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Sample records for bi-rads mri lexicon

  1. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: Interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category

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    El Khoury, Mona, E-mail: monelkhoury@gmail.com [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Mesurolle, Benoit [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de McGill, Cedar Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H3A1A1 (Canada); Trop, Isabelle [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The use of BI-RADS lexicon in interpreting breast MRI examinations is beneficial. • Our study shows: (a) moderate to substantial agreement between observers and (b) better agreement in interpreting mass than non-mass enhancement (NME). • Careful analysis of the NME should be done to help detect cancer as early as possible. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Materials and methods: Five breast radiologists blinded to patients’ medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. Results: All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α = 0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors – shape, margins and internal enhancement – (α = 0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors – distribution and internal enhancement – (α = 0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α = 0.71). It was however only moderate (α = 0.38) for NME compared to mass (α = 0.80). Conclusion: Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME.

  2. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: Interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khoury, Mona; Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude; Mesurolle, Benoit; Trop, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of BI-RADS lexicon in interpreting breast MRI examinations is beneficial. • Our study shows: (a) moderate to substantial agreement between observers and (b) better agreement in interpreting mass than non-mass enhancement (NME). • Careful analysis of the NME should be done to help detect cancer as early as possible. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Materials and methods: Five breast radiologists blinded to patients’ medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. Results: All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α = 0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors – shape, margins and internal enhancement – (α = 0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors – distribution and internal enhancement – (α = 0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α = 0.71). It was however only moderate (α = 0.38) for NME compared to mass (α = 0.80). Conclusion: Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME

  3. Can we apply the MRI BI-RADS lexicon morphology descriptors on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography?

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    Kamal, Rasha M; Helal, Maha H; Mansour, Sahar M; Haggag, Marwa A; Nada, Omniya M; Farahat, Iman G; Alieldin, Nelly H

    2016-07-12

    To assess the feasibility of using the MRI breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon morphology descriptors to characterize enhancing breast lesions identified on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). The study is a retrospective analysis of the morphology descriptors of 261 enhancing breast lesions identified on CESM in 239 patients. We presented the morphological categorization of the included lesions into focus, mass and non-mass. Further classifications included (1) the multiplicity for "focus" category, (2) the shape, margin and internal enhancement for "mass" category and (3) the distribution and internal enhancement for "non-mass" category. Each morphology descriptor was evaluated individually (irrespective of all other descriptors) by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value (PPV) and negative-predictive value (NPV) and likelihood ratios (LRs). The study included 68/261 (26.1%) benign lesions and 193/261 (73.9%) malignant lesions. Intensely enhancing foci, whether single (7/12, 58.3%) or multiple (2/12, 16.7%), were malignant. Descriptors of "irregular"-shape (PPV: 92.4%) and "non-circumscribed" margin (odds ratio: 55.2, LR positive: 4.77; p-value: <0.001) were more compatible with malignancy. Internal mass enhancement patterns showed a very low specificity (58.0%) and NPV (40.0%). Non-mass enhancement (NME) was detected in 81/261 lesions. Asymmetrical NME in 81% (n = 52/81) lesions was malignant lesions and internal enhancement patterns indicative of malignancy were the heterogeneous and clumped ones. We can apply the MRI morphology descriptors to characterize lesions on CESM, but with few expectations. In many situations, irregular-shaped, non-circumscribed masses and NME with focal, ductal or segmental distribution and heterogeneous or clumped enhancement are the most suggestive descriptors of malignant pathologies. (1) The MRI BI-RADS lexicon morphology descriptors can be applied in the

  4. Patterns of malignant non-mass enhancement on 3-T breast MRI help predict invasiveness: using the BI-RADS lexicon fifth edition.

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    Lee, Seung Min; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choo, Ki Seok; Kim, Jin You; Jeong, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyun Yul; Kim, Jee Yeon

    2018-01-01

    Background Non-mass enhancements (NME) with invasive components account for 10-42% of total malignant NMEs. The factors associated with invasiveness on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be useful for clinical assessment and treatment. Purpose To evaluate the clinical significances of the distributions and internal enhancement patterns (IEP) of malignant NMEs on 3-T breast MRI. Material and Methods A total of 448 consecutive women with newly diagnosed breast cancer that had undergone preoperative MRI and surgery between February 2013 and March 2016 were identified. After exclusions, 72 malignant NMEs without a mass in 72 women (mean age = 51.5 years) were included. Two readers independently assessed distributions and IEPs of NME, according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon fifth edition. Collected data included the presence of invasion and histopathologic factors. Results A clustered ring IEP was significantly associated with invasive cancer (75.0%, P = 0.001, Reader1; 72.9%, P IEP was related to ductal carcinoma in situ (33.3%, P = 0.025; 50.0%, P = 0.001, respectively), absence of lymph node metastasis (24.1%, P = 0.029; 31.5%, P = 0.030, respectively), and presence of necrosis (34.5%, P = 0.003; 44.8%, P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion The presence of a clustered ring IEP in patients with breast cancer was found to be significantly associated with invasive breast cancer and high Ki-67 expression.

  5. Interobserver variability of ultrasound elastography and the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon of breast lesions.

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    Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Sung Hun; Jung, Na Young; Choi, Jae Jung; Kang, Bong Joo; Jung, Hyun Seouk

    2015-03-01

    Elastographpy is a newly developed noninvasive imaging technique that uses ultrasound (US) to evaluate tissue stiffness. The interpretation of the same elastographic images may be variable according to reviewers. Because breast lesions are usually reported according to American College of Radiology Breast Imaging and Data System (ACR BI-RADS) lexicons and final category, we tried to compare observer variability between lexicons and final categorization of US BI-RADS and the elasticity score of US elastography. From April 2009 to February 2010, 1356 breast lesions in 1330 patients underwent ultrasound-guided core biopsy. Among them, 63 breast lesions in 55 patients (mean age, 45.7 years; range, 21-79 years) underwent both conventional ultrasound and elastography and were included in this study. Two radiologists independently performed conventional ultrasound and elastography, and another three observers reviewed conventional ultrasound images and elastography videos. Observers independently recorded the elasticity score for a 5-point scoring system proposed by Itoh et al., BI-RADS lexicons and final category using ultrasound BI-RADS. The histopathologic results were obtained and used as the reference standard. Interobserver variability was evaluated. Of the 63 lesions, 42 (66.7 %) were benign, and 21 (33.3 %) were malignant. The highest value of concordance among all variables was achieved for the elasticity score (k = 0.59), followed by shape (k = 0.54), final category (k = 0.48), posterior acoustic features (k = 0.44), echogenecity and orientation (k = 0.43). The least concordances were margin (k = 0.26), lesion boundary (k = 0.29) and calcification (k = 0.3). Elasticity score showed a higher level of interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of breast lesions than BI-RADS lexicons and final category.

  6. MRI for the assessment of malignancy in BI-RADS 4 mammographic microcalcifications.

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    Barbara Bennani-Baiti

    Full Text Available Assess the performance of breast MRI to diagnose breast cancer in BI-RADS 4 microcalcifications detected by mammography.This retrospective, IRB-approved study included 248 consecutive contrast-enhanced breast MRI (1.5T, protocol in accordance with EUSOBI recommendations performed to further diagnose BI-RADS 4 microcalcifications detected at mammography during a 3-year period. Standard of reference had to be established by histopathology. Routine consensus reading results by two radiologists were dichotomized as positive or negative and compared with the reference standard (benign vs malignant to calculate diagnostic parameters.There were 107 malignant and 141 benign microcalcifications. Malignancy rates were 18.3% (23/126 BI-RADS 4a, 41.7% (25/60 BI-RADS 4b and 95% (59/62 BI-RADS 4c. There were 103 true-positive, 116 true-negative, 25 false-positive, and 4 false-negative (one invasive cancer, three DCIS; 2 BI-RADS 4c, 1 BI-RADS 4b on mammography breast MRI findings, effecting a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 96.3% (95%-CI 90.7-99.0%, 82.3% (95%-CI 75.0-88.2%, 80.5% (95%-CI 72.5-87.0% and 96.7% (95%-CI 91.7-99.1%, respectively.MRI is an accurate tool to further diagnose BI-RADS 4a and 4b microcalcifications and may be helpful to avoid unnecessary biopsies in BI-RADS 4a and 4b lesions. BI-RADS 4c microcalcifications should be biopsied irrespective of MRI findings.

  7. High resolution MRI of the breast at 3 T: which BI-RADS registered descriptors are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer?

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    Pinker-Domenig, K.; Helbich, T.H.; Bogner, W.; Gruber, S.; Bickel, H.; Duffy, S.; Schernthaner, M.; Dubsky, P.; Pluschnig, U.; Rudas, M.; Trattnig, S.

    2012-01-01

    To identify which breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS registered MRI lexicon are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer when performing breast MR imaging at 3 T. 150 patients underwent breast MR imaging at 3 T. Lesion size, morphology and enhancement kinetics were assessed according to the BI-RADS registered classification. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. The effects of the BI-RADS registered descriptors on sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Histopathological diagnoses were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI at 3 T was 99%, 81% and 93%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the final diagnosis of malignancy was positively associated with irregular shape (p registered breast lesion descriptors that are mostly strongly associated with breast cancer in breast MR imaging at 3 T are lesion shape, lesion margin, internal enhancement pattern and Type 3 enhancement kinetics. (orig.)

  8. High resolution MRI of the breast at 3 T: which BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer?

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    Pinker-Domenig, K.; Helbich, T.H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, W.; Gruber, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bickel, H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Duffy, S. [Queen Mary University of London, Cancer Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Statistics, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom); Schernthaner, M. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Dubsky, P. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Pluschnig, U. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Rudas, M. [Medical University Vienna, Clinical Institute of Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    To identify which breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS registered MRI lexicon are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer when performing breast MR imaging at 3 T. 150 patients underwent breast MR imaging at 3 T. Lesion size, morphology and enhancement kinetics were assessed according to the BI-RADS {sup registered} classification. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. The effects of the BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors on sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Histopathological diagnoses were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI at 3 T was 99%, 81% and 93%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the final diagnosis of malignancy was positively associated with irregular shape (p < 0.001), irregular margin (p < 0.001), heterogeneous enhancement (p < 0.001), Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.02), increasing patient age (p = 0.02) and larger lesion size (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, significant associations with malignancy remained for mass shape (p = 0.06), mass margin (p < 0.001), internal enhancement pattern (p = 0.03) and Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.06). The ACR BI-RADS {sup registered} breast lesion descriptors that are mostly strongly associated with breast cancer in breast MR imaging at 3 T are lesion shape, lesion margin, internal enhancement pattern and Type 3 enhancement kinetics. (orig.)

  9. Development of an online, publicly accessible naive Bayesian decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on the American College of Radiology (ACR) BI-RADS lexicon

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    Benndorf, Matthias; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Herda, Christoph [Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Chur (Switzerland); Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S. [University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-01

    To develop and validate a decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on a standardized descriptor terminology (BI-RADS lexicon) to reduce variability of practice. We used separate training data (1,276 lesions, 138 malignant) and validation data (1,177 lesions, 175 malignant). We created naive Bayes (NB) classifiers from the training data with tenfold cross-validation. Our ''inclusive model'' comprised BI-RADS categories, BI-RADS descriptors, and age as predictive variables; our ''descriptor model'' comprised BI-RADS descriptors and age. The resulting NB classifiers were applied to the validation data. We evaluated and compared classifier performance with ROC-analysis. In the training data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.959; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.910 (P < 0.001). The inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (BI-RADS categories alone, P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. When applied to the validation data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.935; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.876 (P < 0.001). Again, the inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. We consider our classifier a step towards a more uniform interpretation of combinations of BI-RADS descriptors. We provide our classifier at www.ebm-radiology.com/nbmm/index.html. (orig.)

  10. Development of an online, publicly accessible naive Bayesian decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on the American College of Radiology (ACR) BI-RADS lexicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Herda, Christoph; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on a standardized descriptor terminology (BI-RADS lexicon) to reduce variability of practice. We used separate training data (1,276 lesions, 138 malignant) and validation data (1,177 lesions, 175 malignant). We created naive Bayes (NB) classifiers from the training data with tenfold cross-validation. Our ''inclusive model'' comprised BI-RADS categories, BI-RADS descriptors, and age as predictive variables; our ''descriptor model'' comprised BI-RADS descriptors and age. The resulting NB classifiers were applied to the validation data. We evaluated and compared classifier performance with ROC-analysis. In the training data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.959; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.910 (P < 0.001). The inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (BI-RADS categories alone, P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. When applied to the validation data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.935; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.876 (P < 0.001). Again, the inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. We consider our classifier a step towards a more uniform interpretation of combinations of BI-RADS descriptors. We provide our classifier at www.ebm-radiology.com/nbmm/index.html. (orig.)

  11. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) US lexicon and final assessment category for solid breast masses: the rates of inter-and intraobserver agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Koh, Young Hwan; Youn, Byung Jae; Cho, Byung Jae; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the rates of inter-and intraobserver agreement of the BI-RADS US lexicon. Two radiologists reviewed 60 sonograms of solid breast masses to evaluate interobserver agreement. After four weeks, the radiologists reinterpreted the series to evaluate the intraobserver agreement. The radiologists described shape, orientation, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic features and microcalcifications. Final assessment categories and management plans were suggested for each case. The rates of inter-and intraobserver agreements were measured by the use of kappa statistics. Interobserver agreement ranged from the highest for orientation (κ = 0.65) and shape (κ = 0.61) to the lowest for posterior acoustic features (κ = 0.42). For the final assessment categories (κ = 0.46) and management (κ = 0.49), interobserver agreement were moderate. Intraobserver agreement ranged from the highest for microcalcifications in mass (κ = 0.90, 0.82) and orientation (κ 0.87, 0.83) and the lowest for echo patterns (κ = 0.62, 0.57) and posterior acoustic features (κ = 0.59, 0.65). In the final assessment category and management, intraobserver agreements were substantial or nearly complete (κ = 0.65-0.83). There were variable raged inter-and intraobserver agreements in the description of the BI-RADS US lexicon of solid breast masses. Among them, margin and lesion boundary showed lower agreements. A modification of the BI-RADS US lexicon with more detailed guidelines, followed by continuous education, are suggested

  12. Logistic LASSO regression for the diagnosis of breast cancer using clinical demographic data and the BI-RADS lexicon for ultrasonography.

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    Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Yongdai; Jeong, Kuhwan; Jeong, Heeyeong; Kim, Jiyoung

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of image analysis for predicting breast cancer using two distinct regression models and to evaluate the usefulness of incorporating clinical and demographic data (CDD) into the image analysis in order to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer. This study included 139 solid masses from 139 patients who underwent a ultrasonography-guided core biopsy and had available CDD between June 2009 and April 2010. Three breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed 139 breast masses and described each lesion using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. We applied and compared two regression methods-stepwise logistic (SL) regression and logistic least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression-in which the BI-RADS descriptors and CDD were used as covariates. We investigated the performances of these regression methods and the agreement of radiologists in terms of test misclassification error and the area under the curve (AUC) of the tests. Logistic LASSO regression was superior (Pcomparable to the AUC with CDD (0.873 vs. 0.880, P=0.141). Logistic LASSO regression based on BI-RADS descriptors and CDD showed better performance than SL in predicting the presence of breast cancer. The use of CDD as a supplement to the BI-RADS descriptors significantly improved the prediction of breast cancer using logistic LASSO regression.

  13. BI-RADS: Use in the French radiologic community

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    Stines, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, BI-RADS TM (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) has been set up as a quality assurance system for better communication between professionals and for the follow-up of breast screening programs. It has become a reference in the field of mammographic imaging and has been adopted by several countries throughout the world. It has been translated in French. The aim of this article is to discuss the difficulties in using it in the French radiologic communities. There are few problems with vocabulary excepted for microcalcifications. BI-RADS TM includes a guidance chapter giving some recommendations for using properly the lexicon. Classification of normal breast remains of concern, as it is difficult to evaluate precisely the content of fat and as the final image is also dependant of technical factors. The main difficulties are related to final classification in BI-RADS TM categories as the lexicon does not explicit which mammographic features should be included in the categories from three to five. In France, a table concerning the classification of mammographic abnormalities has been established by the HAS (former ANAES) which represents the highest scientific health authority in France. There are no major problems for using the BI-RADS TM for US and MRI. BI-RADS TM is suitable for different categories of women and for male and training has an important impact on acceptance and proper use of the lexicon

  14. Use of BI-RADS-MRI descriptors for differentiation between mucinous carcinoma and fibroadenoma.

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    Igarashi, Takao; Ashida, Hirokazu; Morikawa, Kazuhiko; Motohashi, Kenji; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the latest breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (5th edition) descriptors and non BI-RADS MRI factors that contribute to differentiation between mucinous carcinomas (MCs) and fibroadenomas (FAs). This retrospective study included 27 patients with P-MCs or M-MCs similar to P-MCs and 22 patients with FAs who underwent breast MRI between October 2008 and July 2014 at our institution. Definitive histopathological diagnoses were made for all of the MCs and FAs. The latest BI-RADS MRI descriptors for abnormal enhancement, including maximum diameter, shape (irregular or round/oval), margin (irregular or circumscribed), rim enhancement (present or absent), dark internal septation (absent or present), delayed internal enhancement (heterogeneous or homogeneous), and the time-intensity curve pattern (not persistent or persistent) were evaluated. As additional non BI-RADS MRI factors related to differentiation between MC and FA, age, signal intensity in the T2-weighted image (high or not high), extent of lobulation (strong or weak), enhancing internal septation (present or absent), and the apparent diffusion coefficient value were also evaluated. One radiologist retrospectively evaluated interpreted MR findings and analyzed the findings. Statistically significant findings were identified through univariate and multivariate analyses. Then, three blinded radiologists reviewed the MR images where MR findings had shown a significant association with outcomes during univariate analyses. Independently, the three blinded readers reviewed the MR images for the evaluation of inter-observer variability, and then arrived at a consensus for the evaluation of observer performance. Observer performance and inter-observer variability were determined via a receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis and weighted k statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each of the MR findings were calculated. Univariate

  15. Validation of the fifth edition BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon with comparison of fourth and fifth edition diagnostic performance using video clips

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    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Sung Hun; Youk, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Sun Hye; Kim, You Me

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) and the diagnostic performance of the ultrasonographic descriptors in the fifth edition of BI-RADS, comparing with the fourth edition using video clips. From September 2013 to July 2014, 80 breast masses in 74 women (mean age, 47.5±10.7 years) from five institutions of the Korean Society of Breast Imaging were included. Two radiologists individually reviewed the static and video images and analyzed the images according to the fourth and fifth edition of BI-RADS. The PPV of each descriptor was calculated and diagnostic performances between the fourth and fifth editions were compared. Of the 80 breast masses, 51 (63.8%) were benign and 29 (36.2%) were malignant. Suspicious ultrasonographic features such as irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, angular or spiculated margins, and combined posterior features showed higher PPV in both editions (all P<0.05). No significant differences were found in the diagnostic performances between the two editions (all P>0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was higher in the fourth edition (0.708 to 0.690), without significance (P=0.416). The fifth edition of the BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon showed comparable performance to the fourth edition and can be useful in the differential diagnosis of breast masses using ultrasonography

  16. Validation of the fifth edition BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon with comparison of fourth and fifth edition diagnostic performance using video clips

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    Jung Hyun Yoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV and the diagnostic performance of the ultrasonographic descriptors in the fifth edition of BI-RADS, comparing with the fourth edition using video clips. Methods From September 2013 to July 2014, 80 breast masses in 74 women (mean age, 47.5±10.7 years from five institutions of the Korean Society of Breast Imaging were included. Two radiologists individually reviewed the static and video images and analyzed the images according to the fourth and fifth edition of BI-RADS. The PPV of each descriptor was calculated and diagnostic performances between the fourth and fifth editions were compared. Results Of the 80 breast masses, 51 (63.8% were benign and 29 (36.2% were malignant. Suspicious ultrasonographic features such as irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, angular or spiculated margins, and combined posterior features showed higher PPV in both editions (all P0.05. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was higher in the fourth edition (0.708 to 0.690, without significance (P=0.416. Conclusion The fifth edition of the BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon showed comparable performance to the fourth edition and can be useful in the differential diagnosis of breast masses using ultrasonography.

  17. A comparison of logistic regression analysis and an artificial neural network using the BI-RADS lexicon for ultrasonography in conjunction with introbserver variability.

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    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Heon; Park, Jeong Mi; Choi, Yoon Jung; Yoon, Hoi Soo; Sohn, Jung Hee; Baek, Moon Hee; Kim, Yoon Nam; Chae, Young Moon; June, Jeon Jong; Lee, Jiwon; Jeon, Yong Hwan

    2012-10-01

    To determine which Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) descriptors for ultrasound are predictors for breast cancer using logistic regression (LR) analysis in conjunction with interobserver variability between breast radiologists, and to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) and LR models in differentiation of benign and malignant breast masses. Five breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed 140 breast masses and described each lesion using BI-RADS lexicon and categorized final assessments. Interobserver agreements between the observers were measured by kappa statistics. The radiologists' responses for BI-RADS were pooled. The data were divided randomly into train (n = 70) and test sets (n = 70). Using train set, optimal independent variables were determined by using LR analysis with forward stepwise selection. The LR and ANN models were constructed with the optimal independent variables and the biopsy results as dependent variable. Performances of the models and radiologists were evaluated on the test set using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Among BI-RADS descriptors, margin and boundary were determined as the predictors according to stepwise LR showing moderate interobserver agreement. Area under the ROC curves (AUC) for both of LR and ANN were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.94). AUCs for the five radiologists ranged 0.79-0.91. There was no significant difference in AUC values among the LR, ANN, and radiologists (p > 0.05). Margin and boundary were found as statistically significant predictors with good interobserver agreement. Use of the LR and ANN showed similar performance to that of the radiologists for differentiation of benign and malignant breast masses.

  18. Logistic LASSO regression for the diagnosis of breast cancer using clinical demographic data and the BI-RADS lexicon for ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the performance of image analysis for predicting breast cancer using two distinct regression models and to evaluate the usefulness of incorporating clinical and demographic data (CDD into the image analysis in order to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods This study included 139 solid masses from 139 patients who underwent a ultrasonography-guided core biopsy and had available CDD between June 2009 and April 2010. Three breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed 139 breast masses and described each lesion using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. We applied and compared two regression methods-stepwise logistic (SL regression and logistic least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO regression-in which the BI-RADS descriptors and CDD were used as covariates. We investigated the performances of these regression methods and the agreement of radiologists in terms of test misclassification error and the area under the curve (AUC of the tests. Results Logistic LASSO regression was superior (P<0.05 to SL regression, regardless of whether CDD was included in the covariates, in terms of test misclassification errors (0.234 vs. 0.253, without CDD; 0.196 vs. 0.258, with CDD and AUC (0.785 vs. 0.759, without CDD; 0.873 vs. 0.735, with CDD. However, it was inferior (P<0.05 to the agreement of three radiologists in terms of test misclassification errors (0.234 vs. 0.168, without CDD; 0.196 vs. 0.088, with CDD and the AUC without CDD (0.785 vs. 0.844, P<0.001, but was comparable to the AUC with CDD (0.873 vs. 0.880, P=0.141. Conclusion Logistic LASSO regression based on BI-RADS descriptors and CDD showed better performance than SL in predicting the presence of breast cancer. The use of CDD as a supplement to the BI-RADS descriptors significantly improved the prediction of breast cancer using logistic LASSO regression.

  19. Breast MRI in the Evaluation of Locally Recurrent or New Breast Cancer in the Postoperative Patient: Correlation of Morphology and Enhancement Features with the BI-RADS Category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, J.M.; Nguyen, E.T.; Jaffey, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: While breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive test for detecting breast carcinoma, its specificity is lower, and several methods have been described on how to optimize specificity. Purpose: To compare the specificity and sensitivity of the BI-RADS category with the Fischer score in breast MRI for diagnosing cancer in women previously treated for breast cancer. Material and Methods: Women referred for evaluation of possible local recurrence or new breast cancer underwent breast MRI examination. Morphologic and kinetic enhancement characteristics were evaluated. BI-RADS category and Fischer score were assigned for each enhancing lesion and compared using a chi-square test. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values for 27 morphologic and enhancement characteristics were calculated. Pathologic diagnosis was obtained in all patients with enhancing lesions who had ultrasound or mammographic correlation. In those without correlate, 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up breast MRIs were obtained. Interobserver kappa correlation was determined for each variable studied. Results: 34 benign and 32 malignant lesions were identified in 26 of 30 patients. BI-RADS category yielded a specificity of 77.1% and a sensitivity of 81.8%. Fischer score had a lower specificity and sensitivity (62.9% and 72.7%, respectively) (P 100% enhancement was more sensitive than BI-RADS for malignant lesions. Specificity was highest for rim enhancement (97.1%), but sensitivity was low (24.2%). Interobserver kappa correlation was good for all 27 characteristics ( = 0.84), and highest for BI-RADS assessment ( 0.91). Conclusion: BI-RADS category in breast MRI had the highest combination of specificity and sensitivity, and the highest interobserver correlation. Fischer score and other morphologic and enhancement features lack sensitivity or specificity and do not have high positive predictive values when analyzed as single independent variables

  20. Mammographic features of screening detected pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancer using BI-RADS lexicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: xbarga@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane, E-mail: gsanta@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Velasco, Martín, E-mail: mvelasco@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Amo, Montse del, E-mail: mdelamo@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Arguis, Pedro, E-mail: parguis@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta, E-mail: mburrel@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Capurro, Sebastian, E-mail: scapurro@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Aim: To describe mammographic features in screening detected invasive breast cancer less than or equal to 10 mm using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon in full-field digital mammography. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 123 pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancers in women aged 50–69 years from our screening program. Radiologic patterns were: masses, calcifications, distortions, asymmetries and mixed. Masses: shape, margins and density, and calcifications: morphology, number of flecks and size of the cluster were taken into account, following Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology. Results: We found 61 masses (49.6%), 8 masses with calcifications (6.5%), 30 groups of calcifications (24.4%), 19 architectural distortions (15.4%), 1 architectural distortion with calcifications (0.8%), 4 asymmetries (3.2%). Sixty out of 69 masses were irregular in shape, 6 lobular, 2 ovals and 1 round. Thirty-four showed ill-defined margins, 29 spiculated and 6 microlobulated. Most of them showed a density similar to surrounding fibroglandular tissue. Calcifications were pleomorphic or fine linear in 24 of 30 (80%). Most of cases showed more than 10 flecks and a size greater than 1 cm. Conclusion: The predominant radiologic finding is an irregular, isodense mass those margins tend to share different descriptors, being ill-defined margins the most constant finding. Calcifications representing invasive cancer are predominantly pleomorphic with more than 10 flecks per cm. Architectural distortion and invasive tubular carcinoma are more common than reported in general series.

  1. Mammographic features of screening detected pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancer using BI-RADS lexicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargalló, Xavier; Santamaría, Gorane; Velasco, Martín; Amo, Montse del; Arguis, Pedro; Burrel, Marta; Capurro, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To describe mammographic features in screening detected invasive breast cancer less than or equal to 10 mm using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon in full-field digital mammography. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 123 pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancers in women aged 50–69 years from our screening program. Radiologic patterns were: masses, calcifications, distortions, asymmetries and mixed. Masses: shape, margins and density, and calcifications: morphology, number of flecks and size of the cluster were taken into account, following Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology. Results: We found 61 masses (49.6%), 8 masses with calcifications (6.5%), 30 groups of calcifications (24.4%), 19 architectural distortions (15.4%), 1 architectural distortion with calcifications (0.8%), 4 asymmetries (3.2%). Sixty out of 69 masses were irregular in shape, 6 lobular, 2 ovals and 1 round. Thirty-four showed ill-defined margins, 29 spiculated and 6 microlobulated. Most of them showed a density similar to surrounding fibroglandular tissue. Calcifications were pleomorphic or fine linear in 24 of 30 (80%). Most of cases showed more than 10 flecks and a size greater than 1 cm. Conclusion: The predominant radiologic finding is an irregular, isodense mass those margins tend to share different descriptors, being ill-defined margins the most constant finding. Calcifications representing invasive cancer are predominantly pleomorphic with more than 10 flecks per cm. Architectural distortion and invasive tubular carcinoma are more common than reported in general series

  2. Subcategorization of Suspicious Breast Lesions (BI-RADS Category 4) According to MRI Criteria: Role of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltez de Almeida, João Ricardo; Gomes, André Boechat; Barros, Thomas Pitangueira; Fahel, Paulo Eduardo; de Seixas Rocha, Mário

    2015-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is adequate for subcategorization of suspicious lesions (BI-RADS category 4) and to evaluate whether use of DWI improves diagnostic performance. The study group was composed of 103 suspicious lesions found in 83 subjects. Patient ages and lesion sizes were compiled, and two radiologists reanalyzed the images; subcategorized the findings as BI-RADS 4A, 4B, or 4C; and calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The stratified variables were tested by univariate analysis and inserted in two multivariate predictive models, which were used to generate ROC curves and compare AUCs. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for each subcategory and ADC level were calculated, and interobserver agreement was tested. Forty-four (42.7%) suspicious findings proved malignant. Except for age (p = 0.08), all stratified predictor variables were significant in univariate analyses (p BI-RADS 4 subcategory (4A, 0.15; 4B, 0.37; 4C, 0.84). ADC values of 1.10 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s or less had the second highest PPV (0.77). Interobserver agreement was substantial at a kappa value of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.70-0.90; p BI-RADS category 4) can be satisfactorily performed with DCE-MRI and slightly improved when DWI is introduced.

  3. Predictive values of BI-RADS{sup ®} magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badan, Gustavo Machado, E-mail: gustavobadan@hotmail.com [Breast Imaging Service of Radiology Depatment—Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Piato, Sebastião [Mastology Division—Gynecology and Obstetrics Department (Brazil); Roveda, Décio; Faria Castro Fleury, Eduardo de [Breast Imaging Service of Radiology Depatment—Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate BI-RADS indicators in the detection of DCIS by MRI. Materials and methods: Prospective observational study that started in 2014 and lasted 24 months. A total of 110 consecutive patients were evaluated, who presented with suspicious or highly suspicious microcalcifications on screening mammography (BI-RADS categories 4 and 5) and underwent stereotactic-guided breast biopsy, having had an MRI scan performed prior to biopsy. Results: Altogether, 38 cases were characterized as positive for malignancy, of which 25 were DCIS and 13 were invasive ductal carcinoma cases. MRI had a sensitivity of 96%; specificity of 75.67%; positive predictive value (PPV) for DCIS detection of 57.14%; negative predictive value (NPV) in the detection of DCIS of 98.24%; and an accuracy of 80.80%. Conclusion: BI-RADS as a tool for the detection of DCIS by MRI is a powerful instrument whose sensitivity was higher when compared to that observed for mammography in the literature. Likewise, the PPV obtained by MRI was higher than that observed in the present study for mammography, and the high NPV obtained on MRI scans can provide early evidence to discourage breast biopsy in selected cases.

  4. Extracting BI-RADS Features from Portuguese Clinical Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Houssam; Cunha, Filipe; Moreira, Inês C; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Sousa, Eliana; Page, David; Burnside, Elizabeth; Dutra, Inês

    2012-01-01

    In this work we build the first BI-RADS parser for Portuguese free texts, modeled after existing approaches to extract BI-RADS features from English medical records. Our concept finder uses a semantic grammar based on the BIRADS lexicon and on iterative transferred expert knowledge. We compare the performance of our algorithm to manual annotation by a specialist in mammography. Our results show that our parser's performance is comparable to the manual method.

  5. Grading system to categorize breast MRI using BI-RADS 5th edition: a statistical study of non-mass enhancement descriptors in terms of probability of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Tatsunori; Yamada, Takayuki; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Fujiwara, Keishi; Okamoto, Satoko; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2018-03-01

    To analyze the association of breast non-mass enhancement descriptors in the BI-RADS 5th edition with malignancy, and to establish a grading system and categorization of descriptors. This study was approved by our institutional review board. A total of 213 patients were enrolled. Breast MRI was performed with a 1.5-T MRI scanner using a 16-channel breast radiofrequency coil. Two radiologists determined internal enhancement and distribution of non-mass enhancement by consensus. Corresponding pathologic diagnoses were obtained by either biopsy or surgery. The probability of malignancy by descriptor was analyzed using Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The probability of malignancy by category was analyzed using Fisher's exact and multi-group comparison tests. One hundred seventy-eight lesions were malignant. Multivariate model analysis showed that internal enhancement (homogeneous vs others, p probability of malignancy (p < 0.0001). The three-grade criteria and categorization by sum-up grades of descriptors appear valid for non-mass enhancement.

  6. Issues in assessing multi-institutional performance of BI-RADS-based CAD systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Mia K.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that impact the generalization of breast cancer computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems that utilize the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Data sets from four institutions were analyzed: Duke University Medical Center, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Wake Forest University. The latter two data sets are subsets of the Digital Database for Screening Mammography. Each data set consisted of descriptions of mammographic lesions according to the BI-RADS lexicon, patient age, and pathology status (benign/malignant). Models were developed to predict pathology status from the BI-RADS descriptors and the patient age. Comparisons between the models built on data from the different institutions were made in terms of empirical (non-parametric) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results suggest that BI-RADS-based CAD systems focused on specific classes of lesions may be more generally applicable than models that cover several lesion types. However, better generalization was seen in terms of the area under the ROC curve than in the partial area index (>90% sensitivity). Previous studies have illustrated the challenges in translating a BI-RADS-based CAD system from one institution to another. This study provides new insights into possible approaches to improve the generalization of BI-RADS-based CAD systems.

  7. Independent value of image fusion in unenhanced breast MRI using diffusion-weighted and morphological T2-weighted images for lesion characterization in patients with recently detected BI-RADS 4/5 X-ray mammography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Tesdorff, Jana; Delorme, Stefan; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Laun, Frederik Bernd; Kuder, Tristan Anselm [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Lederer, Wolfgang; Teiner, Susanne [Radiological Practice at the ATOS Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Maier-Hein, Klaus [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Junior Group Medical Image Computing, Heidelberg (Germany); Daniel, Heidi [Radiology Center Mannheim (RZM), Mannheim (Germany); Stieber, Anne [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Clinical and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of solitarily reading fused image series of T2-weighted and high-b-value diffusion-weighted sequences for lesion characterization as compared to sequential or combined image analysis of these unenhanced sequences and to contrast- enhanced breast MRI. This IRB-approved study included 50 female participants with suspicious breast lesions detected in screening X-ray mammograms, all of which provided written informed consent. Prior to biopsy, all women underwent MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWIBS, b = 1500s/mm{sup 2}). Images were analyzed as follows: prospective image fusion of DWIBS and T2-weighted images (FU), side-by-side analysis of DWIBS and T2-weighted series (CO), combination of the first two methods (CO+FU), and full contrast-enhanced diagnostic protocol (FDP). Diagnostic indices, confidence, and image quality of the protocols were compared by two blinded readers. Reading the CO+FU (accuracy 0.92; NPV 96.1 %; PPV 87.6 %) and the CO series (0.90; 96.1 %; 83.7 %) provided a diagnostic performance similar to the FDP (0.95; 96.1 %; 91.3 %; p > 0.05). FU reading alone significantly reduced the diagnostic accuracy (0.82; 93.3 %; 73.4 %; p = 0.023). MR evaluation of suspicious BI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions detected on mammography by using a non-contrast-enhanced T2-weighted and DWIBS sequence protocol is most accurate if MR images were read using the CO+FU protocol. (orig.)

  8. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) or French 'classification ACR'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilhuydy, Marie Helene

    2007-01-01

    Summary: The American College of Radiology Task Force on Breast Cancer published in 2003 Fourth edition of BI-RADS for Mammography. It is a lexicon of mammography terms including illustrations of each feature described, followed by a reporting format with assessment categories according to the degree of concern. The aim is to reduce inconsistencies in mammography reports and recommendations for assessment, to facilitate outcome monitoring and to allow each radiologist to audit his own mammography practice. In France, the Societe Francaise de Radiologie acquired the rights to translate BI-RADS, word for word and without adaptation or influence. The last edition was published in 2004. Simultaneously, French Haute Autorite de Sante and National Committee for Breast Cancer Screening proposed to all community practice mammography facilities a classification of detected abnormalities stating more clearly than BI-RADS do which feature has to be included in such and such assessment category and how to manage it. This 'classification ACR' is adapted from BI-RADS but strongly influenced by the context of the French nationwide screening programme, and by European recommendations to limitate undesirable risks of screening such as false positive and overdiagnosis. The differences between the two systems are discussed

  9. A dedicated BI-RADS training programme: Effect on the inter-observer variation among screening radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, J.M.H.; Doorne-Nagtegaal, H.J. van; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Heeten, G.J. den; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was introduced in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme to improve communication between medical specialists. Following introduction, a substantial variation in the use of the BI-RADS lexicon for final assessment categories was noted among screening radiologists. We set up a dedicated training programme to reduce this variation. This study evaluates whether this programme was effective. Materials and methods: Two comparable test sets were read before and after completion of the training programme. Each set contained 30 screening mammograms of referred women selected from screening practice. The sets were read by 25 experienced and 30 new screening radiologists. Cohen's kappa (κ) was used to calculate the inter-observer agreement. The BI-RADS 2003 version was implemented in the screening programme as the BI-RADS 2008 version requires the availability of diagnostic work-up, and this is unavailable. Results: The inter-observer agreement of all participating radiologists (n = 55) with the expert panel increased from a pre-training κ-value of 0.44 to a post-training κ-value of 0.48 (p = 0.14). The inter-observer agreement of the new screening radiologists (n = 30) with the expert panel increased from κ = 0.41 to κ = 0.50 (p = 0.01), whereas there was no difference in agreement among the 25 experienced radiologists (from κ = 0.48 to κ = 0.46, p = 0.60). Conclusion: Our training programme in the BI-RADS lexicon resulted in a significant improvement of agreement among new screening radiologists. Overall, the agreement among radiologists was moderate (guidelines Landis and Koch). This is in line with results found in the literature

  10. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Lars J., E-mail: Lars.grimm@duke.edu; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C.; Kim, Connie [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Kuzmiak, Cherie M. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2006 Old Clinic, CB No. 7510, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Mazurowski, Maciej A. [Duke University Medical Center, Box 2731 Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Methods: Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results: Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502–0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543–0.680,p < 0.002). Conclusions: Patterns in detection errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees.

  11. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Ghate, Sujata V; Yoon, Sora C; Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Kim, Connie; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502-0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543-0.680,p errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees.

  12. Predicting error in detecting mammographic masses among radiology trainees using statistical models based on BI-RADS features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Lars J.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Yoon, Sora C.; Kim, Connie; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as predictors of individual errors made by trainees when detecting masses in mammograms. Methods: Ten radiology trainees and three expert breast imagers reviewed 100 mammograms comprised of bilateral medial lateral oblique and craniocaudal views on a research workstation. The cases consisted of normal and biopsy proven benign and malignant masses. For cases with actionable abnormalities, the experts recorded breast (density and axillary lymph nodes) and mass (shape, margin, and density) features according to the BI-RADS lexicon, as well as the abnormality location (depth and clock face). For each trainee, a user-specific multivariate model was constructed to predict the trainee's likelihood of error based on BI-RADS features. The performance of the models was assessed using area under the receive operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results: Despite the variability in errors between different trainees, the individual models were able to predict the likelihood of error for the trainees with a mean AUC of 0.611 (range: 0.502–0.739, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.543–0.680,p < 0.002). Conclusions: Patterns in detection errors for mammographic masses made by radiology trainees can be modeled using BI-RADS features. These findings may have potential implications for the development of future educational materials that are personalized to individual trainees

  13. Can BI-RADS features on mammography be used as a surrogate for expensive genomic testing in breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harowicz, Michael R.; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2017-03-01

    Medical oncologists increasingly rely on expensive genomic analysis to stratify patients for different treatment. The genomic markers are able to divide patients into groups that behave differently in terms of tumor presentation, likelihood of metastatic spread, and response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In recent years there has been a rapid increase in the number of genomic tests available, like the Oncotype DX test, which provides the risk of cancer recurrence for a subset of patients. Radiogenomics, a new field that investigates the relationship between imaging phenotypes and genomic characteristics, may offer a less expensive and less invasive imaging surrogate for molecular subtype and Oncotype DX recurrence score (ODRS). This retrospective study analyzes the relationship between Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features as assessed by radiologists on mammograms with molecular subtype and ODRS. We used data from patients with BI-RADS features (shape or margin) and a genomic feature (subtype or ODRS) for the following cohort: shape vs. subtype (n=69), margin vs. subtype (n=78), shape vs. ODRS (n=20), and margin vs. ODRS (n=18). The association between features was assessed using a Fisher's exact test. Our results show that shape assessed by radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon is associated with molecular subtype (p=0.0171), while BI-RADS features of shape and margin were not significantly associated with ODRS (p=0.7839, p=0.6047 respectively).

  14. A uniform system for mammographic reporting BI-RADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masroor, I.; Ahmad, M. N.; Sheikh, M. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Breast image reporting and data system (BI-RADS) is a new system of categorizing and reporting mammographs and mammographic findings recommended by American College of Radiology. The importance of BI-RADS and final assessment categories are discussed. The purpose is to introduce the above-mentioned mammographic reporting system so that it becomes a standard terminology among the medical personnel, involved in the diagnosis and management of breast diseases. (author)

  15. A simple scoring system for breast MRI interpretation: does it compensate for reader experience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Maria Adele; Clauser, Paola; Woitek, Ramona; Wengert, Georg J.; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Preidler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of a scoring system (Tree) on inter-reader agreement and diagnostic performance in breast MRI reading. This IRB-approved, single-centre study included 100 patients with 121 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions (52 malignant, 68 benign). Four breast radiologists with different levels of MRI experience and blinded to histopathology retrospectively evaluated all examinations. Readers independently applied two methods to classify breast lesions: BI-RADS and Tree. BI-RADS provides a reporting lexicon that is empirically translated into likelihoods of malignancy; Tree is a scoring system that results in a diagnostic category. Readings were compared by ROC analysis and kappa statistics. Inter-reader agreement was substantial to almost perfect (kappa: 0.643-0.896) for Tree and moderate (kappa: 0.455-0.657) for BI-RADS. Diagnostic performance using Tree (AUC: 0.889-0.943) was similar to BI-RADS (AUC: 0.872-0.953). Less experienced radiologists achieved AUC: improvements up to 4.7 % using Tree (P-values: 0.042-0.698); an expert's performance did not change (P = 0.526). The least experienced reader improved in specificity using Tree (16 %, P = 0.001). No further sensitivity and specificity differences were found (P > 0.1). The Tree scoring system improves inter-reader agreement and achieves a diagnostic performance similar to that of BI-RADS. Less experienced radiologists, in particular, benefit from Tree. (orig.)

  16. BI-RADS categorisation of 2708 consecutive nonpalpable breast lesions in patients referred to a dedicated breast care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamy, A.S.; Giacchetti, S.; Cuvier, C.; Perret, F.; Bonfils, S.; Charveriat, P.; Hocini, H.; Espie, M.; Albiter, M.; Bazelaire, C. de; Roquancourt, A. de

    2012-01-01

    To determine the malignancy rate of nonpalpable breast lesions, categorised according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification in the setting of a Breast Care Unit. All nonpalpable breast lesions from consecutive patients referred to a dedicated Breast Care Unit were prospectively reviewed and classified into 5 BI-RADS assessment categories (0, 2, 3, 4, and 5). A total of 2708 lesions were diagnosed by mammography (71.6%), ultrasound (8.7%), mammography and ultrasound (19.5%), or MRI (0.2%). The distribution of the lesions by BI-RADS category was: 152 in category 0 (5.6%), 56 in category 2 (2.1%), 742 in category 3 (27.4%), 1523 in category 4 (56.2%) and 235 in category 5 (8.7%). Histology revealed 570 malignant lesions (32.9%), 152 high-risk lesions (8.8%), and 1010 benign lesions (58.3%). Malignancy was detected in 17 (2.3%) category 3 lesions, 364 (23.9%) category 4 lesions and 185 (78.7%) category 5 lesions. Median follow-up was 36.9 months. This pragmatic study reflects the assessment and management of breast impalpable abnormalities referred for care to a specialized Breast Unit. Multidisciplinary evaluation with BI-RADS classification accurately predicts malignancy, and reflects the quality of management. This assessment should be encouraged in community practice appraisal. (orig.)

