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Sample records for bge primary endosymbiont

  1. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  2. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state. PMID:19911043

  3. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J López-Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  4. Evolutionary relationships among primary endosymbionts of the mealybug subfamily phenacoccinae (hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwell, Matthew E; Hardy, Nate B; Gullan, Penny J; Dittmar, Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Mealybugs (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are sap-sucking plant parasites that harbor bacterial endosymbionts within specialized organs. Previous studies have identified two subfamilies, Pseudococcinae and Phenacoccinae, within mealybugs and determined the primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts) of the Pseudococcinae to be Betaproteobacteria ("Candidatus Tremblaya princeps") containing Gammaproteobacteria secondary symbionts. Here, the P-endosymbionts of phenacoccine mealybugs are characterized based on 16S rRNA from the bacteria of 20 species of phenacoccine mealybugs and four outgroup Puto species (Coccoidea: Putoidae) and aligned to more than 100 published 16S rRNA sequences from symbiotic and free-living bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three separate lineages of bacteria from the Phenacoccinae, and these are considered to be the P-endosymbionts of their respective mealybug hosts, with those from (i) the mealybug genus Rastrococcus belonging to the Bacteroidetes, (ii) the subterranean mealybugs, tribe Rhizoecini, also within Bacteroidetes, in a clade sister to cockroach endosymbionts (Blattabacterium), and (iii) the remaining Phenacoccinae within the Betaproteobacteria, forming a well-supported sister group to "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps." Names are proposed for two strongly supported lineages: "Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola" for P-endosymbionts of Rhizoecini and "Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola" for P-endosymbionts of Phenacoccinae excluding Rastrococcus and Rhizoecini. Rates of nucleotide substitution among lineages of Tremblaya were inferred to be significantly faster than those of free-living Betaproteobacteria. Analyses also recovered a clade of Gammaproteobacteria, sister to the P-endosymbiont lineage of aphids ("Candidatus Buchnera aphidicola"), containing the endosymbionts of Putoidae, the secondary endosymbionts of pseudococcine mealybugs, and the endosymbionts of several other insect groups.

  5. Distribution of the Primary Endosymbiont (Candidatus Uzinura Diaspidicola Within Host Insects from the Scale Insect Family Diaspididae

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    Katharina Dittmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that armored scale insects harbor endosymbiotic bacteria inside specialized cells called bacteriocytes. Originally, these endosymbionts were thought to be fungal symbionts but they are now known to be bacterial and have been named Uzinura diaspidicola. Bacteriocyte and endosymbiont distribution patterns within host insects were visualized using in situ hybridization via 16S rRNA specific probes. Images of scale insect embryos, eggs and adult scale insects show patterns of localized bacteriocytes in embryos and randomly distributed bacteriocytes in adults. The symbiont pocket was not found in the armored scale insect eggs that were tested. The pattern of dispersed bacteriocytes in adult scale insects suggest that Uzinura and Blattabacteria may share some homologous traits that coincide with similar life style requirements, such as dispersal in fat bodies and uric acid recycling.

  6. Distribution of the Primary Endosymbiont (Candidatus Uzinura Diaspidicola) Within Host Insects from the Scale Insect Family Diaspididae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwell, Matthew E; Flarhety, Meghan; Dittmar, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that armored scale insects harbor endosymbiotic bacteria inside specialized cells called bacteriocytes. Originally, these endosymbionts were thought to be fungal symbionts but they are now known to be bacterial and have been named Uzinura diaspidicola. Bacteriocyte and endosymbiont distribution patterns within host insects were visualized using in situ hybridization via 16S rRNA specific probes. Images of scale insect embryos, eggs and adult scale insects show patterns of localized bacteriocytes in embryos and randomly distributed bacteriocytes in adults. The symbiont pocket was not found in the armored scale insect eggs that were tested. The pattern of dispersed bacteriocytes in adult scale insects suggest that Uzinura and Blattabacteria may share some homologous traits that coincide with similar life style requirements, such as dispersal in fat bodies and uric acid recycling.

  7. Two new saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Peng; Yu Jing Zhang; Zhi Qiang Ma; Wei San Pan; Yu Qing Sun; Shao Jiang Song

    2007-01-01

    Two new saponins 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-mannopyranosyl sarsasapogenin, named timosaponin A Ⅳ(1) and(5β, 25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-furost-20(22)-en-3,26-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→ 4) glucopyranosyl (1 → 2)-β-D-galacopyranoside, named timosaponin B Ⅳ(2), were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. Their structures were elucidated by chemical characters and spectroscopic analysis.

  8. Diversity of secondary endosymbionts among different putative species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Bing; Yong-Ming Ruan; Qiong Rao; Xiao-Wei Wang; Shu-Sheng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Endosymbionts are important components of arthropod biology.The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex composed of≥28 putative species.In addition to the primary endosymbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum,six secondary endosymbionts (S-endosymbionts),Hamiltonella,Rickettsia,Wolbachia,Cardinium,Arsenophonus and Fritschea,have been identified in B.tabaci thus far.Here,we tested five of the six S-endosymbiont lineages (excluding Fritschea) from 340 whitely individuals representing six putative species from China.Hamiltonella was detected only in the two exotic invaders,Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM 1) and Mediterranean (MED).Rickettsia was absent in Asia Ⅱ 1 and MED,scarce in Asia Ⅱ 3 (13%),but abundant in Asia Ⅱ 7 (63.2%),China 1 (84.7%) and MEAM1 (100%).Wolbachia,Cardinium and Arsenophonus were absent in the invasive MEAM 1 and MED but mostly abundant in the native putative species.Furthermore,phylogenetic analyses revealed that some S-endosymbionts have several clades and different B.tabaci putative species can harbor different clades of a given S-endosymbiont,demonstrating further the complexity of S-endosymbionts in B.tabaci.All together,our results demonstrate the variation and diversity of S-endosymbionts in different putative species ofB.tabaci,especially between invasive and native whiteflies.

  9. Evidence for horizontal transmission of secondary endosymbionts in the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex.

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    Muhammad Z Ahmed

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a globally distributed pest composed of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species. At least seven species of endosymbiont have been found infecting some or all members of the complex. The origin(s of the associations between specific endosymbionts and their whitefly hosts is unknown. Infection is normally vertical, but horizontal transmission does occur and is one way for new infections to be introduced into individuals. The relationships between the different members of the cryptic species complex and the endosymbionts have not been well explored. In this study, the phylogenies of different cryptic species of the host with those of their endosymbionts were compared. Of particular interest was whether there was evidence for both coevolution and horizontal transmission. Congruence was observed for the primary endosymbiont, Portiera aleyrodidarum, and partial incongruence in the case of two secondary endosymbionts, Arsenophonus and Cardinium and incongruence for a third, Wolbachia. The patterns observed for the primary endosymbiont supported cospeciation with the host while the patterns for the secondary endosymbionts, and especially Wolbachia showed evidence of host shifts and extinctions through horizontal transmission rather than cospeciation. Of particular note is the observation of several very recent host shift events in China between exotic invader and indigenous members of the complex. These shifts were from indigenous members of the complex to the invader as well as from the invader to indigenous relatives.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects and structure elucidation of two new compounds from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge) Hsiao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Hu; Han, Na-Ren-Chao-Ke-Tu; Dai, Na-Yin-Tai; Wang, Xiu-Lan; Ao, Wu-Li-Ji

    2014-09-01

    Phytochemical study of the ethanol extract of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge) Hsiao resulted to the isolation of two new compounds, 1-hydroxy-5-methylolbenzol-2-O-β-D-glucoside (1) and (3R, 4R)-4,7-hydroxy-2‧,3‧-dimethoxyisoflavane-4‧-O-β-D-glucoside (2). The structure of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR techniques, and by comparison with those reported in the literature. The new compounds were investigated for its effect against inflammation induced by egg-albumin and carrageenan in rats.

  11. TWO NOVEL FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES FROM CRATAEGUS PINNATIFIDA BGE.VAR. MAJOR N.E.BR.r

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI-CHENG ZHANG; YING-JUN ZHOU; SUI-XU XU

    2001-01-01

    Two novel natural products, namely pinnatifida C, pinnatifida D, were isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.rnajor N.E.Br. Their structures were elucidated by the spectro scopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  12. Bacterial endosymbionts of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several groups of bacteria have been reported as endosymbionts of various orders of nematodes including the filarial nematodes (Brugia malayi, Wucheria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus (Spiruida)), the entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp., and Heterorhabditis spp. (Rhabditida)), and plant-p...

  13. Synthesis and investigation of rare earth boratogermanates LnBGeO5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the method of solid phase reactions from rare earth, germanium and boric acid oxides, rare earth borates and germanates, as well as from products of coprecipitation from solutions, boratogermanates LnBGeO5 (Ln-La-Er, Y) have been synthesized. It is ascertained that LnBGeO5 compounds prepared by means of solid phase interaction, form two structural groups: 1-Ln-La, 2-Ln-Nd-Er, Y. To the first group neodimium, samarium and europium boratogermanates, synthesized in metastable state by the annealing of coprecipitation products from solutions, have also been referred. Compounds LnBGeO5 od structural group 1 are isostructural to natural mineral stillwellite (La,Ce)BSiO5. Temperatures and melting character of boratogermanates LnBGeO5 (Ln-La-Tb), temperatures of thermal decomposition in solid state of compounds LnBGeO5 (Ln-Dy-Er, Y), and phase composition of the products formed are determined

  14. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

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    Julio Massaharu Marubayashi

    Full Text Available Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1, the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2 collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the

  15. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  16. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Hong Wang; Chen Cai; Xue-Mei Li

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1) at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p

  17. Space flight effects analysis of sp2 salvia miltiorrhiza bge · using srap marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of space mutation of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., agronomic traits had been studied in SP2 by field investigation and SRAP. The results showed that the mutagenic effects of space flight were complicated and there were variant effect on different plants and different traits.146 alleles had been detected from 19 materials with 12 primer pairs. Jaccard's similarity coefficient ranged from 0.453 ∼ 0.867, the average was 0.648. (authors)

  18. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM, obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1 at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p<0.0001. The verification experiments at the optimum conditions yielded gallic acid for 6.21 mg·g−1. Subsequently, under optimal conditions, four ionic liquids were used to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. The results indicated that the presence of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride allowed increasing the EE of gallic acid up to 8.90 mg·g−1. This might be interpreted in terms of the molecular interaction between ionic liquid and gallic acid. The use of ionic liquids involves a stronger gallic acid extraction capacity than conventional organic volatile solvents. A promising alternative process is proposed for the extraction of gallic acid of Suaeda glauca Bge.

  19. Wolbachia endosymbionts and human disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatko, Barton E; Luck, Ashley N; Dobson, Stephen L; Foster, Jeremy M

    2014-07-01

    Most human filarial nematode parasites and arthropods are hosts for a bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia. In filaria, Wolbachia are required for normal development, fertility and survival, whereas in arthropods, they are largely parasitic and can influence development and reproduction, but are generally not required for host survival. Due to their obligate nature in filarial parasites, Wolbachia have been a target for drug discovery initiatives using several approaches including diversity and focused library screening and genomic sequence analysis. In vitro and in vivo anti-Wolbachia antibiotic treatments have been shown to have adulticidal activity, a long sought goal of filarial parasite drug discovery. In mosquitoes, it has been shown that the presence of Wolbachia can inhibit the transmission of certain viruses, such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever, West Nile, as well as the infectivity of the malaria-causing protozoan, Plasmodium and filarial nematodes. Furthermore, Wolbachia can cause a form of conditional sterility that can be used to suppress populations of mosquitoes and additional medically important insects. Thus Wolbachia, a pandemic endosymbiont offers great potential for elimination of a wide-variety of devastating human diseases. PMID:25046729

  20. Structures and phase transitions of PrBGeO5 in the temperature range 20-800 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution neutron powder diffractometry has been used to characterize the structural phase transitions which occur in PrBGeO5 at 550 and 750 deg. C. The change in lattice parameters of the trigonal unit cell as a function of temperature, observed in the range from ambient to 800 deg. C, shows that the 550 deg. C transition is associated with an abrupt contraction of the unit cell volume. The crystal structure stable in the temperature interval between 550 and 750 deg. C is isomorphous with the stillwellite structure of LaBGeO5 in its polar variant stable up to 530 deg. C. The phase transition at 750 deg. C to a non-polar variant of the structure mimics the 530 deg. C transition in LaBGeO5. The structural parameters of these two PrBGeO5 phases have been refined from data taken at 650, 770 and 800 deg. C. The structure of the PrBGeO5 phase stable at ambient temperature gives rise to extra reflections not given by the stillwellite structure. These can be indexed on a triple cell with a' approx. √3a, c' approx. c and the structure has been determined and refined from a combination of neutron powder data and an ambient temperature single crystal x-ray diffraction study. (author)

  1. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fruit Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids disorder to normal level is clinically very important. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Berberis integerrima Bge. fruit aqueous extract (BIFAE) on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by fruit aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. at doses (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg bw) f...

  2. Nutritional upgrading for omnivorous carpenter ants by the endosymbiont Blochmannia

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller Martin J; Stoll Sascha; Berthold Kristina; Krischke Markus; Straka Josef; Feldhaar Heike; Gross Roy

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function in nutritional upgrading of host resources by the bacterium. Thus, the strongly reduced genome of the endosymbiont retains genes for all subunits of a functional urease, as well as those for biosynthetic pathways for all but one (arginine) of the amino acids essent...

  3. HPLC determination of eight polyphenols in the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xixiang; Wang, Rongxiang; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Haibo; Zhang, Chaoshen; Li, Famei

    2009-03-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay using the internal standard method is developed for the simultaneous determination of eight polyphenols. The analyzed compounds isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major include chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercetin. HPLC analysis is performed on a Diamonsil C18 analytical column (150 x 4.6 mm, i.d., 5-microm) using solvent (A) acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (95:5, v/v) and (B) 1% aqueous phosphoric acid as the mobile phase with UV absorption at 270 nm. The calibration curves of the eight polyphenols are linear (r(2) > 0.9992) over the concentration range of 0.0894-120.0 microg/mL. The mean recoveries are 95.4% to 98.1%. The results indicate that the HPLC method developed can easily be applied to the determination of eight polyphenols in the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major.

  4. [Study of the fourth generation of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge by XRF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-Ying; Guo, Xi-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Zhou; Guan, Ying

    2010-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF) analytic method was used to analyze and compare the contents and varieties of mineral elements in the ground group Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, and the fourth generation Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge with space flight mutagenesis breeding in order to provide important basic data for selecting high quality breed and further research. The result indicates that the varieties of the main mineral elements in the two samples are the same basically, but Cu/Zn ratio is enhanced to 1.0, the contents of microelements Cr, Mn and Fe increase by 0.6, 0.5, and 0.3 times respectively compared with the ground group. To conclude, in the space group the contents and proportions of the mineral elements are improved and optimized. Xray fluorescence spectrum analytic method has many advantages, such as quickness, simplicity, high sensitivity, wide measure range, etc. The method can be used for quantitative element analysis and study of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:20545179

  5. Two New C-glucoside Flavonoids from Leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.major N.E.Br.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new C-glucoside flavonoids,namely 8-C-(-D-(2(-O-acetyl) glucofuranosyl apigenin and 3(-O-acetylvitexin,were isolated from leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.major N.E.Br..Their structures were elucidated by the spectroscopic means and chemical evidence.

  6. Functional Relationship between a Dinoflagellate Host and Its Diatom Endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Burki, Fabien; Kolisko, Martin; Keeling, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    While we know much about the evolutionary patterns of endosymbiotic organelle origins, we know less about how the actual process unfolded within each system. This is partly due to the massive changes endosymbiosis appears to trigger, and partly because most organelles evolved in the distant past. The dinotoms are dinoflagellates with diatom endosymbionts, and they represent a relatively recent but nevertheless obligate endosymbiotic association. We have carried out deep sequencing of both the host and endosymbiont transcriptomes from two dinotoms, Durinskia baltica and Glenodinium foliaceum, to examine how the nucleocytosolic compartments have functionally integrated. This analysis showed little or no functional reduction in either the endosymbiont or host, and no evidence for genetic integration. Rather, host and endosymbiont seem to be bound to each other via metabolites, such as photosynthate exported from the endosymbiont to the host as indicated by the presence of plastidic phosphate translocators in the host transcriptome. The host is able to synthesize starch, using plant-specific starch synthases, as a way to store imported photosynthate. PMID:27297471

  7. Volatile Components from Dracocephalum integrifolium Bge%全叶青兰挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建英; 王利平; 刘玉梅

    2012-01-01

    The composition and contents of volatile components from Dracocephalum integrifolium Bge. were analyzed by using headspace solid-phase microextraction ( HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) method. The results indicate that,with 6 min and 30 min headspace adsorption time, the volatile components were basically identical in terms of the main components except for their different proportion. The hydrocarbons (mainly terpenoids) were the major component in the volatile components from Dracocephalum integrifolium Bge. , which accounted for about 30% , the alcohol compounds for around 20% , others in descending order as esters, ketones, terpene oxides and aldehyde compounds. However,the content of such components as ether,amine and sulfur compounds was very low.%采用顶空固相微萃取结合色谱质谱技术分析了全叶青兰中挥发性成分的组成和含量.结果表明,6 min和30 min的顶空吸附时间所测得的全叶青兰中挥发性成分的组分基本一致,但各组分所占的比例有一定差异.全叶青兰挥发性成分中以萜烯类为主的碳氢化合物约占其总质量的50%,醇类化合物约占20%,其他成分的质量分数高低依次为酯、酮、萜烯氧化物和醛类化合物,醚、胺及含硫化合物等质量分数极低.

  8. Multiple endosymbionts in populations of the ant Formica cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamilo Pekka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many insects, including ants, are infected by maternally inherited Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria though other secondary endosymbionts have not been reported in ants. It has been suggested that the ability of Wolbachia to invade and remain in an ant population depends on the number of coexisting queens in a colony. We study the genetic and social structure of populations in the ant Formica cinerea which is known to have populations with either monogynous or polygynous colonies. We screen populations for several endosymbiotic bacteria to evaluate the presence of different endosymbionts, possible association between their prevalence and the social structure, and the association between endosymbiont prevalence and genetic differentiation of ant populations. Results We found three endosymbiotic bacteria; 19% of the nests were infected by Wolbachia, 3.8% by Cardinium and 33% by Serratia. There was significant variation among the populations regarding the proportion of nests infected by Serratia, Wolbachia and the pooled set of all the endosymbionts. Some individuals and colonies carried two of the bacteria, the frequency of double infections agreeing with the random expectation. The proportion of infected ants (individuals or colonies did not correlate significantly with the population level relatedness values. The difference in the prevalence of Wolbachia between population pairs correlated significantly with the genetic distance (microsatellites of the populations. Conclusions The discovery of several endosymbionts and co-infections by Wolbachia and Cardinium demonstrate the importance of screening several endosymbionts when evaluating their possible effects on social life and queen-worker conflicts over sex allocation. The low prevalence of Wolbachia in F. cinerea departs from the pattern observed in many other Formica ants in which all workers have been infected. It is likely that the strain of Wolbachia in F. cinerea

  9. Structural aspects of the 530 deg. C phase transition in LaBGeO5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution neutron powder diffractometry has been used to characterize the structural phase transition which occurs in LaBGeO5 at 530 deg. C. The change in lattice parameters of the trigonal unit cell as a function of temperature, observed in the range from ambient to 700 deg. C, shows that the transition from the polar space group P31 to the non-polar space group P3121 is associated with a collapse of the a-dimension, whereas the c-dimension and the cell volume increase monotonically with small changes of slope at the transition temperature. The structure of the lower-temperature phase, previously determined at ambient temperature by single-crystal x-ray diffraction, has been refined at 20, 500 and 525 deg. C and the structure of the higher-temperature phase determined from data taken at 535, 560 and 630 deg. C. The thermal evolution of the atomic coordinates shows that the deciding role in the transition is provided by a complex movement of the B-O tetrahedron, in which the main component is a rotation around the 31 axis. The transition is continuous and results from structural changes which are displacive but also show order-disorder character. This conclusion is in accordance with the known thermal, optical and dielectric properties of this new multifunction (laser, ferroelectric and non-linear optic) material. In the high-temperature modification, the dynamically disordered double helical chain of B-O tetrahedra has no polarity in the c-direction. This is the main structural reason for the absence of ferroelectric properties above 530 deg. C. The lower transition temperature of 140 deg. C in the related phase LaBSiO5 may be understood by comparing the structural aspects of its transition with those of LaBGeO5 using the Abrahams-Jamieson-Kurtz criteria. The effect of isomorphic substitution for Ge with the smaller Si atoms is equivalent to pressure being applied to the helical B chain and results in a chain which is more tilted in the silicate than in the

  10. The cockroach Blattella germanica obtains nitrogen from uric acid through a metabolic pathway shared with its bacterial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2014-07-01

    Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria.

  11. Endosymbiont dominated bacterial communities in a dwarf spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Vanthournout

    Full Text Available The microbial community of spiders is little known, with previous studies focussing primarily on the medical importance of spiders as vectors of pathogenic bacteria and on the screening of known cytoplasmic endosymbiont bacteria. These screening studies have been performed by means of specific primers that only amplify a selective set of endosymbionts, hampering the detection of unreported species in spiders. In order to have a more complete overview of the bacterial species that can be present in spiders, we applied a combination of a cloning assay, DGGE profiling and high-throughput sequencing on multiple individuals of the dwarf spider Oedothorax gibbosus. This revealed a co-infection of at least three known (Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Cardinium and the detection of a previously unreported endosymbiont bacterium (Rhabdochlamydia in spiders. 16S rRNA gene sequences of Rhabdochlamydia matched closely with those of Candidatus R. porcellionis, which is currently only reported as a pathogen from a woodlouse and with Candidatus R. crassificans reported from a cockroach. Remarkably, this bacterium appears to present in very high proportions in one of the two populations only, with all investigated females being infected. We also recovered Acinetobacter in high abundance in one individual. In total, more than 99% of approximately 4.5M high-throughput sequencing reads were restricted to these five bacterial species. In contrast to previously reported screening studies of terrestrial arthropods, our results suggest that the bacterial communities in this spider species are dominated by, or even restricted to endosymbiont bacteria. Given the high prevalence of endosymbiont species in spiders, this bacterial community pattern could be widespread in the Araneae order.

  12. LNA probes substantially improve the detection of bacterial endosymbionts in whole mount of insects by fluorescent in-situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Natarajan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of unculturable bacteria and their localization in the host, by fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH, is a powerful technique in the study of host-bacteria interaction. FISH probes are designed to target the 16 s rRNA region of the bacteria to be detected. LNA probes have recently been used in FISH studies and proven to be more efficient. To date no report has employed LNA probes for FISH detection of bacterial endosymbiont in the whole mount tissues. Further, though speculated, bacteriocytes have not been reported from males of Bemisia tabaci. Results In this study, we compared the efficiency in detecting bacteria by fluorescent DNA oligonucleotides versus modified probes containing Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA substitution in their structure. We used the insect Bemisia tabaci as the experimental material since it carried simultaneous infection by two bacteria: one a primary endosymbiont, Portiera (and present in more numbers while the other a secondary endosymbiont Arsenophonus (and present in less numbers. Thus a variation in the abundance of bacteria was expected. While detecting both the bacteria, we found a significant increase in the signal whenever LNA probes were used. However, the difference was more pronounced in detecting the secondary endosymbiont, wherein DNA probes gave weak signals when compared to LNA probes. Also, signal to noise ratio for LNA probes was higher than DNA probes. We found that LNA considerably improved sensitivity of FISH, as compared to the commonly used DNA oligonucleotide probe. Conclusion By employing LNA probes we could detect endosymbiotic bacteria in males, which have never been reported previously. We were able to detect bacteriocytes containing Portiera and Arsenophonus in the males of B. tabaci. Thus, employing LNA probes at optimized conditions will help to significantly improve detection of bacteria at the lowest concentration and may give a comprehensible depiction

  13. Effects of salvia miltiorrhiza bge on myocardial fibrosis in hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhong-zhi; DING Shi-fang; TANG Ying

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study the effects of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge (SMB) on myocardial fibrosis in hypertension in rats. Methods: Normal Wistar kyoto rats served as negative control (group A). The rats with hypertension were divided into 2 groups: the hypertension group (group B) which served as the positive control and the SMB-treated hypertension group (group C). The effects of SMB on the systolic pressure, the myocardial content of aldosterone (ALD) and nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the myocardium were detected. Results: The systolic pressure of the rats of group C showed no marked change after the administration of SMB and showed no difference from that of the rats of group B. The content of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ of the left ventricle, the collagen Ⅰ/collagen Ⅲ ratio and the content.of ALD were lower in group C than in group B and higher in group C than in group A. The content of NO and the activity of SOD in the myocardium were higher in group C than in group B and lower in group C than in group A. Conclusion: It was concluded that SMB was able to prevent or reverse the progress of myocardial fibrosis resulting from hypertension. The mechanism of this effect of SMB might be due to the fact that SMB can decrease the collagen synthesis and ALD content and increase collagen decomposition, NO content and SOD activity in the myocardium.

  14. Two new diterpene derivatives from Euphorbia lunulata Bge and their anti-proliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Liao, Zhi-xin; Liu, Shi-jun; Qu, Yan-bo; Wang, Heng-shan

    2014-07-01

    A new ent-abietane-type diterpene lactone (1) and a new jatrophane-type diterpenoid (2), together with twelve known compounds including three diterpenes (3-5), five triterpenes (6-10) and four sterides (11-14) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia lunulata Bge. The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and the HR-ESI-MS data. The structure of compound 2 was further analyzed by an X-ray crystallographic study. The in vitro anti-proliferative activities against MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cell lines for compounds 1-5 (diterpene) were evaluated. The results showed marked activity for compound 1 against the two cell lines with the IC50 values 19.5 (NCI-H460) and 18.6 (MCF-7) μM, while for cis-platinum (a positive cytotoxic control agent) 29.7 (NCI-H460) and 27.7 (MCF-7) μM. Compounds 2-5 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities for the two cell lines with the IC50 values ranging from 32.1 to 58.2 μM.

  15. Biosorption of methylene blue from wastewater by an extraction residue of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sunxiang; Zhou, Tongshui

    2016-11-01

    Efforts were made in this study to using an extraction residue of Salvia mitiorrziza Bge (SM), a widely utilized traditional Chinese medicine, as an effective biosorbent of methylene blue from polluted water. Batch experiments were carried out with original and chemical modification, particle size, dosage, solution pH, contact time, and initial concentration of the dye. Experimental data fit Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic best compared to other models applied in the study. Characterization of adsorption was determined by FT-IR, SEM and particle surface area measurement. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of raw SM is 100.0mg·g(-1). The citric acid and Na2CO3 modification can significantly enhance this value up to 161.29 and 178.57mg·g(-1), respectively. This investigation provides a novel approach for reutilizing the enormous quantity of Chinese herbal medicine wastes, which is significant since these dregs have brought out big environmental and heathy problems in the present China. PMID:27501030

  16. Armored scale insect endosymbiont diversity at the species level: genealogical patterns of Uzinura diasipipdicola in the Chionaspis pinifoliae-Chionaspis heterophyllae species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J C; Gwiazdowski, R A; Gdanetz, K; Gruwell, M E

    2015-02-01

    Armored scale insects and their primary bacterial endosymbionts show nearly identical patterns of co-diversification when viewed at the family level, though the persistence of these patterns at the species level has not been explored in this group. Therefore we investigated genealogical patterns of co-diversification near the species level between the primary endosymbiont Uzinura diaspidicola and its hosts in the Chionaspis pinifoliae-Chionaspis heterophyllae species complex. To do this we generated DNA sequence data from three endosymbiont loci (rspB, GroEL, and 16S) and analyzed each locus independently using statistical parsimony network analyses and as a concatenated dataset using Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions. We found that for two endosymbiont loci, 16S and GroEL, sequences from U. diaspidicola were broadly associated with host species designations, while for rspB this pattern was less clear as C. heterophyllae (species S1) shared haplotypes with several other Chionaspis species. We then compared the topological congruence of the phylogenetic reconstructions generated from a concatenated dataset of endosymbiont loci (including all three loci, above) to that from a concatenated dataset of armored scale hosts, using published data from two nuclear loci (28S and EF1α) and one mitochondrial locus (COI-COII) from the armored scale hosts. We calculated whether the two topologies were congruent using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. We found no significant differences (P = 0.4892) between the topologies suggesting that, at least at this level of resolution, co-diversification of U. diaspidicola with its armored scale hosts also occurs near the species level. This is the first such study of co-speciation at the species level between U. diaspidicola and a group of armored scale insects.

  17. Nondegenerative Evolution in Ancient Heritable Bacterial Endosymbionts of Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondo, Stephen J; Salvioli, Alessandra; Bonfante, Paola; Morton, Joseph B; Pawlowska, Teresa E

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts are critical to the existence of many eukaryotes. Among them, vertically transmitted endobacteria are uniquely typified by reduced genomes and molecular evolution rate acceleration relative to free-living taxa. These patterns are attributable to genetic drift-dominated degenerative processes associated with reproductive dependence on the host. The degenerative evolution scenario is well supported in endobacteria with strict vertical transmission, such as essential mutualists of insects. In contrast, heritable endosymbionts that are nonessential to their hosts and engage occasionally in horizontal transmission are expected to display deviations from the degenerative evolution model. To explore evolution patterns in such nonessential endobacteria, we focused on Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum ancient heritable mutualists of fungi. Using a collection of genomes, we estimated in Glomeribacter mutation rate at 2.03 × 10(-9) substitutions per site per year and effective population size at 1.44 × 10(8) Both fall within the range of values observed in free-living bacteria. To assess the ability of Glomeribacter to purge slightly deleterious mutations, we examined genome-wide dN/dS values and distribution patterns. We found that these dN/dS profiles cluster Glomeribacter with free-living bacteria as well as with other nonessential endosymbionts, while distinguishing it from essential heritable mutualists of insects. Finally, our evolutionary simulations revealed that the molecular evolution rate acceleration in Glomeribacter is caused by limited recombination in a largely clonal population rather than by increased fixation of slightly deleterious mutations. Based on these patterns, we propose that genome evolution in Glomeribacter is nondegenerative and exemplifies a departure from the model of degenerative evolution in heritable endosymbionts. PMID:27189571

  18. Genome evolution and systems biology in bacterial endosymbionts of insects

    OpenAIRE

    Belda Cuesta, Eugeni

    2010-01-01

    Gene loss is the most important event in the process of genome reduction that appears associated with bacterial endosymbionts of insects. These small genomes were derived features evolved from ancestral prokaryotes with larger genome sizes, consequence of a massive process of genome reduction due to drastic changes in the ecological conditions and evolutionary pressures acting on these prokaryotic lineages during their ecological transition to host-dependent lifestyle. In the present thesis, ...

  19. Evolutionary implications of endosymbiont diversity within lucinid bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.; Thiessen, M.; Aronowsky, A.; Anderson, L.; Bao, H.; Engel, A.

    2007-12-01

    Bacterial endosymbiosis is widespread among Bivalvia. Symbiosis between lucinid bivalves and sulfur-oxidizing (thiotrophic) bacteria has received recent attention, as lucinids are one of the geologically oldest extant bivalve clades to possess endosymbionts. However, the ecological and evolutionary relationships between host and symbiont are poorly understood, and reconstructing the evolutionary history and geological significance of lucinid endosymbiosis requires additional knowledge and characterization of endosymbiont ecology and taxonomic diversity. Our goal was to characterize the bacterial diversity of a modern lucinid habitat in order to evaluate possible lucinid endosymbiont diversity. Host organisms ( Lucinisca nassula and Phacoides pectinatus) and sediment cores were collected from geochemically reducing and sulfide-rich sea grass beds. PCR amplification and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from the sediment cores retrieved 13 major taxonomic groups, including equally dominant Chloroflexi, Delta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, and rare Bacteroides, Acidobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Firmicutes. Less than 2% of the sequences were affiliated with uncultured gammaproteobacterial symbiont groups, but were not closely related to the sequences retrieved from the lucinid gills. Moreover, our analyses uncovered multiple gene sequence populations within an individual, as well as across individuals within the same sampling site. Additional habitat-host-symbiont diversity from three other lucinid taxa and from six geographically distinct habitat sites is also expanding the previously understood diversity of thiotrophic endosymbionts, and specifically that the lucinid symbionts are probably not a monophyletic species. These data suggest that thiotrophic bacteria are recruitable for endosymbiosis and are widely distributed in reducing marine environments. But, because of the diversity of bacteria in any one habitat, symbionts may be metabolically and physiologically

  20. Nutritional upgrading for omnivorous carpenter ants by the endosymbiont Blochmannia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Martin J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function in nutritional upgrading of host resources by the bacterium. Thus, the strongly reduced genome of the endosymbiont retains genes for all subunits of a functional urease, as well as those for biosynthetic pathways for all but one (arginine of the amino acids essential to the host. Results Nutritional upgrading by Blochmannia was tested in 90-day feeding experiments with brood-raising in worker-groups on chemically defined diets with and without essential amino acids and treated or not with antibiotics. Control groups were fed with cockroaches, honey water and Bhatkar agar. Worker-groups were provided with brood collected from the queenright mother-colonies (45 eggs and 45 first instar larvae each. Brood production did not differ significantly between groups of symbiotic workers on diets with and without essential amino acids. However, aposymbiotic worker groups raised significantly less brood on a diet lacking essential amino acids. Reduced brood production by aposymbiotic workers was compensated when those groups were provided with essential amino acids in their diet. Decrease of endosymbionts due to treatment with antibiotic was monitored by qRT-PCR and FISH after the 90-day experimental period. Urease function was confirmed by feeding experiments using 15N-labelled urea. GC-MS analysis of 15N-enrichment of free amino acids in workers revealed significant labelling of the non-essential amino acids alanine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, as well as of the essential amino acids methionine and phenylalanine. Conclusion Our results show that endosymbiotic Blochmannia nutritionally upgrade the diet of C. floridanus hosts to provide essential amino acids, and that it may also play a role in nitrogen recycling

  1. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fruit Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids disorder to normal level is clinically very important. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Berberis integerrima Bge. fruit aqueous extract (BIFAE) on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by fruit aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. at doses (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg bw) for 42 days by gavage. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. Total lipid levels were determined in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats after administration of the BIFAE and glibenclamide for 42 days. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a significant (P<0.001) increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) while body weight and high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterolan (HDL-C) were significantly(P<0.001) decreased compared to normal rats. Daily administration of BIFAE did not possess the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activity in STZ- diabetic rats during 6-week treatment period. Results indicate the usage of BIFAE in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes may need more investigation. PMID:25587320

  2.  Serial replacement of diatom endosymbiont in two freshwater dinoflagellates, Peridiniopsis spp., (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Y.; Hansen, Gert; Fujita, D.;

    2008-01-01

    -harbouring dinoflagellates. On the contrary, the phylogenetic analyses based on plastid-encoded rbcL and nuclear-encoded SSU rDNA of the endosymbionts included the endosymbiont of these two freshwater dinoflagellates in the Thalassiosira/Skeletonema-clade (Centrales), whereas the endosymbionts of other diatom...

  3. Genome sequence of Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi, endosymbiont of chimpanzee lice, and genomic comparison of recently acquired endosymbionts from human and chimpanzee lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Bret M; Allen, Julie M; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Reed, David L

    2014-11-01

    The obligate-heritable endosymbionts of insects possess some of the smallest known bacterial genomes. This is likely due to loss of genomic material during symbiosis. The mode and rate of this erosion may change over evolutionary time: faster in newly formed associations and slower in long-established ones. The endosymbionts of human and anthropoid primate lice present a unique opportunity to study genome erosion in newly established (or young) symbionts. This is because we have a detailed phylogenetic history of these endosymbionts with divergence dates for closely related species. This allows for genome evolution to be studied in detail and rates of change to be estimated in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we sequenced the genome of the chimpanzee louse endosymbiont (Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi) and compared it with the closely related genome of the human body louse endosymbiont. From this comparison, we found evidence for recent genome erosion leading to gene loss in these endosymbionts. Although gene loss was detected, it was not significantly greater than in older endosymbionts from aphids and ants. Additionally, we searched for genes associated with B-vitamin synthesis in the two louse endosymbiont genomes because these endosymbionts are believed to synthesize essential B vitamins absent in the louse's diet. All of the expected genes were present, except those involved in thiamin synthesis. We failed to find genes encoding for proteins involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin or any complete exogenous means of salvaging thiamin, suggesting there is an undescribed mechanism for the salvage of thiamin. Finally, genes encoding for the pantothenate de novo biosynthesis pathway were located on a plasmid in both taxa along with a heat shock protein. Movement of these genes onto a plasmid may be functionally and evolutionarily significant, potentially increasing production and guarding against the deleterious effects of mutation. These data add to a growing

  4. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" the flavobacterial endosymbiont of Llaveia axin axin (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Mora, Jaime; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-03-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) constitute a very diverse group of sap-feeding insects with a large diversity of symbiotic associations with bacteria. Here, we present the complete genome sequence, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of the giant scale insect Llaveia axin axin. The gene repertoire of its 309,299 bp genome was similar to that of other flavobacterial insect endosymbionts though not syntenic. According to its genetic content, essential amino acid biosynthesis is likely to be the flavobacterial endosymbiont's principal contribution to the symbiotic association with its insect host. We also report the presence of a γ-proteobacterial symbiont that may be involved in waste nitrogen recycling and also has amino acid biosynthetic capabilities that may provide metabolic precursors to the flavobacterial endosymbiont. We propose "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" as the name of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of insects from the Monophlebidae family.

  5. Genome Sequence of Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi, Endosymbiont of Chimpanzee Lice, and Genomic Comparison of Recently Acquired Endosymbionts from Human and Chimpanzee Lice

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Bret M.; Allen, Julie M; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Reed, David L

    2014-01-01

    The obligate-heritable endosymbionts of insects possess some of the smallest known bacterial genomes. This is likely due to loss of genomic material during symbiosis. The mode and rate of this erosion may change over evolutionary time: faster in newly formed associations and slower in long-established ones. The endosymbionts of human and anthropoid primate lice present a unique opportunity to study genome erosion in newly established (or young) symbionts. This is because we have a detailed ph...

  6. Survival and transfer ability of phylogenetically diverse bacterial endosymbionts in environmental Acanthamoeba isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junji; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Nakamura, Shinji; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Takahashi, Kaori; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yao, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Obligate intracellular bacteria are commonly found as endosymbionts of acanthamoebae; however, their survival in and ability to transfer to amoebae are currently uncharacterized. In this study, six bacterial endosymbionts, found in five environmental Acanthamoeba isolates (S13, R18, S23, S31, S40) from different locations of Sapporo city, Japan, were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three bacterial endosymbionts (eS23, eS31, eS40a) belonged to α- and β-Proteobacteria phyla and the remaining endosymbionts (eS13, eR18, eS40b) belonged to the order Chlamydiales. The Acanthamoeba isolate (S40) contained two phylogenetically different bacterial endosymbionts (eS40a, eS40b). Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis showed that all bacterial endosymbionts were diffusely localized within amoebae. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that the endosymbionts were rod-shaped (eS23, eS31, eS40a) or sphere- or crescent-shaped (eS13, eR18, eS40b). No successful culture of these bacteria was achieved using conventional culture methods, but the viability of endosymbionts was confirmed by live/dead staining and RT-PCR methods. However, endosymbionts (except eR18) derived from original host cells lost the ability to be transferred to another Acanthamoebae strains [ATCC strain (C3), environmental strains (S14, R23, S24)]. Thus, our data demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse bacterial endosymbionts found in amoebae maintain a stable interaction with amoebae, but the transferability is limited.

