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Sample records for bi-polar signal recorded

  1. Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Hamedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Facial expression recognition has been improved recently and it has become a significant issue in diagnostic and medical fields, particularly in the areas of assistive technology and rehabilitation. Apart from their usefulness, there are some problems in their applications like peripheral conditions, lightening, contrast and quality of video and images. Approach: Facial Action Coding System (FACS and some other methods based on images or videos were applied. This study proposed two methods for recognizing 8 different facial expressions such as natural (rest, happiness in three conditions, anger, rage, gesturing ‘a’ like in apple word and gesturing no by pulling up the eyebrows based on Three-channels in Bi-polar configuration by SEMG. Raw signals were processed in three main steps (filtration, feature extraction and active features selection sequentially. Processed data was fed into Support Vector Machine and Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for being classified into 8 facial expression groups. Results: 91.8 and 80.4% recognition ratio had been achieved for FCM and SVM respectively. Conclusion: The confirmed enough accuracy and power in this field of study and FCM showed its better ability and performance in comparison with SVM. It’s expected that in near future, new approaches in the frequency bandwidth of each facial gesture will provide better results.

  2. Statistical analysis of molecular signal recording.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua I Glaser

    Full Text Available A molecular device that records time-varying signals would enable new approaches in neuroscience. We have recently proposed such a device, termed a "molecular ticker tape", in which an engineered DNA polymerase (DNAP writes time-varying signals into DNA in the form of nucleotide misincorporation patterns. Here, we define a theoretical framework quantifying the expected capabilities of molecular ticker tapes as a function of experimental parameters. We present a decoding algorithm for estimating time-dependent input signals, and DNAP kinetic parameters, directly from misincorporation rates as determined by sequencing. We explore the requirements for accurate signal decoding, particularly the constraints on (1 the polymerase biochemical parameters, and (2 the amplitude, temporal resolution, and duration of the time-varying input signals. Our results suggest that molecular recording devices with kinetic properties similar to natural polymerases could be used to perform experiments in which neural activity is compared across several experimental conditions, and that devices engineered by combining favorable biochemical properties from multiple known polymerases could potentially measure faster phenomena such as slow synchronization of neuronal oscillations. Sophisticated engineering of DNAPs is likely required to achieve molecular recording of neuronal activity with single-spike temporal resolution over experimentally relevant timescales.

  3. Opinion formation and bi-polarization with biased assimilation and homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guiyuan; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    An agent-based model incorporating biased assimilation is proposed in this paper to investigate opinion dynamics over a connected social network. The opinion of each agent is represented by a sequence of arguments, and it evolves through the interactions between agents. The probability that one agent chooses another to communicate depends on the similarity of their opinions. During every interaction, interacting agents exchange the argument randomly selected from the corresponding arguments sequence. Theoretical analysis reveals that this model results in consensus on either extreme positive opinion or extreme negative opinion, or generates bi-polarization. Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the dynamics of the model over different networks. Results are obtained in terms of the effect of homophily, biased assimilation and network topology on opinion formation.

  4. Coding and signal processing for magnetic recording systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vasic, Bane

    2004-01-01

    RECORDING SYSTEMSA BriefHistory of Magnetic Storage, Dean PalmerPhysics of Longitudinal and Perpendicular Recording, Hong Zhou, Tom Roscamp, Roy Gustafson, Eric Boernern, and Roy ChantrellThe Physics of Optical Recording, William A. Challener and Terry W. McDanielHead Design Techniques for Recording Devices, Robert E. RottmayerCOMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION THEORY OF MAGNETIC RECORDING CHANNELSModeling the Recording Channel, Jaekyun MoonSignal and Noise Generation for Magnetic Recording Channel Simulations, Xueshi Yang and Erozan M. KurtasStatistical Analysis of Digital Signals and Systems, Dra

  5. Atmospheric Point Discharge Currents measured with a bi-polar logarithmic current amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlton, G.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.

    2013-09-01

    Point Discharge Currents (PDC) flow in conductors exposed to the atmosphere when strong ambient electric fields cause breakdown of air. This can occur because of field intensification around a sharp point. In some cases point discharge can even become visible, known as St Elmo's fire, one of the longest recognized phenomena in atmospheric electricity. Due to the wide range of magnitudes of currents of both polarities encountered in measuring PDCs, a bipolar logarithmic current amplifier is used here for atmospheric investigations. During an installation at the Reading Atmospheric observatory, it was able to detect PDC of magnitude 0.5μA during periods of strong electric fields, in disturbed weather. Two useful attributes for planetary applications have been suggested by these experiments. Firstly, it is sufficiently compact and light-weight that it seems appropriate for planetary exploration of the electrical properties of atmospheres. Secondly its wide bi polar logarithmic range (~ pA to uA) makes it robust enough to provide useful data despite the environment in which it is deployed being poorly quantified.

  6. Detecting Urban Warming Signals in Climate Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yuting; JIA Gensuo; HU Yonghong; ZHOU Zijiang

    2013-01-01

    Determining whether air temperatures recorded at meteorological stations have been contaminated by the urbanization process is still a controversial issue at the global scale.With support of historical remote sensing data,this study examined the impacts of urban expansion on the trends of air temperature at 69 meteorological stations in Beijing,Tianjin,and Hebei Province over the last three decades.There were significant positive relations between the two factors at all stations.Stronger warming was detected at the meteorological stations that experienced greater urbanization,i.e.,those with a higher urbanization rate.While the total urban area affects the absolute temperature values,the change of the urban area (urbanization rate) likely affects the temperature trend.Increases of approximately 10% in urban area around the meteorological stations likely contributed to the 0.13℃ rise in air temperature records in addition to regional climate warming.This study also provides a new approach to selecting reference stations based on remotely sensed urban fractions.Generally,the urbanization-induced warming contributed to approximately 44.1% of the overall warming trends in the plain region of study area during the past 30 years,and the regional climate warming was 0.30℃ (10 yr)-1 in the last three decades.

  7. A Significant Population Signal in Iranian Temperature Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouraseni Sen Roy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We assembled daily maximum and minimum temperature records for 31 stations throughout Iran over the period 1961–2010. As with many other areas of the world, we found that both the maximum and minimum temperatures were increasing overall with the minimum temperatures increasing twice as fast as the maximum temperatures. We gathered population data for the stations near the beginning and end of the temperature records and found in all seasons and for both the maximum and minimum temperatures the magnitude of population growth positively influenced the temperature trends. However, unlike so many other studies, we found the strongest population growth signal in the winter for the maximum temperatures. We found evidence that this winter-season population-temperature signal is related snow cover. Our results illustrate that any number of processes are involved in explaining trends in historical maximum and minimum temperature records.

  8. The circumstellar disk, envelope, and bi-polar outflow of the Massive Young Stellar Object W33A

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Ben; Hoare, Melvin G; Oudmaijer, Rene D; de Wit, Willem-Jan

    2009-01-01

    The Young Stellar Object (YSO) W33A is one of the best known examples of a massive star still in the process of forming. Here we present Gemini North ALTAIR/NIFS laser-guide star adaptive-optics assisted K-band integral-field spectroscopy of W33A and its inner reflection nebula. In our data we make the first detections of a rotationally-flattened outer envelope and fast bi-polar jet of a massive YSO at near-infrared wavelengths. The predominant spectral features observed are Br-gamma, H_2, and a combination of emission and absorption from CO gas. We perform a 3-D spectro-astrometric analysis of the line emission, the first study of its kind. We find that the object's Br-gamma emission reveals evidence for a fast bi-polar jet on sub-milliarcsecond scales, which is aligned with the larger-scale outflow. The hybrid CO features can be explained as a combination of hot CO emission arising in a disk close to the central star, while cold CO absorption originates in the cooler outer envelope. Kinematic analysis of th...

  9. Bluetooth Communication Interface for EEG Signal Recording in Hyperbaric Chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastena, Lucio; Formaggio, Emanuela; Faralli, Fabio; Melucci, Massimo; Rossi, Marco; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Ricciardi, Lucio; Storti, Silvia F

    2015-07-01

    Recording biological signals inside a hyperbaric chamber poses technical challenges (the steel walls enclosing it greatly attenuate or completely block the signals as in a Faraday cage), practical (lengthy cables creating eddy currents), and safety (sparks hazard from power supply to the electronic apparatus inside the chamber) which can be overcome with new wireless technologies. In this technical report we present the design and implementation of a Bluetooth system for electroencephalographic (EEG) recording inside a hyperbaric chamber and describe the feasibility of EEG signal transmission outside the chamber. Differently from older systems, this technology allows the online recording of amplified signals, without interference from eddy currents. In an application of this technology, we measured EEG activity in professional divers under three experimental conditions in a hyperbaric chamber to determine how oxygen, assumed at a constant hyperbaric pressure of 2.8 ATA , affects the bioelectrical activity. The EEG spectral power estimated by fast Fourier transform and the cortical sources of the EEG rhythms estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic analysis were analyzed in three different EEG acquisitions: breathing air at sea level; breathing oxygen at a simulated depth of 18 msw, and breathing air at sea level after decompression.

  10. A digitally assisted, signal folding neural recording amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Basu, Arindam; Liu, Lei; Zou, Xiaodan; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Dawe, Gavin Stewart; Je, Minkyu

    2014-08-01

    A novel signal folding and reconstruction scheme for neural recording applications that exploits the 1/f(n) characteristics of neural signals is described in this paper. The amplified output is 'folded' into a predefined range of voltages by using comparison and reset circuits along with the core amplifier. After this output signal is digitized and transmitted, a reconstruction algorithm can be applied in the digital domain to recover the amplified signal from the folded waveform. This scheme enables the use of an analog-to-digital convertor with less number of bits for the same effective dynamic range. It also reduces the transmission data rate of the recording chip. Both of these features allow power and area savings at the system level. Other advantages of the proposed topology are increased reliability due to the removal of pseudo-resistors, lower harmonic distortion and low-voltage operation. An analysis of the reconstruction error introduced by this scheme is presented along with a behavioral model to provide a quick estimate of the post reconstruction dynamic range. Measurement results from two different core amplifier designs in 65 nm and 180 nm CMOS processes are presented to prove the generality of the proposed scheme in the neural recording applications. Operating from a 1 V power supply, the amplifier in 180 nm CMOS has a gain of 54.2 dB, bandwidth of 5.7 kHz, input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms and power dissipation of 2.52 μW leading to a NEF of 3.1 in spike band. It exhibits a dynamic range of 66 dB and maximum SNDR of 43 dB in LFP band. It also reduces system level power (by reducing the number of bits in the ADC by 2) as well as data rate to 80% of a conventional design. In vivo measurements validate the ability of this amplifier to simultaneously record spike and LFP signals.

  11. Untangling climatic and autogenic signals in peat records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J.; Baird, Andrew J.; Young, Dylan M.; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2016-04-01

    Raised bogs contain potentially valuable information about Holocene climate change. However, autogenic processes may disconnect peatland hydrological behaviour from climate, and overwrite and degrade climatic signals in peat records. How can genuine climate signals be separated from autogenic changes? What level of detail of climatic information should we expect to be able to recover from peat-based reconstructions? We used an updated version of the DigiBog model to simulate peatland development and response to reconstructed Holocene rainfall and temperature reconstructions. The model represents key processes that are influential in peatland development and climate signal preservation, and includes a network of feedbacks between peat accumulation, decomposition, hydraulic structure and hydrological processes. It also incorporates the effects of temperature upon evapotranspiration, plant (litter) productivity and peat decomposition. Negative feedbacks in the model cause simulated water-table depths and peat humification records to exhibit homeostatic recovery from prescribed changes in rainfall, chiefly through changes in drainage. However, the simulated bogs show less resilience to changes in temperature, which cause lasting alterations to peatland structure and function and may therefore be more readily detectable in peat records. The network of feedbacks represented in DigiBog also provide both high- and low-pass filters for climatic information, meaning that the fidelity with which climate signals are preserved in simulated peatlands is determined by both the magnitude and the rate of climate change. Large-magnitude climatic events of an intermediate frequency (i.e., multi-decadal to centennial) are best preserved in the simulated bogs. We found that simulated humification records are further degraded by a phenomenon known as secondary decomposition. Decomposition signals are consistently offset from the climatic events that generate them, and decomposition

  12. Microcontroller-based wireless recorder for biomedical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C-N; Hsu, H-W; Jang, J-K; Rau, C-L; Jaw, F-S

    2005-01-01

    A portable multichannel system is described for the recording of biomedical signals wirelessly. Instead of using the conversional time-division analog-modulation method, the technique of digital multiplexing was applied to increase the number of signal channels to 4. Detailed design considerations and functional allocation of the system is discussed. The frontend unit was modularly designed to condition the input signal in an optimal manner. Then, the microcontroller handled the tasks of data conversion, wireless transmission, as well as providing the ability of simple preprocessing such as waveform averaging or rectification. The low-power nature of this microcontroller affords the benefit of battery operation and hence, patient isolation of the system. Finally, a single-chip receiver, which compatible with the RF transmitter of the microcontroller, was used to implement a compact interface with the host computer. An application of this portable recorder for low-back pain studies is shown. This device can simultaneously record one ECG and two surface EMG wirelessly, thus, is helpful in relieving patients' anxiety devising clinical measurement. Such an approach, microcontroller-based wireless measurement, could be an important trend for biomedical instrumentation and we help that this paper could be useful for other colleagues.

  13. The tidal signal in inverted echo-sounder records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, D. E.

    1982-06-01

    Four IES records of several months duration from the western equatorial Atlantic are analysed with principal interest in their tidal content. Spectral noise level in the tidal bands is some two orders of magnitude higher than in comparable sea-level records, but the main constituents of both diurnal and semi-diurnal tides stand out with usable coherence with the tidal potential. A mid-ocean record, FLAVIA, gives amplitudes and phases that correspond closely with the surface tide, but three other records in a region of disturbed bathymetry near the continental shelf give amplitudes and phases which differ from the expected surface effect, indicating relatively strong coherent internal tides in the region as well as an evident incoherent tidal signal. Two of the latter records also show second-harmonic distortion, which is characteristic of internal tides, in the present case corresponding to a steeppened forward face of the internal wave. Theory, following the analysis of LONG (1972 Tellus, 24, 88-89), suggests that this form of wave steepening is due to the steady shear in the surface layer. The physical theory of acoustic time-delay in vertical transmission through long internal waves with and without surface elevation is analysed quantitatively. In the region studied a pure internal tide of amplitude 10 m at 200-m depth would produce the observed changes in tidal signal. Wave amplitudes resulting from tidal flow over a 2.4-km high ridge, computed from the linear theory of ZEILON (1912 Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handligar, 47, 1-45), are only about 1.2 m maximum, but the theory does suggest a likely mechanism for producing coherent internal tidal motion, possibly by invoking the shelf edge.

  14. An implantable CMOS signal conditioning system for recording nerve signals with cuff electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Konstantinos; Lehmann, Torsten

    2000-01-01

    We propose a system architecture for recording nerve signals with cuff electrodes and develop the key component in this system, the small-input, low-noise, low-power, high-gain amplifier. The amplifier is implemented using a mixture of weak- and strong-inversion transistors and a special off...

  15. Conductive polymer combined silk fiber bundle for bioelectrical signal recording.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Tsukada

    Full Text Available Electrode materials for recording biomedical signals, such as electrocardiography (ECG, electroencephalography (EEG and evoked potentials data, are expected to be soft, hydrophilic and electroconductive to minimize the stress imposed on living tissue, especially during long-term monitoring. We have developed and characterized string-shaped electrodes made from conductive polymer with silk fiber bundles (thread, which offer a new biocompatible stress free interface with living tissue in both wet and dry conditions.An electroconductive polyelectrolyte, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT-PSS was electrochemically combined with silk thread made from natural Bombyx mori. The polymer composite 280 µm thread exhibited a conductivity of 0.00117 S/cm (which corresponds to a DC resistance of 2.62 Mohm/cm. The addition of glycerol to the PEDOT-PSS silk thread improved the conductivity to 0.102 S/cm (20.6 kohm/cm. The wettability of PEDOT-PSS was controlled with glycerol, which improved its durability in water and washing cycles. The glycerol treated PEDOT-PSS silk thread showed a tensile strength of 1000 cN in both wet and dry states. Without using any electrolytes, pastes or solutions, the thread directly collects electrical signals from living tissue and transmits them through metal cables. ECG, EEG, and sensory evoked potential (SEP signals were recorded from experimental animals by using this thread placed on the skin. PEDOT-PSS silk glycerol composite thread offers a new class of biocompatible electrodes in the field of biomedical and health promotion that does not induce stress in the subjects.

  16. Low frequency signals analysis from broadband seismometers records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chin

    2016-04-01

    Broadband seismometers record signals over a wide frequency band, in which the high-frequency background noise is usually associated with human activities, such as cars, trains and factory-related activities. Meanwhile, the low-frequency signals are generally linked to the microseisms, atmospheric phenomena and oceanic wave movement. In this study, we selected the broadband seismometer data recorded during the pass of the typhoons with different moving paths, such as Doksuri in 2012, Trami and Kong-Rey in 2013, Hagibis and Matmo in 2014. By comparing the broadband seismic data, the meteorological information, and the marine conditions, we attempt to understand the effect of the meteorological conditions on the low-frequency noise. The result shows that the broadband station located along the southwestern coast of Taiwan usually have relatively higher background noise value, while the inland stations were characterized by lower noise energy. This rapid decay of the noise energy with distance from the coastline suggest that the low frequency noise could be correlated with the oceanic waves. In addition, the noise energy level increases when the distance from the typhoon and the station decreases. The enhanced frequency range is between 0.1~0.3 Hz, which is consistent with the effect caused by the interference of oceanic waves as suggested by the previous studies. This observation indicates that when the pass of typhoon may reinforce the interaction of oceanic waves and caused some influence on the seismic records. The positive correlation between the significant wave height and the noise energy could also give evidence to this observation. However, we found that the noise energy is not necessarily the strongest when the distance from typhoon and the station is the shortest. This phenomenon seems to be related to the typhoon path. When the typhoon track is perpendicular to the coastline, the change of noise energy is generally more significantly; whereas less energy

  17. Fetal QRS extraction from abdominal recordings via model-based signal processing and intelligent signal merging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanahi, Masoumeh; Borkholder, David A

    2014-08-01

    Noninvasive fetal ECG (fECG) monitoring has potential applications in diagnosing congenital heart diseases in a timely manner and assisting clinicians to make more appropriate decisions during labor. However, despite advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques, the analysis of fECG signals has still remained in its preliminary stages. In this work, we describe an algorithm to automatically locate QRS complexes in noninvasive fECG signals obtained from a set of four electrodes placed on the mother's abdomen. The algorithm is based on an iterative decomposition of the maternal and fetal subspaces and filtering of the maternal ECG (mECG) components from the fECG recordings. Once the maternal components are removed, a novel merging technique is applied to merge the signals and detect the fetal QRS (fQRS) complexes. The algorithm was trained and tested on the fECG datasets provided by the PhysioNet/CinC challenge 2013. The final results indicate that the algorithm is able to detect fetal peaks for a variety of signals with different morphologies and strength levels encountered in clinical practice.

  18. Large Bi-Polar Signature in a Perpendicular Electric Field of Two-Dimensional Electrostatic Solitary Waves Associated with Magnetic Reconnection: Statistics and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-You; Zhang, Shi-Feng; Deng, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Hong

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) with a large perpendicular component which is a bi-polar waveform structure are observed in the boundary layer within the magnetic reconnection diffusion region in the near-Earth magnetotail. Such ESWs are called two-dimensional ESWs. A Singe-reconnection-based-statistical study of two-dimensional ESWs shows that: (1) ESWs can be continuously observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) associated with the magnetic reconnection diffusion region, and their amplitude ranges are mainly from several tens to hundreds of μV/m (2) both one-dimension-like ESWs (very small magnitude on E⊥) and two-dimension-like ESWs (large magnitude on E⊥, which are even comparable to that in the E‖) are observed within a small time interval; (3) within the observation time spans, more than 61% of ESWs are regarded as two-dimensional ESWs for the I2D > 20%. We discuss the bi-polar structure in E⊥. The observation of ESWs with a large bi-polar structure in the perpendicular electric field gives evidence that the unique waveform differs from previous understanding from observations and simulations which suggests that it should be a uni-polar waveform structure in the E⊥ of ESWs.

  19. Processor for high-density digital tape-recorded signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashlock, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Linear filter and detection theory can bear on problem of reconstructing recorded bit stream. Problem can be taken from realm of nonlinear problems even though basic record process is still recognized as highly nonlinear. Digital tape recorder can be modeled as particular type of linear communication channel with intersymbol interference.

  20. Extracting a climate signal from 169 glacier records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2005-01-01

    I constructed a temperature history for different parts of the world from 169 glacier length records. Using a first-order theory of glacier dynamics, I related changes in glacier length to changes in temperature. The derived temperature histories are fully independent of proxy and instrumental data

  1. ANALYSIS OF VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS RECORDED IN THE PASSENGER LIFT CABIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydło

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of private tests is presented in the article. The applicable tests refer to accelerations, the level of the sound pressure as well as to the sound power emitted by the passenger lift cabin at different technical conditions of the lift. For a group of lifting devices the accelerations were tested at three axes with the use of an accelerometer. The accelerometer was placed in the central part of the cabin with simultaneous measurement of the acoustic parameters with the sound analyzer equipped with the sound volume double microphone probe. The attempt was made to determine the impact of the frame - cabin system construction as well as the lift technical condition on the recorded parameters. It can allow to establish the limit values of the lift structure parameters under which a rapid drop of comfort takes place while travelling in the lift as well as to indicate those construction elements the modification of which would affect the improvement of the operation noiselessness.

  2. A Active Micromachined Scalp Electrode Array for Eeg Signal Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Taheri, Babak

    ) cognitive event-related potentials. The performance of the dry electrode compared favorably with that of the standard wet Ag/AgCl electrodes in terms of skin preparation, no gel requirements (dry), and higher signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. A Micromachined SiO2/Silicon Probe for Neural Signal Recordings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Xiao-Hong; PEI Wei-Hua; ZHANG Ruo-Xin; LU Lin; CHEN Hong-Da

    2006-01-01

    @@ The development of an implantable five channel microelectrode array is presented for neural signal recordings.The detailed fabrication process is outlined with four masks used. The SEM images show that the probe shank is 1.2 mm long, 100 μm wide and 30 μm thick with the recording sites spaced 200 μm apart for good signal isolation.The plot of the single recording site impedance versus frequency is shown by test in vitro and the impedance declines with the increasing frequency. Experiment in vivo using this probe is under way.

  4. The INGV's new OBS/H: Analysis of the signals recorded at the Marsili submarine volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Luzio, Dario; Mangano, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    The ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone deployed on the flat top of the Marsili submarine volcano (790 m deep) by the Gibilmanna OBS Lab (CNT-INGV) from 12th to 21st July, 2006, recorded more than 1000 transient seismic signals. Nineteen of these signals were associated with tectonic earthquakes: 1 teleseismic, 8 regional (located by INGV) and 10 small local seismic events (non located earthquakes). The regional events were used to determine sensor orientation. By comparing the signals recorded with typical volcanic seismic activity, we were able to group all the other signals into three categories: 817 volcano-tectonic type B (VT-B) events, 159 occurrences of high frequency tremor (HFT) and 32 short duration events (SDE). Small-magnitude VT-B swarms, having a frequency band of 2-6 Hz and a mean length of about 30 s, were almost all recorded during the first 7 days. During the last 2 days, the OBS/H mainly recorded HFT events with frequencies of over 40 Hz and of a few minutes in length. Signals that have similar features in frequency and time domain are generally associated with hydrothermal activity. During the last two days a signal was recorded that had a frequency content similar to that of VT-B events was recorded. It will be referred to as continuous volcanic tremor (CVT). The SDE signals, characterized by a quasi-monochromatic waveform and having an exponential decaying envelope, may have been generated by oscillations of resonant bodies excited by magmatic or hydrothermal activity. By applying polarization and parametric spectral analyses, we inferred that the VT-B were probably multi P-phase events having shallow sources that were situated in narrow azimuthal windows in relation to the positions of the OBS/H. The parametric spectral analysis of the SDE signals allowed us to determine their dominant complex frequencies with high accuracy; these frequencies are distributed in two distinct clusters on the complex plane.

  5. Anomalous Signals Prior to Wenchuan Earthquake Detected by Superconducting Gravimeter and Broadband Seismometers Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Shen; Dijin Wang; Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Using 1 Hz sampling records at one superconducting gravimeter (SG) station and 11 broadband seismometer stations,we found anomalous signals prior to the 2008 Wenchuan(汶川)earthquake event.The tides are removed from the original SG records to obtain the gravity residuals.Applying the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and the wavelet analysis to the SG gravity residuals leads to time-frequency spectra,which suggests that there is an anomalous signal series around 39 h prior to the event.The period and the magnitude of the anomalous signal series are about 8 s and 3×10-8 m/s2 (3 μGal),respectively.In another aspect,applying HHT analysis technique to 11 records at broadband seismometer stations shows that most of them contain anomalous signals prior to the Wenchuan event,and the marginal spectra of 8 inland stations show an apparent characteristic of double peaks in anomalous days compared to the only one peak of the marginal spectra in quiet days.Preliminary investigations suggest that the anomalous signals prior to the earthquake are closely related to the low-frequency earthquake (LFE).We concluded that the SG data as well as the broadband seismometers records might be significant information sources in detecting the anomalous signals prior to large earthquakes.

  6. Development of photodetectors for recording lidar signals in the photon counting and analog modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesar, A. S.; Chaikovskii, A. P.; Denisov, S. V.; Korol, M. M.; Osipenko, F. P.; Balin, Yu. S.; Kokhanenko, G. P.; Penner, I. E.; Novoselov, M. M.

    2015-11-01

    A number of unified photodetector modules providing for recording lidar signals in the wavelength range from 0.26 to 1.6 μm in the modes of analog signals and photon counting are developed on the basis of photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes. The software is created for control of the photodetector modules, as well as the test bench for measuring their characteristics is designed.

  7. Development of a portable multi-channel system for plant physiological signal recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical signals can reflect physiological state of organs or tissues in plants and have a significant potential value in research of plant stress tolerance. In order to study the relationship between environment factors and electrical signals in plant, a portable multi-channel physiological signal acquisition system which relevant in plant physiology research was developed. Environment parameters and electrical signals can be measured in different channels by the acquisition system simultaneously and the measurement data will be displayed in an embedded integrated touch screen which is the system processing core. The system was validated to be stable and reliable after the calibration and repeated experiments of recording electrical signals in Helianthus annuus L.

  8. Long recording sequences: how to track the intra-individual variability of acoustic signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lengagne

    Full Text Available Recently developed acoustic technologies - like automatic recording units - allow the recording of long sequences in natural environments. These devices are used for biodiversity survey but they could also help researchers to estimate global signal variability at various (individual, population, species scales. While sexually-selected signals are expected to show a low intra-individual variability at relatively short time scale, this variability has never been estimated so far. Yet, measuring signal variability in controlled conditions should prove useful to understand sexual selection processes and should help design acoustic sampling schedules and to analyse long call recordings. We here use the overall call production of 36 male treefrogs (Hyla arborea during one night to evaluate within-individual variability in call dominant frequency and to test the efficiency of different sampling methods at capturing such variability. Our results confirm that using low number of calls underestimates call dominant frequency variation of about 35% in the tree frog and suggest that the assessment of this variability is better by using 2 or 3 short and well-distributed records than by using samples made of consecutive calls. Hence, 3 well-distributed 2-minutes records (beginning, middle and end of the calling period are sufficient to capture on average all the nightly variability, whereas a sample of 10 000 consecutive calls captures only 86% of it. From a biological point of view, the call dominant frequency variability observed in H. arborea (116Hz on average but up to 470 Hz of variability during the course of the night for one male challenge about its reliability in mate quality assessment. Automatic acoustic recording units will provide long call sequences in the near future and it will be then possible to confirm such results on large samples recorded in more complex field conditions.

  9. Signals embedded in the OBS records, in light of Gabor Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T.; Wang, Y.; Chang, C.; Lee, C.

    2005-12-01

    Since the last decades, seismological survey has been expanded to marine area, with goal of making up the deficiency of seismogenic study outside the land. Although teleseismic data can resolve plate boundaries location and certain seismic parameters for great earthquake, local seismogenic frame can be merely emerged by the seismic network in situ. The Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS), therefore, is developing for this kind of purpose and becoming an important facility for seismological study. This work introduces a synthesized spectral method to analyze the seismograms recorded by 15 OBS deployed at the Okinawa trough in 14 days (Nov. 19 ~Dec. 2, 2003). Geological background of Okinawa trough is well known to correspond with the back-arc spreading in the regime of the Philippine Sea plate subducting northward beneath the Eurasia plate. As the complex affections at sea bottom, for instance, strong current, slope slumping, turbidite flow, and even sea animal attack, the OBS seismogram show a rather noisy sequence in comparison with the record on land. However, hundreds of tectonic earthquake can be extracted from such noisy records (done by Drs. Lin and Sibuet). Our job is to sort out the signals with the distinguishable sources by means of a systematically spectral analysis. The continuous wavelet transform and short-term Fourier transform, both taking Gaussian function as kernel, are synthesized as the Gabor transform in data process. The use of a limited Gaussian window along time axis with negligible low frequency error can largely enhance the stability of discrete Fourier spectrum. With a proper window factor selection, the Gabor transform can improve the resolution of spectrogram in time domain. We have converted the OBS records into spectrograms to detect the variation of signal causes. Up-to-date, some tremors signals and strong current oscillations have been told apart from these continuous records with varied frequency composing. We anticipate the further

  10. Remote heartbeat signal detection from visible spectrum recordings based on blind deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Moses, Sophia; Luthra, Megha; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.

    2016-05-01

    While recent advances have shown that it is possible to acquire a signal equivalent to the heartbeat from visual spectrum video recordings of the human skin, extracting the heartbeat's exact timing information from it, for the purpose of heart rate variability analysis, remains a challenge. In this paper, we explore two novel methods to estimate the remote cardiac signal peak positions, aiming at a close representation of the R-peaks of the ECG signal. The first method is based on curve fitting (CF) using a modified filtered least mean square (LMS) optimization and the second method is based on system estimation using blind deconvolution (BDC). To prove the efficacy of the developed algorithms, we compared results obtained with the ground truth (ECG) signal. Both methods achieved a low relative error between the peaks of the two signals. This work, performed under an IRB approved protocol, provides initial proof that blind deconvolution techniques can be used to estimate timing information of the cardiac signal closely correlated to the one obtained by traditional ECG. The results show promise for further development of a remote sensing of cardiac signals for the purpose of remote vital sign and stress detection for medical, security, military and civilian applications.

  11. Estimation of azimuth and slowness of teleseismic signals recorded by a local seismic network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳平; 潘常周

    2002-01-01

    A new method that is applicable to local seismic networks to estimate the azimuth and slowness of teleseismic signals is introduced in the paper. The method is based on the correlation between the arrival times and station positions. The analyzed results indicate that the azimuth and slowness of teleseismic signals can be accurately estimated by the method. Average errors for azimuth and slowness measurements obtained by this method using data of Xi(an Digital Telemetry Seismic Network are 2.0o and 0.34 s/(o), respectively. The conclusions drawn from this study indicate that this method may be very useful to interpret teleseismic records of local seismic networks.

  12. Eutrophication signals in the sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie

    2009-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the current status of eutrophication signals from the sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts in coastal waters, particularly of NW Europe. There is a dearth of the multi-decadal time series data from plankton needed to document eutrophication, and the cysts may provide an alternative source of information. Two different eutrophication signals have been described so far from cyst records: 1) from the Oslofjord, comprising a marked increase in total cyst concentrations (interpreted as probably reflecting increased phytoplankton productivity), with Lingulodinium polyedrum cysts accounting for most of the increase (interpreted as a species particularly benefiting from added nutrients from cultural eutrophication in late summer when nutrients otherwise may be limiting); and 2) the heterotroph signal, from several other Norwegian fjords and Tokyo Bay, Japan, involving both cases of increased cyst concentrations and others with no particular increase, but with a marked proportional increase in cysts of heterotrophic species (interpreted as reflecting increased diatoms and possibly other prey for the heterotrophic dinoflagellates and/or more unfavourable conditions for autotrophs, e.g. from shading). These signals should be used critically, and there is a particular need to distinguish between eutrophication signals and climate signals that may be co-occurring at a given time. Work by various authors has generally supported the concept of these cyst-based signals since they were first published, including both further records from cored sediments from other parts of the world and studies relating cyst distributions in surface sediments to gradients of pollution and nutrients from sewage discharge. Recent, unpublished work by Dale and Sætre, linked cyst signals in cored sediments to the timing of collapse of local fisheries at different times within the past fifty years in four fjord systems along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast

  13. Biomedical signal acquisition with streaming wireless communication for recording evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thie, Johnson; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart L

    2012-10-01

    Commercial electrophysiology systems for recording evoked potentials always connect patients to the acquisition unit via long wires. Wires guarantee timely transfer of signals for synchronization with the stimuli, but they are susceptible to electromagnetic and electrostatic interferences. Though wireless solutions are readily available (e.g. Bluetooth), they introduce high delay variability that will distort the evoked potential traces. We developed a complete wireless acquisition system with a fixed delay. The system supports up to 4 bipolar channels; each is amplified by 20,000× and digitized to 24 bits. The system incorporates the "driven-right-leg" circuit to lower the common noise. Data are continuously streamed using radio-frequency transmission operating at 915 MHz and then tagged with the stimulus SYNC signal at the receiver. The delay, noise level and transmission error rate were measured. Flash visual evoked potentials were recorded monocularly from both eyes of six adults with normal vision. The signals were acquired via wireless and wired transmissions simultaneously. The recording was repeated on some participants within 2 weeks. The delay was constant at 20 ms. The system noise was white and Gaussian (2 microvolts RMS). The transmission error rate was about one per million packets. The VEPs recorded with wireless transmission were consistent with those with wired transmission. The VEP amplitudes and shapes showed good intra-session and inter-session reproducibility and were consistent across eyes. The wireless acquisition system can reliably record visual evoked potentials. It has a constant delay of 20 ms and very low error rate.

  14. Nanocomposite polymeric electrolytes to record electrophysiological brain signals in prolonged, unconventional or extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Luisa Di Vona, M; Romagnoli, Paola; Narici, Livio; Acquaviva, Massimo; Carozzo, Simone; Marco, Stefano Di; Saturno, Moreno; Sannita, Walter G; Traversa, Enrico

    2006-09-01

    Chemically stable nanocomposite iono-conducting polymeric membranes (based on lithium salts and nanocrystalline oxide powders dispersed in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix) performed successfully in the recording of human brain responses to visual stimulation. Impedance was higher than that of conventional electrodes. However, the electrophysiological signals recorded by acid Al(2)O(3) and neutral Al(2)O(3) 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% nanocomposite gel electrolytes were comparable to those obtained with standard electrodes, even without preliminary skin cleaning and in the absence of gel electrolytes allowing better contact with and skin-electrode ionic conductance. The electrochemical and mechanical characteristics of these membranes make them fit for human and animal research, for clinical application (specifically in emergencies, prolonged electrophysiological recordings), or in unconventional or extreme conditions when fluid electrolytes are unsuitable (e.g., biomedical space research).

  15. Recording nerve signals in canine sciatic nerves with a flexible penetrating microelectrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Donghak; Cho, Sung-Joon; Lee, Byeong Han; Min, Joongkee; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Previously, we presented the fabrication and characterization of a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (FPMA) as a neural interface device. In the present study, we aim to prove the feasibility of the developed FPMA as a chronic intrafascicular recording tool for peripheral applications. Approach. For recording from the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, the FPMA was integrated with an interconnection cable and other parts that were designed to fit canine sciatic nerves. The uniformity of tip exposure and in vitro electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterized. The capability of the device to acquire in vivo electrophysiological signals was evaluated by implanting the FPMA assembly in canine sciatic nerves acutely as well as chronically for 4 weeks. We also examined the histology of implanted tissues to evaluate the damage caused by the device. Main results. Throughout recording sessions, we observed successful multi-channel recordings (up to 73% of viable electrode channels) of evoked afferent and spontaneous nerve unit spikes with high signal quality (SNR  >  4.9). Also, minor influences of the device implantation on the morphology of nerve tissues were found. Significance. The presented results demonstrate the viability of the developed FPMA device in the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, thereby bringing us a step closer to human applications. Furthermore, the obtained data provide a driving force toward a further study for device improvements to be used as a bidirectional neural interface in humans.

  16. Automatic Threshold Determination for a Local Approach of Change Detection in Long-Term Signal Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Mohamad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CUSUM (cumulative sum is a well-known method that can be used to detect changes in a signal when the parameters of this signal are known. This paper presents an adaptation of the CUSUM-based change detection algorithms to long-term signal recordings where the various hypotheses contained in the signal are unknown. The starting point of the work was the dynamic cumulative sum (DCS algorithm, previously developed for application to long-term electromyography (EMG recordings. DCS has been improved in two ways. The first was a new procedure to estimate the distribution parameters to ensure the respect of the detectability property. The second was the definition of two separate, automatically determined thresholds. One of them (lower threshold acted to stop the estimation process, the other one (upper threshold was applied to the detection function. The automatic determination of the thresholds was based on the Kullback-Leibler distance which gives information about the distance between the detected segments (events. Tests on simulated data demonstrated the efficiency of these improvements of the DCS algorithm.

  17. Neural signal recording using microelectrode arrays fabricated on liquid crystal polymer material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Jae; Oh, Seung Jae; Song, Jong Keun; Kim, Sung June

    2004-01-05

    Microelectrode arrays have been developed for simultaneous multi-channel recordings from nervous systems, typically using silicon substrates. However, it has been known that it is difficult to meet the biocompatibility and durability requirements using silicon and other dielectric materials (SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), due to environmental moisture and ions. Additional disadvantage of silicon being the rigid material makes it hard to apply these materials in chronic recording situations. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) was recently introduced as a candidate material for electronic packaging purposes. The material acts as efficient barrier against ions and moisture, a desirable feature for a substrate material of microelectrode arrays. In this paper, we report on the neural recording performed using the LCP-based microelectrode arrays. The cell adhesion on the new material was compared very favorably with that using silicon, SiO{sub 2}, or polyimide material. The microelectrode arrays were patterned with Ti (500 Angst)/Au (3500 Angst) on the LCP film and were employed in both stimulation and recording from rat sciatic nerve. The electrical characteristic of the recorded signal was as good as those using other substrate materials, proving this material as an excellent candidate for next generation microelectrode arrays.

  18. TECHNICAL NOTE: The development of a PZT-based microdrive for neural signal recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangkyu; Yoon, Euisung; Lee, Sukchan; Shin, Hee-sup; Park, Hyunjun; Kim, Byungkyu; Kim, Daesoo; Park, Jongoh; Park, Sukho

    2008-04-01

    A hand-controlled microdrive has been used to obtain neural signals from rodents such as rats and mice. However, it places severe physical stress on the rodents during its manipulation, and this stress leads to alertness in the mice and low efficiency in obtaining neural signals from the mice. To overcome this issue, we developed a novel microdrive, which allows one to adjust the electrodes by a piezoelectric device (PZT) with high precision. Its mass is light enough to install on the mouse's head. The proposed microdrive has three H-type PZT actuators and their guiding structure. The operation principle of the microdrive is based on the well known inchworm mechanism. When the three PZT actuators are synchronized, linear motion of the electrode is produced along the guiding structure. The electrodes used for the recording of the neural signals from neuron cells were fixed at one of the PZT actuators. Our proposed microdrive has an accuracy of about 400 nm and a long stroke of about 5 mm. In response to formalin-induced pain, single unit activities are robustly measured at the thalamus with electrodes whose vertical depth is adjusted by the microdrive under urethane anesthesia. In addition, the microdrive was efficient in detecting neural signals from mice that were moving freely. Thus, the present study suggests that the PZT-based microdrive could be an alternative for the efficient detection of neural signals from mice during behavioral states without any stress to the mice.

  19. Estimation of pathological tremor from recorded signals based on adaptive sliding fast Fourier transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxin Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological tremor is an approximately rhythmic movement and considerably affects patients’ daily living activities. Biomechanical loading and functional electrical stimulation are proposed as potential alternatives for canceling the pathological tremor. However, the performance of suppression methods is associated with the separation of tremor from the recorded signals. In this literature, an algorithm incorporating a fast Fourier transform augmented with a sliding convolution window, an interpolation procedure, and a damping module of the frequency is presented to isolate tremulous components from the measured signals and estimate the instantaneous tremor frequency. Meanwhile, a mechanism platform is designed to provide the simulation tremor signals with different degrees of voluntary movements. The performance of the proposed algorithm and existing procedures is compared with simulated signals and experimental signals collected from patients. The results demonstrate that the proposed solution could detect the unknown dominant frequency and distinguish the tremor components with higher accuracy. Therefore, this algorithm is useful for actively compensating tremor by functional electrical stimulation without affecting the voluntary movement.

  20. Study of latitudinal effects on VLF transmitter signals recorded by DEMETER/ICE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Berthelier, J. J.; Döller, R.; Galopeau, P. H. M.; Parrot, M.; Stangl, G.; Biernat, H.; Voller, W.; Besser, B.

    2010-05-01

    We report on VLF transmitter signals observed by the ‘Instrument Capteur Electrique' (ICE) experiment onboard the DEMETER micro-satellite. The DEMETER polar and circular sun-synchronous orbits lead to cover an invariant latitude range between -65° and +65° where up- and down-going half-orbits correspond to night-time (22:00 LT) and day-time (10:00 LT), respectively. The DEMETER orbit features permit to record signals emitted by some VLF ground-stations and detected by ICE experiment. We consider three transmitter signals emitted by stations in Europe (Germany, DFY, 16.58 kHz), in Asia (Japan, JP, 17.8 kHz) and in Australia (Australia, NWC, 19.8 kHz). We study the variation of these VLF signals taking into consideration the DEMETER satellite latitudes .We emphasis on latitudes where the satellite is close to the Earth's sub-auroral regions. We discuss particularly the presence, or not, of auroral magnetic activity effect on the VLF transmitter signals.

  1. Experiments of Multi-Level Read-Only Recording Using Readout Signal Wave-Shape Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yi; PEI Jing; PAN Long-Fa; NI Yi; HU Hua; ZHANG Bu-Qing

    2008-01-01

    An innovative multilevel read-only recording method is proposed.In this method,a short pit/land is deliberately inserted to the original land/pit.This modifies the wave-shape of readout signal.Taking the wave-shape as the symbol of level detection,a signal wave-shape modulation (SWSM) multilevel method is realized.This method is carried out and validated on the DVD read-only manufacture and readout system.A capacity of 15 GB can be expected,and a bit error rate of 10-4 is achieved.The capacity can meet the demand of high definition movie publication.This method also provides a potential multi-level solution for other storage formats and systems.

  2. Modeling common dynamics in multichannel signals with applications to artifact and background removal in EEG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Wim; Vanrumste, Bart; Papy, Jean-Michel; Van Paesschen, Wim; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2005-12-01

    Removing artifacts and background electroencephaloraphy (EEG) from multichannel interictal and ictal EEG has become a major research topic in EEG signal processing in recent years. We applied for this purpose a recently developed subspace-based method for modeling the common dynamics in multichannel signals. When the epileptiform activity is common in the majority of channels and the artifacts appear only in a few channels the proposed method can be used to remove the latter. The performance of the method was tested on simulated data for different noise levels. For high noise levels the method was still able to identify the common dynamics. In addition, the method was applied to real life EEG recordings containing interictal and ictal activity contaminated with muscle artifact. The muscle artifacts were removed successfully. For both the synthetic data and the analyzed real life data the results were compared with the results obtained with principal component analysis (PCA). In both cases, the proposed method performed better than PCA.

  3. A method for the automatic reconstruction of fetal cardiac signals from magnetocardiographic recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, D.; Alleva, G.; Comani, S.

    2005-10-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) allows monitoring the fetal heart function through algorithms able to retrieve the fetal cardiac signal, but no standardized automatic model has become available so far. In this paper, we describe an automatic method that restores the fetal cardiac trace from fMCG recordings by means of a weighted summation of fetal components separated with independent component analysis (ICA) and identified through dedicated algorithms that analyse the frequency content and temporal structure of each source signal. Multichannel fMCG datasets of 66 healthy and 4 arrhythmic fetuses were used to validate the automatic method with respect to a classical procedure requiring the manual classification of fetal components by an expert investigator. ICA was run with input clusters of different dimensions to simulate various MCG systems. Detection rates, true negative and false positive component categorization, QRS amplitude, standard deviation and signal-to-noise ratio of reconstructed fetal signals, and real and per cent QRS differences between paired fetal traces retrieved automatically and manually were calculated to quantify the performances of the automatic method. Its robustness and reliability, particularly evident with the use of large input clusters, might increase the diagnostic role of fMCG during the prenatal period.