  17. Categorization and evaluation of usefulness of breast lesions with using ultrasound BI-RADS (breast imaging reporting and data system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn Jeong; Choi, Hye Young; Moon, Byung In; Lee, Shi Nae

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) and to evaluate the usefulness on ultrasound BI-RADS, as compared with the histologic results of breast lesions that were categorized and classified by the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon. Between January and December 2004, the ultrasound features of 471 breast lesions in 368 patients were analyzed and categorized with using ultrasound BI-RADS. All of the lesions were compared with the histological results. We categorized category 2 and 3 lesions as benign lesions, and category 4 and 5 lesions as malignant lesions. We then calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive, predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy. The breast lesions were histologically diagnosed as 298 cases of category 2, 21 cases of category 3, 108 cases of category 4 and 44 cases of category 5. The categorical malignancy rate was 1% (3/298) in category 2 lesions, 4.7% (1/21) in category 3 lesions, 8.3% (9/108) in category 4 lesions and 90.9% (40/44) in category 5 lesions. Within category 4, the malignancy rate for category 4a lesions was 5.4% (5/92), the malignancy rate for category 4b lesions was 1.3% (1/8) and the malignancy rate for category 4c lesions was 50% (4/8). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 90.6%, 75.1%, 31.6% and 98.4%, respectively. The statistically valid ultrasound features that were correlated with malignancy were an ill defined margin, a microlobulated mass, an irregular mass, inhomogenic echogenicity, an echogenic halo and an older patient age. Ultrasound BI-RADS was useful in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions

  18. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, Richard [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Leichter, Isaac [Department of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, Shalom [Department of Radiology of The Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Novak, Boris [Department of Applied Mathematics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel); Bamberger, Philippe [Department of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, POB 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Fields, Scott [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A{sub z}of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A {sub z}of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A {sub z}significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  19. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Richard; Leichter, Isaac; Buchbinder, Shalom; Novak, Boris; Bamberger, Philippe; Fields, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A z of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A z of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A z significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  20. Management for BI-RADS category 3 lesions detected in preoperative breast MR imaging of breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gweon, Hye Mi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Kim, Soo-Yeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Hye Ryoung [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Mirinae [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Ajung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Eun Ju [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate characteristics of and determine appropriate follow-up recommendations for BI-RADS category 3 lesions detected in preoperative MRI of breast cancer patients. BI-RADS category 3 assessments were identified from the breast MRI database for 5,110 consecutive breast cancer patients who had undergone preoperative MRI and surgery. Patient and lesion characteristics, malignancy rate, and interval between lesion detection and cancer diagnosis were analysed. Histopathological results or imaging at or after 2-year follow-up were used as reference standards. Of the 626 lesions, morphological features included a single focus in 26.5% (n = 166), multiple foci in 47.1% (n = 295), mass in 21.7% (n = 136) and non-mass enhancement in 4.6% (n = 29). Cancer was found in 0.8% (5/626) at a median interval of 50 months (range, 29-66 months). Malignancy rate according to morphological feature was: 1.8% (3/166) in a single focus, 0.7% (1/136) in mass and 3.4% (1/29) in non-mass enhancement. All detected cancers were stage 0 or IA. Annual follow-up might be adequate for BI-RADS category 3 lesions detected at preoperative MRI because of the 0.8% (5/626) malignancy rate, long interval between lesion detection and cancer diagnosis, and early stage of diagnosed cancers. (orig.)

  1. Radiomic modeling of BI-RADS density categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir

    2017-03-01

    Screening mammography is the most effective and low-cost method to date for early cancer detection. Mammographic breast density has been shown to be highly correlated with breast cancer risk. We are developing a radiomic model for BI-RADS density categorization on digital mammography (FFDM) with a supervised machine learning approach. With IRB approval, we retrospectively collected 478 FFDMs from 478 women. As a gold standard, breast density was assessed by an MQSA radiologist based on BI-RADS categories. The raw FFDMs were used for computerized density assessment. The raw FFDM first underwent log-transform to approximate the x-ray sensitometric response, followed by multiscale processing to enhance the fibroglandular densities and parenchymal patterns. Three ROIs were automatically identified based on the keypoint distribution, where the keypoints were obtained as the extrema in the image Gaussian scale-space. A total of 73 features, including intensity and texture features that describe the density and the parenchymal pattern, were extracted from each breast. Our BI-RADS density estimator was constructed by using a random forest classifier. We used a 10-fold cross validation resampling approach to estimate the errors. With the random forest classifier, computerized density categories for 412 of the 478 cases agree with radiologist's assessment (weighted kappa = 0.93). The machine learning method with radiomic features as predictors demonstrated a high accuracy in classifying FFDMs into BI-RADS density categories. Further work is underway to improve our system performance as well as to perform an independent testing using a large unseen FFDM set.

  2. Comparison of Danish dichotomous and BI-RADS classifications of mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Rebecca; Hellmann, Sophie Sell; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Vejborg, Ilse; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2014-06-01

    In the Copenhagen mammography screening program from 1991 to 2001, mammographic density was classified either as fatty or mixed/dense. This dichotomous mammographic density classification system is unique internationally, and has not been validated before. To compare the Danish dichotomous mammographic density classification system from 1991 to 2001 with the density BI-RADS classifications, in an attempt to validate the Danish classification system. The study sample consisted of 120 mammograms taken in Copenhagen in 1991-2001, which tested false positive, and which were in 2012 re-assessed and classified according to the BI-RADS classification system. We calculated inter-rater agreement between the Danish dichotomous mammographic classification as fatty or mixed/dense and the four-level BI-RADS classification by the linear weighted Kappa statistic. Of the 120 women, 32 (26.7%) were classified as having fatty and 88 (73.3%) as mixed/dense mammographic density, according to Danish dichotomous classification. According to BI-RADS density classification, 12 (10.0%) women were classified as having predominantly fatty (BI-RADS code 1), 46 (38.3%) as having scattered fibroglandular (BI-RADS code 2), 57 (47.5%) as having heterogeneously dense (BI-RADS 3), and five (4.2%) as having extremely dense (BI-RADS code 4) mammographic density. The inter-rater variability assessed by weighted kappa statistic showed a substantial agreement (0.75). The dichotomous mammographic density classification system utilized in early years of Copenhagen's mammographic screening program (1991-2001) agreed well with the BI-RADS density classification system.

  3. Mammogram retrieval through machine learning within BI-RADS standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Hung; Li, Yue; Huang, Pai Jung

    2011-08-01

    A content-based mammogram retrieval system can support usual comparisons made on images by physicians, answering similarity queries over images stored in the database. The importance of searching for similar mammograms lies in the fact that physicians usually try to recall similar cases by seeking images that are pathologically similar to a given image. This paper presents a content-based mammogram retrieval system, which employs a query example to search for similar mammograms in the database. In this system the mammographic lesions are interpreted based on their medical characteristics specified in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) standards. A hierarchical similarity measurement scheme based on a distance weighting function is proposed to model user's perception and maximizes the effectiveness of each feature in a mammographic descriptor. A machine learning approach based on support vector machines and user's relevance feedback is also proposed to analyze the user's information need in order to retrieve target images more accurately. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed machine learning approach with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel function achieves the best performance among all tested ones. Furthermore, the results also show that the proposed learning approach can improve retrieval performance when applied to retrieve mammograms with similar mass and calcification lesions, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Positive Predictive Value of BI-RADS Categorization in an Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yah-Yuen Tan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System (BI-RADS categorization of mammograms is useful in estimating the risk of malignancy, thereby guiding management decisions. However, in Asian women, in whom breast density is increased, the sensitivity of mammography is correspondingly lower. We sought to determine the positive predictive value of BI-RADS categorization for malignancy in our Asian population and, hence, its value in helping us to choose between the various modalities for breast biopsy. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occult breast lesions detected on mammography or ultrasound who underwent needle-localization open breast biopsy (NLOB in our institution over a 6-year period. There were 470 biopsies in 427 patients; 16% of lesions were malignant. The positive predictive value of BI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions for cancer was 0.27 and 0.84, respectively. While most BI-RADS 5 mass lesions were invasive cancers, the majority of calcifications in this category were in situ carcinomas. We conclude that BI-RADS remains useful in aiding decision-making for biopsy in our Asian population. Based on positive predictive values, we recommend percutaneous breast biopsy for initial evaluation of lesions categorized as BI-RADS 4 or less. For BI-RADS 5 lesions with microcalcifications, open surgical biopsy as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure may be more appropriate. In the case of a BI-RADS 5 lesion associated with a mass, initial percutaneous biopsy may be useful for diagnosis, followed by a planned single-stage surgical procedure as necessary.

  5. Radiology residents' comprehension of the breast imaging reporting and data system: The ultrasound lexicon and final assessment category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye; Roh, Yun Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, You Me

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in interpretation and comprehension of breast ultrasonographic descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to suggest the adequate duration of training in breast ultrasonography. A total of 102 radiology residents working in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. They were asked to answer 16 questions about the ultrasonographic lexicon and 11 questions about the BI-RADS category. We analyzed the proportion of correct answers according to the radiology residents’ year of training and duration of breast imaging training. With respect to the duration of breast imaging training, the proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors ranged from 77.2% to 81.3% (p = 0.368) and the proportion of correct answers for the BI-RADS category was highest after three-four months of training compared with after one month of training (p = 0.033). The proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors and BI-RADS category did not differ significantly according to the year of residency training. Radiology residents' comprehension of the BI-RADS category on breast ultrasonography was not associated with their year of residency training. Based on our findings, radiology residents' assessment of the BI-RADS category was significantly improved with three-four months of training compared with one month of training

  6. Radiology residents' comprehension of the breast imaging reporting and data system: The ultrasound lexicon and final assessment category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye [Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Yun Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Me [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in interpretation and comprehension of breast ultrasonographic descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to suggest the adequate duration of training in breast ultrasonography. A total of 102 radiology residents working in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. They were asked to answer 16 questions about the ultrasonographic lexicon and 11 questions about the BI-RADS category. We analyzed the proportion of correct answers according to the radiology residents’ year of training and duration of breast imaging training. With respect to the duration of breast imaging training, the proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors ranged from 77.2% to 81.3% (p = 0.368) and the proportion of correct answers for the BI-RADS category was highest after three-four months of training compared with after one month of training (p = 0.033). The proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors and BI-RADS category did not differ significantly according to the year of residency training. Radiology residents' comprehension of the BI-RADS category on breast ultrasonography was not associated with their year of residency training. Based on our findings, radiology residents' assessment of the BI-RADS category was significantly improved with three-four months of training compared with one month of training.

  7. Accuracy of CESM versus conventional mammography and ultrasound in evaluation of BI-RADS 3 and 4 breast lesions with pathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Helal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Assess accuracy of contrast enhanced spectral mammography (CESM versus conventional mammography and ultrasound in evaluation of BI-RADS 3 and 4 breast lesions with pathological correlation. Patients and methods: Thirty female patients with 35 breast lesions diagnosed by conventional imaging as BI-RADS 3 and 4, presented to Women’s Imaging Unit of Radiology Department between January and December 2015, age ranged from 23 to 70 years. All patients underwent conventional mammography and ultrasound then CESM. Results: Patients divided into two groups, benign and malignant lesions group according to histological analysis. Mammography results that malignant lesions detected in 18/35 (51.4% while benign lesions 17/35 (48.6%. Ultrasound revealed 27/35 (77.1% lesions were malignant and 8/35 (22.9% lesions benign. But CESM, revealed 25/35 (71.4% lesions were malignant & 10/35 (28.6% lesions benign. Among 7 patients with multifocal/ multi-centric histologically proven malignant lesions, all detected by CESM 7/7 cases (100% versus 2/7 cases (28.6% and 6/7 cases (85.7% detected by mammography and ultrasound respectively. Based on, CESM had 95.2% sensitivity and 82.9% diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: CESM has better diagnostic accuracy than mammography alone and mammography plus ultrasound. CESM has 82.9% diagnostic accuracy in comparison to 51.4% for mammography and 77.1% for ultrasound. Keywords: Breast lesions, CESM, BI-RADS lexicon

  8. Tomosynthesis in the Diagnostic Setting: Changing Rates of BI-RADS Final Assessment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Madhavi; Durand, Melissa A; Andrejeva, Liva; Goehler, Alexander; Michalski, Mark H; Geisel, Jaime L; Hooley, Regina J; Horvath, Laura J; Butler, Reni; Forman, Howard P; Philpotts, Liane E

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of tomosynthesis in diagnostic mammography on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment categories over time. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The authors reviewed all diagnostic mammograms obtained during a 12-month interval before (two-dimensional [2D] mammography [June 2, 2010, to June 1, 2011]) and for 3 consecutive years after (tomosynthesis year 1 [2012], tomosynthesis year 2 [2013], and tomosynthesis year 3 [2014]) the implementation of tomosynthesis. The requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The rates of BI-RADS final assessment categories 1-5 were compared between the 2D and tomosynthesis groups. The positive predictive values after biopsy (PPV3) for BI-RADS category 4 and 5 cases were compared. The mammographic features (masses, architectural distortions, calcifications, focal asymmetries) of lesions categorized as probably benign (BI-RADS category 3) and those for which biopsy was recommended (BI-RADS category 4 or 5) were reviewed. The χ(2) test was used to compare the rates of BI-RADS final assessment categories 1-5 between the two groups, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare all diagnostic studies categorized as BI-RADS 3-5. Results There was an increase in the percentage of cases reported as negative or benign (BI-RADS category 1 or 2) with tomosynthesis (58.7% with 2D mammography vs 75.8% with tomosynthesis at year 3, P tomosynthesis at year 3, P tomosynthesis (8.0% with 2D mammography vs 7.8% with tomosynthesis at year 3, P = .2), there was a significant increase in the PPV3 (29.6% vs 50%, respectively; P tomosynthesis use. Conclusion Tomosynthesis in the diagnostic setting resulted in progressive shifts in the BI-RADS final assessment categories over time, with a significant increase in the proportion of studies classified as normal, a continued decrease in the rate of studies

  9. Conditional non-independence of radiographic image features and the derivation of post-test probabilities – A mammography BI-RADS example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Bayes' theorem has proven to be one of the cornerstones in medical decision making. It allows for the derivation of post-test probabilities, which in case of a positive test result become positive predictive values. If several test results are observed successively Bayes' theorem may be used with assumed conditional independence of test results or with incorporated conditional dependencies. Herein it is examined whether radiographic image features should be considered conditionally independent diagnostic tests when post-test probabilities are to be derived. For this purpose the mammographic mass dataset from the UCI (University of California, Irvine) machine learning repository is analysed. It comprises the description of 961 (516 benign, 445 malignant) mammographic mass lesions according to the BI-RADS (Breast Imaging: Reporting and Data System) lexicon. Firstly, an exhaustive correlation matrix is presented for mammography BI-RADS features among benign and malignant lesions separately; correlation can be regarded as measure for conditional dependence. Secondly, it is shown that the derived positive predictive values for the conjunction of the two features “irregular shape” and “spiculated margin” differ significantly depending on whether conditional dependencies are incorporated into the decision process or not. It is concluded that radiographic image features should not generally be regarded as conditionally independent diagnostic tests.

  10. Comparison of Danish dichotomous and BI-RADS classifications of mammographic density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Rebecca; Hellmann, Sophie Sell; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Copenhagen mammography screening program from 1991 to 2001, mammographic density was classified either as fatty or mixed/dense. This dichotomous mammographic density classification system is unique internationally, and has not been validated before. PURPOSE: To compare the Danish...... dichotomous mammographic density classification system from 1991 to 2001 with the density BI-RADS classifications, in an attempt to validate the Danish classification system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 120 mammograms taken in Copenhagen in 1991-2001, which tested false positive......, and which were in 2012 re-assessed and classified according to the BI-RADS classification system. We calculated inter-rater agreement between the Danish dichotomous mammographic classification as fatty or mixed/dense and the four-level BI-RADS classification by the linear weighted Kappa statistic. RESULTS...

  11. Diagnostic value of breast ultrasound in mammography BI-RADS 0 and clinically indeterminate or suspicious of malignancy breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrosavljević Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Not only that ultrasound makes the difference between cystic and solid changes in breast tissue, as it was the case at the beginning of its use, but it also makes the differential diagnosis in terms of benign-malignant. The aim of this study was to assess the role of sonography in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses according to the American College of Radiology Ultrasonographic Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS and to correlate the BI-RADS 4 and BI-RADS 5 category with pathohistological findings. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted with the breast sonograms of 30 women presented with palpable breast masses found to be mammography category BI-RADS 0 and ultrasonographic BI-RADS categories 4 and 5. The sonographic categories were correlated with pathohistological findings. Results. Surgical biopsy in 30 masses revealed: malignancy (56.7%, fibroadenoma (26.7%, fibrocystic dysplasia with/without atypia (10%, lipoma (3.3% and intramammary lymph node (3.3%. Correlation between BI-RADS categories and pathohistological findings was found (p < 0.05. All BI-RADS 5 masses were malignant, while in BI-RADS 4A category fibroadenomas dominated. A total of 53.8% of all benign lesions were found in women 49 years of age or younger as compared with 35.3% of all malignancies in this group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Ultrasonography BI-RADS improved classification of breast masses. The ultrasound BI-RADS 4 (A, B, C and BI-RADS 5 lesions should be worked-up with biopsy.

  12. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of amount of fibroglandular breast tissue with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison to automated quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengert, G.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Woitek, R.; Kapetas, P.; Clauser, P.; Baltzer, P.A.; Vogl, W.D.; Weber, M.; Meyer-Baese, A.; Pinker, Katja

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the inter-/intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to investigate whether FGT assessment benefits from an automated, observer-independent, quantitative MRI measurement by comparing both approaches. Eighty women with no imaging abnormalities (BI-RADS 1 and 2) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective study. All women underwent un-enhanced breast MRI. Four radiologists independently assessed FGT with MRI by subjective visual estimation according to BI-RADS. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT with MRI was performed using a previously described measurement system. Inter-/intra-observer agreements of qualitative and quantitative FGT measurements were assessed using Cohen's kappa (k). Inexperienced readers achieved moderate inter-/intra-observer agreement and experienced readers a substantial inter- and perfect intra-observer agreement for subjective visual estimation of FGT. Practice and experience reduced observer-dependency. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT was successfully performed and revealed only fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.209-0.497) with subjective visual estimations of FGT. Subjective visual estimation of FGT with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement, which can be improved by practice and experience. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements of FGT are necessary to allow a standardized risk evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of amount of fibroglandular breast tissue with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison to automated quantitative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengert, G.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Woitek, R.; Kapetas, P.; Clauser, P.; Baltzer, P.A. [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Vogl, W.D. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Computational Imaging Research Lab, Wien (Austria); Weber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of General and Pediatric Radiology, Wien (Austria); Meyer-Baese, A. [State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Pinker, Katja [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Services, New York City, NY (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the inter-/intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to investigate whether FGT assessment benefits from an automated, observer-independent, quantitative MRI measurement by comparing both approaches. Eighty women with no imaging abnormalities (BI-RADS 1 and 2) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective study. All women underwent un-enhanced breast MRI. Four radiologists independently assessed FGT with MRI by subjective visual estimation according to BI-RADS. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT with MRI was performed using a previously described measurement system. Inter-/intra-observer agreements of qualitative and quantitative FGT measurements were assessed using Cohen's kappa (k). Inexperienced readers achieved moderate inter-/intra-observer agreement and experienced readers a substantial inter- and perfect intra-observer agreement for subjective visual estimation of FGT. Practice and experience reduced observer-dependency. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT was successfully performed and revealed only fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.209-0.497) with subjective visual estimations of FGT. Subjective visual estimation of FGT with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement, which can be improved by practice and experience. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements of FGT are necessary to allow a standardized risk evaluation. (orig.)

  14. Significance and Application of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis for the BI-RADS Classification of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Si-Qing; Yan, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Qing-Shi; Huang, Mei-Ling; Cai, Dong-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with dense breasts has a high rate of missed diagnosis, and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) could reduce organization overlapping and provide more reliable images for BI-RADS classification. This study aims to explore application of COMBO (FFDM+DBT) for effect and significance of BI-RADS classification of breast cancer. In this study, we selected 832 patients who had been treated from May 2013 to November 2013. Classify FFDM and COMBO examination according to BI-RADS separately and compare the differences for glands in the image of the same patient in judgment, mass characteristics display and indirect signs. Employ Paired Wilcoxon rank sum test was used in 79 breast cancer patients to find differences between two examine methods. The results indicated that COMBO pattern is able to observe more details in distribution of glands when estimating content. Paired Wilcoxon rank sum test showed that overall classification level of COMBO is higher significantly compared to FFDM to BI-RADS diagnosis and classification of breast (PBI-RADS classification in breast cancer in clinical.

  15. Simple rules for ultrasonographic subcategorization of BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4 breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jales, Rodrigo Menezes, E-mail: rodrigoj@hotmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Sarian, Luís Otavio, E-mail: luis.sarian@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Torresan, Renato, E-mail: torresan@terra.com.br [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Marussi, Emílio Francisco, E-mail: efmarussi@uol.com.br [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Álvares, Beatriz Regina, E-mail: alvaresb@terra.com.br [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Derchain, Sophie, E-mail: derchain@fcm.unicamp.br [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas – Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate an objective method for ultrasonographic (US) subcategorization of BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4 breast masses based on clear and simple rules in order for woman to benefit from a more complete and homogeneous breast mass analysis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we selected 330 women, with 339 US breast masses, classified as BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4. Three physicians experienced in breast imaging independently reviewed all US images, assessing mass shape, margins, orientation, echo texture and vascularity. These experts further subdivided the masses into subcategories 4a, 4b and 4c, according to simple US rules. Inter-observer agreement was calculated for US features categories and for final subcategory assessment. We also estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) for BI-RADS{sup ®}-US subcategories 4a, 4b and 4c assigned by each of the three observers. Results: Pathological examination of all masses confirmed 144 (42%) malignant and 195 (58%) benign tumors. Moderate agreement was obtained for mass shape, margins, vascularity and for final BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4 subcategory. Substantial agreement was obtained for the description of mass orientation and echo texture. The PPV for subcategories 4a, 4b and 4c were, 17%, 45% and 85%, respectively, for the first observer and 20%, 38% and 79% and 17%, 40% and 85% for the other two observers. Conclusion: Standardization of a US subcategorization of BI-RADS{sup ®}-US 4 breast masses seems to be feasible, with substantial inter-observer agreement and progressive increase in the PPV in the subcategories 4a, 4b and 4c, provided that clear and simple classification rules are defined.

  16. Could ultrasonic elastography help the diagnosis of small (≤2 cm) breast cancer with the usage of sonographic BI-RADS classification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Hui; Xiao, Xiao-yun; Ou, Bing; Zhong, Wen-jing; Zhao, Zi-zhuo; Zhao, Xin-bao; Yang, Hai-yun; Luo, Bao-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the additive value of ultrasound strain elastography (USE) to BI-RADS for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast small lesions. Methods: Breast masses (≤2 cm) with histological diagnosis examined by ultrasonography and USE in our department from April 2004 to December 2009 were reviewed. Conventional B-mode ultrasound findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. USE findings were classified according to the 5-point scale. Histological diagnosis was used as the reference standard. Results: 401 (246 benign (61.3%), 155 malignant (38.7%)) from 370 consecutive patients were included in the study. Sensitivity and specificity were 90.3%, 68.3% for BI-RADS; 72.3%, 91.9% for USE. The sensitivity of BI-RADS was better than that of USE (P < 0.05), while the specificity of USE was better than that of BI-RADS (P < 0.05). A revised BI-RADS combined with USE results was proposed in this study. Sensitivity and specificity were 83.9% and 87.8% for revised BI-RADS. The diagnostic performance of revised BI-RADS was better than BI-RADS (P < 0.05). Conclusions: USE could give BI-RADS some help in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast small lesions. The addition of elastography to BI-RADS could improve the diagnostic performance in <2 cm lesions.

  17. Diagnostic value of BI-RADS categories in the management of patients with benign breast pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Korzhenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable tactics of management of the patients with breast disease depends of the quality of diagnostics methods. Modern requirements to the methods of diagnosis – a precision, high information value, accessibility. In the article BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System is being discussed. This system is a good tool to determine the proper algorithm of breast disease patients’ management.

  18. Breast imaging and reporting data system - Mammography. ACR BI-RADS registered -Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Helbrich, T.

    2006-01-01

    ACR BI-RADS registered mammography is an established technique in all German-speaking countries and has become a standard part of all mammographic findings. The first German-language edition three years ago made a significant contribution to this. This is the second, revised and edited edition. It is based on the fourth English-language edition of the ACR which was published in 2003. (orig.)

  19. It should be indicate a biopsy for BI-RADS 3 mammogram?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi Ofelia Vera San Miguel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, mammography is the imaging method most commonly used for early detection of breast cancer, decisive for prior to the onset of symptoms diagnosed. The malignancy that is recorded more frequently in women is breast cancer, regarded worldwide as a major public health problem. By implementing the BI-RADS manual seeks to standardize mammographic report. Objective: To determine the radiographic and anatomic-pathologic concordance of mammographic findings in women of thirty years and more, who consulted in the Hospital Central del Instituto de Previsión Social- Paraguay, during the first semester of 2015. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, retrospective study. The variables age, reasons for seeing a doctor, mammographic findings, histopathological diagnoses obtained from breast biopsy and reporting BI-RADS were studied. Results: The sample consisted of 138 women. The age range of the patients was 30 to 89 years, with an average of 55 years. The annual routine check represented the most frequent reason for consultation (52.0%. 71.0% of the findings corresponded to dense nodules, and they were 75.0% malignancies. Conclusion: The agreement was moderate with Kappa index. In patients with BI-RADS 3, there were found 30.62% malignancies, so it is suggested to consider from this level for pathological study.

  20. Intraobserver interpretation of breast ultrasonography following the BI-RADS classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calas, M.J.G.; Almeida, R.M.V.R.; Gutfilen, B.; Pereira, W.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To use the BI-RADS ultrasound classification in an intraobserver retrospective study of the interpretation of breast images. Materials and Methods: The study used 40 breast ultrasound images recorded in orthogonal planes, obtained from patients with an indication for surgery. Eight professionals experienced in breast imaging analysis retrospectively reviewed these lesions, in three rounds of image interpretation (with a 3-6 months interval between rounds). Observers had no access to information from medical records or histopathological results, and, without their knowledge, in each new round were assigned the same images previously interpreted by them. Fleiss-modified Kappa measures were the study main concordance index. Besides the BI-RADS, a scale grouping its categories 2-3 and 4-5 was also used. The statistical analysis concerned the intraobserver agreement. Results: Kappa values ranged from 0.37 to 0.75 (original categories) and from 0.73 to 0.87 (grouped categories). Overall, out of the 8 observers, 7 presented moderate to substantial concordance (Kappa values 0.51 to 0.74). Conclusion: The BI-RADS is a reporting tool that provides a standardized terminology for US exams. In this study, moderate to substantial concordance in Kappa values was found, in agreement with other studies of the literature.

  1. Breast Density Estimation with Fully Automated Volumetric Method: Comparison to Radiologists' Assessment by BI-RADS Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tulika; Sharma, Madhurima; Singla, Veenu; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to calculate mammographic breast density with a fully automated volumetric breast density measurement method and to compare it to breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) breast density categories assigned by two radiologists. A total of 476 full-field digital mammography examinations with standard mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal views were evaluated by two blinded radiologists and BI-RADS density categories were assigned. Using a fully automated software, mean fibroglandular tissue volume, mean breast volume, and mean volumetric breast density were calculated. Based on percentage volumetric breast density, a volumetric density grade was assigned from 1 to 4. The weighted overall kappa was 0.895 (almost perfect agreement) for the two radiologists' BI-RADS density estimates. A statistically significant difference was seen in mean volumetric breast density among the BI-RADS density categories. With increased BI-RADS density category, increase in mean volumetric breast density was also seen (P BI-RADS categories and volumetric density grading by fully automated software (ρ = 0.728, P BI-RADS density category by two observers showed fair agreement (κ = 0.398 and 0.388, respectively). In our study, a good correlation was seen between density grading using fully automated volumetric method and density grading using BI-RADS density categories assigned by the two radiologists. Thus, the fully automated volumetric method may be used to quantify breast density on routine mammography. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic value of coustic radiation force impulse for BI-RADS category 4 breast lesions of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong

    2018-04-14

    To determine the diagnostic value of combined conventional ultrasound (US) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging for the differential diagnosis of BI-RADS category 4 breast lesions of different sizes. From April 2013 to January 2015, 283 patients (with a total of 292 breast lesions) who underwent US and ARFI examination were included in this retrospective study. The SWV for the lesion and adjacent normal breast tissue were measured and the SWV ratio was calculated. VTI grade was also assessed. The lesions were separated into three groups on the basis of size, and two combinations of ARFI parameters (SWV + VTI and SWV ratio + VTI) were applied to reassess the BI-RADS categories. Diagnoses were confirmed by pathological examination after biopsy or surgery. ROC analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic efficiency of each method. The Z test was used to compare the difference between AUC of the two methods. Significant improvement was seen in the diagnostic performance of US with the use of the ARFI parameters SWV + VTI (77/179 [43.0%] of BI-RADS category 4A breast lesions were downgraded) and SWV ratio + VTI (64/179 [35.8%] of BI-RADS category 4A breast lesions were downgraded, including two malignant cases that were misdiagnosed as benign) (P BI-RADS category 4 breast lesions. The combination of SWV ratio + VTI can improve BI-RADS classification of small lesions (<10 mm size).

  3. Breast Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI: Fibrocystic Changes Presenting as a Non-mass Enhancement Mimicking Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Zorica C; Nadrljanski, Mirjan M; Milovanovic, Zorka M; Gusic, Nina Z; Vucicevic, Slavko S; Radulovic, Olga S

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to analyse the morphokinetic features of breast fibrocystic changes (nonproliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia and proliferative lesions with atypia) presenting as a non-mass enhancement (NME)in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) examination. Forty-six patients with histologically proven fibrocystic changes (FCCs) were retrospectively reviewed, according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. Prior to DCE-MRI examination, a unilateral breast lesion suspicious of malignancy was detected clinically, on mammography or breast ultrasonography. The predominant features of FCCs presenting as NME in DCE-MRI examination were: unilateral regional or diffuse distribution (in 35 patients or 76.1%), heterogeneous or clumped internal pattern of enhancement (in 36 patients or 78.3%), plateau time-intensity curve (in 25 patients or 54.3%), moderate or fast wash-in (in 31 patients or 67.4%).Nonproliferative lesions were found in 11 patients (24%), proliferative lesions without atypia in 29 patients (63%) and lesions with atypia in six patients (13%), without statistically significant difference of morphokinetic features, except of the association of clustered microcysts with proliferative dysplasia without atypia. FCCs presenting as NME in DCE-MRI examination have several morphokinetic features suspicious of malignancy, therefore requiring biopsy (BI-RADS 4). Nonproliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia and proliferative lesions with atypia predominantly share the same predefined DCE-MRI morphokinetic features.

  4. Breast imaging reports for malignant lesions: are we maintaining recommended BI-RADS® lexicon standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masroor, Imrana; Azeemuddin, Muhammad; Sakhawat, Saima; Beg, Madiha; Sohail, Saba; Ahmed, Rashid; Irfan-Ul-Haq; Mehboob, Javed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mammography reports for diagnosed breast cancer cases in major government and private centers in Karachi, Pakistan, with respect to concordance with the Breast Imaging Reports And Data System (BI-RADS ® ) lexicon. A prospective, descriptive, multicenter study was conducted in the radiology sections of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan Naval Station Shifa Hospital, Advanced Radiology Clinic, Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, and Civil Hospital Karachi between May and October 2010 after approval from the ethical review committee of Aga Khan University. Mammograms reported as BI-RADS category 4 and 5 were included in the study. Mammograms reported as BI-RADS category 0, 1, 2 and 3 were excluded. Fifty reports were collected from each center. Data were collected about the clinical indication, breast density, location and description of the lesion, calcification, and comments on axillary lymph nodes. This description was compared with the BI-RADS lexicon. The mean age of the patients was 50 ± 12 years. The clinical indication, breast parenchymal density, lesion location, and presence of calcification were better described by the private centers, while description of lymph node status was better stated by the government centers. This difference was statistically significant, except for lesion description. The description of masses by the two reporting groups was comparable. Mammographic reporting of malignant breast lesions in the private sector is more in line with the BI-RADS lexicon, as compared with government sector hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Lymph node documentation was better in government sector reports

  5. Non-mass-like breast lesions at ultrasonography: Feature analysis and BI-RADS assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kai-Hsiung [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, Hsian-He, E-mail: hsianhe@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Jyh-Cherng [Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Peng, Yi-Jen [Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tung, Ho-Jui [Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chu, Chi-Ming [Section of Health Informatics, Institute of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center and University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Tsun-Hou; Chang, Wei-Chou; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Pang; Hsu, Giu-Cheng [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The positive predictive value of an NML lesion on ultrasound ranges from 10 to 79%. • A sizable number of NML malignant lesions are pure DCIS or ILC. • Biopsy is indicated for histopathological diagnosis when an ultrasound NML lesion is recognized. - Abstract: Objective: To analyze the features of non-mass-like (NML) breast lesions on ultrasound (US) and determine their corresponding malignancy rate and to stratify these lesion patterns according to US BI-RADS categories. Materials and methods: One hundred sixty-four consecutive lesions were retrospectively classified into four types according to the US features, the corresponding positive predictive values (PPVs) were obtained. Clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings were reviewed. Results: Among the 164 lesions, 39 (24%) were classified as type Ia, 14 (8%) as type Ib, 39 (24%) as type IIa, 19 (12%) as type IIb, 19 (12%) as type III, and 34 (21%) as type IV. The PPVs for malignancy were 21% for type Ia, 79% for type Ib, 10% for type IIa, 58% for type IIb, 16% for type III, and 21% for type IV. All NML lesions were classified as BI-RADS category 4a (type IIa), 4b (type Ia, III and IV) and 4c (type Ib and IIb) according to their PPVs. There was a significantly higher frequency of malignancy among lesions of type Ib and type IIb compared with the other types (P < 0.01 for each). Lesions with associated calcifications, presence of abnormal axillary nodes, or a mammographic finding of suspected malignancy had a higher probability of malignancy (P < 0.05 for each). Conclusion: US is useful in clarifying the indication for biopsy of NML lesions. The types of US classifications used in our study establish reliable references for the NML patterns when stratified according to the BI-RADS categories.

  6. Non-mass-like breast lesions at ultrasonography: Feature analysis and BI-RADS assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kai-Hsiung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Peng, Yi-Jen; Tung, Ho-Jui; Chu, Chi-Ming; Chang, Tsun-Hou; Chang, Wei-Chou; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Pang; Hsu, Giu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The positive predictive value of an NML lesion on ultrasound ranges from 10 to 79%. • A sizable number of NML malignant lesions are pure DCIS or ILC. • Biopsy is indicated for histopathological diagnosis when an ultrasound NML lesion is recognized. - Abstract: Objective: To analyze the features of non-mass-like (NML) breast lesions on ultrasound (US) and determine their corresponding malignancy rate and to stratify these lesion patterns according to US BI-RADS categories. Materials and methods: One hundred sixty-four consecutive lesions were retrospectively classified into four types according to the US features, the corresponding positive predictive values (PPVs) were obtained. Clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings were reviewed. Results: Among the 164 lesions, 39 (24%) were classified as type Ia, 14 (8%) as type Ib, 39 (24%) as type IIa, 19 (12%) as type IIb, 19 (12%) as type III, and 34 (21%) as type IV. The PPVs for malignancy were 21% for type Ia, 79% for type Ib, 10% for type IIa, 58% for type IIb, 16% for type III, and 21% for type IV. All NML lesions were classified as BI-RADS category 4a (type IIa), 4b (type Ia, III and IV) and 4c (type Ib and IIb) according to their PPVs. There was a significantly higher frequency of malignancy among lesions of type Ib and type IIb compared with the other types (P < 0.01 for each). Lesions with associated calcifications, presence of abnormal axillary nodes, or a mammographic finding of suspected malignancy had a higher probability of malignancy (P < 0.05 for each). Conclusion: US is useful in clarifying the indication for biopsy of NML lesions. The types of US classifications used in our study establish reliable references for the NML patterns when stratified according to the BI-RADS categories

  7. VEGF 936C > T Polymorphism and Association of BI-RADS Score in Women with Suspected Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wehrschuetz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent regulator of angiogenesis and thereby involved in the development and progression of solid tumors. A 936C> T polymorphism in the VEGF gene has been associated with reduced VEGF plasma levels. Purpose of the present study was to analyze the potential association between VEGF genotype and radiological appearance of breast lesions by mammography. Materials and Methods Fifty two women with 54 suspected breast lesions were analyzed by the use of mammography with the standard breast imaging reporting and data systems (BI-RADS. Germline VEGF genotype was determined in all subjects by allele-specific digestion of amplification products. An open biopsy was performed on all lesions. Results VEGF CC, CT and TT genotypes were found in 41 (79%, 9 (17% and 2 (4% patients. By mammography 26, 16 and 12 suspected breast lesions were classified as BI-RADS scores 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Both carriers of the TT genotype were classified as BI-RADS 5, whereas among CT or CC carriers, BI-RADS scores 3, 4 and 5 were found in 26, 16 and 10 subjects (P T polymorphism seems to be associated with a high BI-RADS score in women with suspicious breast lesions.

  8. Ultrasonographic characteristics and BI-RADS-US classification of BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Liu, Junjie; Wang, Sida; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Zhigang; Zeng, Jian; Li, Zhixian

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze and compare the ultrasonographic characteristics and BI-RADS-US classification between patients with BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer and those without BRCA1 gene mutation in Guangxi, China. The study was performed in 36 lesions from 34 BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer patients. A total of 422 lesions from 422 breast cancer patients without BRCA1 mutations served as control group. The comparison of the ultrasonographic features and BI-RADS-US classification between two the groups were reviewed. More complex inner echo was disclosed in BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer patients (x(2) = 4.741, P = 0.029). The BI-RADS classification of BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer was lower (U = 6094.0, P = 0.022). BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer frequently displays as microlobulated margin and complex echo. It also shows more benign characteristics in morphology, and the BI-RADS classification is prone to be underestimated.

  9. Complex cystic lesions of the breast on ultrasonography: Feature analysis and BI-RADS assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Hsian-He; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Lin, Wen-Chiung; Chang, Wei-Chou; Tung, Ho-Jui; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Giu-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the features of breast complex cystic lesions at ultrasonography (US) and to determine appropriate Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories and management recommendations for these lesions based on US findings with pathologic correlation. Materials and methods: From July 2001 to June 2007, 152 consecutive pathologically proven complex cystic lesions on US were retrospectively reviewed. All lesions at US were evaluated for size, lesion characteristics, margins, and presence of abnormal axillary nodes. US features of lesions were classified into four types, and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated for each type. Clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings were reviewed. Results: Of the 152 lesions based on US appearance, 36 (24%) were classified as type I, 49 (32%) as type II, 28 (18%) as type III, and 39 (26%) as type IV. The PPVs for malignancy in each type were 14% for type I, 16% for type II, 14% for type III, and 41% for type IV. There was a significantly higher frequency of malignancy among lesions of type IV compared with the other three types (16/39 = 41% vs 5/36 = 14%, p = 0.0089; 16/39 = 41% vs 8/49 = 16%, p = 0.0098; and 16/39 = 41% vs 4/28 = 14%, p = 0.018 [Chi-squared test]). Lesions with maximum diameter equal to or larger than 20 mm, not circumscribed margins, or a mammographic finding of suspected malignancy had a high probability of malignancy (p < 0.05 for each). Conclusion: US is useful in evaluating the complex cystic lesions and in clarifying the indication for biopsy of these lesions. The four types of US classifications used in our study establish accepted benchmarks for these breast abnormalities when stratified according to BI-RADS categories.

  10. Complex cystic lesions of the breast on ultrasonography: Feature analysis and BI-RADS assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsian-He, E-mail: hsianhe@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jyh-Cherng [Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Lee, Herng-Sheng [Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Chiung; Chang, Wei-Chou [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China); Tung, Ho-Jui [Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taiwan (China); Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Giu-Cheng [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the features of breast complex cystic lesions at ultrasonography (US) and to determine appropriate Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories and management recommendations for these lesions based on US findings with pathologic correlation. Materials and methods: From July 2001 to June 2007, 152 consecutive pathologically proven complex cystic lesions on US were retrospectively reviewed. All lesions at US were evaluated for size, lesion characteristics, margins, and presence of abnormal axillary nodes. US features of lesions were classified into four types, and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated for each type. Clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings were reviewed. Results: Of the 152 lesions based on US appearance, 36 (24%) were classified as type I, 49 (32%) as type II, 28 (18%) as type III, and 39 (26%) as type IV. The PPVs for malignancy in each type were 14% for type I, 16% for type II, 14% for type III, and 41% for type IV. There was a significantly higher frequency of malignancy among lesions of type IV compared with the other three types (16/39 = 41% vs 5/36 = 14%, p = 0.0089; 16/39 = 41% vs 8/49 = 16%, p = 0.0098; and 16/39 = 41% vs 4/28 = 14%, p = 0.018 [Chi-squared test]). Lesions with maximum diameter equal to or larger than 20 mm, not circumscribed margins, or a mammographic finding of suspected malignancy had a high probability of malignancy (p < 0.05 for each). Conclusion: US is useful in evaluating the complex cystic lesions and in clarifying the indication for biopsy of these lesions. The four types of US classifications used in our study establish accepted benchmarks for these breast abnormalities when stratified according to BI-RADS categories.

  11. Differentiating benign from malignant solid breast masses: value of shear wave elastography according to lesion stiffness combined with greyscale ultrasound according to BI-RADS classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A; Whelehan, P; Thomson, K; Brauer, K; Jordan, L; Purdie, C; McLean, D; Baker, L; Vinnicombe, S; Thompson, A

    2012-07-10

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of shear wave elastography combined with BI-RADS classification of greyscale ultrasound images for benign/malignant differentiation in a large group of patients. One hundred and seventy-five consecutive patients with solid breast masses on routine ultrasonography undergoing percutaneous biopsy had the greyscale findings classified according to the American College of Radiology BI-RADS. The mean elasticity values from four shear wave images were obtained. For mean elasticity vs greyscale BI-RADS, the performance results against histology were sensitivity: 95% vs 95%, specificity: 77% vs 69%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV): 88% vs 84%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV): 90% vs 91%, and accuracy: 89% vs 86% (all P>0.05). The results for the combination (positive result from either modality counted as malignant) were sensitivity 100%, specificity 61%, PPV 82%, NPV 100%, and accuracy 86%. The combination of BI-RADS greyscale and shear wave elastography yielded superior sensitivity to BI-RADS alone (P=0.03) or shear wave alone (P=0.03). The NPV was superior in combination compared with either alone (BI-RADS P=0.01 and shear wave P=0.02). Together, BI-RADS assessment of greyscale ultrasound images and shear wave ultrasound elastography are extremely sensitive for detection of malignancy.

  12. Validity of the breast imaging reporting and data system BI-RADS{sup TM} for clinical mammography in men; Anwendbarkeit des Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS{sup TM}) auf die klinische Mammographie des Mannes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, K.; Duda, V.F.; Bonwetsch, C.; Hadji, P.; Schulz, K.D. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Gynaekologie, Gynaekologische Endokrinologie und Onkologie; Iwinska-Zelder, J.; Klose, K.J. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Rode, G. [Diagnostische Gemeinschaftspraxis Marburg (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    Aim: The implementation of diagnostic standards enhances quality assurance. The American College of Radiology's breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS{sup TM}) is intended to standardize terminology in the mammography report, the assessment of the findings, and the recommendation af action to be taken. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of the standardized system for clinically apparent male breast tumors. Do the special male anatomy and physiology limit the applicability of an evaluation system designed for female screening mammograms? Methods: 4 investigators with different degrees of experience retrospectively evaluated 160 male mammograms. Our study was based on the 36 cases which could be correlated to histopathological findings: gynecomastia in the majority of cases, but also 4 invasive ductal carcinoma, 1 leiomyosarcoma and 1 ductal carcinoma in situ. Results: Assessment of the mammograms by BI-RADS{sup TM} (3{sup rd} Edition 1998) correctly placed all cases of malignancy into categories 4 and 5 without respect to the investigators's level of experience. Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that the BI-RADS{sup TM}-classification can successfully be used to classify male mammograms with a high positive predictive value for malignancy. Knowledge of gender-specific imaging characteristics increases the specificity at a constant high level of sensitivity. (orig.) [German] Ziel: In der apparativen Diagnostik dient die Einfuehrung von Standards der Qualitaetssicherung. Das breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS{sup TM}) des American College of Radiology standardisiert den Sprachgebrauch in der Befundbeschreibung, die Befundbewertung und die resultierenden Empfehlungen in der Mammographie. Unser Interesse galt der Frage, inwieweit dieses System der Kategorisierung von Screening-Mammographien der Frau uebertragbar ist auf klinische Mammographien des Mannes. Begrenzen Anatomie und Physiologie der maennlichen Brustdruese

  13. Comparison of retraction phenomenon and BI-RADS-US descriptors in differentiating benign and malignant breast masses using an automated breast volume scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng-Yang; Yan, Li-Xia; Huang, Bei-Jian; Xia, Han-Sheng; Wang, Xi; Lu, Qing; Li, Cui-Xian; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-01

    To compare the diagnostic values of retraction phenomenon in the coronal planes and descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System-Ultrasound (BI-RADS-US) lexicon in differentiating benign and malignant breast masses using an automated breast volume scanner (ABVS). Two hundred and eight female patients with 237 pathologically proven breast masses (120 benign and 117 malignant) were included in this study. ABVS was performed for each mass after preoperative localization by conventional ultrasonography (US). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess independent variables for malignancy prediction. Diagnostic performance was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Retraction phenomenon (odds ratio [OR]: 76.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.55, 468.70; P<0.001) was the strongest independent predictor for malignant masses, followed by microlobulated margins (OR: 55.87; 95% CI: 12.56, 248.44; P<0.001), angular margins (OR: 36.44; 95% CI: 4.55, 292.06; P=0.001), calcifications (OR: 5.53; 95% CI: 1.34, 22.88; P=0.018,) and patient age (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.17; P=0.004). Mass shape, orientation, echo pattern, indistinct margins, spiculated margins, and mass size were not significantly associated with breast malignancy. Area under the ROC curve (Az) for microlobulated margins and retraction phenomenon was higher than that for other significant independent predictors. Az, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.877 (95% CI: 0.829, 0.926) and 0.838 (95% CI: 0.783, 0.892), 82.9% and 70.1%, and 92.5% and 98.3%, respectively, for microlobulated margins and retraction phenomenon. Retraction phenomenon and microlobulated margins have high diagnostic values in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast masses using an ABVS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of clinicopathological findings among patients whose mammography results were classified as category 4 subgroups of the BI-RADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebici, Ihsan Metin; Bozkurt, Suleyman; Eren, Turgut Tunc; Ozemir, Ibrahim Ali; Sagiroglu, Julide; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to compare mammographic, demographic and clinicopathological characteristics of patients whose mammographies were classified as subgroups of BI-RADS 4 category (Breast Imaging - Reporting and Data System). In total, 103 patients with mammography (Senographe 600t Senix HF; General Electric, Moulineaux, France) results classified as BI-RADS 4 were included in the study. Demographic data (age, menopause, and family history) were recorded. All data were compared among BI-RADS 4 subgroups. In all, 68.9% (71/103), 7.8% (8/103) and 23.3% (24/103) the patients were in groups BI-RADS 4A, 4B and 4C, respectively. The incidence of malignancy was higher in Groups 4B and 4C than in Group 4A (p0.05). Mean age was lower in Group 4B than in Groups 4A and 4C (p<0.05). A positive family history was more common in Group 4A than in Group 4B (p=0.025). The frequency of menopausal patients was greater in Groups 4A and 4C than in Group 4B (p=0.021, and 0.003, respectively). The rate of malignancy was higher in Groups 4B, and 4C than in Group 4A. A positive family history was more common in Group 4A than in Group 4C. Groups 4A, and 4C patients tended to be older and were more likely to be menopausal than Group 4B patients.