  7. Molecular identification of rickettsial endosymbionts in the non-phagotrophic volvocalean green algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Kawafune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The order Rickettsiales comprises gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria (also called rickettsias that are mainly associated with arthropod hosts. This group is medically important because it contains human-pathogenic species that cause dangerous diseases. Until now, there has been no report of non-phagotrophic photosynthetic eukaryotes, such as green plants, harboring rickettsias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the bacterial endosymbionts of two freshwater volvocalean green algae: unicellular Carteria cerasiformis and colonial Pleodorina japonica. Epifluorescence microscopy using 4'-6-deamidino-2-phenylindole staining revealed the presence of endosymbionts in all C. cerasiformis NIES-425 cells, and demonstrated a positive correlation between host cell size and the number of endosymbionts. Strains both containing and lacking endosymbionts of C. cerasiformis (NIES-425 and NIES-424 showed a >10-fold increase in cell number and typical sigmoid growth curves over 192 h. A phylogenetic analysis of 16 S ribosomal (rRNA gene sequences from the endosymbionts of C. cerasiformis and P. japonica demonstrated that they formed a robust clade (hydra group with endosymbionts of various non-arthropod hosts within the family Rickettsiaceae. There were significantly fewer differences in the 16 S rRNA sequences of the rickettsiacean endosymbionts between C. cerasiformis and P. japonica than in the chloroplast 16 S rRNA or 18 S rRNA of the host volvocalean cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the existence of the rickettsiacean endosymbionts in the cytoplasm of two volvocalean species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rickettsiacean endosymbionts are likely not harmful to their volvocalean hosts and may have been recently transmitted from other non-arthropod organisms. Because rickettsias are the closest relatives of mitochondria, incipient stages of mitochondrial endosymbiosis may be deduced using both strains with

  8. Suppression of Cladding Mode Coupling by B/Ge Codoped Photosensitive Fiber With Photosensitive and Depressed Inner Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Excess loss on the short wavelength side of the Bragg resonant wavelength caused by cladding mode coupling limits wide use of grating in the fiber communication system, especially in densed wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system.A novel photosensitive fiber design that have depressed cladding and photosensitive inner cladding in the same fiber is proposed, which can suppress cladding mode coupling greatly.Using MCVD method B/Ge codoped fiber with depressed cladding was fabriceted out, which was also doped in boron and germanium and had the photosensitivity.Finally, the transmission spectrum of written grating in this fiber by phase mask method verified its larger photosensitivity and greatly suppression of cladding mode coupling.

  9. Manipulation of arthropod sex determination by endosymbionts : Diversity and molecular mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, W. -J.; Vavre, F.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Arthropods exhibit a large variety of sex determination systems both at the chromosomal and molecular level. Male heterogamety, female heterogamety, and haplodiploidy occur frequently, but partially different genes are involved. Endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium, Rickettsia, and Spiroplasm

  10. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae

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    Salathé Rahel M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m. Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host

  11. Experimental infection of plants with an herbivore-associated bacterial endosymbiont influences herbivore host selection behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seth Davis

    Full Text Available Although bacterial endosymbioses are common among phloeophagous herbivores, little is known regarding the effects of symbionts on herbivore host selection and population dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that plant selection and reproductive performance by a phloem-feeding herbivore (potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli is mediated by infection of plants with a bacterial endosymbiont. We controlled for the effects of herbivory and endosymbiont infection by exposing potato plants (Solanum tuberosum to psyllids infected with "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" or to uninfected psyllids. We used these treatments as a basis to experimentally test plant volatile emissions, herbivore settling and oviposition preferences, and herbivore population growth. Three important findings emerged: (1 plant volatile profiles differed with respect to both herbivory and herbivory plus endosymbiont infection when compared to undamaged control plants; (2 herbivores initially settled on plants exposed to endosymbiont-infected psyllids but later defected and oviposited primarily on plants exposed only to uninfected psyllids; and (3 plant infection status had little effect on herbivore reproduction, though plant flowering was associated with a 39% reduction in herbivore density on average. Our experiments support the hypothesis that plant infection with endosymbionts alters plant volatile profiles, and infected plants initially recruited herbivores but later repelled them. Also, our findings suggest that the endosymbiont may not place negative selection pressure on its host herbivore in this system, but plant flowering phenology appears correlated with psyllid population performance.

  12. 氮离子注入对蒙古黄芪多倍体诱导的影响%Effect of N + Implantation on the Inducement of Polyploid Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.var.mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利珍; 李前忠; 杨林源; 武成艳

    2011-01-01

    A new method of improving induction rate of polyploid through chemical induction combined with physical mutation were proposed by using the diploid Astragalus membranaceus ( Fisch. ) Bge. Var. Mongholicus (Bge. ) Hsiao seeds as the materials and N+ beam as the mutagenic agent. The results indicated that N + implantation showed significant biological effects. The effects of N + implantation combined with colchicine on inducing polyploidy of Astragalus were obvious, 44.4% doubling rate was obtained by being treated by the combination of N+ ion implantation dose 2.6 x 1016 N + /cm2 and colchicine concentration 100 mg · L-1 for 5 d. The best result of 46.2% was obtained by using the combination of N+ implantation dose 5.2 x 1016 N + /cm2 and colchicine concentration 100 mg · L-1 for 10 d. They were higher than the control group of maximum induction rate 13.9% of colchicine concentration 100 mg · L-l, treatment time 15 d. Cell chromosome identification results showed that the polyploid is tetraploid.%利用二倍体蒙古黄芪种子为材料,以低能氮离子束为诱变源,将化学诱导与物理诱变相结合,探索出一套高效的多倍体诱导新方法.研究结果表明:氮离子注入种子后表现出明显的生物学效应;氮离子注入与秋水仙素联合诱导黄芪多倍体的效果很明显.氮离子注入剂量为2.6×1016 N+/cm2,秋水仙素浓度为100 mg·L-1,培养5d诱导率最高为44.4%;氮离子注入剂量为5.2×1016 N+/cm2,秋水仙素浓度为150mg· L-1,培养10d的诱导率最高为46.2%;二者均高于对照组秋水仙素浓度为100mg·L-1培养15 d的最高诱导率13.9%.利用细胞染色体计数鉴定多倍体为四倍体.

  13. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods.

  14. Effects of Trace Metal Concentrations on the Growth of the Coral Endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Irene B; Lin, Senjie; Ho, Jiaxuan; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirements of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of Symbiodinium kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe > Cu/Zn/Mn > Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn, and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn, and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn, and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal inter replacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment. PMID:26903964

  15. Effects of trace metal concentrations on the growth of the coral endosymbiont Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Barra Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Symbiodinium is an indispensable endosymbiont in corals and the most important primary producer in coral reef ecosystems. During the past decades, coral bleaching attributed to the disruption of the symbiosis has frequently occurred resulting in reduction of coral reef coverage globally. Growth and proliferation of corals require some specific trace metals that are essential components of pertinent biochemical processes, such as in photosynthetic systems and electron transport chains. In addition, trace metals are vital in the survival of corals against oxidative stress because these metals serve as enzymatic cofactors in antioxidative defense mechanisms. The basic knowledge about trace metal requirement of Symbiodinium is lacking. Here we show that the requirement of S. kawagutii for antioxidant-associated trace metals exhibits the following order: Fe >> Cu/Zn/Mn >> Ni. In growth media with Cu, Zn, Mn and varying Fe concentrations, we observed that Cu, Zn and Mn cellular quotas were inversely related to Fe concentrations. In the absence of Cu, Zn and Mn, growth rates increased with increasing inorganic Fe concentrations up to 1250 pM, indicating the relatively high Fe requirement for Symbiodinium growth and potential functional complementarity of these metals. These results demonstrate the relative importance of trace metals to sustain Symbiodinium growth and a potential metal interreplacement strategy in Symbiodinium to ensure survival of coral reefs in an oligotrophic and stressful environment.

  16. Genetic variability of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its secondary endosymbionts in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ragab, Alaa I.

    2013-05-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex has been well documented as one of the most economically important emergent plant virus vectors, through serious feeding damage to its broad range of plant hosts and transmission of plant viruses to important agricultural crops. It has been shown to have associations with endosymbionts which have significant effects on the insect fitness. The purpose of this study was to provide information for the biotype and secondary endosymbiont distribution for B. tabaci populations in the relatively unstudied Arabian peninsula. The geographical localization and variation in endosymbiont populations across the region were identified using a sequence-driven analysis of the population genetics of the secondary endosymbiont. Live field specimens were collected from 22 different locations in the region and preserved in 70% ethanol for genetic studies. Previously established procedures were used to extract and purify total insect DNA from 24-30 individual whiteflies for each location (Frohlich et al., 1999; Chiel et al., 2007). Specimens were subjected to PCR amplification using the respective 16S rDNAprimers for the Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Wolbachia to amplify endosymbiont DNA. PCR was run with primers for the highly conserved whitefly mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for biotyping. Samples were sequenced using the Sanger method and the data analyzed to correlate the presence, prevalence and geographical distribution of endosymbionts in B. tabaci. Phylogenies 5 were constructed to track evolutionary differences amongst the endosymbionts and insects and how they have influenced the evolution of the regional populations. Samples were characterized by differences in the genomes and endosymbionts of common whitefly ‘biotypes’ that have different host plant preferences, vector capacities and insecticide resistance characteristics. It was found that the B biotype is the predominant haplotype, with no evidence of

  17. Inter-Population Variability of Endosymbiont Densities in the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Gill, Torrence A; Hoffmann, Mark; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S

    2016-05-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is an insect pest capable of transmitting Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening in North America. D. citri also harbors three endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, and Candidatus Profftella armatura, which may influence D. citri physiology and fitness. Although genomic researches on these bacteria have been conducted, much remains unclear regarding their ecology and inter-population variability in D. citri. The present work examined the densities of each endosymbiont in adult D. citri sampled from different populations using quantitative PCR. Under field conditions, the densities of all three endosymbionts positively correlated with each other, and they are associated with D. citri gender and locality. In addition, the infection density of CLas also varied across populations. Although an analysis pooling D. citri from different populations showed that CLas-infected individuals tended to have lower endosymbiont densities compared to uninfected individuals, the difference was not significant when the population was included as a factor in the analysis, suggesting that other population-specific factors may have stronger effects on endosymbiont densities. To determine whether there is a genetic basis to the density differences, endosymbiont densities between aged CLas-negative females of two D. citri populations reared under standardized laboratory conditions were compared. Results suggested that inter-population variability in Wolbachia infection density is associated with the genotypes of the endosymbiont or the host. Findings from this work could facilitate understanding of D. citri-bacterial associations that may benefit the development of approaches for managing citrus greening, such as prevention of CLas transmission. PMID:26846216

  18. Inter-Population Variability of Endosymbiont Densities in the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Gill, Torrence A; Hoffmann, Mark; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S

    2016-05-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) is an insect pest capable of transmitting Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening in North America. D. citri also harbors three endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, and Candidatus Profftella armatura, which may influence D. citri physiology and fitness. Although genomic researches on these bacteria have been conducted, much remains unclear regarding their ecology and inter-population variability in D. citri. The present work examined the densities of each endosymbiont in adult D. citri sampled from different populations using quantitative PCR. Under field conditions, the densities of all three endosymbionts positively correlated with each other, and they are associated with D. citri gender and locality. In addition, the infection density of CLas also varied across populations. Although an analysis pooling D. citri from different populations showed that CLas-infected individuals tended to have lower endosymbiont densities compared to uninfected individuals, the difference was not significant when the population was included as a factor in the analysis, suggesting that other population-specific factors may have stronger effects on endosymbiont densities. To determine whether there is a genetic basis to the density differences, endosymbiont densities between aged CLas-negative females of two D. citri populations reared under standardized laboratory conditions were compared. Results suggested that inter-population variability in Wolbachia infection density is associated with the genotypes of the endosymbiont or the host. Findings from this work could facilitate understanding of D. citri-bacterial associations that may benefit the development of approaches for managing citrus greening, such as prevention of CLas transmission.

  19. Isotropic octupolar second harmonic generation response in LaBGeO{sub 5} glass-ceramic with spherulitic precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, Lo Nhat; Fargin, Evelyne, E-mail: marc.dussauze@u-bordeaux.fr, E-mail: fargin@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr, E-mail: vincent.rodriguez@u-bordeaux.fr; Vigouroux, Hélène; Fargues, Alexandre [Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, CNRS UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Dussauze, Marc, E-mail: marc.dussauze@u-bordeaux.fr, E-mail: fargin@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr, E-mail: vincent.rodriguez@u-bordeaux.fr; Adamietz, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Vincent, E-mail: marc.dussauze@u-bordeaux.fr, E-mail: fargin@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr, E-mail: vincent.rodriguez@u-bordeaux.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, ISM, CNRS UMR 5255, F-33405 Talence (France); Santos, Luis [Centro de Química Estrutural and Departamento de Engenharia Química, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, no. 1, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-04-20

    A spherulitic crystallization of the crystalline phase LaBGeO{sub 5} is generated in the 25La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-25B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-50 GeO{sub 2} glass system. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of lanthanum borogermanate glass-ceramic have been investigated at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. Polarized μ-Raman analysis has evidenced a radial distribution of the crystallites along the c-axis inside spherulites, whereas polarized μ-Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) analysis revealed intensity maxima perpendicularly to the c-axis crystallites orientation. Polarized SHG mapping of a spherulite indicate that no dipolar response along the c-axis oriented crystallites occurs despite the individual dipolar symmetry C{sub 3} of the crystallites. At a larger mm scale, the isotropic scattering of spherulites recorded from macroscopic SHG experiment in the forward direction is consistent with an average coherent octupolar response per spherulite. These SHG analyses at different scale are both in accordance with radial antiferroelectric orientation along the c-axis of crystallites inside each spherulite.

  20. Origin and examination of a leafhopper facultative endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Patrick H; Bittleston, Leonora S; Hansen, Allison K; Sabree, Zakee L; Moran, Nancy A; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2011-05-01

    Eukaryotes engage in intimate interactions with microbes that range in age and type of association. Although many conspicuous examples of ancient insect associates are studied (e.g., Buchnera aphidicola), fewer examples of younger associations are known. Here, we further characterize a recently evolved bacterial endosymbiont of the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae), called BEV. We found that BEV, continuously maintained in E. variegatus hosts at UC Berkeley since 1984, is vertically transmitted with high fidelity. Unlike many vertically transmitted, ancient endosymbioses, the BEV-E. variegatus association is not obligate for either partner, and BEV can be cultivated axenically. Sufficient BEV colonies were grown and harvested to estimate its genome size and provide a partial survey of the genome sequence. The BEV chromosome is about 3.8 Mbp, and there is evidence for an extrachromosomal element roughly 53 kb in size (e.g., prophage or plasmid). We sequenced 438 kb of unique short-insert clones, representing about 12% of the BEV genome. Nearly half of the gene fragments were similar to mobile DNA, including 15 distinct types of insertion sequences (IS). Analyses revealed that BEV not only shares virulence genes with plant pathogens, but also is closely related to the plant pathogenic genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium, and Brenneria. However, the slightly reduced genome size, abundance of mobile DNA, fastidious growth in culture, and efficient vertical transmission suggest that symbiosis with E. variegatus has had a significant impact on genome evolution in BEV. PMID:21336565

  1. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas], found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families. Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained was supported by statistical tests of

  2. Serratia symbiotica from the aphid Cinara cedri: a missing link from facultative to obligate insect endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Lamelas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequencing of Buchnera aphidicola BCc from the aphid Cinara cedri, which is the smallest known Buchnera genome, revealed that this bacterium had lost its symbiotic role, as it was not able to synthesize tryptophan and riboflavin. Moreover, the biosynthesis of tryptophan is shared with the endosymbiont Serratia symbiotica SCc, which coexists with B. aphidicola in this aphid. The whole-genome sequencing of S. symbiotica SCc reveals an endosymbiont in a stage of genome reduction that is closer to an obligate endosymbiont, such as B. aphidicola from Acyrthosiphon pisum, than to another S. symbiotica, which is a facultative endosymbiont in this aphid, and presents much less gene decay. The comparison between both S. symbiotica enables us to propose an evolutionary scenario of the transition from facultative to obligate endosymbiont. Metabolic inferences of B. aphidicola BCc and S. symbiotica SCc reveal that most of the functions carried out by B. aphidicola in A. pisum are now either conserved in B. aphidicola BCc or taken over by S. symbiotica. In addition, there are several cases of metabolic complementation giving functional stability to the whole consortium and evolutionary preservation of the actors involved.

  3. Multiple endosymbiont infections and reproductive manipulations in a linyphiid spider population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, M M; Paliulis, L V; Welch, K D; Harwood, J D; White, J A

    2015-08-01

    In many arthropods, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria can increase infection frequency by manipulating host reproduction. Multiple infections of different bacteria in a single host population are common, yet few studies have documented concurrent endosymbiont phenotypes or explored their potential interactions. We hypothesized that spiders might be a particularly useful taxon for investigating endosymbiont interactions, because they are host to a plethora of endosymbiotic bacteria and frequently exhibit multiple infections. We established two matrilines from the same population of the linyphiid spider Mermessus fradeorum and then used antibiotic curing and controlled mating assays to demonstrate that each matriline was subject to a distinct endosymbiotic reproductive manipulation. One matriline was co-infected with Rickettsia and Wolbachia and produced offspring with a radical female bias. Antibiotic treatment eliminated both endosymbionts and restored an even sex ratio to subsequent generations. Chromosomal and fecundity observations suggest a feminization mechanism. In the other matriline, a separate factorial mating assay of cured and infected spiders demonstrated strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by a different strain of Wolbachia. However, males with this Wolbachia induced only mild CI when mated with the Rickettsia-Wolbachia females. In a subsequent survey of a field population of M. fradeorum, we detected these same three endosymbionts infecting 55% of the spiders in almost all possible combinations, with nearly half of the infected spiders exhibiting multiple infection. Our results suggest that a dynamic network of endosymbionts may interact both within multiply infected hosts and within a population subject to multiple strong reproductive manipulations. PMID:25899011

  4. 砷胁迫对药用植物黄芪中抗氧化酶活性的影响%Effects of Arsenic Stress on the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Medicinal Plant Astragalus membranaceus ( Fisch. ) Bge. var.mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志艳; 王建英; 徐彩荣

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨砷胁迫对药用植物黄芪中抗氧化酶活性的影响,以期为揭示砷毒害植物机理提供理论依据.[方法]以内蒙药用植物黄芪为材料,分别采用高锰酸钾滴定法、愈创木酚法、邻苯三酚自氧化法以及硫代巴比妥酸法研究不同浓度砷胁迫下对药用植物黄芪中过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性影响以和丙二醛(MDA)的浓度变化.[结果]随着砷浓度升高,黄芪叶片中这3种酶的活性能够维持,特别是POD活性显著增加.从时间动态看,随处理时间的延长,黄芪叶片中的CAT活性先升高再降低,POD活性增加,SOD活性变化不显著;MDA含量先升后降,第8天达到最大值.[结论]该研究可为中药材重金属含量控制和药理活性鉴定提供理论依据.%[ Objective ] To discuss the effects of arsenic stress on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, so as to provide a theoretical basis for revealing the arsenic toxicity mechanism on plants.[ Method] Using Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao as tested materials, potassium permanganate titration,guaiacol method, pyrogallol autooxidation methods and thiobarbituric acid method were adopted to study effects of arsenic stress on catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. [Results] With the increase in concentration of arsenic, the activities of CAT, PCD and SOD in Astragalus membranaceus ( Fisch. ) Bge. var. mongholicus ( Bge. ) Hsiao could be maintained, especially POD. From the view point of dynamic time, CAT activity increased firstly then declined, POD activity increased and SOD activity changed little along with the increasing treatment time. Besides, MDA content increased firstly and then decreased, and reached the maximum on the 8th day. [ Conclusions] The

  5. The nutrient supplying capabilities of Uzinura, an endosymbiont of armoured scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabree, Zakee L; Huang, Charlie Y; Okusu, Akiko; Moran, Nancy A; Normark, Benjamin B

    2013-07-01

    An emerging common physiological feature of plant sap-feeding insects is the presence of bacterial endosymbionts capable of providing essential nutrients to their host. These microbial partners are inviable outside of specialized host tissues, and therefore a cultivation-independent approach, namely high-throughput next-generation genome sequencing, can be used to characterize their gene content and metabolic potential. To this end, we sequenced the first complete genome of the obligate endosymbiont, Candidatus 'Uzinura diaspidicola', of armoured scale insects. At 263 431 bp, Uzinura has an extremely reduced genome that is composed largely of genes encoding enzymes involved in translation and amino acid biosynthesis. The tiny size of the Uzinura genome parallels that observed in some other insect endosymbionts. Despite this extreme genome reduction, the absence of a known obligate partner bacterial symbiont suggests that Uzinura alone can supply sufficient nutrients to its host.

  6. Algal endosymbionts as vectors of horizontal gene transfer in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eQiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis in eukaryotes occurs in the plastid, an organelle that is derived from a single cyanobacterial primary endosymbiosis in the common ancestor of the supergroup Plantae (or Archaeplastida that includes green, red, and glaucophyte algae and plants. However a variety of other phytoplankton such as the chlorophyll c-containing diatoms, dinoflagellates, and haptophytes contain a red alga-derived plastid that traces its origin to secondary or tertiary (eukaryote engulfs eukaryote endosymbiosis. The hypothesis of Plantae monophyly has only recently been substantiated, however the extent and role of endosymbiotic and horizontal gene transfer (EGT and HGT in algal genome evolution still remain to be fully understood. What is becoming clear from analysis of complete genome data is that algal gene complements can no longer be considered essentially eukaryotic in provenance; i.e., with the expected addition of several hundred cyanobacterial genes derived from EGT and a similar number derived from the mitochondrial ancestor. For example, we now know that foreign cells such as Chlamydiae and other prokaryotes have made significant contributions to plastid functions in Plantae. Perhaps more surprising is the recent finding of extensive bacterium-derived HGT in the nuclear genome of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium purpureum that does not relate to plastid functions. These non-endosymbiont gene transfers not only shaped the evolutionary history of Plantae but also were propagated via secondary endosymbiosis to a multitude of other phytoplankton. Here we discuss the idea that Plantae (in particular red algae are one of the major players in eukaryote genome evolution by virtue of their ability to act as sinks and sources of foreign genes through HGT and endosymbiosis, respectively. This hypothesis recognizes the often under-appreciated Rhodophyta as major sources of genetic novelty among photosynthetic eukaryotes.

  7. Diversifying selection and host adaptation in two endosymbiont genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slatko Barton

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis infects a broad range of arthropod and filarial nematode hosts. These diverse associations form an attractive model for understanding host:symbiont coevolution. Wolbachia's ubiquity and ability to dramatically alter host reproductive biology also form the foundation of research strategies aimed at controlling insect pests and vector-borne disease. The Wolbachia strains that infect nematodes are phylogenetically distinct, strictly vertically transmitted, and required by their hosts for growth and reproduction. Insects in contrast form more fluid associations with Wolbachia. In these taxa, host populations are most often polymorphic for infection, horizontal transmission occurs between distantly related hosts, and direct fitness effects on hosts are mild. Despite extensive interest in the Wolbachia system for many years, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that mediate its varied interactions with different hosts. We have compared the genomes of the Wolbachia that infect Drosophila melanogaster, wMel and the nematode Brugia malayi, wBm to that of an outgroup Anaplasma marginale to identify genes that have experienced diversifying selection in the Wolbachia lineages. The goal of the study was to identify likely molecular mechanisms of the symbiosis and to understand the nature of the diverse association across different hosts. Results The prevalence of selection was far greater in wMel than wBm. Genes contributing to DNA metabolism, cofactor biosynthesis, and secretion were positively selected in both lineages. In wMel there was a greater emphasis on DNA repair, cell division, protein stability, and cell envelope synthesis. Conclusion Secretion pathways and outer surface protein encoding genes are highly affected by selection in keeping with host:parasite theory. If evidence of selection on various cofactor molecules reflects possible provisioning, then both insect as

  8. Novel oligonucleotide probes for in situ detection of pederin-producing endosymbionts of Paederus riparius rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kador, Matthias; Horn, Marcus A; Dettner, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts from female Paederus rove beetles are hitherto uncultured, phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas sp., and produce the polyketide pederin, which exhibits strong cytotoxic effects and antitumoral activities. The location of such endosymbionts inside beetles and on beetles' eggs is hypothesized based on indirect evidence rather than elucidated. Thus, an endosymbiont-specific and a competitor oligonucleotide probe (Cy3-labelled PAE444 and unlabelled cPAE444, respectively) were designed and utilized for FISH with semi-thin sections of Paederus riparius eggs. Cy3-PAE444-positive cells were densely packed and covered the whole eggshell. Hundred percent of EUB338-Mix-positive total bacterial cells were PAE444 positive, indicating a biofilm dominated by Paederus endosymbionts. Analysis of different egg deposition stadiums by electron microscopy and pks (polyketide synthase gene, a structural gene associated with pederin biosynthesis)-PCR supported results obtained by FISH and revealed that the endosymbiont-containing layer is applied to the eggshell inside the efferent duct. These findings suggest that P. riparius endosymbionts are located inside unknown structures of the female genitalia, which allow for a well-regulated release of endosymbionts during oviposition. The novel oligonucleotide probes developed in this study will facilitate (1) the identification of symbiont-containing structures within genitalia of their beetle hosts and (2) directed cultivation approaches in the future.

  9. Population dynamics and growth rates of endosymbionts during Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Liviidae) ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Fabio Cleisto Alda; da Silva, Edney Pereira; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis

    2014-11-01

    The infection density of symbionts is among the major parameters to understand their biological effects in host-endosymbionts interactions. Diaphorina citri harbors two bacteriome-associated bacterial endosymbionts (Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Candidatus Profftella armatura), besides the intracellular reproductive parasite Wolbachia. In this study, the density dynamics of the three endosymbionts associated with the psyllid D. citri was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) at different developmental stages. Bacterial density was estimated by assessing the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene for Carsonella and Profftella, and of the ftsZ gene for Wolbachia. Analysis revealed a continuous growth of the symbionts during host development. Symbiont growth and rate curves were estimated by the Gompertz equation, which indicated a negative correlation between the degree of symbiont-host specialization and the time to achieve the maximum growth rate (t*). Carsonella densities were significantly lower than those of Profftella at all host developmental stages analyzed, even though they both displayed a similar trend. The growth rates of Wolbachia were similar to those of Carsonella, but Wolbachia was not as abundant. Adult males displayed higher symbiont densities than females. However, females showed a much more pronounced increase in symbiont density as they aged if compared to males, regardless of the incorporation of symbionts into female oocytes and egg laying. The increased density of endosymbionts in aged adults differs from the usual decrease observed during host aging in other insect-symbiont systems. PMID:25037159

  10. Population dynamics and growth rates of endosymbionts during Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Liviidae) ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Fabio Cleisto Alda; da Silva, Edney Pereira; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis

    2014-11-01

    The infection density of symbionts is among the major parameters to understand their biological effects in host-endosymbionts interactions. Diaphorina citri harbors two bacteriome-associated bacterial endosymbionts (Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Candidatus Profftella armatura), besides the intracellular reproductive parasite Wolbachia. In this study, the density dynamics of the three endosymbionts associated with the psyllid D. citri was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) at different developmental stages. Bacterial density was estimated by assessing the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene for Carsonella and Profftella, and of the ftsZ gene for Wolbachia. Analysis revealed a continuous growth of the symbionts during host development. Symbiont growth and rate curves were estimated by the Gompertz equation, which indicated a negative correlation between the degree of symbiont-host specialization and the time to achieve the maximum growth rate (t*). Carsonella densities were significantly lower than those of Profftella at all host developmental stages analyzed, even though they both displayed a similar trend. The growth rates of Wolbachia were similar to those of Carsonella, but Wolbachia was not as abundant. Adult males displayed higher symbiont densities than females. However, females showed a much more pronounced increase in symbiont density as they aged if compared to males, regardless of the incorporation of symbionts into female oocytes and egg laying. The increased density of endosymbionts in aged adults differs from the usual decrease observed during host aging in other insect-symbiont systems.

  11. Immune response of the ant Camponotus floridanus against pathogens and its obligate mutualistic endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzka, Carolin; Liang, Chunguang; Dandekar, Thomas; Gross, Roy; Feldhaar, Heike

    2011-08-01

    Numerous insect species harbor mutualistic endosymbionts that play a role in nutrient cycling or confer other fitness benefits to their hosts. Insect hosts face the problem of having to maintain such mutualistic bacteria while staging an immune response towards pathogens upon infection. In addition, hosts may regulate the number of endosymbionts present in their tissues via the innate immune system. Camponotus floridanus ants harbor the obligate endosymbiont Blochmannia floridanus in specialized midgut cells and ovaries. We identified genes transcriptionally induced in response to septic injury by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Among these were genes involved in pathogen recognition (e.g. GNBP), signal transduction (e.g. MAPK-kinase), antimicrobial activity (e.g. defensin and hymenoptaecin), or general stress response (e.g. heat shock protein). A quantitative analysis of immune-gene expression revealed different expression kinetics of individual factors and also characteristic expression profiles after injection of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Likewise, B. floridanus injected into the hemocoel elicited a comparable immune response of its host C. floridanus. Thus, the host immune system may contribute to controlling the endosymbiont population. PMID:21440063

  12. Gene expression analysis of the endosymbiont-bearing midgut tissue during ontogeny of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzka, Carolin; Gross, Roy; Feldhaar, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Insects have frequently evolved mutualistic relationships with extracellular and/or intracellular bacterial endosymbionts. Infection with endosymbionts seems to affect several cellular functions of the host such as immune pathways, oxidative stress regulation and autophagy. Our current knowledge about specific host factors leading to endosymbiont tolerance and/or control is still scarce and is based on very few associations between insect hosts and bacteria only. Camponotus floridanus ants harbour the obligate intracellular bacterium Blochmannia floridanus within specialized midgut cells called bacteriocytes. The number of Blochmannia endosymbionts within the midgut tissue increases strongly during host development and reaches a maximum at the late pupal stage, where the entire midgut is transformed into a symbiotic organ. After eclosion of workers the number of Blochmannia strongly decreases again. We chose 15 candidate genes from C. floridanus likely to be involved in host-symbiont interactions based on their significant homology to previously investigated symbiosis-relevant genes from other insects. We determined the expression of these genes in the endosymbiont-bearing midgut tissue in comparison to the residual body tissue at different developmental stages of C. floridanus in order to reveal changes in gene expression correlating with changes in endosymbiont number per host. Strikingly, two pattern recognition receptors (amidase PGRP-LB and PGRP-SC2) were highly expressed in the midgut tissue at the pupal stage, potentially down-modulating the IMD pathway to enable endosymbiont tolerance. Moreover, we investigated the immune gene expression in response to bacterial challenge at the pupal stage. Results showed that the midgut tissue differs in expression pattern in contrast to the residual body. Our results support a key role for amidase PGRPs, especially PGRP-LB, in regulation of the immune response towards endosymbionts in C. floridanus and suggest an

  13. Gene expression analysis of the endosymbiont-bearing midgut tissue during ontogeny of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzka, Carolin; Gross, Roy; Feldhaar, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Insects have frequently evolved mutualistic relationships with extracellular and/or intracellular bacterial endosymbionts. Infection with endosymbionts seems to affect several cellular functions of the host such as immune pathways, oxidative stress regulation and autophagy. Our current knowledge about specific host factors leading to endosymbiont tolerance and/or control is still scarce and is based on very few associations between insect hosts and bacteria only. Camponotus floridanus ants harbour the obligate intracellular bacterium Blochmannia floridanus within specialized midgut cells called bacteriocytes. The number of Blochmannia endosymbionts within the midgut tissue increases strongly during host development and reaches a maximum at the late pupal stage, where the entire midgut is transformed into a symbiotic organ. After eclosion of workers the number of Blochmannia strongly decreases again. We chose 15 candidate genes from C. floridanus likely to be involved in host-symbiont interactions based on their significant homology to previously investigated symbiosis-relevant genes from other insects. We determined the expression of these genes in the endosymbiont-bearing midgut tissue in comparison to the residual body tissue at different developmental stages of C. floridanus in order to reveal changes in gene expression correlating with changes in endosymbiont number per host. Strikingly, two pattern recognition receptors (amidase PGRP-LB and PGRP-SC2) were highly expressed in the midgut tissue at the pupal stage, potentially down-modulating the IMD pathway to enable endosymbiont tolerance. Moreover, we investigated the immune gene expression in response to bacterial challenge at the pupal stage. Results showed that the midgut tissue differs in expression pattern in contrast to the residual body. Our results support a key role for amidase PGRPs, especially PGRP-LB, in regulation of the immune response towards endosymbionts in C. floridanus and suggest an

  14. 新疆杨生物量空间分布特征研究%Characteristics of Spatial Distribution of the Biomass of Populus alba var pyramidalis Bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莎莎; 张毓涛; 李吉玫; 芦建江; 李翔; 王千军; 王晓康

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为准确评估新疆杨碳储量提供科学依据.[方法]在阿克苏扎木台试验林场选取新疆主要造林树种新疆杨人工林为研究对象,采用样地实测法,在幼龄、中龄、成熟3个龄级样地内选取6株新疆杨标准木进行树干解析,并分析不同土壤深度中各径级根系生物量与林龄的关系.[结果]新疆杨人工林林分平均生物量为106.6t/hm2,地上部分占84.8%,地下部分占15.2%,随着林龄的增加,树干、地上生物量及林分总生物量均显著增加,地上生物量分配比例基本保持树干>树枝>树皮>树叶这一规律,其中树干生物量占据地上生物量的主导地位(占55.2%);地下根系主要集中分布在0~40cm土层,其生物量约占根系总生物量的80%以上.[结论]新疆杨林分生物量与林龄密切相关,随着林龄的增大,林分生物量也增大.%[Objective] In order to supply scientific base for accurately assessing carbon storage of artificial Populus alba vat pyramidalis Bge. [Method] In Zamutai experimental forest of Aksu city, artificial Populus alba var pyramidalis Bge forest was selected as study object in this paper. Two standard trees were chosen respectively from typical young, middle and mature forests to study the relationship between forest age and root - biomass with individual diameter root class in different soil layers. [ Result] The results showed that the average biomass of artificial Populus alba var pyramidalis Bge forest was 106. 6 t/hm2. Among them, aboveground biomass and underground biomass occupied about 84. 8% and 15. 2% , respectively. Total biomass, aboveground biomass and stem biomass all dramatically increased with increasing of forest ages. The distribution ratio of aboveground biomass among individual organs of artificial Populus alba var pyramidalis Bge was: stem > branch > bark > leaf. And the stem biomass occupy the leading position of biomass ( about 55.2% ). Root biomass are

  15. Determination of Tanshinone ⅡA in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. in different harvest time%不同采收期丹参中丹参酮ⅡA的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵群; 赵成

    2009-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the content of Tanshinone ⅡA in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.in different harvest time. Methods The content of Tanshinone ⅡA in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge .was determined and analysed in different harvest time. Result:There is significant difference among the contents of Tanshinone ⅡA in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge .in different harvest time. Conclusion Harvest time is the crucial factor for quality of processing and producing Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.%目的:考察不同采收期丹参中丹参酮ⅡA的含量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),对不同采收期丹参中丹参酮ⅡA含量进行测定、分析.结果:发现不同采收期丹参在丹参酮ⅡA含量方面有显著差异.结论:在丹参的加工生产中应注意不同的采收季节对其质量的影响.

  16. Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Surya [Cornell University

    2012-06-01

    Surya Saha on "Endosymbiont hunting in the metagenome of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  17. Survey of Endosymbionts in the Diaphorina citri Metagenome and Assembly of a Wolbachia wDi Draft Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Surya Saha; Hunter, Wayne B.; Justin Reese; J Kent Morgan; Mizuri Marutani-Hert; Hong Huang; Magdalen Lindeberg

    2012-01-01

    Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. Sequencing of the D. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. To corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rDNA amplification, raw reads from the D. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference ge...

  18. Presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) from different geographical regions in India

    OpenAIRE

    Hoti SL; Sridhar A.; PK Das

    2003-01-01

    In view of the recent discovery of rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia in lymphatic filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and subsequently of their vital role in the survival and development of the latter, antibiotics such as tetracycline are being suggested for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, by way of eliminating the endosymbiont. But, it is essential to assess their presence in parasites from areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis before such a new control tool...

  19. Widespread occurrence of two carbon fixation pathways in tubeworm endosymbionts: lessons from hydrothermal vent associated tubeworms from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eThiel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vestimentiferan tubeworms (siboglinid polychaetes of the genus Lamellibrachia are common members of cold-seep faunal communities and have also been found at sedimented hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific. As they lack a digestive system, they are nourished by chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts growing in a specialized tissue called the trophosome. Here we present the results of investigations of tubeworms and endosymbionts from a shallow hydrothermal vent field in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tubeworms, which are the first reported vent-associated tubeworms outside the Pacific, are identified as Lamellibrachia anaximandri using mitochondrial ribosomal and cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences. They harbor a single gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. Carbon isotopic data, as well as the analysis of genes involved in carbon and sulfur metabolism indicate a sulfide-oxidizing chemoautotrophic endosymbiont. The detection of a hydrogenase gene fragment suggests the potential for hydrogen oxidation as alternative energy source. Surprisingly, the endosymbiont harbors genes for two different carbon fixation pathways, the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle as well as the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA cycle, as has been reported for the endosymbiont of the giant vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila. In addition to RubisCO genes we detected ATP citrate lyase (ACL, the key enzyme of the rTCA cycle type II gene sequences using newly designed primer sets. Comparative investigations with additional tubeworm species (Lamellibrachia luymesi, Lamellibrachia sp. 1, Lamellibrachia sp. 2, Escarpia laminata, Seepiophila jonesi from multiple cold seep sites in the Gulf of Mexico revealed the presence of acl genes in these species as well. Thus, our study suggests that the presence of two different carbon fixation pathways, the CBB cycle and the rTCA cycle, is not restricted to the Riftia endosymbiont, but rather might be common in vestimentiferan tubeworm

  20. Blochmannia endosymbionts improve colony growth and immune defence in the ant Camponotus fellah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depoix Delphine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms are a large and diverse form of life. Many of them live in association with large multicellular organisms, developing symbiotic relations with the host and some have even evolved to form obligate endosymbiosis 1. All Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus studied hitherto harbour primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the Blochmannia genus. The role of these bacteria in ant nutrition has been demonstrated 2 but the omnivorous diet of these ants lead us to hypothesize that the bacteria might provide additional advantages to their host. In this study, we establish links between Blochmannia, growth of starting new colonies and the host immune response. Results We manipulated the number of bacterial endosymbionts in incipient laboratory-reared colonies of Camponotus fellah by administrating doses of an antibiotic (Rifampin mixed in honey-solution. Efficiency of the treatment was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, using Blochmannia specific primers (qPCR and two fluorescent probes (one for all Eubacterial and other specific for Blochmannia. Very few or no bacteria could be detected in treated ants. Incipient Rifampin treated colonies had significantly lower numbers of brood and adult workers than control colonies. The immune response of ants from control and treated colonies was estimated by inserting nylon filaments in the gaster and removing it after 24 h. In the control colonies, the encapsulation response was positively correlated to the bacterial amount, while no correlation was observed in treated colonies. Indeed, antibiotic treatment increased the encapsulation response of the workers, probably due to stress conditions. Conclusion The increased growth rate observed in non-treated colonies confirms the importance of Blochmannia in this phase of colony development. This would provide an important selective advantage during colony founding, where the colonies

  1. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods. PMID:27291078

  2. Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Julie M; Burleigh, J Gordon; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees can reveal the origins of endosymbiotic lineages of bacteria and detect patterns of co-evolution with their hosts. Although taxon sampling can greatly affect phylogenetic and co-evolutionary inference, most hypotheses of endosymbiont relationships are based on few available bacterial sequences. Here we examined how different sampling strategies of Gammaproteobacteria sequences affect estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in parasitic sucking lice (Insecta: Phthirapatera: Anoplura). We estimated the number of louse endosymbiont lineages using both newly obtained and previously sequenced 16S rDNA bacterial sequences and more than 42,000 16S rDNA sequences from other Gammaproteobacteria. We also performed parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping experiments to examine the effects of phylogenetic error and uncertainty on these estimates. Sampling of 16S rDNA sequences affects the estimates of endosymbiont diversity in sucking lice until we reach a threshold of genetic diversity, the size of which depends on the sampling strategy. Sampling by maximizing the diversity of 16S rDNA sequences is more efficient than randomly sampling available 16S rDNA sequences. Although simulation results validate estimates of multiple endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice, the bootstrap results suggest that the precise number of endosymbiont origins is still uncertain. PMID:27547523

  3. The olive fly endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," switches from an intracellular existence to an extracellular existence during host insect development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Bronstein, Judith L; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of "Ca. Erwinia dacicola," the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment).

  4. The Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi has an active pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raverdy, Sylvine; Foster, Jeremy M; Roopenian, Erica; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2008-08-01

    Genome analysis of the glycolytic/gluconeogenic pathway in the Wolbachia endosymbiont from the filarial parasite Brugia malayi (wBm) has revealed that wBm lacks pyruvate kinase (PK) and may instead utilize the enzyme pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK; ATP:pyruvate, orthophosphate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.9.1). PPDK catalyses the reversible conversion of AMP, PPi and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into ATP, Pi and pyruvate. The glycolytic pathway of most organisms, including mammals, contains exclusively PK for the production of pyruvate from PEP. Therefore, the absence of PPDK in mammals makes the enzyme an attractive Wolbachia drug target. In the present study, we have cloned and expressed an active wBm-PPDK, thereby providing insight into the energy metabolism of the endosymbiont. Our results support the development of wBm-PPDK as a promising new drug target in an anti-symbiotic approach to controlling filarial infection.