  4. Development and significance of a fetal electrocardiogram recorded by signal-averaged high-amplification electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Risa; Nakai, Kenji; Fukushima, Akimune; Itoh, Manabu; Sugiyama, Toru

    2009-03-01

    Although ultrasonic diagnostic imaging and fetal heart monitors have undergone great technological improvements, the development and use of fetal electrocardiograms to evaluate fetal arrhythmias and autonomic nervous activity have not been fully established. We verified the clinical significance of the novel signal-averaged vector-projected high amplification ECG (SAVP-ECG) method in fetuses from 48 gravidas at 32-41 weeks of gestation and in 34 neonates. SAVP-ECGs from fetuses and newborns were recorded using a modified XYZ-leads system. Once noise and maternal QRS waves were removed, the P, QRS, and T wave intervals were measured from the signal-averaged fetal ECGs. We also compared fetal and neonatal heart rates (HRs), coefficients of variation of heart rate variability (CV) as a parasympathetic nervous activity, and the ratio of low to high frequency (LF/HF ratio) as a sympathetic nervous activity. The rate of detection of a fetal ECG by SAVP-ECG was 72.9%, and the fetal and neonatal QRS and QTc intervals were not significantly different. The neonatal CVs and LF/HF ratios were significantly increased compared with those in the fetus. In conclusion, we have developed a fetal ECG recording method using the SAVP-ECG system, which we used to evaluate autonomic nervous system development.

  5. Climatic Signals Recorded in Shells in Xingcuo Lake,Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of determining trace elements and δ13 C, δ18 O in Gy-raulus sibirica shell continuously preserved in Xingcuo Lake sediments in the recent 50 years. Bycoupling these indexes and instrumental meteorological data on its basin to determine the relationsamong them, we probed quantitatively the climatic signals recorded in Xingcuo Lake sediments.The results showed that gastropod shells in Xingcuo Lake were formed in warm seasons; that traceelements, and stable isotope in shells just recorded the climatic signals of the warm seasons insteadof that of the whole year; that Mg/Ca ratio and δ18O proxy had certain correlation with air tempera-ture in warm seasons, when the δ18 O proxy was more sensitive; with the average ratio of them being0.28 × 10-3/℃ and the variation rate dδ18 O/dT being 1.64 × 10-3/℃; that the Sr/Ca ratio andδ13C proxy, especially Sr/Ca ratio, had close correlation; and that dSr/Ca/dP was -0.045/mm.

  6. 浅谈大学生情绪的自我调控%A Brief Study on College Students'Bi - polar Mood and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓筝

    2011-01-01

    人的自我控制能力和约束能力会随着其所受教育程度的提高而逐步增强。大学生已经成人且处于知识学习的高端,形成了自己的世界观、人生观、价值观,能够对自己的言行负责。但他们毕竟年轻,各方面还不够成熟,其情绪波动较大,具有明显的两极性。如果大学生不能很好地调控自己的情绪,使情绪的冲动性和爆发性左右了自己的言行,那么往往会做出错误的举动。因此,大学生要加强自我修养,树立正确的人生观;客观评价自己,培养良好的个性品质;将自己的需求与现实相结合,注意需求的合理性;学会处理各种压力,掌握科学的情绪调节方法;在必要时寻求心理咨询帮助,调控情绪并化解消极情绪的不利影响。%Contemporary university students, undertaking the historical task of modern socialism construction, represent the future of Chinese nation. Though their ability of self - control and discipline may develop steadily with its higher level of education, they may reveal a bipolar feature in their mood. When they are unable to adjust or control their bipolar feehn's and allow their impulsive and eruptive mood to dominate their actions, they are likely to act on momentary impulse and make life - long mortifying deeds. So, college students must strengthen their self - cultivation, establish their correct world outlook, appraise themselves objectively, foster good characters, combine their own rational demand with social reality, learn to deal with various kinds of stresses in life and grasp the most scientific method on mood regulation. If necessary, they should turn to seek help from psychological consultation centre to regulate and dissolve the adverse effect of passive bi - polar mood.

  7. A new technique for fractal analysis applied to human, intracerebrally recorded, ictal electroencephalographic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullmore, E; Brammer, M; Alarcon, G; Binnie, C

    1992-11-09

    Application of a new method of fractal analysis to human, intracerebrally recorded, ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is reported. 'Frameshift-Richardson' (FR) analysis involves estimation of fractal dimension (1 EEG data; it is suggested that this technique offers significant operational advantages over use of algorithms for FD estimation requiring preliminary reconstruction of EEG data in phase space. FR analysis was found to reduce substantially the volume of EEG data, without loss of diagnostically important information concerning onset, propagation and evolution of ictal EEG discharges. Arrhythmic EEG events were correlated with relatively increased FD; rhythmic EEG events with relatively decreased FD. It is proposed that development of this method may lead to: (i) enhanced definition and localisation of initial ictal changes in the EEG presumed due to multi-unit activity; and (ii) synoptic visualisation of long periods of EEG data.

  8. Recording and investigation of the seismic signal generated by hypervelocity impact experiments and numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldemeister, N.; Moser, D.; Wünnemann, K.; Hoerth, T.; Schäfer, F.

    2013-09-01

    Meteorite impacts can cause environmental consequences, one of which is the generation of ground motions that may exceed the magnitude of the largest earthquakes [1]. Impacts generate shock waves that attenuate with distance until they even tually turn into seismic waves. Thus, meteorite impact may be considered as a source for seismic shaking similar to earthquakes. Seismic signals have been recorded in explosion experiments [2] and in hydrocode models of large impact events such as the Chicxulub crater [3]. To determine how much of the kinetic energy Ekin of the impactoris turned into seismic energy Eseis can be investigated experimentally (by recording the acoustic emission) or by numerical models. The ratio of Eseis/Ekin is the so called seismic efficiency k. The seismic efficiency depends on material properties (porosity) and is usually estimated to range between 10-2 and 10-6 [2,4]. In the framework of the "MEMIN" (multidisciplinary experimental and modeling impact crater research network) project a suite of hypervelocity impact experiments on a decimeter scale have been carried out [5]. We use acoustic emission (AE) technique and pressure gauges in high spatiotemporal Meteorite impacts can cause environmental consequences, one of which is the generation of ground motions that may exceed the magnitude of the largest earthquakes [1]. Impacts generate shock waves that attenuate with distance until they even tually turn into seismic waves. Thus, meteorite impact may be considered as a source for seismic shaking similar to earthquakes. Seismic signals have been recorded in explosion experiments [2] and in hydrocode models of large impact events such as the Chicxulub crater [3]. To determine how much of the kinetic energy Ekin of the impactoris turned into seismic energy Eseis can be investigated experimentally (by recording the acoustic emission) or by numerical models. The ratio of Eseis/Ekin is the so called seismic efficiency k. The seismic efficiency depends

  9. A new approach for investigating intracranial pressure signal: filtering and morphological features extraction from continuous recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisto, Andrea; Galeano, Massimiliano; Serrano, Salvatore; Calisto, Amedeo; Azzerboni, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, the Intracranial Pressure (ICP) monitoring has become the most common method of investigation for both traumatic and chronic neural pathologies. ICP signals are typically triphasic, that is, in a single waveform, three subpeaks can be identified. This work outlines a new algorithm to identify subpeaks from the ICP recordings and to extract a number of 20 meaningful parameter trends. The validity of the implemented method has been proved through a comparison between the automatic subpeaks identification by the algorithm and the manually marked subpeaks by a neurosurgeon. The automatic marking system has identified subpeaks for the 63.74% (mean value) of pulse waves, providing the position and amplitude of each identified subpeak within a tolerance of ±7 samples. This automatic system provides a feature set to be used by classification software to obtain more precise and easier diagnosis in all those cases that involve brain damages or diseases.

  10. The Recording and Quantification of Event-Related Potentials: II. Signal Processing and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Tavakoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials are an informative method for measuring the extent of information processing in the brain. The voltage deflections in an ERP waveform reflect the processing of sensory information as well as higher-level processing that involves selective attention, memory, semantic comprehension, and other types of cognitive activity. ERPs provide a non-invasive method of studying, with exceptional temporal resolution, cognitive processes in the human brain. ERPs are extracted from scalp-recorded electroencephalography by a series of signal processing steps. The present tutorial will highlight several of the analysis techniques required to obtain event-related potentials. Some methodological issues that may be encountered will also be discussed.

  11. Box counting method in recording, processing and evaluation of genomic signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Valla*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractals are geometrical shapes with noninteger dimension andinvariance against change of scale factor. For each geometricalshape, a single parameter - dimension - can be calculated. Forcalculation, Box Counting Method (BCM was chosen.Determination of dimension on one level of resolution is notsufficient, it is necessary to subsequently process it and determine multifractal coefficient. Aim of our interest consists in analysis of images obtained from a linear sequence of DNA code. For analysis itself, sequences of Homo sapiens and Citrobacter youngae were chosen. Results of calculation are fractal coefficients derived from dimensions of generated structures. This result enables to introduce criterion for sequences determination. Graphical outputs may bealso represented as multidimensional alternative transformation of linearly recorded genomic signal. Algorithms were developed in computational environment MATLAB. Data were downloaded from a public database EMBL (ESI and GenBank (NCBI.

  12. Longitudinal medical records as a complement to routine drug safety signal analysis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sarah; Sandberg, Lovisa; Johansson, Jeanette; Edwards, I. Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To explore whether and how longitudinal medical records could be used as a source of reference in the early phases of signal detection and analysis of novel adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in a global pharmacovigilance database. Methods Drug and ADR combinations from the routine signal detection process of VigiBase® in 2011 were matched to combinations in The Health Improvement Network (THIN). The number and type of drugs and ADRs from the data sets were investigated. For unlabelled combinations, graphical display of longitudinal event patterns (chronographs) in THIN was inspected to determine if the pattern supported the VigiBase combination. Results Of 458 combinations in the VigiBase data set, 190 matched to corresponding combinations in THIN (after excluding drugs with less than 100 prescriptions in THIN). Eighteen percent of the VigiBase and 9% of the matched THIN combinations referred to new drugs reported with serious reactions. Of the 112 unlabelled combinations matched to THIN, 52 chronographs were inconclusive mainly because of lack of data; 34 lacked any outstanding pattern around the time of prescription; 24 had an elevation of events in the pre‐prescription period, hence weakened the suspicion of a drug relationship; two had an elevated pattern of events exclusively in the post‐prescription period that, after review of individual patient histories, did not support an association. Conclusions Longitudinal medical records were useful in understanding the clinical context around a drug and suspected ADR combination and the probability of a causal relationship. A drawback was the paucity of data for newly marketed drugs with serious reactions. © 2015 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25623045

  13. Analysis of microseismic signals and temperature recordings for rock slope stability investigations in high mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Occhiena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The permafrost degradation is a probable cause for the increase of rock instabilities and rock falls observed in recent years in high mountain areas, particularly in the Alpine region. The phenomenon causes the thaw of the ice filling rock discontinuities; the water deriving from it subsequently freezes again inducing stresses in the rock mass that may lead, in the long term, to rock falls. To investigate these processes, a monitoring system composed by geophones and thermometers was installed in 2007 at the Carrel hut (3829 m a.s.l., Matterhorn, NW Alps. In 2010, in the framework of the Interreg 2007–2013 Alcotra project no. 56 MASSA, the monitoring system has been empowered and renovated in order to meet project needs.

    In this paper, the data recorded by this renewed system between 6 October 2010 and 5 October 2011 are presented and 329 selected microseismic events are analysed. The data processing has concerned the classification of the recorded signals, the analysis of their distribution in time and the identification of the most important trace characteristics in time and frequency domain. The interpretation of the results has evidenced a possible correlation between the temperature trend and the event occurrence.

    The research is still in progress and the data recording and interpretation are planned for a longer period to better investigate the spatial-temporal distribution of microseismic activity in the rock mass, with specific attention to the relation of microseismic activity with temperatures. The overall goal is to verify the possibility to set up an effective monitoring system for investigating the stability of a rock mass under permafrost conditions, in order to supply the researchers with useful data to better understand the relationship between temperature and rock mass stability and, possibly, the technicians with a valid tool for decision-making.

  14. Seismo-acoustic Signals Recorded at KSIAR, the Infrasound Array Installed at PS31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. S.; Che, I. Y.; Jeon, J. S.; Chi, H. C.; Kang, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    One of International Monitoring System (IMS)'s primary seismic stations, PS31, called Korea Seismic Research Station (KSRS), was installed around Wonju, Korea in 1970s. It has been operated by US Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) for more than 40 years. KSRS is composed of 26 seismic sensors including 19 short period, 6 long period and 1 broad band seismometers. The 19 short period sensors were used to build an array with a 10-km aperture while the 6 long period sensors were used for a relatively long period array with a 40-km aperture. After KSRS was certified as an IMS station in 2006 by Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) which is the Korea National Data Center started to take over responsibilities on the operation and maintenance of KSRS from AFTAC. In April of 2014, KIGAM installed an infrasound array, KSIAR, on the existing four short period seismic stations of KSRS, the sites KS05, KS06, KS07 and KS16. The collocated KSIAR changed KSRS from a seismic array into a seismo-acoustic array. The aperture of KSIAR is 3.3 km. KSIAR also has a 100-m small aperture infrasound array at KS07. The infrasound data from KSIAR except that from the site KS06 is being transmitted in real time to KIGAM with VPN and internet line. An initial analysis on seismo-acoustic signals originated from local and regional distance ranges has been performed since May 2014. The analysis with the utilization of an array process called Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) detected seismo-acoustic signals caused by various sources including small explosions in relation to constructing local tunnels and roads. Some of them were not found in the list of automatic bulletin of KIGAM. The seismo-acoustic signals recorded by KSIAR are supplying a useful information for discriminating local and regional man-made events from natural events.

  15. The Reconstructing of Low Signal-noise Ratio Single Ion Channel Signal from Patch-clamp Recordings Sampled in the Colored Background Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The single ion channel signal is an ionic current that can be recorded by the patch clamp technique. Hidden Markov model(HMM)algorithm has been used to convert the low signal-noise ra-tio (SNR) noisy recording into an idealized quantal one in the case of white background noise. The traditional HMM algorithm is extended and adapted to the colored background noise.A new algorithm called EHMM (Extended HMM) algorithm is proposed,and mainly validated by simulati-on.Results show that it's effective.

  16. Simultaneous recording of fluorescence and electrical signals by photometric patch electrode in deep brain regions in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Yasuharu; Nishino, Eri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its widespread use, high-resolution imaging with multiphoton microscopy to record neuronal signals in vivo is limited to the surface of brain tissue because of limited light penetration. Moreover, most imaging studies do not simultaneously record electrical neural activity, which is, however, crucial to understanding brain function. Accordingly, we developed a photometric patch electrode (PME) to overcome the depth limitation of optical measurements and also enable the simultaneous recording of neural electrical responses in deep brain regions. The PME recoding system uses a patch electrode to excite a fluorescent dye and to measure the fluorescence signal as a light guide, to record electrical signal, and to apply chemicals to the recorded cells locally. The optical signal was analyzed by either a spectrometer of high light sensitivity or a photomultiplier tube depending on the kinetics of the responses. We used the PME in Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM-loaded avian auditory nuclei in vivo to monitor calcium signals and electrical responses. We demonstrated distinct response patterns in three different nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway. On acoustic stimulation, a robust calcium fluorescence response occurred in auditory cortex (field L) neurons that outlasted the electrical response. In the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus), both responses were transient. In the brain-stem cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, calcium response seemed to be effectively suppressed by the activity of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In conclusion, the PME provides a powerful tool to study brain function in vivo at a tissue depth inaccessible to conventional imaging devices. PMID:25761950

  17. Fabrication of Micro-Needle Electrodes for Bio-Signal Recording by a Magnetization-Induced Self-Assembly Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyun Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro-needle electrodes (MEs have attracted more and more attention for monitoring physiological electrical signals, including electrode-skin interface impedance (EII, electromyography (EMG and electrocardiography (ECG recording. A magnetization-induced self-assembling method (MSM was developed to fabricate a microneedle array (MA. A MA coated with Ti/Au film was assembled as a ME. The fracture and insertion properties of ME were tested by experiments. The bio-signal recording performance of the ME was measured and compared with a typical commercial wet electrode (Ag/AgCl electrode. The results show that the MA self-assembled from the magnetic droplet array under the sum of gravitational surface tension and magnetic potential energies. The ME had good toughness and could easily pierce rabbit skin without being broken or buckling. When the compression force applied on the ME was larger than 2 N, ME could stably record EII, which was a lower value than that measured by Ag/AgCl electrodes. EMG signals collected by ME varied along with the contraction of biceps brachii muscle. ME could record static ECG signals with a larger amplitude and dynamic ECG signals with more distinguishable features in comparison with a Ag/AgCl electrode, therefore, ME is an alternative electrode for bio-signal monitoring in some specific situations.

  18. Fabrication of Micro-Needle Electrodes for Bio-Signal Recording by a Magnetization-Induced Self-Assembly Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keyun; Ren, Lei; Chen, Zhipeng; Pan, Chengfeng; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Lelun

    2016-09-20

    Micro-needle electrodes (MEs) have attracted more and more attention for monitoring physiological electrical signals, including electrode-skin interface impedance (EII), electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (ECG) recording. A magnetization-induced self-assembling method (MSM) was developed to fabricate a microneedle array (MA). A MA coated with Ti/Au film was assembled as a ME. The fracture and insertion properties of ME were tested by experiments. The bio-signal recording performance of the ME was measured and compared with a typical commercial wet electrode (Ag/AgCl electrode). The results show that the MA self-assembled from the magnetic droplet array under the sum of gravitational surface tension and magnetic potential energies. The ME had good toughness and could easily pierce rabbit skin without being broken or buckling. When the compression force applied on the ME was larger than 2 N, ME could stably record EII, which was a lower value than that measured by Ag/AgCl electrodes. EMG signals collected by ME varied along with the contraction of biceps brachii muscle. ME could record static ECG signals with a larger amplitude and dynamic ECG signals with more distinguishable features in comparison with a Ag/AgCl electrode, therefore, ME is an alternative electrode for bio-signal monitoring in some specific situations.

  19. 1 Tbit/inch2 Recording in Angular-Multiplexing Holographic Memory with Constant Signal-to-Scatter Ratio Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Makoto; Ishii, Toshiki; Tanaka, Asato; Koga, Shogo; Hoshizawa, Taku

    2013-09-01

    We developed an iterative method for optimizing the exposure schedule to obtain a constant signal-to-scatter ratio (SSR) to accommodate various recording conditions and achieve high-density recording. 192 binary images were recorded in the same location of a medium in approximately 300×300 µm2 using an experimental system embedded with a blue laser diode with a 405 nm wavelength and an objective lens with a 0.85 numerical aperture. The recording density of this multiplexing corresponds to 1 Tbit/in.2. The recording exposure time was optimized through the iteration of a three-step sequence consisting of total reproduced intensity measurement, target signal calculation, and recording energy density calculation. The SSR of pages recorded with this method was almost constant throughout the entire range of the reference beam angle. The signal-to-noise ratio of the sampled pages was over 2.9 dB, which is higher than the reproducible limit of 1.5 dB in our experimental system.

  20. Design and measurements of 64-channel ASIC for neural signal recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmon, P; Zoladz, M; Grybos, P; Szczygiel, R

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and measurements of a low noise multi-channel front-end electronics for recording extra-cellular neuronal signals using microelectrode arrays. The integrated circuit contains 64 readout channels and was fabricated in CMOS 0.18 microm technology. A single readout channel is built of an AC coupling circuit at the input, a low noise preamplifier, a band-pass filter and a second amplifier. In order to reduce the number of output lines, the 64 analog signals from readout channels are multiplexed to a single output by an analog multiplexer. The chip is optimized for low noise and matching performance with the possibility of cut-off frequencies tuning. The low cut-off frequency can be tuned in the 1 Hz-60 Hz range and the high cut-off frequency can be tuned in the 3.5 kHz-15 kHz range. For the nominal gain setting at 44 dB and power dissipation per single channel of 220 microW the equivalent input noise is in the range from 6 microV-11 microV rms depending on the band-pass filter settings. The chip has good uniformity concerning the spread of its electrical parameters from channel to channel. The spread of gain calculated as standard deviation to mean value is about 4.4% and the spread of the low cut-off frequency is on the same level. The chip occupies 5x2.3 mm(2) of silicon area.

  1. An Interoperability Platform Enabling Reuse of Electronic Health Records for Signal Verification Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Mustafa; Gonul, Suat; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce Banu; Sinaci, Ali Anil; Invernizzi, Paolo; Facchinetti, Sara; Migliavacca, Andrea; Bergvall, Tomas; Depraetere, Kristof; De Roo, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Depending mostly on voluntarily sent spontaneous reports, pharmacovigilance studies are hampered by low quantity and quality of patient data. Our objective is to improve postmarket safety studies by enabling safety analysts to seamlessly access a wide range of EHR sources for collecting deidentified medical data sets of selected patient populations and tracing the reported incidents back to original EHRs. We have developed an ontological framework where EHR sources and target clinical research systems can continue using their own local data models, interfaces, and terminology systems, while structural interoperability and Semantic Interoperability are handled through rule-based reasoning on formal representations of different models and terminology systems maintained in the SALUS Semantic Resource Set. SALUS Common Information Model at the core of this set acts as the common mediator. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework through one of the SALUS safety analysis tools, namely, the Case Series Characterization Tool, which have been deployed on top of regional EHR Data Warehouse of the Lombardy Region containing about 1 billion records from 16 million patients and validated by several pharmacovigilance researchers with real-life cases. The results confirm significant improvements in signal detection and evaluation compared to traditional methods with the missing background information. PMID:27123451

  2. Linear-phase delay filters for ultra-low-power signal processing in neural recording implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Benoit; Sawan, Mohamad; Kerherve, Eric

    2010-06-01

    We present the design and implementation of linear-phase delay filters for ultra-low-power signal processing in neural recording implants. We use these filters as low-distortion delay elements along with an automatic biopotential detector to perform integral waveform extraction and efficient power management. The presented delay elements are realized employing continuous-time OTA-C filters featuring 9th-order equiripple transfer functions with constant group delay. Such analog delay enables processing neural waveforms with reduced overhead compared to a digital delay since it does not requires sampling and digitization. It uses an allpass transfer function for achieving wider constant-delay bandwidth than all-pole does. Two filters realizations are compared for implementing the delay element: the Cascaded structure and the Inverse follow-the-leader feedback filter. Their respective strengths and drawbacks are assessed by modeling parasitics and non-idealities of OTAs, and by transistor-level simulations. A budget of 200 nA is used in both filters. Experimental measurements with the chosen filter topology are presented and discussed.

  3. Battery powered neuromuscular stimulator circuit for use during simultaneous recording of myoelectric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Rune; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2009-10-01

    Surface Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) requires high stimulation voltages. A step-up transformer in the output stage of the stimulation circuit is often used. In the present technical paper a voltage controlled current source (VCCS) is presented as an alternative to the transformer coupling. Two (master-slave) coupled transconductance amplifiers (TAs)--in series with pre-charged capacitors--are used to drive the output current. After each stimulation pulse the capacitors are recharged to a high voltage by a switch mode power supply (SMPS). A multiplexer in the output stage is used to provide biphasic output. Output rise-time (10-90%) was less than 2 micros at 100 mA output. Biphasic charge balanced stimulation current can be produced with a net current to ground of less than 20 nA, thus virtually separated from ground. The circuit permits recording of the volitional myoelectric signal from the stimulated muscle. It is part of a portable myoelectrically controlled FES system powered by 2 AA batteries and currently used in clinical trials.

  4. Soft implantable microelectrodes for future medicine: prosthetics, neural signal recording and neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong Hoon; Kim, Hanseop; Kim, Jeong Hun; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-03-21

    Implantable devices have provided various potential diagnostic options and therapeutic methods in diverse medical fields. A variety of hard-material-based implantable electrodes have been developed. However, several limitations for their chronic implantation remain, including mechanical mismatches at the interface between the electrode and the soft tissue, and biocompatibility. Soft-material-based implantable devices are suitable candidates for complementing the limitations of hard electrodes. Advances in microtechnology and materials science have largely solved many challenges, such as optimization of shape, minimization of infection, enhancement of biocompatibility and integration with components for diverse functions. Significant strides have also been made in mechanical matching of electrodes to soft tissue. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in soft-material-based implantable electrodes for medical applications, categorized according to their implantation site and material composition. We then review specific applications in three categories: neuroprosthetics, neural signal recording, and neuromodulation. Finally, we describe various strategies for the future development and application of implantable, soft-material-based devices.

  5. An Interoperability Platform Enabling Reuse of Electronic Health Records for Signal Verification Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending mostly on voluntarily sent spontaneous reports, pharmacovigilance studies are hampered by low quantity and quality of patient data. Our objective is to improve postmarket safety studies by enabling safety analysts to seamlessly access a wide range of EHR sources for collecting deidentified medical data sets of selected patient populations and tracing the reported incidents back to original EHRs. We have developed an ontological framework where EHR sources and target clinical research systems can continue using their own local data models, interfaces, and terminology systems, while structural interoperability and Semantic Interoperability are handled through rule-based reasoning on formal representations of different models and terminology systems maintained in the SALUS Semantic Resource Set. SALUS Common Information Model at the core of this set acts as the common mediator. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework through one of the SALUS safety analysis tools, namely, the Case Series Characterization Tool, which have been deployed on top of regional EHR Data Warehouse of the Lombardy Region containing about 1 billion records from 16 million patients and validated by several pharmacovigilance researchers with real-life cases. The results confirm significant improvements in signal detection and evaluation compared to traditional methods with the missing background information.

  6. Chronic recording of hand prosthesis control signals via a regenerative peripheral nerve interface in a rhesus macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Z. T.; Schroeder, K. E.; Vu, P. P.; Tat, D. M.; Bullard, A. J.; Woo, S. L.; Sando, I. C.; Urbanchek, M. G.; Cederna, P. S.; Chestek, C. A.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Loss of even part of the upper limb is a devastating injury. In order to fully restore natural function when lacking sufficient residual musculature, it is necessary to record directly from peripheral nerves. However, current approaches must make trade-offs between signal quality and longevity which limit their clinical potential. To address this issue, we have developed the regenerative peripheral nerve interface (RPNI) and tested its use in non-human primates. Approach. The RPNI consists of a small, autologous partial muscle graft reinnervated by a transected peripheral nerve branch. After reinnervation, the graft acts as a bioamplifier for descending motor commands in the nerve, enabling long-term recording of high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), functionally-specific electromyographic (EMG) signals. We implanted nine RPNIs on separate branches of the median and radial nerves in two rhesus macaques who were trained to perform cued finger movements. Main results. No adverse events were noted in either monkey, and we recorded normal EMG with high SNR (>8) from the RPNIs for up to 20 months post-implantation. Using RPNI signals recorded during the behavioral task, we were able to classify each monkey’s finger movements as flexion, extension, or rest with >96% accuracy. RPNI signals also enabled functional prosthetic control, allowing the monkeys to perform the same behavioral task equally well with either physical finger movements or RPNI-based movement classifications. Significance. The RPNI signal strength, stability, and longevity demonstrated here represents a promising method for controlling advanced prosthetic limbs and fully restoring natural movement.

  7. Characterizing the Propagation of Uterine Electrophysiological Signals Recorded with a Multi-Sensor Abdominal Array in Term Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Vargas, Diana; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B; Furdea, Adrian; Murphy, Pam; Lowery, Curtis L; Eswaran, Hari

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the number of segments that have contractile activity and determine the propagation speed from uterine electrophysiological signals recorded over the abdomen. The uterine magnetomyographic (MMG) signals were recorded with a 151 channel SARA (SQUID Array for Reproductive Assessment) system from 36 pregnant women between 37 and 40 weeks of gestational age. The MMG signals were scored and segments were classified based on presence of uterine contractile burst activity. The sensor space was then split into four quadrants and in each quadrant signal strength at each sample was calculated using center-of-gravity (COG). To this end, the cross-correlation analysis of the COG was performed to calculate the delay between pairwise combinations of quadrants. The relationship in propagation across the quadrants was quantified and propagation speeds were calculated from the delays. MMG recordings were successfully processed from 25 subjects and the average values of propagation speeds ranged from 1.3-9.5 cm/s, which was within the physiological range. The propagation was observed between both vertical and horizontal quadrants confirming multidirectional propagation. After the multiple pairwise test (99% CI), significant differences in speeds can be observed between certain vertical or horizontal combinations and the crossed pair combinations. The number of segments containing contractile activity in any given quadrant pair with a detectable delay was significantly higher in the lower abdominal pairwise combination as compared to all others. The quadrant-based approach using MMG signals provided us with high spatial-temporal information of the uterine contractile activity and will help us in the future to optimize abdominal electromyographic (EMG) recordings that are practical in a clinical setting.

  8. Capturing blocked-entrance binaural signals from open-entrance recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2008-01-01

    interfering the individual's hearing and doing. In this work we propose a strategy for the recording of binaural audio with minimal hearing interference, and for transforming these recordings to blocked-entrance versions that are more suitable for analysis and reproduction of binaural audio in a more general...... context. To this purpose, equalization filters are derived from the ratio between blocked and open ear canal transfer functions. Different transfer-function measuring techniques and inverse filtering methods are evaluated....

  9. CORTICAL ENCODING OF SIGNALS IN NOISE: EFFECTS OF STIMULUS TYPE AND RECORDING PARADIGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Curtis J.; Bennett, Keri O.; Molis, Michelle R.; Leek, Marjorie R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Perception-in-noise deficits have been demonstrated across many populations and listening conditions. Many factors contribute to successful perception of auditory stimuli in noise, including neural encoding in the central auditory system. Physiological measures such as cortical auditory evoked potentials can provide a view of neural encoding at the level of the cortex that may inform our understanding of listeners’ abilities to perceive signals in the presence of background noise. In order to understand signal-in-noise neural encoding better, we set out to determine the effect of signal type, noise type, and evoking paradigm on the P1-N1-P2 complex. Design Tones and speech stimuli were presented to nine individuals in quiet, and in three background noise types: continuous speech spectrum noise, interrupted speech spectrum noise, and four-talker babble at a signal-to-noise ratio of −3 dB. In separate sessions, cortical auditory evoked potentials were evoked by a passive homogenous paradigm (single repeating stimulus) and an active oddball paradigm. Results The results for the N1 component indicated significant effects of signal type, noise type, and evoking paradigm. While components P1 and P2 also had significant main effects of these variables, only P2 demonstrated significant interactions among these variables. Conclusions Signal type, noise type, and evoking paradigm all must be carefully considered when interpreting signal-in-noise evoked potentials. Furthermore, these data confirm the possible usefulness of CAEPs as an aid to understanding perception-in-noise deficits. PMID:20890206

  10. Signal quality quantification and waveform reconstruction of arterial blood pressure recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, A; Heldt, T

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure (ABP) is an important vital sign of the cardiovascular system. As with other physiological signals, its measurement can be corrupted by different sources of noise, interference, and artifact. Here, we present an algorithm for the quantification of signal quality and for the reconstruction of the ABP waveform in noise-corrupted segments of the measurement. The algorithm quantifies the quality of the ABP signal on a beat-by-beat basis by computing the normalized mean of successive differences of the ABP amplitude over each beat. In segments of poor signal quality, the ABP wavelets are then reconstructed on the basis of the expected cycle duration and envelope information derived from neighboring ABP wavelet segments. The algorithm was tested on two datasets of ABP waveform signals containing both invasive radial artery ABP and noninvasive ABP waveforms. Our results show that the approach is efficient in identifying the noisy segments (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity over 95%) and reliable in reconstructing beats that were artificially corrupted.

  11. Disentangling natural and anthropogenic signals in lacustrine records: An example from the Ilan Plain, NE Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Huh, Chih-An; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Löwemark, Ludvig; Lin, Shu-Fen; Liao, Wen-Hsuan; Yang, Tien-Nan; Song, Sheng-Rong; Lee, Meng-Yang; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lee, Teh-Quei

    2016-11-01

    The impact of human activities has been increasing to a degree where humans now outcompete many natural processes. When interpreting environmental and climatic changes recorded in natural archives on historical time scales, it is therefore important to be able to disentangle the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic processes. Lake Meihua on the Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan offers a particularly suitable opportunity to test how human activities known from historical records can be recorded in lacustrine sediment. For this purpose, three cores from Lake Meihua have been studied by a multiproxy approach, providing the first decadal-resolution lacustrine records covering the past 150 years in Taiwan. Profiles of excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239,240Pu from two short cores (MHL-09-01 and MHL-11-02) allowed a precise chronology to be established. The presence of a yellow, earthy layer with lower levels of organic material coincide with the record of land development associated with the construction of the San-Chin-Gong Temple during AD 1970-1982. Furthermore, in the lower part of the cores, the upwards increasing trend of inc/coh, TOC, TOC/TN, and grain size, coupled with the palynological data (increase of Alnus, Mallotus, Trema and herbs) from the nearby core MHL-5A with radiocarbon chronology, suggest that the area surrounding the lake has been significantly affected by agricultural activities since the arrival of Chinese settlers around AD 1874. In sum, this study demonstrates that this suite of lacustrine sediments in northeastern Taiwan has recorded human activities in agreement with historical documents, and that different human activities will leave distinct sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological signatures in the sedimentary archives. Therefore, multiproxy reconstructions are important to capture the complex nature of human-environmental interactions. A better understanding of the weathering and erosion response to human activities can

  12. Circular polarization intrinsic optical signal recording of stimulus-evoked neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong-Wen; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Yao, Xin-Cheng

    2011-05-15

    Linear polarization intrinsic optical signal (LP-IOS) measurement can provide sensitive detection of neural activities in stimulus-activated neural tissues. However, the LP-IOS magnitude and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are highly correlated with the nerve orientation relative to the polarization plane of the incident light. Because of the complexity of orientation dependency, LP-IOS optimization and outcome interpretation are time consuming and complicated. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of circular polarization intrinsic optical signal (CP-IOS) measurement. Our theoretical modeling and experimental investigation indicate that CP-IOS magnitude and SNR are independent from the nerve orientation. Therefore, CP-IOS promises a practical method for polarization IOS imaging of complex neural systems.

  13. Multichannel Recorder for Low Frequency Signals: Application of Oscilloscope as Integrated Mobile Service for a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kochlan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data acquisition and processing are well known for some time. Many applications use powerful hardware to acquire, process, and visualize signal waveforms. But there are some applications that do not have to perform high resolution signal acquisition and process large amount of data, for example, low frequency applications of embedded design and applications for remote power grid monitoring. The paper describes special system for low frequency signal data sample acquisition, processing, and visualization implemented as a service on Android-based smart device. The service makes smart device functioning as an oscilloscope or arbitrary waveform generator which is accessible remotely through Bluetooth. The design respects low power consumption requirements, simplicity, and user friendliness in application design. Application scenario was implemented as wireless data acquisition system for power grid monitoring.

  14. Can we Detect Ecosystem Critical Transitions and Early Warning Signals of Catastrophic Shifts from Palaeo-Ecological Records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perga, M. E.; Taranu, Z. E.; Gregory-Eaves, I.; Frossard, V.; Thomas, Z.; Legendre, P.; Anderson, N. J.; Leavitt, P.; Gell, P.

    2015-12-01

    The observation that managed ecosystems often fail to respond smoothly to changing external pressures has shed some light on their complex non-linear dynamics. The concept of critical transitions (i.e., ecosystem regime shifts), thresholds and alternative stable states has since spread to the ecological and environmental management literature. Most recently, however, reviews have raised some skepticism about whether these catastrophic transitions are the exceptions rather than the rule. Overall, a better understanding of the occurrence and processes of such critical transitions requires more empirical testing and evidence on the mechanistic links between pressures and consequent ecological change. Many of the changes observed, or modeled, by ecologists extend beyond the monitoring record. Palaeo-ecological records thus represent a unique opportunity to extend our temporal perspective to the relevancy of critical transitions. Yet, paleo-ecological records have their own biases and shortcomings, such as sediment focusing, irregular temporal integration and often studied in a semi-quantitative way. As such, palaeo-ecological time series are not strictly analogous to instrumental datasets. In this work, we aimed to test, using both modeled and actual records, how different properties that are common in palaeo-ecological records affect our ability to detect past non-linear dynamics, such as early-warning signals of catastrophic shifts.

  15. Development and validation of algorithms for the detection of statin myopathy signals from electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S L; Tham, M Y; Tan, S H; Loke, C; Foo, Bpq; Fan, Y; Ang, P S; Brunham, L R; Sung, C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate sensitive algorithms to detect hospitalized statin-induced myopathy (SIM) cases from electronic medical records (EMRs). We developed four algorithms on a training set of 31,211 patient records from a large tertiary hospital. We determined the performance of these algorithms against manually curated records. The best algorithm used a combination of elevated creatine kinase (>4× the upper limit of normal (ULN)), discharge summary, diagnosis, and absence of statin in discharge medications. This algorithm achieved a positive predictive value of 52-71% and a sensitivity of 72-78% on two validation sets of >30,000 records each. Using this algorithm, the incidence of SIM was estimated at 0.18%. This algorithm captured three times more rhabdomyolysis cases than spontaneous reports (95% vs. 30% of manually curated gold standard cases). Our results show the potential power of utilizing data and text mining of EMRs to enhance pharmacovigilance activities. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. Climatic signals in multiple highly resolved stable isotope records from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann

    2010-01-01

    are found to correspond better with winter stable isotope data than with summer or annual average stable isotope data it is suggested that a strong local Greenland temperature signal can be extracted from the winter stable isotope data even on centennial to millennial time scales. Udgivelsesdato: Feb....

  17. Adaptive signal processing of on-orbit radio frequency lightning recordings using overcomplete chirplet dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D. I.; Smith, D. A.; Light, T. E.; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Heavner, M.

    2013-12-01

    Ongoing research at Los Alamos National Laboratory studies the Earth's radio frequency (RF) transient background utilizing satellite-based RF observations of terrestrial lightning. Such impulsive signals are dispersed as they travel through the ionosphere and appear as nonlinear chirps at a receiver on-orbit. Signals of interest are typically observed in the presence of additive noise and structured clutter, including gated and continuous-wave (CW) sources. Detection and classification of such non-stationary signals against a complex, non-stationary background can present challenges for standard physics-based approaches. The FORTE satellite provided a rich satellite lightning database that has been previously used for some event classification. We now develop and implement new event classification capability on the FORTE database using state-of-the-art adaptive signal processing combined with compressive sensing and machine learning techniques. The focus of our work is improved feature extraction using representations in overcomplete analytical dictionaries. We choose a dictionary based on Gabor chirplets, which is designed to represent both pulses (chirping or non-chirping) and CW signals in very few representative elements from the dictionary. One feature extraction approach is based on obtaining sparse representations of our data using a matching pursuit search of the dictionary. A second approach is based on using a frame operator on the dictionary to obtain a dense representation of our data. We explore robustness of extracted features to changes in background clutter and noise levels. Both feature extraction algorithms will be used in conjunction with statistical classifiers to explore classification performance of major lightning types. Performance will be evaluated both qualitatively, as well as quantitatively using a small validated test set. We present preliminary results of our work and discuss future areas of development.

  18. Signals of Antarctic Circum-polar Wave over the Southern Indian Ocean as recorded in an Antarctica ice core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Cunde; CHENG Yanjie; REN Jiawen; LU Longhua; LI Zhongqin; QIN Dahe; ZHOU Xiuji

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen stable isotopic and ionic records, covering a period of 1745-1996, are recovered in DT001 ice core drilled in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. Using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the annually resolved glaciochemical time series, we find the first EOF (EOF1) represents sea-salt aerosols and is the proxy of sea level pressure (SLP) over a quasi-stationary low in the Southern Indian Ocean (SIO).δ18O represents the sea surface temperature (SST) of the same ocean area. In the past two decades, four climatic waves as represented by SLP and SST proxies are found in the DT001 ice core, which in coincident with four Antarctic Circum-polar Waves (ACW) as revealed by NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The phase difference between SST and SLP in the ice core is also coincident with that in ACW. Both ice-core record and reanalysis suggest that there were no signals of ACW during 1958-1980, none during the overall recording period between 1745-1996, as there is no regular phase difference between SST and SLP. The ACW signal after early 1980s is probably attributable to the climate shift occurring over Antarctic Peninsula-Drake Passage region.

  19. A CMOS power-efficient low-noise current-mode front-end amplifier for neural signal recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Liang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a new current-mode front-end amplifier (CMFEA) for neural signal recording systems is proposed. In the proposed CMFEA, a current-mode preamplifier with an active feedback loop operated at very low frequency is designed as the first gain stage to bypass any dc offset current generated by the electrode-tissue interface and to achieve a low high-pass cutoff frequency below 0.5 Hz. No reset signal or ultra-large pseudo resistor is required. The current-mode preamplifier has low dc operation current to enhance low-noise performance and decrease power consumption. A programmable current gain stage is adopted to provide adjustable gain for adaptive signal scaling. A following current-mode filter is designed to adjust the low-pass cutoff frequency for different neural signals. The proposed CMFEA is designed and fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the area of the core circuit is 0.076 mm(2). The measured high-pass cutoff frequency is as low as 0.3 Hz and the low-pass cutoff frequency is adjustable from 1 kHz to 10 kHz. The measured maximum current gain is 55.9 dB. The measured input-referred current noise density is 153 fA /√Hz , and the power consumption is 13 μW at 1-V power supply. The fabricated CMFEA has been successfully applied to the animal test for recording the seizure ECoG of Long-Evan rats.

  20. Drought and flood signals in subtropical estuaries recorded by stable isotope ratios in bivalve shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, B. D.; Rowley, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon and oxygen recorded in biogenic carbonates can be effective proxies for ambient conditions in estuaries including salinity and temperature. Together, they have the potential to allow periods of drought and flooding to be identified in subtropical estuaries that receive stochastic and aperiodic delivery of freshwater inflow. We investigated the ability of δ13C and δ18O values in shell increments from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica sampled from subtropical estuaries in the western Gulf of Mexico to indicate differences in temperature and salinity dynamics at fine spatial scales. Oyster shells at locations that experienced both hypersalinity during droughts and dramatic decreases in salinity during floods showed distinct variations in shell δ13C and δ18O values that reflected local salinity conditions. In contrast, oysters at sites where no major salinity fluctuation occurred showed only seasonal fluctuations in isotopes reflecting temperature and possibly feeding patterns. Further, similar isotopic patterns were observed across multiple individuals from each site. Our results show that δ13C and δ18O values in shells measured together provide a powerful method to identify droughts and floods in subtropical estuaries and therefore extend records of dynamic inflow to these stressed ecosystems.

  1. Anthropogenic signals recorded in an ice core from Eclipse Icefield, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Kaplan; Wake, Cameron P.

    Trends in the annual flux of sulfate and nitrate in a new ice core collected at an elevation of 3017 m on Eclipse Icefield, 45 km northeast of Mt. Logan were examined to determine the effect of anthropogenic activity on precipitation chemistry in the remote northwest North America mid-troposphere. The annual flux of both sulfate and nitrate at Eclipse began increasing in the 1940s, demonstrating, for the first time, the anthropogenic sulfate and nitrate pollution of the northwest North American Arctic in an ice core from this region. Comparison of the Eclipse record with regional emission estimates for total sulfur and nitrogen oxides suggests that Eurasia is the dominant source of pollutants reaching Eclipse. The available data does not permit a confident assessment of the relative importance of European versus Soviet emissions in producing the observed trends in sulfate and nitrate at Eclipse.

  2. Vocal registers of the countertenor voice: Based on signals recorded and analyzed in VoceVista

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenez, Raymond

    Today's countertenors possess vocal ranges similar to the mezzo-soprano, and are trained to sing with a vibrant, focused tone. Little research has been conducted on the registers of the countertenor voice. Advancement in vocal techniques in the countertenor voice from the late 20th century to the present has been rapid. This treatise attempts to define the registers of the countertenor voice, and is intended as a resource for singers and teachers. The voices of eleven North American countertenors were recorded and analyzed using VoceVista Pro software, which was developed and designed by Donald Miller. Through spectrographic and electroglottographic analysis, the registers of the countertenor voice were identified and outlined.