  15. ACR BI-RADS Assessment Category 4 Subdivisions in Diagnostic Mammography: Utilization and Outcomes in the National Mammography Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elezaby, Mai; Li, Geng; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Burnside, Elizabeth S; DeMartini, Wendy B

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To determine the utilization and positive predictive value (PPV) of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Data and Reporting System (BI-RADS) category 4 subdivisions in diagnostic mammography in the National Mammography Database (NMD). Materials and Methods This study involved retrospective review of diagnostic mammography data submitted to the NMD from January 1, 2008 to December 30, 2014. Utilization rates of BI-RADS category 4 subdivisions were compared by year, facility (type, location, census region), and examination (indication, finding type) characteristics. PPV3 (positive predictive value for biopsies performed) was calculated overall and according to category 4 subdivision. The χ 2 test was used to test for significant associations. Results Of 1 309 950 diagnostic mammograms, 125 447 (9.6%) were category 4, of which 33.3% (41 841 of 125 447) were subdivided. Subdivision utilization rates were higher (P use, subdivisions were utilized in the minority (33.3% [41 841 of 125 447]) of category 4 diagnostic mammograms, with variability based on facility and examination characteristics. When subdivisions were used, PPV3s were in BI-RADS-specified malignancy ranges. This analysis supports the use of subdivisions in broad practice and, given benefits for patient care, should motivate increased utilization. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  16. Histo-pathological correlation of BI-RADS 4 lesions on mammography with emphasis on microcalcification patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ismail

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 20 patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS 4 lesions was undertaken. These patients were classified as BI-RADS 4 lesions due to presence of a mass (clinical or on mammography, architectural distortion and microcalcifications (MC. In some patients, the pattern of MC was benign but there were other features that were suspicious of malignancy. A comparison was made with the histological diagnosis in order to compare the radiological appearance of benign and malignant microcalcification patterns with the final histology. The study design included retrospective analysis of patients with MC on digital mammography who underwent biopsy. An analysis of the histology was then undertaken. Other factors in the history and physical examination were also considered. Results showed that although the study was not statistically significant due to limited study population, interesting trends are determined in assessing calcification patterns using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS classification system, since some lesions that were thought to have benign calcification patterns were actually malignant and vice versa. Further study in this field is required.

  17. Value of the BI-RADS classification in MR-mammography for diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohns, Christian; Scherrer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Obenauer, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether the BI-RADS classification in MR-Mammography (MRM) can distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. 207 MRM investigations were categorised according to BI-RADS. The results were compared to histology. All MRM studies were interpreted by two examiners. Statistical significance for the accuracy of MRM was calculated. A significant correlation between specific histology and MRM-tumour-morphology could not be reported. Mass (68%) was significant for malignancy. Significance raised with irregular shape (88%), spiculated margin (97%), rim enhancement (98%), fast initial increase (90%), post initial plateau (65%), and intermediate T2 result (82%). Highly significant for benignity was an oval mass (79%), slow initial increase (94%) and a hyperintense T2 result (77%), also an inconspicuous MRM result (77%) was often seen in benign histology. Symmetry (90%) and further post initial increase (90%) were significant, whereas a regional distribution (74%) was lowly significant for benignity. On basis of the BI-RADS classification an objective comparability and statement of diagnosis could be made highly significant. Due to the fact of false-negative and false-positive MRM-results, histology is necessary. (orig.)

  18. First ultrasound diagnosis of BI-RADS 3 lesions in young patients: Can 6-months follow-up be sufficient to assess stability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Magda, E-mail: magda.marcon@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Frauenfelder, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.frauenfelder@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Becker, Anton S., E-mail: anton.becker@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Dedes, Konstantin J., E-mail: Konstantin.dedes@usz.ch [Department of Gynecology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Boss, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.boss@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of repeated short-term follow-up with ultrasound in no high-risk young patients with a BI-RADS3 lesion at first examination. Methods: In this IRB-approved study 492 women, aged 18–34 years (mean ± standard deviation, 28 ± 4.5 years) with first breast ultrasound examination in 2012–2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Inclusion criteria were: at least one BI-RADS3 lesion and (a) biopsy/surgical excision or (b) follow-up of at least 18 months (including a 6-month follow-up). BI-RADS category assigned during follow-up and pathologic findings in cases undergoing biopsy/surgical excision were collected. At the 6- and 18-month follow-up the recommended biopsy rates (RBR) and the corresponding positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Results: In 97 patients, 151 BI-RADS3 lesions were identified. Biopsy/surgical excision was initially performed in 25/151 (16.5%) lesions. After 6-month, category was downgraded to BI-RADS1/2 in 23/126 (15.3%) and upgraded to BI-RADS4 in 9/126 lesions (7.1%). Pathological diagnosis of these lesions was fibroadenoma in 5 and benign phyllodes tumor in 4 cases (RBR 7%, PPV{sub bio} 44.4%). After 18-month one lesion was classified BI-RADS4 and pathological diagnosis was fibroadenoma (RBR 1.1%, PPV{sub bio} 0%). Conclusions: Our preliminary data show that follow-up imaging performed after 18 months from a first BI-RADS3 diagnosis does not affect clinical treatment and 6-month follow-up may be sufficient to assess the stability of probably benign lesions.

  19. First ultrasound diagnosis of BI-RADS 3 lesions in young patients: Can 6-months follow-up be sufficient to assess stability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcon, Magda; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Becker, Anton S.; Dedes, Konstantin J.; Boss, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of repeated short-term follow-up with ultrasound in no high-risk young patients with a BI-RADS3 lesion at first examination. Methods: In this IRB-approved study 492 women, aged 18–34 years (mean ± standard deviation, 28 ± 4.5 years) with first breast ultrasound examination in 2012–2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Inclusion criteria were: at least one BI-RADS3 lesion and (a) biopsy/surgical excision or (b) follow-up of at least 18 months (including a 6-month follow-up). BI-RADS category assigned during follow-up and pathologic findings in cases undergoing biopsy/surgical excision were collected. At the 6- and 18-month follow-up the recommended biopsy rates (RBR) and the corresponding positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Results: In 97 patients, 151 BI-RADS3 lesions were identified. Biopsy/surgical excision was initially performed in 25/151 (16.5%) lesions. After 6-month, category was downgraded to BI-RADS1/2 in 23/126 (15.3%) and upgraded to BI-RADS4 in 9/126 lesions (7.1%). Pathological diagnosis of these lesions was fibroadenoma in 5 and benign phyllodes tumor in 4 cases (RBR 7%, PPV bio 44.4%). After 18-month one lesion was classified BI-RADS4 and pathological diagnosis was fibroadenoma (RBR 1.1%, PPV bio 0%). Conclusions: Our preliminary data show that follow-up imaging performed after 18 months from a first BI-RADS3 diagnosis does not affect clinical treatment and 6-month follow-up may be sufficient to assess the stability of probably benign lesions.

  20. The accuracy of the SONOBREAST statistical model in comparison to BI-RADS for the prediction of malignancy in solid breast nodules detected at ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulinelli, Regis R; Oliveira, Luis-Fernando P; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Soares, Leonardo R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy of SONOBREAST for the prediction of malignancy in solid breast nodules detected at ultrasonography with that of the BI-RADS system and to assess the agreement between these two methods. This prospective study included 274 women and evaluated 500 breast nodules detected at ultrasonography. The probability of malignancy was calculated based on the SONOBREAST model, available at www.sonobreast.com.br, and on the BI-RADS system, with results being compared with the anatomopathology report. The lesions were considered suspect in 171 cases (34.20%), according to both SONOBREAST and BI-RADS. Agreement between the methods was perfect, as shown by a Kappa coefficient of 1 (pBI-RADS proved identical insofar as sensitivity (95.40%), specificity (78.69%), positive predictive value (48.54%), negative predictive value (98.78%) and accuracy (81.60%) are concerned. With respect to the categorical variables (BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5), the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 94.41 for SONOBREAST (range 92.20-96.62) and 89.99 for BI-RADS (range 86.60-93.37). The accuracy of the SONOBREAST model is identical to that found with BI-RADS when the same parameters are used with respect to the cut-off point at which malignancy is suspected. Regarding the continuous probability of malignancy with BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5, SONOBREAST permits a more precise and individualized evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B.; Heine, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR pg measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR vc and BR vr measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (κ) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had κ between 0.25–0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR pg ; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR vc ; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR vr . The measures generated by method-2 had κ between 0.42–0.45. Two of these measures were significantly

  2. MRI Background Parenchymal Enhancement Is Not Associated with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bennani-Baiti

    Full Text Available Previously, a strong positive association between background parenchymal enhancement (BPE at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and breast cancer was reported in high-risk populations. We sought to determine, whether this was also true for non-high-risk patients.540 consecutive patients underwent breast MRI for assessment of breast findings (BI-RADS 0-5, non-high-risk screening (no familial history of breast cancer, no known genetic mutation, no prior chest irradiation, or previous breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent histological work-up. For this IRB-approved study, BPE and fibroglandular tissue FGT were retrospectively assessed by two experienced radiologists according to the BI-RADS lexicon. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to explore associations between BPE, FGT, age and final diagnosis of breast cancer. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis, considering covariate colinearities, was performed, using final diagnosis as the target variable and BPE, FGT and age as covariates.Age showed a moderate negative correlation with FGT (r = -0.43, p<0.001 and a weak negative correlation with BPE (r = -0.28, p<0.001. FGT and BPE correlated moderately (r = 0.35, p<0.001. Final diagnosis of breast cancer displayed very weak negative correlations with FGT (r = -0.09, p = 0.046 and BPE (r = -0.156, p<0.001 and weak positive correlation with age (r = 0.353, p<0.001. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the only independent covariate for prediction of breast cancer was age (OR 1.032, p<0.001.Based on our data, neither BPE nor FGT independently correlate with breast cancer risk in non-high-risk patients at MRI. Our model retained only age as an independent risk factor for breast cancer in this setting.

  3. Functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic buffer revealed in reading and writing Chinese characters by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Erik C; Chen, Sinead H Y; Lin, Yi-Chen; Wu, Denise H

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of orthographic representations to reading and writing has been intensively investigated in the literature. However, the distinction between neuronal correlates of the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic (graphemic) buffer has rarely been examined in alphabetic languages and never been explored in non-alphabetic languages. To determine whether the neural networks associated with the orthographic lexicon and buffer of logographic materials are comparable to those reported in the literature, the present fMRI experiment manipulated frequency and the stroke number of Chinese characters in the tasks of form judgment and stroke judgment, which emphasized the processing of character recognition and writing, respectively. It was found that the left fusiform gyrus exhibited higher activation when encountering low-frequency than high-frequency characters in both tasks, which suggested this region to be the locus of the orthographic lexicon that represents the knowledge of character forms. On the other hand, the activations in the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus were parametrically modulated by the stroke number of target characters only in the stroke judgment task, which suggested these regions to be the locus of the orthographic buffer that represents the processing of stroke sequence in writing. These results provide the first evidence for the functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and buffer in reading and writing Chinese characters. They also demonstrate the critical roles of the left fusiform area and the frontoparietal network to the long-term and short-term representations of orthographic knowledge, respectively, across different orthographies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stereotactic vacuum core biopsy of clustered microcalcifications classified as BI-RADS{sup TM} type 3; Stereotaktische Vakuumstanzbiopsie zur Abklaerung von gruppiertem Mikrokalk der Kategorie BI-RADS{sup TM} 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Fischer, U.; Baum, F.; Dammert, S.; Grabbe, E. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Fuezesi, L. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum Pathologie

    2001-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of stereotactic vacuum core biopsy of clustered microcalcifications categorized as BI-RADS{sup TM} 3. Material and methods: 86 patients with microcalcification BI-RADS{sup TM} 3 (probably benign, <3% malignant) underwent a stereotactic vacuum core biopsy (Mammotome, Fa. Ethicon Endo-Surgery Breast Care) using a digital stereotactic unit (Mammotest, Fa. Fischer Imaging). The removal of the calcifications was judged by two radiologists in consensus and classified as complete (100%), major (55-99%) or incomplete (<50%). Results: 4/86 patients could not be evaluated by vacuum core biopsy due to the localization of the microcalcifications close to the skin or lack of detection. In 40/82 cases a complete, in 38/82 a major, and in 4/82 an incomplete removal was achieved. Histology revealed 67 cases of fibrocystic changes, 4 papillomas, 4 fibroadenomas, 4 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and 3 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), one of these with a minimal-invasive tumor component. Patients with ADH were advised to undergo surgical biopsy. Histology revealed complete removal. 7 patients had complications or side-effects. Conclusions: Percutaneous vacuum core biopsy is a reliable minimal-invasive diagnostic method to come to the final diagnosis in patients with clustered microcalcifications categorized BI-RADS{sup TM} 3. However, if malignancy is proven (about 4% of our cases) an open biopsy is necessary. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluation der stereotaktischen Vakuumstanzbiopsie bei gruppierten Mikrokalzifikationen vom Typ BI-RADS{sup TM}3. Material und Methodik: Gruppiert angeordneter Mikrokalk der Kategorie BI-RADS{sup TM} 3 (wahrscheinlich benigne, <3% maligne) wurde bei 86 Patientinnen mit einer stereotaktischen Vakuumstanzbiopsie (Mammotome{sup circledR}, Fa. Ethicon Endo-Surgery Breast Care) an einem digitalen Stereotaxietisch (Mammotest, Fa. Fischer Imaging) abgeklaert. Das Ausmass der bioptisch entfernten Kalizifkationen wurde von

  5. Estimation of percentage breast tissue density: comparison between digital mammography (2D full field digital mammography) and digital breast tomosynthesis according to different BI-RADS categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, A S; Tagliafico, G; Cavagnetto, F; Calabrese, M; Houssami, N

    2013-11-01

    To compare breast density estimated from two-dimensional full-field digital mammography (2D FFDM) and from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to different Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, using automated software. Institutional review board approval and written informed patient consent were obtained. DBT and 2D FFDM were performed in the same patients to allow within-patient comparison. A total of 160 consecutive patients (mean age: 50±14 years; mean body mass index: 22±3) were included to create paired data sets of 40 patients for each BI-RADS category. Automatic software (MedDensity(©), developed by Giulio Tagliafico) was used to compare the percentage breast density between DBT and 2D FFDM. The estimated breast percentage density obtained using DBT and 2D FFDM was examined for correlation with the radiologists' visual BI-RADS density classification. The 2D FFDM differed from DBT by 16.0% in BI-RADS Category 1, by 11.9% in Category 2, by 3.5% in Category 3 and by 18.1% in Category 4. These differences were highly significant (pBI-RADS categories and the density evaluated using 2D FFDM and DBT (r=0.56, pBI-RADS categories. These data are relevant for clinical practice and research studies using density in determining the risk. On DBT, breast density values were lower than with 2D FFDM, with a non-linear relationship across the classical BI-RADS categories.

  6. Radiological assessment of breast density by visual classification (BI-RADS) compared to automated volumetric digital software (Quantra): implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regini, Elisa; Mariscotti, Giovanna; Durando, Manuela; Ghione, Gianluca; Luparia, Andrea; Campanino, Pier Paolo; Bianchi, Caterina Chiara; Bergamasco, Laura; Fonio, Paolo; Gandini, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess breast density on digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis according to the visual Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification, to compare visual assessment with Quantra software for automated density measurement, and to establish the role of the software in clinical practice. We analysed 200 digital mammograms performed in 2D and 3D modality, 100 of which positive for breast cancer and 100 negative. Radiological density was assessed with the BI-RADS classification; a Quantra density cut-off value was sought on the 2D images only to discriminate between BI-RADS categories 1-2 and BI-RADS 3-4. Breast density was correlated with age, use of hormone therapy, and increased risk of disease. The agreement between the 2D and 3D assessments of BI-RADS density was high (K 0.96). A cut-off value of 21% is that which allows us to best discriminate between BI-RADS categories 1-2 and 3-4. Breast density was negatively correlated to age (r = -0.44) and positively to use of hormone therapy (p = 0.0004). Quantra density was higher in breasts with cancer than in healthy breasts. There is no clear difference between the visual assessments of density on 2D and 3D images. Use of the automated system requires the adoption of a cut-off value (set at 21%) to effectively discriminate BI-RADS 1-2 and 3-4, and could be useful in clinical practice.

  7. Effectiveness of assigning BI-RADS category-3 to breast lesion with respect to follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masroor, I.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of assigning BI-RADS category-3 to breast lesion with respect to follow-up. Women undergoing X-ray mammography and assigned BI-RADS category-3 and recommended short-term (6-monthly) follow-up were included. Out of these, 44 patients were lost to follow-up and were excluded from the study. The lesions that remained stable after short-term follow-up were recommended routine (annual) follow-up. Needle localization and open surgical biopsy was performed, if the lesion progressed or calcifications increased in number/size and/or on physician or patient preference. The effectiveness of this approach was analyzed by determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for BI-RADS category-3. Of the 65 lesions, 55 remained stable. Of the remaining 10 lesions, two showed increase in number of microcalcification prompting biopsy. Both turned out to be ductal carcinoma in situ. Eight biopsies were performed on clinician or patient preference which turned out to be benign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 100%, 87%, 20% and 100% respectively. Assessment with short-interval mammographic follow-up is useful to confirm the nature of most non-palpable breast lesions considered probably benign and permits detection of a small number of breast cancers at an early stage. The local setup, patient compliance is a major limitation for performing a follow-up study, as the available numbers can have a profound effect on the determined accuracy value. (author)

  8. Suspicious breast calcifications undergoing stereotactic biopsy in women ages 70 and over: Breast cancer incidence by BI-RADS descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Johnson, David Y; Johnson, Karen S; Baker, Jay A; Soo, Mary Scott; Hwang, E Shelley; Ghate, Sujata V

    2017-06-01

    To determine the malignancy rate overall and for specific BI-RADS descriptors in women ≥70 years who undergo stereotactic biopsy for calcifications. We retrospectively reviewed 14,577 consecutive mammogram reports in 6839 women ≥70 years to collect 231 stereotactic biopsies of calcifications in 215 women. Cases with missing images or histopathology and calcifications associated with masses, distortion, or asymmetries were excluded. Three breast radiologists determined BI-RADS descriptors by majority. Histology, hormone receptor status, and lymph node status were correlated with BI-RADS descriptors. There were 131 (57 %) benign, 22 (10 %) atypia/lobular carcinomas in situ, 55 (24 %) ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and 23 (10 %) invasive diagnoses. Twenty-seven (51 %) DCIS cases were high-grade. Five (22 %) invasive cases were high-grade, two (9 %) were triple-negative, and three (12 %) were node-positive. Malignancy was found in 49 % (50/103) of fine pleomorphic, 50 % (14/28) of fine linear, 25 % (10/40) of amorphous, 20 % (3/15) of round, 3 % (1/36) of coarse heterogeneous, and 0 % (0/9) of dystrophic calcifications. Among women ≥70 years that underwent stereotactic biopsy for calcifications only, we observed a high rate of malignancy. Additionally, coarse heterogeneous calcifications may warrant a probable benign designation. • Cancer rates of biopsied calcifications in women ≥70 years are high • Radiologists should not dismiss suspicious calcifications in older women • Coarse heterogeneous calcifications may warrant a probable benign designation.

  9. Comparison of Visual Assessment of Breast Density in BI-RADS 4th and 5th Editions With Automated Volumetric Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, So Jung; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare visual assessments of mammographic breast density by radiologists using BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions in correlation with automated volumetric breast density measurements. A total of 337 consecutive full-field digital mammographic examinations with standard views were retrospectively assessed by two radiologists for mammographic breast density according to BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions. Fully automated measurement of the volume of fibroglandular tissue and total breast and percentage breast density was performed with a commercially available software program. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed with kappa statistics. The distributions of breast density categories for both editions of BI-RADS were compared and correlated with volumetric data. Interobserver agreement on breast density category was moderate to substantial (κ = 0.58-0.63) with use of BI-RADS 4th edition and substantial (κ = 0.63-0.66) with use of the 5th edition but without significant difference between the two editions. For intraobserver agreement between the two editions, the distributions of density category were significantly different (p density data, including percentage breast density, were significantly different among density categories (p density assessment had good correlation with visual assessment for both editions of BI-RADS.

  10. Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Ultrasound Using Computerized BI-RADS Features and Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Juan; Alam, S Kaisar; Garra, Brian; Zhang, Yingtao; Ahmed, Tahira

    2016-04-01

    This work identifies effective computable features from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for breast ultrasound. Computerized features corresponding to ultrasound BI-RADs categories were designed and tested using a database of 283 pathology-proven benign and malignant lesions. Features were selected based on classification performance using a "bottom-up" approach for different machine learning methods, including decision tree, artificial neural network, random forest and support vector machine. Using 10-fold cross-validation on the database of 283 cases, the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.84 from a support vector machine with 77.7% overall accuracy; the highest overall accuracy, 78.5%, was from a random forest with the AUC 0.83. Lesion margin and orientation were optimum features common to all of the different machine learning methods. These features can be used in CAD systems to help distinguish benign from worrisome lesions. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallenberg, E.M.; Renz, D.M. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Dromain, C. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif cedex (France); Diekmann, F. [St. Joseph-Stift Bremen, Department of Medical Imaging, Bremen (Germany); Engelken, F.; Krohn, M.; Singh, J.M.; Bick, U. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ingold-Heppner, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Pathology, Berlin (Germany); Winzer, K.J. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Breast Center, Department of Gynecology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. (orig.)

  12. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallenberg, E.M.; Renz, D.M.; Dromain, C.; Diekmann, F.; Engelken, F.; Krohn, M.; Singh, J.M.; Bick, U.; Ingold-Heppner, B.; Winzer, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. (orig.)

  13. Performance of hand-held whole-breast ultrasound based on BI-RADS in women with mammographically negative dense breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju

    2011-01-01

    To assess the performance of breast ultrasound based on BI-RADS final assessment categories in women with mammographically negative dense breast. Of 3,820 cases with mammographically negative dense breast and subsequent hand-held bilateral whole-breast ultrasound, a total of 1,507 cases in 1,046 women who had biopsy or at least 2-year follow-up ultrasound constituted the basis of this retrospective study. Cancer rate of each sonographic BI-RADS category was determined and medical audit was performed separately in screening-general, screening-treated, and diagnostic group. A total of 43 cases (2.9%) were confirmed as malignancy. Cancer rate among BI-RADS categories was significantly different (p < 0.0001). Among three groups, the cancer rate was significantly different (p < 0.0001) and the highest in diagnostic group (15.8%, 22 of 139). Abnormal interpretation rate, PPV of biopsy performed, cancer detection rate, and rate of early stage cancer, and the size of invasive cancer were significantly different among three groups and the highest in diagnostic group. Regarding cancer characteristics, the proportion of advanced cancer was the highest in diagnostic group. Breast ultrasound based on BI-RADS as an adjunctive to negative mammography can be useful for predicting malignancy in women with dense breast. (orig.)

  14. Comparing Visually Assessed BI-RADS Breast Density and Automated Volumetric Breast Density Software: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Breast Cancer Screening Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Daniëlle; den Heeten, Gerard J; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Schuur, Klaas H; Timmers, Johanna M H; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare different methods for measuring breast density, both visual assessments and automated volumetric density, in a breast cancer screening setting. These measures could potentially be implemented in future screening programmes, in the context of personalised screening or screening evaluation. Digital mammographic exams (N = 992) of women participating in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme (age 50-75y) in 2013 were included. Breast density was measured in three different ways: BI-RADS density (5th edition) and with two commercially available automated software programs (Quantra and Volpara volumetric density). BI-RADS density (ordinal scale) was assessed by three radiologists. Quantra (v1.3) and Volpara (v1.5.0) provide continuous estimates. Different comparison methods were used, including Bland-Altman plots and correlation coefficients (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]). Based on the BI-RADS classification, 40.8% of the women had 'heterogeneously or extremely dense' breasts. The median volumetric percent density was 12.1% (IQR: 9.6-16.5) for Quantra, which was higher than the Volpara estimate (median 6.6%, IQR: 4.4-10.9). The mean difference between Quantra and Volpara was 5.19% (95% CI: 5.04-5.34) (ICC: 0.64). There was a clear increase in volumetric percent dense volume as BI-RADS density increased. The highest accuracy for predicting the presence of BI-RADS c+d (heterogeneously or extremely dense) was observed with a cut-off value of 8.0% for Volpara and 13.8% for Quantra. Although there was no perfect agreement, there appeared to be a strong association between all three measures. Both volumetric density measures seem to be usable in breast cancer screening programmes, provided that the required data flow can be realized.

  15. Contrast enhanced MRI findings of ductal carcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Suh, Young Jin; Choi, Hyun Joo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe characteristic contrast enhanced MR mammographic findings of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and also DCIS with microinvasion. From January 2000 to July 2005, 32 women with 33 lesions affected by DCIS or DCIS with microinvasion underwent contrast enhanced MRI, and they were then retrospectively evaluated. All the patients had previously undergone mammography and ultrasonography. All the findings of mammography, ultrasonography (US), and MRI were analyzed by using an ACR BI-RADS lexicon. All 33 cases were enhanced on the enhanced MR images. A smooth margined homogeneous enhanced mass was seen in the two (2/33) cases, and nonmass enhancement was seen in 31 (31/33) cases. Among the non-mass enhancement, focal enhancement (7/31), ductal enhancement (5/31), segmental enhancement (9/31), and regional enhancement (10/31) were observed. On the kinetic study, a wash-out pattern (10/33), a plateau pattern (20/33), and a persistent pattern (3/33) were demonstrated. No significant differences were noted between the pure and microinvasive DCIS. There is no significant difference between pure and microinvasive DCIS. However, contrast enhanced MR images can demonstrate occult foci, multifocal lesion and the tumor extent of DCIS on mammogram or ultrasonogram

  16. Automatic classification for mammogram backgrounds based on bi-rads complexity definition and on a multi content analysis framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Besnehard, Quentin; Marchessoux, Cédric

    2011-03-01

    Clinical studies for the validation of new medical imaging devices require hundreds of images. An important step in creating and tuning the study protocol is the classification of images into "difficult" and "easy" cases. This consists of classifying the image based on features like the complexity of the background, the visibility of the disease (lesions). Therefore, an automatic medical background classification tool for mammograms would help for such clinical studies. This classification tool is based on a multi-content analysis framework (MCA) which was firstly developed to recognize image content of computer screen shots. With the implementation of new texture features and a defined breast density scale, the MCA framework is able to automatically classify digital mammograms with a satisfying accuracy. BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting Data System) density scale is used for grouping the mammograms, which standardizes the mammography reporting terminology and assessment and recommendation categories. Selected features are input into a decision tree classification scheme in MCA framework, which is the so called "weak classifier" (any classifier with a global error rate below 50%). With the AdaBoost iteration algorithm, these "weak classifiers" are combined into a "strong classifier" (a classifier with a low global error rate) for classifying one category. The results of classification for one "strong classifier" show the good accuracy with the high true positive rates. For the four categories the results are: TP=90.38%, TN=67.88%, FP=32.12% and FN =9.62%.

  17. Mammographic evaluation of suspicious malignant lesions based on ACR(American College of Radiology) breast imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jei Hee; Oh, Ki Keun; Chang, So Yong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Mi Hye

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the mammographic features and pathologic outcome of category 4 lesions using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System(BI-RADS), and to evaluate the significance of final assessment categories. Using BI-RADS, the interpretations of 8,134 mammograms acquired between January 1997 and May 1998 were categorized. From among 161 lesions categorized as '4' ('suspicious abnormality') and pathologically confirmed by surgery or biopsy, we analysed 113, found in 66 patients. The pathologic outcome of these 113 lesions was as follows:infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 17.7%(20/113); DCIS(ductal carcinoma in sitv), 8.0%(9/113); ADH(atypical ductal hyperplasia), 5.3%(6/113); DEH(ductal epithelial hyperplasia), 1.8%(2/113); ductectasia, 0.9%(1/113), FCD(fibrocystic change), 27.4%(31/113); firoadenoma, 7.1%(8/113); stromal fibrosis, 9.7%(11/113); normal parenchyma, 7.1%(8/113); other pathology, 15.0%(17/113). The most frequent mammographic features of BI-RADS category 4 lesions were irregular mass shape(41.2%), spiculated mass margin(52.3%), amorphous calcification(47.3%) and clustered calcification distribution(37.1%). Because category 4 lesions account for about 25.7% of all breast malignancies, mammographic lesions in this category ('suspicious abnormality') should be considered for supplementary study and breast biopsy rather than short-term follow-up. Initial pathologic findings can thus be confirmed

  18. Predictive values of Bi-Rads categories 3, 4 and 5 in non-palpable breast masses evaluated by mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roveda Junior, Decio; Fleury, Eduardo de Castro Faria; Piato, Sebastiao; Oliveira, Vilmar Marques de; Rinaldi, Jose Francisco; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of BI-RADS TM categories 3, 4 and 5 in non-palpable breast masses assessed by mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Materials And Methods: Twenty-nine patients with BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5 non-palpable breast masses identified by mammograms were submitted to complementary ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging studies, besides excisional biopsy. In total, 30 biopsies were performed. The lesions as well as their respective BI-RADS classification into 3, 4 and 5 were correlated with the histopathological results. The predictive values calculation was made by means of specific mathematical equations. Results: Negative predictive values for category 3 were: mammography, 69.23%; ultrasound, 70.58%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 100%. Positive predictive values for category 4 were: mammography, 63.63%; ultrasound, 50%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 30.76%. For category 5, positive predictive values were: mammography and ultrasound, 100%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 92.85%. Conclusion: For category 3, the negative predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging was high, and for categories 4 and 5, the positive predictive values of the three modalities were moderate. (author)

  19. Diagnostic value of commercially available shear-wave elastography for breast cancers: integration into BI-RADS classification with subcategories of category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Gweon, Hye Mi; Son, Eun Ju; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for breast cancer and to determine whether the integration of SWE into BI-RADS with subcategories of category 4 improves the diagnostic performance. A total of 389 breast masses (malignant 120, benign 269) in 324 women who underwent SWE before ultrasound-guided core biopsy or surgery were included. The qualitative SWE feature was assessed using a four-colour overlay pattern. Quantitative elasticity values including the lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio) were measured. Diagnostic performance of B-mode ultrasound, SWE, or their combined studies was compared using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). AUC of Eratio (0.952) was the highest among elasticity values (mean, maximum, and minimum elasticity, 0.949, 0.939, and 0.928; P = 0.04) and AUC of colour pattern was 0.947. AUC of combined studies was significantly higher than for a single study (P Shear-wave elastography showed a good diagnostic performance. Adding SWE features to BI-RADS improved the diagnostic performance and may be helpful to stratify category 4 lesions. • Quantitative and qualitative shear-wave elastography provides further diagnostic information during breast ultrasound. • The elasticity ratio (E ratio ) showed the best diagnostic performance in SWE. • E ratio and four-colour overlay pattern significantly differed between benign and malignant lesions. • SWE features allowed further stratification of BI-RADS category 4 lesions.

  20. Breast MRI used as a problem-solving tool reliably excludes malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spick, Claudio; Szolar, Dieter H.M.; Preidler, Klaus W.; Tillich, Manfred; Reittner, Pia; Baltzer, Pascal A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Breast MRI reliably excludes malignancy in conventional BI-RADS 0 cases (NPV: 100%). • Malignancy rate in the BI-RADS 0 population is substantial with 13.5%. • Breast MRI used as a problem-solving tool reliably excludes malignancy. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast MRI if used as a problem-solving tool in BI-RADS 0 cases. Material and methods: In this IRB-approved, single-center study, 687 women underwent high-resolution-3D, dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between January 2012 and December 2012. Of these, we analyzed 111 consecutive patients (mean age, 51 ± 12 years; range, 20–83 years) categorized as BI-RADS 0. Breast MRI findings were stratified by clinical presentations, conventional imaging findings, and breast density. MRI results were compared to the reference standard, defined as histopathology or an imaging follow-up of at least 1 year. Results: One hundred eleven patients with BI-RADS 0 conventional imaging findings revealed 30 (27%) mammographic masses, 57 (51.4%) mammographic architectural distortions, five (4.5%) mammographic microcalcifications, 17 (15.3%) ultrasound-only findings, and two palpable findings without imaging correlates. There were 15 true-positive, 85 true-negative, 11 false-positive, and zero false-negative breast MRI findings, resulting in a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 100% (15/15), 88.5% (85/96), 57.7% (15/26), and 100% (85/85), respectively. Breast density and reasons for referral had no significant influence on the diagnostic performance of breast MRI (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Breast MRI reliably excludes malignancy in conventional BI-RADS 0 cases resulting in a NPV of 100% (85/85) and a PPV of 57.7% (15/26)

  1. Breast MRI: EUSOBI recommendations for women's information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, R.M.; Balleyguier, C.; Baltzer, P.A.; Bick, U.; Colin, C.; Cornford, E.; Evans, A.; Fallenberg, E.; Forrai, G.; Fuchsjager, M.H.; Gilbert, F.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Heywang-Kobrunner, S.H.; Camps-Herrero, J.; Kuhl, C.K.; Martincich, L.; Pediconi, F.; Panizza, P.; Pina, L.J.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Pinker-Domenig, K.; Skaane, P.; Sardanelli, F.; Imaging, w.l.r.b.E.D.-T.E.B.C.C. European Societ

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes information about breast MRI to be provided to women and referring physicians. After listing contraindications, procedure details are described, stressing the need for correct scheduling and not moving during the examination. The structured report including BI-RADS(R)

  2. Comparison of variability in breast density assessment by BI-RADS category according to the level of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hye-Joung; Cha, Joo Hee; Kang, Ji-Won; Choi, Woo Jung; Kim, Han Jun; Go, EunChae

    2018-05-01

    Background Only few studies have assessed variability in the results obtained by the readers with different experience levels in comparison with automated volumetric breast density measurements. Purpose To examine the variations in breast density assessment according to BI-RADS categories among readers with different experience levels and to compare it with the results of automated quantitative measurements. Material and Methods Density assignment was done for 1000 screening mammograms by six readers with three different experience levels (breast-imaging experts, general radiologists, and students). Agreement level between the results obtained by the readers and the Volpara automated volumetric breast density measurements was assessed. The agreement analysis using two categories-non-dense and dense breast tissue-was also performed. Results Intra-reader agreement for experts, general radiologists, and students were almost perfect or substantial (k = 0.74-0.95). The agreement between visual assessments of the breast-imaging experts and volumetric assessments by Volpara was substantial (k = 0.77). The agreement was moderate between the experts and general radiologists (k = 0.67) and slight between the students and Volpara (k = 0.01). The agreement for the two category groups (nondense and dense) was almost perfect between the experts and Volpara (k = 0.83). The agreement was substantial between the experts and general radiologists (k = 0.78). Conclusion We observed similar high agreement levels between visual assessments of breast density performed by radiologists and the volumetric assessments. However, agreement levels were substantially lower for the untrained readers.

  3. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallenberg, E M; Dromain, C; Diekmann, F; Engelken, F; Krohn, M; Singh, J M; Ingold-Heppner, B; Winzer, K J; Bick, U; Renz, D M

    2014-01-01

    To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. • Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is slowly being introduced into clinical practice. • Access to breast MRI is limited by availability and lack of reimbursement. • Initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI than conventional mammography. • CESM showed a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. • Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography offers promise, seemingly providing information comparable to MRI.

  4. Mammographic evaluation of suspicious malignant lesions based on ACR(American College of Radiology) breast imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jei Hee; Oh, Ki Keun; Chang, So Yong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Mi Hye [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the mammographic features and pathologic outcome of category 4 lesions using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System(BI-RADS), and to evaluate the significance of final assessment categories. Using BI-RADS, the interpretations of 8,134 mammograms acquired between January 1997 and May 1998 were categorized. From among 161 lesions categorized as '4' ('suspicious abnormality') and pathologically confirmed by surgery or biopsy, we analysed 113, found in 66 patients. The pathologic outcome of these 113 lesions was as follows:infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 17.7%(20/113); DCIS(ductal carcinoma in sitv), 8.0%(9/113); ADH(atypical ductal hyperplasia), 5.3%(6/113); DEH(ductal epithelial hyperplasia), 1.8%(2/113); ductectasia, 0.9%(1/113), FCD(fibrocystic change), 27.4%(31/113); firoadenoma, 7.1%(8/113); stromal fibrosis, 9.7%(11/113); normal parenchyma, 7.1%(8/113); other pathology, 15.0%(17/113). The most frequent mammographic features of BI-RADS category 4 lesions were irregular mass shape(41.2%), spiculated mass margin(52.3%), amorphous calcification(47.3%) and clustered calcification distribution(37.1%). Because category 4 lesions account for about 25.7% of all breast malignancies, mammographic lesions in this category ('suspicious abnormality') should be considered for supplementary study and breast biopsy rather than short-term follow-up. Initial pathologic findings can thus be confirmed.

  5. Potential Use of American College of Radiology BI-RADS Mammography Atlas for Reporting and Assessing Lesions Detected on Dedicated Breast CT Imaging: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hae Kyoung; Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Kim, Keum Won; Choi, Na Mi; Kim, Hye Jeong; Langman, Eun Lee; Yoon, Sora; Steen, Doreen; Zeng, Donglin; Gao, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Dedicated breast computed tomography (DBCT) is an emerging and promising modality for breast lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of applying the BI-RADS Mammography Atlas 5th Edition for reporting and assessing breast lesions on DBCT. Currently, no atlas exists for DBCT. Four radiologists trained in breast imaging were recruited in this institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study. The enrolled radiologists, who were blinded to mammographic and histopathologic findings, individually reviewed 30 randomized DBCT cases that contained marked lesions. Thirty-four lesions were included in this study: 24 (70.6%) masses, 7 (20.6%) calcifications, and 3 (8.8%) architectural distortions. Eight (23.5%) lesions were malignant and 26 (76.5%) were benign. The reader was asked to specify according to the BI-RADS Mammography Atlas for each marked DBCT lesion: primary findings, features, breast density, and final assessment. We calculated readers' diagnostic performances for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions and interobserver variability for reporting and assessing lesions using a generalized estimating equation and the Fleiss kappa (κ) statistic. The estimated overall sensitivity of the readers was 0.969, and the specificity was 0.529. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity and the specificity between lesion types. For reporting the presence of a primary finding, the overall substantial agreement (κ = 0.70) was seen. In assigning the breast density and the final assessment, the overall agreement was moderate (κ = 0.53) and fair (κ = 0.30). The use of the BI-RADS Mammography Atlas 5th Edition for DBCT showed high performance and good agreement among readers. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Histologic work-up of non-palpable breast lesions classified as probably benign at initial mammography and/or ultrasound (BI-RADS category 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, R; Jaromi, S; Rudas, M; Pfarl, G; Riedl, C C; Flöry, D; Graf, O; Sickles, E A; Helbich, T H

    2013-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of a probably benign assessment of non-palpable breast lesions (BI-RADS category 3) at mammography and/or ultrasound with immediate histological work-up. Stereotactic or ultrasound guided core needle breast biopsy (NBB) was performed to evaluate 288 lesions, which were prospectively assessed as BI-RADS category 3. Imaging findings included 195 masses, 73 calcification cases, 16 focal asymmetries, and four architectural distortion cases. After NBB, patients underwent either open surgical biopsy (OSB) (n=204) or mammographic follow-up (n=84) for at least 24 months. Histological results of NBB were compared with those of OSB. Three of the 288 lesions (1.0%) proved to be malignant at histological work-up, two of them were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and one of them was an invasive carcinoma. NBB revealed invasive carcinoma in 1/288 (0.35%) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) in 13/288 (4.5%) lesions. OSB revealed DCIS in 2/204 (1%) and invasive carcinoma in 1/204 (0.5%) lesions. The two DCIS were underestimated as ADH by NBB. The remaining 285 (99%) lesions proved to be benign at OSB or remained stable during follow-up. Confirmed by tissue diagnosis, the low likelihood of malignancy of prospectively assessed probably benign lesions is below the 2% threshold established for BI-RADS category 3. Imaging follow-up is a safe and effective alternative to immediate histological work-up for such lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Significance of Additional Non-Mass Enhancement in Patients with Breast Cancer on Preoperative 3T Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yun Hee; Cho, Kyu Ran; Park, Eun Kyung; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2016-01-01

    In preoperative assessment of breast cancer, MRI has been shown to identify more additional breast lesions than are detectable using conventional imaging techniques. The characterization of additional lesions is more important than detection for optimal surgical treatment. Additional breast lesions can be included in focus, mass, and non-mass enhancement (NME) on MRI. According to the fifth edition of the breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS®), which includes several changes in the NME descriptors, few studies to date have evaluated NME in preoperative assessment of breast cancer. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of BI-RADS descriptors in predicting malignancy for additional NME lesions detected on preoperative 3T dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 88 patients were enrolled in our study, all with NME lesions other than the index cancer on preoperative 3T DCE-MRI and all with accompanying histopathologic examination. The MRI findings were analyzed according to the BI-RADS MRI lexicon. We evaluated the size, distribution, internal enhancement pattern, and location of NME lesions relative to the index cancer (i.e., same quadrant, different quadrant, or contralateral breast). On histopathologic analysis of the 88 NME lesions, 73 (83%) were malignant and 15 (17%) were benign. Lesion size did not differ significantly between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.410). Malignancy was more frequent in linear (P = 0.005) and segmental (P = 0.011) distributions, and benignancy was more frequent in focal (P = 0.004) and regional (P < 0.001) NME lesions. The highest positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy occurred in segmental (96.8%), linear (95.1%), clustered ring (100%), and clumped (92.0%) enhancement. Asymmetry demonstrated a high positive predictive value of 85.9%. The frequency of malignancy was higher for NME lesions located in the same quadrant with

  8. Predictive values of Bi-Rads categories 3, 4 and 5 in non-palpable breast masses evaluated by mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging; Valores preditivos das categorias 3, 4 e 5 do sistema Bi-Rads em lesoes mamarias nodulares nao-palpaveis avaliadas por mamografia, ultra-sonografia e ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roveda Junior, Decio; Fleury, Eduardo de Castro Faria [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: decio.jr@uol.com.br; Piato, Sebastiao [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Obstetricia e Ginecologia. Clinica Ginecologica; Oliveira, Vilmar Marques de [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Obstetricia e Ginecologia. Ginecologia Geral; Rinaldi, Jose Francisco [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Obstetricia e Ginecologia. Clinica de Mastologia; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Clinica Medica. Servico de Imagenologia Mamaria

    2007-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of BI-RADS{sup TM} categories 3, 4 and 5 in non-palpable breast masses assessed by mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Materials And Methods: Twenty-nine patients with BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5 non-palpable breast masses identified by mammograms were submitted to complementary ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging studies, besides excisional biopsy. In total, 30 biopsies were performed. The lesions as well as their respective BI-RADS classification into 3, 4 and 5 were correlated with the histopathological results. The predictive values calculation was made by means of specific mathematical equations. Results: Negative predictive values for category 3 were: mammography, 69.23%; ultrasound, 70.58%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 100%. Positive predictive values for category 4 were: mammography, 63.63%; ultrasound, 50%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 30.76%. For category 5, positive predictive values were: mammography and ultrasound, 100%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 92.85%. Conclusion: For category 3, the negative predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging was high, and for categories 4 and 5, the positive predictive values of the three modalities were moderate. (author)

  9. Pre-Algebra Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Dunstan; Cuevas, Gilberto

    The pre-algebra lexicon is a set of classroom exercises designed to teach the technical words and phrases of pre-algebra mathematics, and includes the terms most commonly found in related mathematics courses. The lexicon has three parts, each with its own introduction. The first introduces vocabulary items in three groups forming a learning…

  10. Acurácia dos achados mamográficos do câncer de mama: correlação da classificação BI-RADS e achados histológicos Accuracy of mammographic findings in breast cancer: correlation between BI-RADS classification and histological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hermes Ribas do Nascimento

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar a acurácia da classificação BI-RADS® na mamografia. Os pontos secundários foram descrever a frequência de apresentação dos diferentes achados mamográficos e avaliar a concordância entre observadores. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Os exames de 115 pacientes, encaminhados para core biopsy, foram reavaliados independentemente por dois médicos especialistas, cegados, utilizando a recomendação do BI-RADS. Posteriormente, os exames foram comparados com a histologia. A acurácia da classificação BI-RADS na mamografia foi avaliada. A concordância entre os médicos foi calculada pela estatística kappa (κ de Cohen e as diferenças nos grupos de comparação foram analisadas com teste qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Esta pesquisa demonstrou que a acurácia mamográfica oscilou de 75% a 62% na diferenciação entre lesões benignas de malignas com o uso do BI-RADS. Houve importante concordância na descrição das margens dos nódulos (κ= 0,66. Baixa concordância foi identificada na descrição dos contornos (formas dos nódulos (κ= 0,40 e na descrição das calcificações, tanto em relação à sua distribuição (κ= 0,24 como também em relação à morfologia (κ= 0,36. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo demonstrou que o método é acurado na diferenciação de lesões benignas de malignas. A concordância foi fraca na análise das calcificações quanto a morfologia e distribuição, no entanto, identificou-se elevação progressiva dos valores preditivos positivos nas subcategorias 4.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at evaluating the BI-RADS® classification accuracy in mammography. Additionally, the frequency of different findings was described and the interobserver agreement was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mammographic images of 115 patients were independently and blindly reviewed by two specialists in compliance with BI-RADS recommendations, and later compared with histological data. The

  11. Automated analysis of non-mass-enhancing lesions in breast MRI based on morphological, kinetic, and spatio-temporal moments and joint segmentation-motion compensation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Shutler, Jamie D.; Lobbes, Marc; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) represents an established method for the detection and diagnosis of breast lesions. While mass-like enhancing lesions can be easily categorized according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon, a majority of diagnostically challenging lesions, the so called non-mass-like enhancing lesions, remain both qualitatively as well as quantitatively difficult to analyze. Thus, the evaluation of kinetic and/or morphological characteristics of non-masses represents a challenging task for an automated analysis and is of crucial importance for advancing current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Compared to the well-characterized mass-enhancing lesions, non-masses have no well-defined and blurred tumor borders and a kinetic behavior that is not easily generalizable and thus discriminative for malignant and benign non-masses. To overcome these difficulties and pave the way for novel CAD systems for non-masses, we will evaluate several kinetic and morphological descriptors separately and a novel technique, the Zernike velocity moments, to capture the joint spatio-temporal behavior of these lesions, and additionally consider the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

  12. Changes in Breast Density Reporting Patterns of Radiologists After Publication of the 5th Edition BI-RADS Guidelines: A Single Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Abid; Leddy, Rebecca; Lewis, Madelene; Cluver, Abbie; Ackerman, Susan; Pavic, Dag; Collins, Heather

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of 5th edition BI-RADS breast density assessment guidelines on density reporting patterns in our clinical practice. PenRad reporting system was used to collect mammographic breast density data reported by five radiologists: 16,907 density assignments using 5th edition BI-RADS guidelines were compared with 19,066 density assessments using 4th edition guidelines. Changes in the density assessment pattern were noted between the 4th and 5th edition guidelines, and agreement in density distribution was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient. A chi-square analysis was conducted for each reader to examine the change in the proportion of dense versus nondense assignments and on each category type to examine specific changes in proportion of density assignments from the 4th to the 5th edition. All reported p values are two-sided, and statistical significance was considered at the p densities (p < 0.001), 2.6% increase in heterogeneously dense (p < 0.001), and 0.4% decrease in extremely dense assessments (p = 0.15). Comparing the dense with nondense categories, there was a 2.3% overall increase in the dense assessments (p < 0.001) using 5th edition guidelines, mainly in the heterogeneously dense category. Two radiologists showed increased dense assessments (p < 0.001) using the 5th edition, and three radiologists showed no change (p = 0.39, 0.67, and 0.76). There was an overall increase in the dense assessments using the 5th edition, but individual radiologists in our clinical practice showed a variable adaptation to new guidelines.