  5. Vibrio Zinc-Metalloprotease Causes Photoinactivation of Coral Endosymbionts and Coral Tissue Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Meir Sussman; Mieog, Jos C.; Jason Doyle; Steven Victor; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coral diseases are emerging as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide. Of nine coral infectious diseases, whose pathogens have been characterized, six are caused by agents from the family Vibrionacae, raising questions as to their origin and role in coral disease aetiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on a Vibrio zinc-metalloprotease causing rapid photoinactivation of susceptible Symbiodinium endosymbionts followed by lesions in coral tissue. Symbiodinium pho...

  6. Closely coupled evolutionary history of ecto- and endosymbionts from two distantly related animal phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; Wentrup, Cecilia; Sadowski, Miriam; Blazejak, Anna; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R; Kleiner, Manuel; Ott, Jörg A; Cronholm, Bodil; De Wit, Pierre; Erséus, Christer; Dubilier, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    The level of integration between associated partners can range from ectosymbioses to extracellular and intracellular endosymbioses, and this range has been assumed to reflect a continuum from less intimate to evolutionarily highly stable associations. In this study, we examined the specificity and evolutionary history of marine symbioses in a group of closely related sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, called Candidatus Thiosymbion, that have established ecto- and endosymbioses with two distantly related animal phyla, Nematoda and Annelida. Intriguingly, in the ectosymbiotic associations of stilbonematine nematodes, we observed a high degree of congruence between symbiont and host phylogenies, based on their ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. In contrast, for the endosymbioses of gutless phallodriline annelids (oligochaetes), we found only a weak congruence between symbiont and host phylogenies, based on analyses of symbiont 16S rRNA genes and six host genetic markers. The much higher degree of congruence between nematodes and their ectosymbionts compared to those of annelids and their endosymbionts was confirmed by cophylogenetic analyses. These revealed 15 significant codivergence events between stilbonematine nematodes and their ectosymbionts, but only one event between gutless phallodrilines and their endosymbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 50 Cand. Thiosymbion species revealed seven well-supported clades that contained both stilbonematine ectosymbionts and phallodriline endosymbionts. This closely coupled evolutionary history of marine ecto- and endosymbionts suggests that switches between symbiotic lifestyles and between the two host phyla occurred multiple times during the evolution of the Cand. Thiosymbion clade, and highlights the remarkable flexibility of these symbiotic bacteria. PMID:26826340

  7. Simultaneous determination of six active metabolites in Astragalus mongholicus (Fisch.) Bge. under salt stress by ultra-pressure liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yu; Abozeid, Ann; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao (A. mongholicus, family Leguminosae) is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbs because it contains lots of bioactive metabolites, which have beneficial and pharmacological effects on health. Simultaneously, it has been proved to be a salt-tolerant plant-one of the potential species to control the soil salinization. Therefore, a sensitive and specific ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six main bioactive metabolites, astragaloside IV, cycloastragenol, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, calycosin, ononin and formononetin in different organs of A. mongholicus. The detection was accomplished by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning via electrospray ionization source operating in the positive ionization mode. Calibration curves offered linear ranges of two orders of magnitude with R(2) > 0.99. The method was fully validated for the linearity, intra-day and inter day precisions, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. Then this method was successfully applied to detect the content of major bioactive metabolites in different plant organs of A. mongholicus under salt stress. Significant variations in the content of six bioactive metabolites were observed after been processed by different levels of salinity in different part of plant. The results support for further exploration of the salt-tolerant mechanisms in A. mongholicus and its possibility as the species that control the soil salinization. Meanwhile, we established a UPLC-MS/MS assay of the trace components in seedling of A. mongholicus in this study. PMID:27386371

  8. Insect Sex Determination Manipulated by Their Endosymbionts: Incidences, Mechanisms and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Watanabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sex-determining systems of arthropods are surprisingly diverse. Some species have male or female heterogametic sex chromosomes while other species do not have sex chromosomes. Most species are diploids but some species, including wasps, ants, thrips and mites, are haplodiploids (n in males; 2n in females. Many of the sexual aberrations, such as sexual mosaics, sex-specific lethality and conversion of sexuality, can be explained by developmental defects including double fertilization of a binucleate egg, loss of a sex chromosome or perturbation of sex-determining gene expression, which occur accidentally or are induced by certain environmental conditions. However, recent studies have revealed that such sexual aberrations can be caused by various groups of vertically-transmitted endosymbiotic microbes such as bacteria of the genera Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Spiroplasma and Cardinium, as well as microsporidian protists. In this review, we first summarize the accumulated data on endosymbiont-induced sexual aberrations, and then discuss how such endosymbionts affect the developmental system of their hosts and what kinds of ecological and evolutionary effects these endosymbionts have on their host populations.

  9. A screen of maternally inherited microbial endosymbionts in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecka, Edyta; Olszanowski, Ziemowit

    2015-08-01

    We determined the distribution of microbial endosymbionts as possible agents of parthenogenesis in Oribatida. We screened mites from 20 species of 14 families suspected to be parthenogenetic from the absence or rarity of males. Our research included parthenogenesis-inducing bacteria Wolbachia spp., Cardinium spp., Rickettsia spp., and additionally Arsenophonus, Spiroplasma and microsporidia that can also manipulate host reproduction. We detected the endosymbionts by PCR-based methods and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of fixed and stained preparations of host cells. We detected Wolbachia only in one Oribatida species, Oppiella nova, by identifying Wolbachia genes using PCR. TEM observations confirmed infection by the endosymbiont in O. nova and its lack in other Oribatida species. Sequence analysis of hcpA and fbpA genes showed that the Wolbachia strain from O. nova was different from strains characterized in some insects, crustaceans (Isopoda), mites (Tetranychidae), springtails (Hexapoda) and roundworms (Nematoda). The analysis strongly suggested that the Wolbachia sp. strain found in O. nova did not belong to supergroups A, B, C, D, E, F, H or M. We found that the sequences of Wolbachia from O. nova were clearly distantly related to sequences from the bacteria of the other supergroups. This observation makes O. nova a unique Wolbachia host in terms of the distinction of the strain. The role of these micro-organisms in O. nova remains unknown and is an issue to investigate. PMID:25991706

  10. Nature lessons: The whitefly bacterial endosymbiont is a minimal amino acid factory with unusual energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Espinosa, Jorge; Ponce-de-Leon, Miguel; Santos-Garcia, Diego; Silva, Francisco J; Montero, Francisco; Peretó, Juli

    2016-10-21

    Reductive genome evolution is a universal phenomenon observed in endosymbiotic bacteria in insects. As the genome reduces its size and irreversibly losses coding genes, the functionalities of the cell system, including the energetics processes, are more restricted. Several energetic pathways can also be lost. How do these reduced metabolic networks sustain the energy needs of the system? Among the bacteria with reduced genomes Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, obligate endosymbiont of whiteflies, represents an extreme case since lacks several key mechanisms for ATP generation. Thus, to analyze the cell energetics in this system, a genome-scale metabolic model of this endosymbiont was constructed, and its energy production capabilities dissected using stoichiometric analysis. Our results suggest that energy generation is coupled to the synthesis of essential amino acids and carotenoids, crucial metabolites in the symbiotic association. A deeper insight showed that ATP production via carotenoid synthesis is also connected with amino acid production. This unusual association of energy production with anabolism suggests that, although minimized, endosymbiont metabolic networks maintain a remarkable biosynthetic potential. PMID:27473768

  11. The bacterium endosymbiont of Crithidia deanei undergoes coordinated division with the host cell nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Machado Motta

    Full Text Available In trypanosomatids, cell division involves morphological changes and requires coordinated replication and segregation of the nucleus, kinetoplast and flagellum. In endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids, like Crithidia deanei, this process is more complex, as each daughter cell contains only a single symbiotic bacterium, indicating that the prokaryote must replicate synchronically with the host protozoan. In this study, we used light and electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction approaches to observe the endosymbiont shape and division during C. deanei cell cycle. We found that the bacterium replicates before the basal body and kinetoplast segregations and that the nucleus is the last organelle to divide, before cytokinesis. In addition, the endosymbiont is usually found close to the host cell nucleus, presenting different shapes during the protozoan cell cycle. Considering that the endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids is a mutualistic relationship, which resembles organelle acquisition during evolution, these findings establish an excellent model for the understanding of mechanisms related with the establishment of organelles in eukaryotic cells.

  12. Assessment of bacterial endosymbiont diversity in Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae larvae using a multitag 454 pyrosequencing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus are regarded as devastating pests in a wide variety of horticultural crops worldwide. So far, little is known on the presence of endosymbionts in Otiorhynchus spp.. Investigation of endosymbiosis in this genus may help to understand the evolution of different reproductive strategies in these weevils (parthenogenesis or sexual reproduction, host-symbiont interactions, and may provide a future basis for novel pest management strategy development. Here, we used a multitag 454 pyrosequencing approach to assess the bacterial endosymbiont diversity in larvae of four economically important Otiorhynchus species. Results High-throughput tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing of a bacterial 16S rDNA fragment was used to characterise bacterial communities associated with different Otiorhynchus spp. larvae. By sequencing a total of ~48,000 PCR amplicons, we identified 49 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs as bacterial endosymbionts in the four studied Otiorhynchus species. More than 90% of all sequence reads belonged either to the genus Rickettsia or showed homology to the phylogenetic group of “Candidatus Blochmannia” and to endosymbionts of the lice Pedicinus obtusus and P. badii. By using specific primers for the genera Rickettsia and “Candidatus Blochmannia”, we identified a new phylogenetic clade of Rickettsia as well as “Candidatus Nardonella” endosymbionts in Otiorhynchus spp. which are closely related to “Candidatus Blochmannia” bacteria. Conclusions Here, we used multitag 454 pyrosequencing for assessment of insect endosymbiotic communities in weevils. As 454 pyrosequencing generates only quite short sequences, results of such studies can be regarded as a first step towards identifying respective endosymbiotic species in insects. In the second step of our study, we analysed sequences of specific gene regions for a more detailed phylogeny of selected endosymbiont genera

  13. 蒙药金莲花药理作用研究%Pharmacology Action Study on Mongolia Drug Trollius Chinensis Bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏昕; 常亮; 赵阳; 白音夫

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察金莲花总黄酮镇痛、解热、抗炎作用的效果.方法 实验动物采用热板法与醋酸扭体法、家兔与大鼠致热法、耳廓渗出与棉球肉芽法测定金莲花总黄酮的镇痛、解热、抗炎效果.结果 金莲花0.8,0.4,0.2 g/kg剂量组,在给药90 min,小鼠疼痛阈值提高47.6%,39.9%,14.2%,扭体抑制率为31.6%,28.5%,12.1%;对家兔解热作用可持续5h,对大鼠解热作用可持续4h,解热作用2h后最明显;对小鼠耳壳炎性渗出抑制率为22.6%,29.7%,14.4%,对大鼠棉球肉芽肿抑制率为43.9%,24.6%,5.3%.结论 金莲花总黄酮具有镇痛、解热、抗炎作用,作用强度呈量效关系.%Objective To observe the analgesic, antipyretic and anti - inflammatory effects of total flavone in Trollius Chinensis Bge. . Methods The experimental animals were performed the hot plate,acetic acid writhing,rabbit and rat induced fever,earlap exudation and cottonball granuloma methods for determining the analgesic, antipyretic and anti - inflammatory effects of total flavone in Trollius chinensis Bge. Results In the total flavone dose groups of 0. 8 g/kg,0. 4 g/kg and 0.2 g/kg,mice pain threshold were increased by 47.6% ,39.9% and 14.2% within 90 min after medication, the writhing inhibiting rates were 31.6% ,28.5% and 12. 1% ,the rabbit antipyretic effects could lasted for 5 h and the rat antipyretic effects could lasted for 4 h. The antipyretic effect was most obvious after 2 h. The inhibiting rates of mice earlap inflammatory exudation were 22.6% , 29.7% and 14.4%. The inhibiting rates of rat cottenball granyloma were 43.9% ,24.6% and 5.3% , respectively. Conclusion Total flavone in Trollius Chinensis Bge. has significant analgesic, antipyretic and anti - inflammatory effects and the effect intensity presents a dose - reaction relation

  14. Studies on Flavonoids Extraction Process of Dracocephalum Integrifolium Bge.%全叶青兰中黄酮类化合物的提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福强

    2011-01-01

    In the paper,after a full analysis of the various means of extraction,we use the most effective extraction and design method on flavonoids extraction of dracocephalum integrifolium bge.and establish a comprehensive comparative evaluation system for the Flavonoids extraction.For the Flavonoids extraction of dracocephalum integrifolium bge.use the ultrasonic extraction can be the highest efficiency extraction.The optimum conditions are: Ultrasound 30 min,ultrasonic wave power 100 W,powder size 60~80 head,ethanol consistence was 70 %,extraction temperature 55 ℃.The total extraction time 2 h,extract twice,the ratio of solid and Liquid was 1:20,now,the total Flavonoids contents of Dracocephalum integrifolium Bge.was 27.11 mg/g.After enrichment with different solvent extract a preliminary separation of the extract after the separation of the qualitative analysis of the results showed that n-butanol and ethanol extracts of the content of flavonoids higher on the whole of flavonoids Lan Ye more polar compounds to the main flavonoid glycosides,the aglycone form of flavonoids low.%文章在考察了多种溶剂提取方法的基础上,运用最为有效的提取、设计方法提取了全叶青兰的黄酮成分,并对黄酮类物质的提取方法建立了综合比较评价的体系。对于全叶青兰总黄酮的提取,采用超声提取法可以得到最高的提取效率,其最佳工艺条件为超声30 min,超声波功率100 W,粒度60~80目,乙醇浓度为70%,提取温度为55℃,总提取时间2 h,提取次数2次,料液比为1:20时,全叶青兰总黄酮含量为27.11 mg/g。浓缩后的提取物采用不同溶剂进行了初步的分离,对分离后的提取物所作的定性分析的结果表明,正丁醇和乙醇萃取液中的黄酮类化合物的含量较高,说明全叶青兰中的黄酮类化合物以极性较大黄酮苷类为主,苷元形式存在的黄酮类含量较低。

  15. Presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae from different geographical regions in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoti SL

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent discovery of rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia in lymphatic filarial parasites, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi and subsequently of their vital role in the survival and development of the latter, antibiotics such as tetracycline are being suggested for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, by way of eliminating the endosymbiont. But, it is essential to assess their presence in parasites from areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis before such a new control tool is employed. In the present communication, we report the detection of Wolbachia endosymbionts in microfilariae of W. bancrofti parasites collected from geographically distant locations of India, such as Pondicherry (Union Territory, Calicut (Kerala, Jagadalpur (Madhya Pradesh, Thirukoilur (TamilNadu, Chinnanergunam (TamilNadu, Rajahmundry (Andhra Pradesh, and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh, using Wolbachia specific 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction.

  16. Rickettsial endosymbiont in the "early-diverging" streptophyte green alga Mesostigma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ashley; Narechania, Apurva; Kim, Eunsoo

    2016-04-01

    A bacterial endosymbiont was unexpectedly found in the "axenic" culture strain of the streptophyte green alga Mesostigma viride (NIES-995). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the symbiont belongs to the order Rickettsiales, specifically to the recently designated clade "Candidatus Megaira," which is closely related to the well-known Rickettsia clade. Rickettsiales bacteria of the "Ca. Megaira" clade are found in a taxonomically diverse array of eukaryotic hosts, including chlorophycean green algae, several ciliate species, and invertebrates such as Hydra. Transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence in situ hybridi-zation, and SYBR Green I staining experiments revealed that the endosymbiont of M. viride NIES-995 is rod shaped, typically occurs in clusters, and is surrounded by a halo-like structure, presumably formed by secretory substances from the bacterium. Two additional M. viride strains (NIES-296 and NIES-475), but not SAG50-1, were found to house the rickettsial endosymbiont. Analyses of strain NIES-995 transcriptome data indicated the presence of at least 91 transcriptionally active genes of symbiont origins. These include genes for surface proteins (e.g., rOmpB) that are known to play key roles in bacterial attachment onto host eukaryotes in related Rickettsia species. The assembled M. viride transcriptome includes transcripts that code for a suite of predicted algal-derived proteins, such as Ku70, WASH, SCAR, and CDC42, which may be important in the formation of the algal-rickettsial association.

  17. 不同炮制方法对丹参多糖含量的影响%Effects of Different Processes on Polysaccharide Content in Salvia Miltiorrhiza bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炯; 袁胜浩; 马朝晖

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the content of polysaccharide in Salvia miltiorrhiza bge processed by different methods. Method: The sample was extracted by water and purified preliminarily by alcohol precipitation. The polysaccharide content was determined by phenol sulfuric acid method at UV wavelength of 490 nm. Result: The polysaccharide content in crude salvia miltiorrhiza, liquor salvia miltiorrhiza, vinegar salvia miltiorrhiza, rice stir-frying salvia miltiorrhiza and salvia miltiorrhiza charcoal was 3.08%, 4.63%, 4. 25% , 3. 89% and 1. 14% , respectively. Conclusion: The method is simple, convenient and accurate, and can be used in the de-termination of polysaccharide in Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. The polysaccharide contents in liquor salvia miltiorrhiza, vinegar salvia miltior-rhiza and rice stir-frying salvia miltiorrhiza are higher than that in crude salvia miltiorrhiza.%目的:比较丹参不同炮制品中多糖的含量.方法:多糖采用传统的水提醇沉法提取,多糖的含量用苯酚-硫酸法进行测定,以葡萄糖为对照品,检测波长490 nm.结果:生丹参、酒丹参、醋丹参、米炒丹参和丹参炭的多糖含量分别为3.08%、4.63%、4.25%、3.89%和1.14%.结论:建立的多糖含量测定方法操作简便,精密度高,数据稳定性好,重复性好,适用于丹参及其炮制品多糖含量的测定.不同炮制方法对丹参饮片中多糖的含量有不同程度的影响,酒蒸、醋制和米炒均显著提高了丹参饮片中多糖的含量.

  18. Incidence of Wolbachia and Cardinium endosymbionts in the Osmia community in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gilsang; Lee, Kyeongyong; Choi, Jiyoung; Hwang, Seokjo; Park, Byeongdo; Kim, Wontae; Choi, Youngcheol; Park, Ingyun; Kim, Jonggill

    2009-02-01

    Sex ratio distorting endosymbionts induce reproductive anomalies in their arthropod hosts. They have recently been paid much attention as firstly texts of evolution of host-symbiont relationships and secondly potential biological control agents to control arthropod pests. Among such organisms, Wolbachia and Cardinium bacteria are well characterized. This study aims at probing such bacteria in the Osmia community to evaluate their potential utilization to control arthropod pests. Among 17 PCR tested species, Osmia cornifrons and a parasitic fly are infected with Wolbachia and a mite species is infected with Cardinium. Phylogenetic tree analyses suggest that horizontal transfer of the bacteria occurred between phylogenetically distant hosts. PMID:19229488

  19. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  20. Effect of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge on Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and the Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lianping; ZHENG Zhi

    2007-01-01

    The effects of salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (SMB) on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats and the action mechanism were investigated. Normal Wistar-kyoto (WKY) rats were used as negative control, and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly assigned to receive placebo or SMB. SMB (1 g/kg·d) was injected intraperitoneally for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured. HE, VG and immunohistochemical staining combined with computed morphometry were employed to evaluate the cardiomyocyte size,diameter, the collagen volume fraction (CVF), perivascular circumferential area (PVCA), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in the left ventricular tissue. The results showed, as compared with WKY rats, the SBP, LVMI, cardiomyocyte size, diameter, CVF, PCVA, and TNF-α expression were increased markedly in the 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats. SMB decreased LVMI (P<0.01), size of cardiomyocytes (P<0.01), collagen volume fraction (P<0.01), perivascular circumferential area (P<0.01), and TNF-α expression (P<0.01), but had no effect on SBP (P>0.05). It was suggested that chronic administration of SMB could inhibit and reverse the development of LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats independent of BP. TNF-α may be involved in the reversal mechanism of LVH by SMB.

  1. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  2. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Ock, Younsung; Kim, Taeil; Choi, Donghag

    2016-01-01

    We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB), Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8–100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds. PMID:27244561

  3. Novel Detection of Coxiella spp., Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis Endosymbionts in Deer Keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hun Lee

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the detection of Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. Eight deer keds attached to a Korean water deer were identified as Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae by morphological and genetic analyses. Among the endosymbionts assessed, CLB, Theileria luwenshuni, and T. ovis were identified in L. fortisetosa by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Based on phylogeny, CLB 16S rRNA sequences were classified into clade B, sharing 99.4% identity with CLB from Haemaphysalis longicornis in South Korea. Although the virulence of CLB to vertebrates is still controversial, several studies have reported clinical symptoms in birds due to CLB infections. The 18S rRNA sequences of T. luwenshuni and T. ovis in this study were 98.8-100% identical to those in GenBank, and all of the obtained sequences of T. ovis and T. luwenshuni in this study were 100% identical to each other, respectively. Although further studies are required to positively confirm L. fortisetosa as a biological vector of these pathogens, strong genetic relationships among sequences from this and previous studies suggest potential transmission among mammalian hosts by ticks and keds.

  4. Methane Production from Protozoan Endosymbionts Following Stimulation of Microbial Metabolism within Subsurface Sediments

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    Dawn Elena Holmes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that protozoa prey on Fe(III- and sulfate-reducing bacteria that are enriched when acetate is added to uranium contaminated subsurface sediments to stimulate U(VI reduction. In order to determine whether protozoa continue to impact subsurface biogeochemistry after these acetate amendments have stopped, 18S rRNA and ß-tubulin sequences from this phase of an in situ uranium bioremediation field experiment were analyzed. Sequences most similar to Metopus species predominated, with the majority of sequences most closely related to M. palaeformis, a cilitated protozoan known to harbor methanogenic symbionts. Quantification of mcrA mRNA transcripts in the groundwater suggested that methanogens closely related to Metopus endosymbionts were metabolically active at this time. There was a strong correlation between the number of mcrA transcripts from the putative endosymbiotic methanogen and Metopus ß-tubulin mRNA transcripts during the course of the field experiment, suggesting that the activity of the methanogens was dependent upon the activity of the Metopus species. Addition of the eukaryotic inhibitors cyclohexamide and colchicine to laboratory incubations of acetate-amended subsurface sediments significantly inhibited methane production and there was a direct correlation between methane concentration and Metopus ß-tubulin and putative symbiont mcrA gene copies. These results suggest that, following the stimulation of subsurface microbial growth with acetate, protozoa harboring methanogenic endosymbionts become important members of the microbial community, feeding on moribund biomass and producing methane.

  5. Systematics of a kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu (Dinophyceae, and its cryptomonad endosymbiont.

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    Shuang Xia

    Full Text Available New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta, and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed.

  6. Characteristics of the draft genome of "Candidatus Arsenophonus nilaparvatae", a facultative endosymbiont of Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hai-Wei; Lu, Jia-Bao; Ye, Yu-Xuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2016-06-01

    There exists a kind of symbiotic bacterium named "Candidatus Arsenophonus nilaparvatae" in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. After being filtered and assembled from the BPH genome sequencing project, the genome sequence of this bacterial symbiont was obtained. After initial analysis based on the genome, we have found its potential role to synthesize B vitamins for the host. In order to better understand the lifestyle and the genomic changes of this symbiotic bacterium after the symbiotic relationship was established, we further report the characteristics of this draft genome. Compared with several other related bacteria, "Candidatus Arsenophonus nilaparvatae" has proven to be a facultative endosymbiont at the genomic level. Concurrently, the presence of fimbriae and flagella formation related genes indicates this maternally transmitted endosymbiont is most likely to retain the capacity to invade new hosts. Through further analysis of annotated gene sets, we also find evidence of genome reduction in its secretion system and metabolic pathways. These findings reflect its evolutionary trend to be an obligate one and enable a deeper study of microbe-insect interactions. PMID:26792263

  7. Evaluation of Enrichment Protocols for Bacterial Endosymbionts of Ciliates by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Michele; Lanzoni, Olivia; Rossi, Leonardo; Potekhin, Alexey; Schrallhammer, Martina; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale studies on obligate bacterial endosymbionts may frequently require preliminary purification and enrichment protocols, which are often elaborate to set up and to evaluate, especially if the host organism is a protist. The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time PCR-based strategy and employ it for assessing two of such enrichment protocols for Holospora caryophila, hosted by the ciliate Paramecium. Four SSU rRNA gene-targeted real-time PCR assays were designed, which allowed to compare the amount of H. caryophila to other organisms, namely the host, its food bacterium (Raoultella planticola), and free-living bacteria present in the culture medium. By the use of the real-time PCR assays in combination, it was possible to conclude that the "cell fractionation" protocol was quite successful in the enrichment of the symbiont, while the "Percoll gradient" protocol will need further refinements to be fully repeatable. The proposed approach has the potential to facilitate and encourage future studies on the yet underexplored field of bacterial endosymbionts of ciliates and other protists. It can also find valuable applications for experimental questions other than those tested, such as fast and precise assessment of symbiont abundance in natural populations and comparison among multiple coexisting symbionts. PMID:26894821

  8. The link between independent acquisition of intracellular gamma-endosymbionts and concerted evolution in Tremblaya princeps

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    Sergio eLópez-Madrigal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many insect species establish mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria that complement their unbalanced diets. The betaproteobacterium Candidatus Tremblaya maintains an ancient symbiosis with mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, which are classified in subfamilies Phenacoccinae and Pseudococcinae. Most Phenacoccinae mealybugs have Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola as their unique endosymbiont, while most Pseudococcinae mealybugs show a nested symbiosis (a bacterial symbiont placed inside another one where every Candidatus Tremblaya princeps cell harbors several cells of a gammaproteobacterium. Genomic characterization of the endosymbiotic consortium from Planococcus citri, composed by Ca. Tremblaya princeps and Candidatus Moranella endobia, unveiled several atypical features of the former’s genome, including the concerted evolution of paralogous loci. Its comparison with the genome of Ca. Tremblaya phenacola PAVE, single endosymbiont of Phenacoccus avenae, suggests that the atypical reductive evolution of Ca. Tremblaya princeps could be linked to the acquisition of Ca. Moranella endobia, which possess an almost complete set of genes encoding proteins involved in homologous recombination. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed comparative genomics between Ca. Tremblaya phenacola and Ca. Tremblaya princeps and searched for the co-occurrence of concerted evolution and homologous recombination genes in endosymbiotic consortia from four unexplored mealybug species, Dysmicoccus boninsis, Planococcus ficus, Pseudococcus longispinus and Pseudococcus viburni. Our results support a link between concerted evolution and nested endosymbiosis.

  9. The link between independent acquisition of intracellular gamma-endosymbionts and concerted evolution in Tremblaya princeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Madrigal, Sergio; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Many insect species establish mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria that complement their unbalanced diets. The betaproteobacterium “Candidatus Tremblaya” maintains an ancient symbiosis with mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which are classified in subfamilies Phenacoccinae and Pseudococcinae. Most Phenacoccinae mealybugs have “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola” as their unique endosymbiont, while most Pseudococcinae mealybugs show a nested symbiosis (a bacterial symbiont placed inside another one) where every “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” cell harbors several cells of a gammaproteobacterium. Genomic characterization of the endosymbiotic consortium from Planococcus citri, composed by “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia,” unveiled several atypical features of the former's genome, including the concerted evolution of paralogous loci. Its comparison with the genome of “Ca. Tremblaya phenacola” PAVE, single endosymbiont of Phenacoccus avenae, suggests that the atypical reductive evolution of “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” could be linked to the acquisition of “Ca. Moranella endobia,” which possess an almost complete set of genes encoding proteins involved in homologous recombination. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed comparative genomics between “Ca. Tremblaya phenacola” and “Ca. Tremblaya princeps” and searched for the co-occurrence of concerted evolution and homologous recombination genes in endosymbiotic consortia from four unexplored mealybug species, Dysmicoccus boninsis, Planococcus ficus, Pseudococcus longispinus, and Pseudococcus viburni. Our results support a link between concerted evolution and nested endosymbiosis. PMID:26161080

  10. Evolutionary relationships of flavobacterial and enterobacterial endosymbionts with their scale insect hosts (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblueth, Mónica; Sayavedra, L; Sámano-Sánchez, H; Roth, A; Martínez-Romero, E

    2012-11-01

    Flavobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae have been previously reported as scale insect endosymbionts. The purpose of this work was twofold: first, to screen different scale insect families for the presence of these endosymbionts by PCR analyses and second, to elucidate the history of cophylogeny between these bacteria and the insects by analysing a portion of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequences by two reconciliation tools, CoRe-PA and Jane. From a survey of 27 scale insects within seven families, we identified Flavobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae as coexisting in ten species that belong to the Ortheziidae, Monophlebidae, Diaspididae and Coccidae families, and we frequently found two closely related enterobacteria harboured in the same individual. Analyses performed with CoRe-PA and Jane suggest that Flavobacteria from the scale insects analysed have a unique origin, except for Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola (Flavobacteria of Pseudococcidae, Phenacoccinae), which seems to come from a nonscale insect. Nevertheless, cospeciation between Flavobacteria and scale insects is suggested only within the families Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae and Diaspididae, and host switches seem to have occurred from the ancestors of Monophlebidae and Ortheziidae to insects from families Coccidae, Lecanodiaspididae, Eriococcidae and Pseudococcidae. Our analyses suggest that Enterobacteriaceae underwent more evolutionary events (losses, duplications and host switches), and their phylogenies showed a lower proportion of congruent nodes between host and bacteria, indicating a more relaxed relationship with scale insects compared with Flavobacteria.

  11. Infection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Insects: A Comparative Study of Two Techniques viz PCR and FISH for Detection and Localization of Symbionts in Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

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    Harpreet Singh Raina

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts have been associated with arthropods and large number of the insect species show interaction with such bacteria. Different approaches have been used to understand such symbiont- host interactions. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a highly invasive agricultural pest, harbors as many as seven different bacterial endosymbionts. These bacterial endosymbionts are known to provide various nutritional, physiological, environmental and evolutionary benefits to its insect host. In this study, we have tried to compare two techniques, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Flourescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH commonly used for identification and localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci as it harbors one of the highest numbers of endosymbionts which have helped it in becoming a successful global invasive agricultural pest. The amplified PCR products were observed as bands on agarose gel by electrophoresis while the FISH samples were mounted on slides and observed under confocal microscope. Analysis of results obtained by these two techniques revealed the advantages of FISH over PCR. On a short note, performing FISH, using LNA probes proved to be more sensitive and informative for identification as well as localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci than relying on PCR. This study would help in designing more efficient experiments based on much reliable detection procedure and studying the role of endosymbionts in insects.

  12. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event : field evidence of acclimatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A. M.; Berkelmans, R.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Mieog, J. C.; Sinclair, W.

    2008-01-01

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthe

  13. Manipulation of plant defense responses by the tomato psyllid (Bactericerca cockerelli and its associated endosymbiont Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous.

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    Clare L Casteel

    Full Text Available Some plant pathogens form obligate relationships with their insect vector and are vertically transmitted via eggs analogous to insect endosymbionts. Whether insect endosymbionts manipulate plant defenses to benefit their insect host remains unclear. The tomato psyllid, Bactericerca cockerelli (Sulc, vectors the endosymbiont "Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous" (Lps during feeding on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Lps titer in psyllids varied relative to the psyllid developmental stage with younger psyllids harboring smaller Lps populations compared to older psyllids. In the present study, feeding by different life stages of B. cockerelli infected with Lps, resulted in distinct tomato transcript profiles. Feeding by young psyllid nymphs, with lower Lps levels, induced tomato genes regulated by jasmonic acid (JA and salicylic acid (SA (Allene oxide synthase, Proteinase inhibitor 2, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 5, Pathogenesis-related protein 1 compared to feeding by older nymphs and adults, where higher Lps titers were found. In addition, inoculation of Lps without insect hosts suppressed accumulation of these defense transcripts. Collectively, these data suggest that the endosymbiont-like pathogen Lps manipulates plant signaling and defensive responses to benefit themselves and the success of their obligate insect vector on their host plant.

  14. First Indonesian record of Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al., 1968 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae), endosymbiont of Fungia spp. (Scleractinia: Fungiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Achituv, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The mytilid bivalve Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau, Goreau, Neumann & Yonge, 1968, previously mistakenly referred to as F. eilatensis Soot-Ryen, 1969, is reported for the first time from Indonesia. It lives as an obligate endosymbiont of mushroom corals, particulary Fungia spp., reef-dwelling corals r

  15. Identification of endosymbionts in ticks by broad-range polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organisms, such as insects, filarial nematodes, and ticks, contain heritable bacterial endosymbionts that are often closely related to transmissible tickborne pathogens. These intracellular bacteria are sometimes unique to the host species, presumably due to isolation and genetic drift. We used...

  16. Tertiary endosymbiosis in two dinotoms has generated little change in the mitochondrial genomes of their dinoflagellate hosts and diatom endosymbionts.

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    Behzad Imanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria or mitochondrion-derived organelles are found in all eukaryotes with the exception of secondary or tertiary plastid endosymbionts. In these highly reduced systems, the mitochondrion has been lost in all cases except the diatom endosymbionts found in a small group of dinoflagellates, called 'dinotoms', the only cells with two evolutionarily distinct mitochondria. To investigate the persistence of this redundancy and its consequences on the content and structure of the endosymbiont and host mitochondrial genomes, we report the sequences of these genomes from two dinotoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The endosymbiont mitochondrial genomes of Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum exhibit nearly identical gene content with other diatoms, and highly conserved gene order (nearly identical to that of the raphid pennate diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. These two genomes are differentiated from other diatoms' by the fission of nad11 and by an insertion within nad2, in-frame and unspliced from the mRNA. Durinskia baltica is further distinguished from K. foliaceum by two gene fusions and its lack of introns. The host mitochondrial genome in D. baltica encodes cox1 and cob plus several fragments of LSU rRNA gene in a hugely expanded genome that includes numerous pseudogenes, and a trans-spliced cox3 gene, like in other dinoflagellates. Over 100 distinct contigs were identified through 454 sequencing, but intact full-length genes for cox1, cob and the 5' exon of cox3 were present as a single contig each, suggesting most of the genome is pseudogenes. The host mitochondrial genome of K. foliaceum was difficult to identify, but fragments of all the three protein-coding genes, corresponding transcripts, and transcripts of several LSU rRNA fragments were all recovered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the endosymbiont and host mitochondrial genomes in the two dinotoms have changed surprisingly little from those of free

  17. Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; Cao, Bocheng; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Qiu, Fangping

    2015-02-01

    The ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed and applied to the extraction of four tanshinones, including dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. root. High performance liquid chromatography was applied to the separation and determination of the analytes. The ionic liquid was used as extraction solvent and target analytes were extracted with help of ultrasound. Then, ion-pairing agent was added into the sample solution, which resulted in the formation of water-insoluble ionic liquid in the solution. The phase separation was performed by centrifugation. The extraction, concentration and purification of target analytes were performed simultaneously. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of ionic liquid, sample amount, the size of sample particle, pH value of extraction medium, extraction temperature, extraction time, amount of ion-pairing agent and centrifuging time, were investigated and optimized. The calibration curves showed good linear relationship (r>0.9997). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.052-0.093 and 0.17-0.31 μg mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries were between 70.45% and 94.23% with relative standard deviations lower than 5.31%. The present method is free of volatile organic solvents, and represents lower expenditures of sample, extraction time and solvent, compared with UAE and HRE. There was no obvious difference in the extraction yields of active constitutions obtained by the three extraction methods. PMID:25497891

  18. Effects of the aqueous extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and on liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinping, Qiao; Peiling, Hou; Yawei, Li; Abliz, Zeper

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (danshen in Chinese) on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and on liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in rats. Rats (n = 5) were pretreated with danshen extract (100 mg kg(-1) per day, p.o.) for 15 consecutive days. Control rats (n = 5) received saline at the same time. Each rat was then administered a single oral dose of 15 mg kg(-1) diazepam. The pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam were significantly different between the two groups. In the danshen pretreated group, the maximum concentration of diazepam and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve were reduced to about 72.7% and 44.4%, respectively, while the total body clearance was markedly increased by 2-fold. To help explain the results, liver microsomal suspensions were obtained from rats that were randomly divided into the control group (n = 10), and the low- (20 mg kg(-1) for 15 days, p.o., n = 10) and high-dose groups (100 mg kg(-1) for 15 days, p.o., n = 10) pretreated with danshen extract. Compared with the control rats, the microsomal protein content, cytochrome P450 enzyme level and erythromycin N-demethylase activity of pretreated rats were significantly increased. These results indicate that danshen extract can stimulate the activity of cytochrome P450 isoforms, and changes in the pharmacokinetics of diazepam resulting from danshen extract are related to an increase in metabolic activity of cytochrome P450. PMID:12956908

  19. Megasporogenesis and Female Gametophyte Development in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge%丹参大孢子发生和雌配子体发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武玉侠; 曹玉芳

    2011-01-01

    利用石蜡切片法对丹参不同时期花器官进行了解剖学研究.结果表明:丹参单珠被,薄珠心,倒生胚珠,有承珠盘结构.孢原细胞位于珠心一层表皮下,直接行使大孢子母细胞功能.大孢子母细胞减数分裂合点端或合点端第二个大孢子为功能大孢子,胚囊发育为蓼型.胚囊中卵细胞存在极性.助细胞在卵细胞产生极性分化前解体,即助细胞寿命较短.反足细胞在成熟胚囊中退化.极核在受精前融合,核中出现多个小核仁.%Using paraffin method to conduct the anatomical floral organ of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge in different periods , the results show that in S. Miltiorrhiza the ovary is anatropous, single integument, thin nucellus and has hypos tase. The archesporial cell under one layer of the nucellar cell, directly functions as megaspore mother cell. Megaspore mother cells undergoes meiosis and the chalazal end megaspore or the second megaspore near the chala-zal end functions, the development of the embryo sac is polygonum type. The egg cell in the embryo sac existing polarity, the synergid cell egg cell degradation before the egg cell possess polarity, means the synergid cells possess a short life. Antipodal cells degradation in mature embryo sac. Polar nuclei fusion before fertilization and a numerous small nucleoli appeared.

  20. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of heme synthesis genes in trypanosomatids and their bacterial endosymbionts.

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    João M P Alves

    Full Text Available It has been known for decades that some insect-infecting trypanosomatids can survive in culture without heme supplementation while others cannot, and that this capability is associated with the presence of a betaproteobacterial endosymbiont in the flagellate's cytoplasm. However, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remained obscure. In this work, we sequence and phylogenetically analyze the heme pathway genes from the symbionts and from their hosts, as well as from a number of heme synthesis-deficient Kinetoplastida. Our results show that the enzymes responsible for synthesis of heme are encoded on the symbiont genomes and produced in close cooperation with the flagellate host. Our evidence suggests that this synergistic relationship is the end result of a history of extensive gene loss and multiple lateral gene transfer events in different branches of the phylogeny of the Trypanosomatidae.

  1. Evidence for metabolic provisioning by a common invertebrate endosymbiont, Wolbachia pipientis, during periods of nutritional stress.

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    Jeremy C Brownlie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are ubiquitous inherited endosymbionts of invertebrates that invade host populations by modifying host reproductive systems. However, some strains lack the ability to impose reproductive modification and yet are still capable of successfully invading host populations. To explain this paradox, theory predicts that such strains should provide a fitness benefit, but to date none has been detected. Recently completed genome sequences of different Wolbachia strains show that these bacteria may have the genetic machinery to influence iron utilization of hosts. Here we show that Wolbachia infection can confer a positive fecundity benefit for Drosophila melanogaster reared on iron-restricted or -overloaded diets. Furthermore, iron levels measured from field-collected flies indicated that nutritional conditions in the field were overall comparable to those of flies reared in the laboratory on restricted diets. These data suggest that Wolbachia may play a previously unrecognized role as nutritional mutualists in insects.