  3. Normal and anomalous behaviour of electric, magnetic and seismoacoustic signals recorded in the Amare cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Plastino

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987 multichannel instrumentation has been recording electromagnetic and seismoacoustic emissions in the Amare cave (Gran Sasso í L'Aquila. Equipment detecting RMC (Principality of Monaco longwave broadcasting (216 kHz has been operating in the same place. Data collected during this period have pointed out two different phenomena called «quiet» and «perturbed» that characterize the normal behaviour of the cave. On 25 August 1992 an earthquake with M = 3.9 occurred in the Gran Sasso area and on 4 June 1993 an earthquake with M = 4.3 occurred in Umbria, 100 km to north of the Amare cave. Before these earthquakes, electromagnetic, seismoacoustic, and RMC data showed anomalies. Here we present the observed phenomenology and discuss the possibility that the anomalies can be considered precursors of the earthquakes.

  4. ENSO-Type Signals Recorded in the Late Cretaceous Laminated Sediments of Songliao Basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E.; Wang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.; Wu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The quasi-periodic, ca. 2-7 year El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon globally influences the inter-annual variability of temperature and precipitation. Global warming may increase the frequency of extreme ENSO events. Although the Cretaceous plate tectonic configuration was different from today, the sedimentary record suggests that ENSO-type oscillations had existed at the time of Cretaceous greenhouse conditions. Cored Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from the Songliao Basin in Northeast China (SK-1 cores from the International Continental Drilling Program) potentially offer a partially varved record of Cretaceous paleoclimate. Fourteen polished thin sections from the depth interval 1096.12-1096.53 m with an age of 84.4 Ma were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ImageJ software was applied to extract gray scale curves from optical images at pixel resolution. We tracked minimum values of the gray scale curves to estimate the thickness of each lamina. Five sedimentary structures were recognized: flaser bedding, wavy bedding, lenticular bedding, horizontal bedding, and massive layers. The mean layer thicknesses with different sedimentary structures range from 116 to 162mm, very close to the mean sedimentation rate estimated for this sampled interval, 135mm/year, indicating that the layers bounded by pure clay lamina with the minimum gray values are varves. SEM images indicate that a varve is composed, in succession, of one lamina rich in coarse silt, one lamina rich in fine silt, one clay-rich lamina with some silt, and one clay-rich lamina. This suggests that a Cretaceous year featured four distinct depositional seasons, two of which were rainy and the others were lacking precipitation. Spectral analysis of extended intervals of the tuned gray scale curve indicates the presence of inter-annual periodicities of 2.2-2.7 yr, 3.5-6.1 year, and 10.1-14.5 year consistent with those of modern ENSO cycles and solar cycles, as well as

  5. Neural signal processing and closed-loop control algorithm design for an implanted neural recording and stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lei; McConley, Marc; Angermueller, Kai; Goldberg, David; Corba, Massimiliano; Kim, Louis; Moran, James; Parks, Philip D; Sang Chin; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    A fully autonomous intracranial device is built to continually record neural activities in different parts of the brain, process these sampled signals, decode features that correlate to behaviors and neuropsychiatric states, and use these features to deliver brain stimulation in a closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we describe the sampling and stimulation aspects of such a device. We first describe the signal processing algorithms of two unsupervised spike sorting methods. Next, we describe the LFP time-frequency analysis and feature derivation from the two spike sorting methods. Spike sorting includes a novel approach to constructing a dictionary learning algorithm in a Compressed Sensing (CS) framework. We present a joint prediction scheme to determine the class of neural spikes in the dictionary learning framework; and, the second approach is a modified OSort algorithm which is implemented in a distributed system optimized for power efficiency. Furthermore, sorted spikes and time-frequency analysis of LFP signals can be used to generate derived features (including cross-frequency coupling, spike-field coupling). We then show how these derived features can be used in the design and development of novel decode and closed-loop control algorithms that are optimized to apply deep brain stimulation based on a patient's neuropsychiatric state. For the control algorithm, we define the state vector as representative of a patient's impulsivity, avoidance, inhibition, etc. Controller parameters are optimized to apply stimulation based on the state vector's current state as well as its historical values. The overall algorithm and software design for our implantable neural recording and stimulation system uses an innovative, adaptable, and reprogrammable architecture that enables advancement of the state-of-the-art in closed-loop neural control while also meeting the challenges of system power constraints and concurrent development with ongoing scientific research designed

  6. When the brain simulates stopping: Neural activity recorded during real and imagined stop-signal tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Bonilla, F Mauricio; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that mental rehearsal activates brain areas similar to those activated by real performance. Although inhibition is a key function of human behavior, there are no previous reports of brain activity during imagined response cancellation. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency data associated with motor execution and inhibition during real and imagined performance of a stop-signal task. The ERPs characteristic of stop trials-that is, the stop-N2 and stop-P3-were also observed during covert performance of the task. Imagined stop (IS) trials yielded smaller stop-N2 amplitudes than did successful stop (SS) and unsuccessful stop (US) trials, but midfrontal theta power similar to that in SS trials. The stop-P3 amplitude for IS was intermediate between those observed for SS and US. The results may be explained by the absence of error-processing and correction processes during imagined performance. For go trials, real execution was associated with higher mu and beta desynchronization over motor areas, which confirms previous reports of lower motor activation during imagined execution and also with larger P3b amplitudes, probably indicating increased top-down attention to the real task. The similar patterns of activity observed for imagined and real performance suggest that imagination tasks may be useful for training inhibitory processes. Nevertheless, brain activation was generally weaker during mental rehearsal, probably as a result of the reduced engagement of top-down mechanisms and limited error processing.

  7. Suppression of AC railway power-line interference in ECG signals recorded by public access defibrillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotsinsky Ivan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public access defibrillators (PADs are now available for more efficient and rapid treatment of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. PADs are used normally by untrained people on the streets and in sports centers, airports, and other public areas. Therefore, automated detection of ventricular fibrillation, or its exclusion, is of high importance. A special case exists at railway stations, where electric power-line frequency interference is significant. Many countries, especially in Europe, use 16.7 Hz AC power, which introduces high level frequency-varying interference that may compromise fibrillation detection. Method Moving signal averaging is often used for 50/60 Hz interference suppression if its effect on the ECG spectrum has little importance (no morphological analysis is performed. This approach may be also applied to the railway situation, if the interference frequency is continuously detected so as to synchronize the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC for introducing variable inter-sample intervals. A better solution consists of rated ADC, software frequency measuring, internal irregular re-sampling according to the interference frequency, and a moving average over a constant sample number, followed by regular back re-sampling. Results The proposed method leads to a total railway interference cancellation, together with suppression of inherent noise, while the peak amplitudes of some sharp complexes are reduced. This reduction has negligible effect on accurate fibrillation detection. Conclusion The method is developed in the MATLAB environment and represents a useful tool for real time railway interference suppression.

  8. Spectropolarimetry of the 2012 outburst of SN 2009ip: a bi-polar explosion in a dense, disc-like CSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Emma; Maund, Justyn R.; Baade, Dietrich; Wheeler, J. Craig; Höflich, Peter; Spyromilio, Jason; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan

    2017-09-01

    We present a sequence of eight spectropolarimetric observations monitoring the geometric evolution of the late phase of the major 2012 outburst of SN 2009ip. These were acquired with the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph polarimeter mounted on European Southern Observatory VLT. The continuum was polarized at 0.3-0.8 per cent throughout the observations, showing that the photosphere deviated substantially from spherical symmetry by 10-15 per cent. Significant line polarization is detected for both hydrogen and helium at high velocities. The similarity in the polarized signal between these elements indicates that they form in the same location in the ejecta. The line polarization (p ∼ 1-1.5 per cent) at low velocities revealed the presence of a highly aspherical hydrogen- and helium-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). Monte Carlo simulations of the observed polarimetry were performed in an effort to constrain the shape of the CSM. The simulations imply that the polarimetry can be understood within the framework of a disc-like CSM inclined by 14° ± 2° out of the line of sight, obscuring the photosphere only at certain epochs. The varying temporal evolution of polarization at high and low velocities indicated that the fast-moving ejecta expanded with a preferred direction orthogonal to that of the CSM.

  9. The climatic signal recorded in Sc\\varisoara Ice Cave (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) during the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bǎdǎlutǎ, Carmen-Andreea; Persoiu, Aurel

    2016-04-01

    The climatic signal recorded by proxy indicators in ice caves can provide valuable information on environmental changes during the Holocene. One of the best-known sites for climate and environmental reconstructions in Romania is Sc\\varisoara Ice Cave (Apuseni Mountains), which hosts the largest and oldest cave ice accumulation in the world. In this paper we present the variations of mid-autumn through mid-winter air temperature for the last 1000 years, as recorded by the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in the underground ice body in Sc\\varisoara Ice Cave. We have extracted a 10 m long, 10 cm diameter, ice core and measured the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen along the length of the core. Six radiocarbon dates provide the chronological control of the profile. The data set shows differences in δ¹⁸O (δ2H show similar variations and is not discussed) between the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA), with lower values between 1857-1805 and 1771-1592, and the minimum recorded in 1848 (δ¹⁸O =-12.5‰). This period was cold, with dry winters. In opposition, in the MWP, we have observed an increase in δ¹⁸O values, whit the maximum recorded in 1003 (δ¹⁸O =-7.7‰). At its height, the MWP extended from 1003 to 1131. D-excess values for the same period show both rapid changes in the source of precipitation, between Atlantic and Mediterranean ones, as well as a predominance of the positive NAO phase during the MWP and a somewhat erratic ANO behavior during the subsequent LIA. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has received funding from EEA Financial Mecanism 2009 - 2014 under the project contract no 18SEE.

  10. Automatic BSS-based filtering of metallic interference in MEG recordings: definition and validation using simulated signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorelli, Carolina; Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A.; Nowak, Rafał; Russi, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Objective. One of the principal drawbacks of magnetoencephalography (MEG) is its high sensitivity to metallic artifacts, which come from implanted intracranial electrodes and dental ferromagnetic prosthesis and produce a high distortion that masks cerebral activity. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic algorithm based on blind source separation (BSS) techniques to remove metallic artifacts from MEG signals. Approach. Three methods were evaluated: AMUSE, a second-order technique; and INFOMAX and FastICA, both based on high-order statistics. Simulated signals consisting of real artifact-free data mixed with real metallic artifacts were generated to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of BSS and the subsequent interference reduction. A completely automatic detection of metallic-related components was proposed, exploiting the known characteristics of the metallic interference: regularity and low frequency content. Main results. The automatic procedure was applied to the simulated datasets and the three methods exhibited different performances. Results indicated that AMUSE preserved and consequently recovered more brain activity than INFOMAX and FastICA. Normalized mean squared error for AMUSE decomposition remained below 2%, allowing an effective removal of artifactual components. Significance. To date, the performance of automatic artifact reduction has not been evaluated in MEG recordings. The proposed methodology is based on an automatic algorithm that provides an effective interference removal. This approach can be applied to any MEG dataset affected by metallic artifacts as a processing step, allowing further analysis of unusable or poor quality data.

  11. Recording human electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals for neuroscientific research and real-time functional cortical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N Jeremy; Gupta, Disha; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Adamo, Matthew A; Ritaccio, Anthony; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-06-26

    Neuroimaging studies of human cognitive, sensory, and motor processes are usually based on noninvasive techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography or functional magnetic-resonance imaging. These techniques have either inherently low temporal or low spatial resolution, and suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and/or poor high-frequency sensitivity. Thus, they are suboptimal for exploring the short-lived spatio-temporal dynamics of many of the underlying brain processes. In contrast, the invasive technique of electrocorticography (ECoG) provides brain signals that have an exceptionally high signal-to-noise ratio, less susceptibility to artifacts than EEG, and a high spatial and temporal resolution (i.e., computer interfacing (BCI) technology for decoding a user's intentions to enhance or improve communication and control. Nevertheless, human ECoG data are often hard to obtain because of the risks and limitations of the invasive procedures involved, and the need to record within the constraints of clinical settings. Still, clinical monitoring to localize epileptic foci offers a unique and valuable opportunity to collect human ECoG data. We describe our methods for collecting recording ECoG, and demonstrate how to use these signals for important real-time applications such as clinical mapping and brain-computer interfacing. Our example uses the BCI2000 software platform and the SIGFRIED method, an application for real-time mapping of brain functions. This procedure yields information that clinicians can subsequently use to guide the complex and laborious process of functional mapping by electrical stimulation. PREREQUISITES AND PLANNING: Patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy may be candidates for resective surgery of an epileptic focus to minimize the frequency of seizures. Prior to resection, the patients undergo monitoring using subdural electrodes for two purposes: first, to localize the epileptic focus, and second, to identify

  12. QSpike Tools: a Generic Framework for Parallel Batch Preprocessing of Extracellular Neuronal Signals Recorded by Substrate Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufti eMahmud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs have emerged as a mature technique to investigate brain (dysfunctions in vivo and in in vitro animal models. Often referred to as smart Petri dishes, MEAs has demonstrated a great potential particularly for medium-throughput studies in vitro, both in academic and pharmaceutical industrial contexts. Enabling rapid comparison of ionic/pharmacological/genetic manipulations with control conditions, MEAs are often employed to screen compounds by monitoring non-invasively the spontaneous and evoked neuronal electrical activity in longitudinal studies, with relatively inexpensive equipment. However, in order to acquire sufficient statistical significance, recordings last up to tens of minutes and generate large amount of raw data (e.g., 60 channels/MEA, 16 bits A/D conversion, 20kHz sampling rate: ~8GB/MEA,h uncompressed. Thus, when the experimental conditions to be tested are numerous, the availability of fast, standardized, and automated signal preprocessing becomes pivotal for any subsequent analysis and data archiving. To this aim, we developed an in-house cloud-computing system, named QSpike Tools, where CPU-intensive operations, required for preprocessing of each recorded channel (e.g., filtering, multi-unit activity detection, spike-sorting, etc., are decomposed and batch-queued to a multi-core architecture or to computer cluster. With the commercial availability of new and inexpensive high-density MEAs, we believe that disseminating QSpike Tools might facilitate its wide adoption and customization, and possibly inspire the creation of community-supported cloud-computing facilities for MEAs users.

  13. QSpike tools: a generic framework for parallel batch preprocessing of extracellular neuronal signals recorded by substrate microelectrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mufti; Pulizzi, Rocco; Vasilaki, Eleni; Giugliano, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) have emerged as a mature technique to investigate brain (dys)functions in vivo and in in vitro animal models. Often referred to as "smart" Petri dishes, MEAs have demonstrated a great potential particularly for medium-throughput studies in vitro, both in academic and pharmaceutical industrial contexts. Enabling rapid comparison of ionic/pharmacological/genetic manipulations with control conditions, MEAs are employed to screen compounds by monitoring non-invasively the spontaneous and evoked neuronal electrical activity in longitudinal studies, with relatively inexpensive equipment. However, in order to acquire sufficient statistical significance, recordings last up to tens of minutes and generate large amount of raw data (e.g., 60 channels/MEA, 16 bits A/D conversion, 20 kHz sampling rate: approximately 8 GB/MEA,h uncompressed). Thus, when the experimental conditions to be tested are numerous, the availability of fast, standardized, and automated signal preprocessing becomes pivotal for any subsequent analysis and data archiving. To this aim, we developed an in-house cloud-computing system, named QSpike Tools, where CPU-intensive operations, required for preprocessing of each recorded channel (e.g., filtering, multi-unit activity detection, spike-sorting, etc.), are decomposed and batch-queued to a multi-core architecture or to a computers cluster. With the commercial availability of new and inexpensive high-density MEAs, we believe that disseminating QSpike Tools might facilitate its wide adoption and customization, and inspire the creation of community-supported cloud-computing facilities for MEAs users.

  14. Luni-solar 18.6- and solar cycle 10 - 11-year signals in USA air temperature records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, R. G.

    1993-02-01

    Spectrum analysis of 1197 USA air temperature records yields evidence for two peaks with periods 18.8±1.7 and 10.4±0.5 years. Tests by the t-statistic show that both are significant at confidence levels of 99.9 per cent, and both account for 23 per cent of total variance in the raw data. They are identified as the luni-solar 18.6 year Mn and solar cycle Sc 10 - 11 year signals in climate, induced by the twelfth largest constituent tide acting on the Earth and a variation of 10 to 11 years in the Sun's luminosity of the order of 0.1 per cent. Amplitude and phase of Mn wavetrains are highly non-stationary with respect to both time and geography; in particular, abrupt 180° phase changes in wave polarity are often observed. Amplitude and phase of the Sc waves are also highly non-stationary.

  15. Links between climate and the transmission times of biomarker signals to aquatic sediments: Implications for interpretation of the sedimentary record (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, T. I.

    2010-12-01

    The abundances and stable isotopic signatures of biomarker compounds preserved in aquatic sediments are increasingly being used to infer a diverse array of paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information. With continuing analytical advances and development of streamlined methodological approaches, there is growing emphasis on biomarker-based reconstructions of past climate at high temporal resolution, and as part of multi-proxy investigations. Crucial to the accurate interpretation of such records is a robust understanding of the provenance of the molecular signals. There is also often an implicit assumption that the delivery of these signals from their biological source to the sedimentary archive is virtually instantaneous. However, there is growing evidence from biomarker-specific radiocarbon measurements that transport may take several hundred to several thousand years. In the case of markers of vascular plant vegetation, storage in soils and at other locations within terrestrial drainage basins may induce significant temporal lags, while in the marine environment episodes of sediment resuspension and redistribution prior to burial have also been inferred to create significant temporal offsets in algal biomarker sedimentary records. The magnitude of such temporal lags may also vary as a function of climate, potentially yielding complex age relationships between proxy records through time. This presentation will present several case studies using molecular-level 14C measurements in order to explore the interplay between biomarker signal transmission times and past climate variability. The implications for interpretation of biomarker records and the additional information that may be embedded within temporal relationships between sedimentary components will be discussed.

  16. Monitoring the terrestrial water cycle with reflected GPS signals recorded by the Plate Boundary Observatory Network (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Braun, J.; Chew, C. C.; McCreight, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Data from NSF's EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and similar GPS networks worldwide, can be used to monitor the terrestrial water cycle. GPS satellites transmit L-band microwave signals, which are strongly influenced by water at the surface of the Earth. GPS signals take two different paths: (1) the 'direct' signal travels from the satellite to the antenna; (2) the 'reflected' signal interacts with the Earth's surface before travelling to the antenna. The direct signal is used by geophysicists to measure the position of the antenna. By analyzing these GPS data over multiple years, the motion of the site can be estimated. The effects of reflected signals are generally ignored by geophysicists because they are small. This is not happenstance, as significant effort has been made to design and deploy a GPS antenna that suppresses ground reflections. Our group has developed a new remote sensing technique to retrieve terrestrial water cycle variables from GPS data. We extract the water cycle products from signal strength data that measures the interference between the direct and reflected GPS signals. The sensing footprint is intermediate in scale between in situ observations and most remote sensing measurements. Snow depth, soil moisture, and an index of vegetation water content are estimated from data collected at over 400 PBO sites. The products are updated daily and are available online. Validation studies show that retrieved products are of sufficient quality to be used in a variety of applications. In order to improve the resolution of GPS water cycle products, we are also developing a new sensor especially designed to measure reflected GPS signals. This will yield a more sensitive instrument that costs an order of magnitude less than existing geodetic-quality GPS systems. Such a technology would have broad applications in both research and agricultural settings.

  17. PBO H2O: Monitoring the Terrestrial Water Cycle with reflected GPS signals recorded by the Plate Boundary Observatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, E. E.; Fairfax, E. J.; Chew, C. C.; Larson, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Data from NSF's EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and similar GPS networks worldwide, can be used to monitor the terrestrial water cycle. GPS satellites transmit L-band microwave signals, which are strongly influenced by water at the surface of the Earth. GPS signals take two different paths: (1) the "direct" signal travels from the satellite to the antenna; (2) the "reflected" signal interacts with the Earth's surface before travelling to the antenna. The direct signal is used by geophysicists to measure the position of the antenna. By analyzing these GPS data over multiple years, the motion of the site can be estimated. The effects of reflected signals are generally ignored by geophysicists because they are small. This is not happenstance, as significant effort has been made to design and deploy a GPS antenna that suppresses ground reflections. Our group has developed a remote sensing technique to retrieve terrestrial water cycle variables from GPS data. We extract the water cycle products from signal strength data that measures the interference between the direct and reflected GPS signals. The sensing footprint is intermediate in scale between in situ observations and most remote sensing measurements. Snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), near surface soil moisture, and an index of vegetation water content are currently estimated from nearly 500 PBO sites. These PBO H2O products are updated daily and are available online (http://xenon.colorado.edu/portal/index.php). Validation studies show that retrieved products are of sufficient quality to be used in a variety of applications. The root mean square error (RMSE) of GPS-based SWE is 2 cm, based on a comparison to snow survey data at nearly 20 GPS sites. The RMSE of near surface volumetric soil moisture is moisture and similar products.

  18. 鼻内镜下双极电凝治疗老年人顽固性鼻出血38例疗效分析%Bi-polar electrocoagulation under nosal endoscope for treatment of intractable epistaxis in the elderly: a report of 38 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 汪艳萍; 彭秀丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the effect of bi-polar electrocoagulation under nosal endoscope in treatment of intractable epistaxis in the elderly. Methods:Thirty-eight elderly patients with intractable epistaxis were checked by nosa endoscope and performed bi-polar electrocoagulation once the hemorrhagic focus was detected. Results:Hemorrhagic focus was detected by nosal endoscope in 37 cases and no definite hemorrhagic focus was found in 1 case. Thirty-six cases were cured on the first treatment, and 2 cases with hypertension that still had slight bleeding after treatment were cured after the blood pressure was controlled. All the cases were followed up for 3 months ;no recurrence or complication were observed. Conclusions:The nasal endoscope can locate the epistaxis focus precisely; bipolar electrocoagulation is an effective means for treatment of intractable epistaxis in the elderly.%目的:观察鼻内镜下双极电凝治疗老年人顽固性鼻出血的疗效.方法:对38例老年人顽固性鼻出血在鼻内镜下寻找出血点,并行双极电凝止血.结果:37例找到明确出血点,1例未见明确出血点.双极电凝一次治愈36例,2例伴有高血压病的患者电凝后仍有少量出血,经控制血压后治愈.术后未出现并发症,随诊3个月均未发生再出血.结论:老年人顽固性鼻出血鼻内镜下可准确寻找到出血点,双极电凝能有效止血.

  19. Optimal signal bandwidth for the recording of surface EMG activity of facial, jaw, oral, and neck muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, A.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous pericranial electromyographic (EMG) activity is generally small and is contaminated by strong low-frequency artifacts. High-pass filtering should suppress artifacts but affect EMG signal power only minimally. In 24 subjects who performed a warned simple reaction time task, the optimal hi

  20. Tectonic, human and climate signal over the last 4000 years in the Lake Amik record (southern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouahabi, Meriam; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline; Lepoint, Gilles; Karabacak, Volkan; Schmidt, Sabine; Fagel, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the upper sediments infilling the central part of the Amik Basin in Southern Turkey. The Amik Basin is located in a tectonically active area: it is crossed by the Dead Sea Fault, a major neotectonic structure in the Middle East extending from the Red Sea in the South to the East Anatolian Fault Zone in the North. Continuous human occupation is attested since 6000-7000 BC in the Amik Basin. The study focuses on the sedimentary record of the Lake Amik occupying the central part of the Basin. Our objective is to constrain major paleo-environmental changes over the last 4000 years. The lake has been drained and progressively dried up since the mid-50s. The absence of water column during the summer season allows to collect lacustrine samples along a 5 meter depth trench with a sampling resolution of 1 to 2 cm. Diverse complementary methods were applied to characterize the sedimentary record: i.e. magnetic susceptibility, grain size, organic and inorganic matter by loss-of-ignition, mineralogy by X-ray diffraction and core scanner X-ray fluorescence (XRF) geochemistry. The age of the record is constrained combining radionuclide and radiocarbon datings. Structural disturbances observed in the lacustrine sediments record are linked with major historical earthquakes from the 6th to the 9th century AD due to the Hasipasa Fault rupture. In addition to the tectonic influence, the sedimentary record clearly shows two periods indicating strong soil erosion in the lake catchment: (1) the most recent erosion phase occurs over the Roman period to Present; (2) the oldest one would have occurred during the Late Bronze period. Such changes are most probably related to change in land use. In term of climate influences, the mineralogical and geochemical results allow to evidence variations in chemical weathering conditions in the watershed and lake water level fluctuations, respectively. The clay mineral assemblages attest for significant pedogenesis

  1. A multi-channel low-power system-on-chip for single-unit recording and narrowband wireless transmission of neural signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, A; Ceravolo, M; Zambra, G; Gusmeroli, R; Spinelli, A S; Lacaita, A L; Angotzi, G N; Baranauskas, G; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a multi-channel neural recording system-on-chip (SoC) with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of a 16 amplifiers, an analog time division multiplexer, an 8-bit SAR AD converter, a digital signal processor (DSP) and a wireless narrowband 400-MHz binary FSK transmitter. Even though only 16 amplifiers are present in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64 channels demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. A digital data compression, based on the detection of action potentials and storage of correspondent waveforms, allows the use of a 1.25-Mbit/s binary FSK wireless transmission. This moderate bit-rate and a low frequency deviation, Manchester-coded modulation are crucial for exploiting a narrowband wireless link and an efficient embeddable antenna. The chip is realized in a 0.35- εm CMOS process with a power consumption of 105 εW per channel (269 εW per channel with an extended transmission range of 4 m) and an area of 3.1 × 2.7 mm(2). The transmitted signal is captured by a digital TV tuner and demodulated by a wideband phase-locked loop (PLL), and then sent to a PC via an FPGA module. The system has been tested for electrical specifications and its functionality verified in in-vivo neural recording experiments.

  2. Fractal analysis of electroencephalographic signals intracerebrally recorded during 35 epileptic seizures: evaluation of a new method for synoptic visualisation of ictal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullmore, E T; Brammer, M J; Bourlon, P; Alarcon, G; Polkey, C E; Elwes, R; Binnie, C D

    1994-11-01

    Traditional electroencephalography (EEG) produces a large volume display of brain electrical activity, which creates problems particularly in assessment of long periods of intracranial, stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) recording. A method for fractal analysis that describes 100 SEEG data points in terms of a single estimate of fractal dimension (1 signal (using a Sun SPARCstation LX). The diagnostic sensitivity of this method, applied to quantification and synoptic visualisation of SEEG signals recorded during 35 epileptic seizures in 7 patients, is evaluated. It is found that the method consistently defines ictal onset in terms of rapid relative increase in FD across several channels. Clinically severe seizures are characterised by more intense and generalised ictal changes in FD than clinically less severe events. For all 7 patients, and for 75% of individual seizures, "fractal diagnoses" of anatomically defined ictal onset zone coincided closely with ictal onset zone independently determined by inspection of traditional EEG displays of the same data. We conclude that the method is a computationally feasible way to achieve substantial reduction in the volume of SEEG data without undue loss of diagnostically important information in the primary signal.

  3. Micro-seismic Signals Recorded During Fast Depressurization of Natural Volcanic Samples in a Shock Tube Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M.; Dingwell, D. B.; Scheu, B.; Delgado Granados, H.; Navarrete Montesinos, M.; Richard, D.; Kueppers, U.; Lavallée, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions generate different types of seismic signals in a wide frequency bandwidth. Volcano seismology studies have dealt with analyzing seismic signals characteristics and waveform patterns in order to discriminate between source, path and site effects and reconstruct the volcanic source dynamics. The source may involve brittle failure, magma transport, magma fragmentation, bubble collapse, fluid depressurization, fluid instabilities, degassing or a combination of these processes. Given the complexity of the volcanic source dynamics and the impossibility to undertake direct observations of the source, laboratory experiments provide a promising approach to investigate the source process. In this study we present preliminary results of an experimental approach in a shock tube apparatus. The apparatus consists of two serial steel pipes separated by a diaphragm: the autoclave which represents the "source mechanism", where the samples are pressurized and fragmented, and a tank which represents a conduit. The physical mechanism consists of the slow pressurization (using Argon gas) followed by rapid depressurization of natural samples of ash (> 0.5 mm), pumice (with average porosity of 63%,) and fragmented particles of pumice. Several experiments were designed under controlled pressure conditions (ranging from 4 to 20 MPa), at room temperature. Micro-seismic signals were detected during the depressurization process using high dynamic piezo film sensors (PDF, 0.001 - 10 G Hz analog bandwidth, low impedance), fixed and distributed along the tube system. In addition, two laser beams (wavelength 532 nm) measure the speed of the ejected materials; all sensors were correlated and synchronized with two dynamic pressure sensors located at the autoclave. The resonance of the empty tube apparatus was characterized in order to distinguish between natural resonance of the tank due to the pressure shock wave and the signals generated by depressurization of the system and

  4. Fabric circuit board-based dry electrode and its characteristics for long-term physiological signal recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jerald; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a dry fabric electrode and its characteristics. For long-term physiological signal monitoring, conventional wet type electrode such as an Ag/AgCl electrode may not be sufficient, because captured signal strength degrades over time as its electrolyte dehydrates. Moreover, the electrolyte may cause skin irritation over a period of time. As a complement, a dry electrode can be used. In this work, fabric-based dry electrodes are introduced. Planar-Fabric Circuit Board (P-FCB) technology enables low cost and uniform productions of such electrodes; electrical properties of the electrodes with various materials, sizes, and time are shown. Both the strengths and drawbacks of the fabric-based electrodes are also discussed.

  5. Detection of Multiple Innervation Zones from Multi-Channel Surface EMG Recordings with Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Using Graph-Cut Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi, Morteza; Rojas, Monica; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the location of muscle Innervation Zones (IZs) is important in many applications, e.g. for minimizing the quantity of injected botulinum toxin for the treatment of spasticity or for deciding on the type of episiotomy during child delivery. Surface EMG (sEMG) can be noninvasively recorded to assess physiological and morphological characteristics of contracting muscles. However, it is not often possible to record signals of high quality. Moreover, muscles could have multiple IZs, which should all be identified. We designed a fully-automatic algorithm based on the enhanced image Graph-Cut segmentation and morphological image processing methods to identify up to five IZs in 60-ms intervals of very-low to moderate quality sEMG signal detected with multi-channel electrodes (20 bipolar channels with Inter Electrode Distance (IED) of 5 mm). An anisotropic multilayered cylinder model was used to simulate 750 sEMG signals with signal-to-noise ratio ranging from -5 to 15 dB (using Gaussian noise) and in each 60-ms signal frame, 1 to 5 IZs were included. The micro- and macro- averaged performance indices were then reported for the proposed IZ detection algorithm. In the micro-averaging procedure, the number of True Positives, False Positives and False Negatives in each frame were summed up to generate cumulative measures. In the macro-averaging, on the other hand, precision and recall were calculated for each frame and their averages are used to determine F1-score. Overall, the micro (macro)-averaged sensitivity, precision and F1-score of the algorithm for IZ channel identification were 82.7% (87.5%), 92.9% (94.0%) and 87.5% (90.6%), respectively. For the correctly identified IZ locations, the average bias error was of 0.02±0.10 IED ratio. Also, the average absolute conduction velocity estimation error was 0.41±0.40 m/s for such frames. The sensitivity analysis including increasing IED and reducing interpolation coefficient for time samples was performed

  6. Estimating the regional climate signal in a late Pleistocene and early Holocene lake-sediment δ18O record from Vermont, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Maximilian Benedict; Shuman, Bryan Nolan; Marsicek, Jeremiah; Grigg, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    We present a new oxygen isotope (δ18O) record from carbonate-rich lake sediments from central Vermont. The record from Twin Ponds spans from 13.5 cal ka BP (1950 AD) to present, but contains a 6 ka long hiatus starting shortly after 7.5 cal ka BP. We compare the record for ca. 13.5-7.5 cal ka BP with published δ18O data from the region after using a Bayesian approach to produce many possible chronologies for each site. Principal component analysis then identified chronologically-robust, multi-site oxygen isotope signals, including negative values during the Younger Dryas, but no significant deviations from the early Holocene mean of the regional records. However, differences among sites indicate significant trends that likely relate to interacting changes in the regional gradients of seasonal temperatures and precipitation as well as moisture sources, moisture pathways, and aridity that were controlled by large-scale climatic controls such as insolation, the progressive decline of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, and changes in oceanic circulation. Centennial shifts punctuate these trends at ca. 9.3 and 8.2 cal ka BP, and reveal that the local character of these short-lived features requires a detailed understanding of lake hydrology and regional isotopic gradients to yield reliable information for regional climate reconstructions.

  7. ENSO signals and their spatial-temporal variation characteristics recorded by the sea-level changes in the northwest Pacific margin during 1965-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN LinWang; YU ZhaoYuan; XIE ZhiRen; SONG ZhiYao; L(U) GuoNian

    2009-01-01

    Sea-level is closely linked to the Earth's climate and its change is important as a metric for global and regional climate change.Identifying,extracting,and revealing such information through detailed analysis is the prerequisite for understanding the mechanisms of sea-level change.The monthly- av-erage tide-change records reported and examined in this paper are from 10 tide gauge stations dis-tributed in the northwest margin of the Pacific Ocean,registered during the period 1965-2005.In particular,we have utilized the Second Order Blind Identification (SOBI) method to identify and the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method to extract the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) sig-nals imprinted in those tide gauge records; and subsequently,we have investigated the spa-tial-temporal characteristics of the extracted ENSO signals using wavelet analysis methods.The fol-lowing results are obtained:(1) the ENSO events recorded by each tide gauge series are of different types and intensity,which show considerable temporal-spatial variation characteristics,with sea-level responses to ENSO signals remarkably stronger in low latitude areas than in medium-high latitude areas; (2) due to the influences of ocean currents,topographical conditions,and other factors,there exist variations in the type of relationship between the sea-level changes and the recorded ENSO events at different latitudes; (3) sea-level changes can also denote scale-variation characteristics of ENSO events,and particularly,since 1980s,all the tide gauges located south of Kanmen show intense responses to ENSO and the timescale of ENSO events extended gradually from around 4 years to 2-8 years,reflecting variations in the intensity and frequency of ENSO events; and (4) reverse changes of certain scale were noted before and after strong ENSO events recorded by sea-level changes,sup-porting the research findings about the interaction (mutual coupling and superimposition) between the probability of occurrence

  8. Analysis of self-potential earthquake-related signals recorded in Mexico by using the Fisher Information Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, L.; Lovallo, M.; Ramirez-Rojas, A.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2009-04-01

    The time fluctuations of self-potential data, recorded at the monitoring station Acapulco (Mexico) during 1994-1996 in the seismic area of Guerrero-Oaxaca, are analyzed by means of the Fisher Information Measure (FIM), a nonlinear powerful method to investigate complex dynamics in time series. The time evolution of the FIM shows a clear correlation with the largest earthquakes occurred in the monitored area during the observation period. Seismic precursory patterns in the FIM evolution are also revealed. This work has been performed in the frame of the scientific bilateral agreement CNR/CONACYT.

  9. The Pleistocene vermicular red earth in South China signaling the global climatic change: The molecular fossil record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Shucheng; (谢树成); YI; Yi; (易; 轶); LIU; Yuyan; (刘育燕); GU; Yansheng; (顾延生); MA; Zhenxing; (马振兴); LIN; Wenjiao; (林文姣); WANG; Xianyan; (王先彦); LIU; Gang; (刘; 刚); LIANG; Bin; (梁; 斌); ZHU; Zongmin; (朱宗敏)

    2003-01-01

    The trace molecular fossils identified in the Pleistocene vermicular red earth by using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis include n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols and n-alkan-2-ones. The variations of the n-alkane parameters appear to bear significant climate information, in striking contrast to the oxygen-bearing molecules (n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols) believed to be more easily reworked by post-depositional processes. Of importance in paleoclimate reconstruction are the ratios of C27/C31 n-alkane indicative of the replacement of woody plants by grassy vegetation, and C15-21/C22-33 n-alkane representative of the relative abundance between microorganisms and higher plants. The profile trends of the two n-alkane ratios are comparable to the marine oxygen isotope record among stages 4-20. These molecular fossil records implicate that the Pleistocene vermicular red earth widespread in South China was formed in coupling to the global climatic change and could be an important climate carrier.

  10. Prediction of three-dimensional arm trajectories based on ECoG signals recorded from human sensorimotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yasuhiko; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Shin, Duk; Fukuma, Ryohei; Chen, Chao; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Natsue; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Koike, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Brain-machine interface techniques have been applied in a number of studies to control neuromotor prostheses and for neurorehabilitation in the hopes of providing a means to restore lost motor function. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has seen recent use in this regard because it offers a higher spatiotemporal resolution than non-invasive EEG and is less invasive than intracortical microelectrodes. Although several studies have already succeeded in the inference of computer cursor trajectories and finger flexions using human ECoG signals, precise three-dimensional (3D) trajectory reconstruction for a human limb from ECoG has not yet been achieved. In this study, we predicted 3D arm trajectories in time series from ECoG signals in humans using a novel preprocessing method and a sparse linear regression. Average Pearson's correlation coefficients and normalized root-mean-square errors between predicted and actual trajectories were 0.44~0.73 and 0.18~0.42, respectively, confirming the feasibility of predicting 3D arm trajectories from ECoG. We foresee this method contributing to future advancements in neuroprosthesis and neurorehabilitation technology.

  11. Prediction of three-dimensional arm trajectories based on ECoG signals recorded from human sensorimotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Nakanishi

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface techniques have been applied in a number of studies to control neuromotor prostheses and for neurorehabilitation in the hopes of providing a means to restore lost motor function. Electrocorticography (ECoG has seen recent use in this regard because it offers a higher spatiotemporal resolution than non-invasive EEG and is less invasive than intracortical microelectrodes. Although several studies have already succeeded in the inference of computer cursor trajectories and finger flexions using human ECoG signals, precise three-dimensional (3D trajectory reconstruction for a human limb from ECoG has not yet been achieved. In this study, we predicted 3D arm trajectories in time series from ECoG signals in humans using a novel preprocessing method and a sparse linear regression. Average Pearson's correlation coefficients and normalized root-mean-square errors between predicted and actual trajectories were 0.44~0.73 and 0.18~0.42, respectively, confirming the feasibility of predicting 3D arm trajectories from ECoG. We foresee this method contributing to future advancements in neuroprosthesis and neurorehabilitation technology.

  12. Coupled High Speed Imaging and Seismo-Acoustic Recordings of Strombolian Explosions at Etna, July 2014: Implications for Source Processes and Signal Inversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Del Bello, E.; Scarlato, P.; Ricci, T.; Andronico, D.; Kueppers, U.; Cannata, A.; Sesterhenn, J.; Spina, L.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic and acoustic surveillance is routinely performed at several persistent activity volcanoes worldwide. However, interpretation of the signals associated with explosive activity is still equivocal, due to both source variability and the intrinsically limited information carried by the waves. Comparison and cross-correlation of the geophysical quantities with other information in general and visual recording in particular is therefore actively sought. At Etna (Italy) in July 2014, short-lived Strombolian explosions ejected bomb- to lapilli-sized, molten pyroclasts at a remarkably repeatable time interval of about two seconds, offering a rare occasion to systematically investigate the seismic and acoustic fields radiated by this common volcanic source. We deployed FAMoUS (FAst, MUltiparametric Setup for the study of explosive activity) at 260 meters from the vents, recording more than 60 explosions in thermal and visible high-speed videos (50 to 500 frames per second) and broadband seismic and acoustic instruments (1 to 10000 Hz for the acoustic and from 0.01 to 30 Hz for the seismic). Analysis of this dataset highlights nonlinear relationships between the exit velocity and mass of ejecta and the amplitude and frequency of the acoustic signals. It also allows comparing different methods to estimate source depth, and to validate existing theory on the coupling of airwaves with ground motion.

  13. Advanced Recording and Preprocessing of Physiological Signals. [data processing equipment for flow measurement of blood flow by ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of the volume flow-rate of blood in an artery or vein requires both an estimate of the flow velocity and its spatial distribution and the corresponding cross-sectional area. Transcutaneous measurements of these parameters can be performed using ultrasonic techniques that are analogous to the measurement of moving objects by use of a radar. Modern digital data recording and preprocessing methods were applied to the measurement of blood-flow velocity by means of the CW Doppler ultrasonic technique. Only the average flow velocity was measured and no distribution or size information was obtained. Evaluations of current flowmeter design and performance, ultrasonic transducer fabrication methods, and other related items are given. The main thrust was the development of effective data-handling and processing methods by application of modern digital techniques. The evaluation resulted in useful improvements in both the flowmeter instrumentation and the ultrasonic transducers. Effective digital processing algorithms that provided enhanced blood-flow measurement accuracy and sensitivity were developed. Block diagrams illustrative of the equipment setup are included.

  14. Time-frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou Cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers Cedex (France)

    2004-03-07

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers.

  15. The design of CMOS general-purpose analog front-end circuit with tunable gain and bandwidth for biopotential signal recording systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ming; Yang, Wen-Chia; Tsai, Tzung-Yun; Chiueh, Herming; Wu, Chung-Yu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an 8-channel CMOS general-purpose analog front-end (AFE) circuit with tunable gain and bandwidth for biopotential signal recording systems is presented. The proposed AFE consists of eight chopper stabilized pre-amplifiers, an 8-to-1 analog multiplexer, and a programmable gain amplifier. It can be used to sense and amplify different kinds of biopotential signals, such as electrocorticogram (ECoG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG). The AFE chip is designed and fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The measured maximum gain of AFE is 60.8 dB. The low cutoff frequency can achieve as low as 0.8 Hz and high cutoff frequency can be adjusted from 200 Hz to 10 kHz to suit for different kinds of biopotential signals. The measured input-referred noise is 0.9 μV(rms), with the power consumption of 18μW per channel at 1.8-V power supply. And the noise efficiency factor (NEF) is only 1.3 for pre-amplifier.

  16. Do three massive coral species from the same reef record the same SST signal? A test from the Dry Tortugas, Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, K.L.; Poore, R.Z.; Reich, C.D.; Flannery, J.A.; Maupin, Christopher R.; Quinn, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paleoclimatologists have reconstructed century-long records of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific using the Sr/Ca of massive corals, whereas similar reconstructions in the Atlantic have not proceeded at the same pace. Past research in the Florida Keys has focused on Montastrea spp., an abundant and fast-growing massive coral, thus a good candidate for climate reconstructions. However, coral records from the Florida Keys are complicated by freshwater flux, which varies the Sr/Ca in seawater, thus confounding the Sr/Ca to SST signal. In this research, we compared the monthly Sr/Ca variations in three massive corals species (Montastraea faveolata, Diploria strigosa, and Siderastrea siderea) from the same reef in the nearly pristine Dry Tortugas National Park (24.70N, 82.80W) at the southwestern extent of the Florida Keys. This location is ideal for a calibration study as hourly water temperature records are available and the remote reef is far from mainland freshwater influence. These corals experienced the same environmental conditions (water depth, clarity, Sr/Ca of seawater, etc.) but differ in the mean annual growth rates (0.86 ±0.10 (1σ) cm/year M. faveolata; 0.67 ±0.04 (1σ) cm/year D. strigosa; 0.44 ±0.04 (1σ) cm/year S. siderea). The mean Sr/Ca values are not the same but decrease with mean annual growth rates (9.201 ±0.091 (1σ) mmol/mol M. faveolata; 9.177 ±0.081 (1σ) mmol/mol D. strigosa; 8.964 ±0.12 (1σ) mmol/mol S. siderea), thus supporting the “vital effect” or biological differences during calcification between coral species. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle in Sr/Ca varies with the slower growing S. sidereahaving the largest mean amplitude and D. strigosa the smallest (0.340 mmol/mol S. siderea; 0.284 mmol/mol M. faveolata; 0.238 mmol/mol D. strigosa). We confirmed our sampling methods by conducting several intracolony and intercolony coral Sr/Ca replication tests and found a high correlation in all tests (>0.95

  17. Methodology of percutaneous bi-polar radiofrequency ablation of thyroid adenomas under ultrasound guidance and monitoring%超声引导监测下经皮射频消融甲状腺腺瘤的方法学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章建全; 马娜; 徐斌; 刘灿; 宋家琳; 刁宗平

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a treatment proposal of thyroid adenoma by using percutaneous radiofrequency ablation(RFA) and investigate its techniques and skills, means and steps, and safety and efficacy. Methods Contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided percutaneous RFA of thyroid adenomas were conducted on 202 patients by using an auto-controlled bi-polar electrode system. The indications of thyroid RFA,the optimal puncture route,the ways of anesthesia administration, protection of vital neck vessels and recurrent laryngeal nerve(RLN) and reduction of bleeding from core biopsy, indicators of ending ablation procedure following a complete ablation were investigated and analyzed. Resalts An adenoma smaller than 20 mm in maximal diameter was the optimal candidate for RFA. Either of two puncture routes could be selected upon the target lesion's location. Areas surrounding to the thyroid capsule needed adequate local anesthesia to kill pain. Liquid-isolating maneuver could effectively protect carotid artery and RLN from core needle cutting and electrode heating injury. Advanced block of supplying arteries with heating markedly reduced bleeding involved in the biopsy. Multipoint and multicenter ablation was essential to a complete coagulation. Filling-defect in the ablated adenoma on CEUS was the key sign to terminate ablation procedure. Conclusions Percutaneous bi-polar RFA was proved feasible, effective, safe and supermicroinvasive for treating thyroid adenoma under the way stated here of puncture and technical points and use of CEUS for monitoring.%目的 建立经皮射频消融治疗甲状腺腺瘤的方案,探讨其技术特征、方法步骤、安全性及疗效评价手段.方法 使用Celon-ProBreath双极式射频电极针在高频超声引导和超声造影监测下对甲状腺腺瘤进行经皮穿刺消融,就消融适应证、最佳穿刺路径、麻醉方式、保护重要血管和喉返神经、减少活检出血、判断消融彻底性以及终止消融的指征

  18. Transient Voltage Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A voltage transient recorder can detect lightning induced transient voltages. The recorder detects a lightning induced transient voltage and adjusts input amplifiers to accurately record transient voltage magnitudes. The recorder stores voltage data from numerous monitored channels, or devices. The data is time stamped and can be output in real time, or stored for later retrieval. The transient recorder, in one embodiment, includes an analog-to-digital converter and a voltage threshold detector. When an input voltage exceeds a pre-determined voltage threshold, the recorder stores the incoming voltage magnitude and time of arrival. The recorder also determines if its input amplifier circuits clip the incoming signal or if the incoming signal is too low. If the input data is clipped or too low, the recorder adjusts the gain of the amplifier circuits to accurately acquire subsequent components of the lightning induced transients.