  13. Comparison of conventional and automated breast volume ultrasound in the description and characterization of solid breast masses based on BI-RADS features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Cha, Joo Hee; Oh, Ha-Yeun; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Chae, Eun Young

    2014-07-01

    To compare the performance of radiologists in the use of conventional ultrasound (US) and automated breast volume ultrasound (ABVU) for the characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses based on breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) criteria. Conventional US and ABVU images were obtained in 87 patients with 106 solid breast masses (52 cancers, 54 benign lesions). Three experienced radiologists who were blinded to all examination results independently characterized the lesions and reported a BI-RADS assessment category and a level of suspicion of malignancy. The results were analyzed by calculation of Cohen's κ coefficient and by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Assessment of the agreement of conventional US and ABVU indicated that the posterior echo feature was the most discordant feature of seven features (κ = 0.371 ± 0.225) and that orientation had the greatest agreement (κ = 0.608 ± 0.210). The final assessment showed substantial agreement (κ = 0.773 ± 0.104). The areas under the ROC curves (Az) for conventional US and ABVU were not statistically significant for each reader, but the mean Az values of conventional US and ABVU by multi-reader multi-case analysis were significantly different (conventional US 0.991, ABVU 0.963; 95 % CI -0.0471 to -0.0097). The means for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of conventional US and ABVU did not differ significantly. There was substantial inter-observer agreement in the final assessment of solid breast masses by conventional US and ABVU. ROC analysis comparing the performance of conventional US and ABVU indicated a marginally significant difference in mean Az, but not in mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, or negative predictive value.

  14. Lexicon generation methods, lexicon generation devices, and lexicon generation articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard J [Richland, WA; McCall, Jonathon D [West Richland, WA; Whitney, Paul D [Richland, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; White, Amanda M [Kennewick, WA; Posse, Christian [Seattle, WA; Nakamura, Grant C [Kennewick, WA

    2010-10-26

    Lexicon generation methods, computer implemented lexicon editing methods, lexicon generation devices, lexicon editors, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a lexicon generation method includes providing a seed vector indicative of occurrences of a plurality of seed terms within a plurality of text items, providing a plurality of content vectors indicative of occurrences of respective ones of a plurality of content terms within the text items, comparing individual ones of the content vectors with respect to the seed vector, and responsive to the comparing, selecting at least one of the content terms as a term of a lexicon usable in sentiment analysis of text.

  15. The role of stereotactic 11G vacuum biopsy for clarification of BI-RADS{sup TM} IV findings in mammography; Wertigkeit der stereotaktischen 11 G-Vakuumbiopsie zur Abklaerung von Befunden der Kategorie BI-RADS{sup TM} IV in der Mammographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, T.; Jacobi, V.; Ballenberger, S.; Hochmuth, K.; Balzer, J.O.; Vogl, T.J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.W.G.-Univ. Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Krapfl, E.; Minckwitz, G. v.; Solbach, C.; Kaufmann, M. [Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe, Klinikum der J.W.G.-Univ. Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Fellbaum, M. [Senckenbergisches Inst. fuer Pathologie, Klinikum der J.W.G.-Univ. Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of stereotactic vacuum breast biopsy in the histologic evaluation of suspicious mammographic findings (BI-RADS{sup TM} IV). Materials und Methods: In 221 patients with 227 probable mammographic lesions categorized as (BI-RADS{sup TM}-IV), stereotactic biopsies were performed with an 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy device (Mammotome). The evaluation included the histology of the specimens obtained with the Mammotome or with surgery, the time for the biopsy, the amount of bleeding, number of rotations and procured specimens, the extent of the resection and the complications. Results: The biopsies were technically successful in 214 of the 227 probable mammographic lesions, with 176 lesions mostly resected and 34 lesions removed more than 50%. No representative tissue was obtained from 4 lesions. All biopsies were performed without any clinically relevant complications and terminated after adequate material was obtained (Oe 28 specimens, 2.58 rotations). The mean time needed for performing the biopsy was 40.2 minutes. The histologic findings were DCIS (42 lesions), ADH (7 lesions), LCIS (3 lesions), ID-Ca (14 lesions), IL-Ca (3 lesions), and IDL-Ca (1 lesion). In 28 of 42 lesions with the initial DCIS histology, the surgical histology was also DCIS (n=28) or no residual tumor (n=10). In 4 lesions with an initial DCIS-histology, the surgical histology was invasive ductal cancer (9.5%). The late follow-up examinations (up to 3 years) did not find any evidence of a false negative biopsy. Conclusion: Stereotactic vacuum breast biopsy ideally complements existing breast biopsy methods. The method is minimal invasive with a low rate of mostly minor complications. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Evaluierung der Wertigkeit der stereotaktischen Vakuumbiopsie zur Abklaerung von Befunden der Kategorie BI-RADS{sup TM} IV in der Mammographie. Material und Methode: Bei 221 Patientinnen mit 227 mammographischen Laesionen der BI-RADS{sup TM}-Kategorie IV

  16. Intra-observer agreement in single and joint double readings of contrast-enhanced breast MRI screening for women with high genetic breast cancer risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine intra-observer reliability (IR for lesion detection on contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance images (MRI for screening women at high risk of breast cancer in single and joint double readings, without case selection. Methods: Contrast-enhanced breast MRIs were interpreted twice by the same independent reader and twice in joint readings. IR was assessed for lesion detection, normal MRI identification, mass, non-mass like enhancements (NMLE and focus characterisation, and BI-RADS assessment. Results: MRI examinations for 124 breasts, 65 women (mean age 43.4y were retrospectively reviewed with 110 lesions identified. Abnormal BIRADS (3-5 classifications were found for 52.3% in single readings and 58.5% in joint readings. Seven biopsies were performed for 4 histologically confirmed cancers. IR for BI-RADS classifications was good for single (0.63, 95% CI: 0.49-0.77, and joint readings (0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.93. IR for background parenchymal enhancement (BPE was moderate across single (0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.65 and joint readings (0.44, 95% CI: 0.33-0.56. IR for BI-RADS category according to each enhancement was poor for single (0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.44, and higher for joint readings, (0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.72. Conclusions: IR in BI-RADS breast assessments or BI-RADS lesion assessments are better with joint reading in screening for women with high genetic risks, in particular for abnormal MRI (BI-RADS 3, 4 and 5.

  17. Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI at 7T and 3T : an intra-individual comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lima Gomes de Menezes, G; Stehouwer, Bertine L; Klomp, DWJ; van der Velden, Tijl A; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Knuttel, Floor; Boer, VO; van der Kemp, Wybe J M; Luijten, Peter R; Veldhuis, Wouter B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the current state of lesion identification, the BI-RADS classification and the contrast-enhancement behavior at 7T and 3T breast MRI in the same patient group. Twenty-seven patients with thirty suspicious lesions were selected for this prospective study and

  18. The New Lexicon Poeticum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon

    The New Lexicon Poeticum (lexiconpoeticum.org) is a project to produce a new lexicographic resource covering Old Norse poetry (initially the category known as skaldic poetry). It is based on the corpus produced by the Skaldic Project (supported project no. 60 of the Union Académique Internationale...... number of words that only exist through editorial conjecture, and omits large numbers of words that are evidenced in the manuscript tradition, particularly as manuscript variants are largely ignored. This situation has left a significant gap in methodologies between the material evidence of the poetic....... The new resource will be linked directly to these resources, enabling the lexicon to be understood in its complex contexts. ONP, founded in 1939, is the major dictionary of Old Norse. The poetic corpus was specifically excluded from ONP because of the lack of a reliable edition of this material — a lack...

  19. Incidentally detected enhancing lesions found in breast MRI: analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 signal intensity significantly improves specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arponen, Otso; Masarwah, Amro; Taina, Mikko [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Sutela, Anna; Koenoenen, Mervi; Hakumaeki, Juhana; Sudah, Mazen [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Sironen, Reijo [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Pathology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Clinical Pathology and Forensic Medicine, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the value of adding T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to the BI-RADS registered classification in MRI-detected lesions. This retrospective study included 112 consecutive patients who underwent 3.0T structural breast MRI with T2- and DWI on the basis of EUSOMA recommendations. Morphological and kinetic features, T2 signal intensity (T2 SI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings were assessed. Thirty-three (29.5 %) patients (mean age 57.0 ± 12.7 years) had 36 primarily MRI-detected incidental lesions of which 16 (44.4 %) proved to be malignant. No single morphological or kinetic feature was associated with malignancy. Both low T2 SI (P = 0.009) and low ADC values (≤0.87 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1}, P < 0.001) yielded high specificity (80.0 %/80.0 %). The BI-RADS classification supplemented with information from DWI and T2-WI improved the diagnostic performance of the BI-RADS classification as sensitivity remained 100 % and specificity improved from 30 % to 65.0 %. The numbers of false positive lesions declined from 39 % (N = 14) to 19 % (N = 7). MRI-detected incidental lesions may be challenging to characterize as they have few specific malignancy indicating features. The specificity of MRI can be improved by incorporating T2 SI and ADC values into the BI-RADS assessment. (orig.)

  20. Creating Parsing Lexicons from Semantic Lexicons Automatically and Its Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayan, Necip F; Dorr, Bonnie

    2002-01-01

    ...). We also present the effects of using such a lexicon on the parser performance. The advantage of automating the process is that the same technique can be applied directly to lexicons we have for other languages, for example, Arabic, Chinese, and Spanish. The results indicate that our method will help us generate parsing lexicons which can be used by a broad-coverage parser that runs on different languages.

  1. BI-RADS: Its Influence on the Diagnosis, behavior of Doctors and Patients Who have been Imaged in a Center of the City of Ibague (Colombia),2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Cordoba, Alma Patricia; Lopez Rivera, Ricardo; Rodriguez Avila, Diana

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of the Breast Imaging Report and Database System (BI-RADS) on the behavior of radiologists, general medics, and users. Methods: Descriptive,correlative, and retrospective quantitative study of 6.389 examinations conducted between 2002 and 2004, and registered in the database (presented at the Colombian Conference of Radiology in 1998). The sample consisted of 281 patients; the error margin was 3%. Results:The average age of the women studied was 52 years. 84,7% of them were from Ibague; from social strata 3 and 4. The reason for consultation was mastalgy (24,91%), mass (24,20%), and prevention (23,13%). The radiologists found mammary density (25% to 50%) in 117 persons.Conclusion: An aging and sedentary female population with good access to the health care system was found. Most of them requested consultation because they had symptoms. The radiologists followed the criteria of BI-RADS classification whose diagnostic certainty was found adequate. Medical conducts for BI-RADS 4 and 5 were carried out. Few users changed their habits after the study and management. The diagnosis of breast cancer happens in advanced stages; there are few pathological findings of carcinoma in situ.

  2. Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: MRI pathological correlation following bilateral total mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stivalet, Aude; Pigneur, Frederic; Luciani, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is more often multifocal and bilateral than invasive ductal carcinoma. MRI is usually recommended for detection of all ILC sites. The performance of known diagnostic breast MRI criteria for ILC characterization has not been evaluated to date using bilateral mastectomy specimens as gold standard. Purpose: To determine the value of BI-RADS 2006 MRI criteria for ILC detection and characterization, using pathological examination of bilateral mastectomy specimens as the reference standard. Material and Methods: Between 2004 and 2007, we retrospectively included all patients with pathologically documented ILC referred to our institution for bilateral mastectomy and preoperative bilateral breast MRI. The location, diameter, and characteristics (BI-RADS) of all lesions were compared with pathological findings. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of bilateral breast MRI for the diagnosis of ILC were calculated. Association of MRI BI-RADS categorical variables and characterization of ILC were assessed (Fisher exact test). Results: Among 360 patients treated for ILC in 2004-2007, 15 patients qualified for this study. Thirty-one ILC foci were found on pathological examination (30 ipsilateral and 1 contralateral tumor; mean diameter 23 mm; range 2-60 mm) and all were identified on MRI, with 90% of masses and 10% non-mass-like enhancements; MRI features significantly associated with ILC included absence of smooth margins (P = 0.02) and rim-shaped enhancement (P = 0.039). Enhancement kinetics of the 31 foci were evenly distributed among wash-out, plateau, and persistent profiles. Eleven additional lesions were seen on MRI, mainly corresponding to fibrocystic disease; 91% presented as masses and 9% had a wash-out profile. Conclusion: Based on the 2006 BI-RADS criteria, breast MRI shows a high sensitivity for ILC detection, at the expense of a 26% false-positive rate, suggesting that a pathological proof by US- or MR

  3. Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: MRI pathological correlation following bilateral total mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivalet, Aude; Pigneur, Frederic (AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor Albert Chenevier, Imagerie Medicale, Creteil (France)); Luciani, Alain (AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor Albert Chenevier, Imagerie Medicale, Creteil (France); INSERM Unite U 955, Equipe 17, Univ. Paris Est Creteil, Creteil (France)), email: alain.luciani@hmn.aphp.fr (and others)

    2012-05-15

    Background: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is more often multifocal and bilateral than invasive ductal carcinoma. MRI is usually recommended for detection of all ILC sites. The performance of known diagnostic breast MRI criteria for ILC characterization has not been evaluated to date using bilateral mastectomy specimens as gold standard. Purpose: To determine the value of BI-RADS 2006 MRI criteria for ILC detection and characterization, using pathological examination of bilateral mastectomy specimens as the reference standard. Material and Methods: Between 2004 and 2007, we retrospectively included all patients with pathologically documented ILC referred to our institution for bilateral mastectomy and preoperative bilateral breast MRI. The location, diameter, and characteristics (BI-RADS) of all lesions were compared with pathological findings. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of bilateral breast MRI for the diagnosis of ILC were calculated. Association of MRI BI-RADS categorical variables and characterization of ILC were assessed (Fisher exact test). Results: Among 360 patients treated for ILC in 2004-2007, 15 patients qualified for this study. Thirty-one ILC foci were found on pathological examination (30 ipsilateral and 1 contralateral tumor; mean diameter 23 mm; range 2-60 mm) and all were identified on MRI, with 90% of masses and 10% non-mass-like enhancements; MRI features significantly associated with ILC included absence of smooth margins (P = 0.02) and rim-shaped enhancement (P = 0.039). Enhancement kinetics of the 31 foci were evenly distributed among wash-out, plateau, and persistent profiles. Eleven additional lesions were seen on MRI, mainly corresponding to fibrocystic disease; 91% presented as masses and 9% had a wash-out profile. Conclusion: Based on the 2006 BI-RADS criteria, breast MRI shows a high sensitivity for ILC detection, at the expense of a 26% false-positive rate, suggesting that a pathological proof by US- or MR

  4. Diagnosis of breast cancer at dynamic MRI in patients with breast augmentation by paraffin or silicone injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youk, J.H.; Son, E.J.; Kim, E.-K.; Kim, J.-A.; Kim, M.J.; Kwak, J.Y.; Lee, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic performance of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in breasts augmented with liquid paraffin or silicone injection. Materials and methods: Among 62 patients with breast augmentation by liquid paraffin or silicone injection who had undergone dynamic breast MRI at our institution, 27 women, who had pathological diagnosis or at least 1-year MRI follow-up, were included in this retrospective study and their MRI images were reviewed. For enhancing lesions on MRI, the morphological features, enhancement kinetics, and BI-RADS assessment category were analysed. The lesion characteristics at MRI were correlated with the final diagnosis based on the histopathological result or at least 1-year MRI follow-up. Results: Of the 27 patients, 17 enhancing lesions in 13 patients were found on MRI. All six lesions that were confirmed as malignancy showed suspicious morphological findings and type 2 or 3 enhancement kinetics, assigned to BI-RADS category 4 or 5. Of the remaining 11 benign lesions, 10 showed benign-favouring morphological findings, and all showed type 1 enhancement kinetics, assigned to BI-RADS category 2 or 4. Conclusion: In patients with breasts injected with foreign material, MRI was used to successfully diagnose malignant breast lesions and could be the diagnostic method of choice. Analysis of the morphological and kinetic features at MRI in conjunction with clinical findings is essential.

  5. Comparison of synthetic mammography, reconstructed from digital breast tomosynthesis, and digital mammography: evaluation of lesion conspicuity and BI-RADS assessment categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscotti, Giovanna; Durando, Manuela; Houssami, Nehmat; Fasciano, Mirella; Tagliafico, Alberto; Bosco, Davide; Casella, Cristina; Bogetti, Camilla; Bergamasco, Laura; Fonio, Paolo; Gandini, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    To compare the interpretive performance of synthetic mammography (SM), reconstructed from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a diagnostic setting, covering different conditions of breast density and mammographic signs. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 231 patients, who underwent FFDM and DBT (from which SM images were reconstructed) between September 2014-September 2015. The study included 250 suspicious breast lesions, all biopsy proven: 148 (59.2%) malignant and 13 (5.2%) high-risk lesions were confirmed by surgery, 89 (35.6%) benign lesions had radiological follow-up. Two breast radiologists, blinded to histology, independently reviewed all cases. Readings were performed with SM alone, then with FFDM, collecting data on: probability of malignancy for each finding, lesion conspicuity, mammographic features and dimensions of detected lesions. Agreement between readers was good for BI-RADS classification (Cohen's k-coefficient = 0.93 ± 0.02) and for lesion dimension (Wilcoxon's p = 0.76). Visibility scores assigned to SM and FFDM for each lesion were similar for non-dense and dense breasts, however, there were significant differences (p = 0.0009) in distribution of mammographic features subgroups. SM and FFDM had similar sensitivities in non-dense (respectively 94 vs. 91%) and dense breasts (88 vs. 80%) and for all mammographic signs (93 vs. 87% for asymmetric densities, 96 vs. 75% for distortion, 92 vs. 85% for microcalcifications, and both 94% for masses). Based on all data, there was a significant difference in sensitivity for SM (92%) vs. FFDM (87%), p = 0.02, whereas the two modalities yielded similar results for specificity (SM: 60%, FFDM: 62%, p = 0.21). SM alone showed similar interpretive performance to FFDM, confirming its potential role as an alternative to FFDM in women having tomosynthesis, with the added advantage of halving the patient's dose exposure.

  6. Dual-Energy Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography: Enhancement Analysis on BI-RADS 4 Non-Mass Microcalcifications in Screened Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chung Cheung

    Full Text Available Mammography screening is a cost-efficient modality with high sensitivity for detecting impalpable cancer with microcalcifications, and results in reduced mortality rates. However, the probability of finding microcalcifications without associated cancerous masses varies. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnosis and cancer probability of the non-mass screened microcalcifications by dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (DE-CESM.With ethical approval from our hospital, we enrolled the cases of DE-CESM for analysis under the following inclusion criteria: (1 referrals due to screened BI-RADS 4 microcalcifications; (2 having DE-CESM prior to stereotactic biopsy; (3 no associated mass found by sonography and physical examination; and (4 pathology-based diagnosis using stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. We analyzed the added value of post-contrast enhancement on DE-CESM.A total of 94 biopsed lesions were available for analysis in our 87 women, yielding 27 cancers [19 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, and 8 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC], 32 pre-malignant and 35 benign lesions. Of these 94 lesions, 33 showed associated enhancement in DE-CESM while the other 61 did not. All 8 IDC (100% and 16 of 19 DCIS (84.21% showed enhancement, but the other 3 DCIS (15.79% did not. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 88.89%, 86.56%, 72.72%, 95.08% and 87.24%, respectively. The performances of DE-CESM on both amorphous and pleomorphic microcalcifications were satisfactory (AUC 0.8 and 0.92, respectively. The pleomorphous microcalcifications with enhancement showed higher positive predictive value (90.00% vs 46.15%, p = 0.013 and higher cancer probability than the amorphous microcalcifications (46.3% VS 15.1%. The Odds Ratio was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.84-12.82.DE-CESM might provide added value in assessing the non-mass screened breast microcalcification, with enhancement favorable to the

  7. Dual-Energy Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography: Enhancement Analysis on BI-RADS 4 Non-Mass Microcalcifications in Screened Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yun-Chung; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lo, Yung-Feng; Tsai, Hsiu-Pei; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Chen, Shin-Cheh

    2016-01-01

    Mammography screening is a cost-efficient modality with high sensitivity for detecting impalpable cancer with microcalcifications, and results in reduced mortality rates. However, the probability of finding microcalcifications without associated cancerous masses varies. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnosis and cancer probability of the non-mass screened microcalcifications by dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (DE-CESM). With ethical approval from our hospital, we enrolled the cases of DE-CESM for analysis under the following inclusion criteria: (1) referrals due to screened BI-RADS 4 microcalcifications; (2) having DE-CESM prior to stereotactic biopsy; (3) no associated mass found by sonography and physical examination; and (4) pathology-based diagnosis using stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. We analyzed the added value of post-contrast enhancement on DE-CESM. A total of 94 biopsed lesions were available for analysis in our 87 women, yielding 27 cancers [19 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 8 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)], 32 pre-malignant and 35 benign lesions. Of these 94 lesions, 33 showed associated enhancement in DE-CESM while the other 61 did not. All 8 IDC (100%) and 16 of 19 DCIS (84.21%) showed enhancement, but the other 3 DCIS (15.79%) did not. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 88.89%, 86.56%, 72.72%, 95.08% and 87.24%, respectively. The performances of DE-CESM on both amorphous and pleomorphic microcalcifications were satisfactory (AUC 0.8 and 0.92, respectively). The pleomorphous microcalcifications with enhancement showed higher positive predictive value (90.00% vs 46.15%, p = 0.013) and higher cancer probability than the amorphous microcalcifications (46.3% VS 15.1%). The Odds Ratio was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.84-12.82). DE-CESM might provide added value in assessing the non-mass screened breast microcalcification, with enhancement favorable to the

  8. Predictive values of BI-RADS® magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badan, Gustavo Machado; Piato, Sebastião; Roveda, Décio; Faria Castro Fleury, Eduardo de

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate BI-RADS indicators in the detection of DCIS by MRI. Materials and methods: Prospective observational study that started in 2014 and lasted 24 months. A total of 110 consecutive patients were evaluated, who presented with suspicious or highly suspicious microcalcifications on screening mammography (BI-RADS categories 4 and 5) and underwent stereotactic-guided breast biopsy, having had an MRI scan performed prior to biopsy. Results: Altogether, 38 cases were characterized as positive for malignancy, of which 25 were DCIS and 13 were invasive ductal carcinoma cases. MRI had a sensitivity of 96%; specificity of 75.67%; positive predictive value (PPV) for DCIS detection of 57.14%; negative predictive value (NPV) in the detection of DCIS of 98.24%; and an accuracy of 80.80%. Conclusion: BI-RADS as a tool for the detection of DCIS by MRI is a powerful instrument whose sensitivity was higher when compared to that observed for mammography in the literature. Likewise, the PPV obtained by MRI was higher than that observed in the present study for mammography, and the high NPV obtained on MRI scans can provide early evidence to discourage breast biopsy in selected cases.

  9. Correlação radiológica e histológica de lesões mamárias não-palpáveis em pacientes submetidas a marcação pré-cirúrgica, utilizando-se o sistema BI-RADS Radiological and histological correlation of non-palpable breast lesions in patients submitted to preoperative marking according to BI-RADS classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaneska de Carvalho Melhado

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as categorias 3, 4 e 5 da classificação BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System como fator preditivo para malignidade, correlacionando os achados mamográficos e histológicos em lesões não-palpáveis da mama. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico descritivo de 169 mulheres submetidas a biópsia cirúrgica, após localização estereotáxica de lesões mamárias não-palpáveis. As mamografias dessas pacientes foram classificadas de acordo com a quarta edição do BI-RADS, avaliando-se as categorias 3, 4 (A, B e C e 5. Correlacionaram-se os achados mamográficos com os exames histológicos das lesões, avaliando-se o valor preditivo positivo em cada categoria. RESULTADOS: No total de 169 casos, foram diagnosticados 42 casos de câncer (24,8%. Destes, houve apenas um caso na categoria 3, 19 casos na categoria 4 e 22 casos na categoria 5. Os valores preditivos positivos para as categorias 3, 4A, 4B, 4C e 5 foram, respectivamente, de 3,4%, 10,3%, 11,3%, 36% e 91,7%. As microcalcificações foram o achado mais freqüente relacionado à doença maligna, ocorrendo em 61,5% do total. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou que a classificação BI-RADS permite predizer com segurança que há alta suspeição de malignidade para achados classificados na categoria 5 e diminuta chance para os achados da categoria 3. Quanto à categoria 4, foi constatada elevação progressiva dos valores preditivos positivos nas subcategorias A, B e C, mostrando que esta subdivisão contribui de forma mais detalhada e precisa na indicação de lesões suspeitas para malignidade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the positive predictive value for BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories 3, 4 and 5, correlating mammographic and histological diagnosis in non-palpable breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analytical-descriptive study of 169 women submitted to stereotactic localization for surgical biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions

  10. Comparison between breast MRI and contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyńska, Elżbieta; Heinze-Paluchowska, Sylwia; Hendrick, Edward; Dyczek, Sonia; Ryś, Janusz; Herman, Krzysztof; Blecharz, Paweł; Jakubowicz, Jerzy

    2015-05-12

    The main goal of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with histopathological results and to compare the sensitivity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values for both imaging modalities. After ethics approval, CESM and MRI examinations were performed in 102 patients who had suspicious lesions described in conventional mammography. All visible lesions were evaluated independently by 2 experienced radiologists using BI-RADS classifications (scale 1-5). Dimensions of lesions measured with each modality were compared to postoperative histopathology results. There were 102 patients entered into CESM/MRI studies and 118 lesions were identified by the combination of CESM and breast MRI. Histopathology confirmed that 81 of 118 lesions were malignant and 37 were benign. Of the 81 malignant lesions, 72 were invasive cancers and 9 were in situ cancers. Sensitivity was 100% with CESM and 93% with breast MRI. Accuracy was 79% with CESM and 73% with breast MRI. ROC curve areas based on BI-RADS were 0.83 for CESM and 0.84 for breast MRI. Lesion size estimates on CESM and breast MRI were similar, both slightly larger than those from histopathology. Our results indicate that CESM has the potential to be a valuable diagnostic method that enables accurate detection of malignant breast lesions, has high negative predictive value, and a false-positive rate similar to that of breast MRI.

  11. Toddlers' Verb Lexicon Diversity and Grammatical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hsu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to quantify longitudinal expectations for verb lexicon growth and to determine whether verb lexicon measures were better predictors of later grammatical outcomes than noun lexicon measures. Method: Longitudinal parent-report measures from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Fenson et al.,…

  12. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  13. Workflow Lexicons in Healthcare: Validation of the SWIM Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenan, Chris; Erickson, Bradley; Knight, Nancy; Fossett, Jewel; Olsen, Elizabeth; Mohod, Prerna; Chen, Joseph; Langer, Steve G

    2017-06-01

    For clinical departments seeking to successfully navigate the challenges of modern health reform, obtaining access to operational and clinical data to establish and sustain goals for improving quality is essential. More broadly, health delivery organizations are also seeking to understand performance across multiple facilities and often across multiple electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Interpreting operational data across multiple vendor systems can be challenging, as various manufacturers may describe different departmental workflow steps in different ways and sometimes even within a single vendor's installed customer base. In 2012, The Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine (SIIM) recognized the need for better quality and performance data standards and formed SIIM's Workflow Initiative for Medicine (SWIM), an initiative designed to consistently describe workflow steps in radiology departments as well as defining operational quality metrics. The SWIM lexicon was published as a working model to describe operational workflow steps and quality measures. We measured the prevalence of the SWIM lexicon workflow steps in both academic and community radiology environments using real-world patient observations and correlated that information with automatically captured workflow steps from our clinical information systems. Our goal was to measure frequency of occurrence of workflow steps identified by the SWIM lexicon in a real-world clinical setting, as well as to correlate how accurately departmental information systems captured patient flow through our health facility.

  14. Which factors influence MRI-pathology concordance of tumour size measurements in breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rominger, M.; Frauenfelder, T. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Berg, D. [Urbankrankenhaus Berlin, Anesthesiology, Berlin (Germany); Ramaswamy, A. [University Hospital Marburg, Pathology, Marburg (Germany); Timmesfeld, N. [Philipps University Marburg, Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    To assess MRI-pathology concordance and factors influencing tumour size measurement in breast cancer. MRI tumour size (greatest diameter in anatomical planes (MRI-In-Plane) and greatest diameter along main tumour axis (MRI-MPR)) of 115 consecutive breast lesions (59 invasive lobular carcinoma, 46 invasive ductal carcinoma, and 10 ductal carcinoma in situ) was retrospectively compared to size measured at histopathology (pT size (Path-TNM) and greatest tumour diameter as relevant for excision (Path-Diameter; reference standard)). Histopathological tumour types, preoperative palpability, surgical management, additional high-risk lesions, and BI-RADS lesion type (mass versus non-mass enhancements) were assessed as possible influencing factors. Systematic errors were most pronounced between MRI-MPR and Path-TNM (7.1 mm, limits of agreement (LoA) [-21.7; 35.9]), and were lowest between MRI-In-Plane and Path-Diameter (0.2 mm, LoA [-19.7; 20.1]). Concordance rate of MRI-In-Plane with Path-Diameter was 86 % (97/113), overestimation 9 % (10/113) and underestimation 5 % (6/113); BI-RADS mass lesions were overestimated in 7 % (6/81) versus 41 % (13/32) for non-mass enhancements. On multivariate analysis only BI-RADS lesion type significantly influenced MRI-pathology concordance (p < 0.001). 2/59 (3 %) ILC did not enhance. Concordance rate varies according to the execution of MRI and histopathological measurements. Beyond this only non-mass enhancement significantly predicted discordance. (orig.)

  15. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    1 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits ...Lexicon And Rules William Snavely 2 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material

  16. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  17. MRI findings and correlation with pathological features in breast phyllodes tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xigang; Tan Hongna; Peng Weijun; Li Ruimin; Gu Yajia; Huang Dan; Mao Jian; Zhou Liangping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the MR Imaging features of breast phyllodes tumor (PT), and to correlate it with pathological results. Method: Clinical and MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed in twenty-seven women with 28 PTs lesions confirmed by surgical pathology. Statistical analyses were one-way ANOVA for size analysis, Fisher exact test for analysis of MR appearances and Spearman correlation to study the relationship between MRI findings and BI-RADS categories. Results: (1) The histologic findings were benign, borderline and malignant PTs in 14.3% (4/28), 53.6% (15/28) and 32.1% (9/28) of lesions, respectively. (2) The mean maximum-diameter were (6.4±3.9) cm, (5.7±2.2) cm in borderline type and (4.8±1.8) cm in benign type respectively. The results showed differences in lesion's size among the three type (F= 287.541, P=0.000), especially between malignant and benign type (P=0.033). (3) Internal non-enhanced septation and silt-like changes on enhanced images, as well as time-signal curve on MRI correlated significantly with the histological grade (P<0.05). (4) If the category BI-RADS ≥ 4a was considered to be a suspicious sign for malignant lesion, the diagnostic accuracy of MRI would be 96.4% (27/28), and the BI-RADS category of the MRI could reflect the PT's histological grade with a low correlation coefficient (r=0.382, P=0.045). Conclusion: The findings of PT on MRI have some characteristics, with tumor size and several MRI features correlating with the histological grade of breast PT. (authors)

  18. Growth of a Functionally Important Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister, Eugene B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Uses a dictionary-sampling method and multiple-choice testing of word knowledge to estimate the lexicon size of junior-high students, college students, and older adults. Suggests that there may yet be a role for direct instruction in affecting lexicon size of functionally important words. (SR)

  19. Validation of the Danish PAROLE lexicon (upubliceret)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe; Christoffersen, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    This validation is based on the Danish PAROLE lexicon dated June 20, 1998, downloaded on March 16, 1999. Subsequently, the developers of the lexicon have informed us that they have been revising the lexicon, in particular the morphological level. Morphological entries were originally generated...... automatically from a machine-readable version of the Official Danish Spelling Dictionary (Retskrivningsordbogen 1986, in the following RO86), and this resulted in some overgeneration, which the developers started eliminating after submitting the Danish PAROLE lexicon for validation. The present validation is......, however, based on the January 1997 version of the lexicon. The validation as such complies with the specifications described in ELRA validation manuals for lexical data, i.e. Underwood and Navaretta: "A Draft Manual for the Validation of Lexica, Final Report" [Underwood & Navaretta1997] and Braasch: "A...

  20. Incidental enhancing lesions found on preoperative breast MRI: management and role of second-look ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, M L; Pediconi, F; Telesca, M; Vasselli, F; Casali, V; Miglio, E; Passariello, R; Catalano, C

    2011-09-01

    This study prospectively assessed second-look ultrasound (US) for the evaluation of incidental enhancing lesions identified on preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Between 2004 and 2007, 182 patients with malignant breast lesions detected on US and/or X-ray mammography and confirmed by cytology/histology underwent preoperative breast contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI. Patients with incidental lesions on breast MRI underwent second-look high-resolution US directed at the site of the incidental finding. Diagnosis of incidental lesions was based on biopsy or 24-month follow-up. Breast MRI detected 55 additional lesions in 46/182 (25.2%) patients. Forty-two of 55 (76.3%) lesions were detected on second-look US in 38/46 (82.6%) patients. Malignancy was confirmed for 24/42 (57.1%) correlate lesions compared with 7/13 (53.8%) noncorrelate lesions. Second-look US depicted 8/9 (88.8%) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 5, 16/22 (72.7%) BI-RADS 4 and 18/24 (75%) BI-RADS 3 lesions. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive and negative predictive values for lesion detection/diagnosis was 100%, 88.9%, 94.6%, 90.3% and 100% for MRI and 64.3%, 70.4%, 67.3%, 69.2% and 65.5% for second-look US. Improved performance for US was obtained when masslike lesions only were considered. Second-look US is a confirmatory method for incidental findings on breast MRI, particularly for mass-like lesions.

  1. Paradoxical Decrease in the size of Two of 54 BI-RADS Category 5 Non-Palpable Breast MASSES After FNA. analysis of Cytohistological changes Attributable to FNA and Possible Mammographic and Echographic Repurcussions; Disinucion paradojica del tamno en dos de 54 masas mamarias no palpable BI-RADS V tras las realizacion de una PAAF. Analisis de los cambios citohistologicos atribuibles a la PAAF y su posible repercusion mamografica y ecografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J. J.; Lopez, J. A.; Aguirre, I.; Fernandez, Z.; Aperribay, A.; Saiz, A. [Hospital de Galdakao. Galdakao. Vizcaya (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    To analyze mammographic and echographic changes observed in suspicious breast masses previously studied by means of Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA), and the latter's hypothetical relationship to tissular changes attributable to such intervention. We evaluated 54 BI-RADS category 5 non-palpable masses detected in routine mimeographs, on which were performed surgical biopsies after having undergone FNA. We studied all mammographic and echographic findings, as well as tumor sizes, before and after puncture. We also checked all surgical biopsies in order to verify histological changes likely provoked by FNA. We analysed 3 ductal carcinomas in situ, 50 infiltrating neoplasia and one fibroadenoma. Only in 2 infiltrating carcinomas did we observe paradoxical changes such as size reduction in the mammography and echography after FNA, Nevertheless, in anatomopathological studies we found changes attributable to puncture in 18 cases, all involving inflammatory reactions and 3 of which showed necrosis. Inflammatory phenomena or tumor necrosis which can reasonably be attributed to FNA may on occasion be associated with radiological changes such as size reduction in the masses being studies. (Author) 27 refs.

  2. Breast fat volume measurement using wide-bore 3 T MRI: comparison of traditional mammographic density evaluation with MRI density measurements using automatic segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, E; Kibiro, M; Gladwell, C; Malcolm, P; Toms, A; Juette, A; Borga, M; Dahlqvist Leinhard, O; Romu, T; Kasmai, B; Denton, E

    2017-07-01

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived breast density measurements using automatic segmentation algorithms with radiologist estimations using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS) density classification. Forty women undergoing mammography and dynamic breast MRI as part of their clinical management were recruited. Fat-water separated MRI images derived from a two-point Dixon technique, phase-sensitive reconstruction, and atlas-based segmentation were obtained before and after intravenous contrast medium administration. Breast density was assessed using software from Advanced MR Analytics (AMRA), Linköping, Sweden, with results compared to the widely used four-quartile quantitative BI-RADS scale. The proportion of glandular tissue in the breast on MRI was derived from the AMRA sequence. The mean unenhanced breast density was 0.31±0.22 (mean±SD; left) and 0.29±0.21 (right). Mean breast density on post-contrast images was 0.32±0.19 (left) and 0.32±0.2 (right). There was "almost perfect" correlation between pre- and post-contrast breast density quantification: Spearman's correlation rho=0.98 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.97-0.99; left) and rho=0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99; right). The 95% limits of agreement were -0.11-0.08 (left) and -0.08-0.03 (right). Interobserver reliability for BI-RADS was "substantial": weighted Kappa k=0.8 (95% CI: 0.74-0.87). The Spearman correlation coefficient between BI-RADS and MRI breast density was rho=0.73 (95% CI: 0.60-0.82; left) and rho=0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.83; right) which was also "substantial". The AMRA sequence provides a fully automated, reproducible, objective assessment of fibroglandular breast tissue proportion that correlates well with mammographic assessment of breast density with the added advantage of avoidance of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-time MRI navigated US: Role in diagnosis and guided biopsy of incidental breast lesions and axillary lymph nodes detected on breast MRI but not on second look US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, Elena Pastor, E-mail: elenapastorpons@gmail.com; Azcón, Francisco Miras, E-mail: frmiaz00@gmail.com; Casas, María Culiañez, E-mail: mariacc1980@gmail.com; Meca, Salvador Martínez, E-mail: isalvaa@hotmail.com; Espona, José Luis García, E-mail: gespona@hotmail.com

    2014-06-15

    Objectives: To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of real-time ultrasound combined with supine-MRI using volume navigation technique (RtMR-US) in diagnosis and biopsy of incidental breast lesions (ILSM) and axillary lymph nodes (LNSM) suspicious of malignancy on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI). Materials and methods: Five hundred and seventy-seven women were examined using breast CE-MRI. Those with incidental breast lesions not identified after second-look ultrasound (US) were recruited for RtMR-US. Biopsy was performed in ILSM. Breast lesions were categorized with BI-RADS system and Fisher’ exact test. Axillary lymph nodes morphology was described. To assess efficacy of RtMR-US, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, detection rate and Kappa index of conventional-US and RtMR-US were calculated. Results: Forty-three lesions were detected on CE-MRI before navigation. Eighteen were carcinomas and 25 ILSM. Of these, 21 underwent a RtMR-US. Detection rate on RtMR-US (90.7%) was higher than on conventional-US (43%) (p < 0.001). Agreement between both techniques was low (k = 0.138). Twenty ILSM and 2 LNSM were biopsied. Sixty-five percent were benign (100% of BI-RADS3 and 56% of BI-RADS4-5). Diagnostic performance of RtMR-US identifying malignant nodules for overall lesions and for the subgroup of ILSM was respectively: sensitivity 96.3% and 100%, specificity 18.8% and 30.7%, positive predictive value 66.7% and 43.7%, negative predictive value 75% and 100%. In addition RtMR-US enabled biopsy of 2 metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusions: Real time-US with supine-MRI using a volume navigation technique increases the detection of ILSM. RtMR-US may be used to detect occult breast carcinomas and to assess cancer extension, preventing unnecessary MRI-guided biopsies and sentinel lymph node biopsies. Incidental lesions BI-RADS 3 non-detected on conventional-US are probably benign.

  4. Assessment of three different software systems in the evaluation of dynamic MRI of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, K.D.; Steinhaus, D.; Klar, V.; Cohnen, M.; Wittsack, H.J.; Saleh, A.; Moedder, U.; Blondin, D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to compare the diagnostic performance and handling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast with two commercial software solutions ('CADstream' and '3TP') and one self-developed software system ('Mammatool'). Materials and methods: Identical data sets of dynamic breast MRI from 21 patients were evaluated retrospectively with all three software systems. The exams were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. The number of lesions in the parametric mapping was compared to histology or follow-up of more than 2 years. In addition, 25 quality criteria were judged by 3 independent investigators with a score from 0 to 5. Statistical analysis was performed to document the quality ranking of the different software systems. Results: There were 9 invasive carcinomas, one pure DCIS, one papilloma, one radial scar, three histologically proven changes due to mastopathy, one adenosis and two fibroadenomas. Additionally two patients with enhancing parenchyma followed with MRI for more than 3 years and one scar after breast conserving therapy were included. All malignant lesions were classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5 using all software systems and showed significant enhancement in the parametric mapping. 'CADstream' showed the best score on subjective quality criteria. '3TP' showed the lowest number of false-positive results. 'Mammatool' produced the lowest number of benign tissues indicated with parametric overlay. Conclusion: All three software programs tested were adequate for sensitive and efficient assessment of dynamic MRI of the breast. Improvements in specificity may be achievable

  5. Assessment of three different software systems in the evaluation of dynamic MRI of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, K D; Steinhaus, D; Klar, V; Cohnen, M; Wittsack, H J; Saleh, A; Mödder, U; Blondin, D

    2009-02-01

    The aim was to compare the diagnostic performance and handling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast with two commercial software solutions ("CADstream" and "3TP") and one self-developed software system ("Mammatool"). Identical data sets of dynamic breast MRI from 21 patients were evaluated retrospectively with all three software systems. The exams were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. The number of lesions in the parametric mapping was compared to histology or follow-up of more than 2 years. In addition, 25 quality criteria were judged by 3 independent investigators with a score from 0 to 5. Statistical analysis was performed to document the quality ranking of the different software systems. There were 9 invasive carcinomas, one pure DCIS, one papilloma, one radial scar, three histologically proven changes due to mastopathy, one adenosis and two fibroadenomas. Additionally two patients with enhancing parenchyma followed with MRI for more than 3 years and one scar after breast conserving therapy were included. All malignant lesions were classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5 using all software systems and showed significant enhancement in the parametric mapping. "CADstream" showed the best score on subjective quality criteria. "3TP" showed the lowest number of false-positive results. "Mammatool" produced the lowest number of benign tissues indicated with parametric overlay. All three software programs tested were adequate for sensitive and efficient assessment of dynamic MRI of the breast. Improvements in specificity may be achievable.