  2. The Rickettsia Endosymbiont of Ixodes pacificus Contains All the Genes of De Novo Folate Biosynthesis.

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    Daniel J Hunter

    Full Text Available Ticks and other arthropods often are hosts to nutrient providing bacterial endosymbionts, which contribute to their host's fitness by supplying nutrients such as vitamins and amino acids. It has been detected, in our lab, that Ixodes pacificus is host to Rickettsia species phylotype G021. This endosymbiont is predominantly present, and 100% maternally transmitted in I. pacificus. To study roles of phylotype G021 in I. pacificus, bioinformatic and molecular approaches were carried out. MUMmer genome alignments of whole genome sequence of I. scapularis, a close relative to I. pacificus, against completely sequenced genomes of R. bellii OSU85-389, R. conorii, and R. felis, identified 8,190 unique sequences that are homologous to Rickettsia sequences in the NCBI Trace Archive. MetaCyc metabolic reconstructions revealed that all folate gene orthologues (folA, folC, folE, folKP, ptpS required for de novo folate biosynthesis are present in the genome of Rickettsia buchneri in I. scapularis. To examine the metabolic capability of phylotype G021 in I. pacificus, genes of the folate biosynthesis pathway of the bacterium were PCR amplified using degenerate primers. BLAST searches identified that nucleotide sequences of the folA, folC, folE, folKP, and ptpS genes possess 98.6%, 98.8%, 98.9%, 98.5% and 99.0% identity respectively to the corresponding genes of Rickettsia buchneri. Phylogenetic tree constructions show that the folate genes of phylotype G021 and homologous genes from various Rickettsia species are monophyletic. This study has shown that all folate genes exist in the genome of Rickettsia species phylotype G021 and that this bacterium has the genetic capability for de novo folate synthesis.

  3. Sequence context of indel mutations and their effect on protein evolution in a bacterial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura E; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    Indel mutations play key roles in genome and protein evolution, yet we lack a comprehensive understanding of how indels impact evolutionary processes. Genome-wide analyses enabled by next-generation sequencing can clarify the context and effect of indels, thereby integrating a more detailed consideration of indels with our knowledge of nucleotide substitutions. To this end, we sequenced Blochmannia chromaiodes, an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of carpenter ants, and compared it with the close relative, B. pennsylvanicus. The genetic distance between these species is small enough for accurate whole genome alignment but large enough to provide a meaningful spectrum of indel mutations. We found that indels are subjected to purifying selection in coding regions and even intergenic regions, which show a reduced rate of indel base pairs per kilobase compared with nonfunctional pseudogenes. Indels occur almost exclusively in repeat regions composed of homopolymers and multimeric simple sequence repeats, demonstrating the importance of sequence context for indel mutations. Despite purifying selection, some indels occur in protein-coding genes. Most are multiples of three, indicating selective pressure to maintain the reading frame. The deleterious effect of frameshift-inducing indels is minimized by either compensation from a nearby indel to restore reading frame or the indel's location near the 3'-end of the gene. We observed amino acid divergence exceeding nucleotide divergence in regions affected by frameshift-inducing indels, suggesting that these indels may either drive adaptive protein evolution or initiate gene degradation. Our results shed light on how indel mutations impact processes of molecular evolution underlying endosymbiont genome evolution. PMID:23475937

  4. Deep sequencing of the transcriptomes of soybean aphid and associated endosymbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijun Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The soybean aphid has significantly impacted soybean production in the U.S. Transcriptomic analyses were conducted for further insight into leads for potential novel management strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transcriptomic data were generated from whole aphids and from 2,000 aphid guts using an Illumina GAII sequencer. The sequence data were assembled de novo using the Velvet assembler. In addition to providing a general overview, we demonstrate (i the use of the Multiple-k/Multiple-C method for de novo assembly of short read sequences, followed by BLAST annotation of contigs for increased transcript identification: From 400,000 contigs analyzed, 16,257 non-redundant BLAST hits were identified; (ii analysis of species distributions of top non-redundant hits: 80% of BLAST hits (minimum e-value of 1.0-E3 were to the pea aphid or other aphid species, representing about half of the pea aphid genes; (iii comparison of relative depth of sequence coverage to relative transcript abundance for genes with high (membrane alanyl aminopeptidase N or low transcript abundance; (iv analysis of the Buchnera transcriptome: Transcripts from 57.6% of the genes from Buchnera aphidicola were identified; (v identification of Arsenophonus and Wolbachia as potential secondary endosymbionts; (vi alignment of full length sequences from RNA-seq data for the putative salivary gland protein C002, the silencing of which has potential for aphid management, and the putative Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin receptors, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: THIS STUDY PROVIDES THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE DATA SET TO DATE FOR SOYBEAN APHID GENE EXPRESSION: This work also illustrates the utility of short-read transcriptome sequencing and the Multiple-k/Multiple-C method followed by BLAST annotation for rapid identification of target genes for organisms for which reference genome sequences are not available, and extends the utility

  5. Sequence context of indel mutations and their effect on protein evolution in a bacterial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura E; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    Indel mutations play key roles in genome and protein evolution, yet we lack a comprehensive understanding of how indels impact evolutionary processes. Genome-wide analyses enabled by next-generation sequencing can clarify the context and effect of indels, thereby integrating a more detailed consideration of indels with our knowledge of nucleotide substitutions. To this end, we sequenced Blochmannia chromaiodes, an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of carpenter ants, and compared it with the close relative, B. pennsylvanicus. The genetic distance between these species is small enough for accurate whole genome alignment but large enough to provide a meaningful spectrum of indel mutations. We found that indels are subjected to purifying selection in coding regions and even intergenic regions, which show a reduced rate of indel base pairs per kilobase compared with nonfunctional pseudogenes. Indels occur almost exclusively in repeat regions composed of homopolymers and multimeric simple sequence repeats, demonstrating the importance of sequence context for indel mutations. Despite purifying selection, some indels occur in protein-coding genes. Most are multiples of three, indicating selective pressure to maintain the reading frame. The deleterious effect of frameshift-inducing indels is minimized by either compensation from a nearby indel to restore reading frame or the indel's location near the 3'-end of the gene. We observed amino acid divergence exceeding nucleotide divergence in regions affected by frameshift-inducing indels, suggesting that these indels may either drive adaptive protein evolution or initiate gene degradation. Our results shed light on how indel mutations impact processes of molecular evolution underlying endosymbiont genome evolution.

  6. 不同处理条件对金莲花种子萌发的影响%Effects of different treatment conditions on the germination of Trollius chinensis Bge.seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芹; 李保会; 龙双红

    2012-01-01

    To select suitable conditions for dormancy-breaking and seed germination,the influence of different concentrations of GA3, soaking time,temperature,light condition and pH value on germination of T. chinensis Bge. seeds was studied in this paper. The results showed that germination rate, germination force,soluble sugar and soluble protein content of the plant seeds were improved apparently by GA3 treatment. Under the conditions of 25 ℃, lighting, pH value 6-7,and 500 mg/L GA3 soaking seeds for 24 h, T. chinensis Bge. seeds showed the best germination.%以野生金莲花(Trollius chinensis Bge.)种子为试材,研究了不同浓度的GA3、浸种时间、温度、光照、pH值对种子萌发的影响,旨在筛选快速打破种子休眠及萌发的适宜条件.结果表明:GA3处理能快速打破金莲花种子休眠,促进种子萌发,显著提高了种子的发芽率、发芽势、可溶性糖及可溶性蛋白质含量,以500 mg/L GA3浸种24 h,保持温度25℃,pH值6~7的光照条件下种子的萌发效果最好.

  7. Sequencing and annotation of the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Diaphorina citri by the CG-HLB Genome Resources group reveals candidate sources of interaction with the insect host

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Surya; Hunter, Wayne; Lindeberg, Magdalen

    2014-01-01

    The Citrus Greening – Huanglongbing (CG-HLB) Genome Resources group serves as a bioinformatics resource for diverse projects related to the biology of CG-HLB.  A major recent project concerns the generation and annotation of a draft genome sequence for the Wolbachia endosymbiont (wDi) of the Asian citrus psyllid, of particular interest given the potential for control of psyllid behavior through manipulation of its bacterial endosymbionts.   The Wolbachia draft genome was assembled and contigs...

  8. Coxiella-like endosymbiont in argasid ticks (Ornithodoros muesebecki) from a Socotra Cormorant colony in Umm Al Quwain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad A; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Walter, Mathias C; Kömpf, Daniela; Fischer, Silke F; Petney, Trevor; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen causing Q fever in domestic animals and humans. Seabirds have been implicated as possible reservoirs of this bacterium in the Arabian Gulf and in the Western Indian Ocean. Recently, Coxiella species closely related to C. burnetii was detected from ticks collected from oil rigs used as roosting areas by Socotra Cormorants (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) in the western Arabian Gulf. We collected ticks from the largest breeding colony of Socotra Cormorants in the United Arab Emirates on the eastern extreme of the species' breeding range to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii and evaluate its role as a wild reservoir. All ticks were identified as Ornithodoros muesebecki and genomic DNA was extracted from larval and nymph/adult tick pools. Multiplex PCR tests were performed targeting three C. burnetii specific genes. C. burnetii was not detected although a Coxiella-like endosymbiont was identified that was closely related to Coxiella symbionts from Ornithodoros capensis ticks. Because domestic and wild ungulates are the primary source of C. burnetii, we suggest that the presence of free-ranging, native and non-native ungulates in some off-shore islands in the Arabian Gulf could disseminate C. burnetii to seabirds. More comprehensive studies on seabird colonies are needed to better understand the diversity and prevalence of Coxiella symbionts and to establish if C. burnetii is endemic on some of these islands.

  9. The Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi has an active phosphoglycerate mutase: a candidate target for anti-filarial therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jeremy M; Raverdy, Sylvine; Ganatra, Mehul B; Colussi, Paul A; Taron, Christopher H; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2009-04-01

    Phosphoglycerate mutases (PGM) interconvert 2- and 3-phosphoglycerate in the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. A putative cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase gene (iPGM) was identified in the genome sequence of the Wolbachia endosymbiont from the filarial nematode, Brugia malayi (wBm). Since iPGM has no sequence or structural similarity to the cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase (dPGM) found in mammals, it may represent an attractive Wolbachia drug target. In the present study, wBm-iPGM cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli was mostly insoluble and inactive. However, the protein was successfully produced in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis and the purified recombinant wBm-iPGM showed typical PGM activity. Our results provide a foundation for further development of wBm-iPGM as a promising new drug target for novel anti-filarial therapies that selectively target the endosymbiont.

  10. Stable-Carbon-Isotope Composition of Fatty Acids in Hydrothermal Vent Mussels Containing Methanotrophic and Thiotrophic Bacterial Endosymbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Pond, David W; Bell, Michael V; Dixon, David R.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Segonzac, Michel; Sargent, John R.

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid biomarker analysis coupled with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of methanotrophic and thiotrophic bacterial endosymbionts in the tissues of a hydrothermal vent mussel (Bathymodiolus sp.), collected from the Menez Gwen vent field on the mid-Atlantic ridge. Monounsaturated (n-8) fatty acids, which are diagnostic of methanotrophic bacteria, were detected in all three types of tissues examined (gill, posterior adductor, and mantle), a...

  11. Assessment of bacterial endosymbiont diversity in Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae using a multitag 454 pyrosequencing approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch Jacqueline; Strohmeier Stephan; Pfannkuchen Martin; Reineke Annette

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus are regarded as devastating pests in a wide variety of horticultural crops worldwide. So far, little is known on the presence of endosymbionts in Otiorhynchus spp.. Investigation of endosymbiosis in this genus may help to understand the evolution of different reproductive strategies in these weevils (parthenogenesis or sexual reproduction), host-symbiont interactions, and may provide a future basis for novel pest management strategy develo...

  12. ACUTE TOXICITY OF METALS: NICKEL AND ZINC TO PARAMECIUM BURSARIA AND ITS ENDOSYMBIONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Zagata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Paramecium bursaria is an unicellular organism, widely distributed in the freshwater environment, where heavy metals are common contaminants. The ciliates, also including Paramecium bursaria, are a very abundant group in aquatic ecosystems, what makes them effective biological indicators of water pollutants. Paramecium bursaria is the only Paramecium which has evolved a mutualistic relationship with algae and it harbors these endosymbionts in its own cytoplasm. The algae are also very effective bioindicators of some pollutants because of their ability to biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two metals’ compounds: nickel chloride (NiCl2 and zinc chloride (ZnCl2 to Paramecium bursaria and its endosymbionts. The ciliates were incubated in solutions with 5x10-8 to 5x10-2g/dm3 of NiCl2 and with 5x10-8 to 5x10-2g/dm3 of ZnCl2, at the temperature of 180C, in the light/dark conditions (12L/12D. Microscopic observations of cell divisions rate, cell shape changes as well as the swimming behavior, were conducted after 24, 48, 72 and 120 hours of incubation in the tested solutions and were compared to the control sample. Microscopic observations revealed the lethal doses for both compounds, for nickel chloride 5x10-5g/dm3 and for zinc chloride 5x10-3. These observations also revealed that in lesser concentrations than the lethal one, the slowdown and characteristic movements occur after metal addition. The PEA measurements of Fv/Fm parameter were carried out within 4 days, the first one after 24 hours of incubations. The results of this investigation has given us a view of a fluorescence efficiency by revealing that both compounds solutions can have the stimulating effect on Photosystem II, because the lowest fluorescence efficiency was measured in control samples.

  13. GroEL from the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola betrays the aphid by triggering plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ritu; Atamian, Hagop S; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2014-06-17

    Aphids are sap-feeding plant pests and harbor the endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which is essential for their fecundity and survival. During plant penetration and feeding, aphids secrete saliva that contains proteins predicted to alter plant defenses and metabolism. Plants recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and induce pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). No aphid-associated molecular pattern has yet been identified. By mass spectrometry, we identified in saliva from potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) 105 proteins, some of which originated from Buchnera, including the chaperonin GroEL. Because GroEL is a widely conserved bacterial protein with an essential function, we tested its role in PTI. Applying or infiltrating GroEL onto Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves induced oxidative burst and expression of PTI early marker genes. These GroEL-induced defense responses required the known coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1. In addition, in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, inducible expression of groEL activated PTI marker gene expression. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants expressing groEL displayed reduced fecundity of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), indicating enhanced resistance against aphids. Furthermore, delivery of GroEL into tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) or Arabidopsis through Pseudomonas fluorescens, engineered to express the type III secretion system, also reduced potato aphid and green peach aphid fecundity, respectively. Collectively our data indicate that GroEL is a molecular pattern that triggers PTI. PMID:24927572

  14. Predicting the Proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and Their Respective Endosymbionts Reveals New Aspects of the Trypanosomatidae Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Martins, Allan Cezar de Azevedo; de Souza, Silvana Sant’Anna; Catta-Preta, Carolina Moura Costa; Silva, Rosane; Klein, Cecilia Coimbra; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; de Lima Cunha, Oberdan; Ciapina, Luciane Prioli; Brocchi, Marcelo; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Machado, Carlos Renato; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Probst, Christian Macagnan; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Gradia, Daniela Fiori; Pavoni, Daniela Parada; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Marchini, Fabricio Klerynton; Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela Flávia; Wagner, Glauber; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Elias, Maria Carolina; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Sagot, Marie-France; Pereira, Maristela; Stoco, Patrícia H.; de Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; Ürményi, Turán P.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism

  15. Predicting the proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and their respective endosymbionts reveals new aspects of the trypanosomatidae family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Machado Motta

    Full Text Available Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis, respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine

  16. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, M. Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J.; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed ‘tick-only’ viruses inhabiting tick cell lines. PMID:22743047

  17. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, M Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-06-01

    As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed 'tick-only' viruses inhabiting tick cell lines.

  18. Ixodes pacificus ticks maintain embryogenesis and egg hatching after antibiotic treatment of Rickettsia endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlovs, Andre H; Li, Jinze; Cheng, Du; Zhong, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Rickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that causes a variety of diseases in humans and other mammals and associates with a diverse group of arthropods. Although Rickettsia appears to be common in ticks, most Rickettsia-tick relationships remain generally uncharacterized. The most intimate of these associations is Rickettsia species phylotype G021, a maternally and transstadially transmitted endosymbiont that resides in 100% of I. pacificus in California. We investigated the effects of this Rickettsia phylotype on I. pacificus reproductive fitness using selective antibiotic treatment. Ciprofloxacin was 10-fold more effective than tetracycline in eliminating Rickettsia from I. pacificus, and quantitative PCR results showed that eggs from the ciprofloxacin-treated ticks contained an average of 0.02 Rickettsia per egg cell as opposed to the average of 0.2 in the tetracycline-treated ticks. Ampicillin did not significantly affect the number of Rickettsia per tick cell in adults or eggs compared to the water-injected control ticks. We found no relationship between tick embryogenesis and rickettsial density in engorged I. pacificus females. Tetracycline treatment significantly delayed oviposition of I. pacificus ticks, but the antibiotic's effect was unlikely related to Rickettsia. We also demonstrated that Rickettsia-free eggs could successfully develop into larvae without any significant decrease in hatching compared to eggs containing Rickettsia. No significant differences in the incubation period, egg hatching rate, and the number of larvae were found between any of the antibiotic-treated groups and the water-injected tick control. We concluded that Rickettsia species phylotype G021 does not have an apparent effect on embryogenesis, oviposition, and egg hatching of I. pacificus.

  19. The microbial community of Ophrydium versatile colonies: endosymbionts, residents, and tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Margulis, L.

    1995-01-01

    Ophrydium versatile is a sessile peritrichous ciliate (Kingdom Protoctista, class Oligohymenophora, order Peritrichida, suborder Sessilina) that forms green, gelatinous colonies. Chlorophyll a and b impart a green color to Ophrydium masses due to 400-500 Chlorella-like endosymbionts in each peritrich. Ophrydium colonies, collected from two bog wetlands (Hawley and Leverett, Massachusetts) were analyzed for their gel inhabitants. Other protists include ciliates, mastigotes, euglenids, chlorophytes, and heliozoa. Routine constituents include from 50-100,000 Nitzschia per ml of gel and at least four other diatom genera (Navicula, Pinnularia, Gyrosigma, Cymbella) that may participate in synthesis of the gel matrix. Among the prokaryotes are filamentous and coccoid cyanobacteria, large rod-shaped bacteria, at least three types of spirochetes and one unidentified Saprospira-like organism. Endosymbiotic methanogenic bacteria, observed using fluorescence microscopy, were present in unidentified hypotrichous ciliates. Animals found inside the gel include rotifers, nematodes, and occasional copepods. The latter were observed in the water reservoir of larger Ophrydium masses. From 30-46% of incident visible radiation could be attenuated by Ophrydium green jelly masses in laboratory observations. Protargol staining was used to visualize the elongate macronuclei and small micronucleus of O. versatile zooids and symbiotic algal nuclei. Electron microscopic analysis of the wall of the Chlorella-like symbiont suggests that although the Ophrydium zooids from British Columbia harbor Chlorella vulgaris, those from Hawley Bog contain Graesiella sp. The growth habit in the photic zone and loose level of individuation of macroscopic Ophrydium masses are interpretable as extant analogs of certain Ediacaran biota: colonial protists in the Vendian fossil record.

  20. Description of a new dinoflagellate with a diatom endosymbiont, Durinskia capensis sp. nov. (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae) from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Richard N; Sakai, Hiroto; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2007-03-01

    A new dinoflagellate Durinskia capensis Pienaar, Sakai et Horiguchi sp. nov. (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae), from tidal pools along the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, Republic of South Africa, is described. The dinoflagellate produces characteristic dense orange-red colored blooms in tidal pools. The organism is characterized by having a eukaryotic endosymbiotic alga. Ultrastructure study revealed the organism has a cellular construction similar to that of other diatom-harboring dinoflagellates. The cell is thecate and the plate formula is: Po, x, 4', 2a, 6'', 5c, 4s, 5''', 2'''', which is the same as that of Durinskia baltica, the type species of the genus Durinskia. D. capensis can, however, be distinguished from D. baltica by overall cell shape, the relative size of the 1a and 2a plates, the degree of cingular displacement, and the shape of the eyespot. Our molecular analysis based on SSU rDNA revealed that D. capensis is closely allied to D. baltica, thus supporting the assignment of this new species to this genus. This Durinskia clade takes a sister position to another diatom-harboring dinoflagellate clade, which includes Kryptoperidinium foliaceum and Galeidinium rugatum. Molecular analysis based on the rbcL gene sequence and ultrastructure study revealed that the endosymbiont of D. capensis is a diatom. The SSU rDNA gene trees indicated that four species with a diatom endosymbiont formed a clade, suggesting a single endosymbiotic origin. PMID:17139418

  1. Antibiotic treatment leads to the elimination of Wolbachia endosymbionts and sterility in the diplodiploid collembolan Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingcombe Rachel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia is an extremely widespread bacterial endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes that causes a variety of reproductive peculiarities. Parthenogenesis is one such peculiarity but it has been hypothesised that this phenomenon may be functionally restricted to organisms that employ haplodiploid sex determination. Using two antibiotics, tetracycline and rifampicin, we attempted to eliminate Wolbachia from the diplodiploid host Folsomia candida, a species of springtail which is a widely used study organism. Results Molecular assays confirmed that elimination of Wolbachia was successfully achieved through continuous exposure of populations (over two generations and several weeks to rifampicin administered as 2.7% dry weight of their yeast food source. The consequence of this elimination was total sterility of all individuals, despite the continuation of normal egg production. Conclusion Microbial endosymbionts play an obligatory role in the reproduction of their diplodiploid host, most likely one in which the parthenogenetic process is facilitated by Wolbachia. A hitherto unknown level of host-parasite interdependence is thus recorded.

  2. Burkholderia rhizoxinica sp. nov. and Burkholderia endofungorum sp. nov., bacterial endosymbionts of the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizopus microsporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Groth, Ingrid; Schmitt, Imke; Richter, Walter; Roth, Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2007-11-01

    Several strains of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus harbour endosymbiotic bacteria for the production of the causal agent of rice seedling blight, rhizoxin, and the toxic cyclopeptide rhizonin. R. microsporus and isolated endobacteria were selected for freeze-fracture electron microscopy, which allowed visualization of bacterial cells within the fungal cytosol by their two parallel-running envelope membranes and by the fine structure of the lipopolysaccharide layer of the outer membrane. Two representatives of bacterial endosymbionts were chosen for phylogenetic analyses on the basis of full 16S rRNA gene sequences, which revealed that the novel fungal endosymbionts formed a monophyletic group within the genus Burkholderia. Inter-sequence similarities ranged from 98.94 to 100%, and sequence similarities to members of the Burkholderia pseudomallei group, the closest neighbours, were 96.74-97.38%. In addition, the bacterial strains were distinguished from their phylogenetic neighbours by their fatty acid profiles and other biochemical characteristics. The phylogenetic studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, together with conclusive DNA-DNA reassociation experiments, strongly support the proposal that these strains represent two novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia rhizoxinica sp. nov. (type strain, HKI 454T=DSM 19002T=CIP 109453T) and Burkholderia endofungorum sp. nov. (type strain, HKI 456T=DSM 19003T=CIP 109454T) are proposed. PMID:17978222

  3. Identification and characterization of the cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutases of Dirofilaria immitis and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiru; Galvin, Brendan D; Raverdy, Sylvine; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2011-03-22

    Drug treatments for heartworm disease have not changed significantly in the last decade. Due to concerns about possible drug resistance and their lower efficacy against adult worms, there is a need for the development of new antifilarial drug therapies. The recent availability of genomic sequences for the related filarial parasite Brugia malayi and its Wolbachia endosymbiont enables genome-wide searching for new drug targets. Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM) enzymes catalyze the critical isomerization of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG) in glycolytic and gluconeogenic metabolic pathways. There are two unrelated PGM enzymes, which are structurally distinct and possess different mechanisms of action. The mammalian enzyme requires 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate as a cofactor (dependent PGM or dPGM), while the other type of PGM does not (independent PGM or iPGM). In the present study, we have determined that Dirofilaria immitis and its Wolbachia endosymbiont both possess active iPGM. We describe the molecular characterization and catalytic properties of each enzyme. Our results will facilitate the discovery of selective inhibitors of these iPGMs as potentially novel drug treatments for heartworm disease.

  4. Survey of endosymbionts in the Diaphorina citri metagenome and assembly of a Wolbachia wDi draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Surya; Hunter, Wayne B; Reese, Justin; Morgan, J Kent; Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Huang, Hong; Lindeberg, Magdalen

    2012-01-01

    Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. Sequencing of the D. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. To corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rDNA amplification, raw reads from the D. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference genome sequences. Results of the read mapping provided the most support for Wolbachia and an enteric bacterium most similar to Salmonella. Wolbachia-derived reads were extracted using the complete genome sequences for four Wolbachia strains. Reads were assembled into a draft genome sequence, and the annotation assessed for the presence of features potentially involved in host interaction. Genome alignment with the complete sequences reveals membership of Wolbachia wDi in supergroup B, further supported by phylogenetic analysis of FtsZ. FtsZ and Wsp phylogenies additionally indicate that the Wolbachia strain in the Florida D. citri isolate falls into a sub-clade of supergroup B, distinct from Wolbachia present in Chinese D. citri isolates, supporting the hypothesis that the D. citri introduced into Florida did not originate from China.

  5. Survey of endosymbionts in the Diaphorina citri metagenome and assembly of a Wolbachia wDi draft genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Saha

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, the Asian citrus psyllid, is the insect vector of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of citrus greening disease. Sequencing of the D. citri metagenome has been initiated to gain better understanding of the biology of this organism and the potential roles of its bacterial endosymbionts. To corroborate candidate endosymbionts previously identified by rDNA amplification, raw reads from the D. citri metagenome sequence were mapped to reference genome sequences. Results of the read mapping provided the most support for Wolbachia and an enteric bacterium most similar to Salmonella. Wolbachia-derived reads were extracted using the complete genome sequences for four Wolbachia strains. Reads were assembled into a draft genome sequence, and the annotation assessed for the presence of features potentially involved in host interaction. Genome alignment with the complete sequences reveals membership of Wolbachia wDi in supergroup B, further supported by phylogenetic analysis of FtsZ. FtsZ and Wsp phylogenies additionally indicate that the Wolbachia strain in the Florida D. citri isolate falls into a sub-clade of supergroup B, distinct from Wolbachia present in Chinese D. citri isolates, supporting the hypothesis that the D. citri introduced into Florida did not originate from China.

  6. Systematic relationships and cospeciation of bacterial endosymbionts and their carpenter ant host species: proposal of the new taxon Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C; Stackebrandt, E; Gadau, J; Hölldobler, B; Gross, R

    2000-09-01

    The systematic relationships of intracellular bacteria of 13 Camponotus species (carpenter ants) from America and Europe were compared to those of their hosts. Phylogenetic trees of the bacteria and the ants were based on 16S rDNA (rrs) gene sequences and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences, respectively. The bacterial endosymbionts of Camponotus spp. form a distinct lineage in the y-subclass of the Proteobacteria. The taxa most closely related to these bacteria are endosymbionts of aphids and the tsetse fly. The bacterial and host phylogenies deduced from the sequence data show a high degree of congruence, providing significant evidence for cospeciation of the bacteria and the ants and a maternal transmission route of the symbionts. The cloned rrs genes of the endosymbionts contain putative intervening sequences (IVSs) with a much lower G+C content than the mean of the respective rrs genes. By in situ hybridization specific 16S rDNA oligonucleotide probes verified the presence of the bacteria within tissues of three of the eukaryotic hosts. It is proposed that the endosymbionts of these three carpenter ants be assigned to a new taxon 'Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov.' with the symbionts of the individual ants being species named according to their host, 'Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus sp. nov.', 'Candidatus Blochmannia herculeanus sp. nov.' and 'Candidatus Blochmannia rufipes sp. nov.'. PMID:11034499

  7. Screening for bacterial DNA in the hard tick Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodidae from Socotra Island (Yemen: detection of Francisella-like endosymbiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montagna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-four adult ticks collected from livestock on Socotra Island (Yemen were identified as Hyalomma marginatum using traditional morphological characteristics. Morphological identification was confirmed for all the collected specimens using a molecular approach targeting a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA. All the specimens were examined for the presence of tick-borne pathogens and the tick endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii using polymerase chain reaction. Three specimens out of the 34 analyzed tested positive to the presence of Francisella spp. leading to the first detection of these bacteria in H. marginatum on Socotra Island. The phylogenetic analyses conducted on a 660 bp fragment of the ribosomal gene 16S rRNA of Francisella spp. (including F. philomiragia as outgroup, the four subspecies of F. tularensis and the Francisella-like endosymbiont of ticks confirm that the newly detected Francisella strains cluster into the Francisella-like endosymbionts of ticks. Interestingly, the detected Francisella-like endosymbiont, shows a different genotype to that previously isolated from H. marginatum collected in Bulgaria. No specimen was positive for the presence of Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi or M. mitochondrii.

  8. Systematic relationships and cospeciation of bacterial endosymbionts and their carpenter ant host species: proposal of the new taxon Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C; Stackebrandt, E; Gadau, J; Hölldobler, B; Gross, R

    2000-09-01

    The systematic relationships of intracellular bacteria of 13 Camponotus species (carpenter ants) from America and Europe were compared to those of their hosts. Phylogenetic trees of the bacteria and the ants were based on 16S rDNA (rrs) gene sequences and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences, respectively. The bacterial endosymbionts of Camponotus spp. form a distinct lineage in the y-subclass of the Proteobacteria. The taxa most closely related to these bacteria are endosymbionts of aphids and the tsetse fly. The bacterial and host phylogenies deduced from the sequence data show a high degree of congruence, providing significant evidence for cospeciation of the bacteria and the ants and a maternal transmission route of the symbionts. The cloned rrs genes of the endosymbionts contain putative intervening sequences (IVSs) with a much lower G+C content than the mean of the respective rrs genes. By in situ hybridization specific 16S rDNA oligonucleotide probes verified the presence of the bacteria within tissues of three of the eukaryotic hosts. It is proposed that the endosymbionts of these three carpenter ants be assigned to a new taxon 'Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov.' with the symbionts of the individual ants being species named according to their host, 'Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus sp. nov.', 'Candidatus Blochmannia herculeanus sp. nov.' and 'Candidatus Blochmannia rufipes sp. nov.'.

  9. Comparation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Ampelopsis humulifolia ‘Dong Yue Hong’and Ampelopsis humulifolia Bge%东岳红和葎叶蛇葡萄光合特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓晓; 荀守华; 孙居文; 臧德奎; 王玉丽

    2016-01-01

    东岳红是叶蛇葡萄的一个红叶自然变异种,具有幼叶、嫩枝、卷须和花序均为紫红色及适应性强、易繁殖的特点,其选育填补了彩叶木质藤本观赏植物的空白,观赏利用前景良好。5月份是东岳红观赏性最佳的时期,为明确该时期其光合特征及与叶蛇葡萄的差异,在相同环境条件下测定分析了两者叶片的光合特性和色素含量。结果表明:两品种的净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)和胞间 CO2浓度(Ci)的日变化趋势相近,无显著差异;Pn 的日变化呈双峰曲线,峰值出现在9∶00左右,15∶00左右又会出现一个小的峰值;Tr 日变化呈单峰曲线,峰值出现在13∶00左右;Gs 均呈降低趋势;Ci 为7∶00和17∶00值较高,9∶00和15∶00较低,11∶00~13∶00又有小幅回升。对光响应曲线和 CO2响应曲线的分析结果显示,两品种的光饱和点均在1600μmol·m -2·s -1左右,光补偿点均在30μmol·m -2·s -1左右,CO2饱和点均在1500μmol·m -2·s -1左右,东岳红的 CO2补偿点略高于叶蛇葡萄。同一时期相同叶位叶片中的叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、花色素苷含量,东岳红均显著高于叶蛇葡萄。%Ampelopsis humulifolia ‘Dong Yue Hong’is one variety of Ampelopsis humulifolia Bge.with red leaves,twiggery,tendril and inflorescence,and has strong adapatability for easy propagation.It fills in the blank of woody climber ornamental plant with color leaves,so it has better prospect for ornamental use.‘Dong Yue Hong’has the optimum ornamental value in May.To make clear its photosynthetic characteristics and the differences with Ampelopsis humulifolia Bge.at this stage,their photosynthetic characters and pigment contents were determined and analyzed in the same conditions.The results showed that the diurnal variation of photosynthesis (Pn),transpiration rate (Tr

  10. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge.F.alba on the Improvement of Learning and Memory Disturbance in Senile Mice%白花丹参水提物对衰老小鼠学习记忆障碍的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李聚仓; 郑辉; 王德才; 王浩

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究白花丹参水提物对衰老小鼠学习、记忆障碍作用的影响.方法:小鼠灌胃给予白花丹参水提物,连续6周,利用Y型迷宫、跳台法和自主活动仪,观察白花丹参水提物对D-半乳糖所致学习记忆障碍的影响.结果:结果表明白花丹参水提物能明显改善D-半乳糖所致的学习记忆障碍的能力(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:白花丹参水提物对于衰老小鼠的学习、记忆障碍有明显的改善作用.%Objective:To study the effects of aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.F.alba on the improvement of learning and memory disturbance in senile mice.Methods :The mice were ig aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.F.alba for six weeks continuously.The learning and memory ability of senile mice which was caused by D - galactose were determined with Y - maze test and step - down test, and autonomic activities test.Result: The aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.F.alba improved the learning and memory function of dysmnesia mice caused by D - galactose (P <0.05 或 P <0.01 ).Conclusion:The aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.F.alba could improve learning and memory disturbance in senile mice.

  11. Amenorrhea - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary amenorrhea; No periods - primary; Absent periods - primary; Absent menses - primary; Absence of periods - primary ... with an average of around 12 years old. Primary amenorrhea typically occurs when a girl is older ...

  12. The endosymbionts Wolbachia and Cardinium and their effects in three populations of the predatory mite Neoseiulus paspalivorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famah Sourassou, Nazer; Hanna, Rachid; Breeuwer, Johannes A J; Negloh, Koffi; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2014-10-01

    Whereas endosymbiont-induced incompatibility is known to occur in various arthropod taxa, such as spider mites, insects and isopods, it has been rarely reported in plant-inhabiting predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Recent cross-breeding studies with the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus paspalivorus De Leon revealed a complete post-mating reproductive isolation between specimens collected from three geographic origins-Northeast Brazil (South America), Benin and Ghana (West Africa)-even though they are morphologically similar. We carried out a study to assess to what extent these populations exhibit genetic differences and whether endosymbionts are involved in the incompatibility. First, we used the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene to assess genetic diversity among the three populations. Second, we used a PCR-based method to check for the presence of Wolbachia and/or Cardinium in these populations, and we determined their phylogenetic relationships using specific primers for Wolbachia and Cardinium 16S rDNA genes. Third, we also conducted a test using an antibiotic (tetracycline) in an attempt to eliminate the symbionts and evaluate their effects on the reproductive compatibility of their host. Based on the DNA sequences of their COI genes, specimens of the three populations appear to be genetically similar. However, the 16S rDNA gene sequences of their associated endosymbionts differed among the three populations: the Benin and Brazil populations harbour different strains of Wolbachia symbionts, whereas the Ghana population harbours Cardinium symbionts. In response to antibiotic treatment females of each of the three populations became incompatible with untreated males of their own population, similar to that observed in crossings between females from one geographic population and males from another. Compatibility was restored in crosses involving uninfected Brazil females and uninfected Benin males, whereas the reciprocal crosses remained incompatible

  13. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Goodacre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  14. 正交试验法优选超声提取知母皂甙的研究%Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of the Total Saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛小娟; 陈晓青; 李珏

    2007-01-01

    用正交实验法对知母(Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge.)中总皂甙的超声提取工艺进行了研究,采用正交表L9(34),以提取剂的体积分数、料液比(mA:VB)、提取时间以及提取次数为因素,以知母总皂甙元的含量为指标,用紫外分光光度计法进行检测,所得提取液经大孔树脂纯化,得到的最佳提取参数和结果为:以φ(乙醇)=75%的水溶液为提取剂、提取料液比mA:VB=1:8、提取次数2次、每次30 min,提取率92.8%,纯度91.0%.结果证明了对知母而言,超声提取法是一种提取效率高、操作简便、省时的方法.

  15. Pharmacological study on chemical composition and clinical application of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf%丹参和白花丹参叶的化学成分药理研究及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓凤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丹参和白花丹参叶的化学成分药理研究及临床应用,为新药的研制奠定基础。方法:通过参阅大量相关文献,对丹参和白花丹参叶的化学成分、药理研究及临床应用进行分析总结。结果:丹参和白花丹参叶所具有的抗氧化作用均能较好的预防脑梗塞,与根相比叶对脑缺血的保护作用更强,在对心脑血管疾病的防预治疗中被广泛应用;白花丹参叶中的水提物对糖尿病代谢紊乱症状的改善能够起到长期稳定的效果;另外丹参叶在治疗扁平疣、冠心病心绞痛等方面也具有较好的效果。结论:丹参和白花丹参叶均具有稳定的药理作用,但目前在抗氧化和保护脑梗塞的药理研究中仍以白花丹参叶为主,对于丹参叶的药理研究和临床应用则很少。因此对丹参叶主要化学成分进行深入的药理研究是很有必要的。%Objective:To study the pharmacological effects of chemical composition and clinical application of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf, lay the foundation for the development of new drugs. Method: by referring to a large number of relevant literature, chemical constituents,pharmacological study and clinical application of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf were analyzed. Results:the antioxidant effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf has can prevent cerebral infarction better, compared with a protective effect on cerebral ischemia of the leaf is stronger, is widely used in the treatment ofcardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease prevention; Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf water extract on diabetic metabolic disorder symptoms can playthe long-term stability of the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge;in addition alsohas a good effect on the treatment of flat wart, such as coronary heart disease and angina. Conclusion: Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia

  16. Genetic diversity of Wolbachia endosymbionts in Culex quinquefasciatus from Hawai`i, Midway Atoll, and Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Watcher-Weatherwax, William; Lapointe, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Incompatible insect techniques are potential methods for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus and avian disease transmission in Hawai‘i without the use of pesticides or genetically modified organisms. The approach is based on naturally occurring sperm-egg incompatibilities within the Culex pipiens complex that are controlled by different strains of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wPip). Incompatibilities can be unidirectional (crosses between males infected with strain A and females infected with strain B are fertile, while reciprocal crosses are not) or bidirectional (reciprocal crosses between sexes with different wPip strains are infertile). The technique depends on release of sufficient numbers of male mosquitoes infected with an incompatible wPip strain to suppress mosquito populations and reduce transmission of introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and Avipoxvirus in native forest bird habitats. Both diseases are difficult to manage using more traditional methods based on removal and treatment of larval habitats and coordination of multiple approaches may be needed to control this vector. We characterized the diversity of Wolbachia strains in C. quinquefasciatus from Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, Midway Atoll, and American Samoa with a variety of genetic markers to identify compatibility groups and their distribution within and between islands. We confirmed the presence of wPip with multilocus sequence typing, tested for local genetic variability using 16 WO prophage genes, and identified similarities to strains from other parts of the world with a transposable element (tr1). We also tested for genetic differences in ankyrin motifs (ank2 and pk1) which have been used to classify wPip strains into five worldwide groups (wPip1–wPip5) that vary in compatibility with each other based on experimental crosses. We found a mixture of both widely distributed and site specific genotypes based on presence or absence of WO prophage and transposable

  17. Effect of Plant Density and Base Fertilizer on The Yield and Agronomic Traits of Gentiana scabra Bge%不同种植密度和基肥对龙胆某些农艺性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏云洁; 张舒娜; 张亚玉

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different density and base fertilizers on agronomic traits of Gentiana sca‐bra Bge .The result showed that plant density have no significantly affected on aerial part traits of Gentiana scabra Bge .The highest value of stem diameter were found in 20 plant per row treatment ,which were significantly higher than 15 plant per row treatment .Plant density have significantly affected on root length ,single root weight and plot yield ,and these values increased with an increase in plant density .The optimum plant density was 20 and 25 plant per row which could promote yield and aerial part growth .Base fertilizer could promote growth except 100g/m2 ,the value of plant heigh ,stem diameter ,leaf length and leaf width all higher than control .For root characters ,the value of root length ,single root weight ,the number of fibrous root and plot yield ,all higher than control except 100g/m2 treatment .Comprehensive analysis of agronomic traits ,the optimum applied amount of chemical fertilizer was 75g/m2 .%通过对龙胆草种植密度及基肥的试验研究,分析二者对龙胆草地上部和地下部农艺性状的影响。结果表明,不同种植密度对龙胆草地上部性状株高、叶长和叶宽影响不大,各处理之间差异不显著,茎粗以20株/行处理最好,与15株/行之间差异达到显著水平。根部各性状随着种植密度的增加而增加,尤其对根长、根重和小区产量的影响达到显著水平,龙胆种植密度以25株/行和20株/行处理比较好,可促进植株生长,并能提高其产量;复合肥基肥试验中,除100g/m2处理外,各处理地上部株高、茎粗、叶长和叶宽值均高于对照,对植株生长起到促进作用;地下部各性状,除100g/m2处理外,各处理根长、根粗、须根数、根重和小区产量值均高于或显著高于对照,综合分析龙胆植株各生长性状和产量性状以75g/m2处理最好。

  18. Generalist dinoflagellate endosymbionts and host genotype diversity detected from mesophotic (67-100 m depths coral Leptoseris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahng Samuel E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesophotic corals (light-dependent corals in the deepest half of the photic zone at depths of 30 - 150 m provide a unique opportunity to study the limits of the interactions between corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. We sampled Leptoseris spp. in Hawaii via manned submersibles across a depth range of 67 - 100 m. Both the host and Symbiodinium communities were genotyped, using a non-coding region of the mitochondrial ND5 intron (NAD5 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2, respectively. Results Coral colonies harbored endosymbiotic communities dominated by previously identified shallow water Symbiodinium ITS2 types (C1_ AF333515, C1c_ AY239364, C27_ AY239379, and C1b_ AY239363 and exhibited genetic variability at mitochondrial NAD5. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to examine genetic diversity in corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates sampled at the limits of the depth and light gradients for hermatypic corals. The results reveal that these corals associate with generalist endosymbiont types commonly found in shallow water corals and implies that the composition of the Symbiodinium community (based on ITS2 alone is not responsible for the dominance and broad depth distribution of Leptoseris spp. The level of genetic diversity detected in the coral NAD5 suggests that there is undescribed taxonomic diversity in the genus Leptoseris from Hawaii.