  19. GSM-R信令监测选择录音系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of an Optional Voice Recording System Based on GSM-R Signaling Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余松平; 蔡志平; 吴建进; 谷凤芝

    2014-01-01

    Traditional voice recording system based on GSM-R has limitations that communication events and part of calls can’ t be recor-ded,and the need for special support of the GSM-R network. In this paper,the Optional Voice Recording System ( OVRS) based on the GSM-R signaling monitoring is proposed,with signaling monitoring technologies to analyze the process of calling signaling,recording voice alternatively according to recording rules and tracking communication events relating to voice call,which effectively solves the a-bove problem. The OVRS is easy to plan,manage,secure,operate and maintain. First,the hardware architecture and software system de-signing of OVRS are introduced. Second,the key technologies of OVRS are elaborated,which includes the automatic identification of the signaling link,optional recording and DXC equipment control. Finally,the system implementation and experimental results are described, and the system application prospects,social benefits and future work are explained.%基于GSM-R的传统的录音系统具有通信事件和部分通话无法记录的局限,并且需要GSM-R网络的特别支持。文中提出了一种基于GSM-R信令监测的选择录音系统( OVRS),通过信令监测技术,对呼叫信令流程进行分析,根据录音规则选择性地记录语音和与语音通话相关的事件,有效解决了以上问题,具有易规划、易管理、安全保密、易操作、易维护的特点。首先介绍了OVRS系统的硬件架构和软件系统设计;然后,阐述了系统包含的信令链路自动识别、选择录音、DXC设备控制等关键技术;最后,描述了系统的实现方案和实验结果,并对该系统的应用前景和社会效益、未来的工作进行了展望。

  20. Timing of the developmental switch in GABA(A) mediated signaling from excitation to inhibition in CA3 rat hippocampus using gramicidin perforated patch and extracellular recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyzio, Roman; Holmes, Gregory L; Ben-Ari, Yehezkiel; Khazipov, Roustem

    2007-01-01

    The timing of the developmental switch in the GABA(A) mediated responses from excitatory to inhibitory was studied in Wistar rat CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells using gramicidin perforated patch-clamp and extracellular recordings. Gramicidin perforated patch recordings revealed a gradual developmental shift in the reversal potential of synaptic and isoguvacine-induced GABA(A) mediated responses from -55 +/- 4 mV at postnatal days P0-2 to -74 +/- 3 mV at P13-15 with a midpoint of disappearance of the excitatory effects of GABA at around P8. Extracellular recordings in CA3 pyramidal cell layer revealed that the effect of isoguvacine on multiple unit activity (MUA) switched from an increase to a decrease at around P10. The effect of synaptic GABA(A) mediated responses on MUA switched from an increase to a decrease at around P8. It is concluded that the developmental switch in the action of GABA via GABA(A) receptors from excitatory to inhibitory occurs in Wistar rat CA3 pyramidal cells at around P8-10, an age that coincides with the transition from immature to mature hippocampal rhythms. We propose that excitatory GABA contributes to enhanced excitability and ictogenesis in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

  1. Records Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be...

  2. Climatic Signals in the Last 200 Years from Stable Isotope Record in the Shells of Freshwater Snails in Lake Xingcuo, Eastern Tibet Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JINGLU(吴敬禄); LI SHIJIE(李世杰); A.LUECKE; WANG SUMIN(王苏民)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Xingcuo is a small closed, hard-water lake, situated on eastern Tibet Plateau.Stable isotope data (δ 18O and δ 13C) from the freshwater snail Gyraulus sibirica (Dunker) in a 34 cm long, radioactive isotope-dated sediment core represent the last 200 years of Lake Xingcuo environmental history. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in the shells of the freshwater snail bear information on the isotopic composition of the water in which the shells were formed,which in turn characterizes the climatic conditions prevailing during the snail's life span.Whole-shell and incremental growth data were collected from modern and fossil shells from Lake Xingcuo. The δ 18O values of modern shells from Lake Xingcuo are in equilibrium with those of modern waters, while δ 13C values are indicative of snail dietary carbon and a lake with high δ 13CTDIC. By calibrating δ 18O and δ 13C in the shell Gyraulus sibirica (Dunker) with in strument-measured data for the period 1954 - 1992, we found that the δ 18O of the snail shells is an efficient indicator to reveal air temperature in the warmer half year instead of that around the whole year, and that there is a certain positive correlation between index δ 18O and the running average temperature in the warmer half-year period. Climatic variability on eastern Tibet Plateau, for the last two centuries, has been successfully inferred from the δ 18O record in freshwater snails in the sediments of Lake Xingcuo. As such, the last 200 years of palaeoclimatic record for this region can be separated into three periods representing oscillations between warming and cooling, which are confirmed by the Guliya ice record on the Tibet Plateau.

  3. Climatic Signals in the Last 200 Years from Stable Isotope Record in the Shells of Freshwater Snails in Lake Xingcuo,Eastern Tibet Plateau,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敬禄; A.LUECKE; 等

    2002-01-01

    Lake Xingcuo is a small closed,hard-water lake ,situated on eastern Tibet Plateau.Stable isotope data(δ18O and δ13C) from the freshwater snail Gyraulus sibirica(Dunker)in a34 cm long,radioactive isotope-dated sediment core represent the last 200 years of Lake Xingcuo environmental history.Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in the shells of the freshwater snail bear information on the isotopic composition of the water in which the shells were formed ,which in turn characterizes the climatic conditions prevailing during the snail's life span.Whole-shell and incremental growth data were collected from modern and fossil shells from Lake Xingcuo.The δ18O values of modern shells from Lake Xingcuo are in equilibrium with high δ13CTDIC.By calibrating δ18O and δ13C in the shell Gyraulus sibirica(Dunker)with in-strument-measured data for the period 1954-1992,we found that the δ18O of the snail shells is an efficient indicator to reveal air temperature in the warmer half year instead of that around the whole year,and that there is a certain positive correlation between index δ18O and the run-ning average temperature in the warmer half-yiar period.Climatic variability on eastern Tibet Plateau,for the last two centuries,has been successfully inferred from the δ18O record in freshwater snails in the sediments of Lake Xingcuo.As such,the last 200 years of palaeocli-matic record for this region can be separated into three periods representing oscillations between warming and cooling,which are confirmed by the Guliya ice record on the Tibet Plateau.

  4. Record dynamics in ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas O Richardson

    Full Text Available The success of social animals (including ourselves can be attributed to efficiencies that arise from a division of labour. Many animal societies have a communal nest which certain individuals must leave to perform external tasks, for example foraging or patrolling. Staying at home to care for young or leaving to find food is one of the most fundamental divisions of labour. It is also often a choice between safety and danger. Here we explore the regulation of departures from ant nests. We consider the extreme situation in which no one returns and show experimentally that exiting decisions seem to be governed by fluctuating record signals and ant-ant interactions. A record signal is a new 'high water mark' in the history of a system. An ant exiting the nest only when the record signal reaches a level it has never perceived before could be a very effective mechanism to postpone, until the last possible moment, a potentially fatal decision. We also show that record dynamics may be involved in first exits by individually tagged ants even when their nest mates are allowed to re-enter the nest. So record dynamics may play a role in allocating individuals to tasks, both in emergencies and in everyday life. The dynamics of several complex but purely physical systems are also based on record signals but this is the first time they have been experimentally shown in a biological system.

  5. Acceleration Recorder and Playback Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods and apparatus relating to an accelerometer electrical signal recorder and playback module. The recorder module may be manufactured in lightweight configuration and includes analog memory components to store data. Signal conditioning circuitry is incorporated into the module so that signals may be connected directly from the accelerometer to the recorder module. A battery pack may be included for powering both the module and the accelerometer. Timing circuitry is included to control the time duration within which data is recorded or played back so as to avoid overloading the analog memory components. Multiple accelerometer signal recordings may be taken simultaneously without analog to digital circuits, multiplexing circuitry or software to compensate for the effects of multiplexing the signals.

  6. Northern and southern hemispheric climate records from the western tropical Pacific during MIS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikku, R.; Stott, L.

    2008-12-01

    During MIS3 Mg/Ca-derived SSTs and planktonic δ18O changed by up to 0.6‰ and 2°C respectively in the western tropical Pacific (MD98-2181). This marine record located at 6.3°N correlates well with millennial-scale variations in the NGRIP ice core and Hulu Cave stalagmite records reflecting hydrographic changes in the western Pacific warm pool that are linked to Monsoon and Northern Hemisphere climate variability. Stronger summer monsoon and increased summer precipitation at Hulu Cave and warmer conditions in Greenland coincided with fresher and warmer conditions at MD98-2181. Due to the ideal core location, the benthic isotopic record from MD98-2181 is a record of upper Pacific Deep Water temperature and salinity variability. The benthic δ18O record documents large millennial-scale oscillations of between 0.3-0.5‰ that correlate closely with the Antarctic surface temperature history. This suggests deep water that reached the core site was changing temperature by up to ~1-1.5°C with the possibility that some of this variability reflects changes in salinity and minor glacial-eustatic changes. We interpret these changes of deepwater properties to reflect transient changes in the source water region where Upper Circumpolar Deep Water forms or as vertical migration of the water mass boundary between Upper and Lower Circumpolar Deep Water. The combined planktonic and benthic records from MD98-2181 thus provide a northern and southern hemispheric climate record and thus verify the anti-phased relationship associated with a bi-polar seesaw oceanographic behavior throughout MIS3.

  7. Searching Signals in Chinese Ancient Records for the $^{14}$C Increases in AD 774-775 and in AD 992-993

    CERN Document Server

    Chai, Ya-Ting

    2014-01-01

    According to the analysis of the $^{14}$C content of two Japanese trees over a period of approximately 3000 years at high time resolution, Miyake (2012) found a rapid increase at AD 774-775 and later on at AD 992-993 (Miyake 2013). This corresponds to a high-energy event happened within one year that input $\\gamma$-ray energy about 7$\\times{}$10$^{24}$erg to the Earth, leaving the origin a mystery. Such strong event should have an unusual optical counterpart, and have been recorded in historical literature. We searched Chinese historical materials around AD 744-775 and AD 992-993, but no remarkable event was found except a violent thunderstorm in AD 775. However, the possibility of a thunderstorm containing so much energy is still unlikely. We conclude the event caused the $^{14}$C increase is still unclear. This event most probably has no optical counterpart, and short gamma-ray burst, giant flare of a soft gamma-ray repeater and terrestrial $\\gamma$-ray flash may all be the candidates.

  8. Composite δ13C and petrographic 195-355 ka record from Frasassi cave (central Italy) stalagmites: investigating drivers of speleothem calcite carbon isotope signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanghi, V.; Borsato, A.; Frisia, S.; Drysdale, R.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Bajo, P.; Montanari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon isotope ratio of speleothem calcite is known to be a proxy for climate-dependent soil CO2 production. One of the paradigms is that, ideally, C stable isotope incorporation occurred in equilibrium. Yet, the process of degassing in the cave commonly results in δ13C values more positive than theoretically expected for speleothems formed in temperate-humid settings. Fabrics then provide the benchmark to unravel local, regional and global significance of speleothem δ13C. The δ13C time-series from two precisely U-Th dated Frasassi stalagmites covering the interval from 195 ka to 355 ka (Marine Isotope Stages 7 - 10) were interpreted on the basis of the sequence of fabrics. Columnar fabrics indicated deposition under constant kinetic fractionation, whereby δ13C shifts through time reflected a combination of atmospheric CO2 concentration changes and soil efficiency variability, controlled by regional mean annual temperature. Given that the δ13C values are constantly more-positive-than-expected because of the effect of degassing, shifts to more positive δ13C values above a baseline of -7 permil during glacials are here interpreted as driven by low soil efficiency and higher contribution of atmospheric CO2 (Breecker et al. 2012, Borsato et al. 2015). The comparison of high resolution δ13C curves with atmospheric pCO2 and benthic δ18O records further suggests that hemispheric temperature changes driven by insolation modulated the δ13C shifts above or below the baseline. Thus, a -3‰ shift from glacial to interglacial at terminations IV and III is here ascribed to changes in atmospheric pCO2 (Schubert and Jahren 2012). More open fabrics mark warmer conditions and increased soil productivity and are associated with more negative δ13C. In conclusion, only by coupling petrography and geochemical properties the global and local drivers of δ13C anomalies in stalagmites from this deep cave could be distinguished. Borsato et al. (2015), Earth Surface Processes and

  9. Evaluating climate signal recorded in tree ring δ(13) C and δ(18) O values from bulk wood and α-cellulose for six species across four sites in the northeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Jennings, Katie; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Ollinger, Scott

    2017-09-22

    We evaluated the applicability of tree ring δ(13) C and δ(18) O values in bulk wood - instead of the more time and lab-consuming α-cellulose δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, for assessing climate and physiological signals across multiple sites and for six tree species along a latitudinal gradient (35°97(') N to 45°20(') N) of the northeastern United States. Wood cores (n=4 per tree) were sampled from ten trees per species. Cores were cross-dated within and across trees at each site, and for the last 30 years. Seven years, including the driest on record, were selected for this study. The δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were measured on two of the ten trees from the bulk wood and the α-cellulose. The offsets between materials in δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were assessed. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the strength of the climate signal across sites. Finally the relationship between δ(13) C and δ(18) O values in bulk wood vs α-cellulose was analyzed to assess the consistency of the interpretation, in terms of CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, from both materials. We found an offset of 1.1‰ and 5.6‰ between bulk and α-cellulose for δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, respectively, consistent with offset values reported in the literature. Bulk wood showed similar or stronger correlations to climate parameters than α-cellulose for the investigated sites. In particular, temperature and vapour pressure deficit and SPEI were the most visible climate signals recorded in δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, respectively. For most of the species, there was no relationship between δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, regardless of the wood material considered. α-cellulose extraction was not necessary to detect climate signals in tree rings across the four investigated sites. Furthermore, the physiological information inferred from the dual isotope approach was similar for most of the species regardless of the material considered. This article

  10. AE Recorder Characteristics and Development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curtis, Shane Keawe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McGrogan, David Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Anomalous Environment Recorder (AE Recorder) provides a robust data recording capability for multiple high-shock applications including earth penetrators. The AE Recorder, packaged as a 2.4" di ameter cylinder 3" tall, acquires 12 accelerometer, 2 auxiliary, and 6 discrete signal channels at 250k samples / second. Recording depth is 213 seconds plus 75ms of pre-trigger data. The mechanical, electrical, and firmware are described as well as support electro nics designed for the first use of the recorder.

  11. Robert Recorde

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The 16th-Century intellectual Robert Recorde is chiefly remembered for introducing the equals sign into algebra, yet the greater significance and broader scope of his work is often overlooked. This book presents an authoritative and in-depth analysis of the man, his achievements and his historical importance. This scholarly yet accessible work examines the latest evidence on all aspects of Recorde's life, throwing new light on a character deserving of greater recognition. Topics and features: presents a concise chronology of Recorde's life; examines his published works; describes Recorde's pro

  12. The development of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP) by designing new analysing software and by setting up new recording locations of radio VLF/LF signals in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Toma-Danila, Dragos; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Dolea, Paul; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Based on scientific evidences supporting the causality between earthquake preparatory stages, space weather and solar activity and different types of electromagnetic (EM) disturbances together with the benefit of having full access at ground and space based EM data, INFREP proposes a complex and cross correlated investigation of phenomena that occur in the coupled system Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionsophere in order to identify possible causes responsible for anomalous effects observed in the propagation characteristics of radio waves, especially at low (LF) and very low frequency (VLF). INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe in 2009, having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. The Romanian NIEP VLF / LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver -made by Elettronika S.R.L. (Italy) and provided by the Bari University- and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data, is a part of the international initiative INFREP. The NIEP VLF / LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 in Bucharest and relocated to the Black-Sea shore (Dobruja Seismologic Observatory) in December 2009. The first development of the Romanian EM monitoring system was needed because after changing the receiving site from Bucharest to Eforie we obtained unsatisfactory monitoring data, characterized by large fluctuations of the received signals' intensities. Trying to understand this behavior has led to the conclusion that the electric component of the electromagnetic field was possibly influenced by the local conditions. Starting from this observation we have run some tests and changed the vertical antenna with a loop-type antenna that is more appropriate in highly electric-field polluted environments. Since the amount of recorded data is huge, for streamlining the research process

  13. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  14. Programmable delay circuit for sparker signal analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.

    The sparker echo signal had been recorded along with the EPC recorder trigger on audio cassettes in a dual channel analog recorder. The sparker signal in the analog form had to be digitised for further signal processing techniques to be performed...

  15. Student Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  16. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    -facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  17. Valid measures of periodic leg movements (PLMs) during a suggested immobilization test using the PAM-RL leg activity monitors require adjusting detection parameters for noise and signal in each recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Myung Sung; Montplaisir, Jacques; Desautels, Alex; Winkelman, John W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]) usually have periodic leg movements (PLMs). The suggested immobilization test (SIT) measures sensory and motor features of WED during wakefulness. Surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings of the anterior tibialis (AT) are used as the standard for counting PLMs. However, due to several limitations, leg activity meters such as the PAM-RL were advanced as a potential substitute. In our study, we assessed the validity of the measurements of PLM during wakefulness (PLMW) in the SIT for PAM-RL using both default and custom detection threshold parameters compared to AT EMG. Data were obtained from 39 participants who were diagnosed with primary WED and who were on stable medication as part of another study using the SIT to repeatedly evaluate WED symptoms over 6-12 months. EMG recordings and PAM-RL, when available, were used to detect PLMW for each SIT. Complete PAM-RL and polysomnography (PSG) EMG data were available for 253 SITs from that study. The default PAM-RL (dPAM-RL) detected leg movements based on manufacturer's noise (resting) and signal (movement) amplitude criteria developed to accurately detect PLM during sleep (PLMS). The custom PAM-RL (cPAM-RL) similarly detected leg movements except the noise and movement detection parameters were adjusted to match the PAM-RL data for each SIT. The distributions of the differences between either dPAM-RL or cPAM-RL and EMG PLMW were strongly leptokurtic (Kurtosis >2) with many small differences and a few unusually large differences. These distributions are better described by median and quartile ranges than mean and standard deviation. Despite an adequate correlation (r=0.66) between the dPAM-RL and EMG recordings, the dPAM-RL on average significantly underscored the number of PLMW (median: quartiles=-13: -51.2, 0.0) and on Bland-Altman plots had a significant magnitude bias with greater underscoring for larger average PLMW/h. There also was an

  18. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    Web Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials from 2005 until this past month are available via the University of Michigan portal here. Most recent additions include the Trigger-Aware Analysis Tutorial by Monika Wielers on March 23 and the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal.Feedback WelcomeOur group is making arrangements now to record plenary sessions, tutorials, and other important ATLAS events for 2007. Your suggestions for potential recording, as well as your feedback on existing archives is always welcome. Please contact us at wlap@umich.edu. Thank you.Enjoy the Lectures!

  19. Portable EGG recording system based on a digital voice recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-K; Shieh, M-J; Kuo, T-S; Jaw, F-S

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrogram (EGG) recording offers the benefit of non-invasive gastrointestinal diagnosis. With long-term ambulatory recording of signals, researchers and clinicians could have more opportunities to investigate and analyse paroxysmal or acute symptoms. A portable EGG system based on a digital voice recorder (DVR) is designed for long-term recording of cutaneous EGG signals. The system consists of electrodes, an EGG amplifier, a modulator, and a DVR. Online monitoring and off-line acquisition of EGG are handled by software. A special design employing an integrated timer circuit is used to modulate the EGG frequency to meet the input requirements of the DVR. This approach involves low supply voltage and low power consumption. Software demodulation is used to simplify the complexity of the system, and is helpful in reducing the size of the portable device. By using surface-mount devices (SMD) and a low-power design, the system is robust, compact, and suitable for long-term portable recording. As a result, researchers can record an ambulatory EGG signal by means of the proposed circuits in conjunction with an up-to-date voice-recording device.

  20. Axonal bleb recording

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenqin Hu; Yousheng Shu

    2012-01-01

    Patch-clamp recording requires direct accessibility of the cell membrane to patch pipettes and allows the investigation of ion channel properties and functions in specific cellular compartments.The cell body and relatively thick dendrites are the most accessible compartments of a neuron,due to their large diameters and therefore great membrane surface areas.However,axons are normally inaccessible to patch pipettes because of their thin structure; thus studies of axon physiology have long been hampered by the lack of axon recording methods.Recently,a new method of patchclamp recording has been developed,enabling direct and tight-seal recording from cortical axons.These recordings are performed at the enlarged structure (axonal bleb) formed at the cut end of an axon after slicing procedures.This method has facilitated studies of the mechanisms underlying the generation and propagation of the main output signal,the action potential,and led to the finding that cortical neurons communicate not only in action potential-mediated digital mode but also in membrane potential-dependent analog mode.

  1. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  2. Record club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  3. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  4. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeremy Herr; Homer A. Neal; Mitch McLachlan

    The University of Michigan Web Archives for the 2006 ATLAS Week Plenary Sessions, as well as the first of 2007, are now online. In addition, there are a wide variety of Software and Physics Tutorial sessions, recorded over the past couple years, to chose from. All ATLAS-specific archives are accessible here.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal. Shaping Collaboration 2006The Michigan group is happy to announce a complete set of recordings from the Shaping Collaboration conference held last December at the CICG in Geneva.The event hosted a mix of Collaborative Tool experts and LHC Users, and featured presentations by the CERN Deputy Director General, Prof. Jos Engelen, the President of Internet2, and chief developers from VRVS/EVO, WLAP, and other tools...

  5. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site http://cern.ch/record.club, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: http://www.cern.ch/map/building?bno=504) A très bientôt.  

  6. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  7. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings.

  8. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2010-01-01

    DVD James Bond – Series Complete To all Record Club Members, to start the new year, we have taken advantage of a special offer to add copies of all the James Bond movies to date, from the very first - Dr. No - to the latest - Quantum of Solace. No matter which of the successive 007s you prefer (Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan or Daniel Craig), they are all there. Or perhaps you have a favourite Bond Girl, or even perhaps a favourite villain. Take your pick. You can find the full selection listed on the club web site http://cern.ch/crc; use the panel on the left of the page “Discs of the Month” and select Jan 2010. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  9. Record breakers

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  10. Steganalysis of recorded speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Micah K.; Lyu, Siwei; Farid, Hany

    2005-03-01

    Digital audio provides a suitable cover for high-throughput steganography. At 16 bits per sample and sampled at a rate of 44,100 Hz, digital audio has the bit-rate to support large messages. In addition, audio is often transient and unpredictable, facilitating the hiding of messages. Using an approach similar to our universal image steganalysis, we show that hidden messages alter the underlying statistics of audio signals. Our statistical model begins by building a linear basis that captures certain statistical properties of audio signals. A low-dimensional statistical feature vector is extracted from this basis representation and used by a non-linear support vector machine for classification. We show the efficacy of this approach on LSB embedding and Hide4PGP. While no explicit assumptions about the content of the audio are made, our technique has been developed and tested on high-quality recorded speech.

  11. Research of CMOS Integrated Biosensor for Extracellular Bioelectrical Signal Recording%用于细胞外电信号测量的CMOS集成生物传感芯片的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婷; 朱大中

    2006-01-01

    新型的细胞外电信号传感芯片是采用0.6 μm标准CMOS工艺设计制造,片上集成了6×6单元有源传感阵列、模拟多路选择器、输出缓冲器、参考源和数字控制电路.有源传感单元面积为60μm×60μm,包含15μm×15μm的传感电极和预处理电路,能够线性放大幅值范围100μV~25 mV的微小信号,电压增益为40dB.并采用相关二次采样工作模式降低固定模式噪声,提高传感器的精度.在标准CMOS工艺基础上,应用无电浸镀金改进传感电极的生物兼容性,并采用特殊封装技术提高芯片在溶液环境中的稳定性.溶液中模拟生物信号测量验证了该芯片的功能.%A new CMOS (complementary metal oxide silicon) biosensor chip designed for recording electrophysiological activities of in-vitro cultured cells is reported. It is designed and fabricated in a standard 0.6μm CMOS process, consisting of 6×6 active sensor array, analog multiplexer, output buffers, reference sources and digital controlling circuit. Each sensor cell is 60μm× 60μm in the dimension, including a 15μm×15μm electrode and a pre-processing circuit which could linearly amplify signals with peak-to-peak values from 100μV to 25 mV. The correlated double sampling circuit is utilized to remove the common-mode noise. Post-CMOS processes including electroless gold plating and special package technique are implemented to enhance the biocompatibility and stability of the biosensor. The tests carried out in the solution have verified the electrical functionality of the biosensor chip.

  12. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2012-01-01

      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  13. Engineering a bacterial tape recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokup, Alexander; Deiters, Alexander

    2015-05-04

    A method has been developed to produce and integrate single-stranded DNA into genomic locations in bacteria in response to exogenous signals. The system functions similarly to a cellular tape recorder by writing information into DNA and reading it at a later time. Much like other cellular memory platforms, its operation is based on DNA recombinase function. However, the scalability and recording capacity have been improved over previous designs. In addition, memory storage was reversible and could be recorded in response to analogue inputs, such as light exposure. This modular memory writing system is an important addition to the genomic editing toolbox available for synthetic biology.

  14. Optimal Signal Quality Index for Photoplethysmogram Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A photoplethysmogram (PPG is a noninvasive circulatory signal related to the pulsatile volume of blood in tissue and is typically collected by pulse oximeters. PPG signals collected via mobile devices are prone to artifacts that negatively impact measurement accuracy, which can lead to a significant number of misleading diagnoses. Given the rapidly increased use of mobile devices to collect PPG signals, developing an optimal signal quality index (SQI is essential to classify the signal quality from these devices. Eight SQIs were developed and tested based on: perfusion, kurtosis, skewness, relative power, non-stationarity, zero crossing, entropy, and the matching of systolic wave detectors. Two independent annotators annotated all PPG data (106 recordings, 60 s each and a third expert conducted the adjudication of differences. The independent annotators labeled each PPG signal with one of the following labels: excellent, acceptable or unfit for diagnosis. All indices were compared using Mahalanobis distance, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, and support vector machine with leave-one-out cross-validation. The skewness index outperformed the other seven indices in differentiating between excellent PPG and acceptable, acceptable combined with unfit, and unfit recordings, with overall F 1 scores of 86.0%, 87.2%, and 79.1%, respectively.

  15. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  16. Electrical signaling and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials have significant impact on photosynthesis and respiration in carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). Action potential-mediated inhibition of photosynthesis and stimulation of respiration is confined only to the trap and was not recorded in adjacent photosynthetic lamina. We showed that the main primary target of electrical signals on assimilation is in the dark enzymatic reaction of photosynthesis. Without doubt, the electrical signaling is costly, and the possible co-existence of such type of signals and photosynthesis in plant cell is discussed. PMID:21558815

  17. ATP signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas......The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas...

  18. Design of Audio Signal Electrotherapy System Based on Doctor Workstation and Movable Electronic Medical Record%基于医生工作站与移动式电子病历的音频电疗系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄时俊; 易畅; 孙晶晶; 陈仲本

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To overcome the disadvantages of audio signal electrotherapy apparatus, that it isn't efficient enough to be controlled and is inconvenient for patients to check their medical information, we advance a design of audio signal electrotherapy system based on doctor workstation and movable electronic medical record.Methods: Doctor workstation is connected to electrotherapy terminals via network switching equipment, and we carry out remote control and transmission of audio signal prescription by using HTTP and FTP protocols.We also design movable electronic medical records by means of simultaneous technique of embedded database.Results: The system realizes remote transmission and control between doctor workstation and the electrotherapy terminals, and introduces movable electronic medical records for the terminals.Conclusions: This system could obviously promote efficiency of health care providers who implement audio signal electrotherapy, and also could let the patients inquire their medical information much conveniently.It brings forth a new method for audio signal electrotherapy.%目的:为了克服当前常见的音频电疗仪不易于管理控制而导致在临床应用中工作效率低以及患者查询治疗信息不便的问题,本文设计了一款基于医生工作站与移动式电子病历的音频电疗系统.方法:系统利用网络交换设备将多个治疗终端与医生工作站主机相连结,并采用TCP/IP体系中的HTllP与FTP协议实现治疗终端的远程管理控制与音乐信号"治疗处方"传输;同时,在治疗终端中利用嵌入式数据库同步技术,设计了可查询医嘱信息与治疗音乐信息的移动式电子病历.结果:能实现医生工作站对治疗终端的远程通信控制,并引入了移动式电子病历.结论:系统可大大提高实施音频电疗的医护人员的工作效率,也为患者查询治疗信息提供了便利,为音频电疗的发展提供了一种新的技术.

  19. Digital SLIFER Recorder, Model A. [Underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breding, D.R.; Fogel, D.; Loukota, J.J.; Worthen, G.S.; Watterberg, J.P.

    1977-11-01

    The Digital SLIFER Recorder (DSR) is an instrument that records a time-varying frequency signal in the range from 700 kHz to 1500 kHz with an amplitude greater than 200 mV. This signal is referenced to an input fiducial marker, and recording is initiated by an increase in the frequency of the signal. The primary purpose of this instrument is to record data from the SLIFER system. The DSR records 512 samples after the record trigger signal, with a sample interval of 50 ..mu..s (for a total recording time of 25.55 ms). The measurement essentially uses a 20-cycle period-averaging counter technique.

  20. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  1. UARS spacecraft recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The objective was the design, development, and fabrication of UARS spacecraft recorders. The UARS recorder is a tailored configuration of the RCA Standard Tape recorder STR-108. The specifications and requirements are reviewed.

  2. CMS Records Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Records Schedule provides disposition authorizations approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for CMS program-related records...

  3. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 4: Recording Clinical EEG on Digital Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jonathan J; Sabau, Dragos; Drislane, Frank W; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Sinha, Saurabh R

    2016-01-01

    Digital EEG recording systems are now widely available and relatively inexpensive. They offer multiple advantages over previous analog/paper systems, such as higher fidelity recording, signal postprocessing, automated detection, and efficient data storage. This document provides guidance for the creation of digital EEG recordings including (1) documentation of patient information, (2) notation of information during the recording, (3) digital signal acquisition parameters during the recording, (4) storage of digital information, and (5) display of digital EEG signals.

  4. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 4: Recording Clinical EEG on Digital Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jonathan J; Sabau, Dragos; Drislane, Frank W; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Sinha, Saurabh R

    2016-08-01

    Digital EEG recording systems are now widely available and relatively inexpensive. They offer multiple advantages over previous analog/paper systems, such as higher fidelity recording, signal postprocessing, automated detection, and efficient data storage. This document provides guidance for the creation of digital EEG recordings including (1) documentation of patient information, (2) notation of information during the recording, (3) digital signal acquisition parameters during the recording, (4) storage of digital information, and (5) display of digital EEG signals.

  5. Digital Audio Legal Recorder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Digital Audio Legal Recorder (DALR) provides the legal recording capability between air traffic controllers, pilots and ground-based air traffic control TRACONs...

  6. Keeping the Records Straight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Phil; Keynes, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given regarding keeping and using educational records for exceptional children in Great Britain. Procedures related to anecdotal records, observation inventories, and rating scales are delineated. (CL)

  7. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  8. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records Print A A A What's in ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  9. Your Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Your Medical Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Your Medical Records A ... Records? en español Tus historias clínicas What Are Medical Records? Each time you climb up on a ...

  10. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  11. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records A A A What's in this ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  12. Spoken Records. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Helen

    Surveying 75 years of accomplishment in the field of spoken recording, this reference work critically evaluates commercially available recordings selected for excellence of execution, literary or historical merit, interest, and entertainment value. Some types of spoken records included are early recording, documentaries, lectures, interviews,…

  13. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  14. [A simple highly sensitive recording microspectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govardovskiĭ, V I; Zueva, L V

    1988-04-01

    A design of the recording microspectrophotometer is described. The instrument possesses an absolutely flat base line and quantum-noise limited detection threshold. Two principal elements of the design are the "jumping" stage, and the logarithmic amplifier with the phase-sensitive detector which converts the photomultiplier output into the optical density signal. The performance of the instrument is illustrated by the recordings of visual pigment spectra in single photoreceptors.

  15. Bayesian signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces private sender information into a sender-receiver game of Bayesian persuasion with monotonic sender preferences. I derive properties of increasing differences related to the precision of signals and use these to fully characterize the set of equilibria robust to the intuitive criterion. In particular, all such equilibria are either separating, i.e., the sender's choice of signal reveals his private information to the receiver, or fully disclosing, i.e., the outcome of th...

  16. Vessel Activity Record

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Activity Record is a bi-weekly spreadsheet that shows the status of fishing vessels. It records whether fishing vessels are fishing without an observer...

  17. Climate Record Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Record Books contain daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual averages, extremes, or occurrences. Most data are sequential by period of record 1871-1910,...

  18. Iraq Radiosonde Launch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Iraqi upper air records loaned to NCDC from the Air Force 14th Weather Squadron. Scanned notebooks containing upper air radiosonde launch records and data. Launches...

  19. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  20. Calculation of playback signals from MFM images using transfer functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, S.J.L.; Abelmann, Leon; Porthun, S.; Lodder, J.C.; Miles, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy has proven to be a suitable tool for analysis of high-density magnetic recording materials. Comparison of the MFM image of a written signal with the actual read-back signal of the recording system can give valuable insight in the recording properties of both heads and media

  1. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  2. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie

    2005-01-01

    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  3. Recorder Resources, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Herbert D.; VanHaaren, Peg

    2006-01-01

    This article provides teaching tips and materials related to recorder lesson. Teaching Recorder in the Music Classroom, by Fred Kersten, compiles more current recorder information than any other resource. In planning instruction, the major determining factor seems to be Rote or Note. This allows instructors to take familiar repertoire that…

  4. Public Records 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Schoch, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    Examines developments among public record information providers, including a shift from file acquisition to entire company acquisition. Highlights include a table of remote access to public records by state; pricing information; privacy issues; and information about the three main companies offering access to public records: LEXIS, CDB Infotek,…

  5. Record Statistics and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2009-01-01

    The term record statistics covers the statistical properties of records within an ordered series of numerical data obtained from observations or measurements. A record within such series is simply a value larger (or smaller) than all preceding values. The mathematical properties of records strongly...... fluctuations of e. g. the energy are able to push the system past some sort of ‘edge of stability’, inducing irreversible configurational changes, whose statistics then closely follows the statistics of record fluctuations....

  6. Synthetic and sedimentary records of geomagnetic excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlag, P.; Thouveny, N.; Rochette, P.

    The geomagnetic excursion recorded in the sediments of Lac St.Front (Massif Central, France) is characterized by shallow and negative inclinations followed by a younger steep inclination interval (Vlag et al., 1996). In the corresponding interval of the nearby Lac du Bouchet only steep inclinations are found. Sedimentary records of the Mono Lake excursion show similar inclination patterns; ‘complete’ records of this excursion show a succession of a shallow by a steep inclination interval, while ‘incomplete’ records only show only steep inclinations (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). Due to a non-instantaneous acquisition of the remanence, sedimentary records reflect only a smoothed geomagnetic signal. It will be shown that smoothing of a small low-intensity ‘reversed’ interval embedded in a non-antipodal normal field interval may result in records of a shallow inclination interval followed by a steep inclination interval, while further smoothing results in only steep inclinations. Realignment of magnetic grains by the stronger normal field can also produce such records and may explain why such an unusual large lock-in depth is required by the conventional smoothing model. Whatever the mechanism, the similarities between these synthetic records and the excursional records of Lac St. Front-Lac du Bouchet and Mono Lake suggest that the latter are more or less affected by vector addition of two non-antipodal directions.

  7. A dry electrode for EEG recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, B A; Knight, R T; Smith, R L

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of a prototype dry surface electrode for EEG signal recording. The new dry electrode has the advantages of no need for skin preparation or conductive paste, potential for reduced sensitivity to motion artifacts and an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The electrode's sensing element is a 3 mm stainless steel disk which has a 2000 A (200 nm) thick nitride coating deposited onto one side. The back side of the disk is attached to an impedance converting amplifier. The prototype electrode was mounted on a copper plate attached to the scalp by a Velcro strap. The performance of this prototype dry electrode was compared to commercially available wet electrodes in 3 areas of electroencephalogram (EEG) recording: (1) spontaneous EEG, (2) sensory evoked potentials, and (3) cognitive evoked potentials. In addition to the raw EEG, the power spectra of the signals from both types of electrodes were also recorded. The results suggest that the dry electrode performs comparably to conventional electrodes for all types of EEG signal analysis. This new electrode may be useful for the production of high resolution surface maps of brain activity where a large number of electrodes or prolonged recording times are required.

  8. Phonocardiography Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Abbas K

    2009-01-01

    The auscultation method is an important diagnostic indicator for hemodynamic anomalies. Heart sound classification and analysis play an important role in the auscultative diagnosis. The term phonocardiography refers to the tracing technique of heart sounds and the recording of cardiac acoustics vibration by means of a microphone-transducer. Therefore, understanding the nature and source of this signal is important to give us a tendency for developing a competent tool for further analysis and processing, in order to enhance and optimize cardiac clinical diagnostic approach. This book gives the

  9. Ambient temperature recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature data recorder, designated the Ambient Temperature Recorder (ATR-4), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to meet particular requirements for space life sciences experiments. The small, self-contained, four-channel, battery-powered device records 32 kilobytes of temperature data over a range of -40 to +60 C at four sampling intervals ranging from 1.875 to 15 minutes. Data is stored in its internal electronic memory for later readout by a personal computer.

  10. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  11. Use of sparker signal to classify seafloor sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.; Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    During the cruise 190 of R.V. Gaveshani, the sparker signal was recorded in the analog form on audio cassettes. This signal has been digitized and a statistical computation, viz. the normalized cross-correlation function between successive echoes...

  12. The MFAMOUS technique: Electrophysiological signal recording by MR-scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars Peter Grüner; Ellegaard Lund, Torben; Hanson, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    were compared with preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) morphology. The preoperatively elevated pressure decreased in all patients but one, to normal or slightly elevated values. The median pressure decrease was 50% (range, 0-90%; p = 0.01). The drainage anastomosis (a...

  13. Prosocial Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha

    suggested that consumers pay price premium because this sends the signal that the consumer has prosocial preferences and a few empirical studies have documented that reputation plays a key role when consumers choose products containing prosocial components. However, little is known about consumers...... consumer goods and presents empirical evidences from a natural consumption data. This thesis also investigates consumers’ behaviour under a newly introduced pricing system called Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) and investigates empirically whether reputation signalling can be used as a policy instrument in other...... on the role of social network in facilitating factor input transactions and the role of reputation in reducing enforcement. Finally, the third part consists of one paper which is concerned with investigating the effect of climate change and adaptation policy on agricultural production in Eastern Africa...

  14. Signal-to-Signal Ratio Independent Speaker Identification for Co-channel Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeidi, Rahim; Mowlaee, Pejman; Kinnunen, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider speaker identification for the co-channel scenario in which speech mixture from speakers is recorded by one microphone only. The goal is to identify both of the speakers from their mixed signal. High recognition accuracies have already been reported when an accurately...

  15. Record Keeping Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  16. Aspects of record linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Marijn Paul

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an exploration of the subject of historical record linkage. The general goal of historical record linkage is to discover relations between historical entities in a database, for any specific definition of relation, entity and database. Although this task originates from historical

  17. [Dental records and responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Dental records are more than a small part of the bookkeeping. In most dental practises, keeping records is the task of a dental assistant. In civil court, the dentist is in most countries liable for the mistakes of his employees. In disciplinary court however there may be doubt whether the dentist i

  18. Recorder Resources, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Herbert D.; VanHaaren, Peg

    2006-01-01

    The article presents information on how to conduct a music recorder study inside the classroom. It is preferred to conduct a recorder study beginning at the end of third grade or during fourth grade and continuing through elementary school. At that point, the students have a strong sense of pitch, pulse, and rhythm and a large music vocabulary.…

  19. Your Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family doctor. When it comes to asking for medical records, different health care providers have different ways of doing things. Some might ... are needed faster — like when a patient needs medical treatment — the health care provider holding the records usually releases them immediately. If ...

  20. Hologram recording tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Optical memories allow extremely large numbers of bits to be stored and recalled in a matter of microseconds. Two recording tubes, similar to conventional image-converting tubes, but having a soft-glass surface on which hologram is recorded, do not degrade under repeated hologram read/write cycles.

  1. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  2. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  3. The orbital record in stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alfred G.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital signals are being discovered in pre-Pleistocene sediments. Due to their hierarchical nature these cycle patterns are complex, and the imprecision of geochronology generally makes the assignment of stratigraphic cycles to specific orbital cycles uncertain, but in sequences such as the limnic Newark Group under study by Olsen and pelagic Cretaceous sequence worked on by our Italo-American group the relative frequencies yield a definitive match to the Milankovitch hierarchy. Due to the multiple ways in which climate impinges on depositional systems, the orbital signals are recorded in a multiplicity of parameters, and affect different sedimentary facies in different ways. In platform carbonates, for example, the chief effect is via sea-level variations (possibly tied to fluctuating ice volume), resulting in cycles of emergence and submergence. In limnic systems it finds its most dramatic expression in alternations of lake and playa conditions. Biogenic pelagic oozes such as chalks and the limestones derived from them display variations in the carbonate supplied by planktonic organisms such as coccolithophores and foraminifera, and also record variations in the aeration of bottom waters. Whereas early studies of stratigraphic cyclicity relied mainly on bedding variations visible in the field, present studies are supplementing these with instrumental scans of geochemical, paleontological, and geophysical parameters which yield quantitative curves amenable to time-series analysis; such analysis is, however, limited by problems of distorted time-scales. My own work has been largely concentrated on pelagic systems. In these, the sensitivity of pelagic organisms to climatic-oceanic changes, combined with the sensitivity of botton life to changes in oxygen availability (commonly much more restricted in the Past than now) has left cyclic patterns related to orbital forcing. These systems are further attractive because (1) they tend to offer depositional continuity

  4. Control of earphone produced binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    While most people keep a high attention to the significance of the binaural recording method, whether it is e.g. individual or non-individual (as e.g. artificial head recording), many pay less attention to the type of earphone used to reproduce the binaural signals, and to the accurate control of...