  6. Deriving a Bilingual Lexicon for Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a systematic approach to derive a bilingual lexicon automatically from parallel corpora. Following this approach, a lexicon was derived from the English and Dutch version of the Agenda 21 corpus. With the lexicon and a part of the corpus that was not used to derive the

  7. Translation in Light of Bilingual Mental Lexicon: A Psycholinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congmin Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the translating process of second language learners in language use in light of the mechanism of bilingual mental lexicon. Structure and development of second language mental lexicon explains the existence of first language items and translation equivalents. Conversely translation can promote the construction of second language mental lexicon and ultimately second language acquisition.

  8. HMM-based lexicon-driven and lexicon-free word recognition for online handwritten Indic scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, A; Madhvanath, Sriganesh

    2012-04-01

    Research for recognizing online handwritten words in Indic scripts is at its early stages when compared to Latin and Oriental scripts. In this paper, we address this problem specifically for two major Indic scripts--Devanagari and Tamil. In contrast to previous approaches, the techniques we propose are largely data driven and script independent. We propose two different techniques for word recognition based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM): lexicon driven and lexicon free. The lexicon-driven technique models each word in the lexicon as a sequence of symbol HMMs according to a standard symbol writing order derived from the phonetic representation. The lexicon-free technique uses a novel Bag-of-Symbols representation of the handwritten word that is independent of symbol order and allows rapid pruning of the lexicon. On handwritten Devanagari word samples featuring both standard and nonstandard symbol writing orders, a combination of lexicon-driven and lexicon-free recognizers significantly outperforms either of them used in isolation. In contrast, most Tamil word samples feature the standard symbol order, and the lexicon-driven recognizer outperforms the lexicon free one as well as their combination. The best recognition accuracies obtained for 20,000 word lexicons are 87.13 percent for Devanagari when the two recognizers are combined, and 91.8 percent for Tamil using the lexicon-driven technique.

  9. Lexicon and Description of Sui Adjective Intensifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Stanford

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sui, an indigenous minority language of southwest China, has an elaborate system of adjective intensification. Adjectives are intensified with word-specific, bound morphemes that usually either rhyme with the base or alliterate with the base. Stanford (2007 notes morpho-phonological patterns that suggest reduplication, rhyme, alliteration, The Emergence of the Unmarked (McCarthy & Prince 1994, Yip 2001, identity avoidance, and “Copy But Don’t Repeat” (Kennard 2004. However, the adjective intensifiers defy a simple, fully predictable explanation in such terms; the intensifier lexicon may be best described as “patterned variety,” a case of lexicalized poetry or a poeticized lexicon. Word formation is guided by general patterns, but each specific intensifier may vary within those overall guidelines. Many adjectives have multiple intensifiers that bear subtle semantic and pragmatic distinctions. The current paper serves as a complement to Stanford (2007 by providing a detailed lexicon of the Sui adjective intensifiers for future reference and further analysis. This lexicon is based on the author’s fieldwork and represents the first detailed account of Sui adjective intensifiers for the wider linguistic community.

  10. MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeter, Aileen; Rudin, Markus; Gianolio, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MRI followed by a survey on the major classes of MRI contrast agents (CA), their modes of action, and some of the most significative applications. The two more established classes of MRI-CA are represented by paramagnetic...... been attained that markedly increase the number and typology of systems with CEST properties. Currently much attention is also devoted to hyperpolarized molecules that display a sensitivity enhancement sufficient for their direct exploitation for the formation of the MR image. A real breakthrough...

  11. MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the room. Pins, hairpins, metal zippers, and similar metallic items can distort the images. Removable dental work ... an MRI can cause heart pacemakers and other implants not to work as well. The magnets can ...

  12. Using dictionaries to study the mental lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshen, F; Aronoff, M

    The notion of a mental lexicon has its historical roots in practical reference dictionaries. The distributional analysis of dictionaries provides one means of investigating the structure of the mental lexicon. We review our earlier work with dictionaries, based on a three-way horserace model of lexical access and production, and then present the most recent results of our ongoing analysis of the Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition on CD-ROM, which traces changes in productivity over time of the English suffixes -ment and -ity, both of which originate in French borrowings. Our results lead us to question the validity of automatic analogy from a set of existing words as the driving force behind morphological productivity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. MOTIVATIONAL LEXICON IN ANTHONY ROBBINS’ UNLIMITED POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Faidatun Naimah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the language learning process, motivation, one of psychological factors, has a great role in endorsing students to be a successful learner. Based on the issues, the choice of words that can influence the students to do the best is practically required by the teachers. So that, teacher as a motivator has a power to influence the students to take action for achieving their excellent learning, using what Anthony Robbins suggest on his book; Unlimited Power. The writer formulated the aims of this study as follow; (1 to identify the motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power from the psychological perspective, and (2 to describe how motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power take apart in the pedagogical field. This research used qualitative research to find out the data. The data analysis technique that researcher used is content analysis since they were texts in Unlimited Power. Researcher found three motivational lexicons used by Anthony Robbins in his book Unlimited Power; think, challenge, and remember. Think used as a tool to lead his readers to come to their memory, re-identify some main points, and consider about the certain thing. Challenge used to pump readers’ emotion, gave a test, and invited them to take action. Remember used as a tool to bring back a piece of information he provided before and try to keep it in readers’ mind. Anthony’s motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power also can use in the pedagogical field. Teacher can use them in the teaching-learning process as it determines the effectiveness of rewards for what students do and apparently influential factor for learning process.

  14. Incidental Lexicon Acquisition through Playful Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Wilhelm Ansteeg

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an educational game which aids learners with foreign lexicon acquisition while entertaining them at the same time. An overview over existing language learning tools is given, and a general platform for educational games for second language acquisition (SLA) is described. It introduces a specific prototype video game which teaches Italian vocabulary to the user. The application puts learning at the core of its game mechanics and combines it with a narrative and role-playing...

  15. Motivational Lexicon in Anthony Robbins’ Unlimited Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Faidatun Naimah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the language learning process, motivation, one of psychological factors, has a great role in endorsing students to be a successful learner. Based on the issues, the choice of words that can influence the students to do the best is practically required by the teachers. So that, teacher as a motivator has a power to influence the students to take action for achieving their excellent learning, using what Anthony Robbins suggest on his book; Unlimited Power. The writer formulated the aims of this study as follow; (1 to identify the motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power from the psychological perspective, and (2 to describe how motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power take apart in the pedagogical field. This research used qualitative research to find out the data. The data analysis technique that researcher used is content analysis since they were texts in Unlimited Power. Researcher found three motivational lexicons used by Anthony Robbins in his book Unlimited Power; think, challenge, and remember. Think used as a tool to lead his readers to come to their memory, re-identify some main points, and consider about the certain thing. Challenge used to pump readers’ emotion, gave a test, and invited them to take action. Remember used as a tool to bring back a piece of information he provided before and try to keep it in readers’ mind. Anthony’s motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power also can use in the pedagogical field. Teacher can use them in the teaching-learning process as it determines the effectiveness of rewards for what students do and apparently influential factor for learning process.

  16. Do reading and spelling share a lexicon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C; Rawson, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    In the reading and spelling literature, an ongoing debate concerns whether reading and spelling share a single orthographic lexicon or rely upon independent lexica. Available evidence tends to support a single lexicon account over an independent lexica account, but evidence is mixed and open to alternative explanation. In the current work, we propose another, largely ignored account--separate-but-shared lexica--according to which reading and spelling have separate orthographic lexica, but information can be shared between them. We report three experiments designed to competitively evaluate these three theoretical accounts. In each experiment, participants learned new words via reading training and/or spelling training. The key manipulation concerned the amount of reading versus spelling practice a given item received. Following training, we assessed both response time and accuracy on final outcome measures of reading and spelling. According to the independent lexica account, final performance in one modality will not be influenced by the level of practice in the other modality. According to the single lexicon account, final performance will depend on the overall amount of practice regardless of modality. According to the separate-but-shared account, final performance will be influenced by the level of practice in both modalities but will benefit more from same-modality practice. Results support the separate-but-shared account, indicating that reading and spelling rely upon separate lexica, but information can be shared between them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Values of kinetic features measured by computer-aided for breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lina; Zhao Zuowei; Song Qingwei; Wang Shaowu; Miao Yanwei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of kinetic features measured by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for breast MRI. Methods: One hundred and sixty four lesions diagnosed pathologically by operation or biopsy comprised the analysis set. Automated lesion kinetic information from CADStream programs for breast MRI was identified. Three CAD variables were compared for benign and malignant lesions: initial phase peak enhancement (greatest percentage of signal intensity increase on first contrast enhanced sequence), delayed phase enhancement categorized by a single type of kinetics comprising the largest percentage of enhancement (washout, plateau, or persistent), and delayed phase enhancement categorized by single most suspicious type of kinetics (any washout > any plateau > any persistent). Morphological characteristics of breast lesions were described according to breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS). Initial phase peak enhancement mean values between benign and malignant breast lesions were compared by using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, delayed phase enhancement categorized by a single type of kinetics comprising the largest percentage of enhancement or by single most suspicious type of kinetics between benign and malignant breast lesions were compared by using Chi-square test. Results: There were 72 benign and 92 malignant breast lesions. A total of 123 (75.0%) mass lesions were identified,and the other 41 (25.0%) lesions showed no mass. Thirty lesions were BI-RADS-MRI 2, 68 lesions were BI-RADS-MRI 3, 43 lesions were BI-RADS-MRI 4, 23 lesions were BI-RADS-MRI 5. Initial phase peak enhancement mean values of benign and malignant lesions were 237% (69% to 629%) and 336% (86% to 793%), respectively. There was no significant difference between benign and malignant lesions in initial peak enhancement mean value (Z=-1.626, P=0.104). Delayed phase enhancement categorized by single most suspicious type of kinetics (any washout > any plateau > any persistent) for

  18. Preclinical study of diagnostic performances of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI for breast diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingguo; Li, Kangan; Wang, Lihui; Zhang, Jianbing; Zhou, Zhiguo; Feng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic performances of CESM for breast diseases with comparison to breast MRI in China. Sixty-eight patients with 77 breast lesions underwent MR and CESM. Two radiologists interpreted either MRI or CESM images, separately and independently. BI-RADS 1-3 and BI-RADS 4-5 were classified into the suspicious benign and suspicious malignant groups. Diagnostic accuracy parameters were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for the two modalities. The agreement and correlation between maximum lesion diameter based on CESM and MRI, or CESM and pathology were analyzed. Diagnostic accuracy parameters for CESM were sensitivity 95.8 %, specificity 65.5 %, PPV 82.1 %, NPV 90.5 % and accuracy 84.4 %. The diagnostic accuracy parameters for breast MRI were sensitivity 93.8 %, specificity 82.8 %, PPV 88.2 %, NPV 92.3 %and accuracy 89.6 %. Area under the curve (AUC) of ROC was 0.96 for breast MRI and 0.88 for CESM. The Bland-Altman plots showed a mean difference of 0.7 mm with 95 % limits of agreement of 11.4 mm in tumor diameter measured using CESM and breast MRI. The differences of size measurement between CESM and breast MRI were significant, whereas no difference was observed between CESM and pathology as well as between breast MRI and pathology. The better correlation with pathological results was found in CESM than breast MRI. Our study demonstrates that CESM possesses better diagnostic performances than breast MRI in terms of diagnostic sensitivity and lesion size assessment. And CESM is a good alternative method of screening breast cancer in high-risk people.

  19. Can breast MRI computer-aided detection (CAD) improve radiologist accuracy for lesions detected at MRI screening and recommended for biopsy in a high-risk population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arazi-Kleinman, T.; Causer, P.A.; Jong, R.A.; Hill, K.; Warner, E.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) computer-aided detection (CAD) for breast MRI screen-detected lesions recommended for biopsy in a high-risk population. Material and methods: Fifty-six consecutive Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3-5 lesions with histopathological correlation [nine invasive cancers, 13 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 34 benign] were retrospectively evaluated using a breast MRI CAD prototype (CAD-Gaea). CAD evaluation was performed separately and in consensus by two radiologists specializing in breast imaging, blinded to the histopathology. Thresholds of 50, 80, and 100% and delayed enhancement were independently assessed with CAD. Lesions were rated as malignant or benign according to threshold and delayed enhancement only and in combination. Sensitivities, specificities, and negative predictive values (NPV) were determined for CAD assessments versus pathology. Initial MRI BI-RADS interpretation without CAD versus CAD assessments were compared using paired binary diagnostic tests. Results: Threshold levels for lesion enhancement were: 50% to include all malignant (and all benign) lesions; and 100% for all invasive cancer and high-grade DCIS. Combined use of threshold and enhancement patterns for CAD assessment was best (73% sensitivity, 56% specificity and 76% NPV for all cancer). Sensitivities and NPV were better for invasive cancer (100%/100%) than for all malignancies (54%/76%). Radiologists' MRI interpretation was more sensitive than CAD (p = 0.05), but less specific (p = 0.001) for cancer detection. Conclusion: The breast MRI CAD system used could not improve the radiologists' accuracy for distinguishing all malignant from benign lesions, due to the poor sensitivity for DCIS detection.

  20. Take control the Mac OS X lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Zardetto, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This ebook explains a little bit of everything; in fact, it's The Mac OS X (and then some) Lexicon because it's never just you and your Mac. It's you and your Mac and the Web, and your email, and that article you just read that threw 17 new acronyms at you or assumed that you knew all sorts of networking terms. Or it's you and your Mac and Finder features you've never touched, such as burn folders, smart folders, or proxy icons, and that mysterious Services submenu. This book is a great guide for Macintosh users everywhere who have trouble keeping up with the latest jargon, fo

  1. Breast MRI: EUSOBI recommendations for women's information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Ritse M.; Balleyguier, Corinne; Baltzer, Pascal A.; Helbich, Thomas H.; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Bick, Ulrich; Fallenberg, Eva; Colin, Catherine; Cornford, Eleanor; Evans, Andrew; Forrai, Gabor; Fuchsjaeger, Michael H.; Gilbert, Fiona J.; Heywang-Koebrunner, Sylvia H.; Camps-Herrero, Julia; Kuhl, Christiane K.; Martincich, Laura; Pediconi, Federica; Panizza, Pietro; Pina, Luis J.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Skaane, Per; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes information about breast MRI to be provided to women and referring physicians. After listing contraindications, procedure details are described, stressing the need for correct scheduling and not moving during the examination. The structured report including BI-RADS registered categories and further actions after a breast MRI examination are discussed. Breast MRI is a very sensitive modality, significantly improving screening in high-risk women. It also has a role in clinical diagnosis, problem solving, and staging, impacting on patient management. However, it is not a perfect test, and occasionally breast cancers can be missed. Therefore, clinical and other imaging findings (from mammography/ultrasound) should also be considered. Conversely, MRI may detect lesions not visible on other imaging modalities turning out to be benign (false positives). These risks should be discussed with women before a breast MRI is requested/performed. Because breast MRI drawbacks depend upon the indication for the examination, basic information for the most important breast MRI indications is presented. Seventeen notes and five frequently asked questions formulated for use as direct communication to women are provided. The text was reviewed by Europa Donna-The European Breast Cancer Coalition to ensure that it can be easily understood by women undergoing MRI. (orig.)

  2. Breast MRI: EUSOBI recommendations for women's information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Ritse M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Balleyguier, Corinne [Gustave-Roussy Institute, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Baltzer, Pascal A.; Helbich, Thomas H.; Pinker-Domenig, Katja [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Bick, Ulrich; Fallenberg, Eva [Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic of Radiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Colin, Catherine [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Lyon Sud, Radiology Unit, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre Benite Cedex (France); Cornford, Eleanor [Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Evans, Andrew [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee Cancer Centre, Clinical Research Centre, Dundee (United Kingdom); Forrai, Gabor [MHEK Teaching Hospital University Semmelweis, Budapest (Hungary); Fuchsjaeger, Michael H. [Medical University of Graz, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Heywang-Koebrunner, Sylvia H. [National Reference Centre Mammography, Munich, Munich (Germany); Camps-Herrero, Julia [Hospital de la Ribera, Department of Radiology, Alzira, Valencia (Spain); Kuhl, Christiane K. [University Hospital of Aachen, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, Aachen (Germany); Martincich, Laura [IRCCS-FPO, Radiology Unit, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Pediconi, Federica [Sapienza University, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Panizza, Pietro [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Department of Radiology 1, Milan (Italy); Pina, Luis J. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Pijnappel, Ruud M. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Imaging, Utrecht (Netherlands); Skaane, Per [Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Sardanelli, Francesco [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Collaboration: for the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI), with language review by Europa Donna-The European Breast Cancer Coalition

    2015-12-15

    This paper summarizes information about breast MRI to be provided to women and referring physicians. After listing contraindications, procedure details are described, stressing the need for correct scheduling and not moving during the examination. The structured report including BI-RADS registered categories and further actions after a breast MRI examination are discussed. Breast MRI is a very sensitive modality, significantly improving screening in high-risk women. It also has a role in clinical diagnosis, problem solving, and staging, impacting on patient management. However, it is not a perfect test, and occasionally breast cancers can be missed. Therefore, clinical and other imaging findings (from mammography/ultrasound) should also be considered. Conversely, MRI may detect lesions not visible on other imaging modalities turning out to be benign (false positives). These risks should be discussed with women before a breast MRI is requested/performed. Because breast MRI drawbacks depend upon the indication for the examination, basic information for the most important breast MRI indications is presented. Seventeen notes and five frequently asked questions formulated for use as direct communication to women are provided. The text was reviewed by Europa Donna-The European Breast Cancer Coalition to ensure that it can be easily understood by women undergoing MRI. (orig.)

  3. Lexicon Optimization for Dutch Speech Recognition in Spoken Document Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    In this paper, ongoing work concerning the language modelling and lexicon optimization of a Dutch speech recognition system for Spoken Document Retrieval is described: the collection and normalization of a training data set and the optimization of our recognition lexicon. Effects on lexical coverage

  4. Lexicon optimization for Dutch speech recognition in spoken document retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Dalsgaard, P.; Lindberg, B.; Benner, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, ongoing work concerning the language modelling and lexicon optimization of a Dutch speech recognition system for Spoken Document Retrieval is described: the collection and normalization of a training data set and the optimization of our recognition lexicon. Effects on lexical coverage

  5. The Representation of Bilingual Mental Lexicon and English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the theories on the organization and development of L1 mental lexicon and the representation mode of bilingual mental lexicon. It analyzes the structure and characteristics of Chinese EFL learners and their problems in English vocabulary acquisition. On the basis of this, it suggests that English vocabulary…

  6. Clinical evaluation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography and contrast enhanced tomosynthesis--Comparison to contrast-enhanced breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chen-Pin; Lewin, John M; Chiang, Chia-Ling; Hung, Bao-Hui; Yang, Tsung-Lung; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Liao, Jia-Bin; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2015-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) and contrast-enhanced tomosynthesis (CET) to dynamic contrast enhanced breast MRI (DCE-MRI) using a multireader-multicase study. Institutional review board approval and informed consents were obtained. Total 185 patients (mean age 51.3) with BI-RADS 4 or 5 lesions were evaluated before biopsy with mammography, tomosynthesis, CEDM, CET and DCE-MRI. Mediolateral-oblique and cranio-caudal views of the target breast CEDM and CET were acquired at 2 and 4 min after contrast agent injection. A mediolateral-oblique view of the non-target breast was taken at 6 min. Each lesion was scored with forced BI-RADS categories by three readers. Each reader interpreted lesions in the following order: mammography, tomosynthesis, CEDM, CET, and DCE-MRI during a single reading session. Histology showed 81 cancers and 144 benign lesions in the study. Of the 81 malignant lesions, 44% (36/81) were invasive and 56% (45/81) were non-invasive. Areas under the ROC curve, averaged for the 3 readers, were as follows: 0.897 for DCE-MRI, 0.892 for CET, 0.878 for CEDM, 0.784 for tomosynthesis and 0.740 for mammography. Significant differences in AUC were found between the group of contrast enhanced modalities (CEDM, CET, DCE-MRI) and the unenhanced modalities (all p0.05). CET and CEDM may be considered as an alternative modality to MRI for following up women with abnormal mammography. All three contrast modalities were superior in accuracy to conventional digital mammography with or without tomosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Business Metaphors in a Bilingual Business Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: General purpose dictionaries benefit users at large in many ways, but the definitions and examples might not satisfy the diverse needs of different professional users. This is especially true of metaphors. The article discusses the treatment of business metaphors in the PolyU Business Lexicon derived from the trilingual PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. During the process the concordances are grouped by senses, and then separated according to their literal and metaphorical meanings, which in turn lead to the decisions of sense order, word meaning and translation equivalents. Since different cultures have different 'bags' of metaphors, and metaphorical meanings also vary in different registers, the focus is primarily on the differences between Chinese and English in terms of culture, psychology, language and how such differences can be translated and presented in a corpus-based business lexicon with a minimum loss of their original connotations. Cultural transformations, such as direct translation, image substitution, explanatory notes and abandonment of the figure of speech, are suggested to bridge interlanguage metaphorical gaps.

    Keywords: METAPHOR, DEFINITION, TRANSLATION, CULTURAL DIFFERENCE

    Opsomming: Sakemetafore in 'n tweetalige sakewoordeboek. Woordeboeke vir algemene doeleindes bevoordeel gewone gebruikers op baie maniere, maar die definisies en voorbeelde mag dalk nie die uiteenlopende behoeftes van verskillende professionele gebruikers bevredig nie. Dit is veral waar van metafore. Die artikel bespreek die behandeling van sakemetafore in die PolyU Business Lexicon gebaseer op die drietalige PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. Gedurende die proses word die konkordansies deur betekenisse gegroepeer, en dan geskei volgens hul letterlike en metaforiese betekenisse, wat vervolgens lei tot die besluite oor betekenisorde, woordbetekenis, en vertaalsekwivalente. Aangesien verskillende kulture verskillende "sakke" metafore het, en

  8. Incidental Lexicon Acquisition through Playful Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Wilhelm Ansteeg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational game which aids learners with foreign lexicon acquisition while entertaining them at the same time. An overview over existing language learning tools is given, and a general platform for educational games for second language acquisition (SLA is described. It introduces a specific prototype video game which teaches Italian vocabulary to the user. The application puts learning at the core of its game mechanics and combines it with a narrative and role-playing elements. In a user study, the game is compared to two other learning methods with focus on long term retention of vocabulary and enjoyment of the exercise. The game is found to perform within 10% of the efficiency of pure vocabulary learning exercises, while being considerably more enjoyable to the user.

  9. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Language corpora are now indispensable to dictionary compilation. They help broaden the role of the dictionary from standardizing the vocabulary to recording a language. The trilingual corpus generated by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University gives a record of business languages used in Hong Kong. It differs from other corpora in that (1 it includes English, Chinese and Japanese; (2 it shows local characteristics; and (3 it focuses on a specific area (financial services, including banking, accounting, auditing, insurance and investment. The paper discusses various issues of setting up a tricorpus, and how to make full use of the data to generate a trilingual lexicon.

    Keywords: MULTILINGUAL, SPECIAL PURPOSE, CORPUS, LEXICON

    Opsomming: Van sakekorpus tot sakeleksikon. Taalkorpora is tans onontbeerlik virdie samestelling van woordeboeke. Hulle help om die rol van die woordeboek uit te brei vanaf diestandaardisering van die woordeskat tot die optekening van ‘n taal. Die drietalige korpus wat deurdie Hongkongse Politegniese Universiteit ontwikkel is, verskaf ‘n opgawe van die saketale wat inHongkong gebruik word. Dit verskil van ander korpora deurdat (1 dit Engels, Chinees and Japaneesinsluit; (2 dit plaaslike eienskappe vertoon; en (3 dit op 'n spesifieke gebied (finansiële dienste,insluitende bankwese, rekeningkunde, ouditering, versekering en belegging fokus. Die artikelbespreek verskillende aspekte van die totstandbrenging van 'n drietalige korpus, en hoe om vollegebruik te maak van die data om 'n drietalige leksikon te genereer.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIG, SPESIALE DOEL, KORPUS, LEKSIKON

  10. Preliminary evaluation of data mining on non-masslike enhancement of breast lesions on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongna; Li Ruimin; Wang Peihua; Tang Feng; Mao Jian; Shen Xigang; Qian Min; Gu Yajia; Su Yi; Chen Ying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic values of the breast imaging reporting and data system-MRI (BI-RADS-MRI)description about non-masslike enhancement by data mining. Methods: Fifty- five patients with non-masslike enhancement lesions showed on breast contrast-enhanced MRI were evaluated using two data mining algorithms (Logistic regression and decision tree) and 10-fold cross-validation methods. Results: There were 28 malignant and 27 benign lesions. The most frequent findings of the malignant lesions were clustered ring enhancement and clumped enhancement [12 and 4 lesions, respectively; 84.2% (16/19) in decision trees, partial regression coefficients in Logistic model were 2.128 and 1.723, respectively], whereas homogenous, stippled, reticular internal and linear ductal enhancement were the most frequent findings in benign lesions [4,9,1 and 7 lesions, respectively; 72.4% (21/29) in decision tree, partial regression coefficients in Logistic model were 0.357 (homogenous), 1.861 (stippled) and 18.870(reticular), respectively]. 10-fold cross-validation indicated that decision tree (C5.0) achieved an accuracy of 69.3% with a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 71.7% in comparison to the Logistic regression model with an accuracy of 57.0%, a sensitivity of 43.3% and a specificity of 71.7%. Conclusions: The diagnosis efficacy of non-masslike enhancement interpretation according to BI-RADS-MRI is not high. It is very important to find more potential features of non-masslike enhancement to improve the diagnosis accuracy. (authors)

  11. Assessment of three different software systems in the evaluation of dynamic MRI of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, K.D. [Department of Radiology, Stavanger University Hospital, Postbox 8100, Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: kurk@sus.no; Steinhaus, D. [Institute of Daignostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: Daniele.Steinhaus@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Klar, V. [Institute of Daignostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: verena.klar@uni-duesseldorf.de; Cohnen, M. [Institute of Daignostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: cohnen@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Wittsack, H.J. [Institute of Daignostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: wittsack@uni-duesseldorf.de; Saleh, A. [Institute of Daignostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: saleh@uni-duesseldorf.de; Moedder, U. [Institute of Daignostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: moedder@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Blondin, D. [Institute of Daignostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de

    2009-02-15

    Objective: The aim was to compare the diagnostic performance and handling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast with two commercial software solutions ('CADstream' and '3TP') and one self-developed software system ('Mammatool'). Materials and methods: Identical data sets of dynamic breast MRI from 21 patients were evaluated retrospectively with all three software systems. The exams were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. The number of lesions in the parametric mapping was compared to histology or follow-up of more than 2 years. In addition, 25 quality criteria were judged by 3 independent investigators with a score from 0 to 5. Statistical analysis was performed to document the quality ranking of the different software systems. Results: There were 9 invasive carcinomas, one pure DCIS, one papilloma, one radial scar, three histologically proven changes due to mastopathy, one adenosis and two fibroadenomas. Additionally two patients with enhancing parenchyma followed with MRI for more than 3 years and one scar after breast conserving therapy were included. All malignant lesions were classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5 using all software systems and showed significant enhancement in the parametric mapping. 'CADstream' showed the best score on subjective quality criteria. '3TP' showed the lowest number of false-positive results. 'Mammatool' produced the lowest number of benign tissues indicated with parametric overlay. Conclusion: All three software programs tested were adequate for sensitive and efficient assessment of dynamic MRI of the breast. Improvements in specificity may be achievable.

  12. Arabic Feature-Based Level Sentiment Analysis Using Lexicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... structured reviews being prior knowledge for mining unstructured reviews. ... FDSO has been introduced, which defines a space of product features ... polarity of a review using feature ontology and sentiment lexicons.

  13. Guessing lexicon entries using finite-state methods

    OpenAIRE

    Koskenniemi, Kimmo Matti

    2018-01-01

    A practical method for interactive guessing of LEXC lexicon entries is presented. The method is based on describing groups of similarly inflected words using regular expressions. The patterns are compiled into a finite-state transducer (FST) which maps any word form into the possible LEXC lexicon entries which could generate it. The same FST can be used (1) for converting conventional headword lists into LEXC entries, (2) for interactive guessing of entries, (3) for corpus-assisted interactiv...

  14. Automatic Construction and Global Optimization of a Multisentiment Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual annotation of sentiment lexicons costs too much labor and time, and it is also difficult to get accurate quantification of emotional intensity. Besides, the excessive emphasis on one specific field has greatly limited the applicability of domain sentiment lexicons (Wang et al., 2010. This paper implements statistical training for large-scale Chinese corpus through neural network language model and proposes an automatic method of constructing a multidimensional sentiment lexicon based on constraints of coordinate offset. In order to distinguish the sentiment polarities of those words which may express either positive or negative meanings in different contexts, we further present a sentiment disambiguation algorithm to increase the flexibility of our lexicon. Lastly, we present a global optimization framework that provides a unified way to combine several human-annotated resources for learning our 10-dimensional sentiment lexicon SentiRuc. Experiments show the superior performance of SentiRuc lexicon in category labeling test, intensity labeling test, and sentiment classification tasks. It is worth mentioning that, in intensity label test, SentiRuc outperforms the second place by 21 percent.

  15. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Weiss, William A.; Medved, Milica; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. A three-dimensional breast density estimation method is presented for high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited (under an Institutional Review Board--approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol) for high-risk breast cancer screening. Each patient received standard-of-care clinical digital x-ray mammograms and MR scans, as well as HiSS scans. The algorithm for breast density estimation includes breast mask generating, breast skin removal, and breast percentage density calculation. The inter- and intra-user variabilities of the HiSS-based density estimation were determined using correlation analysis and limits of agreement. Correlation analysis was also performed between the HiSS-based density estimation and radiologists’ breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) density ratings. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 (pdensity estimations. An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (pdensity estimations. A moderate correlation coefficient of 0.55 (p=0.0076) was observed between HiSS-based breast density estimations and radiologists’ BI-RADS. In summary, an objective density estimation method using HiSS spectral data from breast MRI was developed. The high reproducibility with low inter- and low intra-user variabilities shown in this preliminary study suggest that such a HiSS-based density metric may be potentially beneficial in programs requiring breast density such as in breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring effects of therapy. PMID:28042590

  16. Additional findings at preoperative breast MRI: the value of second-look digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, Paola; Pancot, Martina; Girometti, Rossano; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Zuiani, Chiara [University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, ' ' S.Maria della Misericordia' ' , Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, Udine (Italy); Carbonaro, Luca A. [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unit of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unit of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Biomedical Sciences of Health, Milan (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate second-look digital breast tomosynthesis (SL-DBT) for additional findings (AFs) at preoperative MRI compared with second-look ultrasound (SL-US). We included 135 patients with breast cancer who underwent digital mammography (DM), DBT, US, and MRI at two centres. MR images were retrospectively evaluated to find AFs, described as focus, mass, or non-mass; ≤10 mm or >10 mm in size; BI-RADS 3, 4, or 5. DM and DBT exams were reviewed looking for MRI AFs; data on SL-US were collected. Reference standard was histopathology or ≥12-month negative follow-up. Fisher exact test and McNemar test were used. Eighty-four AFs were detected in 53/135 patients (39 %, 95 %CI 31-48 %). A correlate was found for 44/84 (52 %, 95 %CI 41-63 %) at SL-US, for 20/84 (24 %, 95 %CI 11-28 %) at SL-DM, for 42/84 (50 %, 95 %CI 39-61 %) at SL-DBT, for 63/84 (75 %, 95 %CI 64-84 %) at SL-DBT, and/or SL-US, the last rate being higher than for SL-US only, overall (p < 0.001), for mass or non-mass, ≤ or >10 mm, BI-RADS 4 or 5, or malignant lesions (p < 0.031). Of 21 AFs occult at both SLs, 17 were malignant (81 %, 95 %CI 58-94 %). When adding SL-DBT to SL-US, AFs detection increased from 52 % to 75 %. MR-guided biopsy is needed for the remaining 25 %. (orig.)

  17. Il Lexicon of Scholarly Editing: una bussola nella Babele delle tradizioni filologiche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadini, E.; Dillen, Wout; Zanardo, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the Lexicon of Scholarly Editing, a multilingual digital lexicon of philological terms, that aims to facilitate the international exchange, gathering definitions from the variety of theoretical and methodological approaches to textual criticism, textkritik, critique textuelle,

  18. A simple classification system (the Tree flowchart) for breast MRI can reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in MRI-only lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woitek, Ramona; Spick, Claudio; Schernthaner, Melanie; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Furtner, Julia; Pinker, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal A.T. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Rudas, Margaretha [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute of Pathology, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    To assess whether using the Tree flowchart obviates unnecessary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided biopsies in breast lesions only visible on MRI. This retrospective IRB-approved study evaluated consecutive suspicious (BI-RADS 4) breast lesions only visible on MRI that were referred to our institution for MRI-guided biopsy. All lesions were evaluated according to the Tree flowchart for breast MRI by experienced readers. The Tree flowchart is a decision rule that assigns levels of suspicion to specific combinations of diagnostic criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. To assess reproducibility by kappa statistics, a second reader rated a subset of 82 patients. There were 454 patients with 469 histopathologically verified lesions included (98 malignant, 371 benign lesions). The area under the curve (AUC) of the Tree flowchart was 0.873 (95% CI: 0.839-0.901). The inter-reader agreement was almost perfect (kappa: 0.944; 95% CI 0.889-0.998). ROC analysis revealed exclusively benign lesions if the Tree node was ≤2, potentially avoiding unnecessary biopsies in 103 cases (27.8%). Using the Tree flowchart in breast lesions only visible on MRI, more than 25% of biopsies could be avoided without missing any breast cancer. (orig.)

  19. General principles of researching the lexicon of traditional material culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljkov Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a linguistic research of terminological systems connected with basic fields of human life and work which, in modern conditions, are either transformed into contemporary modern forms or gradually disappear due to changes in the way of life and work. The lexicon of material culture of native inhabitants of Vojvodina is examined, resulting in monographs on the terminologies of fishing, cartwrighting, shepherding and houses and furniture, all of which have in common the fact that the starting point was the research of the lexicon in question by semantic fields. The paper shows the lexicological and lexicographical procedures used while researching these terminological systems.

  20. Grammar-Lexicon Distinction in a Neurocognitive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishkhanyan, Byurakn

    hypotheses and testing them through using various methods. The grammar-lexicon distinction and working memory are thus central topics of this thesis. The results suggest a potential for a successful integration of the two theories. The findings further provide evidence for Boye & Harder’s (2012......) understanding of the grammar-lexicon distinction, and for the involvement of working memory in language production, as the REF-model would predict. As a starting point for integrating the two theories, the present thesis gives directions for future research on the neurocognitive underpinning of language and its...... relation to working memory....

  1. Food Service Technical Terms. English-Spanish Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Spanish lexicon presents food service technical terms. The terms are divided into seven categories: basic food items, common baking terms, food cutting terms, general cooking terms, non-English culinary terms, and tools and equipment. Each English word or term is followed by its Spanish equivalent(s). (YLB)

  2. "Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon": Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34[5], 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…

  3. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon | Lan | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shows local characteristics; and (3) it focuses on a specific area (financial services, including banking, accounting, auditing, insurance and investment). The paper discusses various issues of setting up a tricorpus, and how to make full use of the data to generate a trilingual lexicon. Keywords: multilingual, special purpose, ...

  4. The Emotional Lexicon of Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…

  5. Comprehensive Study on Lexicon-based Ensemble Classification Sentiment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Augustyniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method for counting sentiment orientation that outperforms supervised learning approaches in time and memory complexity and is not statistically significantly different from them in accuracy. Our method consists of a novel approach to generating unigram, bigram and trigram lexicons. The proposed method, called frequentiment, is based on calculating the frequency of features (words in the document and averaging their impact on the sentiment score as opposed to documents that do not contain these features. Afterwards, we use ensemble classification to improve the overall accuracy of the method. What is important is that the frequentiment-based lexicons with sentiment threshold selection outperform other popular lexicons and some supervised learners, while being 3–5 times faster than the supervised approach. We compare 37 methods (lexicons, ensembles with lexicon’s predictions as input and supervised learners applied to 10 Amazon review data sets and provide the first statistical comparison of the sentiment annotation methods that include ensemble approaches. It is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of domain sentiment analysis in the literature.

  6. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional's corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior.

  7. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional’s corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior. PMID:26630138

  8. Agreement of mammographic measures of volumetric breast density to MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wang

    Full Text Available Clinical scores of mammographic breast density are highly subjective. Automated technologies for mammography exist to quantify breast density objectively, but the technique that most accurately measures the quantity of breast fibroglandular tissue is not known.To compare the agreement of three automated mammographic techniques for measuring volumetric breast density with a quantitative volumetric MRI-based technique in a screening population.Women were selected from the UCSF Medical Center screening population that had received both a screening MRI and digital mammogram within one year of each other, had Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS assessments of normal or benign finding, and no history of breast cancer or surgery. Agreement was assessed of three mammographic techniques (Single-energy X-ray Absorptiometry [SXA], Quantra, and Volpara with MRI for percent fibroglandular tissue volume, absolute fibroglandular tissue volume, and total breast volume.Among 99 women, the automated mammographic density techniques were correlated with MRI measures with R(2 values ranging from 0.40 (log fibroglandular volume to 0.91 (total breast volume. Substantial agreement measured by kappa statistic was found between all percent fibroglandular tissue measures (0.72 to 0.63, but only moderate agreement for log fibroglandular volumes. The kappa statistics for all percent density measures were highest in the comparisons of the SXA and MRI results. The largest error source between MRI and the mammography techniques was found to be differences in measures of total breast volume.Automated volumetric fibroglandular tissue measures from screening digital mammograms were in substantial agreement with MRI and if associated with breast cancer could be used in clinical practice to enhance risk assessment and prevention.

  9. Agreement of mammographic measures of volumetric breast density to MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeff; Azziz, Ania; Fan, Bo; Malkov, Serghei; Klifa, Catherine; Newitt, David; Yitta, Silaja; Hylton, Nola; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A

    2013-01-01

    Clinical scores of mammographic breast density are highly subjective. Automated technologies for mammography exist to quantify breast density objectively, but the technique that most accurately measures the quantity of breast fibroglandular tissue is not known. To compare the agreement of three automated mammographic techniques for measuring volumetric breast density with a quantitative volumetric MRI-based technique in a screening population. Women were selected from the UCSF Medical Center screening population that had received both a screening MRI and digital mammogram within one year of each other, had Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessments of normal or benign finding, and no history of breast cancer or surgery. Agreement was assessed of three mammographic techniques (Single-energy X-ray Absorptiometry [SXA], Quantra, and Volpara) with MRI for percent fibroglandular tissue volume, absolute fibroglandular tissue volume, and total breast volume. Among 99 women, the automated mammographic density techniques were correlated with MRI measures with R(2) values ranging from 0.40 (log fibroglandular volume) to 0.91 (total breast volume). Substantial agreement measured by kappa statistic was found between all percent fibroglandular tissue measures (0.72 to 0.63), but only moderate agreement for log fibroglandular volumes. The kappa statistics for all percent density measures were highest in the comparisons of the SXA and MRI results. The largest error source between MRI and the mammography techniques was found to be differences in measures of total breast volume. Automated volumetric fibroglandular tissue measures from screening digital mammograms were in substantial agreement with MRI and if associated with breast cancer could be used in clinical practice to enhance risk assessment and prevention.

  10. Morphology-based Enhancement of a French SIMPLE Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Namer , Fiammetta; Bouillon , Pierrette; Jacquey , Evelyne; Ruimy , Nilda

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic methodology for acquiring a French SIMPLE lexicon based on the morphological properties of complex words. This method combines the results of the French morphological analyzer DériF with infor-mation from general lexical resources and corpora, when available. It is evaluated on a set of neolo-gisms extracted from Le Monde newspaper cor-pora.

  11. Towards a Unified Sentiment Lexicon Based on Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ibeth Barbosa-Santillán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to create what we have called a Unified Sentiment Lexicon (USL. This approach aims at aligning, unifying, and expanding the set of sentiment lexicons which are available on the web in order to increase their robustness of coverage. One problem related to the task of the automatic unification of different scores of sentiment lexicons is that there are multiple lexical entries for which the classification of positive, negative, or neutral {P,N,Z} depends on the unit of measurement used in the annotation methodology of the source sentiment lexicon. Our USL approach computes the unified strength of polarity of each lexical entry based on the Pearson correlation coefficient which measures how correlated lexical entries are with a value between 1 and −1, where 1 indicates that the lexical entries are perfectly correlated, 0 indicates no correlation, and −1 means they are perfectly inversely correlated and so is the UnifiedMetrics procedure for CPU and GPU, respectively. Another problem is the high processing time required for computing all the lexical entries in the unification task. Thus, the USL approach computes a subset of lexical entries in each of the 1344 GPU cores and uses parallel processing in order to unify 155802 lexical entries. The results of the analysis conducted using the USL approach show that the USL has 95.430 lexical entries, out of which there are 35.201 considered to be positive, 22.029 negative, and 38.200 neutral. Finally, the runtime was 10 minutes for 95.430 lexical entries; this allows a reduction of the time computing for the UnifiedMetrics by 3 times.

  12. Shared cross-modal associations and the emergence of the lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Cuskley, Christine F.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis centres around a sensory theory of protolanguage emergence, or STP. The STP proposes that shared biases to make associations between sensory modalities provided the basis for the emergence of a shared protolinguistic lexicon. Crucially, this lexicon would have been grounded in our perceptual systems, and thus fundamentally non-arbitrary. The foundation of such a lexicon lies in shared cross-modal associations: biases shared among language users to map properties in ...

  13. Developing a reduced consumer-led lexicon to measure emotional response to beer

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya, Carolina; Eaton, Curtis; Hewson, Louise; Fernández Vázquezc, Rocío; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Smart, Katherine A.; Hort, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous researchers have recently recommended and utilised consumer-led lexicons to measure emotional response. This study further advances this approach by 1) making the lexicon generation process more efficient by using consumer focus groups as opposed to individual consumer interviews and 2) decreasing the number of responses required from each consumer by reducing the lexicon to categories of similar terms. In response to 10 lager samples which were manipulated in order to control select...

  14. Proposed biopsy performance benchmarks for MRI based on an audit of a large academic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedora Román, Neda I; Mehta, Tejas S; Sharpe, Richard E; Slanetz, Priscilla J; Venkataraman, Shambhavi; Fein-Zachary, Valerie; Dialani, Vandana

    2018-05-01

    Performance benchmarks exist for mammography (MG); however, performance benchmarks for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not yet fully developed. The purpose of our study was to perform an MRI audit based on established MG and screening MRI benchmarks and to review whether these benchmarks can be applied to an MRI practice. An IRB approved retrospective review of breast MRIs was performed at our center from 1/1/2011 through 12/31/13. For patients with biopsy recommendation, core biopsy and surgical pathology results were reviewed. The data were used to derive mean performance parameter values, including abnormal interpretation rate (AIR), positive predictive value (PPV), cancer detection rate (CDR), percentage of minimal cancers and axillary node negative cancers and compared with MG and screening MRI benchmarks. MRIs were also divided by screening and diagnostic indications to assess for differences in performance benchmarks amongst these two groups. Of the 2455 MRIs performed over 3-years, 1563 were performed for screening indications and 892 for diagnostic indications. With the exception of PPV2 for screening breast MRIs from 2011 to 2013, PPVs were met for our screening and diagnostic populations when compared to the MRI screening benchmarks established by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 5 Atlas ® . AIR and CDR were lower for screening indications as compared to diagnostic indications. New MRI screening benchmarks can be used for screening MRI audits while the American College of Radiology (ACR) desirable goals for diagnostic MG can be used for diagnostic MRI audits. Our study corroborates established findings regarding differences in AIR and CDR amongst screening versus diagnostic indications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography vs. mammography and MRI - clinical performance in a multi-reader evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallenberg, Eva M.; Schmitzberger, Florian F.; Amer, Heba; Engelken, Florian; Bick, Ulrich; Hamm, Bernd [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic of Radiology, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Ingold-Heppner, Barbara [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut of Pathology, Berlin (Germany); Balleyguier, Corinne; Dromain, Clarisse [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Diekmann, Felix [St. Joseph-Stift Bremen, Department of Medical Imaging, Bremen (Germany); Mann, Ritse M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Renz, Diane M. [Universitaetsklinikum Jena, Department of Radiology, Jena (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) to digital mammography (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a prospective two-centre, multi-reader study. One hundred seventy-eight women (mean age 53 years) with invasive breast cancer and/or DCIS were included after ethics board approval. MG, CESM and CESM + MG were evaluated by three blinded radiologists based on amended ACR BI-RADS criteria. MRI was assessed by another group of three readers. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. Size measurements for the 70 lesions detected by all readers in each modality were correlated with pathology. Reading results for 604 lesions were available (273 malignant, 4 high-risk, 327 benign). The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger for CESM alone (0.84) and CESM + MG (0.83) compared to MG (0.76) (largest advantage in dense breasts) while it was not significantly different from MRI (0.85). Pearson correlation coefficients for size comparison were 0.61 for MG, 0.69 for CESM, 0.70 for CESM + MG and 0.79 for MRI. This study showed that CESM, alone and in combination with MG, is as accurate as MRI but is superior to MG for lesion detection. Patients with dense breasts benefitted most from CESM with the smallest additional dose compared to MG. (orig.)