  19. Molecular Investigation of Francisella-Like Endosymbiont in Ticks and Francisella tularensis in Ixodid Ticks and Mosquitoes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission.

  20. Molecular Investigation of Francisella-Like Endosymbiont in Ticks and Francisella tularensis in Ixodid Ticks and Mosquitoes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission. PMID:26741324

  1. Long-range dispersal and high-latitude environments influence the population structure of a "stress-tolerant" dinoflagellate endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tye Pettay

    Full Text Available The migration and dispersal of stress-tolerant symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium may influence the response of symbiotic reef-building corals to a warming climate. We analyzed the genetic structure of the stress-tolerant endosymbiont, Symbiodinium glynni nomen nudum (ITS2 - D1, obtained from Pocillopora colonies that dominate eastern Pacific coral communities. Eleven microsatellite loci identified genotypically diverse populations with minimal genetic subdivision throughout the Eastern Tropical Pacific, encompassing 1000's of square kilometers from mainland Mexico to the Galapagos Islands. The lack of population differentiation over these distances corresponds with extensive regional host connectivity and indicates that Pocillopora larvae, which maternally inherit their symbionts, aid in the dispersal of this symbiont. In contrast to its host, however, subtropical populations of S. glynni in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez were strongly differentiated from populations in tropical eastern Pacific. Selection pressures related to large seasonal fluctuations in temperature and irradiance likely explain this abrupt genetic discontinuity. We infer that S. glynni genotypes harbored by host larvae arriving from more southern locations are rapidly replaced by genotypes adapted to more temperate environments. The strong population structure of S. glynni corresponds with fluctuating environmental conditions and suggests that these genetically diverse populations have the potential to evolve rapidly to changing environments and reveals the importance of environmental extremes in driving microbial eukaryote (e.g., plankton speciation in marine ecosystems.

  2. Endosymbiont detection and phylogeny of Wolbachia in Diaphorina citri and Dialeurodes citri%华南地区柑橘木虱与柑橘粉虱内共生菌检测及其Wolbachia共生菌的系统发育关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀新; 师沛琼; 许炜明; 覃振强; 任顺祥; 邱宝利

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives] To survey the infection rates of different symbiotic bacteria in different geographic populations of the citrus psyllid and citrus whitefly, and to analyze the phylogenetic relationships between different Wolbachia populations in order to provide endosymbiont-based scientific support for the continuous management of the citrus psyllid and citrus whitefly. [Methods] Endosymbionts in citrus psyllids from Guangzhou, Zhanjiang, Xiamen, Guilin and Nanning, and citrus whiteflies from Guangzhou, were detected using PCR. The phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia were analyzed using a phylogenetic tree constructed with MEGA 5.0 based on the Wolbachia wsp and MLST genes detected in citrus psyllids and citrus whiteflies. [Results] All citrus psyllid and whitefly populations in the current study were infected with the primary endosymbiont Portiera and the secondary endosymbionts Wolbachia, Cardinium, Rickettsia, but infection rates of these three endosymbionts varied between different geographical populations. Arsenophonus was only detectable in Guangzhou and Zhanjiang psyllid populations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Wolbachia endosymbionts in all citrus psyllid and whitefly populations were very similar and belonged to the Con group of the Wolbachia B supergroup. [Conclusion] The species and infection rates of endosymbionts varied among different geographical populations of the citrus psyllid and whitefly. There is no apparent coevolutionary relationship between Wolbachia and its psyllid hosts. Indeed, the high homology of Wolbachia in different hosts suggests plant-mediated horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between different psyllid hosts.%【目的】探明不同地理种群的柑橘木虱Diaphorina citri Kuwayama和柑橘粉虱Dialeurodes citri Ashmead体内昆虫内共生菌的种类及其感染率,并以Wolbachia共生菌为代表,对其系统发育关系进行分析,为今后自共生菌角度研发柑橘木虱和柑橘粉虱的新型

  3. Primary Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Primary Syphilis Information for adults A A A This image ... ulcer with a red base, typical of primary syphilis. Overview Primary syphilis is a disease caused by ...

  4. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana M; Cook, James M

    2009-01-01

    Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306) of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may reflect a bottleneck during

  5. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook James M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306 of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may

  6. High pressure freezing/freeze substitution fixation improves the ultrastructural assessment of Wolbachia endosymbiont-filarial nematode host interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia α-proteobacteria are essential for growth, reproduction and survival for many filarial nematode parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Endobacteria were discovered in filarial parasites by transmission electron microscopy in the 1970's using chemically fixed specimens. Despite improvements of fixation and electron microscopy techniques during the last decades, methods to study the Wolbachia/filaria interaction on the ultrastructural level remained unchanged and the mechanisms for exchange of materials and for motility of endobacteria are not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We used high pressure freezing/freeze substitution to improve fixation of Brugia malayi and its endosymbiont, and this led to improved visualization of different morphological forms of Wolbachia. The three concentric, bilayer membranes that surround the endobacterial cytoplasm were well preserved. Vesicles with identical membrane structures were identified close to the endobacteria, and multiple bacteria were sometimes enclosed within a single outer membrane. Immunogold electron microscopy using a monoclonal antibody directed against Wolbachia surface protein-1 labeled the membranes that enclose Wolbachia and Wolbachia-associated vesicles. High densities of Wolbachia were observed in the lateral chords of L4 larvae, immature, and mature adult worms. Extracellular Wolbachia were sometimes present in the pseudocoelomic cavity near the developing female reproductive organs. Wolbachia-associated actin tails were not observed. Wolbachia motility may be explained by their residence within vacuoles, as they may co-opt the host cell's secretory pathway to move within and between cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High pressure freezing/freeze substitution significantly improved the preservation of filarial tissues for electron microscopy to reveal membranes and sub cellular structures that could be crucial for exchange of materials between Wolbachia

  7. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M; Berkelmans, R; van Oppen, M J H; Mieog, J C; Sinclair, W

    2008-06-22

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthellae they harbour and, when multiple types are present, the relative abundance of types can be experimentally manipulated to increase the thermal limits of individual corals. Although the potential exists for this to translate into substantial thermal acclimatization of coral communities, to date there is no evidence to show that this takes place under natural conditions. In this study, we show field evidence of a dramatic change in the symbiont community of Acropora millepora, a common and widespread Indo-Pacific hard coral species, after a natural bleaching event in early 2006 in the Keppel Islands (Great Barrier Reef). Before bleaching, 93.5% (n=460) of the randomly sampled and tagged colonies predominantly harboured the thermally sensitive Symbiodinium type C2, while the remainder harboured a tolerant Symbiodinium type belonging to clade D or mixtures of C2 and D. After bleaching, 71% of the surviving tagged colonies that were initially C2 predominant changed to D or C1 predominance. Colonies that were originally C2 predominant suffered high mortality (37%) compared with D-predominant colonies (8%). We estimate that just over 18% of the original A. millepora population survived unchanged leaving 29% of the population C2 and 71% D or C1 predominant six months after the bleaching event. This change in the symbiont community structure, while it persists, is likely to have substantially increased the thermal tolerance of this coral population. Understanding the processes that underpin the temporal changes in symbiont communities is key to assessing the acclimatization potential of reef corals.

  8. Molecular characterization of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from Wolbachia endosymbiont of lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shrivastava

    Full Text Available The lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi contains Wolbachia endobacteria that are essential for development, viability and fertility of the parasite. Therefore, wolbachial proteins have been currently seen as the potential antifilarial drug targets. NAD(+-dependent DNA ligase is characterized as a promising drug target in several organisms due to its crucial, indispensable role in DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of NAD(+-dependent DNA ligase of Wolbachia endosymbiont of B. malayi (wBm-LigA for its molecular characterization. wBm-LigA has all the domains that are present in nearly all the eubacterial NAD(+-dependent DNA ligases such as N-terminal adenylation domain, OB fold, helix-hairpin-helix (HhH and BRCT domain except zinc-binding tetracysteine domain. The purified recombinant protein (683-amino acid was found to be biochemically active and was present in its native form as revealed by the circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra. The purified recombinant enzyme was able to catalyze intramolecular strand joining on a nicked DNA as well as intermolecular joining of the cohesive ends of BstEII restricted lamda DNA in an in vitro assay. The enzyme was localized in the various life-stages of B. malayi parasites by immunoblotting and high enzyme expression was observed in Wolbachia within B. malayi microfilariae and female adult parasites along the hypodermal chords and in the gravid portion as evident by the confocal microscopy. Ours is the first report on this enzyme of Wolbachia and these findings would assist in validating the antifilarial drug target potential of wBm-LigA in future studies.

  9. 苦碟子化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of the constituents from whole plant of Ixeris sonchifolia( Bge.)Hance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晶; 艾瑞婷; 周凌艳; 刘冰洁; 李玲芝; 彭缨

    2011-01-01

    目的 对菊科苦荬菜属植物抱茎苦荬菜[ Ixeris sonchifolia( Bge.) Hance]的化学成分进行研究.方法 运用硅胶、聚酰胺柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱、ODS柱色谱、制备HPLC等分离手段进行化学成分的分离纯化,根据理化性质及波谱数据鉴定其结构.结果 从苦碟子全草中分离得到4个化合物.分别鉴定为3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one acetate(1)、3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone(2)、7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-luteolin-3’ -O-β-D-glucopyranoside(3)、5,7-dihydroxy-4’-methoxyflavone-7-rutinoside (4).结论 这些化合物均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.%Objective To synthesize flavone and its derivatives and study their antitumor activities. To find a new method for efficient synthesis of flavones. Methods The 1,3-dione compounds were synthesized from 2,4,6-trihydroxylacetophenohe via selective methylation,esterification,Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement, a series of flavones were obtained by trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate(TMSOTf) catalytic cycliza-tion. Starting from chrysin as the lead compounds, six chrysin derivatives, including one new compound, were synthesized via alkylation reaction. In addition, six Mannich base derivatives of chrysin were synthesized through Mannich reaction from secondary amine and chrysin. Their in vitro antitumor activities were e-valuated in C6 cells and HepG2 cells by Mil assay. Results and Conclusions Seventeen compounds were synthesized and characterized by 'H-NMR, ES-MS. Preliminary pharmacological results showed that four compounds possessed more potent antitumor activity than chrysin in vitro.

  10. 棘阿米巴CB/S1内共生细菌的超微结构%Ultrastructure of Endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp.CB/S1 Isolated from Soil of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    延根; 郑善子; 玄英花

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察棘阿米巴内共生细菌的超微结构.方法:用地衣红-卡红染色确认棘阿米巴土壤分离株CB/S1内存在共生细菌,在透射电镜下观察其超微结构.结果:透射电镜下可见在棘阿米巴胞质内不规则分布的共生细菌,呈棒状,具有双层膜,膜外附着许多棘阿米巴宿主的核糖体.结论:内共生细菌的存在对宿主阿米巴的结构没有引起特殊的改变.%Objective: To observe the ultrastructure of bacterial endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. CB/ SI. Methods; The endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba CB/S1 isolated from soil of China were characterized by orcein-stain under transmission electron microscopic examination. Results: Double membrane bound and rod-shaped endosymbionts were randomly distributed in trophozoites of Acanthamoeba isolate. The bacterial cell walls of endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba CB/S1 were studded with host ribosomes. Conclusion: Rode-shaped endosymbionts were randomly distributed within the cytoplasm of trophozoite of Acanthamoeba sp. CB/S1. The endosymbionts have double membranes, and the bacterial cell surfaces are studded with a number of host cell ribosomes. No specific feature could be observed within the amoeba.

  11. Factors affecting population dynamics of maternally transmitted endosymbionts in Bemisia tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available While every individual of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae harbors the primary symbiont (P-symbiont Portiera, the infection frequencies of the six secondary symbionts (S-symbionts including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea vary greatly among different populations. To characterize the factors influencing the infection dynamics of the six S-symbionts in B. tabaci, gene-specific PCR were conducted to screen for the presence of the P-symbiont Portiera and the six S-symbionts in 61 (17 B and 44 Q biotypes field populations collected from different plant species and locations in China. All individuals of the 61 populations hosted the P-symbiont Portiera, but none of them harbored Arsenophonus and Fritschea. The presence and infection rates of Hamiltonella, Cardinium, Rickettsia, Wolbachia and their co-infections Rickettsia + Hamiltonella (RH, Rickettsia + Cardinium (RC, Hamiltonella + Cardinium (HC and Rickettsia + Hamiltonella + Cardinium (RHC varied significantly among the 61 field populations; and the observed variations can be explained by biotypes, sexes, host plants and geographical locations of these field populations. Taken together, at least three factors including biotype, host plant and geographical location affect the infection dynamics of S-symbionts in B. tabaci.

  12. Genetics coupled to quantitative intact proteomics links heritable aphid and endosymbiont protein expression to circulative polerovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, M; Tamborindeguy, C; Fish, T; Howe, K; Thannhauser, T W; Gray, S

    2011-03-01

    Yellow dwarf viruses in the family Luteoviridae, which are the causal agents of yellow dwarf disease in cereal crops, are each transmitted most efficiently by different species of aphids in a circulative manner that requires the virus to interact with a multitude of aphid proteins. Aphid proteins differentially expressed in F2 Schizaphis graminum genotypes segregating for the ability to transmit Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) were identified using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled to either matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem mass spectrometry or online nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 50 protein spots, containing aphid proteins and proteins from the aphid's obligate and maternally inherited bacterial endosymbiont, Buchnera, were identified as differentially expressed between transmission-competent and refractive aphids. Surprisingly, in virus transmission-competent F2 genotypes, the isoelectric points of the Buchnera proteins did not match those in the maternal Buchnera proteome as expected, but instead they aligned with the Buchnera proteome of the transmission-competent paternal parent. Among the aphid proteins identified, many were involved in energy metabolism, membrane trafficking, lipid signaling, and the cytoskeleton. At least eight aphid proteins were expressed as heritable, isoelectric point isoform pairs, one derived from each parental lineage. In the F2 genotypes, the expression of aphid protein isoforms derived from the competent parental lineage aligned with the virus transmission phenotype with high precision. Thus, these isoforms are candidate biomarkers for CYDV-RPV transmission in S. graminum. Our combined genetic and DIGE approach also made it possible to predict where several of the proteins may be expressed in refractive aphids with different barriers to transmission. Twelve proteins were predicted to act in the hindgut of the aphid

  13. Relation of bud dormancy to carbohydrate metabolism in Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok.%休眠期欧李碳水化合物代谢与休眠关系的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀珍; 陈苏丹; 李天忠

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned on the relation of bud dormancy to carbohydrate metabolism, The annual shoots from underground stem was used as the experimental materials. The components of carbohydrates and the enzymes activities were measured in phloem and bud of dormant Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok. The results indicated that soluble sugar content was higher than starch in phloem and bud in dormancy period. The highest ratio of soluble sugar and starch reached to 4.77. Most sugar was sucrose and then fructose, sorbitol and glucose. A few amount of fructose in bud were detected in natural dormancy stage. But its content increased rapidly in enhanced dormancy stage and in germination period,reaching to 2.05% in germination period. The changes in enzyme activities in phloem and bud were in line with that of soluble sugar. The activity of SPS was higher than that of other enzymes, but quickly decreased in natural dormancy stage,and reached to minimum at the end of the natural dormancy. The reduction in bud and phloem was 94. 18% and 84.78% respectively. The activity of p-amylase was higher that of a-amylase. Based on the integrated analyses above,the main accumulated carbohydrate in dormant Chinese dwarf cherry was soluble sugar. The relief of natural dormancy was obviously linked with the change of sucrose and reduction of the SPS activity. Change in the fructose contents was related to the dormancy and germination of bud.%为探讨休眠期欧李碳水化合物代谢与休眠的关系,以休眠期欧李1年生基生枝为试材,采用气相色谱等方法,分析了韧皮部、芽中碳水化合物含量及其相关酶活性变化。结果表明:休眠阶段欧李韧皮部和芽中可溶性糖含量均高于淀粉,二者比值最高可达4.77,其中含量最高的为蔗糖,其次是果糖、山梨醇和葡萄糖;自然休眠期芽中检查不到果糖含量,但在被迫休眠期和芽萌动期迅速增加,至芽萌动期质量分数达2.05%;休眠期韧皮部和芽中

  14. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  15. Primary fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, L T; Foldager, Marie Viftrup;

    1990-01-01

    Serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide have previously been reported to be low in some patients with primary fibromyalgia and the aim of this study was to determine if such patients differ clinically from primary fibromyalgia patients with normal levels of procollagen...... type III aminoterminal peptide. Subjective symptoms, tender points and dynamic muscle strength in 45 women with primary fibromyalgia were related to serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide. Patients with low serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide...... concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide of primary fibromyalgia patients are connected to the disease impact....

  16. Syphilis - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary syphilis; Secondary syphilis; Late syphilis; Tertiary syphilis ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum . This bacterium causes ...

  17. Hyperthyroidism (primary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2010-01-01

    . METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for primary hyperthyroidism? What are the effects of surgical treatments for primary hyperthyroidism? What are the effects of treatments for subclinical...

  18. Cloning, expression and characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA from Wolbachia endosymbiont of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahab

    Full Text Available Wolbachia, an endosymbiont of filarial nematode, is considered a promising target for treatment of lymphatic filariasis. Although functional characterization of the Wolbachia peptidoglycan assembly has not been fully explored, the Wolbachia genome provides evidence for coding all of the genes involved in lipid II biosynthesis, a part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA is one of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway enzymes and it has inevitably been recognized as an antibiotic target. In view of the vital role of MurA in bacterial viability and survival, MurA ortholog from Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi (wBm-MurA was cloned, expressed and purified for further molecular characterization. The enzyme kinetics and inhibition studies were undertaken using fosfomycin. wBm-MurA was found to be expressed in all the major life stages of B. malayi and was immunolocalized in Wolbachia within the microfilariae and female adults by the confocal microscopy. Sequence analysis suggests that the amino acids crucial for enzymatic activity are conserved. The purified wBm-MurA was shown to possess the EPSP synthase (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase like activity at a broad pH range with optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 37°C temperature. The apparent affinity constant (Km for the substrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine was found to be 0.03149 mM and for phosphoenolpyruvate 0.009198 mM. The relative enzymatic activity was inhibited ∼2 fold in presence of fosfomycin. Superimposition of the wBm-MurA homology model with the structural model of Haemophilus influenzae (Hi-MurA suggests binding of fosfomycin at the same active site. The findings suggest wBm-MurA to be a putative antifilarial drug target for screening of novel compounds.

  19. Primary Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Izawa, K. -I.

    1997-01-01

    We consider an inflationary universe scenario with multiple stages of inflation. The primary inflation, which may start at the Planck epoch, is followed by secondary inflations, which include the cosmological inflation that causes the primordial density fluctuations of our universe. We point out that an initial condition for a secondary inflation is naturally realized if the e-fold number of the primary inflation is sufficiently large.

  20. 响应面法优化丹参中抗无乳链球菌活性成分的提取工艺%Optimization of the Extraction Conditions of Active Components for Inhibition of Streptococcus agalactiae from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. Using Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓恒为; 郭伟良; 孙晓飞; 谢珍玉; 王世锋; 胡文婷; 周永灿

    2014-01-01

    In recent yearsStreptococcus agalactiae(SA) has become the most harmful pathogen to cultured tilapia in Hainan and many southern provinces of China.Salvia miltiorrhizaBge is highly resistant to SA, but it contains complex components and which component is responsible for the resistance to SA has not been reported. Here we investigated the effects of extraction conditions on the yield of anti-SA components inS. miltiorrhizaBge and optimized the extraction method. We first developed the agar diffusion method for the quantitative analysis of extracted anti-SA components; then we used the yields of anti-SA components fromSalvia miltiorrhizaBge as the responsive values to study the effects of extraction conditions on the yield of the anti-SA components, including the extraction solvent, extraction times, the ratio of liquid to solid, infiltration time, temperature and extraction time in single-factor experiments; finally we further optimized the ratio of liquid to solid, infiltration time, temperature and extraction time using the four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken experimental design with response surface method. The results of the agar diffusion showed that the standard equation for the determination of anti-SA components fromS. miltiorrhizaBge wasY= 4.842X+ 16.707 (R2= 0.9873). The results of the single-factor experiments showed that the most suitable extraction solvent and times was 20% ethanol aqueous solution for 1 time. The results of the Box-Behnken experimental design with response surface method showed that the infiltration time, the extraction temperature, and the ratio of liquid to solid had extremely vital effects on the responsive values. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of liquid to solid was 37.8:1.0 (ml:g), the infiltration time was 104 min, the extraction temperature was 86.7℃ and the extraction time was 182 min. The predicted maximum yield of anti-SA components was 25.95%, under the RSM model-generated optimal extraction

  1. Primary Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Carre, P.; Kamm, B.; Schoenicke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Primary processing of oil-containing material involves pre-treatment processes, oil recovery processes and the extraction and valorisation of valuable compounds from waste streams. Pre-treatment processes, e.g. thermal, enzymatic, electrical and radio frequency, have an important effect on the oil r

  2. Study of red pigment from flowers of Cercis chinensis Bge.on blood glucose and serum lipid levels in model rats%紫荆花红色素对模型动物血糖和血脂的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金亭; 吴广庆; 杨敏一

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of red pigment from flowers of Cercis chinensis Bge.on blood glucose and serum lipid levels in model rats.Method:The diabetes mellitus rat model was induced with alloxan (ALX)by abdominal cavity injecting and hyperlipidemia by intragastric administration of high-fat cream in SD rats.Animals were divided into control group and different doses groups(high,middle and low),and dosed according to body weight of rats.The serum glucose consistence was determined by blood glucose monitor and serum TC,TG,HDL-C and LDL-C were detected by corresponding reagent box.Results:Diabetic model rats were treated with alloxan successfully.Each dose group of red pigment from flowers of Cercis chinensis Bge.could increase body weight and middle dose,high dose all can decrease the blood glucose of diabetic rats markedly(p < 0.01).The hyperlipoidemia model rats were treated with high-fat cream successfully.The red pigment could decrease the serum contents of TC and LDL-C significantly(p < 0.05),middle dose and high dose could decrease the levels of TG (p < 0.05)and the value of LDL-C/HDL-C and arteriosclerotic index,high dose increase serum level of HDL-C obviously(p < 0.01).Conclusion:The red pigment from flowers of Cercis chinensis Bge.could regulate blood glucose of diabetic rats treated with alloxan and the levels of hyperlipidemia rat treated with high-fat cream obviously.%目的:观察紫荆花红色素对模型动物血糖和血脂水平的影响.方法:腹腔注射四氧嘧啶制备糖尿病小鼠模型,灌胃高脂乳剂制备高脂血症大鼠模型.将动物分成对照和高、中、低不同剂量组,按动物体重给药实验.强生血糖仪测定小鼠血糖浓度,试剂盒法测定血清TC、TG、HDL-C和LDL-C等生化指标.结果:四氧嘧啶致糖尿病小鼠造模成功,紫荆花红色素各剂量组使小鼠体重显著增大,高、中剂量组使血糖显著降低(p<0.01).高脂乳剂致SD大鼠高脂血症造模成功,红

  3. 丹参水溶性部位抑制血管内皮细胞凋亡的作用及机制研究%Studies on the effect and the underlying mechnism of aqua-soluble extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.inhibits apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启韬; 郭庆梅; 邬元红; 王鹏; 孟冰雪

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To find out the role of aqua-soluble extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. in the protection of vascular endothelial cells (VEC) and its possible mechanism in vitro. Methods: Added a series of this ingredient to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Apoptotic morphological changes of cells were observed under inverted phase contrast microscope. Nuclear fragmentation of cells were observed under laser scanning confocal microcopy after being stained with acridinorange. Cell cycle distribution was detected by the flow-cytometric after being stained with PI. The activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glu-tathione peroxidase(GPH-PX) as well as maleic dialdehyde(MDA) level in cells were measured by spectrophotomet-ric methods as described in the assay kits. Results: Apoptotic morphological changes and the decrease of cell viability of these cells were obviously inhibited by aqua-soluble extract of Salvia miUiorrhiza Bge. in a dose-dependent way. Furthermore, the abnormal cell cycle distribution, the decrease of GSH-Px activity and the increase of MDA level induced by LPS were markedly reversed. Conclution: The aqua-soluble extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. produces protective action on VEC induced by LPS via an antioxidative mechanism.%目的:探明丹参水溶性部位对脂多糖(LPS)处理的血管内皮细胞(VEC)凋亡的保护作用及机制.方法:内毒素处理培养的人脐静脉内皮细胞造成细胞凋亡.培养液中添加系列浓度的丹参水溶性成分培养细胞,倒置相差显微镜观测细胞形态变化.吖啶橙染色,共聚焦显微镜观测凋亡细胞核片段化状况;PI染核,流式细胞仪检测细胞周期分布.生化试剂盒检测细胞内丙二醛(MDA)含量及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)活性.结果:脂多糖处理使VEC形成大量凋亡小体,细胞核片段化严重,明显降低了细胞存活率,改变了细胞周期的

  4. The Transcriptome of Bathymodiolus azoricus Gill Reveals Expression of Genes from Endosymbionts and Free-Living Deep-Sea Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Bettencourt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea environments are largely unexplored habitats where a surprising number of species may be found in large communities, thriving regardless of the darkness, extreme cold, and high pressure. Their unique geochemical features result in reducing environments rich in methane and sulfides, sustaining complex chemosynthetic ecosystems that represent one of the most surprising findings in oceans in the last 40 years. The deep-sea Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field, located in the Mid Atlantic Ridge, is home to large vent mussel communities where Bathymodiolus azoricus represents the dominant faunal biomass, owing its survival to symbiotic associations with methylotrophic or methanotrophic and thiotrophic bacteria. The recent transcriptome sequencing and analysis of gill tissues from B. azoricus revealed a number of genes of bacterial origin, hereby analyzed to provide a functional insight into the gill microbial community. The transcripts supported a metabolically active microbiome and a variety of mechanisms and pathways, evidencing also the sulfur and methane metabolisms. Taxonomic affiliation of transcripts and 16S rRNA community profiling revealed a microbial community dominated by thiotrophic and methanotrophic endosymbionts of B. azoricus and the presence of a Sulfurovum-like epsilonbacterium.

  5. 'Candidatus Adiutrix intracellularis', an endosymbiont of termite gut flagellates, is the first representative of a deep-branching clade of Deltaproteobacteria and a putative homoacetogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Strassert, Jürgen F H; Köhler, Tim; Mikaelyan, Aram; Gregor, Ivan; McHardy, Alice C; Tringe, Susannah Green; Hugenholtz, Phil; Radek, Renate; Brune, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Termite gut flagellates are typically colonized by specific bacterial symbionts. Here we describe the phylogeny, ultrastructure and subcellular location of 'Candidatus Adiutrix intracellularis', an intracellular symbiont of Trichonympha collaris in the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. It represents a novel, deep-branching clade of uncultured Deltaproteobacteria widely distributed in intestinal tracts of termites and cockroaches. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy localized the endosymbiont near hydrogenosomes in the posterior part and near the ectosymbiont 'Candidatus Desulfovibrio trichonymphae' in the anterior part of the host cell. The draft genome of 'Ca. Adiutrix intracellularis' obtained from a metagenomic library revealed the presence of a complete gene set encoding the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, including two homologs of fdhF encoding hydrogenase-linked formate dehydrogenases (FDHH ) and all other components of the recently described hydrogen-dependent carbon dioxide reductase (HDCR) complex, which substantiates previous claims that the symbiont is capable of reductive acetogenesis from CO2 and H2 . The close phylogenetic relationship between the HDCR components and their homologs in homoacetogenic Firmicutes and Spirochaetes suggests that the deltaproteobacterium acquired the capacity for homoacetogenesis via lateral gene transfer. The presence of genes for nitrogen fixation and the biosynthesis of amino acids and cofactors indicate the nutritional nature of the symbiosis. PMID:26914459

  6. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar. PMID:24867807

  7. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase--a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in. PMID:26806463

  8. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase-a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in. PMID:26806463

  9. Can the tight co-speciation between reed beetles (Col., Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae) and their bacterial endosymbionts, which provide cocoon material, clarify the deeper phylogeny of the hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölsch, Gregor; Pedersen, Bo V

    2010-03-01

    In most mutualistic symbioses of insects and intracellular bacteria, the endosymbionts provide additional nutrients to a host that feeds on an unbalanced diet. A strictly vertical transmission leads to co-speciation between the two partners. We have investigated an insect-bacteria relationship with a non-nutritional basis. The reed beetles (Donaciinae) harbor bacteria that produce a secretion used by the larvae for building a cocoon for pupation in mud underwater. The 16S rRNA of the bacteria and the cytochrome c oxidase I and elongation factor 1alpha of the beetles have been partially sequenced. The bacterial and the host phylogeny were highly congruent. Larger taxonomic units (genera) and host species groups/pairs have been recovered in the bacterial phylogeny. The symbiont data still cannot clarify the hitherto unresolved deeper phylogeny of the hosts, which is interpreted as a sign of rapid adaptive radiation of the reed beetles soon after their origin. The rate of sequence evolution among/within host species is discussed.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of the first indium borogermanate incorporating an organic amine ligand: InBGe{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}CH(NH{sub 2})CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2})·2H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chih-Min, E-mail: twcmwang@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiu, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Hsiu-Mei [Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lii, Kwang-Hwa, E-mail: liikh@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-15

    A new indium borogermanate incorporating an organic amine ligand, InBGe{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}CH(NH{sub 2})CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2})·2H{sub 2}O, was synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and emission spectroscopy. This compound is a new example of the combination of metal, boron, and germanium atoms into one structure in the presence of organic amine molecules. Its 2D sheets with one 3-, one 4-, and two types of 6-membered rings consist of In{sub 2}O{sub 6}N{sub 4} octahedral dimers, Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH) double tetrahedra, and BO{sub 3}(OH) groups that are interconnected by water molecules to form a 3D supramolecular framework. Interestingly, the emission spectrum for this compound displays a strong broad band centered at 455 nm. - Graphical abstract: The first example of indium borogermanate incorporating an organic amine ligand was synthesized under solvothermal conditions. Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and emission spectroscopy have also been studied.

  11. Filamentation temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) of Wolbachia, endosymbiont of Wuchereria bancrofti: a potential target for anti-filarial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohit; Hoti, S L; Vasuki, V; Sankari, T; Meena, R L; Das, P K

    2013-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a leading cause of morbidity in the tropical world. It is caused by the filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori and transmitted by vector mosquitoes. Currently a programme for the elimination of LF, Global programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), is underway with the strategy of mass administration of single dose of diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin, in combination with an anthelmintic drug, albendazole. However, antifilarial drugs used in the programme are only microfilaricidal but not or only partially macrofilaricidal. Hence, there is a need to identify new targets for developing antifilarial drugs. Filarial parasites harbor rickettsial endosymbionts, Wolbachia sp., which play an important role in their biology and hence are considered as potential targets for antifilarial chemotherapy development. In this study, one of the cell division proteins of Wolbachia of the major lymphatic filarial parasite, W. bancrofti, viz., filamentation temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), was explored as a drug target. The gene coding for FtsZ protein was amplified from the genomic DNA of W. bancrofti, cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence of the gene revealed that FtsZ protein is 396 amino acids long and contained the tubulin motif (GGGTGTG) involved in GTP binding and the GTP hydrolyzing motif (NLDFAD). The FtsZ gene of endosymbiont showed limited sequence homology, but exhibited functional homology with β-tubulin of its host, W. bancrofti, as it had both the functional motifs and conserved amino acids that are critical for enzymatic activity. β-tubulin is the target for the anti-helminthic activity of albendazole and since FtsZ shares functional homology with, β-tubulin it may also be sensitive to albendazole. Therefore, the effect of albendazole was tested against Wolbachia occurring in mosquitoes instead of filarial parasites as the drug has lethal effect on the latter. Third

  12. A Native Wolbachia Endosymbiont Does Not Limit Dengue Virus Infection in the Mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Ellie; Rancès, Edwige; Frentiu, Francesca D; Kusmintarsih, Endang Srimurni; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Caragata, Eric P; Woolfit, Megan; O'Neill, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis infects many species of insects and has been transinfected into the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV). Recently, it has been shown that Wolbachia blocks the replication and transmission of RNA viruses, such as DENV, in a number of mosquito species including Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), which is naturally infected with Wolbachia and considered a secondary vector for DENV. The mosquito species Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse) is highly prevalent in Australia, including in areas where DENV outbreaks have been recorded. The mosquito has been implicated in the transmission of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses, but not DENV. We investigated whether Wolbachia naturally infects this mosquito species and whether it has an impact on the ability of Ae. notoscriptus to transmit DENV. We show, for the first time, that Ae. notoscriptus is naturally infected with a strain of Wolbachia that belongs to supergroup B and is localized only in the ovaries. However, Wolbachia infection in Ae. notoscriptus did not induce resistance to DENV and had no effect on overall DENV infection rate or titer. The presence of a native Wolbachia in Ae. notoscriptus cannot explain why this mosquito is an ineffective vector of DENV.

  13. 抑制多重耐药致病菌的丹参内生真菌的筛选、鉴定及次生代谢产物分析%Isolation, identification and analysis of secondary metabolites of multidrug-resistance inhibiting endophytic fungi of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑小雪; 郭静; 白林含

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to study the antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge in order to find a new type of antimicrobial substances.One hundred and forty five endophytic fungi were isolated and purified from the stems and leaves of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.Three strains with good antibacterial effects were obtained through antibacterial experiments on common poultry pathogens (Salmonella enteritidis,Salmonella pullorum,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213,Escherichia coli O157∶H7 and Salmonella typhimurium) and multidrug resistant pathogens (the resistant strain of Salmonella,Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli).At last,a strain S4 with the best antibacterial effects was obtained and identified as Phomopsis sp.by morphological observation and 18S rDNA sequence analysis methods.The follow-up experiment included preliminary analysis of the major categories of the chemical composition,LC-MS and GC-MS of the fermentation broth of the S4 strain.The results showed that the fermentation broth contains phenolic compounds,alkaloids and tyrosol with important biological activities.The results provide new resources for control of drug-resistance.%对四川道地药材丹参内生真菌的抑菌活性及其次生代谢产物进行研究,以期寻找出抑制多重耐药致病菌的新型抗菌物质.通过分离纯化丹参茎和叶中的内生真菌,得到145株菌株,将菌株发酵液分别进行普通致病菌(肠炎沙门氏菌、鸡白痢沙门氏菌、绿脓杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌O157∶H7和鼠伤寒沙门氏菌)和多重耐药致病菌(沙门氏菌耐药株、金黄色葡萄球菌耐药株和大肠杆菌耐药株)的抑菌试验,筛选得到3株具有显著抑菌效果的菌株.其中抑菌效果最显著的一株菌株S4,经形态学观察和18S rDNA序列分析确定其为Phomopsis sp.对S4发酵液的乙酸乙酯萃取相进行大类成分、LC-MS和GC-MS分析,结果显示发

  14. Effects of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. and Schisandra chinensis Turcz.Compatible with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge Ganoderma lucidum and Bupleurum chinense DC on Chronic liver Injuries%五味子及其与丹参 灵芝 柴胡配伍对慢性肝损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜春; 田卫斌; 李剑锋; 刘明义

    2001-01-01

    (ALT) and cholinesterase were measured in plasma,Glutathione,alkalinephosphatase(ALP),molondiadehyde(MDA) were measured as well,and the hepatic histomorphology were observed by HE staining.Result Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) inhibited the elevated level of ALT dramaticlly,increased the actiuty of CHE and reduced ALP and MDA in the damaged mice induced by CCl4.However,it had no effects on GSH.The actions Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) match with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge were similar with those of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) and the result of bioanalysis was identical with histomorphology about the action on chronic hepatic trauma.The effects Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) combination with Bupleurum chinense DC,Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) and Ganoderma lucidum were weaker than those of the anterior.However,histomorphological results did not sustain it's cure action on chronic liver injuries.Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) could strengthen the cupffer phagocytosis,increased protein synthesis and improved the cell metabolite on liver injury in mice induced by D-GlaN.The results of boianalysis and histomorphology dsuggested that the action of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) match with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge was better than that of the Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.).Moreover,the action characteristic was inhibition the hyperplasia of fibrous tissue.Although the Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) match with Ganoderma lucidum reduced ALT lever and elevated CHE, histomorphological results showed no improve ment on damage of liver cell in mice.Bupleurum chinense DC combination with Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) have good enough effects in enzymatic activity,while histopathology shows them have not repair on lesion liver histogenesis.Conclusion Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) has better cure action on both model chronic liver injuries.Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) match with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge is better than the Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.).Strong inhibition hyperplasia fibrosis tissue is the

  15. A genomic island present along the bacterial chromosome of the Parachlamydiaceae UWE25, an obligate amoebal endosymbiont, encodes a potentially functional F-like conjugative DNA transfer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Lionel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25, a Parachlamydia-related endosymbiont of free-living amoebae, was recently published, providing the opportunity to search for genomic islands (GIs. Results On the residual cumulative G+C content curve, a G+C-rich 19-kb region was observed. This sequence is part of a 100-kb chromosome region, containing 100 highly co-oriented ORFs, flanked by two 17-bp direct repeats. Two identical gly-tRNA genes in tandem are present at the proximal end of this genetic element. Several mobility genes encoding transposases and bacteriophage-related proteins are located within this chromosome region. Thus, this region largely fulfills the criteria of GIs. The G+C content analysis shows that several modules compose this GI. Surprisingly, one of them encodes all genes essential for F-like conjugative DNA transfer (traF, traG, traH, traN, traU, traW, and trbC, involved in sex pilus retraction and mating pair stabilization, strongly suggesting that, similarly to the other F-like operons, the parachlamydial tra unit is devoted to DNA transfer. A close relatedness of this tra unit to F-like tra operons involved in conjugative transfer is confirmed by phylogenetic analyses performed on concatenated genes and gene order conservation. These analyses and that of gly-tRNA distribution in 140 GIs suggest a proteobacterial origin of the parachlamydial tra unit. Conclusions A GI of the UWE25 chromosome encodes a potentially functional F-like DNA conjugative system. This is the first hint of a putative conjugative system in chlamydiae. Conjugation most probably occurs within free-living amoebae, that may contain hundreds of Parachlamydia bacteria tightly packed in vacuoles. Such a conjugative system might be involved in DNA transfer between internalized bacteria. Since this system is absent from the sequenced genomes of Chlamydiaceae, we hypothesize that it was acquired after the divergence between

  16. Improved resolution of reef-coral endosymbiont (Symbiodinium species diversity, ecology, and evolution through psbA non-coding region genotyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C LaJeunesse

    Full Text Available Ribosomal DNA sequence data abounds from numerous studies on the dinoflagellate endosymbionts of corals, and yet the multi-copy nature and intragenomic variability of rRNA genes and spacers confound interpretations of symbiont diversity and ecology. Making consistent sense of extensive sequence variation in a meaningful ecological and evolutionary context would benefit from the application of additional genetic markers. Sequences of the non-coding region of the plastid psbA minicircle (psbA(ncr were used to independently examine symbiont genotypic and species diversity found within and between colonies of Hawaiian reef corals in the genus Montipora. A single psbA(ncr haplotype was recovered in most samples through direct sequencing (~80-90% and members of the same internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2 type were phylogenetically differentiated from other ITS2 types by substantial psbA(ncr sequence divergence. The repeated sequencing of bacterially-cloned fragments of psbA(ncr from samples and clonal cultures often recovered a single numerically common haplotype accompanied by rare, highly-similar, sequence variants. When sequence artifacts of cloning and intragenomic variation are factored out, these data indicate that most colonies harbored one dominant Symbiodinium genotype. The cloning and sequencing of ITS2 DNA amplified from these same samples recovered numerically abundant variants (that are diagnostic of distinct Symbiodinium lineages, but also generated a large amount of sequences comprising PCR/cloning artifacts combined with ancestral and/or rare variants that, if incorporated into phylogenetic reconstructions, confound how small sequence differences are interpreted. Finally, psbA(ncr sequence data from a broad sampling of Symbiodinium diversity obtained from various corals throughout the Indo-Pacific were concordant with ITS lineage membership (defined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis screening, yet exhibited

  17. 棘阿米巴土壤分离株CB/S1内共生细菌的16SrDNA序列分析%Sequence Analysis of 16S rDNA Gene of Endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp.CB/S1 Isolated from Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玄英花; 崔春权; 郑善子

    2011-01-01

    The endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. CB/S1 was identified by orcein-carmine staining and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The endosymbiont bacteria were rod-shaped and darkly stained, and irregularly localized within the cytoplasm. The length of the 16S rDNA was 1534 bp and its DNA sequence was closely related to those of Candidatus A moebophilus asiaticus and A canthamoeba sp. KA/E21 with 98% homology. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the endosymbiont of CB/S1,the endosymbiont of KA/E21, Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, the endosymbiont of Ixodes scapularis , and the endosymbiont of Encarsia pergandiella constitute a monophyletic lineage in phylogenetic tree.%用地衣红-卡红染色进行共生菌的形态观察,鉴定棘阿米巴CB/S1内共生细菌.克隆内共生细菌的16S rDNA基因,进行基因序列分析.结果 表明,经地衣红-卡红染色棘阿米巴CB/S1内共生细菌呈黑色和棒状,在胞质内不规则分布.棘阿米巴CB/S1内共生细菌的16S rDNA基因长1 534 bp,与类亚洲嗜阿米巴杆菌(Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus 5a2)和韩国棘阿米巴分离株 KA/E21内共生细菌的16S rDNA基因的同源性均为98%.进化树分析表明,棘阿米巴CB/S1内共生细菌与韩国棘阿米巴KA/E21内共生细菌、类亚洲嗜阿米巴杆菌、黑脚硬蜱内共生细菌和伯恩蚜小蜂内共生细菌等细菌构成单系.