  5. Electrogastrography : signal analytical aspects and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. van der Schee (Evert Johan )

    1984-01-01

    textabstractElectrogastrography is defined as the recording of the myoelectrical activity of the smooth muscles of the stomach by means of cutaneous electrodes attached to the abdominal skin. The recorded signal is called ~n electrogastrogram. On October 14, 1921, Walter Alvarez attached two electro

  6. Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    34ESPIRIT Estimation of signal parameters via rotational imvariance techin+I,-- 1\\I111;1 Smith. A. Faradani "Local and ( Moba ! tomography" I’ Nitlerer and...Feb 1 - Jul 30 Friedman, Avner IMA Gader, Paul University of Wisconsin Jun 27 - Jul 24 Games , Richard MITRE Corp Jun 27 - Aug 5 Garvan, Francis U. of...Gader, Paul University of Wisconsin Jun 27 - Jul 24 Games , Richard MITRE Corp Jun 27 - Aug 5 Garvan, Francis U. of Wisconsin Jun 26 - Jul 31 Habsieger

  7. [Automated anesthesia record system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Liu, Jin

    2005-12-01

    Based on Client/Server architecture, a software of automated anesthesia record system running under Windows operation system and networks has been developed and programmed with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server. The system can deal with patient's information throughout the anesthesia. It can collect and integrate the data from several kinds of medical equipment such as monitor, infusion pump and anesthesia machine automatically and real-time. After that, the system presents the anesthesia sheets automatically. The record system makes the anesthesia record more accurate and integral and can raise the anesthesiologist's working efficiency.

  8. On the use of binaural recordings for dynamic binaural reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Christensen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Binaural recordings are considered applicable only for static binaural reproduction. That is, playback of binaural recordings can only reproduce the sound field captured for the fixed position and orientation of the recording head. However, given some conditions it is possible to use binaural...... recordings for the reproduction of binaural signals that change according to the listener actions, i.e. dynamic binaural reproduction. Here we examine the conditions that allow for such dynamic recording/playback configuration and discuss advantages and disadvantages. Analysis and discussion focus on two...... case studies of reproduction of background sound in a car interior and of the rowing sound captured from elite athletes....

  9. Electronic health record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on Patients’ Rights in cross border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross border...... and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increases the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  10. Electronic health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross......-border and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increase the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  11. Records Management Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Records Management Database is tool created in Microsoft Access specifically for USAID use. It contains metadata in order to access and retrieve the information...

  12. Herbicide application records

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains records of pesticide applications on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1995 and 2006.

  13. Interactive Record Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to carry out demographic analyses at individual and group levels, a manual method of linking individual event records from parish registers was developed in the late 1950s. In order to save time and to work with larger areas than small parishes, systems for automatic record linkage were developed a couple of decades later. A third method, an interactive record linkage, named Demolink, has been developed even more recently. The main new feature of the method is the possibility of linking from more than two historical sources simultaneously. This improves the process of sorting out which events belong to which individual life courses. This paper discusses how Demolink was used for record linkage in a large Norwegian parish for the period 1801-1878.

  14. Environmental Review Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD’s Environmental Review Records page houses environmental reviews made publicly available through the HUD Environmental Review Online System (HEROS). This...

  15. Peripheral neural activity recording and stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, D; Carboni, C; Angius, G; Angotzi, G N; Barbaro, M; Raffo, L; Raspopovic, S; Navarro, X

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a portable, embedded, microcontroller-based system for bidirectional communication (recording and stimulation) between an electrode, implanted in the peripheral nervous system, and a host computer. The device is able to record and digitize spontaneous and/or evoked neural activities and store them in data files on a PC. In addition, the system has the capability of providing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, injecting biphasic current pulses with programmable duration, intensity, and frequency. The recording system provides a highly selective band-pass filter from 800 Hz to 3 kHz, with a gain of 56 dB. The amplification range can be further extended to 96 dB with a variable gain amplifier. The proposed acquisition/stimulation circuitry has been successfully tested through in vivo measurements, implanting a tf-LIFE electrode in the sciatic nerve of a rat. Once implanted, the device showed an input referred noise of 0.83 μVrms, was capable of recording signals below 10 μ V, and generated muscle responses to injected stimuli. The results demonstrate the capability of processing and transmitting neural signals with very low distortion and with a power consumption lower than 1 W. A graphic, user-friendly interface has been developed to facilitate the configuration of the entire system, providing the possibility to activate stimulation and monitor recordings in real time.

  16. Certified records manager exam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Certified Records Managers (ICRM) is a non-profit, certifying organization of professional records managers and administrators. ICRM members are experienced in information requirements, records and information systems, and the related office systems and technologies. All members have met certification requirements and have received the Certified Records Manager (CRM) designation. As the field of information and records management moves toward standardization, and as the application of new technologies and technicalities complicate the measurement and demonstration of professional competence, the need for a means of identifying persons who have basic competency increases. The ICRM is providing such a means by testing and certifying basic knowledge. More and more job announcements are requiring this evidence of competency. Unfortunately, as an organization, NIRMA has a relatively small number of CRMs. The goal of the ICRM Development Group is two-fold; (1) to encourage NIRMA members to obtain their certification by providing basic information and support and; (2) to develop the Nuclear Specialist test module which will demonstrate that bearers have demonstrated expertise in nuclear records management as well as basic competencies. This report covers the examination process.

  17. Tape recorder failure investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. D.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Carnahan, C. C.; Snyder, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    Two end-item tape recorders lost 4:1 mode data recording mode capability at less than half of their 1 6,000-cycle, 4-year operating life. Subsequent life tests on two spare recorders also experienced 4:1 mode data loss at 8,000 and 11,700 cycles. Tear down inspection after completion of the life tests showed that the tape had worn through the alfesil record and reproduce heads. An investigation was initiated to understand the cause of excessive tape head wear and the reasons why the 4:1 mode data rate, low-speed mode is more damaging than the 1:1 mode data rate, high-speed recording mode. The objective was to establish how operating conditions (tape speed, humidity, temperature, stop/start cycles) affects head life with the goal of extending head life on the remaining in-service tape recorders. Another interest was to explain why an earlier vendor life test showed capability beyond 16,000 cycles.

  18. Optical sedimentation recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2014-05-06

    A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

  19. Neural recording and modulation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ritchie; Canales, Andres; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-01-01

    In the mammalian nervous system, billions of neurons connected by quadrillions of synapses exchange electrical, chemical and mechanical signals. Disruptions to this network manifest as neurological or psychiatric conditions. Despite decades of neuroscience research, our ability to treat or even to understand these conditions is limited by the capability of tools to probe the signalling complexity of the nervous system. Although orders of magnitude smaller and computationally faster than neurons, conventional substrate-bound electronics do not recapitulate the chemical and mechanical properties of neural tissue. This mismatch results in a foreign-body response and the encapsulation of devices by glial scars, suggesting that the design of an interface between the nervous system and a synthetic sensor requires additional materials innovation. Advances in genetic tools for manipulating neural activity have fuelled the demand for devices that are capable of simultaneously recording and controlling individual neurons at unprecedented scales. Recently, flexible organic electronics and bio- and nanomaterials have been developed for multifunctional and minimally invasive probes for long-term interaction with the nervous system. In this Review, we discuss the design lessons from the quarter-century-old field of neural engineering, highlight recent materials-driven progress in neural probes and look at emergent directions inspired by the principles of neural transduction.

  20. Prosocial Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha

    In contrast to the standard economic theory predictions, it seems clear that people do spend their time and resource to benefit others. Many lab and field experiment studies show that people display prosocial preferences such as altruism, reciprocity and conditional cooperation, fairness, etc...... economic and environmental domains. This thesis consists of five papers which can be divided into three parts. The first part consists of three papers which all investigate consumers’ behavior when prosocial signalling is important. The second part of the thesis consists of one paper which focuses...... empirical evidence on the role of indigenous social networks, namely iddir associations, in facilitating factor-input transactions among smallholder farmers. Iddir networks provide information advantages, trust, and reputation based contract enforcement. It finds that iddir membership improves household...

  1. Florigen signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Florigen is a systemic signal that promotes flowering. Its molecular nature is a conserved FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein that belongs to the PEBP family. FT is expressed in the leaf phloem and transported to the shoot apical meristem where it initiates floral transition. In the cells of the meristem, FT binds 14-3-3 proteins and bZIP transcription factor FD to form the florigen activation complex, FAC, which activates floral meristem identity genes such as AP1. The FAC model provides molecular basis for multiple functions of FT beyond flowering through changes of its partners and transcriptional targets. The surface of FT protein includes several regions essential for transport and functions, suggesting the binding of additional components that support its function. FT expression is under photoperiodic control, involving a conserved GIGANTEA-CONSTANS-FT regulatory module with species-specific modifications that contribute variations of flowering time in natural populations.

  2. Variable Time Base Integrator Circuit for Buffet Signal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, Colossie N.

    1973-01-01

    A measurement circuit to obtain buffet data from wind tunnel models wherein a signal proportional to the average RMS value of buffet data is produced for subsequent recording. Feedback means are employed to suppress the D.C. portion of signals developed by the strain gages during dynamic testing. Automatic recording of gain settings of amplifiers employed in the circuit is also provided.

  3. Speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tris Atmaja, Bagus; Nur Farid, Mifta; Arifianto, Dhany

    2016-11-01

    Speech enhancement is challenging task in audio signal processing to enhance the quality of targeted speech signal while suppress other noises. In the beginning, the speech enhancement algorithm growth rapidly from spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering, spectral amplitude MMSE estimator to Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Smartphone as revolutionary device now is being used in all aspect of life including journalism; personally and professionally. Although many smartphones have two microphones (main and rear) the only main microphone is widely used for voice recording. This is why the NMF algorithm widely used for this purpose of speech enhancement. This paper evaluate speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording by using some algorithms mentioned previously. We also extend the NMF algorithm to Kulback-Leibler NMF with supervised separation. The last algorithm shows improved result compared to others by spectrogram and PESQ score evaluation.

  4. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  5. Records via probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    A lot of statisticians, actuarial mathematicians, reliability engineers, meteorologists, hydrologists, economists. Business and sport analysts deal with records which play important roles in various fields of statistics and its application. This book enables a reader to check his/her level of understanding of the theory of record values. We give basic formulae which are more important in the theory and present a lot of examples which illustrate the theoretical statements. For a beginner in record statistics, as well as for graduate students the study of our book needs the basic knowledge of the subject. A more advanced reader can use our book to polish his/her knowledge. An upgraded list of bibliography which will help a reader to enrich his/her theoretical knowledge and widen the experience of dealing with ordered observations, is also given in the book.

  6. Optimization by record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Large dynamical changes in thermalizing glassy systems are triggered by trajectories crossing record sized barriers, a behavior revealing the presence of a hierarchical structure in configuration space. The observation is here turned into a novel local search optimization algorithm dubbed record...... dynamics optimization,or RDO. RDO uses the Metropolis rule to accept or reject candidate solutions depending on the value of a parameter akin to the temperature and minimizes the cost function of the problem at hand through cycles where its ‘temperature’ is raised and subsequently decreased in order...... to expediently generate record high (and low) values of the cost function. Below, RDO is introduced and then tested by searching for the ground state of the Edwards–Anderson spin-glass model, in two and three spatial dimensions. A popularand highly efficient optimization algorithm, parallel tempering (PT...

  7. Keeping electronic records secure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, David

    2013-10-01

    Are electronic engineering maintenance records relating to the hospital estate or a medical device as important as electronic patient records? Computer maintenance management systems (CMMS) are increasingly being used to manage all-round maintenance activities. However, the accuracy of the data held on them, and a level of security that prevents tampering with records, or other unauthorised changes to them to 'cover' poor practice, are both essential, so that, should an individual be injured or killed on hospital grounds, and a law suit follow, the estates team can be confident that it has accurate data to prove it has fulfilled its duty of care. Here David Easton MSc CEng FIHEEM MIET, director of Zener Engineering Services, and chair of IHEEM's Medical Devices Advisory Group, discusses the issues around maintenance databases, and the security and integrity of maintenance data.

  8. [A new portable monitor for long-term cough recording].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, D; Klauke, M; Schönhofer, B

    1997-06-01

    Cough is a common symptom of pulmonary diseases. For a number of reasons it would be of interest to have information about the frequency of coughs over a given period of time. So far, the cough recorders which are available are either too expensive or unwieldy. Hence, we developed a cough recorder linked to a portable, commercially available actigraph (about the size of a pack of cigarettes) that records coughing as an acoustic signal and ventral thorax movement. The signals are filtered via a band pass and sampled by a peak detektor with different time constants to separate the impulse character of the cough signal from the background noise level. The cough recorder registers coughing cumulatively over a period of one minute and has a storage time of one week. Since the acoustic signals are essential for the interpretation of the recordings, the analogue circuit was subjected to a separate validation programme. For this purpose, the distinction between active coughs of 10 volunteers (total number of coughs 550) and background noises (male and female voices and other defined noises, total number of noises 336) was tested. The complete assembly was then tested over night on 7 hospitalised patients with chronic cough. An infrared video camera system was used to make a reference recording of the overnight coughing. The results show that nearly every cough of the 10 volunteers was recorded (r = 0.99). 97.1% of the background noise was correctly interpreted. The complete recorder assembly correctly recorded 98.9% of the coughs (total 870) in the 7 patients. 4.8% of the background noise was erroneously registered as coughing. Summing up, it can be said that the portable cough recorder affords accurate recording of coughing over a period of one week, correctly distinguishing coughing from background noise.

  9. Seizure detection algorithms based on EMG signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective......: to show whether medical signal processing of EMG data is feasible for detection of epileptic seizures. Methods: EMG signals during generalised seizures were recorded from 3 patients (with 20 seizures in total). Two possible medical signal processing algorithms were tested. The first algorithm was based...... on the amplitude of the signal. The other algorithm was based on information of the signal in the frequency domain, and it focused on synchronisation of the electrical activity in a single muscle during the seizure. Results: The amplitude-based algorithm reliably detected seizures in 2 of the patients, while...

  10. Probabilistic sequence alignment of stratigraphic records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Luan; Khider, Deborah; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lawrence, Charles E.

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of age uncertainty in stratigraphically aligned records is a pressing need in paleoceanographic research. The alignment of ocean sediment cores is used to develop mutually consistent age models for climate proxies and is often based on the δ18O of calcite from benthic foraminifera, which records a global ice volume and deep water temperature signal. To date, δ18O alignment has been performed by manual, qualitative comparison or by deterministic algorithms. Here we present a hidden Markov model (HMM) probabilistic algorithm to find 95% confidence bands for δ18O alignment. This model considers the probability of every possible alignment based on its fit to the δ18O data and transition probabilities for sedimentation rate changes obtained from radiocarbon-based estimates for 37 cores. Uncertainty is assessed using a stochastic back trace recursion to sample alignments in exact proportion to their probability. We applied the algorithm to align 35 late Pleistocene records to a global benthic δ18O stack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3 and 23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the record's δ18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. These alignment uncertainty estimates will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions, including the statistical evaluation of lead-lag relationships between events observed in different cores.

  11. Aftershock Sets Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since being released nationwide on July 22,Chinese film director Feng Xiaogang's latest film Aftershock has brought in more than 500 million yuan($73.5 million)at the box office by August 8,a new record for a domestic movie.

  12. Cine recording ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Camera system provides accurate photographic recording during acceleration of centrifuge and permits immediate observation of dynamic changes in retinal circulation by a closed-circuit television loop. System consists of main camera, remote control unit, and strobe power supply unit, and is used for fluorescein studies and dynamometry sequences.

  13. Records as Genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Catherine F.

    1993-01-01

    Reworks the concept of genre from rhetorical, dialectical, and dialogic perspectives. Redefines genre as a stabilized-for-now site of social and ideological action. Applies this definition (in a six-month ethnographic study) to a specific literary practice--medical record keeping--evolving in a specific context--a veterinary college. (SR)

  14. Vintage Vinyl Record Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project in which his ninth-grade art students utilized a vinyl record as an unusual medium to create a work that exhibited solid design, great creativity, and strong craftsmanship. Students presented their pieces to the class for critique, explained the process, the media, and their feelings about their…

  15. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  16. The Exquisite Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Geoffrey A.; Gottschalk, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article provides general music teachers with resources they can use in their class to: (1) introduce the instrument to their students; (2) energize and reshape their students' attitudes toward the instrument; (3) show older students who are very musical recorder and low flute players who share their love of the instruments through podcasts…

  17. A Miniature Recording Cardiotachometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsombor-Murray, Paul J; Vroomen, Louis J.; Hendriksen, Nils Thedin

    1981-01-01

    The design of a miniature, recording cardiotachometer is described. It is simple and can store digital data. Bench and field tests, using a hand-held display, are presented. Construction and principles of operation are discussed. Applications, with performing athlete subjects, are outlined....

  18. Recent Advances in Neural Recording Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Gosselin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating pace of research in neuroscience has created a considerable demand for neural interfacing microsystems capable of monitoring the activity of large groups of neurons. These emerging tools have revealed a tremendous potential for the advancement of knowledge in brain research and for the development of useful clinical applications. They can extract the relevant control signals directly from the brain enabling individuals with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions to other devices, like computers or various prostheses. Such microsystems are self-contained devices composed of a neural probe attached with an integrated circuit for extracting neural signals from multiple channels, and transferring the data outside the body. The greatest challenge facing development of such emerging devices into viable clinical systems involves addressing their small form factor and low-power consumption constraints, while providing superior resolution. In this paper, we survey the recent progress in the design and the implementation of multi-channel neural recording Microsystems, with particular emphasis on the design of recording and telemetry electronics. An overview of the numerous neural signal modalities is given and the existing microsystem topologies are covered. We present energy-efficient sensory circuits to retrieve weak signals from neural probes and we compare them. We cover data management and smart power scheduling approaches, and we review advances in low-power telemetry. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the remaining challenges and by highlighting the emerging trends in the field.

  19. Bistatic SAR: Signal Processing and Image Formation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the significant processing steps that were used to take the raw recorded digitized signals from the bistatic synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) hardware built for the NCNS Bistatic SAR project to a final bistatic SAR image. In general, the process steps herein are applicable to bistatic SAR signals that include the direct-path signal and the reflected signal. The steps include preprocessing steps, data extraction to for a phase history, and finally, image format. Various plots and values will be shown at most steps to illustrate the processing for a bistatic COSMO SkyMed collection gathered on June 10, 2013 on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

  20. Records Center Program Billing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — RCPBS supports the Records center programs (RCP) in producing invoices for the storage (NARS-5) and servicing of National Archives and Records Administration’s...

  1. A review of signals used in sleep analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, A; Monasterio, V; Gederi, E; Osipov, M; Behar, J; Malhotra, A; Penzel, T; Clifford, GD

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of signals used for measuring physiology and activity during sleep and techniques for extracting information from these signals. We examine both clinical needs and biomedical signal processing approaches across a range of sensor types. Issues with recording and analysing the signals are discussed, together with their applicability to various clinical disorders. Both univariate and data fusion (exploiting the diverse characteristics of the primary recorded signals) approaches are discussed, together with a comparison of automated methods for analysing sleep. PMID:24346125

  2. Personal health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn

    2012-01-01

    in the distributed heterogeneous network of chronic patients and the healthcare professionals that take care of them. An interactive personal health record (PHR) has been designed as part of the project. As such it is part of a trend to find ways to include patients in their own care process. This has been motivated...... by expected health benefits for the patients as well as promises to lead to reduced costs for a burdened healthcare system....

  3. Disseminating Service Registry Records

    OpenAIRE

    A. Apps

    2006-01-01

    The JISC Information Environment Service Registry (IESR) contains descriptions of collections of resources available to researchers, learners and teachers in the UK, along with technical service access details. This paper describes the data model and metadata description schema of IESR, and the services IESR provides to disseminate its records. There is a particular focus on the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) interface, including a possible use scenario. I...

  4. Magnetic record support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, M.; Morita, H.; Tokuoka, Y.; Izumi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Kubota, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic layer of a magnetic record support is coated with a thin film of a polymer with a siloxane bond. The magnetic layer consists of a thin film obtained by vacuum metallization, cathode sputtering or dispersion of a ferromagnetic metal powder in a binder. The polymer with a siloxane bond is produced by the polymerization of an organic silicon compound which inherently contains or is able to form this bond. Polymerization is preferably performed by plasma polymerization.

  5. Personal Health Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, F.

    2012-01-01

    in the distributed heterogeneous network of chronic patients and the healthcare professionals that take care of them. An interactive personal health record (PHR) has been designed as part of the project. As such it is part of a trend to find ways to include patients in their own care process. This has been motivated...... by expected health benefits for the patients as well as promises to lead to reduced costs for a burdened healthcare system....

  6. Bank Record Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  7. Optimization by record dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Large dynamical changes in thermalizing glassy systems are triggered by trajectories crossing record sized barriers, a behavior revealing the presence of a hierarchical structure in configuration space. The observation is here turned into a novel local search optimization algorithm dubbed record dynamics optimization, or RDO. RDO uses the Metropolis rule to accept or reject candidate solutions depending on the value of a parameter akin to the temperature and minimizes the cost function of the problem at hand through cycles where its ‘temperature’ is raised and subsequently decreased in order to expediently generate record high (and low) values of the cost function. Below, RDO is introduced and then tested by searching for the ground state of the Edwards-Anderson spin-glass model, in two and three spatial dimensions. A popular and highly efficient optimization algorithm, parallel tempering (PT), is applied to the same problem as a benchmark. RDO and PT turn out to produce solutions of similar quality for similar numerical effort, but RDO is simpler to program and additionally yields geometrical information on the system’s configuration space which is of interest in many applications. In particular, the effectiveness of RDO strongly indicates the presence of the above mentioned hierarchically organized configuration space, with metastable regions indexed by the cost (or energy) of the transition states connecting them.

  8. Heterogeneous recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Vitaly I.

    1991-02-01

    The paper summarizes the results of investigations performed to obtain deep 3-D holograms with 102 i0 mkm physical thickness allowing the postexposure amplification and the a posteriori changing of the grating parameters. This aim has been achieved by developing heterogeneous systems on the basis of porous glass with light-sensitive compositions introduced into it. 1. INTRODUCTION. LIGHT-SENSITIVE MEDIA FOR 3-D HOLOGRAMS RECORDING. The 3-D holograms have many useful properties: very high diffraction efficiency angular and spectral selectivity but low level of noise. It shoud be noted that in this case deep 3-D holograms are dealt with whose physical thickness is as high as 102 -i mkm. Such hologram recording is usually done using homogeneous light-sensitive media for example dyed acid-halide and electrooptical crystals photochrome glass photostructurized polimer compositions and so on. The nature of photophisical and photochemical processes responsible for the light sensitivity of these materials exclude the possibility of post-exposure treatment. This does not allow to enhance the recorded holograms and considerably hampers their fixing or makes it practically impossible. The object of our work is to create the media which are quite suitable for two-stage processes of the deep hologram formation with post-exposure processing. Such material must satisfy the following requirements: a)they must have high permeability for the developing substances in order to make the development duration suitable for practical applications b)they must be shrinkproof to prevent deformation of the

  9. Susceptibility study of audio recording devices to electromagnetic stimulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Matthew S.; Grant, Steven.

    2014-02-01

    Little research has been performed to study how intentional electromagnetic signals may couple into recording devices. An electromagnetic susceptibility study was performed on an analog tape recorder, a digital video camera, a wired computer microphone, and a wireless microphone system to electromagnetic interference. Devices were subjected to electromagnetic stimulations in the frequency range of 1-990 MHz and field strengths up to 4.9 V/m. Carrier and message frequencies of the stimulation signals were swept, and the impacts of device orientation and antenna polarization were explored. Message signals coupled into all devices only when amplitude modulated signals were used as stimulation signals. Test conditions that produced maximum sensitivity were highly specific to each device. Only narrow carrier frequency ranges could be used for most devices to couple messages into recordings. A basic detection technique using cross-correlation demonstrated the need for messages to be as long as possible to maximize message detection and minimize detection error. Analysis suggests that detectable signals could be coupled to these recording devices under realistic ambient conditions.

  10. Acquisition of myoelectric signals to control a hand prosthesis with implantable epimysial electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Roman; Poppendieck, Wigand; Gail, Alexander; Westendorff, Stephanie; Russold, Michael; Lewis, Soren; Meiners, Thomas; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of myoelectric signals from the Musculus deltoideus of a rhesus monkey is described. Such signals are aimed to be used as control signal for an active myoelectric hand prosthesis. For recording, implantable flexible, polyimide-based multi-site microelectrodes were placed epimysially on the muscle. EMG signals were recorded during voluntary goal-directed movements of the arm, and analyzed with respect to signal amplitude and frequency.

  11. Automatic modulation recognition of communication signals

    CERN Document Server

    Azzouz, Elsayed Elsayed

    1996-01-01

    Automatic modulation recognition is a rapidly evolving area of signal analysis. In recent years, interest from the academic and military research institutes has focused around the research and development of modulation recognition algorithms. Any communication intelligence (COMINT) system comprises three main blocks: receiver front-end, modulation recogniser and output stage. Considerable work has been done in the area of receiver front-ends. The work at the output stage is concerned with information extraction, recording and exploitation and begins with signal demodulation, that requires accurate knowledge about the signal modulation type. There are, however, two main reasons for knowing the current modulation type of a signal; to preserve the signal information content and to decide upon the suitable counter action, such as jamming. Automatic Modulation Recognition of Communications Signals describes in depth this modulation recognition process. Drawing on several years of research, the authors provide a cr...

  12. Ultimate Limits to Thermally Assisted Magnetic Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Terry

    2004-03-01

    The application of thermal energy to enable recording on extremely high anisotropy magnetic media appears to be a viable means of extending the density of stored information. The central physical issue facing the technology is what gain can be realized in writability along with long- term data stability using imaginable media materials. We reasonably expect the material properties M(T) and H_k(T) to determine this, since a stability metric for media with characteristic magnetization switching unit volume V is MVH_k/2kT. This matter is controversial owing to still open questions related to thermomagnetic recording with temperature elevation above the Curie point and optimal cooling rates. There are indications that multi-component magnetic media may offer advantages in achieving performance goals. Beyond the physical issues lie engineering matters related to the correct system architecture to yield a practical storage device to meet future customer expectations. Here one must address a detailed means of delivering localized heating to the magnetic medium to perform efficient recording. To date, magnetic recording devices have been highly mechanical systems, so it is natural to inquire how a need for an aggressively heated head-medium interface could impact the evolution of future systems. Eventually elements of thermally assisted recording could be combined with patterned media approaches such as self-organized magnetic arrays to push toward ultimate limits where the thermal instability of bits overtakes engineered media materials. Finally, a practical recording system cannot be realized unless a means of finding, following, and reading the smallest bits with a usable signal-to-noise ratio exists - engineering issues separate from an ability to reliably record those bits.

  13. Stochastic joint inversion of 2D seismic and seismoelectric signals in linear poroelastic materials: A numerical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; Slob, E.C.; Söllner, W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of seismoelectrical signals is a difficult task because coseismic and seismoelectric converted signals are recorded simultaneously and the seismoelectric conversions are typically several orders of magnitude smaller than the coseismic electrical signals. The seismic and seismoelec

  14. Improved Algorithms for Nanopore Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Arjmandi, Nima; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf

    2012-01-01

    Nanopore resistive pulse techniques are based on analysis of current or voltage spikes in the recorded signal. These spikes result from translocation of nanometer sized analytes through a nanopore. The most important information that needs to be extracted is the duration, amplitude and number of the translocation spikes. The recorded signal is usually considerably noisy, with a huge baseline drift and hundreds of translocation spikes. Thus, incorporation of suitable signal processing algorithms is necessary for correct and fast detection of all the translocation spikes and to accurately measure their amplitude and duration. Generally, low-pass filtering is used for denoising, averaging is used for baseline detection, and thresholding is used for spike detection and measurement. Here we present novel algorithms and specifically developed software for nanopore signal processing that are significantly improving the accuracy of the nanopore measurements. It includes an improved method for baseline removing, an op...

  15. Control of earphone produced binaural signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    While most people keep a high attention to the significance of the binaural recording method, whether it is e.g. individual or non-individual (as e.g. artificial head recording), many pay less attention to the type of earphone used to reproduce the binaural signals, and to the accurate control...... of the ideal 1:1 reproduction of the signals at the eardrum. This paper identifies and discusses two special cases of earphone reproduction. Further work on the analysis and quantification of calibration errors is planned....

  16. Characteristics of a new automatic hail recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler-Mang, Martin; Schön, Dominik; Landry, Markus

    2011-06-01

    An automatic hail sensor was developed, based on signal production with microphones, a quick signal analysis and recording possibility. For this hail recorder (HARE) small piezo-electric microphones inside a Makrolon body are used to detect hailstones. The prototype has an octagonal shape, two microphones on the top and bottom plates situated in the middle of the device, and an electronic board. A hailstone striking the surface produces waves on the sensor body and a voltage in the piezo-electric microphones. Each hail event is stored in the internal memory including the time and date. The memory can be read out via a USB port at any time after one or more hail events. HARE was tested and calibrated with the help of a newly constructed pneumatic hail gun. The voltage signal at the top plate microphone of HARE increases linearly proportional to hailstone momentum, whereas at the bottom plate it increases linearly proportional to hailstone kinetic energy. For large hailstones the accuracy of HARE is in the order of 10%. Calibration of HARE is still in progress and it has not been tested in real hailfalls as yet. An online device as well as an autonomous one is available for a large number of possible applications. Lately there has been interest to use HARE at solar power plants in Southern Europe to prevent the expensive modules from becoming damaged. Perhaps HARE could also participate in new and existing hail observing networks.

  17. Numerical modeling of bi-polar (AC) pulse electroporation of single cell in microchannel to create nanopores on its membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Saeid; Bazargan-Lari, Yousef; Daneshmad, Farhang; Mashhoodi, Mashhood

    2014-12-01

    AC electroporation of a single cell in a microchannel was numerically studied. A 15 μm diameter cell was considered in a microchannel 25 μm in height and the influences of AC electric pulse on its membrane were numerically investigated. The cell was assumed to be suspended between two electroporative electrodes embedded on the walls of a microchannel. An amplitude and a time span of applied electric pulse were chosen to be 80 kV/m and 10 μs, respectively. For different frequency values (50, 100, 200, and 500 kHz), simulations were performed to show how the cell membrane was electroporated and the creation of nanopores. Obtained numerical results show that the most and the largest nanopores are created around poles of cell (nearest points of cell membrane to the electrodes). The numerical simulations also demonstrate that increased frequency will slightly decrease electroporated area of the cell membrane; additionally, growth of the created nanopores will be stabilized. It has also been proven that size and number of the created nanopores will be decreased by moving from the poles to the equator of the cell. There is almost no nanopore created in the vicinity of the equator. Frequency affects the rate of generation of nanopores. In case of AC electroporation, creation of nanopores has two phases that periodically repeat over time. In each period, the pore density sharply increases and then becomes constant. Enhancement of the frequency will result in decrease in time span of the periods. In each period, size of the created nanopores sharply increases and then slightly decreases. However, until the AC electric pulse is present, overall trends of creation and development of nanopores will be ascending. Variation of the size and number of created nanopores can be explained by considering time variation of transmembrane potential (difference of electric potential on two sides of cell membrane) which is clear in the results presented in this study.

  18. Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Lessard, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals presents the most widely used techniques in signal and system analysis. Specifically, the book is concerned with methods of characterizing signals and systems. Author Charles Lessard provides students and researchers an understanding of the time and frequency domain processes which may be used to evaluate random physiological signals such as brainwave, sleep, respiratory sounds, heart valve sounds, electromyograms, and electro-oculograms.Another aim of the book is to have the students evaluate actual mammalian data without spending most or all

  19. Quaternion-Based Signal Analysis for Motor Imagery Classification from Electroencephalographic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Batres-Mendoza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quaternions can be used as an alternative to model the fundamental patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG signals in the time domain. Thus, this article presents a new quaternion-based technique known as quaternion-based signal analysis (QSA to represent EEG signals obtained using a brain-computer interface (BCI device to detect and interpret cognitive activity. This quaternion-based signal analysis technique can extract features to represent brain activity related to motor imagery accurately in various mental states. Experimental tests in which users where shown visual graphical cues related to left and right movements were used to collect BCI-recorded signals. These signals were then classified using decision trees (DT, support vector machine (SVM and k-nearest neighbor (KNN techniques. The quantitative analysis of the classifiers demonstrates that this technique can be used as an alternative in the EEG-signal modeling phase to identify mental states.

  20. Quaternion-Based Signal Analysis for Motor Imagery Classification from Electroencephalographic Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres-Mendoza, Patricia; Montoro-Sanjose, Carlos R; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I; Almanza-Ojeda, Dora L; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Ibarra-Manzano, Mario A

    2016-03-05

    Quaternions can be used as an alternative to model the fundamental patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in the time domain. Thus, this article presents a new quaternion-based technique known as quaternion-based signal analysis (QSA) to represent EEG signals obtained using a brain-computer interface (BCI) device to detect and interpret cognitive activity. This quaternion-based signal analysis technique can extract features to represent brain activity related to motor imagery accurately in various mental states. Experimental tests in which users where shown visual graphical cues related to left and right movements were used to collect BCI-recorded signals. These signals were then classified using decision trees (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) techniques. The quantitative analysis of the classifiers demonstrates that this technique can be used as an alternative in the EEG-signal modeling phase to identify mental states.

  1. Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-ionic liquid coating improves neural recording and stimulation functionality of MEAs

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Zhanhong Jeff; Luo, Xiliang; Weaver, Cassandra; Cui, Xinyan Tracy

    2015-01-01

    In vivo multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) can sense electrical signals from a small set of neurons or modulate neural activity through micro-stimulation. Electrode's geometric surface area (GSA) and impedance are important for both unit recording and neural stimulation. Smaller GSA is preferred due to enhanced selectivity of neural signal, but it tends to increase electrode impedance. Higher impedance leads to increased electrical noise and signal loss in single unit neural recording. It also yie...

  2. Continuous-time signals

    CERN Document Server

    Shmaliy, Yuriy

    2006-01-01

    Gives a modern description of continuous-time deterministic signals Signal formation techniquesTime vs. frequency and frequency vs. time analysisCorrelation and energy analysisNarrowband signals and sampling.

  3. Noise reduction techniques for the restoration of musical recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Olivier

    The evaluation of short time spectral attenuation techniques using a simplified model of standard noise suppression rules and with elementary test signals is assessed. Signal distortions induced by the restoration process are evaluated analytically, and their audibility is addressed by use of classic psychoacoustics results. Phenomena observed experimentally in previous studies, such as the modification of timbre, the appearance of modulations, and the spreading of transients, are brought to light. Drawing from these results, a noise reduction technique intended for enhancing musical signals is described. In the first step, the noisy signal is analyzed by use of a medium frequency resolution short time transform. The restoration then takes place in each subband in two different ways according to the nature of the subband signal: the processing is carried out block by block when steady signal components are detected, or locally otherwise. This approach was successfully applied to several musical recordings yielding promising results.

  4. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  5. A unified treatment of the reference estimation problem in depth EEG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Nilesh; Ranta, Radu; Maillard, Louis; Koessler, Laurent

    2012-10-01

    The starting point of this paper is the analysis of the reference problem in intra-cerebral electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings. It is well accepted that both surface and depth EEG signals are always recorded with respect to some unknown time-varying signal called reference. This article discusses different methods for determining and reducing the influence of the reference signal for the iEEG signals. In particular, we derive optimal approaches for the estimation of the reference signal in iEEG recording setups and demonstrate their relation to the well-known minimum power/variance distortionless response approaches derived for general array and antenna signal processing applications. We show that the proposed approaches achieve optimal performance in terms of estimation error and that they outperform other reference identification methods proposed in the literature. The developed algorithms are illustrated on simulated examples and on real iEEG signals.

  6. Rounding effects in record statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergen, G; Volovik, D; Redner, S; Krug, J

    2012-10-19

    We analyze record-breaking events in time series of continuous random variables that are subsequently discretized by rounding to integer multiples of a discretization scale Δ>0. Rounding leads to ties of an existing record, thereby reducing the number of new records. For an infinite number of random variables that are drawn from distributions with a finite upper limit, the number of discrete records is finite, while for distributions with a thinner than exponential upper tail, fewer discrete records arise compared to continuous variables. In the latter case, the record sequence becomes highly regular at long times.

  7. A terabyte linear tape recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A plan has been formulated and selected for a NASA Phase 2 SBIR award for using the VLBA tape recorder for recording general data. The VLBA tape recorder is a high-speed, high-density linear tape recorder developed for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) which is presently capable of recording at rates up to 2 Gbit/sec and holding up to 1 Terabyte of data on one tape, using a special interface and not employing error correction. A general-purpose interface and error correction will be added so that the recorder can be used in other high-speed, high-capacity applications.

  8. Digital image analysis of palaeoenvironmental records and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental change signals in geological or biological records are commonly reflected on their reflecting or transmitting images. These environmental signals can be extracted through digital image analysis. The analysis principle involves section line selection, color value reading and calculating environmental proxy index along the section lines, layer identification, auto-chronology and investigation of structure evolution of growth bands. On detailed illustrations of the image technique, this note provides image analyzing procedures of coral, tree-ring and stalagmite records. The environmental implications of the proxy index from image analysis are accordingly given through application demonstration of the image technique.

  9. SHOULDER ARTHROPLASTY RECORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Geraldo Motta; Galvão, Marcus Vinicius; Monteiro, Martim; Cohen, Marcio; Brandão, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The study's objective is to evaluate the characteristics and problems of patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasties between July 2004 and November 2006. Methodology: During the period of the study, 145 shoulder arthroplasties were performed. A prospective protocol was used for every patient; demographic, clinical and surgical procedure data were collected. All gathered data were included in the data base. The patients were divided in three major groups: fractures, degenerative diseases and trauma sequels. Information obtained from the data base was correlated in order to determine patients' epidemiologic, injuries, and surgical procedure profiles. Results: Of the 145 shoulder arthroplasties performed, 37% presented trauma sequels, 30% degenerative diseases, and 33% proximal humerus fracture. 12% of the cases required total arthroplasties and 88% partial arthroplasties. Five major complications were observed on early postoperative period. Conclusion: Shoulder arthroplasties have become a common procedure in orthopaedic practice. Surgical records are important in evidencing progressive evolution and in enabling future clinical outcomes evaluation. PMID:26998463

  10. Streamflows at record highs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streamflow was reported well above average in more than half the country during May, with flows at or near record levels for the month in 22 states, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior.USGS hydrologists said that above average flow was reported at 98 of the 173 USGS key index gauging stations used in their monthly check on surface- and ground-water conditions. High flows were most prevalent in the Mississippi River basin states and in the east, with the exception of Maine, South Carolina, and Georgia. Below-average streamflow occurred in the Pacific northwest and in small scattered areas in Colorado, Kansas, Texas, and Minnesota.

  11. High-Speed Data Recorder for Space, Geodesy, and Other High-Speed Recording Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveniku, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed data recorder and replay equipment has been developed for reliable high-data-rate recording to disk media. It solves problems with slow or faulty disks, multiple disk insertions, high-altitude operation, reliable performance using COTS hardware, and long-term maintenance and upgrade path challenges. The current generation data recor - ders used within the VLBI community are aging, special-purpose machines that are both slow (do not meet today's requirements) and are very expensive to maintain and operate. Furthermore, they are not easily upgraded to take advantage of commercial technology development, and are not scalable to multiple 10s of Gbit/s data rates required by new applications. The innovation provides a softwaredefined, high-speed data recorder that is scalable with technology advances in the commercial space. It maximally utilizes current technologies without being locked to a particular hardware platform. The innovation also provides a cost-effective way of streaming large amounts of data from sensors to disk, enabling many applications to store raw sensor data and perform post and signal processing offline. This recording system will be applicable to many applications needing realworld, high-speed data collection, including electronic warfare, softwaredefined radar, signal history storage of multispectral sensors, development of autonomous vehicles, and more.

  12. Model-based Bayesian signal extraction algorithm for peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Thomas E.; Dweiri, Yazan M.; McCallum, Grant A.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Multi-channel cuff electrodes have recently been investigated for extracting fascicular-level motor commands from mixed neural recordings. Such signals could provide volitional, intuitive control over a robotic prosthesis for amputee patients. Recent work has demonstrated success in extracting these signals in acute and chronic preparations using spatial filtering techniques. These extracted signals, however, had low signal-to-noise ratios and thus limited their utility to binary classification. In this work a new algorithm is proposed which combines previous source localization approaches to create a model based method which operates in real time. Approach. To validate this algorithm, a saline benchtop setup was created to allow the precise placement of artificial sources within a cuff and interference sources outside the cuff. The artificial source was taken from five seconds of chronic neural activity to replicate realistic recordings. The proposed algorithm, hybrid Bayesian signal extraction (HBSE), is then compared to previous algorithms, beamforming and a Bayesian spatial filtering method, on this test data. An example chronic neural recording is also analyzed with all three algorithms. Main results. The proposed algorithm improved the signal to noise and signal to interference ratio of extracted test signals two to three fold, as well as increased the correlation coefficient between the original and recovered signals by 10-20%. These improvements translated to the chronic recording example and increased the calculated bit rate between the recovered signals and the recorded motor activity. Significance. HBSE significantly outperforms previous algorithms in extracting realistic neural signals, even in the presence of external noise sources. These results demonstrate the feasibility of extracting dynamic motor signals from a multi-fascicled intact nerve trunk, which in turn could extract motor command signals from an amputee for the end goal of

  13. An improved holographic recording medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gange, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Solid, linear chain hydrocarbons with molecular weight ranging from about 300 to 2000 can serve as long-lived recording medium in optical memory system. Suitable recording hydrocarbons include microcrystalline waxes and low molecular weight polymers or ethylene.

  14. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  15. Problems in Recording the Electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John G.

    The unwanted signals that arise in electrocardiography are discussed. A technical background of electrocardiography is given, along with teaching techniques that educate students of medical instrumentation to solve the problems caused by these signals. (MJH)

  16. Engagement Assessment Using EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic; Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present methods to analyze and improve an EEG-based engagement assessment approach, consisting of data preprocessing, feature extraction and engagement state classification. During data preprocessing, spikes, baseline drift and saturation caused by recording devices in EEG signals are identified and eliminated, and a wavelet based method is utilized to remove ocular and muscular artifacts in the EEG recordings. In feature extraction, power spectrum densities with 1 Hz bin are calculated as features, and these features are analyzed using the Fisher score and the one way ANOVA method. In the classification step, a committee classifier is trained based on the extracted features to assess engagement status. Finally, experiment results showed that there exist significant differences in the extracted features among different subjects, and we have implemented a feature normalization procedure to mitigate the differences and significantly improved the engagement assessment performance.

  17. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  18. Unmixing binocular signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney R Lehky

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Incompatible images presented to the two eyes lead to perceptual oscillations in which one image at a time is visible. Early models portrayed this binocular rivalry as involving reciprocal inhibition between monocular representations of images, occurring at an early visual stage prior to binocular mixing. However, psychophysical experiments found conditions where rivalry could also occur at a higher, more abstract level of representation. In those cases, the rivalry was between image representations dissociated from eye-of-origin information, rather than between monocular representations from the two eyes. Moreover, neurophysiological recordings found the strongest rivalry correlate in inferotemporal cortex, a high-level, predominantly binocular visual area involved in object recognition, rather than early visual structures. An unresolved issue is how can the separate identities of the two images be maintained after binocular mixing in order for rivalry to be possible at higher levels? Here we demonstrate that after the two images are mixed, they can be unmixed at any subsequent stage using a physiologically plausible nonlinear signal-processing algorithm, non-negative matrix factorization, previously proposed for parsing object parts during object recognition. The possibility that unmixed left and right images can be regenerated at late stages within the visual system provides a mechanism for creating various binocular representations and interactions de novo in different cortical areas for different purposes, rather than inheriting then from early areas. This is a clear example how nonlinear algorithms can lead to highly non-intuitive behavior in neural information processing.

  19. Surface Electromyography Signal Processing and Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae G. Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromyography (EMG signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above.

  20. Surface Electromyography Signal Processing and Classification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rubana H.; Reaz, Mamun B. I.; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Bin Mohd; Bakar, Ashrif A. A.; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Chang, Tae. G.