  16. Breast MRI, digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis: comparison of three methods for early detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roganovic, Dragana; Djilas, Dragana; Vujnovic, Sasa; Pavic, Dag; Stojanov, Dragan

    2015-11-16

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and early detection is important for its successful treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of three methods for early detection of breast cancer: breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital mammography, and breast tomosynthesis in comparison to histopathology, as well as to investigate the intraindividual variability between these modalities. We included 57 breast lesions, each detected by three diagnostic modalities: digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, and subsequently confirmed by histopathology. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was used for characterizing the lesions. One experienced radiologist interpreted all three diagnostic modalities. Twenty-nine of the breast lesions were malignant while 28 were benign. The sensitivity for digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, was 72.4%, 93.1%, and 100%, respectively; while the specificity was 46.4%, 60.7%, and 75%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis showed an overall diagnostic advantage of breast tomosynthesis over both breast MRI and digital mammography. The difference in performance between breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography was significant (p tomosynthesis and breast MRI was not significant (p=0.20).

  17. Breast MRI, digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis: comparison of three methods for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Roganovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and early detection is important for its successful treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of three methods for early detection of breast cancer: breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, digital mammography, and breast tomosynthesis in comparison to histopathology, as well as to investigate the intraindividual variability between these modalities.  We included 57 breast lesions, each detected by three diagnostic modalities: digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, and subsequently confirmed by histopathology. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS was used for characterizing the lesions. One experienced radiologist interpreted all three diagnostic modalities. Twenty-nine of the breast lesions were malignant while 28 were benign. The sensitivity for digital mammography, breast MRI, and breast tomosynthesis, was 72.4%, 93.1%, and 100%, respectively; while the specificity was 46.4%, 60.7%, and 75%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis showed an overall diagnostic advantage of breast tomosynthesis over both breast MRI and digital mammography. The difference in performance between breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography was significant (p < 0.001, while the difference between breast tomosynthesis and breast MRI was not significant (p = 0.20. 

  18. GRADIENCE, PHONOTACTICS, AND THE LEXICON IN ENGLISH PHONOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hammond

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work has established that when subjects judge the phonological wellformedness of nonsense forms, they are strongly affected by the frequency of the phonological elements of the form and by the number of actual words that such a form is similar to. These results challenge phonological theory by suggesting a central role for frequency and the lexicon. In this paper, I review these results and show how they can be easily modelled with Probabilistic Optimality Theory. The payoff is that from very few phonological assumptions we can derive virtually the whole panoply of experimental effects. We can also derive various Local Conjunction effects as well.

  19. Gender differentiation in the lexicon of the serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дарія Володимирівна Девлиш

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses its attention on the concepts "gender", "gender stereotype" and linguistic picture of the world. The lexicon of the Serbian language was researched through the prism of the analysis of synonymic rows which are used to represent character traits of men and women. In the structure of these concepts the following terms were pointed out: external characteristics, physical characteristics, internal characteristics, intellectual characteristics. Within the framework of the microcomponent “internal characteristics” two different negative features of both genders were analyzed: indecisive man, rude man; talkative woman, angry woman. 

  20. Nonviolent words. Introduction to a glossary for a Capitinian lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele TAURINO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aldo Capitini (1899-1968 is the most important philosopher for the nonviolence in Italy. In this article I will try to write a brief philosophical introduction about his complex thought, focusing on Capitini’s peculiar use of language. By throwing the proposal of a Capitinian Lexicon, here I’ll speak about three coordinates of Capitini’s philosophy: nonviolence, persuasion, co-presence. In my opinion these coordinates give the idea of revolutionary scope of his thought: trying to clarify the meaning of these terms is essential for the understanding of its influence and to imagine future researches and nonviolent actions.

  1. Lexicon development, consumer acceptance, and drivers of liking of quinoa varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of varieties being commercially available. In order to compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needed to be developed. Thus, the objective of this paper was to develop a lexicon describing ...

  2. The Generator of the Event Structure Lexicon (GESL): Automatic Annotation of Event Structure for Textual Inference Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims to develop the Generator of the Event Structure Lexicon (GESL) which is a tool to automate annotating the event structure of verbs in text to support textual inference tasks related to lexically entailed subevents. The output of the GESL is the Event Structure Lexicon (ESL), which is a lexicon of verbs in text which includes…

  3. Building an Arabic Sentiment Lexicon Using Semi-supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz H.H. Mahyoub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis is the process of determining a predefined sentiment from text written in a natural language with respect to the entity to which it is referring. A number of lexical resources are available to facilitate this task in English. One such resource is the SentiWordNet, which assigns sentiment scores to words found in the English WordNet. In this paper, we present an Arabic sentiment lexicon that assigns sentiment scores to the words found in the Arabic WordNet. Starting from a small seed list of positive and negative words, we used semi-supervised learning to propagate the scores in the Arabic WordNet by exploiting the synset relations. Our algorithm assigned a positive sentiment score to more than 800, a negative score to more than 600 and a neutral score to more than 6000 words in the Arabic WordNet. The lexicon was evaluated by incorporating it into a machine learning-based classifier. The experiments were conducted on several Arabic sentiment corpora, and we were able to achieve a 96% classification accuracy.

  4. A source of parametric variation in the lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Cinque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An influential conjecture concerning parameters is that they can possibly be “restricted to formal features of functional categories” (Chomsky 1995: 6. In Rizzi (2009, 2011 such features are understood as instructions triggering one of the following syntactic actions: (1 External Merge; (2 Internal Merge (Move; (3 Pronunciation/Non pronunciation (the latter arguably dependent on Internal Merge – Kayne 2005a, b. In this article I consider a particular source of parametric variation across languages in the domain of the lexicon (both functional and substantive which appears to be due to the possibility of underspecifying certain features in some languages. The paradigmatic variation can be characterized as follows: language A has two (or more lexical items which correspond to just one lexical item in language B.

  5. The Translation of Indonesian Cultural Lexicons in the Novel Saman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert H. Hilman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Article was aimed to explore and identity the manners used by the translator in translating the Indonesian cultural lexicon in the novel Saman into English, and to find out which manners that contained the least semantic shifts concerning the problems of meaning related to cultural differences. Method applied was descriptive qualitative research by collecting and analyzing both the Indonesian and English versions of the novel. The samples were classified by Newmark four categories: loan words, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, and addition. It can be concluded that there are only seven manners found from the collected data but only four manners used in the analysis, they are loan word, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, and addition.

  6. CzEngVallex: a Bilingual Czech-English Valency Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urešová Zdeňka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new bilingual Czech-English verbal valency lexicon (called CzEng-Vallex representing a relatively large empirical database. It includes 20,835 aligned valency frame pairs (i.e., verb senses which are translations of each other and their aligned arguments. This new lexicon uses data from the Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank and also takes advantage of the existing valency lexicons for both languages: the PDT-Vallex for Czech and the EngVallex for English. The CzEngVallex is available for browsing as well as for download in the LINDAT/CLARIN repository.

  7. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  8. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography vs. mammography and MRI - clinical performance in a multi-reader evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallenberg, Eva M; Schmitzberger, Florian F; Amer, Heba; Ingold-Heppner, Barbara; Balleyguier, Corinne; Diekmann, Felix; Engelken, Florian; Mann, Ritse M; Renz, Diane M; Bick, Ulrich; Hamm, Bernd; Dromain, Clarisse

    2017-07-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) to digital mammography (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a prospective two-centre, multi-reader study. One hundred seventy-eight women (mean age 53 years) with invasive breast cancer and/or DCIS were included after ethics board approval. MG, CESM and CESM + MG were evaluated by three blinded radiologists based on amended ACR BI-RADS criteria. MRI was assessed by another group of three readers. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. Size measurements for the 70 lesions detected by all readers in each modality were correlated with pathology. Reading results for 604 lesions were available (273 malignant, 4 high-risk, 327 benign). The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger for CESM alone (0.84) and CESM + MG (0.83) compared to MG (0.76) (largest advantage in dense breasts) while it was not significantly different from MRI (0.85). Pearson correlation coefficients for size comparison were 0.61 for MG, 0.69 for CESM, 0.70 for CESM + MG and 0.79 for MRI. This study showed that CESM, alone and in combination with MG, is as accurate as MRI but is superior to MG for lesion detection. Patients with dense breasts benefitted most from CESM with the smallest additional dose compared to MG. • CESM has comparable diagnostic performance (ROC-AUC) to MRI for breast cancer diagnostics. • CESM in combination with MG does not improve diagnostic performance. • CESM has lower sensitivity but higher specificity than MRI. • Sensitivity differences are more pronounced in dense and not significant in non-dense breasts. • CESM and MRI are significantly superior to MG, particularly in dense breasts.

  9. Investigative change detection: identifying new topics using lexicon-based search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2002-08-01

    In law enforcement there is much textual data which needs to be searched in order to detect new threats. A new methodology which can be applied to this need is the automatic searching of the contents of documents from known sources to construct a lexicon of words used by that source. When analyzing future documents, the occurrence of words which have not been lexiconized are indicative of the introduction of a new topic into the source's lexicon which should be examined in its context by an analyst. A system analogous to this has been built and used to detect Fads and Categories on web sites. Fad refers to the first appearance of a word not in the lexicon; Category refers to the repeated appearance of a Fad word and the exceeding of some frequency or spatial occurrence metric indicating a permanence to the Category.

  10. A Unified Framework for Creating Domain Dependent Polarity Lexicons from User Generated Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Asghar

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in the explosion of Web-based user generated reviews has resulted in the emergence of Opinion Mining (OM applications for analyzing the users' opinions toward products, services, and policies. The polarity lexicons often play a pivotal role in the OM, indicating the positivity and negativity of a term along with the numeric score. However, the commonly available domain independent lexicons are not an optimal choice for all of the domains within the OM applications. The aforementioned is due to the fact that the polarity of a term changes from one domain to other and such lexicons do not contain the correct polarity of a term for every domain. In this work, we focus on the problem of adapting a domain dependent polarity lexicon from set of labeled user reviews and domain independent lexicon to propose a unified learning framework based on the information theory concepts that can assign the terms with correct polarity (+ive, -ive scores. The benchmarking on three datasets (car, hotel, and drug reviews shows that our approach improves the performance of the polarity classification by achieving higher accuracy. Moreover, using the derived domain dependent lexicon changed the polarity of terms, and the experimental results show that our approach is more effective than the base line methods.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of fibrocystic change of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Daniel, Bruce L; Mariano, Michelle N; Nowels, Kent N; Birdwell, Robyn L; Fong, Kathy J; Desmond, Pam S; Plevritis, Sylvia; Stables, Lara A; Zakhour, Marowan; Herfkens, Robert J; Ikeda, Debra M

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of fibrocystic change (FCC) of the breast. Fourteen patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of solitary FCC of the breast underwent x-ray mammography and MRI of the breast. Three experienced breast imaging radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MRI findings and categorized the lesions on morphologic and kinetic criteria according to the ACR BI-RADS-MRI Lexicon. The most striking morphologic feature of fibrocystic change was nonmass-like regional enhancement found in 6 of 14 (43%) FCC lesions. Based on morphologic criteria alone, 12 of 14 (86%) lesions were correctly classified as benign. According to analysis of the time-intensity curves, 10 of 14 (71%) FCC lesions were correctly classified as benign. Although FCC has a wide spectrum of morphologic and kinetic features on MRI, it most often presents as a mass or a nonmass-like regional enhancing lesion with benign enhancement kinetics.

  12. Fully automated chest wall line segmentation in breast MRI by using context information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Localio, A. Russell; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    Breast MRI has emerged as an effective modality for the clinical management of breast cancer. Evidence suggests that computer-aided applications can further improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI. A critical and challenging first step for automated breast MRI analysis, is to separate the breast as an organ from the chest wall. Manual segmentation or user-assisted interactive tools are inefficient, tedious, and error-prone, which is prohibitively impractical for processing large amounts of data from clinical trials. To address this challenge, we developed a fully automated and robust computerized segmentation method that intensively utilizes context information of breast MR imaging and the breast tissue's morphological characteristics to accurately delineate the breast and chest wall boundary. A critical component is the joint application of anisotropic diffusion and bilateral image filtering to enhance the edge that corresponds to the chest wall line (CWL) and to reduce the effect of adjacent non-CWL tissues. A CWL voting algorithm is proposed based on CWL candidates yielded from multiple sequential MRI slices, in which a CWL representative is generated and used through a dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm to filter out inferior candidates, leaving the optimal one. Our method is validated by a representative dataset of 20 3D unilateral breast MRI scans that span the full range of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) fibroglandular density categorization. A promising performance (average overlay percentage of 89.33%) is observed when the automated segmentation is compared to manually segmented ground truth obtained by an experienced breast imaging radiologist. The automated method runs time-efficiently at ~3 minutes for each breast MR image set (28 slices).

  13. Tre voci per un Lexicon di Giuseppe Pontiggia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marcheschi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tre parole-chiave offrono lo spunto per un’immersione nel pensiero e nell’opera di Giuseppe Pontiggia. La prima: parola, riaffermata dallo scrittore in quanto atto civile e ‘corporeo’ mediante il quale l’uomo fa esperienza di se stesso entrando in contatto con i suoi simili e con il circostante, ricongiungendosi insieme alla sua più profonda e antica natura. Viene così restituita allo scrittore/critico la responsabilità di lottare contro l’attuale minaccia dello svuotamento linguistico, nel nome di una costruttiva utopia culturale. La seconda parola, musica, serve a illuminare i romanzi di Pontiggia – in specie La grande sera e L’arte della fuga – attraverso suggestive analogie con la musica classica e il jazz, predilette dallo scrittore. Ossimoro è l’ultima voce di questo Lexicon: figura retorica, ma soprattutto figura conoscitiva che permette allo scrittore di scoprire la propria verità e il proprio linguaggio e al lettore di abbracciare una visione non lineare e problematica del mondo, capace di ampliare le prospettive e rinnovare lo sguardo.

  14. Indic Lexicon in the English/Creole of Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Winer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Examines the contemporary lexical component of the English/Creole of Trinidad (TEC that is derived from languages of India. Author focuses on the TEC as spoken among Indo-Trinidadians, but also pays attention to Indic words used in the TEC of Afro-Trinidadians and other groups. Author sketches the history of Indian immigration into Trinidad, explaining how most came from the Bihar province in northern India and spoke Bhojpuri, rather than (closely related Hindi, and how in the 20th c. Indian languages were replaced by English with education. She further focuses on retained Indic words incorporated in current-day TEC, and found 1844 of such words in usage. She discusses words misassigned locally as Indian-derived, but actually from other (European or African languages. Then, she describes most of the Indo-TEC lexicon, categorizing items by their semantic-cultural domain, with major domains for Indian-derived words: religious practice, music, dance and stickfighting, food preparation, agriculture, kinship, and behaviour or appearance. Further, the author discusses to what degree Indic words have been mainstreamed within the non-Indian population of Trinidad, sometimes via standard English, sometimes directly assimilated into TEC, and made salient through the press or street food selling.

  15. MRI features of intraductal papilloma of the breast: sheep in wolf's clothing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, Kathinka D; Roy, Sumit; Saleh, Andreas; Diallo-Danebrock, Raihana; Skaane, Per

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intraductal papillomas often present as small, smooth masses, dilated ducts or microcalcifications at mammography and as smooth, hypoechoic masses at sonography. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraductal papillomas often present as small smooth masses, however, often with strong enhancement with type 2 or 3 time intensity curves. The result of the MR analysis is therefore not infrequently inconclusive in order to characterize the mass as benign or malignant. Purpose: To characterize the appearance of intraductal papillomas of the breast at MRI, and determine whether the application of diagnostic rules described in literature could contribute to correctly classifying the lesions as benign. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with histologically proven intraductal papillomas were included. Two radiologists independently reviewed the MR images of the breast. The BI-RADS nomenclature was used to describe morphology and contrast-enhancement kinetics. Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of the MR images by the two investigators was performed. Kappa coefficient was calculated as index for the level of agreement. Subsequently, three sets of diagnostic rules, including the Goettinger score described by Fischer and the interpretation flowcharts according to Kinkel and to Tozaki were applied to characterize whether a biopsy should be recommended or not. Results: All papillomas presented as masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Only five papillomas showed a round, oval, or lobulated shape combined with smooth margins and continuous rise of the time intensity curve. Using the Goettinger score, biopsy would be recommended in 16 patients. Based on the interpretation flowcharts of Kinkel and of Tozaki, an additional 13 and 10 papillomas, respectively, were correctly classified as benign. Dilated ducts were visible in 10 patients. The interobserver agreement was good or excellent for all included variables. Conclusion: Including systematic analysis

  16. MRI features of intraductal papilloma of the breast: sheep in wolf's clothing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Kathinka D; Roy, Sumit (Dept. of Radiology, Stavanger Univ. Hospital, Stavanger (Norway)), e-mail: kurk@sus.no; Saleh, Andreas (Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology, Duesseldorf Univ. Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany)); Diallo-Danebrock, Raihana (Inst. of Pathology, Duesseldorf Univ. Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany)); Skaane, Per (Dept. of Radiology, Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-04-15

    Background: Intraductal papillomas often present as small, smooth masses, dilated ducts or microcalcifications at mammography and as smooth, hypoechoic masses at sonography. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraductal papillomas often present as small smooth masses, however, often with strong enhancement with type 2 or 3 time intensity curves. The result of the MR analysis is therefore not infrequently inconclusive in order to characterize the mass as benign or malignant. Purpose: To characterize the appearance of intraductal papillomas of the breast at MRI, and determine whether the application of diagnostic rules described in literature could contribute to correctly classifying the lesions as benign. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with histologically proven intraductal papillomas were included. Two radiologists independently reviewed the MR images of the breast. The BI-RADS nomenclature was used to describe morphology and contrast-enhancement kinetics. Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of the MR images by the two investigators was performed. Kappa coefficient was calculated as index for the level of agreement. Subsequently, three sets of diagnostic rules, including the Goettinger score described by Fischer and the interpretation flowcharts according to Kinkel and to Tozaki were applied to characterize whether a biopsy should be recommended or not. Results: All papillomas presented as masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Only five papillomas showed a round, oval, or lobulated shape combined with smooth margins and continuous rise of the time intensity curve. Using the Goettinger score, biopsy would be recommended in 16 patients. Based on the interpretation flowcharts of Kinkel and of Tozaki, an additional 13 and 10 papillomas, respectively, were correctly classified as benign. Dilated ducts were visible in 10 patients. The interobserver agreement was good or excellent for all included variables. Conclusion: Including systematic analysis

  17. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Mental Lexicon: Neural Network and Text Extraction From Long-term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan G. Arutyunyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper touches upon the principles of mental lexicon organization in the light of recent research in psycho- and neurolinguistics. As a focal point of discussion two main approaches to mental lexicon functioning are considered: modular or dual-system approach, developed within generativism and opposite single-system approach, representatives of which are the connectionists and supporters of network models. The paper is an endeavor towards advocating the viewpoint that mental lexicon is complex psychological organization based upon specific composition of neural network. In this regard, the paper further elaborates on the matter of storing text in human mental space and introduces a model of text extraction from long-term memory. Based upon data available, the author develops a methodology of modeling structures of knowledge representation in the systems of artificial intelligence.

  18. A matrix of morphology and distribution of calcifications in the breast: Analysis of 849 vacuum-assisted biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbach, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.kaltenbach@kgu.de [Institute of Radiology (RZI), Klinikum Frankfurt/Main – Höchst, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Brandenbusch, Volker [Diagnostic Breast Center Turmcarée, Mammography Screening, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Möbus, Volker [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Klinikum Frankfurt/Main-Höchst (Germany); Mall, Gerhard [Institute of Pathology, Klinikum Frankfurt/Main-Höchst (Germany); Falk, Stephan [OptiPath, Pathology Associates, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Bergh, Marcus van den [Asthenis, Medical Data Management, Aschheim (Germany); Chevalier, Frauke; Müller-Schimpfle, Markus [Institute of Radiology (RZI), Klinikum Frankfurt/Main – Höchst, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A diagnostic matrix of morphologies and distributions of calcifications enables their standardized classification into BI-RADS categories. • 285/328/208/29 groups of calcifications were prospectively classified as BI-RADS 4A/4B/4C/5 correlating with a risk for malignancy of 16%/27%/55%/90%. • Overall, 275/849 (32%) groups of calcifications were found to be malignant. - Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the likelihood of malignancy in prospectively categorized BI-RADS 4 and BI-RADS 5 calcifications. Material and methods: This analysis included 849 women who underwent vacuum biopsy for BI-RADS 4 (with the subgroups 4A, 4B and 4C) or BI-RADS 5 calcifications between February 2007 and May 2015. Calcifications were classified according to the morphology and distribution descriptors of the BI-RADS lexicon (BI-RADS 4th edition lexicon). A standardized scheme (matrix) was used to combine the characteristics of the grouped calcifications with the BI-RADS assessment category. Results: Overall, 275/849 (32%) lesions were found to be malignant. 285/327/208/29 calcified lesions were prospectively classified as BI-RADS 4A/4B/4C/5 indicating a risk for malignancy of 16%/27%/55%/90%, respectively. The morphology descriptors predicted the risk for malignancy as follows: typically benign (n = 55): 2%; indeterminate (n = 676): 27%; typically malignant (n = 118): 80%. The distribution descriptors correlated with a malignant histology as follows: diffuse (n = 0); round or oval (n = 261): 22%; regional (n = 398): 33%; segmental (n = 106): 42%; linear or branching (n = 85): 55%. There was a significant difference between the descriptor categories (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: A standard scheme combining the morphology and distribution characteristics proved to be a helpful tool in diagnosis of calcifications, bridging the gap between description and classification of these lesions.

  19. Learning homophones in context: Easy cases are favored in the lexicon of natural languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Fibla, Laia; Fievet, Anne-Caroline; Christophe, Anne

    2018-08-01

    Even though ambiguous words are common in languages, children find it hard to learn homophones, where a single label applies to several distinct meanings (e.g., Mazzocco, 1997). The present work addresses this apparent discrepancy between learning abilities and typological pattern, with respect to homophony in the lexicon. In a series of five experiments, 20-month-old French children easily learnt a pair of homophones if the two meanings associated with the phonological form belonged to different syntactic categories, or to different semantic categories. However, toddlers failed to learn homophones when the two meanings were distinguished only by different grammatical genders. In parallel, we analyzed the lexicon of four languages, Dutch, English, French and German, and observed that homophones are distributed non-arbitrarily in the lexicon, such that easily learnable homophones are more frequent than hard-to-learn ones: pairs of homophones are preferentially distributed across syntactic and semantic categories, but not across grammatical gender. We show that learning homophones is easier than previously thought, at least when the meanings of the same phonological form are made sufficiently distinct by their syntactic or semantic context. Following this, we propose that this learnability advantage translates into the overall structure of the lexicon, i.e., the kinds of homophones present in languages exhibit the properties that make them learnable by toddlers, thus allowing them to remain in languages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adults' Self-Directed Learning of an Artificial Lexicon: The Dynamics of Neighborhood Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Neil Prodeep

    2010-01-01

    Artificial lexicons have previously been used to examine the time course of the learning and recognition of spoken words, the role of segment type in word learning, and the integration of context during spoken word recognition. However, in all of these studies the experimenter determined the frequency and order of the words to be learned. In three…

  1. Making Sense of Student Feedback Using Text Analysis--Adapting and Expanding a Common Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Elizabeth; Lynch, Bernardine; Jones, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the findings of a study into the automated text analysis of student feedback comments to assist in investigating a high volume of qualitative information at various levels in an Australian university. It includes the drawbacks and advantages of using selected applications and established lexicons. There has been…

  2. Developing a Maori Language Mathematics Lexicon: Challenges for Corpus Planning in Indigenous Language Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinick, Tony; May, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, there has been significant modernisation and elaboration of the Maori language mathematics lexicon and register to support the teaching of (Western) mathematics as a component of Maori-medium schooling. These developments are situated within the wider Maori language revitalisation movement in Aotearoa/New Zealand, of which…

  3. Emotion and Emotionality as a Hidden Dimension of Lexicon and Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Ake

    2008-01-01

    In her thought-provoking article, Aneta Pavlenko approaches emotion and emotion-laden words in the bilingual lexicon from an impressive number of different perspectives. This is particularly welcome, since most models of linguistic structure do not account for emotional meanings in a systematic way. One exception worth mentioning, however, is…

  4. Development of a lexicon for caviar and its usefulness for determining consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Vixie, Beata; Rasco, Barbara A; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-12-01

    Although caviar is a premium product which offers nutritional benefits, few studies have characterized its sensory properties. As such, this study sought to develop a lexicon for sensory evaluation of caviar appearance, texture, aroma, and flavor/taste and to relate these attributes to consumer acceptance. A trained panel identified 16 sensory attributes for evaluation along a 15-cm scale and used CATA (check all that apply) methodology to indicate the less frequently encountered off-aromas, appearance traits, and persistent flavors. Using this lexicon, the trained panel described differences among caviar samples harvested from sturgeon fed varying diets. Acceptance of the caviar was also evaluated by a consumer panel. As evaluated by the trained panelists, analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated differences among caviar in the sensory attributes of tactile firmness, mustard color, egg size, in-mouth firmness, seafood fresh flavor, fresh butter flavor, earthy flavor, yeasty flavor, and bitterness (P consumer and trained panel data, overall consumer acceptance of caviar was driven by tactile firmness, sea fresh flavor, fresh butter flavor, and black color. This overall acceptance was highly correlated with acceptance of texture (r = 0.867) and flavor/taste (r = 0.999). Overall, this lexicon allows for standardized sensory evaluation of caviar using a common set of descriptors. This lexicon and information regarding the drivers of caviar acceptance can be used by industry professionals to ensure optimal caviar quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Lexicon Sextant: Modeling a Mnemonic System for Customizable Browser Information Organization and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Siu-Tsen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing study of the development of a customizable web browser information organization and management system, which the author has named Lexicon Sextant (LS). LS is a user friendly, graphical web based add-on to the latest generation of web browsers, such as Google Chrome, making it easier and more intuitive to store and…

  6. Ou wyn in nuwe sakke: 'n Kritiese waardering van Bijbels lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nel Otto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Opsomming: Bijbels lexicon is 'n Nederlandse leksikon wat woorde en uitdrukkings bevat wat aan die Bybel ontleen is en wat ná 1945 nog bekend was. Die teikengebruikers van hierdie leksikon is waarskynlik persone wat graag die Bybel lees en diegene wat belangstel in die oor-sprong en agtergrond van die Nederlandse taal. Die inleiding tot die leksikon bevat baie inligting, onder andere oor hoe die leksikon saamgestel is, 'n uiteensetting van tipes leksikale items en motivering vir lemmakeuses en tydvak wat gedek word, hoe om leksikale items na te slaan, ens. Selfs niegelowiges sal die leksikon kan gebruik, aangesien die inleiding ook agtergrondsinligting in blokvorm bevat, nl. 'n uiteensetting van die inhoud van die Bybel, en inligting oor Nederlandse Bybelvertalings, spreekwoordversamelings en Bybelse name. Die voordele van hierdie leksikon is dat dit slegs huidige gebruiksvoorbeelde bevat en daarom dus neologismes en veranderde betekenisse akkommodeer. Hoewel die outeurs in enkele gevalle afwyk van die terminologie vir verskillende tipes leksikale items, soos deur hulle self omskryf, is die hantering van woordeboekartikels oor die algemeen baie konsekwent en inligting is maklik toeganklik. Die waarde van die leksikon sou moontlik verder verhoog kon word deur die gebruik van meer kruisverwysings.

    Sleutelwoorde: BETEKENIS, BYBEL, EIENAAM, HEDENDAAGSE GEBRUIK, HER-KOMS, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, LEKSIKON, NEDERLANDS, NEOLOGISME, SITAAT, SPREEK-WOORD, VASTE UITDRUKKING

    Abstract: Old Wine in New Bottles: A Critical Appreciation of Bijbels lexicon. Bijbels lexicon is a Dutch lexicon which includes words and fixed expressions which have been borrowed from the Bible and which were still known after 1945. The target users of this lexicon are probably people who are fond of reading the Bible and those who are interested in the origin and background of the Dutch language. The introduction to the dictionary contains much information, inter alia on how

  7. The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units as Online and Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, T.

    2012-12-01

    The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units provides freely accessible definitions and supplementary information about geological units of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and their associated continental shelf. It is an online database that can be searched at www.bgs.ac.uk/Lexicon/. It has existed since 1990 (under different names) but the database and user interface have recently been completely redesigned to improve their semantic capabilities and suitability for describing different styles of geology. The data are also now freely available as linked data from data.bgs.ac.uk/. The Lexicon of Named Rock Units serves two purposes. First, it is a dictionary, defining and constraining the geological units that are referenced in the Survey's data sets, workflows, products and services. These can include printed and digital geological maps at a variety of scales, reports, books and memoirs, and 3- and 4-dimensional geological models. All geological units referenced in any of these must first be present and defined, at least to a basic level of completeness, in the Lexicon database. Only then do they become available for use. The second purpose of the Lexicon is as a repository of knowledge about the geology of the UK and its continental shelf, providing authoritative descriptions written and checked by BGS geoscientists. Geological units are assigned to one of four themes: bedrock, superficial, mass movement and artificial. They are further assigned to one of nine classes: lithostratigraphical, lithodemic intrusive, lithodemic tectono-metamorphic, lithodemic mixed, litho-morpho-genetic, man-made, age-based, composite, and miscellaneous. The combination of theme and class controls the fields that are available to describe each geological unit, so that appropriate fields are offered for each, whether it is a Precambrian tectono-metamorphic complex, a Devonian sandstone formation, or a Devensian river terrace deposit. Information that may be recorded

  8. Self-emergence of Lexicon Consensus in a Population of Autonomous Agents by Means of Evolutionary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravall, Darío; de Lope, Javier; Domínguez, Raúl

    In Multi-agent systems, the study of language and communication is an active field of research. In this paper we present the application of evolutionary strategies to the self-emergence of a common lexicon in a population of agents. By modeling the vocabulary or lexicon of each agent as an association matrix or look-up table that maps the meanings (i.e. the objects encountered by the agents or the states of the environment itself) into symbols or signals we check whether it is possible for the population to converge in an autonomous, decentralized way to a common lexicon, so that the communication efficiency of the entire population is optimal. We have conducted several experiments, from the simplest case of a 2×2 association matrix (i.e. two meanings and two symbols) to a 3×3 lexicon case and in both cases we have attained convergence to the optimal communication system by means of evolutionary strategies. To analyze the convergence of the population of agents we have defined the population's consensus when all the agents (i.e. the 100% of the population) share the same association matrix or lexicon. As a general conclusion we have shown that evolutionary strategies are powerful enough optimizers to guarantee the convergence to lexicon consensus in a population of autonomous agents.

  9. On the concept of “variant” in lexicon studies from a historic-variational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Venâncio Lopes Machado Filho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though the concept of linguistic variant has been fully established in contemporary sociolinguistic studies, it demands a theoretical review when it is considered from the perspective of lexicon studies, especially when related to historical and variational biases. In this paper, we present limits on identification and characterization of lexical variation, considering formal changes that may occur at other levels of analysis, especially at the morphological or phonetic ones. To support the reflections on the topic, we discuss the process of lexicon constitution in Portuguese and the results of etymological convergence and divergence present in the history of the language. Based on the analysis presented, it is proposed that research on lexical variation should incorporate to this notion any significant formal or content changes.

  10. A Semantic Lexicon-Based Approach for Sense Disambiguation and Its WWW Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lecce, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Marco; Soldo, Domenico

    This work proposes a basic framework for resolving sense disambiguation through the use of Semantic Lexicon, a machine readable dictionary managing both word senses and lexico-semantic relations. More specifically, polysemous ambiguity characterizing Web documents is discussed. The adopted Semantic Lexicon is WordNet, a lexical knowledge-base of English words widely adopted in many research studies referring to knowledge discovery. The proposed approach extends recent works on knowledge discovery by focusing on the sense disambiguation aspect. By exploiting the structure of WordNet database, lexico-semantic features are used to resolve the inherent sense ambiguity of written text with particular reference to HTML resources. The obtained results may be extended to generic hypertextual repositories as well. Experiments show that polysemy reduction can be used to hint about the meaning of specific senses in given contexts.

  11. Publishing a Quality Context-aware Annotated Corpus and Lexicon for Harassment Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvan, Mohammadreza; Shekarpour, Saeedeh; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Shalin, Valerie; Sheth, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Having a quality annotated corpus is essential especially for applied research. Despite the recent focus of Web science community on researching about cyberbullying, the community dose not still have standard benchmarks. In this paper, we publish first, a quality annotated corpus and second, an offensive words lexicon capturing different types type of harassment as (i) sexual harassment, (ii) racial harassment, (iii) appearance-related harassment, (iv) intellectual harassment, and (v) politic...

  12. Lexicons, contexts, events, and images: commentary on Elman (2009) from the perspective of dual coding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Allan; Sadoski, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Elman (2009) proposed that the traditional role of the mental lexicon in language processing can largely be replaced by a theoretical model of schematic event knowledge founded on dynamic context-dependent variables. We evaluate Elman's approach and propose an alternative view, based on dual coding theory and evidence that modality-specific cognitive representations contribute strongly to word meaning and language performance across diverse contexts which also have effects predictable from dual coding theory. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Lexicon Development, Consumer Acceptance, and Drivers of Liking of Quinoa Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Ross, Carolyn F; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of commercially available varieties. To compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needs to be developed. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a lexicon of cooked quinoa and examine consumer acceptance of diverse varieties. A trained panel (n = 9) developed aroma, taste/flavor, texture, and color descriptors to describe the sensory properties of 21 quinoa varieties. In addition, texture of the cooked quinoa was determined using a texture analyzer. Results indicated that the developed lexicon could distinguish among these quinoa varieties, showing significant differences in aromas, taste/flavors, and texture attributes. Specifically, quinoa variety effects were observed for the aromas of caramel, nutty, buttery, grassy, earthy, and woody; taste/flavor of sweet, bitter, grain-like, nutty, earthy, and toasty; and firm, cohesive, pasty, adhesive, crunchy, chewy, astringent, and moist textures. Three varieties, "QQ74," "Linares," and "CO407D," exhibited an adhesive texture that has not been described in other commercialized quinoa. Subsequent consumer evaluation (n = 100) on 6 selected samples found that the "Commercial Red" sample was the most accepted overall whereas the least accepted was the field variety "QQ74." For all consumers, overall acceptance of quinoa was driven by higher intensities of grassy aroma, and firm and crunchy texture. Segmentation of the consumers into 4 groups was explored and showed that consumers varied in their acceptance of specific attributes, particularly texture. From the present study, the quinoa lexicon and key drivers of consumer acceptance can be utilized in the industry to evaluate quinoa varieties, product quality and processing procedures. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Lexicon Reduction for Urdu/Arabic Script Based Character Recognition: A Multilingual OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Naz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic script character recognition is challenging task due to complexity of the script and huge number of ligatures. We present a method for the development of multilingual Arabic script OCR (Optical Character Recognition and lexicon reduction for Arabic Script and its derivative languages. The objective of the proposed method is to overcome the large dataset Urdu and similar scripts by using GCT (Ghost Character Theory concept. Arabic and its sibling script languages share the similar character dataset i.e. the character set are difference in diacritic and writing styles like Naskh or Nasta?liq. Based on the proposed method, the lexicon for Arabic and Arabic script based languages can be minimized approximately up to 20 times. The proposed multilingual Arabic script OCR approach have been evaluated for online Arabic and its derivative language like Urdu using BPNN. The result showed that proposed method helps to not only the reduction of lexicon but also helps to develop the Multilanguage character recognition system for Arabic Script.

  15. Background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI and mammographic breast density: correlation with tumour characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.Y.; Choi, N.; Yang, J.-H.; Yoo, Y.B.; Park, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MGD) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) at breast MRI and histopathological features of invasive breast cancers. Materials and methods: A total of 178 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer who preoperatively underwent mammography and breast MRI were included in the study. Two radiologists rated MGD and BPE according to BI-RADS criteria in consensus. The relationship between MGD and BPE was investigated, and compared with histopathological features of invasive breast cancers according to the level of MGD and BPE. Results: At MRI, there is no significant difference in the distribution of MGD and BPE of the contralateral breast in women with invasive breast cancer according to menopausal status (p=0.226, 0.384). Women with high MGD (>50% glandular) were more likely to have oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (p=0.045) and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast cancer (p=0.020). With regard to BPE, PR positivity correlated with moderate or marked BPE with borderline significance (p=0.054). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that women with high MGD were less likely to have triple-negative (i.e., a cancer that is ER negative, PR negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 [HER2] negative) breast cancer compared with ER (+)/HER2 (−) cancer (OR=0.231, 95% CI: 0.070, 0.760; p=0.016). No association between the histological tumour characteristics and BPE was observed. Conclusion: In women with invasive breast cancer, high MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. However, at MRI, BPE of the contralateral breast seems to be independent of tumour characteristics. -- Highlights: •There is no difference in distribution of MGD and BPE of contralateral breast on MRI. •High MGD is associated with ER positivity of the invasive breast cancer. •BPE of the contralateral breast on MRI is independent of tumor

  16. The BioLexicon: a large-scale terminological resource for biomedical text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Paul

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rapidly expanding body of biomedical literature, biologists require increasingly sophisticated and efficient systems to help them to search for relevant information. Such systems should account for the multiple written variants used to represent biomedical concepts, and allow the user to search for specific pieces of knowledge (or events involving these concepts, e.g., protein-protein interactions. Such functionality requires access to detailed information about words used in the biomedical literature. Existing databases and ontologies often have a specific focus and are oriented towards human use. Consequently, biological knowledge is dispersed amongst many resources, which often do not attempt to account for the large and frequently changing set of variants that appear in the literature. Additionally, such resources typically do not provide information about how terms relate to each other in texts to describe events. Results This article provides an overview of the design, construction and evaluation of a large-scale lexical and conceptual resource for the biomedical domain, the BioLexicon. The resource can be exploited by text mining tools at several levels, e.g., part-of-speech tagging, recognition of biomedical entities, and the extraction of events in which they are involved. As such, the BioLexicon must account for real usage of words in biomedical texts. In particular, the BioLexicon gathers together different types of terms from several existing data resources into a single, unified repository, and augments them with new term variants automatically extracted from biomedical literature. Extraction of events is facilitated through the inclusion of biologically pertinent verbs (around which events are typically organized together with information about typical patterns of grammatical and semantic behaviour, which are acquired from domain-specific texts. In order to foster interoperability, the BioLexicon is

  17. The BioLexicon: a large-scale terminological resource for biomedical text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to the rapidly expanding body of biomedical literature, biologists require increasingly sophisticated and efficient systems to help them to search for relevant information. Such systems should account for the multiple written variants used to represent biomedical concepts, and allow the user to search for specific pieces of knowledge (or events) involving these concepts, e.g., protein-protein interactions. Such functionality requires access to detailed information about words used in the biomedical literature. Existing databases and ontologies often have a specific focus and are oriented towards human use. Consequently, biological knowledge is dispersed amongst many resources, which often do not attempt to account for the large and frequently changing set of variants that appear in the literature. Additionally, such resources typically do not provide information about how terms relate to each other in texts to describe events. Results This article provides an overview of the design, construction and evaluation of a large-scale lexical and conceptual resource for the biomedical domain, the BioLexicon. The resource can be exploited by text mining tools at several levels, e.g., part-of-speech tagging, recognition of biomedical entities, and the extraction of events in which they are involved. As such, the BioLexicon must account for real usage of words in biomedical texts. In particular, the BioLexicon gathers together different types of terms from several existing data resources into a single, unified repository, and augments them with new term variants automatically extracted from biomedical literature. Extraction of events is facilitated through the inclusion of biologically pertinent verbs (around which events are typically organized) together with information about typical patterns of grammatical and semantic behaviour, which are acquired from domain-specific texts. In order to foster interoperability, the BioLexicon is modelled using the Lexical

  18. MRI characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Linghui; Peng Weijun; Gu Yajia; Li Ruimin; Liu Xiaohang; Wang Xiaohong; Mao Jian; Tang Feng; Ding Jianhui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and recognize the dynamic and morphological MRI characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast and provide imaging information for the early detection and treatment planning. Methods: All MRI data in 71 patients with histologically proved DCIS were analyzed retrospectively. The 71 patients were divided into two groups, N1 (pure DCIS, 44 patients) and N2 (DCIS with microinvasion, 27 patients). According to the BI-RADS descriptors, all lesions were defined as a focus (smaller than 5 mm in diameter), mass and no-mass-like three enhancement types. The morphological features (M1 = focus, M2 =linear or linear-branched, M3 = branching-ductal, M4 = segmental, M5 = focal, M6 = regional, M7 = diffuse, M8 = mass) and the time-intensity curve (TIC) pattern [type Ⅰ (persistent enhancement curves), type Ⅱ (plateau), type Ⅲ (washout) and type Ⅳ (the same enhancement as glandular tissue)] were described. Chi-square test was used for the morphological characteristics of lesions. Results: The 73 DCIS lesions were found in 71 patients, and 5.5% (n=4) were stippled lesions, 87.7% (n=64) were no-mass like lesions, 6.8% (n=5) were mass-like lesions. In no-mass-like lesions (n= 64), M3 was found in 15 cases, M4 in 34 cases, M5 in 9 cases and M6 in 6 cases, respectively, M3 and M4 were the most common distribution patterns. In N1 group (n=45) and N2 group (n=28), M3, M4, M5, M6 were found in 7 and 8, 21 and 13, 7 and 2, 3 and 3 cases, respectively. There were no statistic differences between two groups (P>0.05). In 31 showed heterogeneous enhancement, both M3 and M4 were observed in 35.5% (11/31). In 26 clustered ring enhancement lesions, M4 was observed in 88.5% (23/26). Four lesions showed reticular enhancement, 2 lesions showed a clumped enhancement and 1 lesion showed homogeneous enhancement. In 5 mass-like lesions, N1 group had 3 cases, N2 group had 2 cases. Four lesions showed lobulated margin, 4 lesions showed speculated margin, 1

  19. Chest MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resonance imaging - chest; NMR - chest; MRI of the thorax; Thoracic MRI Patient Instructions ... Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...

  20. Lesion type and reader experience affect the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI: A multiple reader ROC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: patbaltzer@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Imge-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaiser, Werner Alois [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07740 Jena (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: dietzelmatthias2@hotmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The main findings of our study are, that reader experience and lesion type (i.e., mass versus non-mass enhancement) are independent predictors of the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI. • Specifically, benign and malignant non-mass lesions cannot be differentiated with sufficient accuracy, especially if readers are not experienced. • We conclude that future research in breast MRI should focus on non-mass lesions, as these are the problem makers in modern breast MRI. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of lesion type (mass versus non-mass) and reader experience on the diagnostic performance of breast MRI (BMRI) in a non-screening setting. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients (mean age, 55 ± 12 years) with breast lesions that were verified by biopsy or surgery, and who had had BMRI as part of their diagnostic workup, were eligible for this retrospective single-center study. Cancers diagnosed by biopsy before BMRI were excluded to eliminate biological and interpretation bias due to biopsy or chemotherapy effects (n = 103). Six blinded readers (experience level, high (HE, n = 2); intermediate (IE, n = 2); and low (LE, n = 2)) evaluated all examinations and assigned independent MRI BI-RADS ratings. Lesion type (mass, non-mass, focal) was noted. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and logistic regression analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracies. Results: There were 259 histologically verified lesions (123 malignant, 136 benign) investigated. There were 169 mass (103 malignant, 66 benign) and 48 non-mass lesions (19 malignant, 29 benign). Another 42 lesions that met the inclusion criteria were biopsied due to conventional findings (i.e., microcalcifications, architectural distortions), but did not enhance on MRI (41 benign, one DCIS). ROC analysis revealed a total area under the curve (AUC) between 0.834 (LE) and 0.935 (HI). Logistic regression identified a significant effect of non-mass lesions (P < 0.0001) and

  1. [Explorations of breast microcalcifications: Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamming's, F; Chopier, J; Mathelin, C; Chéreau, E

    2015-12-01

    To assess imaging performances for the detection, characterization and biopsy of breast microcalcifications and make recommendations. French and English publications were searched using PubMed, Cochrane Library and international learned societies recommendations. Digital mammography (DR [Direct Radiography] and CR [Computed Radiography]) and screen-film mammography demonstrate good performances for the detection and the characterization of breast microcalcifications. Systematic use of the 2013 edition of the BI-RADS lexicon is recommended for description and characterization of microcalcifications. Faced with BI-RADS 4 or 5 microcalcifications, breast ultrasound is recommended but a normal result does not eliminate the diagnosis of cancer and other examination should be performed. Literature review does not allow recommending digital breast tomosynthesis, elastography or MRI to analyze microcalcifications. In case of probably benign microcalcifications (BI-RADS 3), six months, one year and at least two years follow-up are recommended. In case a biopsy is indicated, it is recommended to use a vacuum-assisted macrobiopsy system with 11-gauges needles or bigger. If no calcification is visible on the radiography of the specimen, it is recommended to obtain additional samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. RadLex - German version: a radiological lexicon for indexing image and report information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwede, D.; Lobsien, D.; Kahn, T.; Daumke, P.; Marko, K.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Since 2003 the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) has been developing a lexicon of standardized radiological terms (RadLex) intended to support the structured reporting of imaging observations and the indexing of teaching cases. The aim of this study was to translate the first version of the lexicon (1 - 2007) into German and to implement a language-independent online term browser. Materials and Methods: RadLex version 1 - 2007 contains 6303 terms in nine main categories. Two radiologists independently translated the lexicon using medical dictionaries. Terms translated differently were revised and translated by consensus. For the development of an online term browser, a text processing algorithm called morphosemantic indexing was used which splits up words into small semantic units and compares those units to language-specific subword thesauri. Results: In total 6240 of 6303 terms (99 %) were translated. Of those terms 3965 were German, 1893 were Latin, 359 were multilingual, and 23 were English terms that are also used in German and were therefore maintained. The online term browser supports a language-independent term search in RadLex (German/English) and other common medical terminology (e.g., ICD 10). The term browser displays term hierarchies and translations in different frames and the complexity of the result lists can be adapted by the user. Conclusion: RadLex version 1 - 2007 developed by the RSNA is now available in German and can be accessed online through a term browser with an efficient search function. This is an important precondition for the future comparison of national and international indexed radiological examination results and the interoperability between digital teaching resources. (orig.)