  18. Primary Considerations for Primary TEFL in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yvonne Griffiths

    2007-01-01

    This article will focus on five key areas relating to Primary TEFL in China. Firstly, the real TEFL context in Chinese primary schools will be discussed in terms of its special characteristics. Secondly, the current methodological approach will be examined from both a theoretical perspective, focusing on government (MOE) policy for primary TEFL, and a practical perspective, based on personal observations of classroom practice. The third section of the article will highlight some perceived shortcomings of current practice, while the fourth will outline the actual needs of primary learners in the Chinese educational system. Finally, the question of how teachers can meet these needs will be examined in relation to: methodological integration;integration of skills and sub-skills teaching/learning; and the exploitation of materials and activities to provide learners with three different types of language input and output opportunities (extensive, intensive and analysed: Swan, 2006).

  19. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  20. Primary Care's Dim Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    Given the chorus of approval for primary care emanating from every party to the health reform debate, one might suppose that the future for primary physicians is bright. Yet this is far from certain. And when one looks to history and recognizes that primary care medicine has failed virtually every conceivable market test in recent years, its…

  1. Primary CNS Teratocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eVitorovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system (CNS teratomas are rare tumors that consist of all three germ cell layers. We describe a young man with a primary malignant CNS teratocarcinoma presenting as leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Diagnosis of primary CNS teratocarcinomas is challenging; relentless pursuit of the diagnosis must follow even if early ancillary studies are inconclusive.

  2. Tissue partitioning of micro-essential metals in the vent bivalve Bathymodiolus azoricus and associated organisms (endosymbiont bacteria and a parasite polychaete) from geochemically distinct vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Enikõ; Costa, Valentina; Santos, Ricardo S.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2006-07-01

    Hydrothermal communities are built on highly specialised organisms possessing effective adaptation mechanisms to tolerate elevated levels of toxic heavy metals typical of these extreme habitats. Bioavailability and tissue compartmentalisation of micro-essential metals (Cu, Zn, and Fe) were investigated in the bivalve Bathymodiolus azoricus from three geochemically distinct hydrothermal vents (Rainbow, Lucky Strike, Menez Gwen). Additionally , in order to make inferences on the effect of biological interactions on the metal uptake, the bivalves' endosymbiont bacteria and commensal parasite Branchipolynoe seepensis were analysed for metal bioaccumulation. Micro-essential metal concentrations in byssus threads exceeded many-fold concentrations in the gill and digestive gland, which in turn were consistently one order of magnitude above levels measured in the mantle. In spite of its high metal concentrations, the byssus is unlikely to be an active bioaccumulator. Its high surface to mass ratio and its binding sites for metals suggest a reversible adsorption of micro-essential metals in the vent mussel. Inter-site comparison showed highest Fe concentrations in tissues of mussels from the Rainbow site, whereas Zn and Cu in all tissues were highest in mussels from the Lucky Strike site, reflecting metal concentrations in the water surrounding macro-invertebrates at these vent sites. The omnipresence of the commensal parasite polychaete in gills of B. azoricus from the Lucky Strike vent field, unlike the other sites, is suggested to be an adaptation to the typically elevated Fe concentrations in the water column near mussel beds. Unprecedented Fe concentrations measured in the digestive gland of mussels from the Rainbow site (4000 μg g - 1 , three times higher than levels in bivalves from polluted sites) call for further post-capture ecotoxicological investigations of potentially novel Fe-handling strategies. We provide the first information on the bioaccumulation

  3. Primary Dealer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Primary dealer system can make substantial contributions to the development of the market when its establishment is appropriate for prevailing market conditions. While by no means a precondition for a well functioning government securities market, primary dealers know the market best and are the counterpart of the investors who are the debt management office’s ultimate target. The purpose of this background note is to provide some guidance on how to design a primary dealer syst...

  4. Primary cutaneous amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Mona; Padhiar Bela; Karia Umesh; Shah Bela; Rawal R; Bilimoria F

    1997-01-01

    Three cases of primary cutaneous amyloidosis are reported. Family history was negative. Systemic involvement was ruled out. Histopathology was confirmed by congored stain. Patients responded to oral colchicine.

  5. Phylogenetic Analyses of Three Genes of Pedinomonas noctilucae, the Green Endosymbiont of the Marine Dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans, Reveal its Affiliation to the Order Marsupiomonadales (Chlorophyta, Pedinophyceae) under the Reinstated Name Protoeuglena noctilucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Lin, Xin; Goes, Joaquim I; Lin, Senjie

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, field studies in the northern Arabian Sea showed a drastic shift from diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms to thick and widespread blooms of the green dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans. Unlike the exclusively heterotrophic red form, which occurs widely in tropical to temperate coastal waters, the green Noctiluca contains a large number of endosymbiotic algal cells that can perform photosynthesis. These symbiotic microalgae were first described under the genus Protoeuglena Subrahmanyan and further transferred to Pedinomonas as P. noctilucae Sweeney. In this study, we used the 18S rDNA, rbcL and chloroplast 16S rDNA as gene markers, in combination with the previously reported morphological features, to re-examine the phylogenetic position of this endosymbiotic algal species. Phylogenetic trees inferred from these genes consistently indicated that P. noctilucae is distantly related to the type species of Pedinomonas. The sequences formed a monophyletic clade sister to the clade of Marsupiomonas necessitating the placement of the algal symbionts as an independent genus within the family Marsupiomonadaceae. Based on the phylogenetic affiliation and ecological characteristics of this alga as well as the priority rule of nomenclature, we reinstate the genus Protoeuglena and reclassify the endosymbiont as Protoeuglena noctilucae. PMID:27033730

  6. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  7. Primary ovarian insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Michel; Devroey, Paul; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency is a subclass of ovarian dysfunction in which the cause is within the ovary. In most cases, an unknown mechanism leads to premature exhaustion of the resting pool of primordial follicles. Primary ovarian insufficiency might also result from genetic defects, chemotherapy

  8. Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Ji, H; Paljarvi, L; Soimakallio, S

    1996-07-01

    Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas (MPBCa) are extremely rare. The differentiation of a MPBCa from a pulmonary metastasis due to an extrathoracic neoplasm is sometimes difficult. We reviewed 324 pathologically proved primary pulmonary carcinomas and found six cases of MPBCa (1.9%). We herewith present the series and discuss the diagnosis of MPBCa. PMID:21594435

  9. Primary Spinal Meningeal Melanocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Dong Ho [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Primary meningeal melanocytic neoplasms are rare lesions that originate from leptomeningeal melanocytes. An intradural meningeal melanocytoma in the thoracic spine is less common than a malignant melanoma, which is its malignant counterpart. We report a case of a histopathologically confirmed primary intradural meningeal melanocytoma in the thoracic spine along with a literature.

  10. Pathophysiology of primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L

    2001-01-01

    The cerebral circulation is innervated by sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory nerves, which store a considerable number of neurotransmitters. The role of these has been evaluated in primary headaches. A clear association between head pain and the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide...... normalized. These data show the involvement of sensory and parasympathetic mechanisms in the pathophysiology of primary headaches....

  11. [The primary healthcare centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Antonio; Maciocco, Gavino

    2014-04-01

    The central attributes of primary care are: first contact (accessibility), longitudinality (person- focused preventive and curative care overtime), patient-oriented comprehensiveness and coordination (including navigation towards secondary and tertiary care). Besides taking care of the needs of the individuals, primary health care teams are also looking at the community, especially when addressing social determinants of health. The rationale for the benefits for primary care for health has been found in: 1) greater access to needed services; 2) better quality of care; 3) a greater focus on prevention; 4) early management of health problems; 5) organizing and delivering high quality care for chronic non-communicable diseases. This paper describes the role of primary healthcare centres in strengthening community primary services and in reducing health inequalities. Furthemore, the experiences of Regional Health Services from Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna are discussed, with a brief overview of the literature. PMID:24770539

  12. Primary Meningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Palta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare primary brain malignancy, with scant case reports. While most reports of primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma occur in pediatric patients, a handful of cases in adult patients have been reported in the medical literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who developed primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. After developing episodes of right lower extremity weakness, word finding difficulty, and headaches, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated a vertex lesion with radiographic appearance of a meningeal-derived tumor. Subtotal surgical resection was performed due to sagittal sinus invasion and initial pathology was interpreted as an anaplastic meningioma. Re-review of pathology demonstrated rhabdomyosarcoma negative for alveolar translocation t(2;13. Staging studies revealed no evidence of disseminated disease. He was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide to be followed by vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC systemic therapy.

  13. Primary infertility (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...

  14. [Results of primary healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponchel, J L

    2004-01-01

    The concept of primary healthcare was formulated at the international conference held in Alma-Ata (USSR) on September 6 to 12, 1978. Over the past quarter-century, the term "primary healthcare" has been widely used as a basis for implementing healthcare policies in various nations, especially those considered as developing countries. However many programs initiated in the name of the primary healthcare concept have only partially complied with the spirit of the final declaration of Alma-Ata. Analysis of the healthcare in Mali shows that the system followed that evolution. Although considerable time and energy were regrettably wasted in implementing the village health agent strategy, this phase may have been a necessary step in the political development of the state at that time. Recent changes in the country's healthcare system in compliance with the original principles of primary healthcare show that the 1978 declaration is sound and remains pertinent as democracy makes further gains in the world. PMID:15816127

  15. Primary leiomyosarcoma of epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Kumar Muduly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary leiomyosarcomas rarely arise from epididymis. But they are the most common histopathological types of sarcoma arising from the epididymis. Primary epididymal leiomyosarcoma occurs usually in older patients. We report a young patient of 35 years presenting with leiomyosarcoma of left epididymis. He did not have any metastasis and underwent left high inguinal orchiectomy. He is on regular follow-up and disease free for last two years.

  16. Treatment of primary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W C

    1976-12-01

    Reports in the English language of the treatment of primary syphilis are reviewed. Except for benzathine penicillin, the efficacy of the currently recommended dosage schedules are documented only by Schroeter et al. Although these investigators reported generally acceptable failure rates, further study is necessary to determine: (1) if differences in efficacy exist among regimes; (2) if the current schedules are equally effective in both primary and secondary syphilis; and (3) if increased dosages reduce failure rates. PMID:1010777

  17. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Aledavood; Mohammad Reza Ghavam Nasiri; Bahram Memar; Soodabeh Shahidsales; Hamid Reza Raziee; Kamran Ghafarzadegan; Samira Mohtashami

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as non-Hodgkin′s disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods : A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) during a 5-year period (2006-11). Clinical, paraclinical, an...

  18. Spirometry in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Allan L Coates; Brian L Graham; McFadden, Robin G; Colm McParland; Dilshad Moosa; Steeve Provencher; Jeremy Road

    2013-01-01

    Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) clinical guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) specify that spirometry should be used to diagnose these diseases. Given the burden of asthma and COPD, most people with these diseases will be diagnosed in the primary care setting. The present CTS position statement was developed to provide guidance on key factors affecting the quality of spirometry testing in the primary care setting. The present statement may also be used to inf...

  19. Primary headache disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Rafael; Eliav, Eli

    2013-07-01

    Primary headache disorders include migraine, tension-type headaches, and the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs). "Primary" refers to a lack of clear underlying causative pathology, trauma, or systemic disease. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing; hemicrania continua, although classified separately by the International Headache Society, shares many features of both migraine and the TACs. This article describes the features and treatment of these disorders.

  20. Other primary headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Bahra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ′Other Primary Headaches′ include eight recognised benign headache disorders. Primary stabbing headache is a generally benign disorder which often co-exists with other primary headache disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. Primary cough headache is headache precipitated by valsalva; secondary cough has been reported particularly in association with posterior fossa pathology. Primary exertional headache can occur with sudden or gradual onset during, or immediately after, exercise. Similarly headache associated with sexual activity can occur with gradual evolution or sudden onset. Secondary headache is more likely with both exertional and sexual headache of sudden onset. Sudden onset headache, with maximum intensity reached within a minute, is termed thunderclap headache. A benign form of thunderclap headache exists. However, isolated primary and secondary thunderclap headache cannot be clinically differentiated. Therefore all headache of thunderclap onset should be investigated. The primary forms of the aforementioned paroxysmal headaches appear to be Indomethacin sensitive disorders. Hypnic headache is a rare disorder which is termed ′alarm clock headache′, exclusively waking patients from sleep. The disorder can be Indomethacin responsive, but can also respond to Lithium and caffeine. New daily persistent headache is a rare and often intractable headache which starts one day and persists daily thereafter for at least 3 months. The clinical syndrome more often has migrainous features or is otherwise has a chronic tension-type headache phenotype. Management is that of the clinical syndrome. Hemicrania continua straddles the disorders of migraine and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and is not dealt with in this review.

  1. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  2. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  3. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  4. Psychiatry and primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David

    2003-10-01

    There is now almost universal recognition that primary care is the place where most mentally distressed people first present for help. However, the pace at which the health system has adapted to this reality varies greatly from country to country, depending on the amount of resource devoted to mental illness services, the way in which primary care physicians have organized their practice, and the inertia of the system. Here we present several models from developed and developing countries and address briefly the issue of training of health workers. PMID:16946921

  5. Primary Prevention With Statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study....../AHA risk-based approach, the net reclassification index for eligibility for statin therapy among 40- to 75-year-old subjects from the CGPS was -0.21 for the trial-based approach and -0.13 for the hybrid approach. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical performance of the ACC/AHA risk-based approach for primary...

  6. Philosophy in Primary Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2012-01-01

    The article is a critical discussion of the aims behind the teaching of philosophy in British primary schools. It begins by reviewing the recent Special Issue of the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" Vol 45 Issue 2 2011 on "Philosophy for Children in Transition", so as to see what light this might throw on the topic just mentioned. The result…

  7. Neurobiology in primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars; Uddman, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    , usually accompanied by nausea, vomiting, photophobia and/or phonophobia. A number of hypothesis have emerged to explain the specific causes of migraine. Current theories suggest that the initiation of a migraine attack involves a primary central nervous system (CNS) event. It has been suggested...

  8. Primary intracerebral Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Doorly, T P; Farrell, M A; Phillips, J.

    1987-01-01

    The case is reported of a 51 year old man with primary intracerebral Hodgkin's lymphoma treated by surgical excision, intrathecal chemotherapy and whole-brain irradiation. One year later the patient had no evidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma intracranially or elsewhere. The possible histogenesis of this rare condition is discussed and a brief review of the literature is presented.

  9. Surgery of Primary Melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas

  10. Assembly of primary cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Veland, Iben R; Schrøder, Jacob M;

    2008-01-01

    in primary cilia assembly or function have been associated with a panoply of disorders and diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, left-right asymmetry defects, hydrocephalus, and Bardet Biedl Syndrome. Here we provide an up-to-date review focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly...

  11. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  12. Primary and Presidential Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at primary and presidential candidates in 2008 and 2012. Evidence suggests that voters are less influenced by candidates’ color, gender, or religious observation than previously. Conversely, markers of difference remain salient in the imaginations of pollsters and journalists...

  13. Primary cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Markus Winther; Steiniche, Torben; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg;

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the skin and reviews the available literature on this topic. Myoepitheliomas and carcinomas arise most frequently from myoepithelial cells within the salivary glands but are found in many anatomical locations. We documented a case...

  14. Healthcare is primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raman

    2015-01-01

    India is undergoing a rapid transformation in terms of governance, administrative reforms, newer policy develoment, and social movements. India is also considered one of the most vibrant economies in the world. The current discourse in public space is dominated by issues such as economic development, security, corruption free governance, gender equity, and women safety. Healthcare though remains a pressing need of population; seems to have taken a backseat. In the era of decreasing subsidies and cautious investment in social sectors, the 2(nd) National Conference on Family Medicine and Primary Care 2015 (FMPC) brought a focus on "healthcare" in India. The theme of this conference was "Healthcare is Primary." The conference participants discussed on the theme of why healthcare should be a national priority and why strong primary care should remain at the center of healthcare delivery system. The experts recommended that India needs to strengthen the "general health system" instead of focusing on disease based vertical programs. Public health system should have capacity and skill pool to be able to deliver person centered comprehensive health services to the community. Proactive implementation of policies towards human resource in health is the need of the hour. As the draft National Health Policy 2015 is being debated, "family medicine" (academic primary care), the unfinished agenda of National Health Policy 2002, remains a priority area of implementation.

  15. Primary care guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ijäs, Jarja; Alanen, Seija; Kaila, Minna;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline in primary care and to evaluate the consistency of the views of the health centre senior executives on the guideline's impact on clinical practices in the treatment of hypertension in their health centres. DESIGN: A cross...

  16. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen.

  17. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Aledavood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI tract as non-Hodgkin′s disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods : A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran during a 5-year period (2006-11. Clinical, paraclinical, and radiological data was collected from medical records of the patients. Results: Out of the 30 patients with primary GI lymphoma in the study, 12 were female (40% and 18 were male (60% (male to female ratio: 3/2. B symptoms were present in 27 patients (90%. Antidiuretic hormone (LDH levels were elevated in 9 patients (32.1%. The most common primary site was stomach in 14 cases (46.7%. Other common sites included small intestine and colon each in 8 patients (26.7%. All patients had histopathologically proven non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. The most common histologic subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL in 16 patients (53.3%. In addition, 28 patients (93.3% received chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone (CHOP regimen. The median course of chemotherapy was 6 cources. Moreover, 8 patients (26.7% received radiotherapy with cobalt 60. The median follow-up time was 26 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 53% and the median survival time was 60 months. Conclusion : Primary GI lymphoma is commonly seen in stomach and small intestine and mostly is DLBCL or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma.

  18. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen. PMID:12412967

  19. Primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma (PPHL) are presented, a male aged 21, and a female aged 32 years. Symptoms included non-productive cough, shortness of breath, low grade fever, wheezing and weight loss. Duration of illness varied between 6 weeks in the male patient to female patient. Both patients were given an empirical trial of antibiotics and anti-cough measures with no response. Radiological studies carried out after failure to respond to medical treatment, revealed the presence of pulmonary parenchymal masses in both patients. Cytology, bronchoscopic and transbronchial biopsies were not diagnostic, which led to opened wedge resections. Finally, the diagnosis of primary pulmonary Hodgkin's disease was reached after supportive immunohistochemical staining (CD 30 and CD 15 both positive in Rs cells). Both patients were regarded as stage I extranodal (IE) after exhaustive measures failed to demonstrate involvement of other body cites. (author)

  20. Primary renal hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsy Merla Joel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis or hydatidosis caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, has the highest prevalence in endemic regions and sheep farming areas. The most common organ involved is the liver (50–75% followed by the lungs (15–20% and other organs (10–20%. Primary involvement of the kidney without the involvement of the liver and lungs, i.e., isolated renal hydatid disease is extremely rare even in endemic areas. The incidence of renal echinococcosis is 2–4%. Renal hydatid cysts usually remain asymptomatic for many years and are multiloculated. A 63-year-old male presented with left loin pain. Computed tomography scan abdomen revealed a presumptive diagnosis of renal hydatid disease. The nephrectomy specimen received in histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. We describe a rare case of primary renal hydatidosis.

  1. Primary spinal epidural lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutham Cugati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidural location for lymphoma is observed in 0.1-6.5% of all the lymphomas. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL is a subset of lymphomas, where there are no other recognizable sites of lymphomas at the time of diagnosis. The incidence of this subset of lymphomas is much less. It, however, is increasingly diagnosed, due to the increased use of more sensitive imaging modalities. For the electronic search, Pubmed was used to identify journals that enlisted and enumerated PSEL from 1961 to January 2011. The following combination of terms: "primary," "spinal," "epidural," and "lymphoma" were used. The most significant articles and their bibliographies were analyzed by the authors. The symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnostic workup, histopathology, treatment, and outcome have been analyzed in a systematic manner

  2. Primary Retroperitoneal Mucinous Cystadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Youn; Han, Weon Cheol

    2016-02-01

    Mucinous cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary are clinically and histopathologically well-established common tumors. However, primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystic tumors are extremely rare, and although their histopathogenesis is still uncertain, several theories have been proposed. Most authors suggest that they develop through mucinous metaplasia in a preexisting mesothelium-lined cyst. An accurate preoperative diagnosis of these tumors is difficult because no effective diagnostic measures have been established. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of this tumor may be fatal for the patient because of complications such as rupture, infection, and malignant transformation. We describe the case of a 31-year-old woman with abdominal pain and a palpable mass. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a retroperitoneal cystic mass, which was resected successfully through laparoscopy. Histopathological examination of the resected mass confirmed the diagnosis of a primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 5 without any complications.

  3. Primary cicatricial alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Karakuzu

    2014-01-01

    Cicatricial alopecia implies that follicular epithelium has been replaced by connective tissue. In other words cicatricial alopecia might include all forms of alopecia in which all hair follicles are permanently lost. In most of the cases, it is accepted that there is a permanent damage to follicular stem cell. While main target is hair follicle in primary cicatricial alopecia, in secondary cicatricial alopecia hair follicle damage is caused indirectly by a disease that is not in association ...

  4. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. PMID:26304179

  5. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Karimi; Masoud Soheilian; Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lympho...

  6. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment...

  7. Primary sleep apnoea syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Chokroverty, S.; Sharp, J T

    1981-01-01

    Polygraphic study in 18 men with the sleep apnoea syndrome showed central, upper airway obstructive, and mixed apnoeas. Fifty per cent of the total apnoea time was central, 33% was obstructive, and 17% was mixed. Apnoeic episodes were accompanied by oxygen desaturation, relative bradycardia and hypotonia of orofacial muscles innervated by ponto-medullary neurons. During regular breathing these muscles revealed tonic and phasic inspiratory EMG activities. The data suggest that the primary slee...

  8. [Primary liposarcoma of bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatić, V; Cerović, S; Skaro-Milić, A; Jovanović, Z

    2001-01-01

    A case of 75-year-old man with extremely rare primary liposarcoma of the bone was presented. Stains for lipid, Sudan III, Sudan IV, and Oil Red "O", demonstrated the presence of intracellular lipid in the lipoblasts. Similarly, the S-100 immunoreactivity and electron microscopic findings of tumor cells confirmed the diagnosis of liposarcoma. Histochemical stains for PAS, Alcian-blue, mucikarmin, Toluidin-blue and Coloidal Iron were negative. PMID:11419292

  9. Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Šarac Sanja; Milić Rade; Zolotarevski Lidija; Aćimović Slobodan; Tomić Ilija; Plavec Goran

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids within the alveolar spaces. Acquired disease can be idiopathic (primary) and secondary. The prevalence of acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is about 0.37 per 100,000 persons. Common symptoms are dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows bilateral perihilar infiltrates. Open-lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Treatment includes w...

  10. Primary pulmonary cryptococcosis

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz; Allameh, Seyyed Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a case of primary cryptococcal pneumonia in a 25-year-old woman who presented with several weeks’ history of cough, dyspnoea and night sweating. These symptoms started in the third trimester of her pregnancy. She was being treated for infertility and got pregnant with in vitro fertilisation. On chest imaging, there were bilateral air space consolidation and cavitary lesions. Fungal pulmonary infection was diagnosed after surgical lung biopsy. She received fluconazole 400 mg pe...

  11. What Is Primary Care Informatics?

    OpenAIRE

    de Lusignan, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Primary care informatics is an emerging academic discipline that remains undefined. The unique nature of primary care necessitates the development of its own informatics discipline. A definition of primary care informatics is proposed, which encompasses the distinctive nature of primary care. The core concepts and theory that should underpin it are described. Primary care informatics is defined as a science and as a subset of health informatics. The proposed definition is intended to focus th...

  12. Primary care for refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Barbara

    2011-02-15

    Over the past decade, at least 600,000 refugees from more than 60 different countries have been resettled in the United States. The personal history of a refugee is often marked by physical and emotional trauma. Although refugees come from many different countries and cultures, their shared pattern of experiences allows for some generalizations to be made about their health care needs and challenges. Before being accepted for resettlement in the United States, all refugees must pass an overseas medical screening examination, the purpose of which is to identify conditions that could result in ineligibility for admission to the United States. Primary care physicians have the opportunity to care for members of this unique population once they resettle. Refugees present to primary care physicians with a variety of health problems, including musculoskeletal and pain issues, mental and social health problems, infectious diseases, and longstanding undiagnosed chronic illnesses. Important infectious diseases to consider in the symptomatic patient include tuberculosis, parasites, and malaria. Health maintenance and immunizations should also be addressed. Language barriers, cross-cultural medicine issues, and low levels of health literacy provide additional challenges to caring for this population. The purpose of this article is to provide primary care physicians with a guide to some of the common issues that arise when caring for refugee patients.

  13. Primary Intracranial Synovial Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with uncertain histological origin. The pathology frequently presents as a localized disease, especially near large joints around the knee and thigh. Intracranial disease, which is rare, has been reported as metastasis from synovial sarcoma. We report a case with no obvious primary extracranial pathology, suggesting primary intracranial disease; this has not been reported in the literature. Case Description. A 21-year-old male, with a prior right skull lesion resection for atypical spindle cell neoplasm, presented with headaches, gait instability, left arm weakness, and left homonymous hemianopsia. CT of head demonstrated a right parietal hemorrhagic lesion with mass effect, requiring surgical decompression. Histopathology revealed synovial sarcoma. FISH analysis noted the existence of the t(X;18(p11.2;q11.2 chromosomal translocation. PET scan did not show other metastatic disease. He underwent stereotactic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. At 2-year follow-up, he remained nonfocal without recurrence. Conclusion. We report the first known case of primary intracranial synovial sarcoma. Moreover, we stress that intracranial lesions may have a tendency for hemorrhage, requiring urgent lifesaving decompression.

  14. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Çelikbilek; Kemal Deniz; Edip Torun; Tarık Artış; Ersin Özaslan; Ökkeş İbrahim Karahan; Tahir Ercan Patıroğlu; Ömer Özbakır

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor containing an intimate mixture of carci-nomatous and sarcomatous elements. Reports on risk factors, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of the tumor as well as the experience in its treatment are limited. METHOD: We present a case of primary carcinosarcoma of the liver in a 69-year-old man who complained of right hypochondrial pain and weight loss for two months. RESULTS:  Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 14×12 cm mass in segments 7-8 and 4 of the liver with vena hepatica invasion. An ultrasonography-guided biopsy showed osteoid tissue without osteoblastic rimming. Vascular structures accompanied the osteoid tissue. The patient underwent surgery after a diagnosis of hemangioma. Intraoperative frozen sections revealed a carcinosarcoma associated with an osteosarcoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma components. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative diagnosis of this rare primary hepatic malignant tumor may be difficult by biopsy owing to intratumoral heterogeneity. Highly mature areas of the osteosarcomatous component may lead to misdiagnosis of metaplastic bone tissue. Clinicopathologic features of this rare entity are discussed.

  15. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  16. Selectively tritiated primary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is suggested for the preparation of aliphatic primary alcohols selectively tritiated in the alpha position. The tritium donor is HTO; out of the catalysts tested, dichlorotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(VI) gave the best results. The isotopic exchange can be performed over the temperature region of 130-200 degC. The amount of side products formed is negligible. The specific activity of the product is determined by the specific activity of HTO used and by the reactant ratio. The method is analogous to the reaction with D2O described by S.L. Regen in 1974. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs

  17. ESTHETICS IN PRIMARY TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Renu Ann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental esthetics is an integral part of facial esthetics. Esthetic problems in childhood and adolescence can have a significant effect on psychosocial development and interaction with peers. Esthetic restoration of primary anterior teeth can be especially challenging due to the small size of the teeth, close proximity of pulp to tooth surface, relatively thin enamel and surface area for bonding, issues related to child behavior and finally cost of the treatment. The advent of different techniques, devices, and materials helps in creating beautiful restorations which help children and adolescents improve their self-image.

  18. Teacher of primary English

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2003 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply see http://enpferney.org/staff_vacancies.htm English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire (http://enpferney.org/)

  19. PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER

    CERN Multimedia

    Madeleine Dittus

    2002-01-01

    For January 2003, the A.P.E.G. has an opening for a primary school teacher in the German national language program. The position requires one afternoon of teaching (13:30 till 16:30) every Tuesday at the Collège in Prévessin. The candidate should be a native speaker of German and have some knowledge of French. If you are interested, please send your CV, a copy of your diploma, and a short letter of motivation, until December 9th, to the following address. Madeleine Dittus Présidente A.P.E.G. 5, La vie Destraz 01630 St. Genis-Pouilly (France)

  20. [Primary glomerulonephritis in focus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, Vincent; Ponte, Belén; Zellweger, Micheal; Levy, Marc; Moll, Solange

    2013-04-10

    The glomerulonephritis (GN) are responsible for a significant amount of end stage renal disease. They may be secondary to another disease or idiopathic. When a secondary etiology has been excluded, it is called primary glomerulonephritis (PGN). Glomerular damage may have different presentations and there are many way to classify them. It is thus difficult for the non-specialist to understand the terminology used. This article is a summary of the most frequently encountered PGN such as: IgA nephropathy, membranous GN, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, extracapillary and membranoproliferative GN. A brief description is given for each one of the PGN including epidemiology, semiology, histology and a pathophysiology explanation. PMID:23659154

  1. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  2. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Michael R; Zariwala, Maimoona; Leigh, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia with chronic otosinopulmonary disease and organ laterality defects in ∼50% of cases. The prevalence of PCD is difficult to determine. Recent diagnostic advances through measurement of nasal nitric oxide and genetic testing has allowed rigorous diagnoses and determination of a robust clinical phenotype, which includes neonatal respiratory distress, daily nasal congestion, and wet cough starting early in life, along with organ laterality defects. There is early onset of lung disease in PCD with abnormal airflow mechanics and radiographic abnormalities detected in infancy and early childhood. PMID:27514592

  3. Primary pulmonary cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz; Allameh, Seyyed Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a case of primary cryptococcal pneumonia in a 25-year-old woman who presented with several weeks' history of cough, dyspnoea and night sweating. These symptoms started in the third trimester of her pregnancy. She was being treated for infertility and got pregnant with in vitro fertilisation. On chest imaging, there were bilateral air space consolidation and cavitary lesions. Fungal pulmonary infection was diagnosed after surgical lung biopsy. She received fluconazole 400 mg per day orally for 6 months and recovered completely. PMID:24692384

  4. Primary colorectal lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Colorectal lymphoma is a rare tumor representing 1.4% of human lymphomas, 10-20% of gastrointestinal lymphomas, namely 0.2-0.6% of all malignancies in the colon. The aim of this study was to review clinical characteristics of primary colorectal lymphoma and overall survival. Methods. A detailed analysis of 16 surgically treated patients included patients age, symptoms and signs, tumor site, type of surgery, histopathologic findings, diagnosis of the disease, disease stage, type of surgery related to the degree of emergency (elective or urgent, applied adjuvant therapy, patient follow-up and treatment outcomes. Survival was expressed by the Kaplan-Meier curve, while the difference in survival among the two groups by the Log-rank test. Results. The all patients were on an average followed-up for a median of 29 months (range 2-60 months, while those with chemotherapy 48 months (range 4-60 months. An overall mean survival time was 38.65 months. Conclusion. Primary colorectal lymphoma is a rare malignant tumor of the large bowel. Therapy usually involves resection of the affected colon or rectum and regional lymphovascular structures, followed by adjuvant therapy. Survival period is short and, therefore, timely diagnosis is crucial in early disease stages when the probability of cure is high.

  5. Primary pediatric gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL of the gastrointestinal (GI tract is the most common extranodal lymphoma in pediatric age group. Yet, the overall incidence is very low. The rarity of the disease as well as variable clinical presentation prevents early detection when the possibility of cure exists. Materials and Methods: We studied six cases of primary GI NHL in pediatric age group with reference to their clinical presentation, anatomic distribution and histopathologic characteristics. Results: All were males except one. Intestinal obstruction was the presenting feature in 50%. Half the cases showed ileocaecal involvement, while large bowel was involved in 16%. Histology showed four cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, one case of Burkitt lymphoma, and one Burkitt-like lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry for Tdt, CD20, CD3, CD30, bcl2, bcl6 confirmed the morphological diagnosis. Conclusion: Pediatric GI lymphoma commonly involves the ileocaecal region and presents with intestinal obstruction. A higher prevalence of DLBCL is found compared to other series. A high proliferative index is useful in differentiating Burkitt-like lymphoma from DLBCL.

  6. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Stiehl

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by fibrosing inflammation and obliteration of intra- and/or extrahepatic bile ducts. The disease is one of the most common cholestatic diseases in adults and is diagnosed with increasing frequency. It is very often associated with ulcerative colitis. Patients with PSC have an increased incidence of bile duct carcinomas, and those with ulcerative colitis also have an increased incidence of colonic carcinomas. In end-stage disease, liver transplantation is the treatment of choice. Immunosuppressive treatment has little effect. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, which has been shown to improve liver histology and survival in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, has a beneficial effect in PSC, provided that patients who develop major duct stenoses are treated endoscopically. The aim is to treat patients as early as possible to prevent progression to the advanced stages of the disease. During treatment with UDCA, stenoses of major ducts may develop, and early endoscopic dilation is highly effective. Because UDCA treatment improves but does not cure cholestatic liver diseases, permanent treatment seems to be necessary. Such prolonged treatment with UDCA may be recommended because, until now, no side effects have been reported. In patients with end-stage disease, UDCA is not effective and liver transplantation is indicated.

  7. Primary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarac Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins and phospholipids within the alveolar spaces. Acquired disease can be idiopathic (primary and secondary. The prevalence of acquired pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is about 0.37 per 100,000 persons. Common symptoms are dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray shows bilateral perihilar infiltrates. Open-lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis. Treatment includes whole-lung lavage, application of granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor and lung transplantation. Case report. We reported a 51 year-old man with primary form of the disease. It was the second case of this extremely rare disease in the past 30 years in our clinic. The symptoms were longlasting dry cough, fever and physical deterioration. Chest Xray revealed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates; computed tomography showed patchy ground-glass opacification with interlobular thickening. The diagnosis was established by open lung biopsy. Additional tests were performed to exclude secondary form of the disease. Conclusion. We presented a rare clinical entity with typical clinical features and clinical and radiological course of the disease, in order to improve differential diagnostic approach to patients with bilateral lung infiltrations. In patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis timely diagnosis and adequate treatment can improve a prognosis.

  8. [Relaunching primary healthcaree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolongo, Adriano; Talarico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The health environment today is characterized by diffuse inequalities, the emergence of chronic diseases, and the introduction of new technologies, all of which, together with other factors are leading to a healthcare system that is becoming increasingly less sustainable from a financial point of view. Primary healthcare, public health and hospitals should work together to define a comprehensive healthcare delivery model characterized by continuity of care, information and management. The proposed model of disease management, in particular of chronic diseases, must reorganize health services around the needs of citizens and the community and involve patients and their families in the disease management process, by promoting self-help groups and patient organizations that cooperate with health services. In order to put this change into effect, evidence-based medicine and evidence-based practice need to be adopted. From an organizational point of view, it will be important to change wage rules, so as to implement a new payment system based upon performance. In this new contest, physicians specialized in hygiene and public health can play an important role that includes leadership, governance and coordination. By integrating the concepts of accountability, community intervention and training, we can acquire the tools to change the current hospital-based system to a new model of primary healthcare that works together with the community to move the focus from healthcare provider to patient. PMID:25715897

  9. Methotrexate for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giljaca, Vanja; Poropat, Goran; Stimac, Davor;

    2010-01-01

    Methotrexate has been used to treat patients with primary biliary cirrhosis as it possesses immunosuppressive properties. The previously prepared version of this review from 2005 showed that methotrexate seemed to significantly increase mortality in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Since...

  10. Bezafibrate for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudic, Jelena S; Poropat, Goran; Krstic, Miodrag N;

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis is complicated. There are studies suggesting that bezafibrate, alone or in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is effective in the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis, but no systematic review has summarised the evidence yet....

  11. Primary breast sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Maibritt; Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Mele, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to contribute to the collected knowledge of prognostic factors in primary breast sarcomas (PBS) to the benefit of possible future prospective studies and therapeutic guidelines. METHOD: All patients with pathologically verified PBS in the period of 1979-2014 were...... in those with superficial tumors was observed as well as an increased incidence in radiation-induced angiosarcoma (AS) of the breast, however, prognosis was no different from non-radiation-induced AS. CONCLUSION: Prognostic factors in PBS patients were size and grade with a trend towards better survival...... in those with superficial tumors. There was no difference in survival between radiation-induced and spontaneous breast sarcomas. High rate of local recurrence suggests the need for aggressive surgical approach or the routine addition of postoperative radiotherapy in those selected for breast conserving...