    2013-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG) is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above. PMID:24048337

  1. Research on Portable Fatigue Signal Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of human pulse wave signals, the acquisition system acquisition system with excellent performance is designed, 16 bit MCU MSP430 with ultralow power is used to record, process and transmit the collected pulse wave signals. In order to make the hardware part satisfy acquisition requirements of pulse wave, the paper focuses on discussing composition, operating principle, analysis method and performance parameter of analog circuit. The software part makes use of the design tools of Matlab graphical user interface (GUI for designing pulse wave signal measurement system. The trial on intelligent fatigue test signal adopts relatively unique methods no matter in hardware circuit design or software algorithm process, which provides important and meaningful reference for objective and quantitative research on fatigue signal.

  2. Surface electromyography signal processing and classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rubana H; Reaz, Mamun B I; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Bin Mohd; Bakar, Ashrif A A; Chellappan, K; Chang, T G

    2013-09-17

    Electromyography (EMG) signals are becoming increasingly important in many applications, including clinical/biomedical, prosthesis or rehabilitation devices, human machine interactions, and more. However, noisy EMG signals are the major hurdles to be overcome in order to achieve improved performance in the above applications. Detection, processing and classification analysis in electromyography (EMG) is very desirable because it allows a more standardized and precise evaluation of the neurophysiological, rehabitational and assistive technological findings. This paper reviews two prominent areas; first: the pre-processing method for eliminating possible artifacts via appropriate preparation at the time of recording EMG signals, and second: a brief explanation of the different methods for processing and classifying EMG signals. This study then compares the numerous methods of analyzing EMG signals, in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above.

  3. Acoustically-Induced Electrical Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    We have observed electrical signals excited by and moving along with an acoustic pulse propagating in a sandstone sample. Using resonance we are now studying the characteristics of this acousto-electric signal and determining its origin and the controlling physical parameters. Four rock samples with a range of porosities, permeabilities, and mineralogies were chosen: Berea, Boise, and Colton sandstones and Austin Chalk. Pore water salinity was varied from deionized water to sea water. Ag-AgCl electrodes were attached to the sample and were interfaced to a 4-wire electrical resistivity system. Under computer control, the acoustic signals were excited and the electrical response was recorded. We see strong acoustically-induced electrical signals in all samples, with the magnitude of the effect for each rock getting stronger as we move from the 1st to the 3rd harmonics in resonance. Given a particular fluid salinity, each rock has its own distinct sensitivity in the induced electrical effect. For example at the 2nd harmonic, Berea Sandstone produces the largest electrical signal per acoustic power input even though Austin Chalk and Boise Sandstone tend to resonate with much larger amplitudes at the same harmonic. Two effects are potentially responsible for this acoustically-induced electrical response: one the co-seismic seismo-electric effect and the other a strain-induced resistivity change known as the acousto-electric effect. We have designed experimental tests to separate these mechanisms. The tests show that the seismo-electric effect is dominant in our studies. We note that these experiments are in a fluid viscosity dominated seismo-electric regime, leading to a simple interpretation of the signals where the electric potential developed is proportional to the local acceleration of the rock. Toward a test of this theory we have measured the local time-varying acoustic strain in our samples using a laser vibrometer.

  4. Interactive Digital Signal Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mish, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Interactive Digital Signal Processor, IDSP, consists of set of time series analysis "operators" based on various algorithms commonly used for digital signal analysis. Processing of digital signal time series to extract information usually achieved by applications of number of fairly standard operations. IDSP excellent teaching tool for demonstrating application for time series operators to artificially generated signals.

  5. Signals and processing for random signal radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. S.

    1980-06-01

    Signals and associated processing techniques are developed which improve the performance, simplify the implementation, and are more amenable to adaptive operation for radars using the random signal concept. These goals are accomplished through the use of a signal set that is composed of a deterministic spreading function, a binary random or pseudo-random noise source, and a possibly random or pseudo-random pulsing sequence. Techniques are developed for determining the parameters of the spreading function that result in signals with desirable ambiguity functions and high effective power. These techniques are based on the use of window functions for sidelobe control and the theory of chirp waveforms for effective power enhancement.

  6. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  7. Multiplexing oscillatory biochemical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that biochemical signals are not necessarily constant in time and that the temporal dynamics of a signal can be the information carrier. Moreover, it is now well established that the protein signaling network of living cells has a bow-tie structure and that components are often shared between different signaling pathways. Here we show by mathematical modeling that living cells can multiplex a constant and an oscillatory signal: they can transmit these two signals simultaneously through a common signaling pathway, and yet respond to them specifically and reliably. We find that information transmission is reduced not only by noise arising from the intrinsic stochasticity of biochemical reactions, but also by crosstalk between the different channels. Yet, under biologically relevant conditions more than 2 bits of information can be transmitted per channel, even when the two signals are transmitted simultaneously. These observations suggest that oscillatory signals are ideal for multiplexing signals.

  8. Novel phthalocyanine thin film for compact disc recordable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongyou Geng(耿永友); Donghong Gu(顾冬红); Yiqun Wu(吴谊群); Fuxi Gan(干福熹)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the spin-coated thin films of phthalocyanine dye are presented. Absorption spectrum ofthe thin film shows a comparatively broad absorption in the wavelength range 630 - 770 nm. Opticalparameters of the thin film were measured by a spectroscopic ellipsometer system. 5-in CD-R discs madeof this dye exhibit good performance with Yamaha 20-speed recorder. Jitters of land and pit are less than30 ns, and the 3T-11T's signals show very good quality. This dye is a promising recording medium forCD-R with much higher recording speed.

  9. Finding Trapped Miners by Using a Prototype Seismic Recording System Made from Music-Recording Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    recordings of small hammer taps were carried out in a small field in Seattle, Washington; more elaborate tests were carried out at the San Juan Coal Mine in San Juan, New Mexico, in which miners underground were signaling. The comparisons demonstrate that the recordings made by the two systems are nearly identical, indicating that either system adequately records the data from the geophones. In either system the data can quickly be converted to a format (Society of Exploration Geophysicists 'Y' format; 'SEGY') to allow for filtering and other signal processing. With a modest software development effort, it is clear that either system could produce equivalent data products (SEGY data and audio data) within a few minutes of finishing the recording. The two systems both have significant advantages and drawbacks. With the seismograph, the tapping was distinctly visible when it occurred during a time window that was displayed. I have not identified or developed software for converting the resulting data to sound recordings that can be heard, but this limitation could be overcome with a trivial software development effort. The main drawbacks to the seismograph are that it does not allow for real-time listening, it is expensive to purchase, and it contains many features that are not utilized for this application. The music recording system is simple to use (it is designed for a general user, rather than a trained technician), allows for listening during recording, and has the advantage of using inexpensive, off-the-shelf components. It also allows for quick (within minutes) playback of the audio data at varying speeds. The data display by the software in the prototype system, however, is clearly inferior to the display on the seismograph. The music system also has the drawback of substantially oversampling the data by a factor of 24 (48,000 samples per second versus 2,000 samples per second) because the user interface only allows limited subsampling. This latte

  10. Compressive Sampling of EEG Signals with Finite Rate of Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh Kok-Kiong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of electroencephalographic signals and subsequent diagnoses can only be done effectively on long term recordings that preserve the signals' morphologies. Currently, electroencephalographic signals are obtained at Nyquist rate or higher, thus introducing redundancies. Existing compression methods remove these redundancies, thereby achieving compression. We propose an alternative compression scheme based on a sampling theory developed for signals with a finite rate of innovation (FRI which compresses electroencephalographic signals during acquisition. We model the signals as FRI signals and then sample them at their rate of innovation. The signals are thus effectively represented by a small set of Fourier coefficients corresponding to the signals' rate of innovation. Using the FRI theory, original signals can be reconstructed using this set of coefficients. Seventy-two hours of electroencephalographic recording are tested and results based on metrices used in compression literature and morphological similarities of electroencephalographic signals are presented. The proposed method achieves results comparable to that of wavelet compression methods, achieving low reconstruction errors while preserving the morphologiies of the signals. More importantly, it introduces a new framework to acquire electroencephalographic signals at their rate of innovation, thus entailing a less costly low-rate sampling device that does not waste precious computational resources.

  11. Surface electromyography recording of spontaneous eyeblinks: applications in neuroprosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alice; Brenna, Stefano; Cavallari, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    We are designing an implantable neuroprosthesis for the treatment of unilateral facial paralysis. The envisioned biomimetic device paces artificial blinks in the paretic eyelid when activity in the healthy orbicularis oculi (orbicularis) muscle is detected. The present article focuses on electromyography (EMG)-based eyeblink detection. A pilot clinical study was performed in healthy volunteers who were intended to represent individuals with facial paralysis. Spontaneous eyeblinks were detected by a surface EMG recording. Blink detection accuracy was tested at rest and during voluntary smiling and chewing. Fifteen participants were asked to wear surface recording electrodes on the left side of their face, detecting the orbicularis oculi, the masseter, and the zygomatic muscle EMG activity. Participants were asked to look ahead, voluntarily smile, and chew according to an experimental protocol. Custom software was designed with the purpose of selectively filtering the multichannel EMG recordings and triggering a digital output. The software filter allowed elimination of spurious artificial eyeblinks and thus increased the accuracy of the EMG recording apparatus for the spontaneous blinking. Orbicularis oculi EMG recording worked as a real-time eyeblink-detecting system. Moreover, the multichannel EMG recording coupled to a proper digital signal processing was very effective in specifically detecting the spontaneous blinking during other facial muscle activities. With regard to closed-loop biomimetic devices for the pacing of the eyeblink, the EMG signal represents a valid option for the recording side.

  12. Multidimensional signal processing for ultrasonic signal classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ramuhalli, P.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S.

    2001-04-01

    Neural network based signal classification systems are being used increasingly in the analysis of large volumes of data obtained in NDE applications. One example is in the interpretation on ultrasonic signals obtained from inspection of welds where signals can be due to porosity, slag, lack of fusion and cracks in the weld region. Standard techniques rely on differences in individual A-scans to classify the signals. This paper proposes an ultrasonic signal classification technique based on the information in a group of signals and examining the statistical characteristics of the signals. The method was 2-dimensional signal processing algorithms to analyze the information in B- and B'-scan images. In this paper, 2-dimensional transform based coefficients of the images are used as features and a multilayer perceptron is used to classify them. These results are then combined to get the final classification for the inspected region. Results of applying the technique to data obtained from the inspection of welds are presented.

  13. A Review of EMG recording technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imteyaz Ahmad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromayogram signals are frequently used to evaluate muscle injuries. They are also used extensively in biofeedback training equipment. This study investigates the electrical activity of muscles and the interrelationship of muscles and nerve fibers. Muscle potentials are observed and measured on an oscilloscope.By placing electrodes in to a skeletal muscle we can monitor the electrical activity of the muscle. EMG is used to detect muscular disorder along with muscular abnormalities caused by other system disease such as nerve dysfunction. Neuro muscular disorder also can be known with the help of EMG. EMG is also used for diagnose of Neuro muscular performance. It is observed that there is alternating relationship between the contractions of biceps and triceps the relaxation of one forces the contraction of the other. EMG signals have been recorded atthe various positions like point Biceps, point triceps and point contractions. The frequency range of the muscle spikes covers a bandwidth from DC to over 2 KHz. This recording belongs to a normal subject.

  14. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davrondzhon Gafurov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  15. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Snekkenes, Einar

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration) of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion) under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  16. [Implantable loop recorder BioMonitor 2 (Biotronik)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalter, Thorsten; Jilek, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    The implantable loop recorder BioMonitor 2 is available with an emphasis on syncope and one on detection of atrial tachycardias. The BioMonitor 2 can be easily implanted. The BioMonitor 2 pilot study showed a high and over time stable signal and the telemetric performance was above average.

  17. Enhancing OPAC Records for Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Griffis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes adding keywords and descriptors to the catalog records of electronic databases and media items to enhance their discovery. The authors contend that subject liaisons can add value to OPAC records and enhance discovery of electronic databases and media items by providing searchable keywords and resource descriptions. The authors provide an examination of OPAC records at their own library, which illustrates the disparity of useful keywords and descriptions within the notes field for media item records versus electronic database records. The authors outline methods for identifying useful keywords for indexing OPAC records of electronic databases. Also included is an analysis of the advantages of using Encore’s Community Tag and Community Review features to allow subject liaisons to work directly in the catalog instead of collaborating with cataloging staff

  18. Ocean Color and Earth Science Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritorena, S.

    2014-12-01

    The development of consistent, high quality time series of biogeochemical products from a single ocean color sensor is a difficult task that involves many aspects related to pre- and post-launch instrument calibration and characterization, stability monitoring and the removal of the contribution of the atmosphere which represents most of the signal measured at the sensor. It is even more challenging to build Climate Data Records (CDRs) or Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) from multiple sensors as design, technology and methodologies (bands, spectral/spatial resolution, Cal/Val, algorithms) differ from sensor to sensor. NASA MEaSUREs, ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) and IOCCG Virtual Constellation are some of the underway efforts that investigate or produce ocean color CDRs or ESDRs from the recent and current global missions (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS). These studies look at key aspects of the development of unified data records from multiple sensors, e.g. the concatenation of the "best" individual records vs. the merging of multiple records or band homogenization vs. spectral diversity. The pros and cons of the different approaches are closely dependent upon the overall science purpose of the data record and its temporal resolution. While monthly data are generally adequate for biogeochemical modeling or to assess decadal trends, higher temporal resolution data records are required to look into changes in phenology or the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms. Similarly, short temporal resolution (daily to weekly) time series may benefit more from being built through the merging of data from multiple sensors while a simple concatenation of data from individual sensors might be better suited for longer temporal resolution (e.g. monthly time series). Several Ocean Color ESDRs were developed as part of the NASA MEaSUREs project. Some of these time series are built by merging the reflectance data from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and Envisat-MERIS in a semi-analytical ocean color

  19. Record of thermoluminescence in sea sediments in the last millennia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cini Castagnoli, G.; Bonino, G.; Della Monica, P.; Taricco, C. [Turin, Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Cosmogeofisica. Dipt. di Fisica generale

    1997-01-01

    The profile of thermoluminescence (TL) has been measured in the Ionian shallow-water core GT89-3 with a resolution of 3.096 years (corresponding to a sampling interval of 2 mm) during the last 1800 years. A similar TL record was previously obtained in the core GM14, taken from the same area, with a resolution of 3.87 years (corresponding to a sampling interval of 2.5 mm). The authors present here the comparison of the TL profiles. They confirm the presence of the centennial and the decennial cycles earlier identified in the TL signal, corresponding to cyclicities appearing to exist in the solar-activity records. It discusses the origin of the TL signal by comparison with the cosmogenic isotopes {sup 14}C and {sup 10}Be records.

  20. Analysis of phonocardiogram signals using wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziani, F; Debbal, S M; Atbi, A

    2012-08-01

    Phonocardiograms (PCG) are recordings of the acoustic waves produced by the mechanical action of the heart. They generally consist of two kinds of acoustic vibrations: heart sounds and heart murmurs. Heart murmurs are often the first signs of pathological changes of the heart valves, and are usually found during auscultation in primary health care. Heart auscultation has been recognized for a long time as an important tool for the diagnosis of heart disease, although its accuracy is still insufficient to diagnose some heart diseases. It does not enable the analyst to obtain both qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the PCG signals. The efficiency of diagnosis can be improved considerably by using modern digital signal processing techniques. Therefore, these last can provide useful and valuable information on these signals. The aim of this study is to analyse PCG signals using wavelet transform. This analysis is based on an algorithm for the detection of heart sounds (the first and second sounds, S1 and S2) and heart murmurs using the PCG signal as the only source. The segmentation algorithm, which separates the components of the heart signal, is based on denoising by wavelet transform (DWT). This algorithm makes it possible to isolate individual sounds (S1 or S2) and murmurs. Thus, the analysis of various PCGs signals using wavelet transform can provide a wide range of statistical parameters related to the phonocardiogram signal.

  1. The foundations of magnetic recording

    CERN Document Server

    Mallinson, John C

    1993-01-01

    This expanded and updated new edition provides a comprehensive overview of the science and technology of magnetic recording. In the six years since the publication of the first edition, the magnetic recording and storage industry has burgeoned with the introduction of a host of new ideas and technologies. His book contains a discussion of almost every technologically important aspect of recording.* Continas complete coverage of the current technology of magnetic recording and storage* Written in a non-mathematical but scientifically accurate style* Permits intelligent evaluat

  2. Managing electronic records: A guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.G.

    1994-10-25

    A committee at Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) has drafted a guideline to assist offices in the management of electronic records. This paper will address the activities surrounding its creating. The guideline is for use by creators, users, and custodians of any type of electronic information. The guideline supports and supplements requirements from DOE and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), other internal processes such as system reviews, and the comprehensive records management program. While an in-house publication, it could prove useful to other organizations implementing an electronic records management program.

  3. Managing electronic records: A guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.

    1995-07-01

    A committee at Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) has drafted a guideline to assist offices in the management of electronic records. This paper will address the activities surrounding its creating. The guideline is for use by creators, users, and custodians of any type of electronic information. The guideline supports and supplements requirements from DOE and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), other internal processes such as system reviews, and the comprehensive records management program. While an in-house publication, it could prove useful to other organizations implementing an electronic records management program.

  4. Records and record-keeping for the hospital compounding pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2007-01-01

    The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., is recognized by federal law and by most state boards of pharmacy as the official group for setting the standards for pharmaceuticals and pharmacy practice, including compounding. The standards of United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 795 require that a pharmacy maintain records on a compounded preparation, including the formulation record, and a Material Safety Data Sheets file. The American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists' guidelines require that hospital pharmacy departments maintain at least four sets of records in the compounding area: (1) compounding formulas and procedures, (2) compounding logs of all compounded preparations, including batch records and sample batch labels, (3) equipment maintenance records, and (4) a record of ingredients purchased, including cerificates of analysis and Material Saftey Data Sheets. Hospital compounding records may be inspected by any of several outside organizations, including state boards of pharmacy, third-party payers, the Joint Commission on Accreditaion of Healthcare Organizations, the Drug Enforcement Agency, and attorneys. With the existing standards and guidelines in place and the importance of documentation unquestionable, a record of pharmacy activites should be maintained in a compounding pharmacy so that preparations can be replicated consistently, the history of each ingredient traced, equipment maintenance and calibration verified, and compounding procedures evaluated easily.

  5. Cell signaling review series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiming Lin; Zhenggang Liu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Signal transduction is pivotal for many, if not all, fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and programmed cell death. Deregulation of cell signaling may result in certain types of cancers and other human diseases.

  6. Retinoid signalling during embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappel, W.W.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Durston, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusion: Retinoids are suspected to have multiple functions during embryogenesis, which are carried out via various different signal transduction pathways involving active retinoids and nuclear retinoid receptors. Research focuses on the identification of the retinoid signal transduction componen

  7. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  8. Danger signals in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Sobey, Christopher G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Magnus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Danger molecules are the first signals released from dying tissue after stroke. These danger signals bind to receptors on immune cells that will result in their activation and the release of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators, resulting in amplification of the immune response and subsequent enlargement of the damaged brain volume. The release of danger signals is a central event that leads to a multitude of signals and cascades in the affected and neighbouring tissue, therefore providing a potential target for therapy.

  9. Tetrapyrrole Signaling in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles make critical contributions to a number of important processes in diverse organisms. In plants, tetrapyrroles are essential for light signaling, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the assimilation of nitrate and sulfate, respiration, photosynthesis, and programed cell death. The misregulation of tetrapyrrole metabolism can produce toxic reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is not surprising that tetrapyrrole metabolism is strictly regulated and that tetrapyrrole metabolism affects signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In plants and algae, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and were some of the first plastid signals demonstrated to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plants, the mechanism of tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling remains poorly understood. Additionally, some of experiments that tested ideas for possible signaling mechanisms appeared to produce conflicting data. In some instances, these conflicts are potentially explained by different experimental conditions. Although the biological function of tetrapyrrole signaling is poorly understood, there is compelling evidence that this signaling is significant. Specifically, this signaling appears to affect the accumulation of starch and may promote abiotic stress tolerance. Tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling interacts with a distinct plastid-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that depends on GENOMES UNCUOPLED1 (GUN1). GUN1 contributes to a variety of processes, such as chloroplast biogenesis, the circadian rhythm, abiotic stress tolerance, and development. Thus, the contribution of tetrapyrrole signaling to plant function is potentially broader than we currently appreciate. In this review, I discuss these aspects of tetrapyrrole signaling.

  10. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will pr...

  11. ACP with signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    New operators are introduced on top of ACP [BK 84] in order to incorporate stable signals in process algebra. Semantically this involves assigning labels to nodes of process graphs. The labels of nodes are called signals. In combination with the operators of BPA, a signal insertion operator

  12. Assessment of Muscle Fatigue from TF Distributions of SEMG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] S. Karlsson, J. Yu, and M. Akay. Time-frequency analysis of myoelectric signals during dynamic contractions: A compartive study. IEEE...Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 47:228–238, 2000. [2] P. Bonato, G. Giagliati, and M. Knaflitz. Analysis of myoelectric signals recorded...AFRL-RH-WP-JA-2009-0001 Assessment of Muscle Fatigue from TF Distributions of SEMG Signals C. Potes R. von Borries C. Jacques Miosso

  13. Wavelet-Based Signal Processing for Monitoring Discomfort and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    surface myoelectric signals during athletic movement,” Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE, vol. 20, pp. 106–115, 2001. [2] B. Boashash... myoelectric signals recorded during dynamic contractions,IEEE Engineering in medicine and Biology, vol. 15, pp. 102–111, 1996. [4] P. Bonato, S. H. Roy, M...Knaflitz, and C. J. D. Luca, Time-frequency parameters of the surface myoelectric signal for assesing muscle fatigue during cyclic dynamic

  14. Ulysses breaks latitude record

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Ulysses is gathering important new information concerning the Sun and its environment. Its prime mission objective is to carry out the first systematic exploration of the inner part of the heliosphere - the region of space carved out of the interstellar medium by the solar wind - at all latitudes from the solar equator to the poles. The spacecraft, launched by the space shuttle Discovery on 6 October 1990 in the framework of an ESA-NASA collaborative venture, underwent a gravity assist manoeuvre at Jupiter in February 1992 and is now in a highly inclined solar orbit that will bring it over the south pole of the Sun in September 1994. At that time, Ulysses will establish a new record as it climbs to its maximum latitude of just over 80 degrees. The spacecraft and its scientific instruments are in excellent condition and the data coverage since launch has been consistently close to 100% thanks to the dedicated efforts of the joint ESA-NASA Mission Operations Team and NASA's Deep Space Network. Although the most exciting phase of the mission - the study of the Sun's polar regions - will only begin in mid-1994, Ulysses has already produced a wealth of new scientific results. These include : * - The first direct detection of neutral helium atoms arriving from interstellar space. * - The measurement of micron-sized dust grains arriving from interstellar space. * - The first measurement of singly-charged H, N, O and Ne ions which entered the heliosphere as interstellar neutral atoms and were then ionised. * - The highest-resolution measurements to date of the isotopic composition of cosmic ray nuclei (e.g. C, N, O, Ne, Si and Mg). In addition to the above, the traversal of Jupiter's magnetosphere at the time of the fly-by enabled the Ulysses investigators to acquire new and highly valuable data concerning this very complex and dynamic plasma environment. Among the more exciting results to emerge are the possible entry into the polar cap of Jupiter's magnetosphere near the

  15. Stimulus Contrast and Retinogeniculate Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Daniel L; Alitto, Henry J; Warland, David K; Usrey, W Martin

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal signals conveying luminance contrast play a key role in nearly all aspects of perception, including depth perception, texture discrimination, and motion perception. Although much is known about the retinal mechanisms responsible for encoding contrast information, relatively little is known about the relationship between stimulus contrast and the processing of neuronal signals between visual structures. Here, we describe simultaneous recordings from monosynaptically connected retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons in the cat to determine how stimulus contrast affects the communication of visual signals between the two structures. Our results indicate that: (1) LGN neurons typically reach their half-maximal response at lower contrasts than their individual retinal inputs and (2) LGN neurons exhibit greater contrast-dependent phase advance (CDPA) than their retinal inputs. Further analyses suggests that increased sensitivity relies on spatial convergence of multiple retinal inputs, while increased CDPA is achieved, in part, on temporal summation of arriving signals.

  16. Stimulus contrast and retinogeniculate signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Llewellyn Rathbun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal signals conveying luminance contrast play a key role in nearly all aspects of perception, including depth perception, texture discrimination, and motion perception. Although much is known about the retinal mechanisms responsible for encoding contrast information, relatively little is known about the relationship between stimulus contrast and the processing of neuronal signals between visual structures. Here we describe simultaneous recordings from monosynaptically connected retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons in the cat to determine how stimulus contrast affects the communication of visual signals between the two structures. Our results indicate that 1 LGN neurons typically reach their half-maximal response at lower contrasts than their individual retinal inputs, and 2 LGN neurons exhibit greater contrast-dependent phase advance (CDPA than their retinal inputs. Further analyses suggests that increased sensitivity relies on spatial convergence of multiple retinal inputs, while increased CDPA is achieved, in part, on temporal summation of arriving signals.

  17. Bivariate phase-rectified signal averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Schumann, Aicko Y; Bauer, Axel; Schmidt, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Phase-Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA) was shown to be a powerful tool for the study of quasi-periodic oscillations and nonlinear effects in non-stationary signals. Here we present a bivariate PRSA technique for the study of the inter-relationship between two simultaneous data recordings. Its performance is compared with traditional cross-correlation analysis, which, however, does not work well for non-stationary data and cannot distinguish the coupling directions in complex nonlinear situations. We show that bivariate PRSA allows the analysis of events in one signal at times where the other signal is in a certain phase or state; it is stable in the presence of noise and impassible to non-stationarities.

  18. Recording and assessment of evoked potentials with electrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković, N; Malešević, N; Kojić, V; Bijelić, G; Keller, T; Popović, D B

    2015-09-01

    In order to optimize procedure for the assessment of evoked potentials and to provide visualization of the flow of action potentials along the motor systems, we introduced array electrodes for stimulation and recording and developed software for the analysis of the recordings. The system uses a stimulator connected to an electrode array for the generation of evoked potentials, an electrode array connected to the amplifier, A/D converter and computer for the recording of evoked potentials, and a dedicated software application. The method has been tested for the assessment of the H-reflex on the triceps surae muscle in six healthy humans. The electrode array with 16 pads was positioned over the posterior aspect of the thigh, while the recording electrode array with 16 pads was positioned over the triceps surae muscle. The stimulator activated all the pads of the stimulation electrode array asynchronously, while the signals were recorded continuously at all the recording sites. The results are topography maps (spatial distribution of evoked potentials) and matrices (spatial visualization of nerve excitability). The software allows the automatic selection of the lowest stimulation intensity to achieve maximal H-reflex amplitude and selection of the recording/stimulation pads according to predefined criteria. The analysis of results shows that the method provides rich information compared with the conventional recording of the H-reflex with regard the spatial distribution.

  19. Multivariate Analysis for the Processing of Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattie J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-world experiments are becoming increasingly more complex, needing techniques capable of tracking this complexity. Signal based measurements are often used to capture this complexity, where a signal is a record of a sample’s response to a parameter (e.g. time, displacement, voltage, wavelength that is varied over a range of values. In signals the responses at each value of the varied parameter are related to each other, depending on the composition or state sample being measured. Since signals contain multiple information points, they have rich information content but are generally complex to comprehend. Multivariate Analysis (MA has profoundly transformed their analysis by allowing gross simplification of the tangled web of variation. In addition MA has also provided the advantage of being much more robust to the influence of noise than univariate methods of analysis. In recent years, there has been a growing awareness that the nature of the multivariate methods allows exploitation of its benefits for purposes other than data analysis, such as pre-processing of signals with the aim of eliminating irrelevant variations prior to analysis of the signal of interest. It has been shown that exploiting multivariate data reduction in an appropriate way can allow high fidelity denoising (removal of irreproducible non-signals, consistent and reproducible noise-insensitive correction of baseline distortions (removal of reproducible non-signals, accurate elimination of interfering signals (removal of reproducible but unwanted signals and the standardisation of signal amplitude fluctuations. At present, the field is relatively small but the possibilities for much wider application are considerable. Where signal properties are suitable for MA (such as the signal being stationary along the x-axis, these signal based corrections have the potential to be highly reproducible, and highly adaptable and are applicable in situations where the data is noisy or

  20. Usage Reporting on Recorded Lectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Pierre; Bruggen, Jan van; Jochems, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the interactions of students with the recorded lectures. We report on an analysis of students' use of recorded lectures at two Universities in the Netherlands. The data logged by the lecture capture system (LCS) is used and combined with collected survey data. We describe the pro

  1. COHERENT LIGHT-RECORDING TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the basis of diffraction theory, quantum-mechanics and information theory, it is shown that the principle of coherent light recording is the...mechanical, magnetic or electric approaches. Photographic coherent light recording tests were made by the dynamic sweep tests on 16 mm Recordak Micro-File

  2. Rate-of-climb Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielzig, Helmut

    1938-01-01

    The chief advantage of the instrument lies in the degree of accuracy obtainable with suitably flexible capsule (dynamic pressure recorder with small test range) and in its sensitivity for recording static-pressure changes. A description and hook-up of the instrument is provided along with calculations of error.

  3. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  4. Record Management and Design Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2008-01-01

    Government mandated records management requirements apply to retention and long term archival of a wide variety of records. Part of the attention is on permanent accession and retention by the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) but interim requirements for storage by the source agency are included. As government agencies and the Department of Defense move toward implementations, additional goals often include saving design data for reuse. This paper briefly reviews the government records management requirements then investigates candidate meanings of 'reuse' and proposes an enhanced design records retention approach. The recommended strategy that emerges is, for a given program or product family, to invest in rich and readily re-executable preservation of design artifacts for one or two subsequent generations, then downgrade the data in utility through conversions, ultimately reaching the NARA minimum standard for permanent historical-interest archives.

  5. Electronic Ambient-Temperature Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Larry; Barrows, William

    1995-01-01

    Electronic temperature-recording unit stores data in internal memory for later readout. Records temperatures from minus 40 degrees to plus 60 degrees C at intervals ranging from 1.875 to 15 minutes. With all four data channels operating at 1.875-minute intervals, recorder stores at least 10 days' data. For only one channel at 15-minute intervals, capacity extends to up to 342 days' data. Developed for recording temperatures of instruments and life-science experiments on satellites, space shuttle, and high-altitude aircraft. Adaptable to such terrestrial uses as recording temperatures of perishable goods during transportation and of other systems or processes over long times. Can be placed directly in environment to monitor.

  6. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  7. Observation of Amorphous Recording Marks Using Reflection-Mode Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope Supported by Optical Interference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masaru; Mononobe, Shuji; Yusu, Keiichiro; Tadokoro, Toshiyasu; Saiki, Toshiharu

    2005-09-01

    A signal enhancing technique for a reflection-mode near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) is proposed. Optical interference between the signal light, from an aperture at the tip of a tapered optical fiber, and the reflected light, from a metallic coating around the aperture, enhances the signal intensity. We used a rewritable high-definition digital versatile disc (HD DVD) with dual recording layers as a sample medium, and demonstrated observation of amorphous recording marks on the semitransparent (the first) recording layer. In spite of low optical contrast between the crystal region and the amorphous region on this layer, we successfully observed recording marks with good contrast.

  8. Acoustic Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  9. Reliable Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Roy

    Stochasticity inherent to biochemical reactions (intrinsic noise) and variability in cellular states (extrinsic noise) degrade information transmitted through signaling networks. We analyzed the ability of temporal signal modulation - that is dynamics - to reduce noise-induced information loss. In the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium (Ca(2 +)) , and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF- κB) pathways, response dynamics resulted in significantly greater information transmission capacities compared to nondynamic responses. Theoretical analysis demonstrated that signaling dynamics has a key role in overcoming extrinsic noise. Experimental measurements of information transmission in the ERK network under varying signal-to-noise levels confirmed our predictions and showed that signaling dynamics mitigate, and can potentially eliminate, extrinsic noise-induced information loss. By curbing the information-degrading effects of cell-to-cell variability, dynamic responses substantially increase the accuracy of biochemical signaling networks.

  10. Second-hand signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Studies of signaling theory have traditionally focused on the dyadic link between the sender and receiver of the signal. Within a science‐based perspective this framing has led scholars to investigate how patents and publications of firms function as signals. I explore another important type...... of signal of firms, which is based on a formalized common practice of external, academic experts referring to firms in their peer reviewed publications. The findings provide qualitative evidence that helps explain why and how this new type of ‘second‐hand’ signal is created, validated and systematically...... used by various agents in their search for and assessment of products and firms. I conclude by arguing how this second‐hand nature of signals goes beyond a simple dyadic focus on senders and receivers of signals, and thus elucidates the more complex interrelations of the various types of agents...

  11. Oyster Electrophysiology: Electrocardiogram Signal Recognition and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico M. Batista

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After 100 years of published recording traces pertaining to the oyster electrocardiogram (ECG, we revisited the original experiments of Eiger (1913, using state-of-the-art electrophysiology recorders. Our aim was to confirm that a recordable ECG, similar to that of higher vertebrates, is present in the oyster heart. Portuguese oysters Crassostrea angulata, collected from the Guadiana estuary, Portugal, were used. The oysters were drilled through the right valve to reveal the pericardium. Gold and silver electrodes were placed through the hole and electrophysiological recordings were obtained. Stimulation of the oyster heart was performed in vivo and in vitro using a constant current power supply. Placement of electrodes around the heart revealed a trace that very closely matched the published ECG of Eiger (1913. However, we were unable to confirm that the recording was an ECG of the oyster heart. Moreover, measurements on isolated oyster hearts revealed a low conductivity (0.10 S m‒1. We did, however, record a depolarization signal from what we believe to be the visceral ganglia, and this preceded contractions of the oyster heart. Our findings indicate that so-called ECGs, previously recorded by [2] in Ostrea edulis, but also the “ECG” recorded by [4] in C. virginica from oyster hearts, are in fact an artifact arising from relative movement of the recording electrodes, giving rise to a baseline shift that mimics in some ways the P and QRS features of a typical ECG. Nevertheless, such recordings provide information pertaining to heart rate and are not without importance.

  12. Design and implementation of an underwater sound recording device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Rohrer, John S.; Caviggia, Kurt A.

    2011-09-19

    The purpose of this study was to design and build two versions of an underwater sound recording device. The device designed is referred to as the Underwater Sound Recorder (USR), which can be connected to one or two hydrophones or other underwater sound sensors. The URS contains a 26 dB preamplifier and a user selectable gain that permits additional amplification of input to the system from 26 dB to 46 dB. Signals within the frequency range up to 15 kHz may be recorded using the USR. Examples of USR applications are monitoring underwater processes that have the potential to create large pressure waves that could potentially harm fish or other aquatic life, such as underwater explosions or pile driving. Additional applications are recording sound generated by vessels or the vocalizations of some marine mammals, such as the calls from many species of whales.

  13. (Collection of high quality acoustical records for honeybees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, H.T.; Buchanan, M.E.

    1987-02-19

    High quality acoustical data records were collected for both European and Africanized honeybees under various field conditions. This data base was needed for more rigorous evaluation of a honeybee identification technique previously developed by the travelers from preliminary data sets. Laboratory-grade recording equipment was used to record sounds made by honeybees in and near their nests and during foraging flights. Recordings were obtained from European and Africanized honeybees in the same general environment. Preliminary analyses of the acoustical data base clearly support the general identification algorithm: Africanized honeybee noise has significantly higher frequency content than does European honeybee noise. As this algorithm is refined, it may result in the development of a simple field-portable device for identifying subspecies of honeybees. Further, the honeybee's acoustical signals appear to be correlated with specific colony conditions. Understanding these variations may have enormous benefit for entomologists and for the beekeeping industry.

  14. Community detection by signaling on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanqing; Li, Menghui; Zhang, Peng; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2008-07-01

    Based on a signaling process of complex networks, a method for identification of community structure is proposed. For a network with n nodes, every node is assumed to be a system which can send, receive, and record signals. Each node is taken as the initial signal source to excite the whole network one time. Then the source node is associated with an n -dimensional vector which records the effects of the signaling process. By this process, the topological relationship of nodes on the network could be transferred into a geometrical structure of vectors in n -dimensional Euclidean space. Then the best partition of groups is determined by F statistics and the final community structure is given by the K -means clustering method. This method can detect community structure both in unweighted and weighted networks. It has been applied to ad hoc networks and some real networks such as the Zachary karate club network and football team network. The results indicate that the algorithm based on the signaling process works well.

  15. Signal Space Separation method with block matrix inversion for extraction of signals in magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, R.; Janawadkar, M. P.

    2012-10-01

    Signal Space Separation (SSS) method is a technique utilized to eliminate the contribution of unwanted signals due to external magnetic noise that inevitably get recorded along with the actual magnetic signal due to neuronal currents in the brain. In this paper, the SSS method has been implemented using block matrix inversion. By implementing block matrix inversion along with regrouping of radial terms, it has been possible to extract the true brain signal from the measured magnetic signal which includes the contribution from an external magnetic dipole artifact for measurements from as few as 64 channels. We observe that the minimum root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the signal inferred from block matrix inversion with regrouped terms is around 6 fT when the truncation order is set at L1 = 11 for signals of interest and L2 = 2 for external noise sources and saturates to similar values for higher L1. The RMSD of extracted signal is 50% smaller than the minimum RMSD when the magnetoencephalography signal is extracted by direct pseudoinverse technique and does not have a deep minimum in the truncation order L1 as observed when direct pseudoinverse technique is used.

  16. Signal processing of heart signals for the quantification of non-deterministic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baddour Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart signals represent an important way to evaluate cardiovascular function and often what is desired is to quantify the level of some signal of interest against the louder backdrop of the beating of the heart itself. An example of this type of application is the quantification of cavitation in mechanical heart valve patients. Methods An algorithm is presented for the quantification of high-frequency, non-deterministic events such as cavitation from recorded signals. A closed-form mathematical analysis of the algorithm investigates its capabilities. The algorithm is implemented on real heart signals to investigate usability and implementation issues. Improvements are suggested to the base algorithm including aligning heart sounds, and the implementation of the Short-Time Fourier Transform to study the time evolution of the energy in the signal. Results The improvements result in better heart beat alignment and better detection and measurement of the random events in the heart signals, so that they may provide a method to quantify nondeterministic events in heart signals. The use of the Short-Time Fourier Transform allows the examination of the random events in both time and frequency allowing for further investigation and interpretation of the signal. Conclusions The presented algorithm does allow for the quantification of nondeterministic events but proper care in signal acquisition and processing must be taken to obtain meaningful results.

  17. To signal or not to signal: that should not be the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faw, Harold W

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine rates of turn signal use, a positive and potentially valuable means by which drivers can communicate. A second purpose was to explore factors that might impact these rates, including the modeling influence of other drivers. A series of observations involving more than 5600 vehicles making turns were recorded at a variety of intersections in British Columbia, Canada. Though the occurrence of signal use varied widely, ranging from a low of 54% to a high of 95%, the overall rate was 76%. Drivers used turn signals significantly less often when making right as compared with left turns, when traffic volume was higher, and when a designated turning lane was provided. In addition, compared with drivers following another vehicle not using signals, those following a vehicle with turn signals on were significantly more likely to activate their turn signals, suggesting a possible modeling effect. Both internal and external influences on turn signal use by drivers were considered. External factors explored in this research included direction of turn, traffic volume, intersection configuration, and the example of other drivers. It was concluded that the practice of signaling turns merits more research attention, since consistent use of signals is a potential contributor to enhanced safety for all road users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistence of random walk records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2014-06-01

    We study records generated by Brownian particles in one dimension. Specifically, we investigate an ordinary random walk and define the record as the maximal position of the walk. We compare the record of an individual random walk with the mean record, obtained as an average over infinitely many realizations. We term the walk ‘superior’ if the record is always above average, and conversely, the walk is said to be ‘inferior’ if the record is always below average. We find that the fraction of superior walks, S, decays algebraically with time, S ˜ t-β, in the limit t → ∞, and that the persistence exponent is nontrivial, β = 0.382 258…. The fraction of inferior walks, I, also decays as a power law, I ˜ t-α, but the persistence exponent is smaller, α = 0.241 608…. Both exponents are roots of transcendental equations involving the parabolic cylinder function. To obtain these theoretical results, we analyze the joint density of superior walks with a given record and position, while for inferior walks it suffices to study the density as a function of position.

  19. Medical records and access thereto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid-Mason, D

    1996-01-01

    Medical records are essential tools in the practice of medicine. They are important in the planning and monitoring of patient care and for the protection of the legal interests of patients, hospitals and doctors. There is a legal duty on doctors to maintain confidentiality and failure to do so may result in an action for invasion of privacy, defamation or even breach of contract. There are, however, exceptions to this rule. There are procedural remedies available to obtain access to medical records where they are relevant to civil or criminal proceedings. There are also constitutional provisions under the Interim and Working Draft Constitutions which may allow such access. The former only applies to records held by the state while the latter applies to both state and privately held records. Ownership of medical records usually vests in the doctor or institution treating the patient, but such ownership is custodial rather than absolute. Patient records should be accurate, objective and contemporaneous. The international trend is to allow patients to inspect their records and to allow them to make copies thereof. It is submitted that given the provisions of the Interim and Working Draft Constitutions the same should apply in South Africa.

  20. Bit Patterned Magnetic Recording: Theory, Media Fabrication, and Recording Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Thomas R.; Arora, Hitesh; Ayanoor-Vitikkate, Vipin; Beaujour, Jean-Marc; Bedau, Daniel; Berman, David; Bogdanov, Alexei L.; Chapuis, Yves-Andre; Cushen, Julia; Dobisz, Elizabeth E.; Doerk, Gregory; Gao, He; Grobis, Michael; Gurney, Bruce; Hanson, Weldon

    2015-01-01

    Bit Patterned Media (BPM) for magnetic recording provide a route to densities $>1 Tb/in^2$ and circumvents many of the challenges associated with conventional granular media technology. Instead of recording a bit on an ensemble of random grains, BPM uses an array of lithographically defined isolated magnetic islands, each of which stores one bit. Fabrication of BPM is viewed as the greatest challenge for its commercialization. In this article we describe a BPM fabrication method which combine...

  1. Design and development of digital seismic amplifier recorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsidar, Siti Alaa; Afuar, Waldy; Handayani, Gunawan, E-mail: gunawanhandayani@gmail.com [Department of Physics, ITB (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    A digital seismic recording is a recording technique of seismic data in digital systems. This method is more convenient because it is more accurate than other methods of seismic recorders. To improve the quality of the results of seismic measurements, the signal needs to be amplified to obtain better subsurface images. The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of measurement by amplifying the input signal. We use seismic sensors/geophones with a frequency of 4.5 Hz. The signal is amplified by means of 12 units of non-inverting amplifier. The non-inverting amplifier using IC 741 with the resistor values 1KΩ and 1MΩ. The amplification results were 1,000 times. The results of signal amplification converted into digital by using the Analog Digital Converter (ADC). Quantitative analysis in this study was performed using the software Lab VIEW 8.6. The Lab VIEW 8.6 program was used to control the ADC. The results of qualitative analysis showed that the seismic conditioning can produce a large output, so that the data obtained is better than conventional data. This application can be used for geophysical methods that have low input voltage such as microtremor application.

  2. Design and development of digital seismic amplifier recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsidar, Siti Alaa; Afuar, Waldy; Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-01

    A digital seismic recording is a recording technique of seismic data in digital systems. This method is more convenient because it is more accurate than other methods of seismic recorders. To improve the quality of the results of seismic measurements, the signal needs to be amplified to obtain better subsurface images. The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of measurement by amplifying the input signal. We use seismic sensors/geophones with a frequency of 4.5 Hz. The signal is amplified by means of 12 units of non-inverting amplifier. The non-inverting amplifier using IC 741 with the resistor values 1KΩ and 1MΩ. The amplification results were 1,000 times. The results of signal amplification converted into digital by using the Analog Digital Converter (ADC). Quantitative analysis in this study was performed using the software Lab VIEW 8.6. The Lab VIEW 8.6 program was used to control the ADC. The results of qualitative analysis showed that the seismic conditioning can produce a large output, so that the data obtained is better than conventional data. This application can be used for geophysical methods that have low input voltage such as microtremor application.

  3. 76 FR 62632 - NARA Records Reproduction Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... archival records or donated materials from various Governmental bodies. Archival records means records that... Centers, National Personnel Records Center, archival reference operations nationwide, and Presidential... notified of NATF determination, including business case for determination, in NARA research rooms...