  3. Maternal talk in cognitive development: relations between psychological lexicon, semantic development, empathy and temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores eRollo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between mothers’ psychological lexicon and children’s cognitive and socio-emotive development as assessed through conceptual and semantic understanding tasks, in addition to the traditional tasks of theory of mind. Currently, there is considerable evidence to suggest that the frequency of mothers’ mental state words used in mother-child picture-book reading is linked with children’s theory of mind skills. Furthermore, mothers’ use of cognitive terms is more strongly related to children’s theory of mind performances than the mothers’ references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Rollo, Buttiglieri, 2009. Current literature has established that early maternal input is related to later child mental state understanding; however it has not yet clarified which maternal terms are most useful for the socio-emotional and cognitive development of the child, and which aspect of the cognitive development benefits from the mother-child interaction.The present study addresses this issue and focuses on the relationship between mothers’ mental state talk and children’s behavior in conceptual and semantic tasks, and in a theory of mind task.In this study fifty pairs consisting of mothers and their 3 to 6-year-old children participated in two sessions: (1 The mothers read a picture book to their children. To assess the maternal psychological lexicon, their narrative was codified according to the categories of mental state references used in literature: perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative. (2 After a few days, the conceptual and semantic skills of the children (tasks of contextualization and classification, memory and definition of words and their psychological lexicon were assessed.The results suggest close links between the frequency and variety of mothers’ mental state words and some semantic and conceptual skills of children.

  4. Are there mental lexicons? The role of semantics in lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkina, Katia; McClelland, James L; Plaut, David C

    2010-12-13

    What is the underlying representation of lexical knowledge? How do we know whether a given string of letters is a word, whereas another string of letters is not? There are two competing models of lexical processing in the literature. The first proposes that we rely on mental lexicons. The second claims there are no mental lexicons; we identify certain items as words based on semantic knowledge. Thus, the former approach - the multiple-systems view - posits that lexical and semantic processing are subserved by separate systems, whereas the latter approach - the single-system view - holds that the two are interdependent. Semantic dementia patients, who have a cross-modal semantic impairment, show an accompanying and related lexical deficit. These findings support the single-system approach. However, a report of an SD patient whose impairment on lexical decision was not related to his semantic deficits in item-specific ways has presented a challenge to this view. If the two types of processing rely on a common system, then shouldn't damage impair the same items on all tasks? We present a single-system model of lexical and semantic processing, where there are no lexicons, and performance on lexical decision involves the activation of semantic representations. We show how, when these representations are damaged, accuracy on semantic and lexical tasks falls off together, but not necessarily on the same set of items. These findings are congruent with the patient data. We provide an explicit explanation of this pattern of results in our model, by defining and measuring the effects of two orthogonal factors - spelling consistency and concept consistency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Supporting Concept Extraction and Identifier Quality Improvement through Programmers' Lexicon Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe, Surafel Lemma

    2013-01-01

    Identifiers play an important role in communicating the intentions associated with the program entities they represent. The information captured in identifiers support programmers to (re-)build the “mental model” of the software and facilitates understanding. (Re-)building the “mental model” and understanding large software, however, is difficult and expensive. Besides, the effort involved in the process heavily depends on the quality of the programmers’ lexicon used to construct th...

  6. The correlation of background parenchymal enhancement in the contralateral breast with patient and tumor characteristics of MRI-screen detected breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreemann, Suzan; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Borelli, Cristina; Bult, Peter; Karssemeijer, Nico; Mann, Ritse M

    2018-01-01

    Higher background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) could be used for stratification of MRI screening programs since it might be related to a higher breast cancer risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to correlate BPE to patient and tumor characteristics in women with unilateral MRI-screen detected breast cancer who participated in an intermediate and high risk screening program. As BPE in the affected breast may be difficult to discern from enhancing cancer, we assumed that BPE in the contralateral breast is a representative measure for BPE in women with unilateral breast cancer. This retrospective study was approved by our local institutional board and a waiver for consent was granted. MR-examinations of women with unilateral breast cancers screen-detected on breast MRI were evaluated by two readers. BPE in the contralateral breast was rated according to BI-RADS. Univariate analyses were performed to study associations. Observer variability was computed. Analysis included 77 breast cancers in 76 patients (age: 48±9.8 years), including 62 invasive and 15 pure ductal carcinoma in-situ cases. A negative association between BPE and tumor grade (p≤0.016) and a positive association with progesterone status (p≤0.021) was found. The correlation was stronger when only considering invasive disease. Inter-reader agreement was substantial. Lower BPE in the contralateral breast in women with unilateral breast cancer might be associated to higher tumor grade and progesterone receptor negativity. Great care should be taken using BPE for stratification of patients to tailored screening programs.

  7. An Arabic-English-French Lexicon of the Dialects Spoken in the Chad-Sudan Area, 1. [Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Laly, Arlette, Comp.

    This lexicon, a preliminary publication of a project dealing with Arabic dialects in the Chad-Sudan area, has been compiled from four earlier lexicons: G. Trenga, "Le bura-maband du Ouadai"; H. Carbou, "Methode pratique pour l'etude de l'arabe parle au Ouaday et a l'Est du Tchad"; G.L. Lethem, "Colloquial Arabic, Shua…

  8. Metamorphological awareness and EFL students' memory, retention, and retrieval of English adjectival lexicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2002-12-01

    Research has shown that foreign or second language learners' metalinguistic awareness has important effects on their acquisition of the target language. Important among a multitude of the concerns are problems these learners encounter when they have to process the morphological features of individual words, particularly in the acquisition of literacy skills. Nevertheless, for students who learn English as a foreign or second language for academic purposes, one of the biggest challenges in their advanced study is how they can effectively remember, retain, and retrieve the colossal number of newly learnt English vocabulary, including adjectival lexicons, to enhance their academic success. Results from the present report on the effects of metamorphological awareness of 65 adult Chinese EFL learners' memory, retention, and retrieval of adjectival lexicons show that, although the subjects in the two groups did not differ significantly in their performance on a pretest designed to check their lexical knowledge and no sex difference was observed, statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in both conditions (immediate and delayed retrievals) on a posttest. The experimental group and women predominantly performed better in the memory-retention-retrieval tasks assigned to them. Implications for educational research and practices are also discussed.

  9. The Organization of Words and Symbolic Gestures in 18-Month-Olds' Lexicons: Evidence from a Disambiguation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' early communicative repertoires include both words and symbolic gestures. The current study examined the extent to which infants organize words and gestures in a single unified lexicon. As a window into lexical organization, eighteen-month-olds' ("N" = 32) avoidance of word-gesture overlap was examined and compared with…

  10. Neural Correlates of Lexicon and Grammar: Evidence from the Production, Reading, and Judgment of Inflection in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, M.T.; Pancheva, R.; Love, T.; Yee, E.; Swinney, D.; Hickok, G.

    2005-01-01

    Are the linguistic forms that are memorized in the mental lexicon and those that are specified by the rules of grammar subserved by distinct neurocognitive systems or by a single computational system with relatively broad anatomic distribution? On a dual-system view, the productive -ed-suffixation of English regular past tense forms (e.g.,…

  11. Studies in the history of the English language V: variation and change in English grammar and lexicon: contemporary approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloutier, R.A.; Hamilton-Brehm, A.M.; Kretzschmar, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on current approaches to variation and change in historical English grammar and lexicon. Of the twelve papers in the collection, half are based on grammar and syntax, half on lexical developments. The volume highlights the contributions that strong empirical

  12. MRI Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldendorf, W.; Oldendorf, W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Designed for studies, radiologists, and clinicians at all levels of training, this book provides a basic introduction to the principles, physics, and instrumentation of magnetic resonance imaging. The fundamental concepts that are essential for the optimal clinical use of MRI are thoroughly explained in easily accessible terms. To facilitate the reader's comprehension, the material is presented nonmathematically, using no equations and a minimum of symbols and abbreviations. MRI Primer presents a clear account of the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and the use of gradient magnetic fields to create clinically useful images of cross-sectional slices. Close attention is given to the magnetization vector as a means of expressing nuclear behavior, the role of T 1 and T 2 weighing in imaging, the use of contrast agents, and the pulse sequences most often used in clinical practice, as well as to the relative capabilities and limitations of MRI and CT. The basic hardware components of an MRI scanner are described in detail. Sample MRI scans illustrate how MRI characterizes tissue. An appendix provides a brief introduction to quantum processes in MRI

  13. The Developmental Lexicon Project: A behavioral database to investigate visual word recognition across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Pauline; Schroeder, Sascha

    2017-12-01

    With the Developmental Lexicon Project (DeveL), we present a large-scale study that was conducted to collect data on visual word recognition in German across the lifespan. A total of 800 children from Grades 1 to 6, as well as two groups of younger and older adults, participated in the study and completed a lexical decision and a naming task. We provide a database for 1,152 German words, comprising behavioral data from seven different stages of reading development, along with sublexical and lexical characteristics for all stimuli. The present article describes our motivation for this project, explains the methods we used to collect the data, and reports analyses on the reliability of our results. In addition, we explored developmental changes in three marker effects in psycholinguistic research: word length, word frequency, and orthographic similarity. The database is available online.

  14. Whole-Word Phonological Representations of Disyllabic Words in the Chinese Lexicon: Data From Acquired Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Po Law

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the issue of the existence of whole-word phonological representations of disyllabic and multisyllabic words in the Chinese mental lexicon. A Cantonese brain-injured dyslexic individual with semantic deficits, YKM, was assessed on his abilities to read aloud and to comprehend disyllabic words containing homographic heterophonous characters, the pronunciation of which can only be disambiguated in word context. Superior performance on reading to comprehension was found. YKM could produce the target phonological forms without understanding the words. The dissociation is taken as evidence for whole-word representations for these words at the phonological level. The claim is consistent with previous account for discrepancy of the frequencies of tonal errors between reading aloud and object naming in Cantonese reported of another case study of similar deficits. Theoretical arguments for whole-word form representations for all multisyllabic Chinese words are also discussed.

  15. Indexing thoracic CT reports using a preliminary version of a standardized radiological lexicon (RadLex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwede, Dirk; Schulz, Thomas; Kahn, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    To validate a preliminary version of a radiological lexicon (RadLex) against terms found in thoracic CT reports and to index report content in RadLex term categories. Terms from a random sample of 200 thoracic CT reports were extracted using a text processor and matched against RadLex. Report content was manually indexed by two radiologists in consensus in term categories of Anatomic Location, Finding, Modifier, Relationship, Image Quality, and Uncertainty. Descriptive statistics were used and differences between age groups and report types were tested for significance using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney Test (significance level <0.05). From 363 terms extracted, 304 (84%) were found and 59 (16%) were not found in RadLex. Report indexing showed a mean of 16.2 encoded items per report and 3.2 Finding per report. Term categories most frequently encoded were Modifier (1,030 of 3,244, 31.8%), Anatomic Location (813, 25.1%), Relationship (702, 21.6%) and Finding (638, 19.7%). Frequency of indexed items per report was higher in older age groups, but no significant difference was found between first study and follow up study reports. Frequency of distinct findings per report increased with patient age (p < 0.05). RadLex already covers most terms present in thoracic CT reports based on a small sample analysis from one institution. Applications for report encoding need to be developed to validate the lexicon against a larger sample of reports and address the issue of automatic relationship encoding.

  16. Head MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hearing aids Pins, hairpins, metal zippers, and similar metallic items Removable dental work How the Test will ... an MRI can make heart pacemakers and other implants not work as well. It can also cause ...

  17. Pediatric MRI

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Study of Normal Brain Development is a longitudinal study using anatomical MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) to map pediatric...

  18. Sonographic mammary gland density pattern in women in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are known to affect the mammary gland density. This study aims to determine mammary gland density pattern in selected population of women in Sothern Nigeria using the American College of Radiology Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BI-RADS) lexicon and to promote the use of ultrasound as a breast cancer ...

  19. Towards an Italian Lexicon for Polarity Classification (polarITA): a Comparative Analysis of Lexical Resources for Sentiment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Farías, Delia Irazú; Laganà, Irene; Patti, Viviana; Bosco, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The paper describes a preliminary study for the development of a novel lexicon for Italian sentiment analysis, i.e. where words are associated with polarity values. Given the influence of sentiment lexica on the performance of sentiment analysis systems, a methodology based on the detection and classification of errors in existing lexical resources is proposed and an extrinsic evaluation of the impact of such errors is applied. The final aim is to build a novel resource from the filtering app...

  20. Portable MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espy, Michelle A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-29

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  1. Portable MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espy, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  2. Sizing up the competition: quantifying the influence of the mental lexicon on auditory and visual spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Julia F; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2011-09-01

    Much research has explored how spoken word recognition is influenced by the architecture and dynamics of the mental lexicon (e.g., Luce and Pisoni, 1998; McClelland and Elman, 1986). A more recent question is whether the processes underlying word recognition are unique to the auditory domain, or whether visually perceived (lipread) speech may also be sensitive to the structure of the mental lexicon (Auer, 2002; Mattys, Bernstein, and Auer, 2002). The current research was designed to test the hypothesis that both aurally and visually perceived spoken words are isolated in the mental lexicon as a function of their modality-specific perceptual similarity to other words. Lexical competition (the extent to which perceptually similar words influence recognition of a stimulus word) was quantified using metrics that are well-established in the literature, as well as a statistical method for calculating perceptual confusability based on the phi-square statistic. Both auditory and visual spoken word recognition were influenced by modality-specific lexical competition as well as stimulus word frequency. These findings extend the scope of activation-competition models of spoken word recognition and reinforce the hypothesis (Auer, 2002; Mattys et al., 2002) that perceptual and cognitive properties underlying spoken word recognition are not specific to the auditory domain. In addition, the results support the use of the phi-square statistic as a better predictor of lexical competition than metrics currently used in models of spoken word recognition. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  3. Fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  4. Interventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Junta; Dohi, Michiko; Yoshihiro, Akiko; Mogami, Takuji; Kuwada, Tomoko; Nakata, Norio [Jikei Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kashiwa Hospital

    2000-06-01

    Open type MR system and fast sequence is now available and MRI becomes a new modality for interventional Radiology, including biopsy, drainage operation, and monitoring for minimally invasive therapy. Experimental studies of temperature monitoring were performed under hot and cold status. Signal changes of porcine disc and meat under microwave and laser ablation were observed as low signal area by signal intensity method. Using proton chemical shift method, signal change by laser ablation was displaced color imaging and correlated with thermometric temperature measurement. The very T2 relaxation time of ice affords excellent contrast between ice and surrounding gelatin tissue allowing acute depiction of the extent of the iceball under MRI. (author)

  5. Fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C. [University Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Division of Neuroradiology

    2004-07-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  6. Responding to Nonwords in the Lexical Decision Task: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Balota, David A.; Ratcliff, Roger; Rueckl, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented how various statistical properties of words (e.g., word-frequency) influence lexical processing. However, the impact of lexical variables on nonword decision-making performance is less clear. This gap is surprising, since a better specification of the mechanisms driving nonword responses may provide valuable insights into early lexical processes. In the present study, item-level and participant-level analyses were conducted on the trial-level lexical decision data for almost 37,000 nonwords in the English Lexicon Project in order to identify the influence of different psycholinguistic variables on nonword lexical decision performance, and to explore individual differences in how participants respond to nonwords. Item-level regression analyses reveal that nonword response time was positively correlated with number of letters, number of orthographic neighbors, number of affixes, and baseword number of syllables, and negatively correlated with Levenshtein orthographic distance and baseword frequency. Participant-level analyses also point to within- and between-session stability in nonword responses across distinct sets of items, and intriguingly reveal that higher vocabulary knowledge is associated with less sensitivity to some dimensions (e.g., number of letters) but more sensitivity to others (e.g., baseword frequency). The present findings provide well-specified and interesting new constraints for informing models of word recognition and lexical decision. PMID:25329078

  7. How lexical is the lexicon? Evidence for integrated auditory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufahl, April; Samuel, Arthur G

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has shown that lexical representations must include not only linguistic information (what word was said), but also indexical information (how it was said, and by whom). The present work demonstrates that even this expansion is not sufficient. Seemingly irrelevant information, such as an unattended background sound, is retained in memory and can facilitate subsequent speech perception. We presented participants with spoken words paired with environmental sounds (e.g., a phone ringing), and had them make an "animate/inanimate" decision for each word. Later performance identifying filtered versions of the words was impaired to a similar degree if the voice changed or if the environmental sound changed. Moreover, when quite dissimilar words were used at exposure and test, we observed the same result when we reversed the roles of the words and the environmental sounds. The experiments also demonstrated limits to these effects, with no benefit from repetition. Theoretically, our results support two alternative possibilities: (1) Lexical representations are memory representations, and are not walled off from those for other sounds. Indexical effects reflect simply one type of co-occurrence that is incorporated into such representations. (2) The existing literature on indexical effects does not actually bear on lexical representations - voice changes, like environmental sounds heard with a word, produce implicit memory effects that are not tied to the lexicon. We discuss the evidence and implications of these two theoretical alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing the lexical hypothesis: are socially important traits more densely reflected in the English lexicon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin

    2015-02-01

    Using a set of 498 English words identified by Saucier (1997) as common person-descriptor adjectives or trait terms, I tested 3 instantiations of the lexical hypothesis, which posit that more socially important person descriptors show greater density in the lexicon. Specifically, I explored whether trait terms that have greater relational impact (i.e., more greatly influence how others respond to a person) have more synonyms, are more frequently used, and are more strongly correlated with other trait terms. I found little evidence to suggest that trait terms rated as having greater relational impact were more frequently used or had more synonyms. However, these terms correlated more strongly with other trait terms in the set. Conversely, a trait term's loadings on structural factors (e.g., the Big Five, HEXACO) were extremely good predictors of the term's relational impact. The findings suggest that the lexical hypothesis may not be strongly supported in some ways it is commonly understood but is supported in the manner most important to investigations of trait structure. Specifically, trait terms with greater relational impact tend to more strongly correlate with other terms in lexical sets and thus have a greater role in driving the location of factors in analyses of trait structure. Implications for understanding the meaning of lexical factors such as the Big Five are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. A proposed lexicon of terms and concepts for human-bear management in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Herrero, Stephen; Shideler, Richard T.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    We believe that communication within and among agency personnel in the United States and Canada about the successes and failures of their human–bear (Ursidae) management programs will increase the effectiveness of these programs and of bear research. To communicate more effectively, we suggest agencies clearly define terms and concepts used in human–bear management and use them in a consistent manner. We constructed a human–bear management lexicon of terms and concepts using a modified Delphi method to provide a resource that facilitates more effective communication among human–bear management agencies. Specifically, we defined 40 terms and concepts in human–bear management and suggest definitions based on discussions with 13 other professionals from the United States and Canada. Although new terms and concepts will emerge in the future and definitions will evolve as we learn more about bear behavior and ecology, our purpose is to suggest working definitions for terms and concepts to help guide human–bear management and research activities in North America. Applications or revisions of these definitions may be useful outside of North America.

  10. Perception and Lexicon Labeling Ability on a Child with Language Delay Diagnosed As Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Psycholinguistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the semantics acquisition of a child with language delay diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. The research problem is on how the child acquired the ability to comprehend meaning. It aims at answering the questions on how the child identified lexical meanings and how he labeled targeted lexicons of his first language. The approach employed in this research is descriptive qualitative to get adequate explanation on a specific language phenomenon, namely semantics acquisition. Its design is case study with the type neo-ethnographic. As the data collection method, it uses participant observation of longitudinal study considering that the research subject has familial relation with the researcher. The data analysis shows that the semantic acquisition of the research subject has complexity in vocabulary enrichment. The research subject often performs echolalic speech when he is asked to identify or label certain object given. The typical idiosyncratic speech is shown by the unique feature of limited syllable and prosody. In general, his ability to identify lexical meanings is far exceeding his ability to label objects. He also has sensitivity to perceive the non-verbal symbol performed by the people he knows well. The use of verbal language supported by non-verbal language facilitates his perception. He finds it difficult to comprehend the lexicons having similar sound as he assumes that one lexicon represents one object which typically belongs to concrete object. In addition, the ability of the research subject in labeling objects cannot be developed easily because of his difficulty in expressing ideas through words. To pronounce the words correctly, he shows high anxiety by lowering down his speech. In selecting the lexicon he also finds it hard to use pronoun, to label homonyms and to apply both polysemy and hyponym. Accordingly, he tends to communicate only to fulfill his needs by asking things, asking the

  11. Psychologist in a Pocket: Lexicon Development and Content Validation of a Mobile-Based App for Depression Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Paula Glenda Ferrer; Ramos, Roann Munoz; Bitsch, Jó Ágila; Jonas, Stephan Michael; Ix, Tim; See, Portia Lynn Quetulio; Wehrle, Klaus

    2016-07-20

    Language reflects the state of one's mental health and personal characteristics. It also reveals preoccupations with a particular schema, thus possibly providing insights into psychological conditions. Using text or lexical analysis in exploring depression, negative schemas and self-focusing tendencies may be depicted. As mobile technology has become highly integrated in daily routine, mobile devices have the capacity for ecological momentary assessment (EMA), specifically the experience sampling method (ESM), where behavior is captured in real-time or closer in time to experience in one's natural environment. Extending mobile technology to psychological health could augment initial clinical assessment, particularly of mood disturbances, such as depression and analyze daily activities, such as language use in communication. Here, we present the process of lexicon generation and development and the initial validation of Psychologist in a Pocket (PiaP), a mobile app designed to screen signs of depression through text analysis. The main objectives of the study are (1) to generate and develop a depressive lexicon that can be used for screening text-input in mobile apps to be used in the PiaP; and (2) to conduct content validation as initial validation. The first phase of our research focused on lexicon development. Words related to depression and its symptoms based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and in the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines classification systems were gathered from focus group discussions with Filipino college students, interviews with mental health professionals, and the review of established scales for depression and other related constructs. The lexicon development phase yielded a database consisting of 13 categories based on the criteria depressive symptoms in the DSM-5 and ICD-10. For the draft of the depression lexicon for

  12. MRI angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, B.; Baleriiaux, D.; struyven, J.; Segebarth, C.

    1989-01-01

    In MRI angiography two basis images are measured which only differ by the signal intensity of the flowing blood in the vessels. Subtraction of these two images produces a high contrast-to-noise representation of the vessels. Contrast between stationary tissues and flowing blood is changed, for one image compared to the second one, using a selective modification of the phase of the signal from the flowing blood, and/or using a selective modification of its longitudinal magnetization: The macroscopic spin motions along the selection and the measurement gradient directions affect the phase of the nuclear signal; assuming constant velocity, the phase is proportional to the velocity and to the first moment of the gradient waveforms applied. This work concentrates on the generarion of MRI angiograms, following a phase-based approach, of the carotid bifurcation and of different intracranical regions including the carotid syphon and the circle of Willis. (author). 21 refs.; 3 figs

  13. MRI zoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    The basic idea was to use MRI to produce a sequence of 3D gray scale image slices of various animals, subsequentlyimaged with a clinical CT system. For this purpose, these animals were used: toad, lungfish, python snake and a horseshoe crab. Each animal was sacrificed according to standard...... visually inspected, both in 2D and 3D, and compared with photographs and anatomy atlases found at library and on the internet....

  14. A principled relation between reading and naming in acquired and developmental anomia: Surface dyslexia following impairment in the phonological output lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eFriedmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate--they share components.This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon,on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia.To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, 8 with acquired anomia following brain damage and 8 with developmental-anomia.We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and nonword repetition, and phonological working memory.After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension.We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words,words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes,and potentiophones (words like now that, when read via the sublexical-route,can be sounded out as another word, know. Importantly, all the participants performed flawlessly on pseudohomophone lexical-decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic-input-lexicon and spared access to it and

  15. The Cause of Urban Slang and its Effect on the Development of the Northern Sotho Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Mojela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Urban slang terminology is extensively used today by most indigenous communities when speaking various South African indigenous languages. This is usually the case with informal conversations where the type of language used is also regarded to be informal. There are many instances where slang terms are used, consciously or unconsciously, in the form of code-switching with the indigenous languages in formal speech or informal conversations. These urban slang terms are regarded by most of the South African indigenous communities as prestige terms, especially by the young generation. Just as English and Afrikaans terminologies which had tremendous influence on the vocabularies of the indigenous languages, urban slang terminology has great influence on the daily usage of the South African indigenous languages. Despite this pressure, Northern Sotho and other South African indigenous languages do not have officially recognized adoptives which are derived from slang terminology. This is due to the fact that most language authorities do not want to associate their standard languages with urban slang because of various reasons which include, inter alia, the conservative idea of associating urban slang with crime and juvenile delinquency. Despite the negative attitudes of most of the conservative language authorities who regard the loan words of urban slang origin to be "contaminating" the South African indigenous languages (such as Northern Sotho, this slang terminology is every day becoming more popular and seems to have come to stay rather than be removed from the language of the people. A considerable fraction of the vocabulary of Northern Sotho, for instance, is made up of words which can be regarded as "loan words" derived from urban slang, even though formally we are still refusing to accept them as part of the lexicon of official Northern Sotho.

    Keywords: EUPHEMISM, FLYTAAL, INFERIOR DIALECT, INFERIOR LANGUAGE, MULTILINGUALISM

  16. The Collision of Two Lexicons: Librarians, Composition Instructors and the Vocabulary of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni M. Carter

    2016-03-01

    differences between the two vocabularies was detrimental to student learning. To improve communication and students’ source evaluation, the authors consider developing a common vocabulary for more consistency between the two lexicons.

  17. A word association response approach toward lexical relationships within the mental lexicon of second language learners: pedagogic ideas from testing McCarthy's theories on Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert S; Post, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Through use of word association as detailed in McCarthy (1990) this paper will explore pedagogic implications derived from the following three points in relation to the lexical development of Japanese learners of English: 1) the ability of word association tests to examine the mental links between words in learners' developing mental lexicon, 2) the importance of phonological similarities for lower level students and 3) the correlation between the results from a word association test with the characteristic types of word association patterns discussed in McCarthy (1990). It will be argued that while lexical development within the mental lexicon is difficult to delineate due to overlap of organizational categories, the patterns of syntactic, semantic and conceptual relations between learned words is apparent within the retrieval process for word association and that additionally, context may play a vital role in how words are construed along the links within the mental lexicon. Pedagogic ideas and future research ideas are detailed.

  18. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... affecting the MRI images, these objects can become projectiles within the MRI scanner room and may cause ... MRI has proven valuable in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or patients with claustrophobia. Other MRI machines are open on the sides (open MRI). Open units are especially helpful for examining larger patients or those with claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for ...

  20. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does not completely surround you. Some newer MRI machines have a larger diameter bore which can be ... size patients or patients with claustrophobia. Other MRI machines are open on the sides (open MRI). Open ...

  2. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the first three to four months of pregnancy unless the potential benefit from the MRI exam ... the MRI Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Chest Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  4. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  5. Evaluating cognitive models of visual word recognition using fMRI: Effects of lexical and sublexical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Orfanidou, Eleni; Taylor, J S H; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Kapnoula, Efthymia C; Panagiotaropoulou, Georgia; Velonakis, Georgios; Poulou, Loukia S; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitrios

    2016-03-01

    In this study predictions of the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model of word reading were tested using fMRI. Specifically, patterns of co-localization were investigated: (a) between pseudoword length effects and a pseudowords vs. fixation contrast, to reveal the sublexical grapho-phonemic conversion (GPC) system; and (b) between word frequency effects and a words vs. pseudowords contrast, to reveal the orthographic and phonological lexicon. Forty four native speakers of Greek were scanned at 3T in an event-related lexical decision task with three event types: (a) 150 words in which frequency, length, bigram and syllable frequency, neighborhood, and orthographic consistency were decorrelated; (b) 150 matched pseudowords; and (c) fixation. Whole-brain analysis failed to reveal the predicted co-localizations. Further analysis with participant-specific regions of interest defined within masks from the group contrasts revealed length effects in left inferior parietal cortex and frequency effects in the left middle temporal gyrus. These findings could be interpreted as partially consistent with the existence of the GPC system and phonological lexicon of the model, respectively. However, there was no evidence in support of an orthographic lexicon, weakening overall support for the model. The results are discussed with respect to the prospect of using neuroimaging in cognitive model evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  7. Precision astronomy with imperfect fully depleted CCDs — an introduction and a suggested lexicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, C W

    2014-01-01

    lateral electric fields for a shorter time interval. I provide a qualitative overview of the physical effects we think are responsible for the observed device properties, and provide some perspective for the work that lies ahead. Finally, I take this opportunity to make a plea for establishing a clear and consistent vocabulary when describing these various detector features, and make some suggestions for a standard lexicon based on discussions at the workshop. A more refined understanding of the device imperfections we are working to circumvent lies ahead, and this workshop was convened to help us find our way

  8. Neural correlates of lexicon and grammar: evidence from the production, reading, and judgment of inflection in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T; Pancheva, Roumyana; Love, Tracy; Yee, Eiling; Swinney, David; Hickok, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    Are the linguistic forms that are memorized in the mental lexicon and those that are specified by the rules of grammar subserved by distinct neurocognitive systems or by a single computational system with relatively broad anatomic distribution? On a dual-system view, the productive -ed-suffixation of English regular past tense forms (e.g., look-looked) depends upon the mental grammar, whereas irregular forms (e.g., dig-dug) are retrieved from lexical memory. On a single-mechanism view, the computation of both past tense types depends on associative memory. Neurological double dissociations between regulars and irregulars strengthen the dual-system view. The computation of real and novel, regular and irregular past tense forms was investigated in 20 aphasic subjects. Aphasics with non-fluent agrammatic speech and left frontal lesions were consistently more impaired at the production, reading, and judgment of regular than irregular past tenses. Aphasics with fluent speech and word-finding difficulties, and with left temporal/temporo-parietal lesions, showed the opposite pattern. These patterns held even when measures of frequency, phonological complexity, articulatory difficulty, and other factors were held constant. The data support the view that the memorized words of the mental lexicon are subserved by a brain system involving left temporal/temporo-parietal structures, whereas aspects of the mental grammar, in particular the computation of regular morphological forms, are subserved by a distinct system involving left frontal structures.

  9. ROLE OF ULTRASOUND IN EVALUATION OF BREAST DISEASES (WITH FOCUS ON BI-RADS 1-3 VS. BI-RADS 4-5: A STUDY OF 131 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ultrasound is a radiation free, readily available imaging modality that is routinely used for evaluation of breast. The patient usually are for routine checkup to nonspecific symptoms with few showing specific signs and symptoms. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the role of ultrasound in diagnosing benign lesions with a drawback focused on early malignant lesion. Also, the differentiation of solid and cystic lesions can reduce biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done retrospectively evaluating 131 consecutive patients. The ultrasound study included evaluation of mainly female patients with few male cases. RESULTS Most common lesions were benign lesions. Among these benign lesions, fibroadenomas and fibrocystic disease were the commonest. However, there were no early malignant lesion seen in this study. CONCLUSION Breast ultrasound is choice of investigation in benign breast diseases. Also, such lesions can be easily followed up at primary level. However, there is a limited role in detecting early malignant lesions, which will require additional workup at a higher level especially in high-risk groups.

  10. Combination Welding Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Combination Welding. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for combination welding is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  11. Automotive Mechanics Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Automotive Mechanics. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for automotive mechanics is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  12. Dinamismo conceptual en las bases de conocimiento terminológico: el caso de EcoLexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Faber Benítez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la nueva orientación de la Terminología, en sentido lingüístico-conceptual, ha dado lugar al desarrollo de un nuevo enfoque centrado en el discurso y el uso real de los términos (Temmerman y Kerremans, 2003. Este cambio de paradigma ha originado una mejora sustancial del contenido de las bases de conocimiento terminológico. Sin embargo, la novedad más destacada en cuanto a la modelización del conocimiento parte del uso extensivo de las ontologías, añadiéndole un mayor grado de expresividad semántica a la Terminología. Objetivo: presentar la base de conocimiento EcoLexicon, desarrollada en la Universidad de Granada por el grupo de investigación LexiCon. Para sacar el máximo partido de las ventajas que ofrece la aplicación de ontologías se propone la definición de un inventario de relaciones conceptuales junto con su potencial combinatorio. A su vez, éste origina una representación restringida por el contexto. Método: según los datos extraídos del corpus recopilado para la investigación, los conceptos del dominio se dividen según su tipología y su poder relacional. Se aplican características propias del lenguaje de ontologías (Web Ontology Language (OWL para realizar inferencias (ej. la transitividad de la meronimia. Resultados: la definición de las relaciones conceptuales según la naturaleza de los conceptos ofrece una solución cuantitativa para la sobrecarga de información y, a su vez, cualitativa, para la adquisición del conocimiento. Conclusiones: EcoLexicon une con éxito la Terminología y la capacidad expresiva de las ontologías, lo que ayudará en el futuro a diseñar sistemas de búsqueda adaptados a distintos usuarios.

  13. Is stereotactic large-core needle biopsy beneficial prior to surgical treatment in BI-RADS 5 lesions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorntje, LE; Peeters, PHM; Mali, WPTM; Rinkes, IHMB

    Introduction. Due to screening mammography, more nonpalpable mammographic lesions warrant histological evaluation. Stereotactic large-core needle biopsy (SLCNB) has been shown to be as effective in diagnosing these lesions as diagnostic surgical excision, and has become the preferred diagnostic

  14. Information Extraction for Clinical Data Mining: A Mammography Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Houssam; Woods, Ryan; Burnside, Elizabeth; Ayvaci, Mehmet; Shavlik, Jude; Page, David

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in women between the ages of 15 and 54. During mammography screening, radiologists use a strict lexicon (BI-RADS) to describe and report their findings. Mammography records are then stored in a well-defined database format (NMD). Lately, researchers have applied data mining and machine learning techniques to these databases. They successfully built breast cancer classifiers that can help in early detection of malignancy. However, the validity of these models depends on the quality of the underlying databases. Unfortunately, most databases suffer from inconsistencies, missing data, inter-observer variability and inappropriate term usage. In addition, many databases are not compliant with the NMD format and/or solely consist of text reports. BI-RADS feature extraction from free text and consistency checks between recorded predictive variables and text reports are crucial to addressing this problem. We describe a general scheme for concept information retrieval from free text given a lexicon, and present a BI-RADS features extraction algorithm for clinical data mining. It consists of a syntax analyzer, a concept finder and a negation detector. The syntax analyzer preprocesses the input into individual sentences. The concept finder uses a semantic grammar based on the BI-RADS lexicon and the experts' input. It parses sentences detecting BI-RADS concepts. Once a concept is located, a lexical scanner checks for negation. Our method can handle multiple latent concepts within the text, filtering out ultrasound concepts. On our dataset, our algorithm achieves 97.7% precision, 95.5% recall and an F 1 -score of 0.97. It outperforms manual feature extraction at the 5% statistical significance level.

  15. Lexicon of Albanian mythology: areal studies in the polylingual region of Azov Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Alexandrovich Novik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lexicon of Albanian mythology: areal studies in the polylingual region of Azov Sea Four villages with Albanian population are located in the Ukraine: Karakurt (Zhovtnevoe set up in 1811 (Odessa region, Tyushki (Georgievka, Dzhandran (Gammovka and Taz (Devninskoe set up in 1862 (Zaporizh’a region. The analysis of lexica of the Albanian subdialect of the Ukraine shows the continuation of the use of mythological terminology between the districts of the South-Eastern Albania (Korça, Devoll, Kolonja and the Albanian-speaking villages of the Azov Sea region. The Albanian subdialect of the Ukraine has no collective lexeme to designate all the representatives of the demonic world. The most common forms of denotation are these: nok janë të prastúrë (lit. ‘they are unclean’, shpírti nok i prastúrë (lit. ‘unclean spirit’. There are a large number of stories about the transformation of people into the animals – dogs, cats, goats, foxes, chickens etc. and even into things (the most common plot variant is about transformation of a man into a wheel. Also we observe the personification of the steppe wind among the Albanians of the Ukraine. Thus there is a special word for such a kind of wind in this subdialect – varalluzhg/ë, –a (‘varaluzhga’. The Balkan peoples believe that the fate of every individual is assigned by three mythological characters. Most of them, including the Albanians, consider that these three characters are female. They appear several hours after the child’s birth and assign its fate. The Albanians of the Ukraine keep these beliefs, but according to their system of mythological images, there are three men determining the child’s fate instead of three women. As the native consultants claim, these are three huge, tall and strong black men (tri burre qysh japin fatnë. Another variation on this theme comprises the stories about Christ’s disciples, the apostles and their followers, who can also determine the

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how ... What is MRI and how does it work? Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a way of obtaining ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If sedation is used, there ... patient story here Images × ... Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials MRI Safety During Pregnancy Images related ...

  18. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. MRI of the chest gives detailed pictures ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will share the ... This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions. MRI has ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a few types. ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... interfere with the magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in ... does the equipment look like? The traditional MRI unit is a large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by ...

  2. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ... tomography (CT) scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses re-align hydrogen atoms that ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... women should not have this exam in the first three to four months of pregnancy unless the ... not to have an MRI exam during the first trimester unless medically necessary. MRI may not always ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... important to assess the health and function of these structures (heart, valves, great vessels, etc.). top of ... room. In addition to affecting the MRI images, these objects can become projectiles within the MRI scanner ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Chest? What is MRI of the Chest? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... heart, valves, great vessels, etc.). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions. MRI has proven valuable in ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... used in MRI exams is less likely to produce an allergic reaction than the iodine-based contrast ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Chest? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ... might be obscured by bone with other imaging methods. The contrast material used in MRI exams is ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ... risking the side effects of conventional (catheter) angiography . Risks The MRI examination poses almost no risk to ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If ... tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians ... computed tomography (CT) scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses re-align hydrogen atoms ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions. MRI has ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography ( ...

  18. Canalis basilaris medianus: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemin, C.; Bosley, T.M.; Al Saleh, M.; Mullaney, P.

    2000-01-01

    We report the MRI appearances of an developmental anatomical variant of the basiocciput, with neuroimaging findings (CT and MRI). Such variants are commonly asymptomatic, but may be associated with episodes of meningitis. (orig.)

  19. MRI in acute poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornreich, L. [Imaging Department, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Kaplan Street, Petah Tiqva 49202 (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dagan, O. [The Intensive Care Unit, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Beilinson Medical Campus, Petah Tiqva (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Grunebaum, M. [Imaging Department, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Kaplan Street, Petah Tiqva 49202 (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    1996-05-01

    MRI can be used in the diagnosis of anterior horn infection and for assessing the extent of disease. There are no specific MRI signs to differentiate between the various possible pathogens. This is demonstrated in the present case of poliomyelitis, in which MRI of the spine played an important role in establishing the diagnosis. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  20. MRI in acute poliomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Dagan, O.; Grunebaum, M.

    1996-01-01

    MRI can be used in the diagnosis of anterior horn infection and for assessing the extent of disease. There are no specific MRI signs to differentiate between the various possible pathogens. This is demonstrated in the present case of poliomyelitis, in which MRI of the spine played an important role in establishing the diagnosis. (orig.). With 1 fig

  1. Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: part II--content of the first lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Pauline; Cowan, Robert; Brown, P Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2009-10-01

    Lexical content is commonly understood to refer to the various categories of words that children produce and has been studied extensively in children with normal hearing. Unlike the hearing child, however, little is known about the word categories that make up the first lexicon of children with hearing loss (HL). Knowledge of the first lexicon is increasingly important, as infants with HL are now being detected through universal newborn hearing screening programs and fitted with hearing aids and cochlear implants in before 12 months of age. For these children, emergence of the first spoken words is a major milestone eagerly awaited by parents and one of the first verbal language goals of teachers and therapists working with such children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lexical content of the first 50 and 100 words produced by children with HL and to contrast this with that of a group of hearing children. Lexical content was compared in two groups of children: one group composed of 24 participants with severe profound or profound HL and a second group composed of 16 participants with normal hearing. Twenty-three participants in the HL group were fitted with a cochlear implant and one with bilateral hearing aids. All were "switched on" or fitted before 30 months of age. The Diary of Early Language (Di-EL) was used to collect a 100-word lexicon from each participant. All single word and frozen phrase data from each child's Di-EL were allocated to 1 of 15 word types grouped into four word categories (noun, predicate, grammatical, and paralexical), and the results were compared for both groups. The hearing and HL groups showed similar distributions of word categories, with nouns constituting the largest portion of the lexicon followed by predicates and paralexicals. Grammaticals made up the smallest portion of the lexicon. However, several significant differences were evident between the two groups. In both the 50- and 100-word lexicons, the hearing group

  2. Exploring the Mental Lexicon of the Multilingual: Vocabulary Size, Cognate Recognition and Lexical Access in the L1, L2 and L3

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Cz.

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical findings in the field of Multilingualism have shown that the mental lexicon of a language learner does not consist of separate entities, but rather of an intertwined system where languages can interact with each other (e.g. Cenoz, 2013; Szubko-Sitarek, 2015). Accordingly, multilingual language learners have been considered differently to second language learners in a growing number of studies, however studies on the variation in learners’ vocabulary size both in the L2 and L3...

  3. Fischer's Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of Ukraine and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Typek, Joanna

    2015-12-24

    Historical ethnobotanical studies are important, even if they are only descriptive, because they help to throw light on the missing chains needed for diachronic analysis. However, the documentation of traditional uses of plants in some countries, e.g. Ukraine, is still fragmentary. The aim of this contribution is to fill the gap and present a portion of the data set, from western Ukraine, which was collected by Adam Fischer, a Polish ethnographer from Lviv, in the 1930s. These data were originally gathered to be published in the first part of the Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs, dedicated to plant uses in traditional Slavonic culture. The idea of writing the Lexicon arose in 1929 during the I Congress of Slavic Philologists in Prague and was intended to be a joint international enterprise, but has never actually been fulfilled. In this article we used information from south-eastern Poland at that time - nowadays western Ukraine, collected in four provinces, 11 counties and 28 localities by Fischer's collaborators. The majority of the information was accompanied by voucher specimens, which were determined by botanists at the Jan Kazimierz University. These data are still unpublished and stored on filecards in the archives of the Polish Ethnological Society in Wrocław, Poland. In our analysis we applied two indices: one to measure general plant versatility - Use Value, and another regarding medicinal plants - Relative Importance Value. In total, 179 plant taxa used in peasant culture in the western Ukraine in the 1930s were registered. The species which achieved the highest Use Values were: Achillea millefolium, Allium sativum, Vinca minor, Hypericum sp. and Juniperus communis. Among the collected plant names, Polish names dominate (59%) over clearly Ukrainian and Ruthenian ones (31%). The remaining 10% of names were of unclear origin or could have been used by both groups. The most salient use categories were medicinal, followed by ritual - chiefly plants

  4. How I report breast magnetic resonance imaging studies for breast cancer staging and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2016-07-25

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is the most sensitive imaging technique for the diagnosis and local staging of primary breast cancer and yet, despite the fact that it has been in use for 20 years, there is little evidence that its widespread uncritical adoption has had a positive impact on patient-related outcomes.This has been attributed previously to the low specificity that might be expected with such a sensitive modality, but with modern techniques and protocols, the specificity and positive predictive value for malignancy can exceed that of breast ultrasound and mammography. A more likely explanation is that historically, clinicians have acted on MRI findings and altered surgical plans without prior histological confirmation. Furthermore, modern adjuvant therapy for breast cancer has improved so much that it has become a very tall order to show a an improvement in outcomes such as local recurrence rates.In order to obtain clinically useful information, it is necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the technique and the physiological processes reflected in breast MRI. An appropriate indication for the scan, proper patient preparation and good scan technique, with rigorous quality assurance, are all essential prerequisites for a diagnostically relevant study.The use of recognised descriptors from a standardised lexicon is helpful, since assessment can then dictate subsequent recommendations for management, as in the American College of Radiology BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) lexicon (Morris et al., ACR BI-RADS® Atlas, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, 2013). It also enables audit of the service. However, perhaps the most critical factor in the generation of a meaningful report is for the reporting radiologist to have a thorough understanding of the clinical question and of the findings that will influence management. This has never been more important than at present, when we are in the throes of a

  5. Names and Attributes of the Mother of God. For a Church Slavonic-Russian-Italian Lexicon of Religious Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Ferro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In direct continuity with a previous essay on the study of a selection of attributes referred to the Christian God (Ferro, Romoli 2013, the authors analyze a number of epithets and attributes addressed to the Mother of God or defining her qualities. These words are frequently used in medieval Eastern Slavic literature, they are usually stated in the most authoritative dictionaries of Old and Church Slavonic languages, and remain generally unchanged in modern Russian.Within the project of a trilingual (Church Slavonic-Russian-Italian lexicon, the essay aims to show how the translation of religious terms goes beyond linguistics, as the question of correspondence or lack of correspondence in concepts and contexts of reference often arises. Since general dictionaries frequently fail to provide satisfactory solutions, it is necessary to go back to the origins, semantics and use of the terms through the systematic use of different types of dictionaries. In addition, in order to provide a proper Italian translation, the use of dictionaries of the Italian language is also fundamental.

  6. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States: Systemic Emergence of Psychological Lexicon and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.

    In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.