  12. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenický, Peter; Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Chanson, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the general population but is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. Symptoms of gestational PHPT may be unrecognized, or masked by physiological changes in calcium homeostasis associated with pregnancy. Gestational PHPT may have severe consequences for both mother and fetus. However, nowadays, gestational PHPT is usually diagnosed in earlier stages and milder forms, with low complication rates. Treatment should be individually tailored according to gestational age, the severity of hypercalcemia, and the risk-benefit balance. The conservative approach is preferred in mild forms, whereas surgery, usually performed during the second trimester, is reserved for symptomatic hypercalcemic PHPT. Given the young age of the patients, genetic causes should be considered. PMID:27157105

  13. PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER

    CERN Multimedia

    Madeleine Dittus

    2002-01-01

    For the beginning of the school year 2002/2003, the A.P.E.G. has an opening for a primary school teacher in the German national language program. The position requires one afternoon of teaching (13:30 till 16:30) every Tuesday at the Collège in Prévessin. The candidate should be a native speaker of German and have some knowledge of French. If you are interested, please send your CV, a copy of your diploma, and a short letter of motivation, until March 10th, to the following address. Madeleine Dittus - Présidente A.P.E.G. 5, La vie Destraz 01630 St. Genis-Pouilly - France

  14. Accountability and primary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, Shaheena; Barnsley, Jan; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the accountability structures within primary healthcare (PHC) in Ontario; in particular, who is accountable for what and to whom, and the policy tools being used. Ontario has implemented a series of incremental reforms, using expenditure policy instruments, enforced through contractual agreements to provide a defined set of publicly financed services that are privately delivered, most often by family physicians. The findings indicate that reporting, funding, evaluation and governance accountability requirements vary across service provider models. Accountability to the funder and patients is most common. Agreements, incentives and compensation tools have been used but may be insufficient to ensure parties are being held responsible for their activities related to stated goals. Clear definitions of various governance structures, a cohesive approach to monitoring critical performance indicators and associated improvement strategies are important elements in operationalizing accountability and determining whether goals are being met. PMID:25305392

  15. Prostaglandins and primary dysmenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 100 patients a total of 171 PG determinations in the menstrual blood was performed under standardized conditions. The primary PGE1 and PGFsub(2α) were determined by RIA. The evaluation of the analysis of the sexual hormones resulted in a group with a biphasic cycle without dysmenorrhea and a group with a biphasic cycle with dysmenorrhea. Highly significant differences (p < 0.01) were found in the PGFsub(2α) concentration in menstrual blood between a group of healthy women and one of patients with dysmenorrhea. In dysmenorrhea the ratio of the PGs investigated is shifted in favor of PGFsub(2α). Indomethacin can decrease the PGFsub(2α) levels in dysmenorrhea up to 15% (p < 0.01). All treated patients reported that their conditions had improved. Five out of seven women were completely without any complaints. (author)

  16. Gluteal primary cutaneus actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Manas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58 year old male presented with multiple areas of painless purulent discharge from the buttocks. He had pallor and dermatological examination revealed multiple subcutaneus nodules and discharging sinuses over the buttocks with hyperpigmentation and indurated puckered scarring. Examination of the pus revealed ′sulphur granules′ and Gram stain showed narrow bacillary forms and elongated hyphae with occasional branching. Skin biopsy revealed granular colonies in which ′ray fungus′ were seen. In brain-heart glucose agar in anerobic environment, white spidery colonies of Actinomyces israelii were grown at 37o C in 4 days, confirming primary cutaneus actinomycosis. He was managed with capsule doxycycline with regression of pus discharge in 6 weeks and therapy is planned for 18 months.

  17. Primary Identity in Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    In our times, literary criticism, as well as larger political and cultural developments, is characterized by identity politics, meaning that our discourses are structured around the notion of different socially identifiable populations in society. In relation to literature, this results in our...... viewing the characters in literature in terms of these political identities. Literature is consequently discussed in relation to political causes. Literary criticism is animated by the same causes, and is viewed as having a direct intervention in society in relation to them. In this paper, I will discuss......, in relation to Frye’s works, the idea that the primary identities of characters in literature were and, to a considerable extent, continue to be those of family-member identities. As such, literature should not be appropriated to a political context too readily. Whereas viewing characters in terms of...

  18. Primary conjunctival amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandana Chakraborti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old previously healthy male presented with a 4 year history of painless drooping of right upper eyelid.On eversion of the right upper eyelid, a yellowish pink mass was seen in the tarsal region. Rest of the ocular examination was normal in both the eyes. Initial biopsy showed chronic inflammation. Subsequently, the entire mass was excised and histopathological examination showed the presence of amyloid in the subconjunctival stroma. At 3 months follow-up, similar lesion was detected in the right lower, left upper, and lower lid, which were treated with cryotherapy, with partial resolution. Patient has been followed up for more than 2 years without any complaints. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of an isolated primary conjunctival amyloidosis with involvement of both the upper and lower palpebral conjunctiva of either eye. It was treated successfully by excision and cryotherapy.

  19. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is extremely rare, making 0.3-1.6% of all female genital tract malignancies. Although the etymology of this tumor is unknown, it is suggested to be associated with chronic tubal inflammation, infertility, tuberculous salpingitis and tubal endometriosis. High parity is considered to be protective. Cytogenetic studies show the disease to be associated with over expression of p53, HER2/neu and c-myb. There is also some evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have a role in umorogeneis. Clinical features. The most prevailing symptoms with fallopian tube carcinoma are abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge/bleeding and the most common finding is an adnexal mass. In many patients, fallopian tube carcinoma is asymptomatic. Diagnosis. Due to its rarity, preoperative diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma is rarely made. It is usually misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma, tuboovarian abscess or ectopic pregnancy. Sonographic features of the tumor are non-specific and include the presence of a fluid-filled adnexal structure with a significant solid component, a sausage-shaped mass, a cystic mass with papillary projections within, a cystic mass with cog wheel appearance and an ovoid-shaped structure containing an incomplete separation and a highly vascular solid nodule. More than 80% of patients have elevated pretreatment serum CA-125 levels, which is useful in follow-up after the definite treatment. Treatment. The treatment approach is similar to that of ovarian carcinoma, and includes total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Staging is followed with chemotherapy.

  20. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Linglart, Agnès; Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Kamenicky, Peter; Chanson, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy but is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Information on appropriate management is limited. We reviewed the medical literature through December 2012 for key articles on PHPT during pregnancy, focusing on large series. Clinical knowledge in this area is restricted to isolated case reports and a few retrospective studies. Diagnosis can be difficult, owing to the non-specific nature of signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia during pregnancy. Pregnant women with a calcium level over 2.85 mmol/L (11.4 mg/dL) and prior pregnancy loss are at a particularly high risk of maternal complications (hypercalcemic crisis, nephrolithiasis, pancreatitis, etc.) and fetal loss. Around one-half of neonates born to mothers with untreated PHPT have hypocalcemia and tetany. Algorithms proposed for the management of the pregnant woman with PHPT are not evidence based, reflecting the paucity of data. Treatment should thus be individually tailored. Gestational age and the severity of hypercalcemia should be taken into account when assessing the risk-benefit balance of a conservative approach (hyperhydration and vitamin D supplementation) versus parathyroid surgery. Current evidence supports parathyroidectomy as the main treatment, performed preferably during the second trimester, when the serum calcium is above 2.75 mmol/L (11 mg/dL). In the patients with mild forms of PHPT, which are nowadays the most frequent, a conservative management is generally preferred. PMID:23670708

  1. [Primary and secondary hypocholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-xian; Ren, Jing-yi; Chen, Hong

    2010-10-18

    Hypocholesterolemia is characterized by serum total cholesterol that is lower than the 5th percentile for age and sex, or the cut-off value which predicts the adverse prognosis by epidemiological study. Unlike hypercholesterolemia, physicians pay less attention to the morbidity, causes and consequences of hypocholesterolemia in clinical practice. In fact, hypocholesterolemia is a common dislipidemia, and mainly results from secondary factors. The causes of primary hypocholesterolemia are some disorders owing to genetic mutation in the pathway of cholesterol absorption, biosynthesis or metabolism, including abetalipoproteinemia, hypobetalipoproteinemia, Tangier disease, chylomicron retention disease and inherited disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis. The causes of secondary hypocholesterolemia comprise anemia, hyperthyroidism, malignancy, live disease, critical illness, serious stress, malabsorption or malnutrition, acute or chronic infection, chronic inflammation, and use of some drugs. In addition, what's more important is that hypocholesterolemia can result in some adverse events, such as increased mortality, intracerebral hemorrhage, cancer, infection, adrenal failure, suicide and mental disorder. Therefore, with the practice of intensive lipid-lowering treatment and the tendency to the increased indications of statins, it's high time that physicians attached more importance to hypocholesterolemia. PMID:20957025

  2. Primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in end-stage liver disease and reduced life expectancy. PSC primarily affects young and middle-aged men, often in association with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of PSC includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. A cholestatic picture of liver biochemistries with elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase, nonspecific autoantibodies such as perinuclear antineutrophilic antibody, antinuclear antibodies and smooth muscle antibodies, and diffuse multifocal biliary strictures, resulting in a ‘beaded’ appearance on radiographic studies, are the hallmarks of the disease. No effective medical therapy is currently available, although clinical studies are in progress. Ursodeoxycholic acid at high doses (28 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day is the most promising agent but is unproven so far. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapy for patients with end-stage disease, although recurrent disease can be observed in the transplanted liver. The multiple complications of PSC include pruritus, fatigue, vitamin deficiencies, metabolic bone disease, peristomal varices, bacterial cholangitis, dominant biliary strictures, gallbladder stones and polyps, and malignancy, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most lethal complication of PSC.

  3. Primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Roger

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown aetiology characterised by inflammation and fibrosis of the biliary tree. The mean age at diagnosis is 40 years and men are affected twice as often as women. There is a reported annual incidence of PSC of 0.9–1.31/100,000 and point prevalence of 8.5–13.6/100,000. The onset of PSC is usually insidious and many patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis or have mild symptoms only such as fatigue, abdominal discomfort and pruritus In late stages, splenomegaly and jaundice may be a feature. In most, the disease progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure. Cholangiocarcinoma develops in 8–30% of patients. PSC is thought to be immune mediated and is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. The disease is diagnosed on typical cholangiographic and histological findings and after exclusion of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Median survival has been estimated to be 12 years from diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Patients who are asymptomatic at diagnosis, the majority of whom will develop progressive disease, have a survival rate greater than 70% at 16 years after diagnosis. Liver transplantation remains the only effective therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease from PSC, although high dose ursodeoxycholic acid may have a beneficial effect.

  4. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna Ghimire; Guang-Yao Wu; Ling Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site involved by lymphoma with the majority being non-Hodgkin type. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. Gastrointestinal lymphomas are usually not clinically specific and indistinguishable from other benign and malignant conditions. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common pathological type of gastrointestinal lymphoma in essentially all sites of the gastrointestinal tract, although recently the frequency of other forms has also increased in certain regions of the world. Although some radiological features such as bulky lymph nodes and maintenance of fat plane are more suggestive of lymphoma, they are not specific,thus mandating histopathological analysis for its definitive diagnosis. There has been a tremendous leap in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the last two decades attributed to a better insight into its etiology and molecular aspect as well as the knowledge about its critical signaling pathways.

  5. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  6. Primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Jason; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Noone, Peadar G

    2015-04-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of cilia structure, function, and biogenesis leading to chronic infections of the respiratory tract, fertility problems, and disorders of organ laterality. The diagnosis can be challenging, using traditional tools such as characteristic clinical features, ciliary function, and ultrastructural defects and newer screening tools such as nasal nitric oxide levels and genetic testing add to the diagnostic algorithm. There are 32 known PCD-causing genes, and in the future, comprehensive genetic testing may screen young infants before developing symptoms, thus improving survival. Therapies include surveillance of pulmonary function and microbiology, in addition to airway clearance, antibiotics, and early referral to bronchiectasis centers. As with cystic fibrosis (CF), standardized care at specialized centers using a multidisciplinary approach likely improves outcomes. In conjunction with the CF foundation, the PCD foundation, with experienced investigators and clinicians, is developing a network of PCD clinical centers to coordinate the effort in North America and Europe. As the network grows, clinical care and knowledge will improve. PMID:25826585

  7. [PRIMARY SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Waldomiro

    2000-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic and progressive disease, of unknown etiology, characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic biliary tree. Two thirds of the patients have, simultaneously, ulcerative colitis (UC); on the other hand, PSC is the most common chronic hepatic disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients who have both diseases simultaneously are prone to develop colorectal carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. The disease predominantly affects young men, may be asymptomatic or presented as fluctuating jaundice, pruritus and increased levels of the cholestasis biochemical markers, or as secondary billiary cirrhosis. The diagnostic gold standard are the cholangiographic abnormalities, consisting of multifocal stenosis and dilatations, involving both the intrahepatic and the extrahepatic biliary tree. Liver biopsy is useful only for staging the disease and to confirm the diagnosis, in the atypical forms. Ursodeoxycholic acid is a promising drug, nowadays, mainly in the first stages of the disease, in spite of doubtful efficacy. Combination therapy, using ursodeoxicolic acid, methotrexate and alternating antibiotics monthly may be sucessfull in PSC before bile strictures occur. Liver transplantation is the only life-saving therapeutic alternative, able to improve significantly the survival and the life quality of the patients. PMID:12140588

  8. Primary aldosteronism and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ester; Amar, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension (HT) is a complication of 8% of all pregnancies and 10% of HT cases are due to primary aldosteronism (PA). There is very little data on PA and pregnancy. Given the changes in the renin angiotensin system during pregnancy, the diagnosis of PA is difficult to establish during gestation. It may be suspected in hypertensive patients with hypokalemia. A comprehensive literature review identified reports covering 40 pregnancies in patients suffering from PA. Analysis of these cases shows them to be high-risk pregnancies leading to maternal and fetal complications. Pregnancy must be programmed, and if the patient has a unilateral form of PA, adrenalectomy should be performed prior to conception. It is customary to stop spironolactone prior to conception and introduce antihypertensive drugs that present no risk of teratogenicity. When conventional antihypertensive drugs used during pregnancy fail to control high blood pressure, diuretics, including potassium-sparing diuretics may be prescribed. Adrenalectomy can be considered during the second trimester of pregnancy exclusively in cases of refractory hypertension. A European retrospective study is currently underway to collect a larger number of cases. PMID:27156905

  9. Primary systemic amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasilović Srđan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic amyloidosis is a rare disorder which usually occurs in aged persons and has a poor prognosis. Systemic amyloidosis can be primary, occasionally associated with multiple myeloma, or secondary, associated with another disease. Case report. We presented a 72-year-old male patient with periocular purpura ("racoon sign" and waxy papules, petechiae and ecchymoses on the neck and thoracic area. Purpuric macules were present also on the lips and tongue which was edematous (macroglossia. The skin lesions occurred two years earlier, the patient lost more than 15 kilograms of the body mass for less than a year. Immunoelectrophoresis of urine and serum demonstrated the presence of immunoglobulin light chains of the circulating monoclonal protein. Histopathological examination of skin lesions showed Congo red positive deposits in the derm. Cardiac evaluation revealed the signs of heart failure, and renal evaluation revealed nephrotic syndrome, with excessive protein lost. He was treated with oral melphalan and prednisolone, and died 7 days after starting the therapy due to heart failure. Conclusion. This patient considered as a rare case with systemic amyloidosis highlights the importance of histopathological and physical examination in any cases with periocular purpura, petechiae, ecchymoses and macroglossia.

  10. A comparative study of the removal of endosymbionts in Bemisia tabaci biotypes B and Q using three antibiotics%三种抗生素对B型和Q型烟粉虱内共生菌的去除效果比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏奇; 潘慧鹏; 王少丽; 吴青君; 徐宝云; 张友军

    2012-01-01

    利用烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)内共生菌特异性引物,研究了内共生菌在B、Q型烟粉虱种群中的分布和感染率,同时评价了3种不同的抗生素利福平、氨苄青霉素和硫酸卡那霉素分别在3种不同的浓度下(100.0、50.0及25.0 μg/mL)对烟粉虱内共生菌的去除效果.结果表明:B、Q型烟粉虱原生内共生细菌Portiera 的带菌率均为100.0%;B、Q型烟粉虱次生内共生菌Hamiltonella的带菌率分别为91.7%和100.0%;B型烟粉虱次生内共生菌Rickettsia的带菌率为87.5%,Q型为0;其它次生内共生菌在B、Q型烟粉虱中均未检测到.利福平、氨苄青霉素和硫酸卡那霉素在3种不同的浓度下均不能去除B、Q型烟粉虱Portiera;利福平、氨苄青霉素在3种不同的浓度下均能完全去除B型烟粉虱Rickettsia,硫酸卡那霉素在不同浓度下去除Rickettsia的效果不同;3种抗生素去除Hamiltonella的能力受抗生素种类以及浓度的影响.同一抗生素在不同浓度下去除Hamiltonella的效果均是100.0 μg/mL >50.0 μg/mL >25.0 μg/mL;不同浓度的抗生素去除Hamiltonella的效果均是利福平>氨苄青霉素>硫酸卡那霉素,各浓度与各抗生素之间的去除Hamiltonella的效果均具有显著性差异.%A PCR survey of endosymbionts in one B and one Q Bemisia tabaci biotype was conducted. Kanamycin sulfate, ampicillin trihydrate, and rifampicin were used to investigate the sensitivity of endosymbionts in the two biotypes to antibiotics. The results show that 100% of all individuals of the both biotypes had Portiera. Hamiltonella was also found in both biotypes, with an infection frequency of 91. 7% and 100.0%, respectively. Rickettsia was only detected in 87.5% of the B biotype. Other endosymbionts including Wolbachia, Fritschea, Arsenophonus, and Cardinium were not detected in either biotype. The three antibiotics failed to eliminated Portiera from any individual of the B and Q biotypes

  11. Primary erythromelalgia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhaoli; Chen, Zhao; Tang, Beisha; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Primary erythromelalgia (PE ORPHA90026) is a rare autosomal dominant neuropathy characterized by the combination of recurrent burning pain, warmth and redness of the extremities. The incidence rate of PE ranges from 0.36 to 1.1 per 100,000 persons. Gender ratio differs according to different studies and no evidence showed a gender preference. Clinical onset of PE is often in the first decade of life. Burning pain is the most predominant symptom and is usually caused and precipitated by warmth and physical activities. Reported cases of PE contain both inherited and sporadic forms. Genetic etiology of PE is mutations on SCN9A, the encoding gene of a voltage-gated sodium channel subtype Nav1.7. Diagnosis of PE is made upon clinical manifestations and screening for mutations on SCN9A. Exclusion of several other treatable diseases/secondary erythromelalgia is also necessary because of the lack of biomarkers specifically for PE. Differential diagnoses can include Fabry disease, cellulites, Raynaud phenomenon, vasculitis and so on. Diagnostic methods often involve complete blood count, imaging studies and thermograph. Treatment for PE is unsatisfactory and highly individualized. Frequently used pain relieving drugs involve sodium channel blockers such as lidocaine, carbamazepine and mexiletine. Novel drugs such as PF-05089771 and TV-45070 could be promising in ameliorating pain symptoms due to their Nav1.7 selectivity. Patients' symptoms often worsen over time and many patients develop ulcerations and gangrenes caused by excessive exposure to low temperature in order to relieve pain. This review mainly focuses on PE and the causative gene SCN9A--its mutations and their effects on Nav1.7 channels' electrophysiological properties. We propose a genotype-channelopathy-phenotype correlation network underlying PE etiology which could provide guidance for future therapeutics.

  12. Gross Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's new Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) allows scientists to gauge our planet's metabolism on an almost daily basis. GPP, gross primary production, is the technical term for plant photosynthesis. This composite image over the continental United States, acquired during the period March 26-April 10, 2000, shows regions where plants were more or less productive-i.e., where they 'inhaled' carbon dioxide and then used the carbon from photosynthesis to build new plant structures. This false-color image provides a map of how much carbon was absorbed out of the atmosphere and fixed within land vegetation. Areas colored blue show where plants used as much as 60 grams of carbon per square meter. Areas colored green and yellow indicate a range of anywhere from 40 to 20 grams of carbon absorbed per square meter. Red pixels show an absorption of less than 10 grams of carbon per square meter and white pixels (often areas covered by snow or masked as urban) show little or no absorption. This is one of a number of new measurements that MODIS provides to help scientists understand how the Earth's landscapes are changing over time. Scientists' goal is use of these GPP measurements to refine computer models to simulate how the land biosphere influences the natural cycles of water, carbon, and energy throughout the Earth system. The GPP will be an integral part of global carbon cycle source and sink analysis, an important aspect of Kyoto Protocol assessments. This image is the first of its kind from the MODIS instrument, which launched in December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft. MODIS began acquiring scientific data on February 24, 2000, when it first opened its aperture door. The MODIS instrument and Terra spacecraft are both managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. Image courtesy Steven Running, MODIS Land Group Member, University of Montana

  13. Primary cerebral lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to compare the survival of the patients treated with radiotherapy alone vs. patients treated with a combined schedule of radio-chemotherapy. Our results will be compared with currently published data and main prognostic factors will be briefly discussed. Patients and methods: Between 1974 and 1990, 27 cases of primary cerebral lymphoma were diagnosed at our institution. All patients had biopsy-proven disease, the pathology of which was reviewed for this study. Results: The overall median survival time was 24 months and one-, two- and three-year overall survival was 59, 46 and 29% respectively. The median radiation dose was 46 Gy, ranging from 19.5 to 60 Gy. The median dose per fraction was 2 Gy (ranging from 1.61 to 3 Gy). The median elapsed treatment time was 32 days (ranging from three to 45 days). We were not able to demonstrate any statistically significant difference between patients who received radiotherapy alone (n = 14, median survival time = 24 months) and those who received a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (n = 11, median survival time = 30 months), (p = 0.4). Prognostic factors of survival were tested using a univariate analysis (Wilcoxon test). Parameters such as mass appearance (unilobular, p = 0.048), performance status at the time of the diagnosis (0 to 1, p = 0.014), and CT imaging (hypodense, p = 0.043) influenced positively survival. Centroblastic histology (Kiel) was found associated with a negative prognosis (p = 0.043). (orig./MG)

  14. Primary erythromelalgia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhaoli; Chen, Zhao; Tang, Beisha; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Primary erythromelalgia (PE ORPHA90026) is a rare autosomal dominant neuropathy characterized by the combination of recurrent burning pain, warmth and redness of the extremities. The incidence rate of PE ranges from 0.36 to 1.1 per 100,000 persons. Gender ratio differs according to different studies and no evidence showed a gender preference. Clinical onset of PE is often in the first decade of life. Burning pain is the most predominant symptom and is usually caused and precipitated by warmth and physical activities. Reported cases of PE contain both inherited and sporadic forms. Genetic etiology of PE is mutations on SCN9A, the encoding gene of a voltage-gated sodium channel subtype Nav1.7. Diagnosis of PE is made upon clinical manifestations and screening for mutations on SCN9A. Exclusion of several other treatable diseases/secondary erythromelalgia is also necessary because of the lack of biomarkers specifically for PE. Differential diagnoses can include Fabry disease, cellulites, Raynaud phenomenon, vasculitis and so on. Diagnostic methods often involve complete blood count, imaging studies and thermograph. Treatment for PE is unsatisfactory and highly individualized. Frequently used pain relieving drugs involve sodium channel blockers such as lidocaine, carbamazepine and mexiletine. Novel drugs such as PF-05089771 and TV-45070 could be promising in ameliorating pain symptoms due to their Nav1.7 selectivity. Patients' symptoms often worsen over time and many patients develop ulcerations and gangrenes caused by excessive exposure to low temperature in order to relieve pain. This review mainly focuses on PE and the causative gene SCN9A--its mutations and their effects on Nav1.7 channels' electrophysiological properties. We propose a genotype-channelopathy-phenotype correlation network underlying PE etiology which could provide guidance for future therapeutics. PMID:26419464

  15. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heathcote E Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology characterized by injury of the intrahepatic bile ducts that may eventually lead to liver failure. Affected individuals are usually in their fifth to seventh decades of life at time of diagnosis, and 90% are women. Annual incidence is estimated between 0.7 and 49 cases per million-population and prevalence between 6.7 and 940 cases per million-population (depending on age and sex. The majority of patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis, however, some patients present with symptoms of fatigue and/or pruritus. Patients may even present with ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and/or esophageal variceal hemorrhage. PBC is associated with other autoimmune diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, Raynaud's phenomenon and CREST syndrome and is regarded as an organ specific autoimmune disease. Genetic susceptibility as a predisposing factor for PBC has been suggested. Environmental factors may have potential causative role (infection, chemicals, smoking. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical features, abnormal liver biochemical pattern in a cholestatic picture persisting for more than six months and presence of detectable antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA in serum. All AMA negative patients with cholestatic liver disease should be carefully evaluated with cholangiography and liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA is the only currently known medication that can slow the disease progression. Patients, particularly those who start UDCA treatment at early-stage disease and who respond in terms of improvement of the liver biochemistry, have a good prognosis. Liver transplantation is usually an option for patients with liver failure and the outcome is 70% survival at 7 years. Recently, animal models have been discovered that may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and facilitate appreciation for

  16. Primary cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term cosmic radiation means the charged particle flux that reaches the earth from outside its magnetosphere with energies above the solar wind energy of a few keV. There are two sources of flux. Sporadically the sun produces such particles, generally within the energy range 1--200 MeV, and these solar cosmic rays arrive at the earth for a period ranging from hours to days. There may be a small, rather constant flux from the sun also, but the bulk of the steady flux originates outside the earth's orbit. Although some have conjectured that part of this latter flux may be accelerated in the outer portions of the solar system where the outward flowing interplanetary medium meets the interstellar medium, it is generally thought that most or all of it arises in unique systems such as supernovae, and is distributed throughout the galaxy. These galactic particles range in energy from a few MeV to at least 1013 MeV and consist primarily of protons with significant numbers of heavier nuclei, positrons and electrons. They are supposed to fill our galaxy, or at least the disc, more or less uniformly. However, the flux with energies below a few GeV that reaches earth's orbit is modulated by the interplanetary medium so that the number at earth varies inversely with solar activity and is always somewhat below the interstellar flux. A discussion is presented of primary galactic radiation at earth, its modulation by solar activity, and its interaction with the geomagnetic field. (U.S.)

  17. Primary nucleation of lithium carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu SUN; Xingfu SONG; Jin WANG; Yan LUO; Jianguo YU

    2009-01-01

    A set of laser apparatus was used to explore the induction period and the primary nucleation of lithium carbonate. Results show that the induction period increases with the decrease of supersaturation, temperature and stirring speed. Through the classical theory of primary nucleation, many important properties involved in primary nucleation under different conditions were obtained quantitatively, including the interfacial tension between solid and liquid, contact angle, critical nucleus size, critical nuleation free energy etc.

  18. African Primary Care Research: Qualitative interviewing in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Reid; Bob Mash

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews. There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.

  19. [Primary vesicoureteral reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R; Ziesel, C; Rubenwolf, P; Beetz, R

    2013-01-01

    The never ending discussion about the diagnostics and treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) now includes arguments for diagnostic nihilism as well as invasive diagnostics and therapy, which is reminiscent of the debate on prostate cancer in adulthood. The common goal of all currently competing diagnostic strategies and approaches is the prevention of renal scars by the most effective and least burdensome approach. There is a difference between acquired pyelonephritic scars with VUR (acquired reflux nephropathy) and congenital reflux nephropathy (primary dysplasia) which cannot be influenced by any therapy.The VUR can be verified by conventional radiological voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), by urosonography, radionuclide cystography or even by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The guidelines of the European Association of Urology/European Society for Paediatric Urology (EAU/ESPU) recommend radiological screening for VUR after the first febrile urinary tract infection. Significant risk factors in patients with VUR are recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) and parenchymal scarring and the patients should undergo patient and risk-adapted therapy. Infants with dilating reflux have a higher risk of renal scarring than those without dilatation of the renal pelvis. Bladder dysfunction or dysfunctional elimination syndrome represents a well-known but previously neglected risk factor in combination with VUR and should be treated prior to any surgical intervention as far as is possible.Certainly not every patient with VUR needs therapy. The current treatment strategies take into account age and gender, the presence of dysplastic or pyelonephritic renal scars, the clinical symptoms, bladder dysfunction and frequency and severity of recurrent UTI as criteria for the therapy decision. The use of an antibacterial prophylaxis as well as the duration is controversially discussed. Endoscopic therapy can be a good alternative to antibacterial prophylaxis or a surveillance

  20. Evaluation of Primary Education by Primary Education Inspectors within the Context of Primary Education Improvement Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayat ÇELEBİ

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the problems of primary education in terms ofeffectiveness teachers, administrators and administration in general, based on the evaluationsof primary education inspectors; and to contribute to the improvement of teaching- learningprocess. To reach this aim, a questionnaire composed of fifty six items has been preparedand conducted on 113 primary school inspectors working in Istanbul. In data analysis,as a statistical technique, frequency and percentile dis...

  1. A RARE 10 PRIMARY CANCERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Here we report an unusual case with ten primary cancers. The patient was a 74 years old male and died in 1999. He had had ten primary cancers from 1972 to 1999. 1) Diagnosed as adenocarcinoma in the transverse colon, Duke's B.

  2. Glucocorticosteroids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids have been suggested for primary sclerosing cholangitis, which is characterised by chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree.......Glucocorticosteroids have been suggested for primary sclerosing cholangitis, which is characterised by chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree....

  3. Colchicine for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yan; Gluud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Colchicine is used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis due to its immunomodulatory and antifibrotic potential. The results from randomized clinical trials have, however, been inconsistent. We conducted a systematical review to evaluate the effect of colchicine for primary biliary cirrhosis....

  4. Azathioprine for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yanzhang; Christensen, E; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Azathioprine is used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but the therapeutic responses in randomised clinical trials have been conflicting.......Azathioprine is used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but the therapeutic responses in randomised clinical trials have been conflicting....

  5. Familial occurrence of primary fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, M J; Waylonis, G W; Sommer, A

    1989-01-01

    Seventeen families of patients with primary fibromyalgia were studied for evidence of inherited primary fibromyalgia. Fifty parents and siblings were included in the analysis. Twenty-six (52%, mean age 33.5 years) had characteristic symptoms and findings of primary fibromyalgia. Eleven (22%, mean age 28 years) were asymptomatic but had clinical evidence of abnormal muscle consistency to palpation without tender or trigger points. One person had clinical evidence of lupus. Thirteen (26%) had no evidence of fibromyalgia or abnormal muscle consistency. The mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant. Identical twins are described who developed symptoms of primary fibromyalgia within six months of each other, as are two brothers who developed abnormal palpable muscle consistency years before acquiring the characteristic findings of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Primary fibromyalgia may be an inherited condition with a variable latent stage before clinical expression of the disease. PMID:2916922

  6. Glucocorticosteroids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giljaca, Vanja; Poropat, Goran; Stimac, Davor;

    2010-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic disease of intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ducts, characterised by chronic periductal inflammation and sclerosis of the ducts, which results in segmental stenoses of bile ducts, cholestasis, fibrosis, and ultimately, liver cirrhosis....... Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis are at higher risk of cholangiocarcinoma as well as of colonic neoplasia, since primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in more than 80% of the patients. Several therapeutic modalities have been proposed for primary...... sclerosing cholangitis, like ursodeoxycholic acid, glucocorticosteroids, and immunomodulatory agents, but none has been successful in reversing the process of the disease. To date, liver transplantation is the only definite therapeutic solution for patients with advanced primary sclerosing cholangitis...

  7. African Primary Care Research: Qualitative interviewing in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Reid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews. There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.

  8. Primary Mediastinal Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-09-01

    Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NS-CHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. B-symptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures as bulky disease. Histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. Primary mediastinal NS-CHL consists of nodules of polymorphous inflammatory cells surrounded by broad fibrous bands extending from a thickened lymph node capsule. The cellular nodules contain variable numbers of large Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, required for diagnosis. Primary thymic CHL may exhibit prominent cystic changes. The histopathologic recognition of NS-CHL can be challenging in cases with prominent fibrosis, scant cellularity, artifactual cell distortion, or an exuberant granulomatous reaction. The differential diagnosis includes primary mediastinal non-HLs, mediastinal germ cell tumors, thymoma, and metastatic carcinoma or melanoma to the mediastinum. Distinction from primary mediastinal non-HLs is crucial for adequate therapeutic decisions. Approximately 95% of patients with primary mediastinal CHL will be alive and free of disease at 10 years after treatment with short courses of combined chemoradiotherapy. In this review, we discuss the history, classification, epidemiology, clinicoradiologic features, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and treatment of primary mediastinal CHL. PMID:27441757

  9. Primary care research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Kallestrup, Per

    2016-01-01

    the inter-professional nature of the discipline, the book also features a section on cross-nation organisations and primary care networks supporting research. National perspectives are offered from researchers in 20 countries that form part of the World Organization of Family Doctors, providing case...... histories from research-rich to resource-poor nations that illustrate the range of research development and capacity building. This book argues the importance of primary care research, especially to policy makers, decision makers and funders in informing best practice, training primary health care providers...

  10. Primary ciliary dyskinesiatwo cases reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Rezaee1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 22 December, 2009 ; Accepted 10 March, 2010AbstractPrimary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome are rare genetic disorders. There is a ciliary dysfunction in these disorders that cause recurrent infections in respiratory and sinus tracts associated with dextrocardia, chronic vasomotor rhinitis and dextrocardia. The aim of this paper is to report two rare cases of Primary ciliary dyskinesia, including one case of primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener's syndrome for additional knowledge. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 85-89 (Persian.

  11. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.

    1984-03-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.

  12. Peptide primary messengers in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The peptide primary messengers regulate embryonic development,cell growth and many other activities in animal cells. But recent evidence verified that peptide primary messengers are also involved in plant defense responses, the recognition between pollen and stigma and keep the balance between cell proliferation and differentiations in shoot apical meristems. Those results suggest that plants may actually make wide use of peptide primary messengers, both in embryonic development and late life when they rally their cells to defend against pathogens and insect pests. The recent advance in those aspects is reviewed.

  13. Problems of Primary Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubova, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    Primary education in Russia has failed to adapt to the needs of post-Soviet society, and is still based on rote learning and memorization instead of learning through discovery and learning to use and apply what is learned.

  14. Glucocorticosteroids for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, M; Christensen, E; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease of presumed autoimmune etiology, characterised by the destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts and the eventual development of cirrhosis and liver failure. Its progression may be influenced by immunosuppression...

  15. Primary Productivity (PP_Master)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included primary production for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came...

  16. Primary hepatic sarcomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Biao; Wang, Liu-Hong [Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiu-Fang [Zhejiang Medical College, Teaching and Research Group of Radiology, Hangzhou (China)

    2008-10-15

    Primary hepatic sarcomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose clinically. Different primary hepatic sarcomas may have different clinical, morphologic, and radiological features. In this pictorial review, we summarized computed tomography (CT) findings of some relatively common types of hepatic sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE), liposarcoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and carcinosarcoma (including cystadenocarcinosarcoma). To our knowledge, hepatic cystadenocarcinosarcoma has not been described in the English literature. The CT findings in our case are similar to that of cystadenocarcinoma, a huge, multilocular cystic mass with a large mural nodule and solid portion. The advent of CT has allowed earlier detection of primary hepatic sarcomas as well as more accurate diagnosis and characterization. In addition, we briefly discuss the MRI findings and diagnostic value of primary hepatic sarcomas. (orig.)

  17. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Q. Kammeijer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a progressive disease, and coincidentally in pregnancy it is rare. It is characterized by progressive inflammation and destruction of bile ducts finally resulting in liver failure. A rare case of primary sclerosing cholangitis in pregnancy is presented. The course of the pregnancy was marked by threatened preterm delivery and exacerbation of cholestasis. She was successfully treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA. Although, primary sclerosing cholangitis has both maternal and fetal effects on pregnancy, the overall outcome is favorable. Only few cases have been reported using high dose ursodeoxycholic acid for primary sclerosing cholangitis in pregnancy, it often improves pruritus but has no protection against stillbirth. Data on the safety to the fetus or neonate and long-term outcome are scarce.

  18. Primary intracerebral lymphoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Eser

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL that may be confused with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of high grade glioma. Primary central nervous lymphoma is a rare tumour and it account for 0.3-3% of intracranial tumours. A 61 year’s old woman was admitted to our clinic with a severe headache, vomiting, left hemiparesia and transient loss of consciousness. Primary central nervous lymphoma may show various biological and radiological characteristics. We herein emphasized being confused with MRI findings of PCNSL and high grade glioma. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 409-411Key words: Primary central nervous lymphoma, high grade glioma, B-cell, diagnosis

  19. Esthetic restoration of primary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, F; García-Godoy, F

    1999-04-01

    A simple and esthetic technique for restoring cariously involved primary maxillary incisors is described. The technique includes mini-pins, a preformed celluloid crown and resin-based composite. PMID:10477982

  20. Fatigue in primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Barendregt (Pieternella); M.R. Visser; E.M.A. Smets (Ellen); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton); F. Boomsma (Frans); H.M. Markusse

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess fatigue in relation to depression, blood pressure, and plasma catecholamines in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS), in comparison with healthy controls and patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: For the assessment of fat

  1. Molariform Mesiodens in Primary Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin B. Mangalekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesiodens is a midline supernumerary tooth commonly seen in the maxillary arch, and incidence of molariform mesiodens in the maxillary midline is rare in permanent dentition and extremely uncommon in primary dentition. A midline supernumerary tooth in the primary dentition can cause ectopic or delayed eruption of permanent central incisors which will further alter occlusion and may compromise esthetics and formation of dentigerous cysts. This paper reports a rare case of the presence of a molariform mesiodens in the primary dentition. On clinical and radiographic examination, flaring of the primary central incisors was seen, with a molariform mesiodens consisting of multiple lobes or tubercles on the occlusal surface with the well-formed root. The treatment plan consisted of the extraction of the supernumerary tooth and regular observation of permanent central incisors for proper eruption and alignment.

  2. Primary amenorrhoea: a diagnostic dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Deepika Narasegowda; Arun Kumar; K. S. Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Primary amenorrhoea is defined as absence of menses in females by the age of 14 years in the absence of secondary sex characters or absence of menses by the age of 16 years regardless of appearance of secondary sex characters. Incidence of Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) is increasing in young women throughout the world. We report a case of 24 year unmarried female with primary amenorrhoea secondary to genital tuberculosis apparently having no sings and symptoms of tuberculosis. [Int J Reprod Cont...

  3. Insomnia (primary) in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Alessi, Cathy; Vitiello, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    Up to 40% of older adults have insomnia, with difficulty getting to sleep, early waking, or feeling unrefreshed on waking. The prevalence of insomnia increases with age. Other risk factors include medical and psychiatric illnesses, psychological factors, stress, daytime napping, and hyperarousal.Primary insomnia is a chronic and relapsing condition that may increase the risks of accidents.Primary insomnia is chronic insomnia without specific underlying medical, psychiatric, or other sleep ...

  4. Primary resistance of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Tepeš, Bojan; Jeverica, Samo; Ihan, Alojz; Skvarč, Miha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance, particularly against metronidazole and clarithromycin, is the leading cause for treatment failure of Helicobacter pylori infection. Eradication rates of primary therapy have fallen below 80% in the majority of states including Slovenia. Th e aim of the study was to assess primary resistance to key antibiotics used for eradication treatment. Patients and methods: Between 2007 and 2009 we isolated 97 strains of Helicobacter pylori from the treatment naive p...

  5. Surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Karstrup, S; Lundby, C M;

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent a total of 108 bilateral neck explorations with attempted identification and biopsy of all four glands. Hypercalcaemia was surgically eliminated in 97 of 102 patients (95%). Of the remaining hypercalcaemic patients one.......9%). Permanent paralysis of the recurrent nerve occurred in three patients (2.9%). Twenty-one patients developed other postoperative complications from which they all recovered without sequelae. No postoperative deaths occurred. Our results show that surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism...

  6. Neuroimaging findings in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, J N; Berman Rosa, M; Gouin, J-P; Dang-Vu, T T

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study and understanding of sleep in humans. Neuroimaging studies in primary insomnia remain relatively few, considering the important prevalence of this disorder in the general population. This review examines the contribution of functional and structural neuroimaging to our current understanding of primary insomnia. Functional studies during sleep provided support for the hyperarousal theory of insomnia. Functional neuroimaging also revealed abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processing in primary insomnia. Results from structural studies suggest neuroanatomical alterations in primary insomnia, mostly in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. However, these results are not well replicated across studies. A few magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies revealed abnormalities in neurotransmitter concentrations and bioenergetics in primary insomnia. The inconsistencies among neuroimaging findings on insomnia are likely due to clinical heterogeneity, differences in imaging and overall diversity of techniques and designs employed. Larger samples, replication, as well as innovative methodologies are necessary for the progression of this perplexing, yet promising area of research.

  7. Primary synovial sarcoma of lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devleena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A synovial sarcoma (SS is a rare form of cancer which usually occurs near the joints of the arm, neck, or leg, but has been documented in most human tissues and organs, including the brain, prostate, and heart. Primary pulmonary SS is an extremely rare tumor. We report a case of primary SS of lung who presented with severe chest pain and a large right lung mass with right-sided pleural effusion in computed tomography (CT scan of thorax. The diagnosis was made on the basis of CT-guided core biopsy and immunohistochemistry. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cell expressed epithelial membrane antigen, bcl 2, Vimentin and smooth muscle actin and were immunonegative for S100 and cytokeratin. So, the final diagnosis was primary SS.