  4. Quantitation of signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, S; Brand, M D

    2000-12-01

    Conventional qualitative approaches to signal transduction provide powerful ways to explore the architecture and function of signaling pathways. However, at the level of the complete system, they do not fully depict the interactions between signaling and metabolic pathways and fail to give a manageable overview of the complexity that is often a feature of cellular signal transduction. Here, we introduce a quantitative experimental approach to signal transduction that helps to overcome these difficulties. We present a quantitative analysis of signal transduction during early mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes, with steady-state respiration rate as a convenient marker of metabolic stimulation. First, by inhibiting various key signaling pathways, we measure their relative importance in regulating respiration. About 80% of the input signal is conveyed via identifiable routes: 50% through pathways sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase C and MAP kinase and 30% through pathways sensitive to an inhibitor of calcineurin. Second, we quantify how each of these pathways differentially stimulates functional units of reactions that produce and consume a key intermediate in respiration: the mitochondrial membrane potential. Both the PKC and calcineurin routes stimulate consumption more strongly than production, whereas the unidentified signaling routes stimulate production more than consumption, leading to no change in membrane potential despite increased respiration rate. The approach allows a quantitative description of the relative importance of signal transduction pathways and the routes by which they activate a specific cellular process. It should be widely applicable.

  5. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...

  6. Electronic health records for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Trenor

    2010-01-01

    The straight scoop on choosing and implementing an electronic health records (EHR) system Doctors, nurses, and hospital and clinic administrators are interested in learning the best ways to implement and use an electronic health records system so that they can be shared across different health care settings via a network-connected information system. This helpful, plain-English guide provides need-to-know information on how to choose the right system, assure patients of the security of their records, and implement an EHR in such a way that it causes minimal disruption to the daily demands of a

  7. Adaptive filtering for ECG rejection from surface EMG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marque, C; Bisch, C; Dantas, R; Elayoubi, S; Brosse, V; Pérot, C

    2005-06-01

    Surface electromyograms (EMG) of back muscles are often corrupted by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. This noise in the EMG signals does not allow to appreciate correctly the spectral content of the EMG signals and to follow its evolution during, for example, a fatigue process. Several methods have been proposed to reject the ECG noise from EMG recordings, but seldom taking into account the eventual changes in ECG characteristics during the experiment. In this paper we propose an adaptive filtering algorithm specifically developed for the rejection of the electrocardiogram corrupting surface electromyograms (SEMG). The first step of the study was to choose the ECG electrode position in order to record the ECG with a shape similar to that found in the noised SEMGs. Then, the efficiency of different algorithms were tested on 28 erector spinae SEMG recordings. The best algorithm belongs to the fast recursive least square family (FRLS). More precisely, the best results were obtained with the simplified formulation of a FRLS algorithm. As an application of the adaptive filtering, the paper compares the evolutions of spectral parameters of noised or denoised (after adaptive filtering) surface EMGs recorded on erector spinae muscles during a trunk extension. The fatigue test was analyzed on 16 EMG recordings. After adaptive filtering, mean initial values of energy and of mean power frequency (MPF) were significantly lower and higher respectively. The differences corresponded to the removal of the ECG components. Furthermore, classical fatigue criteria (increase in energy and decrease in MPF values over time during the fatigue test) were better observed on the denoised EMGs. The mean values of the slopes of the energy-time and MPF-time linear relationships differed significantly when established before and after adaptive filtering. These results account for the efficacy of the adaptive filtering method proposed here to denoise electrophysiological signals.

  8. Beat-to-beat heart rate detection in multi-lead abdominal fetal ECG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C H L; van Laar, J O E H; Vullings, R; Oei, S G; Wijn, P F F

    2012-04-01

    Reliable monitoring of fetal condition often requires more information than is provided by cardiotocography, the standard technique for fetal monitoring. Abdominal recording of the fetal electrocardiogram may offer valuable additional information, but unfortunately is troubled by poor signal-to-noise ratios during certain parts of pregnancy. To increase the usability of abdominal fetal ECG recordings, an algorithm was developed that enhances fetal QRS complexes in these recordings and thereby provides a promising method for detecting the beat-to-beat fetal heart rate in recordings with poor signal-to-noise ratios. The method was evaluated on generated recordings with controlled signal-to-noise ratios and on actual recordings that were performed in clinical practice and were annotated by two independent experts. The evaluation on the generated signals demonstrated excellent results (sensitivity of 0.98 for SNR≥1.5). Only for SNRheart rate detection exceeded 2 ms, which may still suffice for cardiotocography but is unacceptable for analysis of the beat-to-beat fetal heart rate variability. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of the method in actual recordings were reduced to approximately 90% for SNR≤2.4, but were excellent for higher signal-to-noise ratios.

  9. Technical solutions for simultaneous MEG and SEEG recordings: towards routine clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badier, J M; Dubarry, A S; Gavaret, M; Chen, S; Trébuchon, A S; Marquis, P; Régis, J; Bartolomei, F; Bénar, C G; Carron, R

    2017-09-21

    The simultaneous recording of intracerebral EEG (stereotaxic EEG, SEEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a promising strategy that provides both local and global views on brain pathological activity. Yet, acquiring simultaneous signals poses difficult technical issues that hamper their use in clinical routine. Our objective was thus to develop a set of solutions for recording a high number of SEEG channels while preserving signal quality. We recorded data in a patient with drug resistant epilepsy during presurgical evaluation. We used dedicated insertion screws and optically insulated amplifiers. We recorded 137 SEEG contacts on 10 depth electrodes (5-15 contacts each) and 248 MEG channels (magnetometers). Signal quality was assessed by comparing the distribution of RMS values in different frequency bands to a reference set of MEG acquisitions. The quality of signals was excellent for both MEG and SEEG; for MEG, it was comparable to that of MEG signals without concurrent SEEG. Discharges involving several structures on SEEG were visible on MEG, whereas discharges limited in space were not seen at the surface. SEEG can now be recorded simultaneously with whole-head MEG in routine. This opens new avenues, both methodologically for understanding signals and improving signal processing methods, and clinically for future combined analyses.

  10. Signaling in the Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Vittorio; Keel, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Signaling studies in the rhizosphere have focused on close interactions between plants and symbiotic microorganisms. However, this focus is likely to expand to other microorganisms because the rhizomicrobiome is important for plant health and is able to influence the structure of the microbial community. We discuss here the shaping of the rhizomicrobiome and define which aspects can be considered signaling. We divide signaling in the rhizosphere into three categories: (i) between microbes, (ii) from plants to microorganisms, and (iii) from microorganisms to plants. Signals act on diverse organisms including the plant. Mycorrhizal and rhizobial interkingdom signaling has revealed its pivotal role in establishing associations, and the recent discovery of signaling with non-symbiotic microorganisms indicates the important role of communication in shaping the rhizomicrobiome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microwave-assisted shingled magnetic recording simulations on an exchange-coupled composite medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T.; Kashiwagi, S.; Kanai, Y.; Matsuyama, K.

    2016-10-01

    The potential of microwave-assisted magnetic recording combined with the shingled recording scheme has been studied by simulating read/write processes on exchange-coupled composite media focusing on recording characteristics in the cross-track direction. Microwave fields enhance writability, especially at the track edge, resulting in lower noise and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which enables higher track density in the shingled recording scheme. Read/write simulations of microwave-assisted shingled recording achieve 1.4 Mtracks/in. while retaining high SNR. Further increases in SNR and track density will require either a narrower reader or track edge noise reduction.

  12. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... your medical history. Staying Up-To-Date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...

  13. Eclipse Editor for MARC Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Dimić Surla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Editing bibliographic data is an important part of library information systems. In this paper we discuss existing approaches in developing of user interface for editing MARC records. There are two basic approaches, screen forms that support entering bibliographic data without knowledge of the MARC structure and direct editing of MARC records that is shown on the screen. The main result presented in the paper is Eclipse editor for MARC records that fully supports editing of MARC records. It is written in Java as Eclipse plug-in so it is platform-independent. It can be extended for using with any data store. At the end, the paper presents Rich Client Platform application made of MARC editor plug-in which can be used outside of Eclipse. The practical application of the results is integration of created Rich Client Platform application in BISIS library information system.

  14. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Handbooks recommend a variety of quite complicated procedures for learning and remembering vocabulary, but most learners only engage in very simple procedures. The aim of this project was to establish a basis for identifying optimal vocabulary recording procedures by finding out what learners...... currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...... to be bilingual and single-word focused. The optimal listing procedures are those which represent a compromise between linguistically and psychologically effective practices and the amount of investment learners are actually prepared to put in. It is important to distinguish records made in class, which should...

  15. Electrical Recording of Mechanoreceptor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammer, Ann E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment designed to give beginning physiology students a successful experience with neurophysiological Techniques and to demonstrate some properties of sensory neurons. Pin electrodes are used to record extracellularly from mechanoreceptors in a cockroach leg. (Author/MA)

  16. Simulating realistic enough patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, James; Ainsworth, John

    2015-01-01

    Information systems for storing, managing and manipulating electronic medical records must place an emphasis on maintaining the privacy and security of those records. Though the design, development and testing of such systems also requires the use of data, the developers of these systems, rarely also their final end users, are unlikely to have ethical or governance approval to use real data. Alternative test data is commonly either randomly produced or taken from carefully anonymised subsets of records. In both cases there are potential shortcomings that can impact on the quality of the product being developed. We have addressed these shortcomings with a tool and methodology for efficiently simulating large amounts of realistic enough electronic patient records which can underpin the development of data-centric electronic healthcare systems.

  17. Distribution entropy analysis of epileptic EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yan, Chang; Karmakar, Chandan; Liu, Changchun

    2015-01-01

    It is an open-ended challenge to accurately detect the epileptic seizures through electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Recently published studies have made elaborate attempts to distinguish between the normal and epileptic EEG signals by advanced nonlinear entropy methods, such as the approximate entropy, sample entropy, fuzzy entropy, and permutation entropy, etc. Most recently, a novel distribution entropy (DistEn) has been reported to have superior performance compared with the conventional entropy methods for especially short length data. We thus aimed, in the present study, to show the potential of DistEn in the analysis of epileptic EEG signals. The publicly-accessible Bonn database which consisted of normal, interictal, and ictal EEG signals was used in this study. Three different measurement protocols were set for better understanding the performance of DistEn, which are: i) calculate the DistEn of a specific EEG signal using the full recording; ii) calculate the DistEn by averaging the results for all its possible non-overlapped 5 second segments; and iii) calculate it by averaging the DistEn values for all the possible non-overlapped segments of 1 second length, respectively. Results for all three protocols indicated a statistically significantly increased DistEn for the ictal class compared with both the normal and interictal classes. Besides, the results obtained under the third protocol, which only used very short segments (1 s) of EEG recordings showed a significantly (p entropy algorithm. The capability of discriminating between the normal and interictal EEG signals is of great clinical relevance since it may provide helpful tools for the detection of a seizure onset. Therefore, our study suggests that the DistEn analysis of EEG signals is very promising for clinical and even portable EEG monitoring.

  18. Terrain Identification for Prosthetic Knees Based on Electromyographic Signal Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The features of electromyographic (EMG) signals were investigated while people walking on different terrains, including up and down slopes, up and down stairs, and during level walking at different speeds. The features were used to develop a terrain identification method. The technology can be used to develop an intelligent transfemoral prosthetic limb with terrain identification capability. The EMG signals from 8 hip muscles of 13 healthy persons were recorded as they walked on the different terrains. The signals from the sound side of a transfemoral amputee were also recorded. The features of these signals were obtained using data processing techniques with an identification process developed for the identification of the terrain type. The procedure was simplified by using only the signals from three muscles. The identification process worked well in an intelligent prosthetic knee in a laboratory setting.

  19. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  20. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  1. Geolocation of RF signals

    CERN Document Server

    Progri, Ilir

    2011-01-01

    ""Geolocation of RF Signals - Principles and Simulations"" offers an overview of the best practices and innovative techniques in the art and science of geolocation over the last twenty years. It covers all research and development aspects including theoretical analysis, RF signals, geolocation techniques, key block diagrams, and practical principle simulation examples in the frequency band from 100 MHz to 18 GHz or even 60 GHz. Starting with RF signals, the book progressively examines various signal bands - such as VLF, LF, MF, HF, VHF, UHF, L, S, C, X, Ku, and, K and the corresponding geoloca

  2. Slit-Robo signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockus, Heike; Chédotal, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Slits are secreted proteins that bind to Roundabout (Robo) receptors. Slit-Robo signaling is best known for mediating axon repulsion in the developing nervous system. However, in recent years the functional repertoire of Slits and Robo has expanded tremendously and Slit-Robo signaling has been linked to roles in neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression among other processes. Likewise, our mechanistic understanding of Slit-Robo signaling has progressed enormously. Here, we summarize new insights into Slit-Robo evolutionary and system-dependent diversity, receptor-ligand interactions, signaling crosstalk and receptor activation.

  3. Speech watermarking: an approach for the forensic analysis of digital telephonic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Lucena-Molina, Jose J; Hagmüller, Martin

    2010-07-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the problem of forensic authentication of digital audio recordings. Although forensic audio has been addressed in several articles, the existing approaches are focused on analog magnetic recordings, which are less prevalent because of the large amount of digital recorders available on the market (optical, solid state, hard disks, etc.). An approach based on digital signal processing that consists of spread spectrum techniques for speech watermarking is presented. This approach presents the advantage that the authentication is based on the signal itself rather than the recording format. Thus, it is valid for usual recording devices in police-controlled telephone intercepts. In addition, our proposal allows for the introduction of relevant information such as the recording date and time and all the relevant data (this is not always possible with classical systems). Our experimental results reveal that the speech watermarking procedure does not interfere in a significant way with the posterior forensic speaker identification.

  4. Measuring the amplitude characteristic of an image recorder based on a CCD matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhurovich, KA; Kirillov, VP; Mikhailov, YA; Sklizkov, GV; Starodub, AN; Sudakov, OA

    2001-01-01

    A method for studying the amplitude characteristic of an image recorder designed on the basis of a charge-coupled device (CCD) matrix is described. The recorder input signal is an intensity of distribution a monochromatic light formed upon Fraunhofer diffraction of the light by two identical slits.

  5. Movement Control of Robot Using Surface Electromyogram Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. S. K. Pahuja Sachin Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Electromyogram signals or EMG signals are generated whenever there is any muscular activity. These signals can be detected easily over the surface of the body. As these signals are generated whenever there is any muscular activity, so, we can recognize any muscular activity made by the human by measuring the amplitude of the signal. Based on decision made upon the amplitude of the EMG signal we can take many decisions or we can make machine of our interest. In simplest form any disabled person can turn on or turn of the machines just by contracting his fist. In this paper we have made an offline prototype of such machine which, in our case, will move the robot in one direction whenever there will be a sign of muscle contraction in the recorded EMG signal.

  6. Application of dynamic programming to the correlation of paleoclimate records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lisiecki, Philip A.

    2002-12-01

    Signal matching is a powerful tool frequently used in paleoclimate research, but it is enormously time-consuming when performed by hand. Previously proposed automatic correlation techniques require very good initial fits to find the correct alignment of two records. A new technique presented in this paper utilizes dynamic programming to find the globally optimal alignment of two records. Geological realism is instilled in the solution through the definition of penalty functions for undesirable behavior such as unlikely changes in accumulation rate. Examples with synthetic and real data demonstrate that the dynamic programming technique produces accurate, high-resolution results with much less effort than hand tuning or preexisting automated correlation techniques.

  7. Amplifier input impedance in dry electrode ECG recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assambo, Cedric; Burke, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for designing the front-end of instrumentation amplifiers for use in dry electrode recording of the human electrocardiogram (ECG). The method relies on information provided by the characterization of the skin-electrode interface and the analysis of low frequency ECG criteria defined by international standards. Marginal measurements of capacitive elements of the skin-electrode interface as small as 0.01 microF, suggest values of input impedance in the order of 1.3 GOmega. However, results in 99% of the data analyzed indicate that a recording amplifier providing an input impedance of 500 MOmega should ensure clear signal sensing without distortion.

  8. A multi-channel instrumentation system for biosignal recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Li, Pengfei; Xiao, Zhiming; Peng, Chung-Ching; Bashirullah, Rizwan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a highly integrated battery operated multi-channel instrumentation system intended for physiological signal recording. The mixed signal IC has been fabricated in standard 0.5microm 5V 3M-2P CMOS process and features 32 instrumentation amplifiers, four 8b SAR ADCs, a wireless power interface with Li-ion battery charger, low power bidirectional telemetry and FSM controller with power gating control for improved energy efficiency. The chip measures 3.2mm by 4.8mm and dissipates approximately 2.1mW when fully operational.

  9. Embedded RFID Recorder in short-range wireless devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    range communication devices. The problem is solved in that the portable communications device comprises a wireless communications interface for communicating with another device, a memory and an RFID-recorder for receiving an RFID-signal transmitted from an RFID-interrogator, wherein the device...... is adapted for storing individual received RFID-signals in the memory. An advantage of the invention is that it provides a relatively simple scheme for extracting information from a current environment of a portable communications device. The invention may e.g. be used for adapting listening devices, e...

  10. Embedded RFID Recorder in short-range wireless devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    range communication devices. The problem is solved in that the portable communications device comprises a wireless communications interface for communicating with another device, a memory and an RFID-recorder for receiving an RFID-signal transmitted from an RFID-interrogator, wherein the device...... is adapted for storing individual received RFID-signals in the memory. An advantage of the invention is that it provides a relatively simple scheme for extracting information from a current environment of a portable communications device. The invention may e.g. be used for adapting listening devices, e...

  11. Gas expulsions and biological activity recorded offshore Molene Island, Brittany (France): video supervised recording of OBS data and analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Géli, L.; Dellong, D.; Evangelia, B.; Tary, J. B.; Bayrakci, G.; Lantéri, N.; Lin, J. Y.; Chen, Y. F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) commonly record signals from Short Duration Events (SDEs), having characteristics that are very different from those produced by tectonic earthquakes, e.g.: durations trains, with no identified P- nor S-wave arrivals. SDES were first reported by Burkisk et al (1981) who proposed biological activity as a possible cause. Since then, SDEs have been disregarded or discarded as noise by scientists interested in earthquake studies. Interest in SDEs came back recently, when it was realized that SDEs are commonly found and could be due to gas expulsions from the seafloor. To discriminate between the 2 hypotheses (biological activity vs gas emissions), different tests have been made, including seismic recordings combined with video surveillance and analogue experiments. In May 2016, two OBS (4.5 Hz) were deployed offshore Molene Island, Brittany within the field of view of the EMSO-Molene underwater observatory, at a water depth of 12 m. The camera images and the recordings reveal the presence of crabs, octopus and several species of fish. Other acoustic signals can be related to the presence of moving algae or the influence from bad weather. Tides produce characteristic curves in the noise recorded on the geophones. SDEs have been recorded on both instruments, that may well have been caused by gas expulsions from the seabed into the water. In order to verify this hypothesis, an aquarium was filled with water overlying an even grain-sized quartz sand layer. A constant air supply through a narrow tube produced gas bubbles in a regular manner and an immersed ocean bottom geophone recorded the resulting acoustic signals. The bubbles tend to have a uniform size and to produce a waveform very close to those found on the OBSs. By comparing the number of SDEs and the volume of escaped air, estimates can be made regarding the volume of gas escaping the seafloor in different environments.

  12. 1993 Department of Energy Records Management Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This document consists of viewgraphs from the presentations at the conference. Topics included are: DOE records management overview, NIRMA and ARMA resources, NARA records management training, potential quality assurance records, filing systems, organizing and indexing technical records, DOE-HQ initiatives, IRM reviews, status of epidemiologic inventory, disposition of records and personal papers, inactive records storage, establishing administrative records, managing records at Hanford, electronic mail -- legal and records issues, NARA-GAO reports status, consultive selling, automated indexing, decentralized approach to scheduling at a DOE office, developing specific records management programs, storage and retrieval at Savannah River Plant, an optical disk case study, and special interest group reports.

  13. Optimised data-gluing method for mixed analog/photon-counting lidar signals

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Comerón Tejero, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    In atmospheric LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) remote sensing, the dynamic range of the return power signals can span up to five orders of magnitude. Modern acquisition systems such as those based on LicelTM transient recorders combine a dual acquisition mode in which the return signal is recorded simultaneously in both analog (analog-to-digital (AD) conversion) and photon-counting (PC) modes. Although both data records can be analyzed separately, their combination obtained th...

  14. Classification of EEG Signals using adaptive weighted distance nearest neighbor algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    E. Parvinnia; M. Sabeti; M. Zolghadri Jahromi; Boostani, R

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are often used to diagnose diseases such as seizure, alzheimer, and schizophrenia. One main problem with the recorded EEG samples is that they are not equally reliable due to the artifacts at the time of recording. EEG signal classification algorithms should have a mechanism to handle this issue. It seems that using adaptive classifiers can be useful for the biological signals such as EEG. In this paper, a general adaptive method named weighted distance near...

  15. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  16. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  17. Signaling by Gasotransmitters

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Asif K.; Gadalla, Moataz M.; Snyder, Solomon H

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide is well established as a major signaling molecule. Evidence is accumulating that carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide also are physiologic mediators in the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems. This Review focuses on mechanisms whereby they signal by binding to metal centers in metalloproteins, such as in guanylyl cyclase, or modifying sulfhydryl groups in protein targets.

  18. Ubiquitination in apoptosis signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kooij, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on ubiquitination and protein degradation, with an emphasis on how these processes regulate apoptosis signaling. More specifically, our aims were: 1. To increase the understanding of ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis signaling. 2. To identify the E3

  19. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  20. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goutsias, J.; Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    [PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis and synthes

  1. SignalR blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed for software developers, primarily those with knowledge of C#, .NET, and JavaScript. Good knowledge and understanding of SignalR is assumed to allow efficient programming of core elements and applications in SignalR.

  2. MBA Quality Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall S.

    1998-01-01

    A study identified quality signals for master's programs in business administration (MBAs). Traditional scholarly oriented academic signals are apparently not valued as such by external customer groups. MBA academic quality appears to be a multidimensional construct, with subdimensions of real-worldness; placement; student satisfaction; and…

  3. Ubiquitination in apoptosis signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kooij, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on ubiquitination and protein degradation, with an emphasis on how these processes regulate apoptosis signaling. More specifically, our aims were: 1. To increase the understanding of ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis signaling. 2. To identify the E3

  4. Signaling in symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, E.H.M.; Bisseling, T.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the major focus in nodulation research has been on the genetic dissection of Nod-factor signaling. Components of this pathway appear to be shared with signaling processes that are induced during the formation of mycorrhiza. With the cloning of orthologs of the NIN and DMI2 genes

  5. Signaling in symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, E.H.M.; Bisseling, T.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the major focus in nodulation research has been on the genetic dissection of Nod-factor signaling. Components of this pathway appear to be shared with signaling processes that are induced during the formation of mycorrhiza. With the cloning of orthologs of the NIN and DMI2 genes fro

  6. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  7. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  8. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  9. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  10. Neutron signal transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pleinert, H; Lehmann, E

    1999-01-01

    A new method called neutron signal transfer analysis has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogenous distributions from neutron radiographic measurements. The technique is based on a model which describes the detector signal obtained in the measurement as a result of the action of three different mechanisms expressed by signal transfer functions. The explicit forms of the signal transfer functions are determined by Monte Carlo computer simulations and contain only the distribution as a variable. Therefore an unknown distribution can be determined from the detector signal by recursive iteration. This technique provides a simple and efficient tool for analysis of this type while also taking into account complex effects due to the energy dependency of neutron interaction and single and multiple scattering. Therefore this method provides an efficient tool for precise quantitative analysis using neutron radiography, as for example quantitative determination of moisture distributions in porous buil...

  11. Detecting double compression of audio signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

  12. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  13. 4 CFR 81.5 - Records originating outside GAO, records of interviews, or records involving work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GAO, records of interviews, or records involving work in progress. (a) It is the policy of GAO not to... a record of interview. (c) In order to avoid disruption of work in progress, and in the interests of... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records originating outside GAO, records of interviews...

  14. Retrieving a common accumulation record from Greenland ice cores for the past 1800 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine K.; Ditlevsen, Peter D.; Rasmussen, Sune Olander;

    2006-01-01

    climate signal in the different accumulation records through optimization of the ratio between the variance of the common signal and of the residual. Using this model, a common Greenland accumulation record for the past 1800 years has been extracted. The record shows significant 11.9 years periodicity....... A sharp transition to very dry conditions is found just before A.D. 1200, and very dry conditions during the 13th century together with dry and cold spells during the 14th century may have put extra strain on the Norse population in Greenland and may have contributed to their extinction. Accumulation...

  15. Sub-Nyquist Distortions in Sampled One- and Two-Dimensional Signals Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    2001-01-01

    Hardware testing frequently involves the acquisition of waveform and instrumentation signals, which are often recorded on waveform recorders, oscillographs, and video recorders. Years ago, the waveforms were viewed as analog records, as drawn by a paper strip chart pen or electron beam on a cathode ray tube screen. One of the problems in the past was that the analog electronics may not have been able to accurately display the full amplitude of a signal if the real-time signals exceeded the frequency response bandwidth of the recording device. The advent of digital oscilloscopes, waveform recorders, and video frame-grabbers solved many of the frequency response problems, though not all. A restriction on digital waveform acquisition is well known by people in the instrumentation field. Put simply, the sampling frequency must be at least twice the frequency of any signal to be sampled, or vice versa; the signals must be filtered so that none of the signal frequencies are higher than one-half the sample rate (the Nyquist Limit). Then, per Shannon's Sampling Theorem (1949, ref. 1), any sampled signal can be reconstructed for viewing on a display device. If any signals exceed the Nyquist frequency limit, error signals called aliases occur in the output display.

  16. Error message recording and reporting in the SLC control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, N.; Bogart, J.; Phinney, N.; Thompson, K.

    1985-04-01

    Error or information messages that are signaled by control software either in the VAX host computer or the local microprocessor clusters are handled by a dedicated VAX process (PARANOIA). Messages are recorded on disk for further analysis and displayed at the appropriate console. Another VAX process (ERRLOG) can be used to sort, list and histogram various categories of messages. The functions performed by these processes and the algorithms used are discussed.

  17. Error message recording and reporting in the SLC control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, N.; Bogart, J.; Phinney, N.; Thompson, K.

    1985-10-01

    Error or information messages that are signaled by control software either in the VAX host computer or the local microprocessor clusters are handled by a dedicated VAX process (PARANOIA). Messages are recorded on disk for further analysis and displayed at the appropriate console. Another VAX process (ERRLOG) can be used to sort, list and histogram various categories of messages. The functions performed by these processes and the algorithms used are discussed.

  18. Burst conditions of explosive volcanic eruptions recorded on microbarographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, M.M.; Chouet, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions generate pressure disturbances in the atmosphere that propagate away either as acoustic or as shock waves, depending on the explosivity of the eruption. Both types of waves are recorded on microbarographs as 1- to 0.1-hertz N-shaped signals followed by a longer period coda. These waveforms can be used to estimate burst pressures end gas concentrations in explosive volcanic eruptions and provide estimates of eruption magnitudes.

  19. Gold electrodes from recordable CDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angnes; Richter; Augelli; Kume

    2000-11-01

    Gold electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry. The notable performance when used in stripping analysis of many ionic species and the extraordinary affinity of thio compounds for its surface make these electrodes very suitable for many applications. This paper reports a simple and novel way to construct gold electrodes (CDtrodes) using recordable CDs as the gold source. The nanometer thickness of the gold layer of recordable disks (50-100 nm) favors the construction of band nanoelectrodes with areas as small as 10(-6) cm2. The plane surface can be easily used for the construction of conventional-sized gold electrodes for batch or flow injection analysis or even to obtain electrodes as large as 100 cm2. The low price of commercial recordable CDs allows a "one way use". The evaluation and applicability of these electrodes in the form of nanoelectrodes, in batch and associated with flow cells, are illustrated in this paper.

  20. Neural stimulation and recording electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural electrical activity are the basis of emerging prostheses and treatments for spinal cord injury, stroke, sensory deficits, and neurological disorders. An understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms underlying the behavior of neural stimulation and recording electrodes is important for the development of chronically implanted devices, particularly those employing large numbers of microelectrodes. For stimulation, materials that support charge injection by capacitive and faradaic mechanisms are available. These include titanium nitride, platinum, and iridium oxide, each with certain advantages and limitations. The use of charge-balanced waveforms and maximum electrochemical potential excursions as criteria for reversible charge injection with these electrode materials are described and critiqued. Techniques for characterizing electrochemical properties relevant to stimulation and recording are described with examples of differences in the in vitro and in vivo response of electrodes.

  1. Implementing an interprofessional patient record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Paul; Anderson, Alan; Coyne, Clare; Beastall, Helen; Hill, Joanne

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an interprofessional patient record (IPPR) at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (STHFT). The IPPR was a two-year project, commencing in May 2008, aimed at creating a single IPPR to which all staff contribute. Prior to the IPPR, records were profession specific with nursing, medical and therapy staff keeping separate ones. This paper describes the process for the project including the stakeholder engagement plan, the development of IPPR standards, the education and training programme and the key measures used to assess implementation. The staff survey and clinical audit data suggest that the IPPR was successfully implemented with many of the perceived benefits realised. The keys to success of this major change project were: time spent engaging clinical staff, board level support, the appointment of a dedicated project team and the involvement and support of many staff involved in patient records throughout STHFT.

  2. usage of electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Cinaroglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health care is an organizational field that information and technology improves quickly. With ensuring health professionals adaptation to this new information and technology environment, it is possible to achieve quality and productivity improvement goal in health care. It is known that different clinical expertises brings differences in presentation of health services. It this study it was aimed to compare nurses assessments about electronic health records usage. At the end of the study it was found that nurses assessment about electronic health records usage according to different clinical expertises has a meaningful difference (t=2,40, p<0,05. Results of this study shows that surgical nurses who are forefront with and ldquo;technical abilities and rdquo; have more positive assessments about usage of electronic medical records when they compared with medical nurses who are forefront with and ldquo;patient centered and rdquo; abilities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 257-264

  3. Comparing records with related chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Albert, Paul; Kearney, Rebecca; Staff, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to integrate ice, terrestrial and marine records, it is necessary to deal with records on different timescales. These timescales can be grouped into those that use a common fundamental chronometer (such as Uranium-Thorium dating or Radiocarbon) and can also be related to one another where we have chronological tie points such as tephra horizons. More generally we can, through a number of different methodologies, derive relationships between different timescales. A good example of this is the use of cosmogenic isotope production, specifically 10Be and 14C to relate the calibrated radiocarbon timescale to that of the Greenland ice cores. The relationships between different timescales can be mathematically expressed in terms of time-transfer functions. This formalism allows any related record to be considered against any linked timescale with an appropriate associated uncertainty. The prototype INTIMATE chronological database allows records to be viewed and compared in this way and this is now being further developed, both to include a wider range of records and also to provide better connectivity to other databases and chronological tools. These developments will also include new ways to use tephra tie-points to constrain the relationship between timescales directly, without needing to remodel each associated timescale. The database as it stands allows data for particular timeframes to be recalled and plotted against any timescale, or exported in spreadsheet format. New functionality will be added to allow users to work with their own data in a private space and then to publish it when it has been through the peer-review publication process. In order to make the data easier to use for other further analysis and plotting, and with data from other sources, the database will also act as a server to deliver data in a JSON format. The aim of this work is to make the comparison of integrated data much easier for researchers and to ensure that good practice in

  4. A Wireless Headstage for Combined Optogenetics and Multichannel Electrophysiological Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon-Turcotte, Gabriel; LeChasseur, Yoan; Bories, Cyril; Messaddeq, Younes; De Koninck, Yves; Gosselin, Benoit

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a wireless headstage with real-time spike detection and data compression for combined optogenetics and multichannel electrophysiological recording. The proposed headstage, which is intended to perform both optical stimulation and electrophysiological recordings simultaneously in freely moving transgenic rodents, is entirely built with commercial off-the-shelf components, and includes 32 recording channels and 32 optical stimulation channels. It can detect, compress and transmit full action potential waveforms over 32 channels in parallel and in real time using an embedded digital signal processor based on a low-power field programmable gate array and a Microblaze microprocessor softcore. Such a processor implements a complete digital spike detector featuring a novel adaptive threshold based on a Sigma-delta control loop, and a wavelet data compression module using a new dynamic coefficient re-quantization technique achieving large compression ratios with higher signal quality. Simultaneous optical stimulation and recording have been performed in-vivo using an optrode featuring 8 microelectrodes and 1 implantable fiber coupled to a 465-nm LED, in the somatosensory cortex and the Hippocampus of a transgenic mouse expressing ChannelRhodospin (Thy1::ChR2-YFP line 4) under anesthetized conditions. Experimental results show that the proposed headstage can trigger neuron activity while collecting, detecting and compressing single cell microvolt amplitude activity from multiple channels in parallel while achieving overall compression ratios above 500. This is the first reported high-channel count wireless optogenetic device providing simultaneous optical stimulation and recording. Measured characteristics show that the proposed headstage can achieve up to 100% of true positive detection rate for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) down to 15 dB, while achieving up to 97.28% at SNR as low as 5 dB. The implemented prototype features a lifespan of up to 105

  5. Medical Secretaries’ Care of Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Witt, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    We describe the cooperative work of medical secretaries at two hospital departments, during the implementation of an electronic health record system. Medical secretaries' core task is to take care of patient records by ensuring that also do information gatekeeping and articulation work. The EHR...... to health informatics and CSCW, this case study identifies their importance, and suggests that they and other non-clinical groups should be considered, when developing health care IT. We propose the term 'boundary-object trimming', to conceptualize their contributions to hospitals' cooperative work...

  6. Medical Secretaries’ Care of Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Witt, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    We describe the cooperative work of medical secretaries at two hospital departments, during the implementation of an electronic health record system. Medical secretaries' core task is to take care of patient records by ensuring that also do information gatekeeping and articulation work. The EHR...... implementation stressed their importance to the departments' work arrangements, coupled their work more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. information is complete, up to date, and correctly coded. Medical secretaries While medical secretaries have been relatively invisible...

  7. Network Analysis of Time-Lapse Microscopy Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eSmedler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multicellular organisms rely on intercellular communication to regulate important cellular processes critical to life. To further our understanding of those processes there is a need to scrutinize dynamical signaling events and their functions in both cells and organisms. Here, we report a method and provide MATLAB code that analyzes time-lapse microscopy recordings to identify and characterize network structures within large cell populations, such as interconnected neurons. The approach is demonstrated using intracellular calcium (Ca2+ recordings in neural progenitors and cardiac myocytes, but could be applied to a wide variety of biosensors employed in diverse cell types and organisms. In this method, network structures are analyzed by applying cross-correlation signal processing and graph theory to single-cell recordings. The goal of the analysis is to determine if the single cell activity constitutes a network of interconnected cells and to decipher the properties of this network. The method can be applied in many fields of biology in which biosensors are used to monitor signaling events in living cells. Analyzing intercellular communication in cell ensembles can reveal essential network structures that provide important biological insights.

  8. Discussion Forum: Federal Records and Archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradsher, James Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Introduces various topics relating to federal records and archives, including descriptions of federal records, permanent records, and archives; responsibility for the creation and maintenance of these items; the policy for deciding which records become archives; and legal issues relating to records and access to them. (Author/CLB)

  9. 32 CFR 701.107 - Record access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incompetent due to physical or mental incapacity or age, may obtain access to the record of the minor or... OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY... to a record solely because the physical condition or format of the record does not make it...

  10. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  11. Heart Beat Detection in Noisy ECG Signals Using Statistical Analysis of the Automatically Detected Annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Gudiškis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm to reduce the noise distortion influence in heartbeat annotation detection in electrocardiogram (ECG signals. Boundary estimation module is based on energy detector. Heartbeat detection is usually performed by QRS detectors that are able to find QRS regions in a ECG signal that are a direct representation of a heartbeat. However, QRS performs as intended only in cases where ECG signals have high signal to noise ratio, when there are more noticeable signal distortion detectors accuracy decreases. Proposed algorithm uses additional data, taken from arterial blood pressure signal which was recorded in parallel to ECG signal, and uses it to support the QRS detection process in distorted signal areas. Proposed algorithm performs as well as classical QRS detectors in cases where signal to noise ratio is high, compared to the heartbeat annotations provided by experts. In signals with considerably lower signal to noise ratio proposed algorithm improved the detection accuracy to up to 6%.

  12. Signal flow analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, J R; Hiller, N

    1965-01-01

    Signal Flow Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of signal flow analysis. This book discusses the basic theory of signal flow graphs and shows their relation to the usual algebraic equations.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of properties of a flow graph. This text then demonstrates how flow graphs can be applied to a wide range of electrical circuits that do not involve amplification. Other chapters deal with the parameters as well as circuit applications of transistors. This book discusses as well the variety of circuits using ther

  13. Nonrandomness, nonlinear dependence, and nonstationarity of electroencephalographic recordings from epilepsy patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejak, Ralph G.; Schindler, Kaspar; Rummel, Christian

    2012-10-01

    To derive tests for randomness, nonlinear-independence, and stationarity, we combine surrogates with a nonlinear prediction error, a nonlinear interdependence measure, and linear variability measures, respectively. We apply these tests to intracranial electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) from patients suffering from pharmacoresistant focal-onset epilepsy. These recordings had been performed prior to and independent from our study as part of the epilepsy diagnostics. The clinical purpose of these recordings was to delineate the brain areas to be surgically removed in each individual patient in order to achieve seizure control. This allowed us to define two distinct sets of signals: One set of signals recorded from brain areas where the first ictal EEG signal changes were detected as judged by expert visual inspection (“focal signals”) and one set of signals recorded from brain areas that were not involved at seizure onset (“nonfocal signals”). We find more rejections for both the randomness and the nonlinear-independence test for focal versus nonfocal signals. In contrast more rejections of the stationarity test are found for nonfocal signals. Furthermore, while for nonfocal signals the rejection of the stationarity test increases the rejection probability of the randomness and nonlinear-independence test substantially, we find a much weaker influence for the focal signals. In consequence, the contrast between the focal and nonfocal signals obtained from the randomness and nonlinear-independence test is further enhanced when we exclude signals for which the stationarity test is rejected. To study the dependence between the randomness and nonlinear-independence test we include only focal signals for which the stationarity test is not rejected. We show that the rejection of these two tests correlates across signals. The rejection of either test is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient for the rejection of the other test. Thus, our results suggest that

  14. Encoding of electrophysiology and other signals in MR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars G; Lund, Torben E; Hanson, Christian G

    2007-01-01

    to the "magstripe" technique used for encoding of soundtracks in motion pictures, the electrical signals are in this way encoded as artifacts appearing in the MR images or spectra outside the region of interest. The encoded signals are subsequently reconstructed from the signal recorded by the scanner. RESULTS......: Electrophysiological (EP) eye and heart muscular recording (electrooculography [EOG] and electrocardiography [ECG]) during fast echo planar imaging (EPI) is demonstrated with an expandable, modular 8-channel prototype implementation. The gradient artifacts that would normally be dominating EOG are largely eliminated....... CONCLUSION: The method provides relatively inexpensive sampling with inherent microsecond synchronization and it reduces gradient artifacts in physiological recordings significantly. When oversampling is employed, the method is compatible with all MR reconstruction and postprocessing techniques....

  15. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  16. New internet speed record set

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " Researchers in the U.S. and the Netherlands have established a new record for sending data across the Internet, transferring 6.7 gigabytes (6.7 billion `words') of information across 10,978 kilometres (6,800 miles) in 58 seconds" (1 page).

  17. COHERENT-LIGHT RECORDING TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to summarize, define and demonstrate techniques necessary for the application of coherent light to the problems of...Investigations into such areas as the coherent light source itself, modulation, deflection or scanning techniques, readout techniques and the evaluation of recording media are reported.

  18. Managing School Social Work Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Kendra J.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents results of a survey of 73 school social workers regarding their record-keeping practices. These social workers indicated that time pressures are a major challenge to documentation; they struggle to know what to include, and they worry about privacy. More than half fail to consistently include assessment information, progress…

  19. Recorded Music and Graphic Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterer, Irv

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of art as an element of music-recording packaging. Describes a project in which students design a jacket for either cassette or CD using a combination of computerized and traditional rendering techniques. Reports that students have been inspired to look into careers in graphic design. (DSK)

  20. An Alternative to Process Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joan; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Some disadvantages in the use of process recordings as an assessment and teaching tool for evaluating the communication skills of the student in nurse-client interactions are discussed. A more useful alternative process requires actual observation and subsequent participation by the instructor during student-client interviews. (EC)

  1. Synchronized whistlers recorded at Varanasi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh Singh; Ashok K Singh; R P Singh

    2003-06-01

    Some interesting events of synchronized whistlers recorded at low latitude station Varanasi during magnetic storm period of the year 1977 are presented. The dynamic spectrum analysis shows that the component whistlers are Eckersley whistlers having dispersion 10 s1/2 and 30 s1/2. An attempt has been made to explain the dynamic spectra using lightning discharge generated from magnetospheric sources.

  2. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. Results We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Conclusion Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee’s nervous system.

  3. Noise-free magnetoencephalography recordings of brain function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volegov, P.; Matlachov, A.; Mosher, J.; Espy, M. A.; Kraus, R. H., Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Perhaps the greatest impediment to acquiring high-quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings is the ubiquitous ambient magnetic field noise. We have designed and built a whole-head MEG system using a helmet-like superconducting imaging surface (SIS) surrounding the array of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers used to measure the MEG signal. We previously demonstrated that the SIS passively shields the SQUID array from ambient magnetic field noise, independent of frequency, by 25-60 dB depending on sensor location. SQUID 'reference sensors' located on the outside of the SIS helmet measure ambient magnetic fields in very close proximity to the MEG magnetometers while being nearly perfectly shielded from all sources in the brain. The fact that the reference sensors measure no brain signal yet are located in close proximity to the MEG sensors enables very accurate estimation and subtraction of the ambient field noise contribution to the MEG sensors using an adaptive algorithm. We have demonstrated total ambient noise reduction factors in excess of 106 (>120 dB). The residual noise for most MEG SQUID channels is at or near the intrinsic SQUID noise floor, typically 2-3 f T Hz-1/2. We are recording MEG signals with greater signal-to-noise than equivalent EEG measurements.

  4. Noise-free magnetoencephalography recordings of brain function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volegov, P; Matlachov, A; Mosher, J; Espy, M A; Kraus, R H Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-05-21

    Perhaps the greatest impediment to acquiring high-quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings is the ubiquitous ambient magnetic field noise. We have designed and built a whole-head MEG system using a helmet-like superconducting imaging surface (SIS) surrounding the array of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers used to measure the MEG signal. We previously demonstrated that the SIS passively shields the SQUID array from ambient magnetic field noise, independent of frequency, by 25-60 dB depending on sensor location. SQUID 'reference sensors' located on the outside of the SIS helmet measure ambient magnetic fields in very close proximity to the MEG magnetometers while being nearly perfectly shielded from all sources in the brain. The fact that the reference sensors measure no brain signal yet are located in close proximity to the MEG sensors enables very accurate estimation and subtraction of the ambient field noise contribution to the MEG sensors using an adaptive algorithm. We have demonstrated total ambient noise reduction factors in excess of 10{sup 6} (>120 dB). The residual noise for most MEG SQUID channels is at or near the intrinsic SQUID noise floor, typically 2-3 f T Hz{sup -1/2}. We are recording MEG signals with greater signal-to-noise than equivalent EEG measurements.

  5. Correlation of Respiratory Signals and Electrocardiogram Signals via Empirical Mode Decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    El Fiky, Ahmed Osama

    2011-05-24

    Recently Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are being broadly used as an essential diagnosing tool in different clinical applications as they carry a reliable representation not only for cardiac activities, but also for other associated biological processes, like respiration. However, the process of recording and collecting them has usually suffered from the presence of some undesired noises, which in turn affects the reliability of such representations.Therefore, de-noising ECG signals became a hot research field for signal processing experts to ensure better and clear representation of the different cardiac activities. Given the nonlinear and non-stationary properties of ECGs, it is not a simple task to cancel the undesired noise terms without affecting the biological physics of them. In this study, we are interested in correlating the ECG signals with respiratory parameters, specifically the lung volume and lung pressure. We have focused on the concept of de-noising ECG signals by means of signal decomposition using an algorithm called the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) where the original ECG signals are being decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMF). Then, we have provided criteria based on which some of these IMFs have been adapted to reconstruct de-noised ECG version. Finally, we have utilized de-noised ECGs as well as IMFs for to study the correlation with lung volume and lung pressure. These correlation studies have showed some clear resemblance especially between the oscillations of ECGs and lung pressures.

