stress and CAM Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Kit Hui


    Full Text Available Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease influenced by interplay among genetic and environmental factors, of which one is stress. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is frequently used to treat stress and those diseases in which stress has been implicated. Results are presented from a survey of patients with scleroderma. Respondents were a convenient sample of those attending a national conference in Las Vegas in 2002. Findings implicate stress in the onset, continuation and exacerbation of scleroderma. The implication is that CAM providers may be filling an important patient need in their provision of services that identify and treat stress and its related disorders.

  12. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo


    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  13. Interferometric Measurement Of Residual Stress (United States)

    Danyluk, Steven; Andonian, A. T.


    Stress averaged through thickness of plate measured nondestructively. Theory of elasticity combined with laser interferometric technique into technique for measurement of residual stresses in solid objects - usually in thin, nominally-flat plates. Measurements particularly useful in inspection of wafers of single-crystal silicon for making solar cells or integrated circuits, because stresses remaining after crystal-growing process cause buckling or fracture. Used to predict deflections of plates caused by known applied loads under specified boundary condition, or to infer applied loads that cause known deflections. Also used to relate known deflections to residual stresses equivalent to stresses produced by fictitious applied loads.

  14. Experimental determination of residual stress (United States)

    Ferguson, Milton W.


    Residual stresses in finished parts have often been regarded as factors contributing to premature part failure and geometric distortions. Currently, residual stresses in welded structures and railroad components are being investigated. High residual stresses formed in welded structures due primarily to the differential contractions of the weld material as it cools and solidifies can have a profound effect on the surface performance of the structure. In railroad wheels, repeated use of the brakes causes high residual stresses in the rims which may lead to wheel failure and possible derailment. The goals of the study were: (1) to develop strategies for using x-ray diffraction to measure residual stress; (2) to subject samples of Inconel 718 to various mechanical and heat treatments and to measure the resulting stress using x-ray diffraction; and (3) to measure residual stresses in ferromagnetic alloys using magnetoacoustics.

  15. Stress, time use and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bonke


    Full Text Available This paper studies the gender aspect of stress within a Scandinavian welfare state regime with high employment rates for both women and men. By applying an economic model, an extended model and a stress-level model, we find that higher incomes lead to stress among women, somewhat confirming findings for Australia, Germany, Canada, Korea, and the US. The number of working hours on the labour market, however, has no impact on stress. In terms of employed women, household work acts as de-stressors, whereas rush hour pressure, which is introduced for the first time here, acts as stressors. Moreover, the wife’s contribution to household work almost increases the husband’s feeling of being “always” stressed, while the husband’s contribution implies that the wife is nearly less stressed. These results underline the importance of including financial as well as cross-partner information when analysing the presence of stress.

  16. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue


    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg=0V and Vd = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg = -1.8 V and Vd = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained.

  17. Quantifying Residual Stresses by Means of Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baaklini, George Y.


    This study focused on the application of the Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) technique as a tool for assessing the residual stress state of structures. TSA is based on the fact that materials experience small temperature changes when compressed or expanded. When a structure is cyclically loaded, a surface temperature profile results which correlates to the surface stresses. The cyclic surface temperature is measured with an infrared camera. Traditionally, the amplitude of a TSA signal was theoretically defined to be linearly dependent on the cyclic stress amplitude. Recent studies have established that the temperature response is also dependent on the cyclic mean stress (i.e., the static stress state of the structure). In a previous study by the authors, it was shown that mean stresses significantly influenced the TSA results for titanium- and nickel-based alloys. This study continued the effort of accurate direct measurements of the mean stress effect by implementing various experimental modifications. In addition, a more in-depth analysis was conducted which involved analyzing the second harmonic of the temperature response. By obtaining the amplitudes of the first and second harmonics, the stress amplitude and the mean stress at a given point on a structure subjected to a cyclic load can be simultaneously obtained. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions for both the first and second harmonics of the temperature response. As a result, confidence was achieved concerning the ability to simultaneously obtain values for the static stress state as well as the cyclic stress amplitude of structures subjected to cyclic loads using the TSA technique. With continued research, it is now feasible to establish a protocol that would enable the monitoring of residual stresses in structures utilizing TSA.

  18. Stress and distress. (United States)

    Selye, H


    I must ask the reader's indulgence for this article's concern with applications of the stress concept, which are distinct from, although related to clinical medicine. It has not been my object to deal with the way physicians have been aided by stress research in the practice of medicine--that information is already widely available. Rather, I have attempted to sketch briefly the history of the stress theory and to demonstrate how this information can help anyone, physician or layman, lead a more complete and satisfying life. The applications of the stress theory have been dealt with at length elsewhere. I believe that we can find within scientifically verified observations the basis of a code of behavior suited to our century. The great laws of nature that regulate the defenses of living beings against stress of any kind are essentially the same at all levels of life, from individual cells to entire complex human organisms and societies. It helps a great deal to understand the fundamental advantages and disadvantages of catatoxic and syntoxic attitudes by studying the biologic basis of self-preservation as reflected in syntoxic and catatoxic chemical mechanisms. When applied to everyday problems, this understanding should lead to choices most likely to provide us the pleasant eustress (from the Greek eu meaning good, as in euphoria) involved in achieving fulfillment and victory, thereby avoiding the self-destructive distress of frustration and failure. So the translation of the laws governing resistance of cells and organs to a code of behavior comes down to three basic precepts: 1. Find your own natural stress level. People differ with regard to the amount and kind of work they consider worth doing to meet the exigencies of daily life and to assure their future security and happiness. In this respect, all of us are influenced by hereditary predispositions and the expectations of our society. Only through planned self-analysis can we establish what we really want

  19. [Psychosomatic aspects of stress]. (United States)

    Okuse, S; Anzai, T


    We established the Bromocriptine test for the dopaminergic function of the hypothalamopituitary gland. The secretion patterns of plasma GH and PRL to 2.5 mg Bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist, were classified into two types; a response type and a non-response type. The former showed an increase in plasma GH levels and suppression of PRL secretion; the latter showed no change in GH after Bromocriptine administration. The response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by neurotic and maladaptive behavior. The non-response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by alexithymic and over adaptive behaviors. Case Presentation 1. Essential Hypertension: a. 56-year old male, response type, blood pressure elevated by stress in daily life. Psychosomatic treatment: advice about blood pressure measurement at his home, brief psychotherapy and drug therapy. b. 53-year-old male, non-response type, type A behavior. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of his disorder, self-control training and drug therapy. 2. Gastric ulcers: a. 40-year-old male, response type, CMI IV region (Neurotic tendencies). Psychosomatic treatment: autogenic training and drug therapy. b. 28-year-old male, non-response type, high JAS scores(Over adaptative behavior). Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of occurrence of his ulcers, to induce change in his perceptions of way of life, to encourage taking rest. 3. Technostress syndrome: a. 23-year-old female, response type, technoanxiety. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to make her take rest, and change in arrangements at her working place. b. 27-year-old male, non-response type, technodependent. Psychosomatic treatment: Fasting therapy. This therapy changed the non-response pattern to normal.

  20. Static and dynamic stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tishin, A.M.; Spichkin, Yu.I.; Bohr, Jakob


    In this chapter we shall consider the properties of lanthanide metals, their alloys and compounds which can be studied using static and alternating mechanical stresses. The main attention will be paid to the effects related to magnetoelastic interactions. These interactions in magnetic materials...... to the appearance of anomalies in elastic constants, as well as to additional damping of sound oscillations in the lanthanide materials. The importance of understanding the nature of magnetoelastic interactions and related effects arises from the scientific desire to gather a better knowledge of magnetism, as well...