  7. MRI in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulert, Christoph; Shenton, Martha E.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  8. MRI in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology

    2014-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  9. Superconductive MRI system, FLEXARTTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hirokazu; Nishikawa, Mineki; Goro, Takehiko

    1994-01-01

    Since the establishment of TAMI (Toshiba America MRI Inc.) in 1989, it has been jointly working with Toshiba on developing a new infrastructure for computer and software technologies to be applied to new MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) systems. As a result of these efforts, the first product of a new series of MRI systems has been introduced on the market. Known as FLEXART TM (a newly created word combining FLEXible and ART), this MRI system incorporates a new 32-bit RISC computer and a new controller for pulse sequences and data acquisition. The product concepts of FLEXART TM are high image quality, high patient throughput, and ease of use, all of which are necessary features for an MRI system in the premium mid-field MRI market segment. (author)

  10. MRI of meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshio; Hiraki, Yoshio; Kaji, Mitumasa

    1988-01-01

    MRI has gained a prominent position in the diagnosis of brain tumors. We examined 30 cases of meningiomas and distinguished their subtype according to the criteria of Rubinic histology. We discussed the MRI findings and compared then with X-CT findings so to their intensity, delination of tumors, whether accompanied by peripheral edema, and T 1 values. MRI delinated the tumors as well as CE-CT. No remarkable difference was found between the subtypes. (author)

  11. MRI assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    Usage, cost and efficacy data from the MRI Assessment Program to 30 March 1988 is presented, as a continuation of an earlier analysis. Analysis has been performed on data from 8565 examinations relating to 7997 patients at 4 hospitals. MRI was used mainly for examination of the head and spine. Some details of the follow up studies being conducted on selected patients and disease categories are given. A consensus statement is included which summaries the view of the Technical Committee on the potential applications of MRI in Australia. The MRI unit quench incident at Royal Adelaide Hospital is described. Refs., 10 figs., tabs

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or patients with claustrophobia. Other MRI machines are open on the sides (open MRI). Open units are especially helpful for examining larger patients or those with claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does not completely surround you. Some newer MRI machines have a larger diameter bore which can be ... size patients or patients with claustrophobia. Other MRI machines are open on the sides (open MRI). Open ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the first three to four months of pregnancy unless the potential benefit from the MRI exam ... the MRI Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information on the chemicals present in the body's cells, may also be performed during the MRI exam ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ...

  16. MRI in sarcoglycanopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Díaz-Manera, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterise the pattern and spectrum of involvement on muscle MRI in a large cohort of patients with sarcoglycanopathies, which are limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD2C-2F) caused by mutations in one of the four genes coding for muscle sarcoglycans. METHODS: Lower limb MRI sca...

  17. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician ... absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. ...

  18. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various ... seen by other imaging modalities, such as chest x-ray or CT. A special form of MRI called ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. MRI ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fitting and has no metal fasteners. Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with the specific exam and with the imaging facility. Unless you are told otherwise, you may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a few types. People with the ...

  2. MRI of neonatal encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khong, P.L.; Lam, B.C.C.; Tung, H.K.S.; Wong, V.; Chan, F.L.; Ooi, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neonatal encephalopathy, including hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, perinatal/neonatal stroke, metabolic encephalopathy from inborn errors of metabolism, congenital central nervous system infections and birth trauma. The applications of advanced MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are emphasized

  3. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various ... seen by other imaging modalities, such as chest x-ray or CT. A special form of MRI called ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structure of an organ and how it is working. MRI enables the discovery of abnormalities that might be obscured by bone with other imaging methods. The contrast material used in MRI exams is less likely to produce an allergic reaction than the ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI ... cancer, heart and vascular disease, heart valve abnormalities, bone and other soft tissue abnormalities of the chest. MRI is also useful ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to ... computed tomography (CT) scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses re-align hydrogen atoms that ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. ...

  8. MRI in head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo [Shin Wha Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  9. Mobius syndrome: MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Villarroel, Gonzalo M.; Nagel, Jorge R.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Mobius Syndrome or congenital facial diplegia is associated with paralysis of the lateral gaze movements. This syndrome may include other cranial nerve palsies and be associated to musculoskeletal anomalies. Our objective is to show the MRI findings in Mobius Syndrome. Material and methods: MRI study was performed in 3 patients with clinic diagnosis of Mobius Syndrome. RMI (1.5T); exams included axial FSE (T1 and T2), FLAIR, SE/EPI, GRE/20, sagittal FSE T2 , coronal T1, diffusion, angio MRI and Spectroscopy sequences. Results: The common features of this syndrome found in MRI were: depression or straightening of the floor of the fourth ventricle, brainstem anteroposterior diameter diminution, morphologic alteration of the pons and medulla oblongata and of the hypoglossal nuclei as well as severe micrognathia. Conclusion: The morphologic alterations of Mobius Syndrome can be clearly identified by MRI; this method has proved to be a useful diagnostic examination. (author)

  10. MRI in head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Kyo

    1986-01-01

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  11. RadLex - German version: a radiological lexicon for indexing image and report information; RadLex - deutsche Version: Ein radiologisches Lexikon zur Indexierung von Bild- und Befunddaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwede, D.; Lobsien, D.; Kahn, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Daumke, P.; Marko, K.; Schulz, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie und Medizinische Informatik

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: Since 2003 the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) has been developing a lexicon of standardized radiological terms (RadLex) intended to support the structured reporting of imaging observations and the indexing of teaching cases. The aim of this study was to translate the first version of the lexicon (1 - 2007) into German and to implement a language-independent online term browser. Materials and Methods: RadLex version 1 - 2007 contains 6303 terms in nine main categories. Two radiologists independently translated the lexicon using medical dictionaries. Terms translated differently were revised and translated by consensus. For the development of an online term browser, a text processing algorithm called morphosemantic indexing was used which splits up words into small semantic units and compares those units to language-specific subword thesauri. Results: In total 6240 of 6303 terms (99 %) were translated. Of those terms 3965 were German, 1893 were Latin, 359 were multilingual, and 23 were English terms that are also used in German and were therefore maintained. The online term browser supports a language-independent term search in RadLex (German/English) and other common medical terminology (e.g., ICD 10). The term browser displays term hierarchies and translations in different frames and the complexity of the result lists can be adapted by the user. Conclusion: RadLex version 1 - 2007 developed by the RSNA is now available in German and can be accessed online through a term browser with an efficient search function. This is an important precondition for the future comparison of national and international indexed radiological examination results and the interoperability between digital teaching resources. (orig.)

  12. Interpretation of an Epoch in the Novel "the Big Green Tent" by L. Ulitskaya: Linguistic-Cultural Analysis of Verbal Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildar Ch. Safin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is the verbal lexicon analysis based on the text of the novel "The Big Green Tent" by L. Ulitskaya. The creative manner of the contemporary writer attracts the attention of researchers, her writings describe the emotional experiences of the heroes and also give a generalized image of time full of historical details and features. The language of her stories and short stories is characterized by a special style in the description of time realities. A verb in the text allows the author to express the events and the circumstances that characterize an action in its dynamics due to the fact that verbal categories reflect the real reality in our consciousness. The method of linguistic cultural analysis of verbal lexicon in the novel "The Big Green Tent" made it possible to single out exactly those language units that the writer carefully selects for the creation and interpretation of the era. A special emphasis in the study is made on the creation of an expressive-emotional style of narration using the stylistic capabilities of the Russian verb. The individual author's methods of narration expressiveness creation are singled out: synonymous series, euphemisms, colloquial lexicon, etc. The conducted study and a careful analysis of the selected factual material testifies that, recreating an epoch, the master of the word invariably uses that language arsenal that brightly and fully conveys the color of time. L. Ulitskaya is able to be not only an indifferent witness of the epoch, but also her tenacious observer and interpreter. The analyzed factual material and the main points of this research can be used in the courses on stylistics and linguistic culturology, and also as an illustrative material during the classes on the linguistic analysis of a literary text.

  13. Should breast MRI be performed with adjustment for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle? Correlation between mammographic density, age, and background enhancement on breast MRI without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Kasami, Masako; Watanabe, Junichiro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between mammographic density, age, and background enhancement on breast MRI without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle. Material and methods: The background enhancement of bilateral breast MRI and the breast density of mammography in 146 consecutive women without adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle were reviewed. The breast density was classified into four categories according to the American College of Radiology the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. The background enhancement was classified into four categories: minimal, mild, moderate, and marked. The correlations of mammographic breast density as well as age with background enhancement on breast MRI were examined. Results: There was a significant correlation between mammographic breast density and background enhancement (p = 0.011). All nine cases with almost completely fat mammographic breast density showed minimal (78%) or mild (12%) background enhancement on breast MRI. There was a significant inverse correlation between age and background enhancement (p < 0.0001). Younger patients with dense breasts were more likely to demonstrate moderate/marked background enhancement. Conclusion: When no adjusting for the phase in patients’ menstrual cycle, a significant correlation was observed between background enhancement and mammographic density. A significant inverse correlation was also observed between age and background enhancement.

  14. Indications for body MRI

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    Dujardin, M. [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, BEFY, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: martine.dujardin@gmail.com; Vandenbroucke, F. [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: frederik.vandenbroucke@az.vub.ac.be; Boulet, C. [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: cedric.boulet@az.vub.ac.be; Op de Beeck, B. [Department of Radiology, UZA and Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: bart.op.de.beeck@uza.be; Mey, J. de [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, BEFY, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: johan.demey@az.vub.ac.be

    2008-02-15

    The lack of ionizing radiation use in MRI makes the high spatial resolution technique very appealing. Also, the easy access to multiplanar imaging and the fact that gadolinium-DTPA is well tolerated and not nephrotoxic makes MRI a robust alternative in the healthy as well as the renal compromised patient. Furthermore, MRI adds advanced possibility for tissue characterization and pathology detection and dynamic imaging can be performed. Specific contrast agents specific to the hepatobiliary or the reticuloendothelial system can help with additional information in problem cases. The role of MRI for different organs is discussed and a review of the literature is given. We concluded that MRI is considered a useful and non-invasive diagnostic tool for the detection of hepatic iron concentration, to correct misdiagnosis (pseudolesions) from US and CT in focal steatosis and to help with focal lesion detection and characterization, in the healthy and especially in the cirrhotic liver, where MRI is superior to CT. Moreover, MRCP is excellent for identifying the presence and the level of biliary obstruction in malignant invasion and is considered in the literature as a non-invasive screening tool for common bile duct stones, appropriately selecting candidates for preoperative ERCP and sparing others the need for an endoscopic procedure with its associated complications. MRI is the first choice modality for adrenal evaluation in contemporary medical imaging. It is a useful examination in renal as well as splenic pathology and best assesses loco-regional staging, i.e. arterial involvement in pancreatic cancer.

  15. Early acquisition of the verbal lexicon and semantic approximations in Portuguese / Aquisição inicial do léxico verbal e aproximações semânticas em português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Tonietto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The analogical reasoning that allows relating concepts, permits the construction of the conceptual system. In the early phase of lexicon acquisition, mainly between 2 and 4 years of age, linguistic productions are observed resulting from the analogical reasoning, sometimes named metaphors. According to Duvignau (2002, 2003, these emissions result from the semantic approximation by analogy, a mechanism that allows approaching concepts more or less distant from the available lexicon. This study dimensions the importance of verbal semantic approximations for the early lexical development of monolingual children of the Portuguese language and studies the resource to generic versus specific items. Eighty monolingual children between 2 and 4 years old and 75 undergraduate students took part of this study, answering the Actions Naming and Reformulation Tasks. The results conclude that the semantic approximation by analogy is a fundamental linguistic strategy for lexicon development and reveals the cognitive flexibility which is present in typical development.

  16. Explaining MRI examinations DVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Komeda, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    When conducting MRI examinations, there are various things to be careful of. There is often stress related to the MRI examinations, so in order to perform an examination safely and smoothly, sufficient explanation must be given. An explanation of what to do and what not to do during an examination should be outlined in a brochure given to patients before the examination. There may be many patients who have misgivings about their MRI examinations, so to reduce their anxiousness and deepen their understanding of MRI examinations and to improve the safety and effiency of MRI examinations,; we created a DVD about MRI examinations. We gathered MRI-related safety information and instructions, and assessed the effect that the information might have on patients. We started a workgroup for a project to plan and record a video according to the Storyboard. When editing, we reviewed the length of each segment, the amount of information on screen, and the overall length of the DVD. We discussed the issue within the workgroup and had hospital approval. It was possible for us to complete it without depending on the supplier and the cost was kept to a minimum. Finally, we decided on a viewing location. We asked a hospital volunteers to see a complete DVD and we evaluated their responses by questionnaires. As the result, their understanding and anxieties related to MRI examinations were alleviated, as expected. Their anxiety seemed to be eased. Patients also seemed to have a deeper understanding of MRI examinations having seen an examination being conducted. (author)

  17. MRI of 'brain death'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shigeki; Itoh, Takahiko; Tuchida, Shohei; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Asari, Shoji; Nishimoto, Akira; Sanou, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken for two patients who suffered from severe cerebrovascular diseases and were clinically brain dead. The MRI system we used was Resona (Yokogawa Medical Systems, superconductive system 0.5 T) and the CT apparatus was Toshiba TCT-300. Initial CT and MRI were undertaken as soon as possible after admission, and repeated sequentially. After diagnosis of brain death, we performed angiography to determine cerebral circulatory arrest, and MRI obtained at the same time was compared with the angiogram and CT. Case 1 was a 77-year-old man who was admitted in an unconscious state. CT and MRI on the second day after hospitalization revealed cerebellar infarction. He was diagnosed as brain dead on day 4. Case 2 was a 35-year-old man. When he was transferred to our hospital, he was in cardiorespiratory arrested. Cardiac resuscitation was successful but no spontaneous respiration appeared. CT and MRI on admission revealed right intracerebral hemorrhage. Angiography revealed cessation of contrast medium in intracranial vessels in both of the patients. We found no 'flow signal void sign' in the bilateral internal carotid and basilar arteries on MRI images in both cases after brain death. MRI, showing us the anatomical changes of the brain, clearly revealed brain herniations, even though only nuclear findings of 'brain tamponade' were seen on CT. But in Case 1, we could not see the infarct lesions in the cerebellum on MR images obtained after brain death. This phenomenon was caused by the whole brain ischemia masking the initial ischemic lesions. We concluded that MRI was useful not only the anatomical display of lesions and brain herniation with high contrast resolution but for obtaining information on cerebral circulation of brain death. (author)

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  20. Breast MR biopsy: Pathological and radiological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dratwa, Chloe; Chopier, Jocelyne; Jalaguier-Coudray, Aurelie; Thomassin-Piana, Jeanne; Gonin, Julie; Antoine, Martine; Trop, Isabelle; Darai, Emile; Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    To identify pathological features for sample analysis of magnetic resonance imaging-guided vaccum-assisted breast biopsy (MRIgVaBB) to optimize radio pathological correlation and identify discordant benign result. Databases of two centres were queried to identify MRIgVaBB performed between January 2009 and February 2013. A cohort of 197 women (mean age: 54.5 years (24-77)) with 208 lesions was identified. We retrospectively analyzed all prebiopsy MRI examinations according to the new BI-RADS lexicon, and all biopsy samples to describe the lesion of interest, its interface with the surrounding breast tissue and other associated features. The malignancy rate was 26.0 % (54/208) with an underestimation rate of 15.67 % (5/32). A visible interface at pathology between a biopsied lesion and the surrounding breast tissue was more frequently identified in mass enhancement compared to NME or focus (p = 0.0003). Regional NME was correlated with a high degree of fibrosis (p = 0.001) and the presence of PASH (p = 0.0007). Linear or segmental NME was correlated with the presence of periductal mastitis (p = 0.0003). The description of a visible interface between the target lesion and the surrounding tissue is crucial to confirm the correct targeting of an MR mass or a NME. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrai, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Breast calcifications are very frequent findings, especially in elderly women. Not all calcifications represent malignancy, but a lot of attention has to be paid to them, because of their various appearance. Artefacts may be present because of technical reasons - at analogue and digital mammography as well - radiologists must be familiar with them. Macrocalcifications mostly represent benign lesions, microcalcifications may indicate malignancy. Characterisation is mainly performed by targeted mammography examination, sometimes completed by ultrasound and MRI. Recognition of typically benign microcalcifications is quite easy and secure, but distinction among the rest of microcalcifications is based on the reader’s experience, and statistical probability – these methods rarely, but fail to reveal malignant tumours of the breast. Very early cancers may be considered as benign lesions because of their small extension and atypical, benign-looking morphology . Following the BI-RADS lexicon it is mandatory to categorize these lesions, in order to standardize therapy planning but biopsy is always recommended when the probability of cancer is over 2%. Stereotaxy is recommended as targeting method, while identification of calcifications by ultrasound is not secure. Vacuum core biopsy or traditional core biopsy are the sampling methods of choice. If multiple clusters are present, the two most distant groups are the subjects of biopsy

  2. Breast MR imaging: correlation of high resolution dynamic MR findings with prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin Ho; Cho, Nariya; Chung, Hye Kyung; Kim, Seung Ja; Cho, Kyung Soo; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Joo Hee

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to correlate the kinetic and morphologic MR findings of invasive breast cancer with the classical and molecular prognostic factors. Eighty-seven patients with invasive ductal carcinoma NOS underwent dynamic MR imaging at 1.5 T, and with using the T1-weighted 3D FLASH technique. The morphologic findings (shape, margin, internal enhancement of the mass or the enhancement distribution and the internal enhancement of any non-mass lesion) and the kinetic findings (the initial phase and the delayed phase of the time-signal. Intensity curve) were interpreted using a ACR BI-RADS-MRI lexicon. We correlate MR findings with histopathologic prognostic factors (tumor size, lymph node status and tumor grade) and the immunohistochemically detected biomarkers (ER, PR, ρ 53, c-erbB-2, EGFR and Ki-67). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were than performed. Among the MR findings, a spiculated margin, rim enhancement and washout were significantly correlated with the prognostic factors. A spiculated margin was independently associated with the established predictors of a good prognosis (a lower histologic and nuclear grade, positive ER and PR) and rim enhancement was associated with a poor prognosis (a higher histologic and nuclear grade, negative ER and PR). Wash out was a independent predictor of Ki-67 activity. Some of the findings of high resolution dynamic MR imaging were associated with the prognostic factors, and these findings may predict the prognosis of breast cancer

  3. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... has any questions. Some implanted devices require a short period of time after placement (usually six weeks) ... center of the magnet. Some MRI units, called short-bore systems , are designed so that the magnet ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... any recent surgeries. Some conditions, such as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium contrast ... an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary to ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more information ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI ... pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... imaging modalities (typically CT) or which are particularly well-suited to MR imaging. determine tumor size, extent, ... the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones ...

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ... and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will share the results ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... a risk, depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many implanted devices will ... abnormalities where Chest CT is a preferred imaging test. MR imaging can assess blood flow without risking ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses re-align hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ... thumping sounds when the coils that generate the radiofrequency pulses are activated. Some centers provide earplugs, while ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions. MRI has proven valuable in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, heart valve abnormalities, bone and other soft tissue ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... Infants and young children usually require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving. Whether ... A physician or nurse specializing in sedation or anesthesia for children should be available during the exam ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI) exam. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... or if you have asthma. The contrast material most commonly used for an MRI exam contains a ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... six weeks) before being safe for MRI examinations. Examples include but are not limited to: artificial heart ... usually completed within one hour but may occasionally take longer. top of page What will I experience ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. ... fitting and has no metal fasteners. Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. MRI of the chest gives detailed pictures ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  18. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... three to four months of pregnancy unless the potential benefit from the MRI exam is assumed to outweigh the potential risks. Pregnant women should not receive injections of ...

  19. MRI features of chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoguang; Liu Xia; Cheng Kebin; Liu Wei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MR imaging features of chondroblastoma. Methods: MRI examinations of 20 patients with histological proven chondmblastoma were reviewed retrospectively. The MRI findings of chondroblastoma including the signal intensity, the shape, the growth patterns, and the surrounding bone marrow edema and the adjacent soft tissue edema, the periosteal reaction, the adjacent joint effusion were analyzed. Results: All 20 cases demonstrated heterogeneous MR signal intensity on T 1 WI and T 2 WI images and showed lobular margins. Sixteen cases demonstrated expansive growth patterns. Surrounding bone marrow edema was found in 18 cases and adjacent soft tissue edema in 14 cases. Periosteal reaction was identified in 6 cases. In 7 cases the tumor extended to adjacent soft tissue. Adjacent joint effusion was visible on MRI in 6 cases. Conclusion: Heterogeneous signal intensity, lobular margins and expansive growth pattern, adjacent bone marrow and soft tissue edema were the common features of chondroblastoma on MRI. (authors)

  20. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... also provides movie-like sequential imaging of the cardiovascular system that is important to assess the health ... invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular conditions. MRI has proven valuable in diagnosing a ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... prior obstruction of blood flow). determine blood flow dynamics in the vessels and heart chambers. display lymph ... the magnet. Some MRI units, called short-bore systems , are designed so that the magnet does not ...

  2. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... an MRI scan, but this is rare. Tooth fillings and braces usually are not affected by the magnetic field, but they may distort images of the facial area or brain, so you should let the ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Chest? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. MRI of the chest gives detailed pictures of ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... traditional MRI unit is a large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by a circular magnet. You will lie ... your skin at the site of the IV tube insertion. Some patients may sense a temporary metallic ...

  6. MRI of the Breast

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    ... in evaluating women at high risk for breast cancer. MRI can successfully image the dense breast tissue common in younger women, and it can successfully image breast implants. Both of these are difficult to image using ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you ... has no metal fasteners. Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with the specific ...

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI examinations may require you to receive an injection of contrast material into the bloodstream. The radiologist , ... the potential risks. Pregnant women should not receive injections of gadolinium contrast material except when absolutely necessary ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... will be removed. MRI exams generally include multiple runs (sequences), some of which may last several minutes. ... top of page Who interprets the results and how do I get them? A radiologist, a physician ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... others nearby harm. These items include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ...

  11. Arm MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MRI and ultrasound. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic ... Magnetic resonance imaging: In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic ...

  12. Sinus MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CT, and MRI. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic ... Magnetic resonance imaging. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic ...

  13. Leg MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MRI and ultrasound. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic ... Magnetic resonance imaging: In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic ...

  14. Knee MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MRI and ultrasound. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic ... Magnetic resonance imaging. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... provides movie-like sequential imaging of the cardiovascular system that is important to assess the health and ... the magnet. Some MRI units, called short-bore systems , are designed so that the magnet does not ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... you should let the radiologist know about them. Parents or family members who accompany patients into the ... intercom. Many MRI centers allow a friend or parent to stay in the room as long as ...

  18. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI ... of the chest. assess disorders of the chest bones (vertebrae, ribs and sternum) and chest wall soft ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... contrast for an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will ... Thus, the child remains motionless allowing for good quality images. Jewelry and other accessories should be left ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... will hear and feel loud tapping or thumping sounds when the coils that generate the radiofrequency pulses ... use headphones to reduce the intensity of the sounds made by the MRI machine. You may be ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. The contrast material most commonly used for an ... Infants and young children usually require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving. Whether ...

  2. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... contrast for an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will ... are not limited to: artificial heart valves implanted drug infusion ports artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may require you to receive an injection of ... for a mild sedative prior to your scheduled examination. Infants and young children usually require sedation or ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... The magnetic field is produced by passing an electric current through wire coils in most MRI units. ... signals that are detected by the coils. The electric current does not come in contact with the ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary ... is loose-fitting and has no metal fasteners. Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... Most MRI exams are painless. However, some patients find it uncomfortable to remain still during MR imaging. ... anxious, confused or in severe pain, you may find it difficult to lie still during imaging. A ...

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ... patient to have an allergy to a gadolinium-based contrast agent used for MRI than the iodine- ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... procedure performed? MRI examinations may be performed on outpatients or inpatients. You will be positioned on the ... and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will share the results ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... used in tattoos may contain iron and could heat up during an MRI scan, but this is ... injection. If you do not require sedation, no recovery period is necessary. You may resume your usual ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... prior to your scheduled examination. Infants and young children usually require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving. Whether a child requires sedation depends on the child's age, intellectual ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI exam, a physician, nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) catheter, also known as an ... physicians with expertise in several radiologic areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... used in tattoos may contain iron and could heat up during an MRI scan, but this is ... a preferred imaging test. MR imaging can assess blood flow without risking the side effects of conventional ( ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam ... soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x- ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... usual. Some MRI examinations may require you to receive an injection of contrast material into the bloodstream. ... outweigh the potential risks. Pregnant women should not receive injections of gadolinium contrast material except when absolutely ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI) of the chest uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  18. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many implanted devices will have a pamphlet explaining ... large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by a circular magnet. You will lie on a moveable examination table ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it ... if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. MRI has been used for scanning patients since ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... vessels, from almost any angle. MRI also provides movie-like sequential imaging of the cardiovascular system that ... headsets so that the child can watch a movie while the scan is being performed. Thus, the ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... to assess the anatomy and function of the heart and its blood flow. Tell your doctor about ... chest cavity, including the mediastinum , chest wall, pleura, heart and vessels, from almost any angle. MRI also ...

  2. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... and how it is working. MRI enables the discovery of abnormalities that might be obscured by bone ... Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), comprising physicians with expertise in several radiologic ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... it is useful to bring that to the attention of the scheduler before the exam and bring ... patient for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help you pass the time. In some cases, intravenous injection of contrast material ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI) exam. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... contrast for an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will ... and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will share the results ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... may have. top of page What does the equipment look like? The traditional MRI unit is a ... traction devices and many types of life support equipment may distort the MR images and as a ...

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. The contrast material most commonly used for an ... complete an MRI exam without moving. Whether a child requires sedation depends on the child's age, intellectual ...

  9. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... The magnetic field is produced by passing an electric current through wire coils in most MRI units. Other coils, located in the machine and in some cases, placed around the part ...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... copied to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. MRI of the chest gives detailed ... sedative prior to your scheduled examination. Infants and young children usually require sedation or anesthesia to complete ...

  11. VISARTTM superconducting MRI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Yoshiyuki; Goro, Takehiko; Yamagata, Hitoshi.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed VISART TM , a 1.5 T high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system based on technology developed for both the FLEXART TM (0.5T) and MRT-200/GP (1.5T) systems as the first and second products, respectively, of a new series of MRI systems. VISART TM is a newly coined word combining VISion and state-of-the-ART. A higher power gradient system and new high-speed imaging techniques have been developed to meet the market demand for higher resolution images and shorter scan times. The product concepts of VISART TM are high image quality, high patient throughput, flexible clinical application, and ease of use, all of which are essential features for an MRI system in the high-field MRI market segment. (author)

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ... to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. ...

  13. Studying neuroanatomy using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Jason P; van der Kouwe, André J W; Raznahan, Armin; Paus, Tomáš; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Miller, Karla L; Smith, Stephen M; Fischl, Bruce; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N

    2017-02-23

    The study of neuroanatomy using imaging enables key insights into how our brains function, are shaped by genes and environment, and change with development, aging and disease. Developments in MRI acquisition, image processing and data modeling have been key to these advances. However, MRI provides an indirect measurement of the biological signals we aim to investigate. Thus, artifacts and key questions of correct interpretation can confound the readouts provided by anatomical MRI. In this review we provide an overview of the methods for measuring macro- and mesoscopic structure and for inferring microstructural properties; we also describe key artifacts and confounds that can lead to incorrect conclusions. Ultimately, we believe that, although methods need to improve and caution is required in interpretation, structural MRI continues to have great promise in furthering our understanding of how the brain works.

  14. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... any recent surgeries. Some conditions, such as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium ... an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home, if possible, or removed prior to the MRI ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your ... there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect and identify ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  18. Towards MRI microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew; Mundell, Victoria J; Blanco-Andujar, Cristina; Bencsik, Martin; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Cave, Gareth W V

    2010-04-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanometre scale particles have been utilised as contrast agents to image staked target binding oligonucleotide arrays using MRI to correlate the signal intensity and T(2)* relaxation times in different NMR fluids.

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... Thus, the child remains motionless allowing for good quality images. Jewelry and other accessories should be left ... claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams. Older open ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with ... exam and bring it to your exam in case the radiologist or technologist has any questions. Some ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... contrast for an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will ... data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding after receiving intravenous contrast. For further information please ...

  2. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... used in tattoos may contain iron and could heat up during an MRI scan, but this is ... from the contrast material, including nausea, headache and pain at the site of injection. Similarly, patients are ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... contrast material in patients with very poor kidney function. Careful assessment of kidney function before considering a ...

  4. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... used in tattoos may contain iron and could heat up during an MRI scan, but this is ... preferred imaging test. MR imaging can assess blood flow without risking the side effects of conventional (catheter) ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium contrast for an MRI. If you ... can watch a movie while the scan is being performed. Thus, the child remains motionless allowing for ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... it is useful to bring that to the attention of the scheduler before the exam and bring ... bore which can be more comfortable for larger size patients or patients with claustrophobia. Other MRI machines ...

  7. MRI in osteochondrosis dissecans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, K.; Heuck, A.; Rodammer, G.; Raff, W.; Haller, W.

    1987-08-01

    The osseous manifestations of osteochondrosis dissecans are well demonstrated by conventional and computerised tomography. Beyond that, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is effective in evaluating the vitality and loosening of an osseous dissecate. Subchondral cavities and cartilaginous defects are detected with high acccuracy. Further, MRI seems to be a useful method in childhood to differentiate a variant irregularity of the osseous articular surface from definite osteochondrosis dissecans.

  8. MRI assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The MRI Assessment Program involves installation and operation of five MRI units in Australian public hospitals and the evaluation at each unit of the cost and efficacy of the technology over a period of two years. This first report in a series presents preliminary usage and cost data for the year to 30 June 1987 as well as describing the background and the data set. 6 figs., tabs

  9. Functional MRI of the patellofemoral joint: comparison of ultrafast MRI, motion-triggered cine MRI and static MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, C. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Brossmann, J. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Melchert, U.H. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Schroeder, C. [Radiologische Abt., Universitaets-Kinderklinik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany); Boer, R. de [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Spielmann, R.P. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of ultrafast MRI (u), patellar tracking from 30 of flexion to knee extension (0 ) was analysed and compared with motion-triggered cine MRI (m) and a static MRI technique (s). The different imaging methods were compared in respect of the patellofemoral relationship, the examination time and image quality. Eight healthy subjects and four patients (in total 18 joints) with patellar subluxation or luxation were examined. Significant differences between the static MRI series without quadriceps contraction and the functional MRI studies (motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI) were found for the patellar tilt angle. In the dynamic joint studies there was no statistical difference of the regression coefficients between the motion-triggered cine MRI studies and the ultrafast MRI studies. The findings of the functional MRI studies compared with the static MRI images were significantly different for the lateralisation of the patella, expressed by the lateral patellar displacement and bisect offset. No significant differences in patellar lateralisation were found between motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI. Ultrafast MRI was superior to motion-triggered cine MRI in terms of the reduction in imaging time and improvement of the image quality. (orig.)

  10. Functional MRI of the patellofemoral joint: comparison of ultrafast MRI, motion-triggered cine MRI and static MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhle, C.; Brossmann, J.; Melchert, U.H.; Schroeder, C.; Boer, R. de; Spielmann, R.P.; Heller, M.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of ultrafast MRI (u), patellar tracking from 30 of flexion to knee extension (0 ) was analysed and compared with motion-triggered cine MRI (m) and a static MRI technique (s). The different imaging methods were compared in respect of the patellofemoral relationship, the examination time and image quality. Eight healthy subjects and four patients (in total 18 joints) with patellar subluxation or luxation were examined. Significant differences between the static MRI series without quadriceps contraction and the functional MRI studies (motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI) were found for the patellar tilt angle. In the dynamic joint studies there was no statistical difference of the regression coefficients between the motion-triggered cine MRI studies and the ultrafast MRI studies. The findings of the functional MRI studies compared with the static MRI images were significantly different for the lateralisation of the patella, expressed by the lateral patellar displacement and bisect offset. No significant differences in patellar lateralisation were found between motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI. Ultrafast MRI was superior to motion-triggered cine MRI in terms of the reduction in imaging time and improvement of the image quality. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olcucuoglu, E.; Tuncbilek, I.; Oztekin, P.; Asal, N.; Yilmaz, O.; Kosar, U.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: The aim of the study is to state breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) diagnostic value of examination of MG (MG), ultrasonography (U.S.) by comparing with the results of a biopsy revealed, and emphasize the value of detecting breast cancer. Materials and methods: 327 patients were included in the breast MRI examination. MG breast MRI and U.S. were performed before the cases, respectively. All tests which are in fact planned no later than two months in between and evaluation were performed by two radiologists. BI-RADS classification was evaluated according to the investigations. As a result of MRI BIRADS 4 and 5 cases that were diagnosed in a biopsy was recommended. Following the recommended BI-RADS 3 biopsies diagnosed as those of the cases were due to the physical examination findings. MG with the results of a biopsy, U.S., and MRI results were compared. Results: The study recommended a biopsy of BIRADS 4 and 5 group, 36 out of 63 cases of breast cancer (32 invasive ductal carcinomas, 2 invasive lobular carcinoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 angiosarcoma) were diagnosed. 16% of patients with BI-RADS 4 group, 94% of BI-RADS 5 group of patients were diagnosed as breast cancer. BI-RADS is a group of breast cancer with axillary adenopathy in a patient with the diagnosis of MRI examination was no diagnostic. False-positive cases in our study were counted for the majority of cases as fibrocystic. Conclusion: MRI sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of tests with the highest rates, while the combination of MG and MRI, were found to be the best non-invasive examination methods

  12. Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Communications Satellite CRT Cathode Ray Tube COMNAVSURFLANT Commander, CS Combat System; Computer Subsystem Naval Surface Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet CSA Close...Sideband Low-Frequency Acoustic Vernier Analyzer LSD Large Screen Display LC Launch Control LSI Low Ship Impact 24 LSNSR Line-of-Bearing Sensor NCA

  13. Cine MRI of dissecting aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Hajime

    1991-01-01

    Cine MRI was performed in 25 cases of aortic dissection and comparative study among cine MRI, spin-echo static MRI, contrast-enhanced CT and intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) was made. Cine MRI accurately detected aortic dissection. It was most accurate among various diagnostic methods in demonstration of entry site of dissection. Take-off of renal artery and its relation to true and false channels was also accurately demonstrated by cine MRI. The above results suggest that cine MRI can be an important diagnostic modality with almost equal diagnostic quality to those of conventional angiography. However, further technical improvement to shorten the imaging time seems necessary to replace angiography. (author)

  14. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D L; Pichler, B J; Gückel, B

    2018-01-01

    The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants c...... of response to pharmacological interventions and therapies. As such, PET/MRI is a key to advancing medicine and patient care.......The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants...... critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how...

  15. MRI of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  16. Diffusion, confusion and functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion MRI has been introduced in 1985 and has had a very successful life on its own. While it has become a standard for imaging stroke and white matter disorders, the borders between diffusion MRI and the general field of fMRI have always remained fuzzy. First, diffusion MRI has been used to obtain images of brain function, based on the idea that diffusion MRI could also be made sensitive to blood flow, through the intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) concept. Second, the IVIM concept helped better understand the contribution from different vasculature components to the BOLD fMRI signal. Third, it has been shown recently that a genuine fMRI signal can be obtained with diffusion MRI. This 'DfMRI' signal is notably different from the BOLD fMRI signal, especially for its much faster response to brain activation both at onset and offset, which points out to structural changes in the neural tissues, perhaps such as cell swelling, occurring in activated neural tissue. This short article reviews the major steps which have paved the way for this exciting development, underlying how technical progress with MRI equipment has each time been instrumental to expand the horizon of diffusion MRI toward the field of fMRI. (authors)

  17. MRI for myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutberlet, M.; Luecke, C.; Krieghoff, C.; Hildebrand, L.; Steiner, J.; Adam, J.; Grotthoff, M.; Lehmkuhl, L.; Lurz, P.; Eitel, I.; Thiele, H.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has become the primary tool for the non-invasive assessment in patients with suspected myocarditis, especially after exclusion of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for the differential diagnosis. Various MRI parameters are available which have different accuracies. Volumetric and functional ventricular assessment and the occurrence of pericardial effusion alone demonstrate only a poor sensitivity and specificity. The calculation of the T2-ratio (edema assessment), the early or global relative myocardial enhancement (gRE) and the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), which represents irreversibly injured myocardium, are more specific parameters. All MRI parameters demonstrate the best accuracy in infarct-like acute myocarditis, whereas in chronic myocarditis sensitivity and specificity are less accurate. Therefore, a multisequential (at least two out of three parameters are positive) approach is recommended. The assessment of the value of newer, more quantitative MRI sequences, such as T1 and T2-mapping is still under investigation. (orig.) [de

  18. MRI in gout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, G.; Ullrich, R.; Trattnig, S.; Dominkus, M.; Morscher, M.; Aringer, M.; Imhof, H.

    1996-01-01

    The appearance of gouty tophus in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is characteristic. On T1- and T2-weighted SE images, the signal intensity of tophaceous lesions is similar to that of muscles. According to the histology, T2-weighted SE images demonstrate extremely hyperintense signals, which reflect the high protein content in the amorpheous center of the tophus. The microscopic urate crystals deposited there have no MRI signal and are of no further diagnostic impact. Vascularized granulation tissue surrounding the tophus center enhance after intervenous application of contrast agents (Gadolinium). The inflammed tophus is associated with local edema, causing high signal intensity. MRI is superior to plain radiography for early detection of intraosseous tophi. Involvement of anatomical structures such as ligaments and tendons can be evaluated sufficiently. For peripheral joints, axial slice orientation is most helpful. (orig.) [de

  19. MRI of oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, N.A., E-mail: ahmad77chinar@gmail.co [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India); Robbani, I.; Kosar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar (India)

    2011-02-15

    Oriental cholangiohepatitis (OCH) also called recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is characterized by intrahepatic duct calculi, strictures, and recurrent infections. In turn cholangitis can result in multiple hepatic abscesses, further biliary strictures, and in severe cases, progressive hepatic parenchymal destruction, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and conventional T1-weighted (T1 W) and T2-weighted (T2 W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described in patients with OCH. MRCP findings include duct dilation, strictures, and calculi. MRCP can help to localize the diseased ducts and determine the severity of involvement. T1 and T2 W sequences reveal the parenchymal changes of atrophy, abscess formation, and portal hypertension in addition to calculi. Post-treatment changes are also well depicted using MRI. Comprehensive, non-invasive assessment is achieved by using conventional MRI and MRCP in OCH providing a roadmap for endoscopic or surgical management.

  20. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bo Bae; Shu, Kwang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Background Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported. Purpose To investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. Material and Methods We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were recorded retrospectively using the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Immunohistochemical studies of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and C-erbB-2 were performed. Results The most common mammographic findings were oval shape (37%), circumscribed margin (59%), and high density (74%). The most common sonogfindings were irregular shape (59.4%), microlobulated margin (41%), complex echogenicity (81%), parallel orientation (97%), and posterior acoustic enhancement (50%). Axillary lymph node metastases were noted for 25% of the sonographic examinations. On MRI, the most common findings of margin and shape were irregularity (57% and 52.4%, respectively). High signal intensity was the most common finding on T2-weighted images (57%). Immunohistochemical profile was negative for ER (91%, 29/32) and PR (81%, 26/32). Conclusion Metaplastic carcinomas might display more benign features and less axillary lymph node metastasis than IDC. High signal intensity on T2 MRI images and hormone receptor negativity would be helpful in differentiating this tumor from other breast cancers

  1. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  2. MRI of vaginal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, C.; Balogun, M.; Ganesan, R.; Olliff, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the assessment of suspected vaginal pathology. This pictorial review demonstrates the MRI features and some of the histopathological findings of a variety of vaginal conditions. These may be congenital (total vaginal agenesis, partial vaginal agenesis, longitudinal vaginal septum, transverse vaginal septum), benign (Bartholin's cyst, diffuse vaginal inflammation, invasive endometriosis, ureterovaginal fistula, post-surgical appearances with the formation of a neovagina and adhesions) or malignant, usually due to extension or recurrence from another pelvic malignancy. In this paper, examples of the above are described and illustrated together with examples of the much rarer primary vaginal malignancies

  3. MRI of vaginal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, C. [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: carolina.lopez@bwhct.nhs.uk; Balogun, M. [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ganesan, R. [Department of Histopathology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Olliff, J.F. [University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the assessment of suspected vaginal pathology. This pictorial review demonstrates the MRI features and some of the histopathological findings of a variety of vaginal conditions. These may be congenital (total vaginal agenesis, partial vaginal agenesis, longitudinal vaginal septum, transverse vaginal septum), benign (Bartholin's cyst, diffuse vaginal inflammation, invasive endometriosis, ureterovaginal fistula, post-surgical appearances with the formation of a neovagina and adhesions) or malignant, usually due to extension or recurrence from another pelvic malignancy. In this paper, examples of the above are described and illustrated together with examples of the much rarer primary vaginal malignancies.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a few types. ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... interfere with the magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in ... does the equipment look like? The traditional MRI unit is a large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ... tomography (CT) scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses re-align hydrogen atoms that ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... women should not have this exam in the first three to four months of pregnancy unless the ... not to have an MRI exam during the first trimester unless medically necessary. MRI may not always ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... room. In addition to affecting the MRI images, these objects can become projectiles within the MRI scanner ... may cause you and/or others nearby harm. These items include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ...

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... contrast for an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will ... claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams. Older open ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of many conditions, including tumors. MRI enables the ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... used in MRI exams is less likely to produce an allergic reaction than the iodine-based contrast ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... used in tattoos may contain iron and could heat up during an MRI scan, but this is ... imaging based on the electrical activity of the heart, such as electrocardiography (EKG). MRI generally is not ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ... than 30 minutes from the onset of symptoms. Risks The MRI examination poses almost no risk to ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams. Older open MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be performed using ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... MRI examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If ... tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium contrast for an MRI. If you ... of time after placement (usually six weeks) before being safe for MRI examinations. Examples include but are ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of many conditions, including tumors. ... information. MRI can detect stroke at a very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules ...

  5. Quality assurance in functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Thomas T; Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has ben- efited greatly from improvements in MRI hardware and software. At the same time, fMRI researchers have pushed the technical limits of MRI systems and greatly in- fluenced the development of state-of-the-art systems...... consistent data throughout the course of a study, and consistent stability across time and sites is needed to allow data from different time periods or acquisition sites to be optimally integrated....

  6. Less Confusion in Diffusion MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tax, CMW

    2016-01-01

    With its unique ability to investigate tissue architecture and microstructure in vivo, diffusion MRI (dMRI) has gained tremendous interest and the society has been continuously triggered to develop novel dMRI image analysis approaches. With the overwhelming amount of strategies currently available

  7. MRI in subacute combined degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, S.; Naritomi, H.; Sawada, T.

    1994-01-01

    Neuropathological studies show the main lesions to be in the posterior and lateral columns. Recent progress in MRI has made it possible to clarify the lesions of many neutrological diseases. However, there has only been one report of the lesions of SCD shown definitely on MRI. We report a typical case of the disease, with lesions shown clearly on MRI. (orig./MG)

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... to prepare your child for the sedation or anesthesia. Alternatively, certain pediatric facilities have child life personnel who can work with younger children to help avoid the need for sedation or anesthesia. They prepare the children for MRI by showing ...

  9. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...

  10. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... types of clips used for brain aneurysms some types of metal coils placed within blood vessels nearly all cardiac defibrillators and pacemakers You ... a preferred imaging test. MR imaging can assess blood flow without ... the opening of certain types of MRI machines. The presence of an implant ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of MRI ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... or anesthesia. Alternatively, certain pediatric facilities have child life personnel who can work with younger children to help avoid the need ... MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be ... work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... have allergies of any kind, such as an allergy to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. The contrast material most commonly used for an MRI exam contains a metal ... in patients with iodine contrast allergy. It is far less common for a patient ...

  15. Acute epiglottitis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozanne, A.; Marsot-Dupuch, K.; Ducreux, D.; Lasjaunias, P.; Meyer, B.

    2004-01-01

    We report the MRI findings in an adult with epiglottitis. There was thickening of the epiglottis and left aryepiglottic fold. Management of this life-threatening condition requires imaging only when the diagnosis is uncertain or when an abscess or other complication is suspected. (orig.)

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... a mild sedative prior to your scheduled examination. Infants and young children usually require sedation or anesthesia to complete an MRI exam without moving. Whether a child requires sedation depends on the child's age, intellectual development and the type of exam. Moderate and conscious ...

  17. Hippocampal malrotation: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez, Paulina; Martinez, Adriana; Romero, Carlos; Lopez, Miriam; Zaffaroni, Alejandra; Lopez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the common features of hippocampus malrotation in patients with epilepsy by volumetric and high-resolution MRI. Material and methods: MRI study was performed in 5 patients (2 females and 3 males) ages ranged between 6-41 years (average: 25 years), all of them with epilepsy diagnosis. MRI was performed with a 1.5 T (GE Signa). The epilepsy protocol include sagittal T1, axial T1 and T2, coronal FLAIR, coronal T2 (high-resolution) and volumetric 3D SPGR IR 1.5 mm thick sequences. Results: The common features found in all patients were: a) Incomplete inversion and round configuration of the hippocampus; b) Unilateral affectation; c) Variable affectation of the hippocampus; d) Normal signal intensity; e) Modification of the inner structure of the hippocampus; f) Abnormal angularity of the collateral sulcus; g) Abnormal position and size of the fornix; h) Normal size of the temporal lobe; and i) Enlargement of the temporal horn with particular configuration. Conclusion: Hippocampus malrotation is a malformation that should be included in the differential diagnosis of the epilepsy patients. MRI provides accurate information for the diagnosis. (author)

  18. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... Imaging (MRI) - Chest Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... Whether a child requires sedation depends on the child's age, intellectual development and the type of exam. Moderate and conscious ... intercom. Many MRI centers allow a friend or parent to stay in the room as long as they are also ... will be given appropriately sized earplugs or headphones ...

  20. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR ... Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Chest Sponsored ...