  6. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  7. Lipid signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the current status of plant lipid signaling. Written by leading researchers in the field, the chapters include detailed information on the measurement, regulation and function of phospholipases, lipid kinases, lipid phosphatases, inositolpolyphosphates, polyphosphoinositides, ph

  8. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  9. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockroft, Scott L.

    2017-05-01

    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  10. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  11. Signaling in muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2015-02-02

    Signaling pathways regulate contraction of striated (skeletal and cardiac) and smooth muscle. Although these are similar, there are striking differences in the pathways that can be attributed to the distinct functional roles of the different muscle types. Muscles contract in response to depolarization, activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and other stimuli. The actomyosin fibers responsible for contraction require an increase in the cytosolic levels of calcium, which signaling pathways induce by promoting influx from extracellular sources or release from intracellular stores. Rises in cytosolic calcium stimulate numerous downstream calcium-dependent signaling pathways, which can also regulate contraction. Alterations to the signaling pathways that initiate and sustain contraction and relaxation occur as a consequence of exercise and pathophysiological conditions.

  12. Signals from the Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the basics of radio astronomy and describes how to assemble several simple systems for receiving radio signals from the cosmos. Includes schematics, parts lists, working drawings, and contact information for radio astronomy suppliers. (11 references) (Author/JJK)

  13. Plant lipid signaling protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.; Heilmann, I.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by membranes consisting of various lipids, including sterols, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids. Besides structural functions, membranes also contain lipids with regulatory and signaling roles. Such lipids include polyphosphoinositides, the low-abundant

  14. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. Copyright for archivists and records managers

    CERN Document Server

    Padfield, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive manual outlines copyright law in the UK with special reference to materials relevant to archive and records collections such as maps, legal records, records of local authorities, and more.

  16. Digital signal processing: Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, L. M.; Matiushkin, B. D.; Poliak, M. N.

    The fundamentals of the theory and design of systems and devices for the digital processing of signals are presented. Particular attention is given to algorithmic methods of synthesis and digital processing equipment in communication systems (e.g., selective digital filtering, spectral analysis, and variation of the signal discretization frequency). Programs for the computer-aided analysis of digital filters are described. Computational examples are presented, along with tables of transfer function coefficients for recursive and nonrecursive digital filters.

  17. Signaling Over Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsushi; Cavalli, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    Neurons are extremely polarized cells. Axon lengths often exceed the dimension of the neuronal cell body by several orders of magnitude. These extreme axonal lengths imply that neurons have mastered efficient mechanisms for long distance signaling between soma and synaptic terminal. These elaborate mechanisms are required for neuronal development and maintenance of the nervous system. Neurons can fine-tune long distance signaling through calcium wave propagation and bidirectional transport of proteins, vesicles, and mRNAs along microtubules. The signal transmission over extreme lengths also ensures that information about axon injury is communicated to the soma and allows for repair mechanisms to be engaged. This review focuses on the different mechanisms employed by neurons to signal over long axonal distances and how signals are interpreted in the soma, with an emphasis on proteomic studies. We also discuss how proteomic approaches could help further deciphering the signaling mechanisms operating over long distance in axons. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, and hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi-level modulation formats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals. In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral magnification of the OFDM signal. Utilising such telescopic arrangements, it has become possible to perform a number of interesting functionalities, which will be described in the presentation. This includes conversion from OFDM to Nyquist WDM, compression of WDM channels to a single Nyquist channel and WDM regeneration. These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platforms like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described.

  19. Adopting electronic medical records: are they just electronic paper records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan; Singer, Alex; Kim, Julie

    2013-07-01

    To understand the key challenges to adoption of advanced features of electronic medical records (EMRs) in office practice, and to better understand these challenges in a Canadian context. Mixed-methods study. Manitoba. Health care providers and staff in 5 primary care offices. Level of EMR adoption was assessed, and field notes from interviews and discussion groups were qualitatively analyzed for common challenges and themes across all sites. Fifty-seven interviews and 4 discussion groups were conducted from November 2011 to January 2012. Electronic medical record adoption scores ranged from 2.3 to 3.0 (out of a theoretical maximum of 5). Practices often scored lower than expected on use of decision support, providing patients with access to their own data, and use of practice-reporting tools. Qualitative analysis showed there were ceiling effects to EMR adoption owing to how the EMR was implemented, the supporting eHealth infrastructure, lack of awareness or availability of EMR functionality, and poor EMR data quality. Many practitioners used their EMRs as "electronic paper records" and were not using advanced features of their EMRs that could further enhance practice. Data-quality issues within the EMRs could affect future attempts at using these features. Education and quality improvement activities to support data quality and EMR optimization are likely needed to support practices in maximizing their use of EMRs.

  20. Interface Design Of Digital Platform For Bio Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongsik; Park; Moonsu; Jang; Seongoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>Bio-sensor arrays for multi-channel recording have been developed recently and signal processing platforms for those signals have been studied actively.But it’s thereal situation which these technologies are generally developed and studied respectively.So the interface design between recording array and signal processing platform is also an important issue to make bio-sensor signal processing system.In this paper,we proposed interface which has unique protocols to control sensor array and operate platform.There are two types of protocols in the interface.One is between sensor array and MCU in platform and the other is between MCU and board for wireless communication.Basically,each protocol has two kinds of modes(single,frame)and it can be extended if needed.

  1. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  2. Identification of Electrooculography Signals Frequency Energy Distribution Using Wavelet Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Bukhari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The time frequency analysis of non-stationary signals has been the considerable research effort in recent years. Wavelet transform is one of the favored tool for the analyzing the biomedical signals. Approach: We describe the identification of Electro-Oculograph (EOG signals of eye movement potentials by using wavelet algorithm which gives a lot of information than FFT. The capability of wavelet transform was to distribute the signal energy with the change of time in different frequency bands. This will showed the characteristic of the signals since energy was an important physical variable in signal analysis. The EOG signals were captured using electrodes placed on the forehead around the eyes to record the eye movements. The wavelet features used to determine the characteristic of eye movement waveform. This technique adopted because it was a non-invasive, inexpensive and accurate. The new technology enhancement has allowed the EOG signals captured using the Neuronal EEG-9200. The recorded data was composed of an eye movement toward four directions, i.e., downward, upward, leftward and rightward. The proposed analysis for each eyes signal is analyzed by using Wavelet Transform (WT with energy algorithm and by comparing the energy distribution with the change of time and frequency of each signal. Results: A wavelet Scalogram was plotted to display the different percentages of energy for each wavelet coefficient towards different movement. Conclusion: From the result, it is proved that the different EOG signals exhibit differences in signals energy with their corresponding scale such as leftward with scale 6 (8- 16Hz, rightward with scale 8 (2-4Hz, downward with scale 9 (1-2Hz and upward with level 7 (4-8Hz. Statistically, the results in this study indicate that there are 93% (averages significance differences in the extracted features of wavelet Scalogram analysis.

  3. Using Invariant Translation to Denoise Electroencephalogram Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janett Walters-Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Because of the distance between the skull and the brain and their different resistivitys, Electroencephalogram (EEG recordings on a machine is usually mixed with the activities generated within the area called noise. EEG signals have been used to diagnose major brain diseases such as Epilepsy, narcolepsy and dementia. The presence of these noises however can result in misdiagnosis, as such it is necessary to remove them before further analysis and processing can be done. Denoising is often done with Independent Component Analysis algorithms but of late Wavelet Transform has been utilized. Approach: In this study we utilized one of the newer Wavelet Transform methods, Translation-Invariant, to deny EEG signals. Different EEG signals were used to verify the method using the MATLAB software. Results were then compared with those of renowned ICA algorithms Fast ICA and Radical and evaluated using the performance measures Mean Square Error (MSE, Percentage Root Mean Square Difference (PRD and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR. Results: Experiments revealed that Translation-Invariant Wavelet Transform had the smallest MSE and PRD while having the largest SNR. Conclusion/Recommendations: This indicated that it performed superior to the ICA algorithms producing cleaner EEG signals which can influence diagnosis as well as clinical studies of the brain.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: A survey of signal processing algorithms in brain computer interfaces based on electrical brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashashati, Ali; Fatourechi, Mehrdad; Ward, Rabab K.; Birch, Gary E.

    2007-06-01

    Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) aim at providing a non-muscular channel for sending commands to the external world using the electroencephalographic activity or other electrophysiological measures of the brain function. An essential factor in the successful operation of BCI systems is the methods used to process the brain signals. In the BCI literature, however, there is no comprehensive review of the signal processing techniques used. This work presents the first such comprehensive survey of all BCI designs using electrical signal recordings published prior to January 2006. Detailed results from this survey are presented and discussed. The following key research questions are addressed: (1) what are the key signal processing components of a BCI, (2) what signal processing algorithms have been used in BCIs and (3) which signal processing techniques have received more attention?

  5. SIG-VISA: Signal-based Vertically Integrated Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D.; Mayeda, K. M.; Myers, S. C.; Russell, S.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional seismic monitoring systems rely on discrete detections produced by station processing software; however, while such detections may constitute a useful summary of station activity, they discard large amounts of information present in the original recorded signal. We present SIG-VISA (Signal-based Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis), a system for seismic monitoring through Bayesian inference on seismic signals. By directly modeling the recorded signal, our approach incorporates additional information unavailable to detection-based methods, enabling higher sensitivity and more accurate localization using techniques such as waveform matching. SIG-VISA's Bayesian forward model of seismic signal envelopes includes physically-derived models of travel times and source characteristics as well as Gaussian process (kriging) statistical models of signal properties that combine interpolation of historical data with extrapolation of learned physical trends. Applying Bayesian inference, we evaluate the model on earthquakes as well as the 2009 DPRK test event, demonstrating a waveform matching effect as part of the probabilistic inference, along with results on event localization and sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrate increased sensitivity from signal-based modeling, in which the SIGVISA signal model finds statistical evidence for arrivals even at stations for which the IMS station processing failed to register any detection.

  6. VLSI Neural Networks Help To Compress Video Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Sheu, Bing J.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced analog/digital electronic system for compression of video signals incorporates artificial neural networks. Performs motion-estimation and image-data-compression processing. Effectively eliminates temporal and spatial redundancies of sequences of video images; processes video image data, retaining only nonredundant parts to be transmitted, then transmits resulting data stream in form of efficient code. Reduces bandwidth and storage requirements for transmission and recording of video signal.

  7. National Training Center: Success Tips for Battalion Signal Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    inadequately resourced; RJ-45 tips, sufficient CAT-5 cable for multiple jumps, DVD-Rs, USB cables, ASIP re- transmission cables, BFT mission data...Army DIV – Division DVD-R – Digital Video Disk - Recordable ESB – Expeditionary Signal Battalion nal support prior to publication. Just as BN S-6s...infantry battalion S-6, ESB company commander, and deputy G-6 among various other signal staff positions. He holds a masters degree in IT management

  8. Clinical Detection and Feature Analysis on Neuro Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓文; 杨煜普; 许晓鸣; 胡天培; 高忠华; 张键; 陈中伟; 陈统一

    2004-01-01

    Research on neuro signals is challenging and significative in modern natural science. By clinical experiment, signals from three main nerves (median nerve, radial nerve and ulnar nerve) are successfully detected and recorded without any infection. Further analysis on their features under different movements, their mechanics and correlations in dominating actions are also performed. The original discovery and first-hand materials make it possible for developing practical neuro-prosthesis.

  9. Finger Motion Decoding Using EMG Signals Corresponding Various Arm Postures

    OpenAIRE

    You, Kyung-Jin; Rhee, Ki-Won; Shin, Hyun-Chool

    2010-01-01

    We provide a novel method to infer finger flexing motions using a four-channel surface electromyogram (EMG). Surface EMG signals can be recorded from the human body non-invasively and easily. Surface EMG signals in this study were obtained from four channel electrodes placed around the forearm. The motions consist of the flexion of five single fingers (thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger) and three multi.finger motions. The maximum likelihood estimation was used...

  10. Microprocessor-based simulator of surface ECG signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, A E [Catedra de BioingenierIa II, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (FI-UNER), Ruta Provincial 11 Km.10 Oro Verde (Dpto. Parana) - Entre Rios (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de BioingenierIa II, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (FI-UNER), Ruta Provincial 11 Km.10 Oro Verde (Dpto. Parana) - Entre Rios (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de BioingenierIa II, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (FI-UNER), Ruta Provincial 11 Km.10 Oro Verde (Dpto. Parana) - Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    In this work, a simulator of surface electrocardiogram recorded signals (ECG) is presented. The device, based on a microcontroller and commanded by a personal computer, produces an analog signal resembling actual ECGs, not only in time course and voltage levels, but also in source impedance. The simulator is a useful tool for electrocardiograph calibration and monitoring, to incorporate as well in educational tasks and in clinical environments for early detection of faulty behaviour.

  11. A Decomposition Software Package for the Decomposition of Long-Term Multi-Channel Electromyographic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Luca, �A procedure for decomposing the myoelectric signal into its constituent action potentials,� IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. BME-29, pp. 149...Abstract- The analysis of intramuscular EMG signals is based on the decomposition of the signals into basic units. Existing decomposition...software only supports short registration periods or single-channel recordings of signals of constant muscle effort. In this paper, we present the

  12. Geyser's Eruptive Activity in Broadband Seismic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugaenko, Yulia; Saltykov, Vadim

    2010-05-01

    A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by a vapor phase (steam). The formation of geysers is due to particular hydrogeological conditions, which exist in only a few places on Earth, so they are a fairly rare phenomenon. The reasons of geyser periodicity and specifics of the activity for every particular geyser are not completely clear yet. So almost for all known geysers it is necessary to develop the personal model. In given study we first use seismic method for detection of possible hidden feature of geyser's eruptive activity in Kamchatkan Valley of the Geysers. Broadband seismic records of geyser generated signals were obtained in hydrothermal field. The Valley of the Geysers belongs to Kronotskiy State Natural Biosphere Reserve and the UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site "Volcanoes of Kamchatka". Neither seismological nor geophysical investigations were carried out here earlier. In September, 2009 seismic observation was organized in geyser's field by 24-bit digital output broadband seismometers (GURALP CMG-6TD flat velocity response 0.033-50 Hz). Four geysers were surveyed: the fountain type Big and Giant geysers; the cone type Pearl geyser and the short-period Gap geyser. Seismometers were set as possible close to the geyser's surface vent (usually at the distance near 3-5 m). Main parameters of the eruptions for the investigated geysers: - The Giant geyser is the most powerful among the regular active geysers in Kamchatkan Valley of the Geysers. The height of the fountain reaches 30 meters, the mass of water erupted is about 40-60 tons. The main cycle of activity varies significantly: in 1945 the intervals between eruptions was near 3 hours, nowadays it is 5-6 hours. As a geyser of fountain type, the Giant geyser erupts from the 2*3 m2 pool of water. - The Big geyser was flooded by the lake after the natural catastrophe (giant mud-stone avalanche, formed by landslide, bed into Geiyzernaya

  13. Heartbeat detection in multimodal physiological signals using signal quality assessment based on sample entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Omkar; Sunkaria, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-09-08

    This paper presents a novel technique to identify heartbeats in multimodal data using electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals. Multiple physiological signals such as ECG, ABP, and Respiration are often recorded in parallel from the activity of heart. These signals generally possess related information as they are generated by the same physical system. The ECG and ABP correspond to the same phenomenon of contraction and relaxation activity of heart. Multiple signals acquired from various sensors are generally processed independently, thus discarding the information from other measurements. In the estimation of heart rate and heart rate variability, the R peaks are generally identified from ECG signal. Efficient detection of R-peaks in electrocardiogram (ECG) is a key component in the estimation of clinically relevant parameters from ECG. However, when the signal is severely affected by undesired artifacts, this becomes a challenging task. Sometimes in clinical environment, other physiological signals reflecting the cardiac activity such as ABP signal are also acquired simultaneously. Under the availability of such multimodal signals, the accuracy of R peak detection methods can be improved using sensor-fusion techniques. In the proposed method, the sample entropy (SampEn) is used as a metric for assessing the noise content in the physiological signal and the R peaks in ECG and the systolic peaks in ABP signals are fused together to enhance the efficiency of heartbeat detection. The proposed method was evaluated on the 100 records from the computing in cardiology challenge 2014 training data set. The performance parameters are: sensitivity (Se) and positive predictivity (PPV). The unimodal R peaks detector achieved: Se gross = 99.40%, PPV gross = 99.29%, Se average = 99.37%, PPV average = 99.29%. Similarly unimodal BP delineator achieved Se gross = 99.93%, PPV gross = 99.99%, Se average = 99.93%, PPV average = 99.99% whereas, the proposed

  14. Electronical Health Record's Systems. Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Angela Apostol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available #Understanding the importance that the electronic medical health records system has, with its various structural types and grades, has led to the elaboration of a series of standards and quality control methods, meant to control its functioning. In time, the electronic health records system has evolved along with the medical data’s change of structure. Romania has not yet managed to fully clarify this concept, various definitions still being encountered, such as “Patient’s electronic chart”, “Electronic health file”. A slow change from functional interoperability (OSI level 6 to semantic interoperability (level 7 is being aimed at the moment. This current article will try to present the main electronic files models, from a functional interoperability system’s possibility to be created perspective.

  15. Project Records Information System (PRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.S.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1990-11-01

    The Project Records Information System (PRIS) is an interactive system developed for the Information Services Division (ISD) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to perform indexing, maintenance, and retrieval of information about Engineering project record documents for which they are responsible. This PRIS User's Manual provides instruction on the use of this system. This manual presents an overview of PRIS, describing the system's purpose; the data that it handles; functions it performs; hardware, software, and access; and help and error functions. This manual describes the interactive menu-driven operation of PRIS. Appendixes A, B, C, and D contain the data dictionary, help screens, report descriptions, and a primary menu structure diagram, respectively.

  16. The Cadmio XML healthcare record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Francesco; Ferri, Fernando; Ricci, Fabrizio L; Sottile, Pier Angelo

    2002-01-01

    The management of clinical data is a complex task. Patient related information reported in patient folders is a set of heterogeneous and structured data accessed by different users having different goals (in local or geographical networks). XML language provides a mechanism for describing, manipulating, and visualising structured data in web-based applications. XML ensures that the structured data is managed in a uniform and transparent manner independently from the applications and their providers guaranteeing some interoperability. Extracting data from the healthcare record and structuring them according to XML makes the data available through browsers. The MIC/MIE model (Medical Information Category/Medical Information Elements), which allows the definition and management of healthcare records and used in CADMIO, a HISA based project, is described in this paper, using XML for allowing the data to be visualised through web browsers.

  17. Novel digital optical tape recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, William S.

    1996-01-01

    A novel very high performance digital optical tape recorder is described. Linear tape motion at 4.2 meters per second and simultaneous writing of about 80 parallel bit tracks with a data density of three bits per micron per track enables a data rate of 1,000 Megabits per second, sufficient for a data rate of 100 megabytes per second with error correction. One micron track to track spacing gives a data capacity of one Terabyte (1,000 GB) in a single '3480' style tape cartridge shell. A single beam from a frequency doubled, laser diode pumped, solid state (2X- LDP-SS) laser is split into a multiplicity of like beams, each of which is then independently modulated at 12.5 MHz for recording.

  18. Oldest Photos Record Tibetan History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SOIQOIN

    2005-01-01

    The TAR Archives has since 1959 been gathering photos taken by the first generation of Tibetan photographers. Efforts have been made also to classify these photos and, at the same time, invite some specialists and former Tibetan local government officials such as Shazha Gandain Banjor and relatives of the former photographers to identify the pictures that record an age and a certain special period in history for the instruction of later generations.

  19. Labour's Record on Financial Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Daripa, Arup; Kapur, Sandeep; Wright, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In 1997 the new Labour government launched major initiatives in the area of financial regulation, setting up the Financial Services Authority as a comprehensive regulatory body, supported by the legislative framework of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. We evaluate the Labour government’s record on financial regulation in terms of its achievements and failures, especially in dealing with the global financial crisis that started in 2007. While we identify some clear flaws in regulat...

  20. Helmsman’s Recording Accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Silage , Principal Electrical Engineer Mitchell B. Oslon, Research Engineer Conrad Technologies, Inc. Station Square One, Suite 102 Paoli, PA 19301...SUBTITLE Helmsman’s Recording Accelerometer 6. AUTHOR(S) Donald F. DeCleene Mitchell B. Oslon Dennis A. Silage 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...58,1995. McCreight, K. K., "Assessing the Seaworthiness of SWATH Ships," SNAME Transactions, vol. 95, pp. 189-214,1987. Silage , D., Hartmann, B

  1. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  2. How often precipitation records break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Oikonomou, Maria; Floutsakou, Athina; Bessas, Nikolaos; Mamassis, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    How often precipitation records break? Are there any factors that determine the average time needed for the next maximum to occur? In order to investigate these simple questions we use several hundreds of daily precipitation records (more than 100 years long each) and we study the time intervals between each successive maximum precipitation value. We investigate if the record breaking time interval is related (a) to the autocorrelation structure, (b) to probability dry, and (c) to the tail of the marginal distribution. For the last, we first, evaluate which type of tail is better fitted by choosing among three general types of tails corresponding to the distributions Pareto, Lognormal and Weibull; and second, we assess the heaviness of the tail based on the estimated shape parameter. The performance of each tail is evaluated in terms of return period values, i.e., we compare the empirical return periods of precipitation values above a threshold with the predicted ones by each of the three types of fitted tails.

  3. Glutamate signalling in bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBrakspear

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading plays a key role in the physiology of bone, allowing bone to functionally adapt to its environment, however characterisation of the signalling events linking load to bone formation is incomplete. A screen for genes associated with mechanical load-induced bone formation identified the glutamate transporter GLAST, implicating the excitatory amino acid, glutamate, in the mechanoresponse. When an osteogenic load (10N, 10Hz was externally applied to the rat ulna, GLAST (EAAT1 mRNA, was significantly down-regulated in osteocytes in the loaded limb. Functional components from each stage of the glutamate signalling pathway have since been identified within bone, including proteins necessary for calcium-mediated glutamate exocytosis, receptors, transporters and signal propagation. Activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been shown to regulate the phenotype of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro and bone mass in vivo. Furthermore, glutamatergic nerves have been identified in the vicinity of bone cells expressing glutamate receptors in vivo. However, it is not yet known how a glutamate signalling event is initiated in bone or its physiological significance. This review will examine the role of the glutamate signalling pathway in bone, with emphasis on the functions of glutamate transporters in osteoblasts.

  4. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  5. Climatic Teleconnections Recorded By Tropical Mountain Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Permana, D.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Davis, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Information from ice cores from the world's highest mountains in the Tropics demonstrates both local climate variability and a high degree of teleconnectivity across the Pacific basin. Here we examine recently recovered ice core records from glaciers near Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia, which lie on the highest peak between the Himalayas and the South American Andes. These glaciers are located on the western side of the Tropical Pacific warm pool, which is the "center of action" for interannual climate variability dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO either directly or indirectly affects most regions of Earth and their populations. In 2010, two ice cores measuring 32.13 m and 31.25 m were recovered to bedrock from the East Northwall Firn ice field. Both have been analyzed in high resolution (~3 cm sample length, 1156 and 1606 samples, respectively) for stable isotopes, dust, major ions and tritium concentrations. To better understand the controls on the oxygen isotopic (δ18 O) signal for this region, daily rainfall samples were collected between January 2013 and February 2014 at five weather stations over a distance of ~90 km ranging from 9 meters above sea level (masl) on the southern coast up to 3945 masl. The calculated isotopic lapse rate for this region is 0.24 ‰/100m. Papua, Indonesian ice core records are compared to ice core records from Dasuopu Glacier in the central Himalayas and from Quelccaya, Huascarán, Hualcán and Coropuna ice fields in the tropical Andes of Peru on the eastern side of the Pacific Ocean. The composite of the annual isotopic time series from these cores is significantly (R2 =0.53) related to tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs), reflecting the strong linkage between tropical Pacific SSTs associated with ENSO and tropospheric temperatures in the low latitudes. New data on the already well-documented concomitant loss of ice on Quelccaya, Kilimanjaro in eastern Africa and the ice fields near Puncak

  6. Low complexity lossless compression of underwater sound recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Partan, Jim; Hurst, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Autonomous listening devices are increasingly used to study vocal aquatic animals, and there is a constant need to record longer or with greater bandwidth, requiring efficient use of memory and battery power. Real-time compression of sound has the potential to extend recording durations and bandwidths at the expense of increased processing operations and therefore power consumption. Whereas lossy methods such as MP3 introduce undesirable artifacts, lossless compression algorithms (e.g., flac) guarantee exact data recovery. But these algorithms are relatively complex due to the wide variety of signals they are designed to compress. A simpler lossless algorithm is shown here to provide compression factors of three or more for underwater sound recordings over a range of noise environments. The compressor was evaluated using samples from drifting and animal-borne sound recorders with sampling rates of 16-240 kHz. It achieves >87% of the compression of more-complex methods but requires about 1/10 of the processing operations resulting in less than 1 mW power consumption at a sampling rate of 192 kHz on a low-power microprocessor. The potential to triple recording duration with a minor increase in power consumption and no loss in sound quality may be especially valuable for battery-limited tags and robotic vehicles.

  7. Electrocardiogram signal denoising based on a new improved wavelet thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoqiang; Xu, Zhijun

    2016-08-01

    Good quality electrocardiogram (ECG) is utilized by physicians for the interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena. In general, ECG signals may mix various noises such as baseline wander, power line interference, and electromagnetic interference in gathering and recording process. As ECG signals are non-stationary physiological signals, wavelet transform is investigated to be an effective tool to discard noises from corrupted signals. A new compromising threshold function called sigmoid function-based thresholding scheme is adopted in processing ECG signals. Compared with other methods such as hard/soft thresholding or other existing thresholding functions, the new algorithm has many advantages in the noise reduction of ECG signals. It perfectly overcomes the discontinuity at ±T of hard thresholding and reduces the fixed deviation of soft thresholding. The improved wavelet thresholding denoising can be proved to be more efficient than existing algorithms in ECG signal denoising. The signal to noise ratio, mean square error, and percent root mean square difference are calculated to verify the denoising performance as quantitative tools. The experimental results reveal that the waves including P, Q, R, and S waves of ECG signals after denoising coincide with the original ECG signals by employing the new proposed method.

  8. The Linear Model Research on Tibetan Six-Character Poetry's Respiratory Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonghong, Li; Yangrui, Yang; Lei, Guo; Hongzhi, Yu

    In this paper, we studied the Tibetan six-character pomes' respiratory signal during reading from the perspective of the physiological. Main contents include: 1) Selected 40 representative Tibetan six-character and four lines pomes from ldquo; The Love-songs of 6th Dalai Lama Tshang•yangGya•tsho ", and recorded speech sounds, voice and respiratory signals; 2) Designed a set of respiratory signal parameters for the study of poetry; 3) Extracted the relevant parameters of poetry respiratory signal by using the well-established respiratory signal processing platform; 4) Studied the type of breathing pattern, established the linear model of poetry respiratory signal.

  9. Development of a portable wireless system for bipolar concentric ECG recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats-Boluda, G.; Ye-Lin, Y.; Bueno Barrachina, J. M.; Senent, E.; Rodriguez de Sanabria, R.; Garcia-Casado, J.

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the biggest cause of deaths worldwide. ECG monitoring is a key tool for early diagnosis of CVDs. Conventional monitors use monopolar electrodes resulting in poor spatial resolution surface recordings and requiring extensive wiring. High-spatial resolution surface electrocardiographic recordings provide valuable information for the diagnosis of a wide range of cardiac abnormalities, including infarction and arrhythmia. The aim of this work was to develop and test a wireless recording system for acquiring high spatial resolution ECG signals, based on a flexible tripolar concentric electrode (TCE) without cable wiring or external reference electrode which would make more comnfortable its use in clinical practice. For this, a portable, wireless sensor node for analogue conditioning, digitalization and transmission of a bipolar concentric ECG signal (BC-ECG) using a TCE and a Mason-likar Lead-I ECG (ML-Lead-I ECG) signal was developed. Experimental results from a total of 32 healthy volunteers showed that the ECG fiducial points in the BC-ECG signals, recorded with external and internal reference electrode, are consistent with those of simultaneous ML-Lead-I ECG. No statistically significant difference was found in either signal amplitude or morphology, regardless of the reference electrode used, being the signal-to-noise similar to that of ML-Lead-I ECG. Furthermore, it has been observed that BC-ECG signals contain information that could not available in conventional records, specially related to atria activity. The proposed wireless sensor node provides non-invasive high-local resolution ECG signals using only a TCE without additional wiring, which would have great potential in medical diagnosis of diseases such as atrial or ventricular fibrillations or arrhythmias that currently require invasive diagnostic procedures (catheterization).

  10. Purinergic signalling and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is an organ with a central role in nutrient breakdown, nutrient sensing and release of hormones regulating whole body nutrient homeostasis. In diabetes mellitus, the balance is broken-cells can be starving in the midst of plenty. There are indications that the incidence of diabetes...... type 1 and 2, and possibly pancreatogenic diabetes, is rising globally. Events leading to insulin secretion and action are complex, but there is emerging evidence that intracellular nucleotides and nucleotides are not only important as intracellular energy molecules but also as extracellular signalling...... molecules in purinergic signalling cascades. This signalling takes place at the level of the pancreas, where the close apposition of various cells-endocrine, exocrine, stromal and immune cells-contributes to the integrated function. Following an introduction to diabetes, the pancreas and purinergic...

  11. 27 CFR 17.164 - Production record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production record. 17.164... PRODUCTS Records § 17.164 Production record. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall keep a production record for each batch of intermediate product and for each batch of nonbeverage product. The production...

  12. 14 CFR 141.101 - Training records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accurate record of the participation of each student enrolled in an approved course of training conducted... records required to be maintained in a student's logbook will not suffice for the record required by... another school, the student's record must be certified to that effect by the chief instructor. (d)...

  13. Record Values of a Pareto Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsanullah, M.

    The record values of the Pareto distribution, labelled Pareto (II) (alpha, beta, nu), are reviewed. The best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters in terms of the record values are provided. The prediction of the sth record value based on the first m (s>m) record values are obtained. A classical Pareto distribution provides reasonably good…

  14. 5 CFR 850.302 - Record maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record maintenance. 850.302 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Records § 850.302 Record maintenance. (a) The retirement and..., for the initiation and maintenance of records, evidence, or other information described in this...

  15. 22 CFR 171.6 - Archival records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Archival records. 171.6 Section 171.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC General Policy and Procedures § 171.6 Archival records. The Department ordinarily transfers records to...

  16. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retention program of an Enterprise shall: (1) Address how employees and, as appropriate, how agents or... AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition. For... permissible destruction of records; and, (3) Provide that any employee and, as appropriate, any agent or...

  17. Record Values of a Pareto Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsanullah, M.

    The record values of the Pareto distribution, labelled Pareto (II) (alpha, beta, nu), are reviewed. The best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters in terms of the record values are provided. The prediction of the sth record value based on the first m (s>m) record values are obtained. A classical Pareto distribution provides reasonably…

  18. Artificial Intelligence Controls Tape-Recording Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Otamura, Roy M.; Zottarelli, Lawrence J.

    1989-01-01

    Developmental expert-system computer program intended to schedule recording of large amounts of data on limited amount of magnetic tape. Schedules recording using two sets of rules. First set incorporates knowledge of locations for recording of new data. Second set incorporates knowledge about issuing commands to recorder. Designed primarily for use on Voyager Spacecraft, also applicable to planning and sequencing in industry.

  19. 27 CFR 24.320 - Chemical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chemical record. 24.320... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.320 Chemical record. A proprietor who uses chemicals, preservatives, or other such materials shall maintain a record of the purchase, receipt...

  20. 21 CFR 225.110 - Distribution records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution records. 225.110 Section 225.110 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records and Reports § 225.110 Distribution records. (a) Distribution records permit the manufacturer to relate complaints to specific batches...

  1. 21 CFR 211.196 - Distribution records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution records. 211.196 Section 211.196 Food... Distribution records. Distribution records shall contain the name and strength of the product and description... number of the drug product. For compressed medical gas products, distribution records are not required...

  2. Iodine-129 time series records from the Pacific Ocean as recorded in modern corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, A. T.; Biddulph, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The long-lived radionuclide 129I is well known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global 129I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1990 levels. The anthropogenic 129I signal produced from industrial nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is known to be the primary source of 129I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic, and elevated 129I values are found globally. Corals that produce annual growth layers offer an excellent archive to study 129I and have been used in a few cases to reconstruct time series over the past 50 years. This is the kind of information needed to model ocean circulation through time with 129I as a tracer. We present a new 129I time series record from the South China Sea to complement published records from the Solomon Islands and Easter Island. Taken together, these provide a broad picture of 129I behavior in the Pacific over the past 50 years.

  3. Personal health records as portal to the electronic medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jennifer E; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2014-03-01

    This topic review discusses the evolving clinical challenges associated with the implementation of electronic personal health records (PHR) that are fully integrated with electronic medical records (EMR). The benefits of facilitating patient access to the EMR through web-based, PHR-portals may be substantial; foremost is the potential to enhance the flow of information between patient and healthcare practitioner. The benefits of improved communication and transparency of care are presumed to be a reduction in clinical errors, increased quality of care, better patient-management of disease, and better disease and symptom comprehension. Yet PHR databases allow patients open access to newly-acquired clinical data without the benefit of concurrent expert clinical interpretation, and therefore may create the potential for greater patient distress and uncertainty. With specific attention to neuro-oncology patients, this review focuses on the developing conflicts and consequences associated with the use of a PHR that parallels data acquisition of the EMR in real-time. We conclude with a discussion of recommendations for implementing fully-integrated PHR for neuro-oncology patients.

  4. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  5. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants.

  6. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  7. Understanding signal integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Thierauf, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides you with practical guidance on understanding and interpreting signal integrity (SI) performance to help you with your challenging circuit board design projects. You find high-level discussions of important SI concepts presented in a clear and easily accessible format, including question and answer sections and bulleted lists.This valuable resource features rules of thumb and simple equations to help you make estimates of critical signal integrity parameters without using circuit simulators of CAD (computer-aided design). The book is supported with over 120 illustratio

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultimate limits to thermally assisted magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Terry W.

    2005-02-01

    The application of thermal energy to enable recording on extremely high anisotropy magnetic media appears to be a viable means of extending the density of stored information. The central physical issue facing the technology is what gain can be realized in writability along with long-term data stability using imaginable media materials. We reasonably expect the material properties M(T) and Hk(T) to determine this, since a stability metric for media with characteristic magnetization switching unit volume V is MV Hk/2kBT. This matter is controversial owing to still open questions related to thermomagnetic recording with temperature elevation above the Curie point and optimal cooling rates. There are indications that multi-component magnetic media may offer advantages in achieving performance goals. Beyond the physical issues lie engineering matters related to the correct system architecture to yield a practical storage device to meet future customer expectations. Here one must address a detailed means of delivering localized heating to the magnetic medium to perform efficient recording. To date, magnetic recording devices have been highly mechanical systems, so it is natural to inquire how a need for an aggressively heated head-medium interface could impact the evolution of future systems. Eventually elements of thermally assisted recording could be combined with patterned media approaches such as self-organized magnetic arrays to push toward ultimate limits where the thermal instability of bits overtakes engineered media materials. Finally, a practical recording system cannot be realized unless a means of finding, following, and reading the smallest bits with a usable signal-to-noise ratio exists—engineering issues separate from an ability to reliably record those bits. This paper is based on an invited presentation of the same title given at the meeting of the American Physical Society, 22-26 March 2004, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

  9. Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat, Allain-Thibeault; Torquet, Nicolas; Le Sourd, Anne-Marie; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-06-05

    Mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations in different contexts throughout development and in adulthood. These vocal signals are now currently used as proxies for modeling the genetic bases of vocal communication deficits. Characterizing the vocal behavior of mouse models carrying mutations in genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders will help to understand the mechanisms leading to social communication deficits. We provide here protocols to reliably elicit ultrasonic vocalizations in pups and in adult mice. This standardization will help reduce inter-study variability due to the experimental settings. Pup isolation calls are recorded throughout development from individual pups isolated from dam and littermates. In adulthood, vocalizations are recorded during same-sex interactions (without a sexual component) by exposing socially motivated males or females to an unknown same-sex conspecific. We also provide a protocol to record vocalizations from adult males exposed to an estrus female. In this context, there is a sexual component in the interaction. These protocols are established to elicit a large amount of ultrasonic vocalizations in laboratory mice. However, we point out the important inter-individual variability in the vocal behavior of mice, which should be taken into account by recording a minimal number of individuals (at least 12 in each condition). These recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations are used to evaluate the call rate, the vocal repertoire and the acoustic structure of the calls. Data are combined with the analysis of synchronous video recordings to provide a more complete view on social communication in mice. These protocols are used to characterize the vocal communication deficits in mice lacking ProSAP1/Shank2, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders. More ultrasonic vocalizations recordings can also be found on the mouseTube database, developed to favor the exchange of such data.

  10. Electrical signaling and photosynthesis: can they co-exist together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Mechanical irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials have significant impact on photosynthesis and respiration in carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). Action potential-mediated inhibition of photosynthesis and stimulation of respiration is confined only to the trap and was not recorded in adjacent photosynthetic lamina. We showed that the main primary target of electrical signals on assimilation is in the dark enzymatic reaction of photosynthesis. Without doubt, the electrical signaling is costly, and the possible co-existence of such type of signals and photosynthesis in plant cell is discussed.

  11. Implementation of directional Doppler techniques using a digital signal processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, N; Evans, D H

    1994-07-01

    Three methods of deriving directional signals from phase quadrature Doppler signals, using digital techniques, are described. These are the phasing-filter technique, the Weaver receiver technique and the complex FFT. The basic theory behind the three methods is presented, together with the results of digital simulations. Each of the methods has been implemented in real time using a commercially available digital signal-processing board, and their relative processing times are compared. All the methods work well, and the decision to implement one or other in a specific application is likely to rest on secondary factors, such as the need to tape-record the time domain output.

  12. Software for recording observational files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo, A H; Argilaga, M T; Rivera, M A

    2000-08-01

    We offer the new software Codex, written in Visual Basic 3.0. It is a tool adequate in observational methodology. Its fundamental objective is to record motor and verbal behavior using the data types proposed by Bakeman and Quera (1995, 1996), together with the field formats proposed by Hall (1963), Weick (1968), Hutt and Hutt (1974), and Anguera (1979). It is designed to allow for data interchange between specific programs in use in observational methodology (SDIS-GSEQ, The Observer, and Theme) and other general programs (spread sheets, statistics applications, word processing programs, sound cards, etc.).

  13. Reconstructing past fractional record values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy E. El-Adll

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reconstructing past fractional upper (lower records from any absolutely continuous distribution is proposed. For this purpose, two pivotal quantities are given and their exact distributions are derived. More detailed results, including the case of unknown parameters, are given for the exponential and Fre´chet distributions. Moreover, the exact mean square reconstructor errors are obtained and some comparisons between the pivotal quantities are performed. To explore the efficiency of the obtained results, a simulation study is conducted and two real data sets are analyzed.

  14. Optimal sampling frequency in recording of resistance training exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Paolo; Carrasquilla García, Irene; Pozzo, Marco; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Saez de Villareal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the raw lifting speed collected during four different resistance training exercises to assess the optimal sampling frequency. Eight physically active participants performed sets of Squat Jumps, Countermovement Jumps, Squats and Bench Presses at a maximal lifting speed. A linear encoder was used to measure the instantaneous speed at a 200 Hz sampling rate. Subsequently, the power spectrum of the signal was computed by evaluating its Discrete Fourier Transform. The sampling frequency needed to reconstruct the signals with an error of less than 0.1% was f99.9 = 11.615 ± 2.680 Hz for the exercise exhibiting the largest bandwidth, with the absolute highest individual value being 17.467 Hz. There was no difference between sets in any of the exercises. Using the closest integer sampling frequency value (25 Hz) yielded a reconstruction of the signal up to 99.975 ± 0.025% of its total in the worst case. In conclusion, a sampling rate of 25 Hz or above is more than adequate to record raw speed data and compute power during resistance training exercises, even under the most extreme circumstances during explosive exercises. Higher sampling frequencies provide no increase in the recording precision and may instead have adverse effects on the overall data quality.

  15. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  16. Contextual signaling in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Laura J; Anastasaki, Corina; Chen, Ran; Toonen, Joseph A; Williams, Sidney B; Gutmann, David H

    2016-10-01

    The formation and maintenance of an organism are highly dependent on the orderly control of cell growth, differentiation, death, and migration. These processes are tightly regulated by signaling cascades in which a limited number of molecules dictate these cellular events. While these signaling pathways are highly conserved across species and cell types, the functional outcomes that result from their engagement are specified by the context in which they are activated. Using the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome as an illustrative platform, we discuss how NF1/RAS signaling can create functional diversity at multiple levels (molecular, cellular, tissue, and genetic/genomic). As such, the ability of related molecules (e.g., K-RAS, H-RAS) to activate distinct effectors, as well as cell type- and tissue-specific differences in molecular composition and effector engagement, generate numerous unique functional effects. These variations, coupled with a multitude of extracellular cues and genomic/genetic changes that each modify the innate signaling properties of the cell, enable precise control of cellular physiology in both health and disease. Understanding these contextual influences is important when trying to dissect the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of cancer relevant to molecularly-targeted therapeutics.

  17. Mediation as Signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holler, M.J.; Lindner, I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes mediation as a signal. Starting from a stylized case, a game theoretical model of one-sided incomplete information, taken from Cho and Kreps (1987), is applied to discuss strategic effects of mediation. It turns out that to reject mediation can be interpreted as a ”negative signa

  18. Hedgehog signaling update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-08-01

    In vertebrate hedgehog signaling, hedgehog ligands are processed to become bilipidated and then multimerize, which allows them to leave the signaling cell via Dispatched 1 and become transported via glypicans and megalin to the responding cells. Hedgehog then interacts with a complex of Patched 1 and Cdo/Boc, which activates endocytic Smoothened to the cilium. Patched 1 regulates the activity of Smoothened (1) via Vitamin D3, which inhibits Smoothened in the absence of hedgehog ligand or (2) via oxysterols, which activate Smoothened in the presence of hedgehog ligand. Hedgehog ligands also interact with Hip1, Patched 2, and Gas1, which regulate the range as well as the level of hedgehog signaling. In vertebrates, Smoothened is shortened at its C-terminal end and lacks most of the phosphorylation sites of importance in Drosophila. Cos2, also of importance in Drosophila, plays no role in mammalian transduction, nor do its homologs Kif7 and Kif27. The cilium may provide a function analogous to that of Cos2 by linking Smoothened to the modulation of Gli transcription factors. Disorders associated with the hedgehog signaling network follow, including nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, holoprosencephaly, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, Carpenter syndrome, and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

  19. Communication Signals in Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses mechanisms and functional intent of visual communication signals in iguanid/agamid lizards. Demonstrated that lizards communicate with each other by using pushups and head nods and that each species does this in its own way, conveying different types of information. (JN)

  20. Statistical optimisation techniques in fatigue signal editing problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nopiah, Z. M.; Osman, M. H. [Fundamental Engineering Studies Unit Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM (Malaysia); Baharin, N.; Abdullah, S. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Success in fatigue signal editing is determined by the level of length reduction without compromising statistical constraints. A great reduction rate can be achieved by removing small amplitude cycles from the recorded signal. The long recorded signal sometimes renders the cycle-to-cycle editing process daunting. This has encouraged researchers to focus on the segment-based approach. This paper discusses joint application of the Running Damage Extraction (RDE) technique and single constrained Genetic Algorithm (GA) in fatigue signal editing optimisation.. In the first section, the RDE technique is used to restructure and summarise the fatigue strain. This technique combines the overlapping window and fatigue strain-life models. It is designed to identify and isolate the fatigue events that exist in the variable amplitude strain data into different segments whereby the retention of statistical parameters and the vibration energy are considered. In the second section, the fatigue data editing problem is formulated as a constrained single optimisation problem that can be solved using GA method. The GA produces the shortest edited fatigue signal by selecting appropriate segments from a pool of labelling segments. Challenges arise due to constraints on the segment selection by deviation level over three signal properties, namely cumulative fatigue damage, root mean square and kurtosis values. Experimental results over several case studies show that the idea of solving fatigue signal editing within a framework of optimisation is effective and automatic, and that the GA is robust for constrained segment selection.