  8. Primary lymphoma of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elharroudi Tijani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the ovary by malignant lymphoma is a well-known late manifestation of disseminated nodal disease. Primary ovarian lymphoma is rare. We report a case of primary ovarian non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma with bilateral involvement which was managed by surgery and chemotherapy. A 29-year-old woman was admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of an ovarian cancer. Computed tomography revealed an abdominal tumor measuring 20 cm in diameter, without enlarged lymph nodes. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was established after bilateral adnexectomy and histological study of the excised tissue. The tumor was classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient has been advised 8 cycles of standard CHOP regimen and is presently on treatment. She has now been without disease for 7 months after the surgery. According to previous reports the treatment principles and prognosis of primary ovarian lymphoma is the same as that of other nodal lymphomas.

  9. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  10. [Cytogenetic studies in primary amenorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A

    1975-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis in 125 women with primary amenorrhea consisting of determinations of sex chromatin and karyotype, and in some cases of autoradiography were performed. On the basis of clinical, endocrinologic and cytogenetic criteria, the women were divided into ten clinical groups. In Turner's syndrome 45,X monosomie was observed only in 9 patients and in the remaining 12 cases varies types of mosaicism or of structural aberrations of the X chromosome. In pure gonadal dysgenesis, the patients exhibited 46,XY karyotype have the tendency to malign tumors of the gonads. In all cases with male pseudohermaphroditism the karyotypes 46,XY were observed. The remaining patients with primary amenorrhea exhibited 46,XX karyotype and belonged to the cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kustner syndrome, with adrenogenital syndrome, with hypoplasia of the ovaries, with primary amenorrhea of uterine or pituitary origin or at last with pubertas tarda. PMID:1189755

  11. Primary supratentorial intracerebral malignant paraganglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Al Jishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumors that derive from neural crest. In general, they are benign tumors but few cases had shown a tendency to metastasize. Malignant forms have been reported previously with intracranial metastasis from duodenal origin, but primary intracranial origin represents a rare and unusual location for such tumors. Here, we report a rare case of a 48-year-old lady who presented with symptomatic right-sided insular mass with negative metastatic work up. A complete surgical resection had been done with an unexpected diagnosis of primary gangliocytic paraganglioma with malignant features.

  12. Chapter IV: Primary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inanimate and live nature, which represent the basis of the landscape as yet not affected by man and his activities is represented in detail in this chapter. It is characterised by the series of components of the physical sphere as the permanent material basis of the remaining landscape structures. The output is the types of the primary landscape structure represented by the abiotic complexes. This chapter consists of next subchapters: (1) Geological base; (2) Surface; (3) Air; (4) Waters; (5) Soils; (6) Vegetation; (7) Fauna; (8) Types of primary landscape structure

  13. Primary amenorrhoea: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Narasegowda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary amenorrhoea is defined as absence of menses in females by the age of 14 years in the absence of secondary sex characters or absence of menses by the age of 16 years regardless of appearance of secondary sex characters. Incidence of Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB is increasing in young women throughout the world. We report a case of 24 year unmarried female with primary amenorrhoea secondary to genital tuberculosis apparently having no sings and symptoms of tuberculosis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 924-926

  14. Primary tumors of the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingzhi; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Kai; Lu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The patella is an uncommon location for cancerous occurrence and development. The majority of tumors of the patella are benign, with a significant incidence of giant cell tumors and chondroblastoma. With the development of modern diagnostic technologies, there appear however many other histological types which raise challenges of diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we review the reported histological types of primary patellar tumors. Specifically, epidemiology, symptomatology, imageology, histopathology, and treatment options for these histological lesions will be discussed, respectively. As there is an increasing focus on the diagnosis and the treatment of these lesions, the availability of the integrated information about primary patellar tumors becomes more significant. PMID:25906772

  15. Civil Engineering in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Martin; Strong, Alan

    2010-01-01

    For many children of primary school age, an engineer is the man who comes to service the central heating system or who fixes the family car when it breaks down. Most have never met a "real" professional engineer, and have no idea of what is involved in the exciting world of engineering. Most assume that engineers are men. To try to remove these…

  16. Pregnancy in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellge, Bjoern E.; Sterneck, Martina; Teufel, Andreas; Rust, Christian; Franke, Andre; Schreiber, Stefan; Berg, Thomas; Guenther, Rainer; Kreisel, Wolfgang; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Braun, Felix; Beuers, Ulrich; Galle, Peter R.; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Schramm, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on fertility or pregnancy in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Objective To assess fertility in PSC by comparing the number of children in a large cohort of PSC patients to healthy controls and to investigate the outcome of pregnancy, as well a

  17. Primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma or hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt-Piñeres Aiken Felipe; Bonnet- Palencia Igor Iván; Arias-Altamar Carlos Mauro; López-Polo Daniela Patricia; Contreras-Borrego Eusebio Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) is a symptomatic or asymptomaticclinical entity, characterized by the autonomous production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Its classical presentation exhibits an increase of the serum calcium andparathyroid hormone levels. Parathyroid scintigrafy, among other imaging modalities,is frequently used to detect the hyperfunctioning glands.Clinical case: number 1. Female, 69 years old, asymptomatic, hypertension of recentonset, osteopenia, increased int...

  18. Workload of primary care midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to assess the actual workload of primary-care midwives in the Netherlands. BACKGROUND: In 2000, a strike and large demonstration before parliament convinced everyone of the shortage of midwives and their excessive workload. The government reacted by increasing the capacity of the midwifer

  19. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  20. Phytotherapy in primary health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Gisele Damian; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otavio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population. PMID:25119949

  1. Economics across the Primary Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, Sarapage, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines lesson plans for teaching economics in the primary grades, designed to complement the video series, "Econ and Me." Suggests activities incorporate mathematics, language arts, geography, and science. Targets the following specific economic concepts in individual lesson plans: scarcity, choice, production, goods, opportunity cost,…

  2. Primary Teachers Opinion about Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Stefania; Ciasca, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Homework assignments trigger various perceptions and attitudes in students, parents or teachers: some overestimate them, others reject them, some do it with pleasure and to others they cause tears. Literature indicates both benefits and disadvantages of homework. In Romania, at primary level, homework is a systematic practice. The explanation is…

  3. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  4. Osteoprotegerin Levels in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilgren, L S; Hegedüs, L M; Beck-Nielsen, H;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the production of osteoprotegerin (OPG) remains controversial. Most in vitro studies indicate that PTH decreases OPG secretion by the osteoblast, but in vivo observations are conflicting. In primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), hypersecretion of PTH leads...

  5. Soft methods in primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2002-01-01

    New legislation has been imposed on Danish primary schools to increase the use of information technology (IT), without giving guidelines on practical implementation. We suggest that IT strategy development can be supported by soft OR methods. We present three case studies that illustrate different...

  6. Markers of primary graft dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for diagnosing transplant rejection, or a condition associated with transplant rejection, such as, primary graft dysfunction in a subject, to antigen probe arrays for performing such a diagnosis, and to antigen probe sets for generating such arrays....

  7. Falls prevention in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarko, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Each year 1.57 million older people fall more than three times and 70 000 fracture their hips. Falls can lead to disability and even death. The NSF for Older People identified falls prevention as a major health priority. This paper explains how primary care practitioners can contribute to falls prevention, reduce falls risk and improve quality of life for the older person.

  8. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  9. Studies in primary biliary cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G. Taal

    1981-01-01

    textabstractThe specific aims of the study were: - To (re)define the clinical features of the primary biliary cirrhosis syndrome. - To develop objective criteria which combine specificity with sensitivity for the diagnosis of PBC. - To study the relation of IgM in various forms (pentameric, monomeri

  10. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help...

  11. Primary acalvaria: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Livia Teresa Moreira, E-mail: ltlrios@terra.com.b [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital Universitario. Unidade de Diagnostico por Imagem; Martins, Marilia da Gloria [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital Universitario. Servico de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Simoes, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Nunes, Marynea do Vale; Marques, Patricia Franco; Godoy, Silvia Helena Cavalcante de Souza [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital Universitario. Servico de Neonatologia

    2010-07-15

    Acalvaria is a rare congenital malformation of unknown pathogenesis characterized by the absence of the flat bones of the cranial vault, dura mater and associated muscles, while the central nervous system is usually preserved. The most accepted physiopathogenic theory suggests the presence of a post neurulation defect with normal placement the embryonic ectoderm. The present report describes neonatal imaging findings of primary acalvaria. (author)

  12. Cognitive Flexibility in Primary Dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Seer, Caroline; Dengler, Reinhard; Dressler, Dirk; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Although primary dystonia is typically characterized as a movement disorder, it is also associated with cognitive alterations in the domain of executive functioning which may arise from changes in cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Specifically, in comparison to healthy controls, patients with dystonia show deficits in neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility. However, it is unclear whether cognitive inflexibility is caused by the pathomechanisms underlying primary dystonia or by confounding factors such as depression or symptom-related distraction.Methods The present study aimed to eliminate these confounds by examining cognitive flexibility in dystonia patients and in patients with similar motor symptoms but without a comparable central pathophysiology. Eighteen patients with primary blepharospasm, a common form of dystonia affecting the muscles around the eyes, and 19 patients with hemifacial spasm, a facial nerve disorder causing similar eyelid spasms, completed a computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (cWCST). The two groups were further compared on tests of global cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, health status, and impulsiveness. Results Blepharospasm patients committed significantly more errors on the cWCST than patients with hemifacial spasm. Group differences were most pronounced with regard to integration errors, a measure of rule-inference processes on the cWCST. Integration errors were also associated with impulsiveness in patients with blepharospasm. Conclusions Primary blepharospasm is related to deficits in cognitive flexibility, even when blepharospasm patients are compared with patients who suffer from motor symptoms of non-dystonic origin. Our results support the possibility that cognitive inflexibility results from the specific pathophysiological processes underlying primary dystonia. (JINS, 2016, 22, 662-670). PMID:27333537

  13. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  14. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  15. Teaching mathematics in primary school and primary school for adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nadarević, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    This thesis will compare mathematics teachings in regular elementary school and mathematics teachings in primary schools for adults and adolescents. The substantive work will be divided into two parts, namely a theoretical and empirical parts. In the theoretical part we will present the development of adult education in Slovenia. Afterwards we will specifically define the basic education of adults in one of the educational institutions for a adults and also show how differents is a gr...

  16. Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking primary gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ji Kim; Ji Hyung Hong; Eun Su Park; Jae Ho Byun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma arerare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resemblesadvanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastricmetastasis especially when the histology of the primarylung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case ofgastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking Borrmann type Ⅳ primary gastric cancer.A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinomawith multiple bone metastases had been experiencingprogressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year.Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plasticalikelesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologicexamination revealed a moderately differentiatedadenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positiveimmunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcriptionfactor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed thatthe metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patienthad been treated with palliative chemotherapy for thelung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months afterthe diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should beaware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patientswith primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additionalimmunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1may help in differentiating its origin.

  17. 9 CFR 3.80 - Primary enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.80 Section 3.80... Primates 2 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.80 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for nonhuman primates must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary...

  18. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.6 Section 3.6... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary...

  19. 9 CFR 3.53 - Primary enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.53 Section 3.53... Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.53 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for rabbits shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1) Primary enclosures shall be structurally sound...

  20. 29 CFR 541.700 - Primary duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary duty. 541.700 Section 541.700 Labor Regulations... Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.700 Primary duty. (a) To qualify for exemption under this part, an employee's “primary duty” must be the performance of exempt work. The term “primary duty”...

  1. 11 CFR 9032.7 - Primary election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary election. 9032.7 Section 9032.7 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.7 Primary election. (a) Primary election means an election held by a State or...

  2. Ursodeoxycholic acid for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yan; Huang, Zhi Bi; Christensen, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is an uncommon autoimmune liver disease with unknown aetiology. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been used for primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial.......Primary biliary cirrhosis is an uncommon autoimmune liver disease with unknown aetiology. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been used for primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial....

  3. Turner syndrome with primary hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungmee; Kim, Yoo-Mi; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lee, Beom Hee; Yoon, Jong Ho; Jeong, Woon-Young

    2013-01-01

    Turner syndrome has multiple comorbidities such as osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, hypothyroidism, and hypertension. As they are treatable conditions in Turner syndrome, early recognition and proper treatment should be needed. We report on a 23-year-old woman with Turner syndrome who presented with severe osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry showed severe osteopo-rosis (z score, -3.5). Ultrasound and 99mTc scintigraphy of parathyroid glands showed an adenoma in the right inferior gland. She was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism due to an adenoma of the parathyroid gland. After excision of the adenoma, the patient's serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels returned to normal. Although only a few cases of Turners syndrome with primary hyperparathyroidism have been reported, hyperparathyroidism should be considered in cases of Turner syndrome with severe osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. PMID:24904858

  4. Primary chordoma of the nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟忠林; 刘兆华

    2003-01-01

    @@ Chordoma as a rare malignant tumor arising from remnants of the notochord, accounts for 4% of malignant bone tumors. It occurs twice as frequently in men compared with women and is uncommon in individuals less than 40 years of age.1-3 Topographic distribution is spheno-occipital (35% to 44%), vertebral (15%), and sacrococcygeal (42% to 50%).4 Unusual locations include the mandible and the maxilla, and lesions in these locations have been called ectopic or dental chordomas. Some chordomas with nasal and paranasal presentations have been reported, but primary chordoma of the nose occurs rarely. To our knowlege only two cases have been reported so far according to the literature.4,5 In this paper, we present primary chordoma of the nose, its characteristics and our experiences with it.

  5. Summarizing primary and secondary effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for decomposing class differentials in educational decisions into primary and secondary effects produce many parameters, rendering them ill-equipped for parsimonious comparisons across countries or birth cohorts. This paper develops a parametric method that provides an optimal...... summary of primary and secondary effects across discrete class origins. Under the testable assumption that the pattern of effects of class origins on academic ability is proportional to the pattern of effects of class origins on educational choice net of academic ability, the method returns a single...... summary measure. Applying the method to two cohorts born in the UK in 1958 and 1970 suggests that––even with increasing overall inequality of educational opportunity––the relative contribution of secondary effects to class differentials in A-level completion has changed little between the two cohorts....

  6. Primary pulmonary neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary pulmonary tumors are extremely uncommon in children, so individual experience in their medical management is limited. Our paper shows the manifestations, the diagnostic procedures used and the evolution of 17 patients that were assisted in our hospital through years 1991-2000. Radiology enables us to evaluate the presence of a pulmonary mass. US showed if it was solid, cystic or mixed and the presence or absence of pleural fluid. CT showed better the localization, extension and presence of metastasis, essential knowledge for planning and performing surgery. In a pediatric patient with a pulmonary mass and also in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax or hemo thorax a primary tumor must be considered as a possibility, and diagnostic procedures with US, CT and endoscopy performed. Congenital cystic lesions can become malignant, so they must always be treated by surgery. (author)

  7. Primary and secondary care integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, I R; Boyd, M A

    1994-10-26

    Integration of primary and secondary health care is a goal of the 1993 New Zealand health reforms. Focus groups were selected to raise options and stimulate improved integration between primary and secondary care in the Auckland metropolitan and rural areas. Cooperation, communication, coordination, were considered relevant. Several detailed recommendations were produced. They fell into six groups; (1) liaison committees or meetings, (2) communication, (3) referral admission discharge, (4) joint ventures, (5) horizontal integration and (6) general. A key recommendation was that regional health authorities should fund liaison committees or functions to promote inter provider integration. The findings of the focus groups are placed in context of the wider requirements for integration. These are integrated funding, integrated information systems, integrated purchasing and utilisation management.

  8. Primary-care physician compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Arik

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews existing models of physician compensation and presents information about current compensation patterns for primary-care physicians in the United States. Theories of work motivation are reviewed where they have relevance to the desired outcome of satisfied, productive physicians whose skills and expertise are retained in the workforce. Healthcare reforms that purport to bring accountability for healthcare quality and value-rather than simply volume-bring opportunities to redesign primary-care physician compensation and may allow for new compensation methodologies that increase job satisfaction. Physicians are increasingly shunning the responsibility of private practice and choosing to work as employees of a larger organization, often a hospital. Employers of physicians are seeking compensation models that reward both productivity and value. PMID:22786738

  9. [Purpura: primary systemic amyloidosis manifestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestre, Sara; Gonçalves, Andreia; João, Alexandre; Ferreira, Ana; Apetato, Margarida

    2009-01-01

    Primary Systemic Amyloidosis (AL) is the most frequent form of systemic amyloidosis and its morbilility is associated with immunoglobulin light chains deposition in vital organs. The mucocutaneous manifestations occur in about 30-40% of the cases and are important in diagnostic suspicion, once they appear in early stages of disease. We report a 71-years-old female patient, with disseminated purpura and cutaneous fragility with 6 months of evolution, accompanied by recent complaints of dysphagy. The first laboratory evaluation didn't show any alterations. The histological and immunohistochemical study of subcutaneous abdominal fat and skin biopsy showed lambda type amyloid protein. In the systemic work-up, we highlight a proteinúria > 1g/24h with Bence Jones proteins and the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain (lambda type) in serum immunoelectrophoresis. With the diagnosis of primary systemic amyloidosis, treatment with prednisolone and melphalan was started. PMID:19686633

  10. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Anvari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an extremely rare condition in childhood. We report the first case of PCNSL in a child in Iran.Clinical presentationA nine-year-old boy was referred to Mofid Hospital with the history of headache of four months and seizure of 2 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hyper-intense lesion in left fronto-parietal area with secondary satellite lesions. Biopsy of the brain mass was performed. Pathologic findings showed brain lymphoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed this diagnosis. The treatment started with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy.Keywords:Lymphoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, Children

  11. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no signs...... of vasculitis. We review previous reported cases and radiological findings in HIV encephalitis and discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy and steroids in its management....

  12. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellanger Jérôme; Vignes Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with ana...

  13. Clinical presentation of primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the clinical preparation of primary hypothyroidism at the time of diagnosis. Design: It was an observational and prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Civil Hospital, Karachi from 1st January 1997 to 31st December 1997. Subjects and Methods: Forty-eight consecutive cases of primary hypothyroidism were included. A detailed history with special emphasis on symptoms and signs was conducted and the findings observed were noted in previously made proforma. Results: Primary hypothyroidism was found to be 5 times more common in female patients, with male to female ratio 1:5, majority of cases (33.33%) were between 41 to 50 years of age. The common symptoms at the time of presentation were tiredness (95.8%), weakness (91.6%), weight gain (85.4%), hoarseness of voice (83.3%), cold intolerance (77.0%) and constipation (75.0%) in patients. Physical signs observed were delayed relaxation of ankle jerk (93.7%), periorbital edema (83.3%), thick tongue (62.5%), goiter (50.0%), dry and coarse skin (47.9%) in patients. Serum, TSH, T4 and T3 were performed in all cases through immunoradiometric technique. Serum TSH was markedly elevated, with normal to reduced T4 and T3 levels in all cases. Conclusion: Primary hypothyroidism was found more common in female than male of the age group 41-50 years. Weakness, tiredness, hoarseness of voice and constipation were the common symptoms noted. The diagnosis is almost certain on clinical grounds if the patient happens to have delayed relaxation of ankle jerks and periorbital puffiness. (author)

  14. Mild Hypertransaminasemia in Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Busafi, Said A; Hilzenrat, Nir

    2013-01-01

    The liver enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT) or aspartate transaminase (AST), are commonly used in clinical practice as screening as well as diagnostic tests for liver diseases. ALT is more specific for liver injury than AST and has been shown to be a good predictor of liver related and all-cause mortality. Asymptomatic mild hypertransaminasemia (i.e., less than five times normal) is a common finding in primary care and this could be attributed to serious underlying condition or has transien...

  15. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  16. Environmental upbringing of primary education

    OpenAIRE

    Pěničková, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    The society is constantly confronted with increasing challenges devastated environment. Implementation of environmental education in to the education of children in primary education not only provides a real chance to improve current reducing development of society and nature. It also allows to begin an active communication with the society as a key cause of environmental reduction. This paper tries to define the social importance of environmental education, education and enlightenment and...

  17. Phytotherapy in primary health care

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Damian Antonio; Charles Dalcanele Tesser; Rodrigo Otavio Moretti-Pires

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the ...

  18. Primary multifocal osseous Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler Janice; Urand Jill; Garrett Simon JW; Langley Clare R; Clarke Nick MP

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Hodgkin's disease (HD) most commonly presents with progressive painless enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes, especially around the cervical region. A few children have systemic symptoms and weight loss. At the time of diagnosis, osseous involvement is uncommon Case presentation A case is described of Primary Multifocal Osseous Hodgkin's Lymphoma in a seven-year-old boy. He presented with a painful swelling in the sternum, and further investigations revealed deposits in h...

  19. Etiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Roberto de Menezes

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of HRCT, primary spontaneous pneumothorax has come to be better understood and managed, because its etiology can now be identified in most cases. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is mainly caused by the rupture of a small subpleural emphysematous vesicle (designated a bleb) or of a subpleural paraseptal emphysematous lesion (designated a bulla). The aim of this pictorial essay was to improve the understanding of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and to propose a description of the major anatomical lesions found during surgery. RESUMO Com o advento da TCAR, o pneumotórax espontâneo primário passou a ser mais bem entendido e conduzido, pois sua etiologia pode ser atualmente identificada na maioria dos casos. O pneumotórax espontâneo primário tem como principal causa a rotura de uma pequena vesícula enfisematosa subpleural, denominada bleb ou de uma lesão enfisematosa parasseptal subpleural, denominada bulla. O objetivo deste ensaio pictórico foi melhorar o entendimento do pneumotórax espontâneo primário e propor uma descrição das principais lesões anatômicas encontradas durante a cirurgia. PMID:27383937

  20. Primary prevention of Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.

  1. Multiple primary cancers: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Jena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of multiple primary cancers though uncommon, is being frequently reported now-a-days owing to better diagnostic techniques, the prolonged life span and the increased incidence of long-term survival of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study. Cases of multiple malignancies diagnosed histopathologically were retrieved from the archives of department of surgical oncology. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. They were categorized as synchronous malignancies if the interval between them was less or equal to 6 months and metachronous, if the interval was more than 6 months. Results: A total of 13 cases were encountered in the 5 year study period. Out of them two were in the metachronous category and the rest were synchronous as the 2nd malignancy was detected mostly during clinical evaluation of the patients for the primary malignancy. There was female predominance with age range being 43-68 years. Majority of the cases were in the 7th decade. The most common organ involved was breast, followed by cervix. Apart from bilateral breast malignancies, there were combinations like breast with uterine endometrial carcinoma, cervical carcinoma and even papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: Detection of multiple primary malignancies is becoming increasingly common in day-to-day practice. Greater awareness of this is required among both cancer patients and their treating clinicians.

  2. Etiopathogeny of Primary Adrenal Hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélayoudom-Céphise, Fritz-Line; Haissaguerre, Magali; Tabarin, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Primary adrenal hypercortisolism is mainly due to cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas, bilateral micronodular or macronodular disease, and adrenal carcinomas. Important advances in the pathophysiology of primary adrenal hypercortisolism have been made in the last few years, partly through the use of new molecular biology tools. Most adrenal abnormalities leading to increased cortisol production involve somatic or germinal mutations of genes encoding elements of the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway, as shown in adrenal adenomas in 2014. One peculiar condition is primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH), which has given rise to new pathophysiological concepts such as regulation of cortisol secretion by illegitimate ligands through aberrant expression of G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors in adrenal nodules and stimulation of cortisol production by local adrenocorticotropic hormone production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. These findings provide a basis for the development of targeted therapies as an alternative to surgery. The recent identification of germinal mutations of ARMC5 in PMAH raises the possibility that this is much more frequently an inherited disease than previously suspected. It also offers the possibility of earlier diagnosis of PMAH by genetic screening and, hopefully, of earlier intervention to prevent the onset of hypercortisolism and its complications. The pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome associated with a subset of adrenal adenomas, including subclinical cortisol-secreting incidentalomas and adrenal carcinomas, remains to be determined. PMID:27212135

  3. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  4. Enigma of primary aortoduodenal fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miklosh Bala; Jacob Sosna; Liat Appelbaum; Eran Israeli; Avraham I Rivkind

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosis of primary aortoenteric fistula is difficult to make despite a high level of clinical suspicion. It should be considered in any elderly patient who presents with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the context of a known abdominal aortic aneurysm. We present the case of young man with no history of abdominal aortic aneurysm who presented with massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Initial misdiagnosis led to a delay in treatment and the patient succumbing to the illness. This case is unique in that the fistula formed as a result of complex atherosclerotic disease of the abdominal aorta, and not from an aneurysm.

  5. Mechanosensation and the Primary Cilium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Joseph; Resnick, Andrew

    2010-10-01

    The primary cilium has come under increased scrutiny as a site for mechano- and chemosensation by cells. We have undertaken a program of study using mouse renal cell lines from the cortical collecting duct to quantify how mechanical forces arising from fluid shear are transduced into cellular responses. Fluid flow through a model nephron has been analyzed to determine the in vivo forces. A novel tissue culture flow chamber permitting accurate reproduction of physiologically relevant conditions has been calibrated. We have determined that in vivo conditions can be accurately modeled in our flow chamber.

  6. Cyberbullying among primary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Monks, Claire P.; Ortega, Rosario; Robinson, Susanne; Worlidge, Penny

    2009-01-01

    The nature and extent of cyberbullying and traditional bullying were examined among a sample of primary school pupils aged 7 – 11 years in the London area. Pupils were given anonymous self-report questionnaires which asked about their use of mobile phones and the internet, and their experiences of bullying and cyberbullying as either the victims or perpetrators. Most pupils had a mobile phone and almost all had access to the internet at home. It was found that a significant number of pupil...

  7. Psychopharmacology in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benich, Joseph J; Bragg, Scott W; Freedy, John R

    2016-06-01

    Psychopharmacology requires clinicians to stay current on the latest guidelines and to use dynamic treatment strategies. Psychiatric conditions are prevalent in the primary care population. Choice of treatment with psychopharmacology should be based on controlling the patient's predominant symptoms while taking into consideration patient age, treatment compliance, patient past response to treatments, dosing frequency, patient preference, medication side effects, potential medication interactions, drug precautions/warnings, and cost. Response to therapy, as well as side effects, needs to be evaluated at regular intervals. The goal is to minimize symptoms and return patients to their maximal level of functioning. PMID:27262011

  8. Incorporating Spirituality in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2016-06-01

    Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians. PMID:26832335

  9. Radiologic evaluation of primary lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Chung, Tae Sub; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Ki Wang; Lee, Jong Doo [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The authors evaluated diagnostic value of non-invasive methods and other modalities in diagnosing primary lymphedema. We also evaluated the radiologic findings. Dirent (N=7) and indirect lymphangiograms (N=7), CT scan (N=4), and ultrasonogram (N=3) were performed on 14 patients with primary lymphedema of the lower extremities. Also, comparison CT scan and ultrasonogram were performed on 50 normal volunteers. The results were as follows: 1. Lymphedema was classified as praecox and tarda according to the onset age of symptoms. Their percentage were 71.4% and 28.6% respectively. 2. Lymphangiogram classification showed the following in the order of frequency; hyperplastic (78.6%), aplasia (14.3%) and hyperplasia (7.1%). 3. The mean midtibial subcutaneous fat ratio of the lymphedema patients was 37.73% on the CT scan, which was greater than that of the normal subjects (20.05 {+-} 14.04%). 4. On the ultrasonogram, men premidibial dermis and subcutaneous fat thickness of the lymphedema patients was 6.3 mm, which was greater than that of the normal subject (2.9 {+-} 2.4 mm). 5. In conclusion, CT scan and ultrasonographic examination were helpful as a non-invasive method for evaluating the follow-up of patients treated for lymphedema.

  10. Chiral primaries in strange metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail, E-mail: mikhail.isachenkov@desy.de; Kirsch, Ingo, E-mail: ingo.kirsch@desy.de; Schomerus, Volker, E-mail: volker.schomerus@desy.de

    2014-08-15

    It was suggested recently that the study of 1-dimensional QCD with fermions in the adjoint representation could lead to an interesting toy model for strange metals and their holographic formulation. In the high density regime, the infrared physics of this theory is described by a constrained free fermion theory with an emergent N=(2,2) superconformal symmetry. In order to narrow the choice of potential holographic duals, we initiate a systematic search for chiral primaries in this model. We argue that the bosonic part of the superconformal algebra can be extended to a coset chiral algebra of the form W{sub N}=SO(2N{sup 2}−2){sub 1}/SU(N){sub 2N}. In terms of this algebra the spectrum of the low energy theory decomposes into a finite number of sectors which are parametrized by special necklaces. We compute the corresponding characters and partition functions and determine the set of chiral primaries for N≤5.

  11. Chiral primaries in strange metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail; Kirsch, Ingo; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2014-03-15

    It was suggested recently that the study of 1-dimensional QCD with fermions in the adjoint representation could lead to an interesting toy model for strange metals and their holographic formulation. In the high density regime, the infrared physics of this theory is described by a constrained free fermion theory with an emergent N=(2,2) superconformal symmetry. In order to narrow the choice of potential holographic duals, we initiate a systematic search for chiral primaries in this model. We argue that the bosonic part of the superconformal algebra can be extended to a coset chiral algebra of the form W{sub N}=SO(2N{sup 2}-2){sub 1}/SU(N){sub 2N}. In terms of this algebra the spectrum of the low energy theory decomposes into a finite number of sectors which are parametrized by special necklaces. We compute the corresponding characters and partition functions and determine the set of chiral primaries for N≤5.

  12. Oncology in primary health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book Oncology in the primary health care, constitutes an important contribution to the prevention and treatment of cancer, from a very comprehensive assessment. It's a disease that is the second leading cause of death in our country, to much pain and suffering is for the patient and their family. The book has a very useful for basic health equipment approach, since it emphasizes that cancer can be prevented if achieved in the population changes in lifestyle. The book is valued not correct food as responsible for one third of all cancers. Currently important research being developed in relation to psiconeuroinmuno-Endocrinology, who is studying the association between psychological factors and the development of cancer valuing that kept stress and depression reduces the antitumor activity of the immune system; that made programs with encouraging results where the treatment of cancer has joined elements of psychotherapy, immunotherapy and the use of the biotherapy. The focus of the book fills an important place in the primary health care and is an indispensable guide for professionals at this level of care (author)

  13. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear.......Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear....

  14. Teaching how to swim in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Papež, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how many Slovenian primary school teachers has the appropriate title to teach swimming; how many of them actually teaches it; how many teachers, who do not have the appropriate title wants to have it; who performs swimming lessons and field trips with swimming content and how many primary school teachers feel competent to teach swimming. The research involved primary school teachers, which are teaching in primary schools across Slovenia. An ano...

  15. Primary care quality management in Uzbekistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Verschuuren, M.; Pellny, M.; Baymirova, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Uzbek government has a central role in primary care quality management. On paper, many quality management structures and procedures exist. Now, primary care practice should follow, as NIVEL research – done on the initiative of the World Health Organisation (WHO) – has shown. The results have been published in a WHO report. With donor support, quality improvement in primary care is a national priority. Many laws, decrees and orders deal with the improvement of (primary) health care service...

  16. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary roads. 817.151 Section 817.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of § 817.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in...

  17. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary roads. 816.151 Section 816.151 Mineral... roads. Primary roads shall meet the requirements of section 816.150 and the additional requirements of this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be...

  18. Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Soo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Cho, On Koo; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Kwang Su [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma is a rare tumor, most frequently occurring in liver parenchyma. We recently encountered an exophytic hepatic leiomyosarcoma ; CT scans indicated an indistinct border, with the parenchyme of the liver and parenchymal beaking suggesting a primary hepatic mass. We present an unusual case of primary leiomyosarcoma which showed exophytic growth.

  19. Primary care workforce development in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.; Heinemann, S.; Gress, S.; Schäfer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a large variation in the organization of primary care in Europe. In some health care systems, primary care is the gatekeeper to more specialized care, whilst in others patients have the choice between a wide range of providers. Primary care has increasingly become teamwork. Meth

  20. Leading Curriculum Innovation in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundrett, Mark; Duncan, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of 40 primary school leaders from ten very successful primary schools who were interviewed in order to find out the skills, processes and practices that are required for the leadership of successful curriculum innovation in primary schools. Findings suggest that school leaders need to create an "ethos for change" if…

  1. Improving primary health care through technological innovation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of policy changes and developments on the demand side, the importance of technology in primary health care will grow fast. An approach to the implementation of new technologies in primary health care is presented in this article. First we describe the main problems in Dutch primary healt

  2. 9 CFR 3.28 - Primary enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.28 Section 3.28... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.28 Primary enclosures. All primary enclosures for guinea pigs and hamsters shall conform to the following requirements: (a) General. (1)...

  3. 45 CFR 96.47 - Primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Tribal Organizations § 96.47 Primary care. Applications for direct funding of Indian tribes and tribal organizations under the primary care block grant must comply with 42 CFR Part 51c (Grants for... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary care. 96.47 Section 96.47 Public...

  4. Autoantibodies in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johannes Roksund Hov; Kirsten Muri Boberg; Tom H Karlsen

    2008-01-01

    The aetiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)is not known and controversy exists as to whether PSC should be denominated an autoimmune disease.A large number of autoantibodies have been detected in PSC patients,but the specificity of these antibodies is generally low,and the frequencies vary largely between different studies.The presence of autoantibodies in PSC may be the result of a nonspecific dysregulation of the immune system,but the literature in PSC points to the possible presence of specific antibody targets in the biliary epithelium and in neutrophil granulocytes.The present review aims to give an overview of the studies of autoantibodies in PSC,with a particular emphasis on the prevalence,clinical relevance and possible pathogenetic importance of each individual marker.

  5. Etiopathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roger Chapman; Sue Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology but lymphocytic portal tract infiltration is suggestive of an immune-mediated basis for this disease.Associations with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) especially ulcerative colitis (UC),and with particular autoimmune diseases,as well as the genetic associations further suggest PSC may be an immune-mediated disease.The immunogenetics of PSC have been the subject of active research and several HLA and non-HLA associated genes have been implicated in the development of the disease.Lymphocytes derived from the inflamed gut may enter the liver via the enterohepatic circulation to cause hepatic disease.PSC may be triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by infections or toxins entering the portal circulation through a permeable colon and hence evoking an abnormal immune response.

  6. Primary omental yolk sac tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sunghoon

    2013-11-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules. Explorative laparotomy was performed and then the findings from frozen biopsy of omentum were suggestive of poorly differentiated tumor though whether it was primary or metastatic was uncertain. Thus, staging laparotomy were performed. Histopathology confirmed that the tumor was a yolk sac tumor of omentum origin. Then, 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy at intervals of 3 weeks were performed using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen. Four-year outpatient follow-up thereafter showed no relapse. PMID:24396822

  7. Imaging in primary progressive aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) presents with aphasia, with or without other minor cognitive dysfunction. We report five patients with PPA to show the correlation between their clinical signs and imaging findings. The patients can be divided into those with nonfluent (group 1) and those with fluent (group 2) aphasia. The characteristic speech impairment was bradylalia in group 1 and word amnesia in group 2. Impairment of comprehension was common but mild in both groups. On MRI, patients in group 1 showed predominantly left frontal and perisylvian atrophy with reduced uptake in the same region on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc HMPAO). Patients in group 2 showed left temporal atrophy involving the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus on MRI and reduced uptake in the same region on SPECT. These findings correlated well with the functional anatomy of speech impairment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Venkatesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary leiomyosarcoma of the kidney is a rare tumor with an aggressive behaviour. A 55-year-old woman presented with a left sided abdominal mass in our outpatient department. Radiologic investigations revealed the mass to be renal in origin with colonic adhesions for which radical nephrectomy and hemicolectomy were done. The tumor completely appeared to replace the left kidney and had a whorled character focally on cut section. Microscopically, spindle cells having malignant features with cigar shaped nuclei were seen. The smooth muscle origin of the cells was confirmed by immunohistochemical positivity for smooth muscle actin. Sarcomatoid variant of the renal cell carcinoma was ruled out as the tumor was negative for cytokeratin. Tumors with spindle cell morphology in the kidney should not always be taken for a sarcomatoid variant of renal cell carcinoma and should be investigated thoroughly.

  9. Primary neural leprosy: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Garbino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors proposed a systematic review on the current concepts of primary neural leprosy by consulting the following online databases: MEDLINE, Lilacs/SciELO, and Embase. Selected studies were classified based on the degree of recommendation and levels of scientific evidence according to the “Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine”. The following aspects were reviewed: cutaneous clinical and laboratorial investigations, i.e. skin clinical exam, smears, and biopsy, and Mitsuda's reaction; neurological investigation (anamnesis, electromyography and nerve biopsy; serological investigation and molecular testing, i.e. serological testing for the detection of the phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-I and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; and treatment (classification criteria for the definition of specific treatment, steroid treatment, and cure criteria.

  10. Imaging in primary progressive aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Ukita, H. [Rehabilitation Service, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yanagihara, T. [Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) presents with aphasia, with or without other minor cognitive dysfunction. We report five patients with PPA to show the correlation between their clinical signs and imaging findings. The patients can be divided into those with nonfluent (group 1) and those with fluent (group 2) aphasia. The characteristic speech impairment was bradylalia in group 1 and word amnesia in group 2. Impairment of comprehension was common but mild in both groups. On MRI, patients in group 1 showed predominantly left frontal and perisylvian atrophy with reduced uptake in the same region on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc HMPAO). Patients in group 2 showed left temporal atrophy involving the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus on MRI and reduced uptake in the same region on SPECT. These findings correlated well with the functional anatomy of speech impairment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Primary multifocal osseous Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Janice

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hodgkin's disease (HD most commonly presents with progressive painless enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes, especially around the cervical region. A few children have systemic symptoms and weight loss. At the time of diagnosis, osseous involvement is uncommon Case presentation A case is described of Primary Multifocal Osseous Hodgkin's Lymphoma in a seven-year-old boy. He presented with a painful swelling in the sternum, and further investigations revealed deposits in his L1 vertebra, the left sacro-iliac joint and the right acetabulum. Conclusion The clinical, radiological and histological features of this disease can mimic other medical conditions, including Tuberculosis, making the diagnosis difficult and often leading to delays in treatment. This is a very rare condition and we believe this to be the youngest reported case in the literature.

  12. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenwalla H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform closed alar dissection and extensive primary septoplasty in all these patients. This has improved the overall result and has no long-term deleterious effect on the growth of the nose or of the maxilla. Other refinements have been used for prevention of a high-riding nostril, and correction of the vestibular web.

  13. Primary lymphoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauro Leo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the colon is a rare tumor of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and comprises only 0.2-1.2% of all colonic malignancies. The most common variety of colonic lymphoma is non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL. The GI tract is the most frequently involved site, accounting for 30-40% of all extra nodal lymphomas, approximately 4-20% of which are NHL. The stomach is the most common location of GI lymphomas, followed by the small intestine. Early diagnosis may prevent intestinal perforation; however, the diagnosis is often delayed in most cases. Therapeutic approaches described in two subsets include: Radical tumor resection (hemicolectomy plus multi-agent chemotherapy (polychemotherapy in early stage patients, biopsy plus multidrug chemotherapy in advanced stage patients. Radiotherapy is reserved for specific cases; surgery alone can be considered as an adequate treatment for patients with low-grade NHL disease that does not infiltrate beyond the sub mucosa. Although resection plays an important role in the local control of the disease and in preventing bleeding and/or perforation, it rarely eradicates the lymphoma by itself. Those with limited stage disease may enjoy prolonged survival when treated with aggressive chemotherapy.

  14. Recent Developments in Primary Aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbach, E; Williams, T A; Reincke, M

    2016-06-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary arterial hypertension. Sporadic forms of PA caused mainly by an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) or idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IAH) predominate; in contrast, familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism types I, II and III) affect only a minor proportion of PA patients. Patient based registries and biobanks, international networks and next generation sequencing technologies have emerged over recent years. Somatic hot-spot mutations in the potassium channel GIRK4 (encoded by KCNJ5), in ATPases and a L-type voltage-gated calcium-channel correlate with the autonomous aldosterone production in approximately half of all APAs. The recently discovered form FH III is caused by different germline KCNJ5 mutations with variable clinical presentations and severity. Autoantibodies to the angiotensin II Type 1 receptor have been identified in patients with PA and possibly play a pathophysiological role in the development of PA. Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) represents the gold standard in differentiating unilateral and bilateral forms of PA. Recent consensus papers have tried to implement current guidelines in order to standardise the technique of AVS. New techniques like segmental AVS might allow a finer mapping of the aldosterone production within the adrenal gland. The measurement of the steroids 18-hydroxycortisol and 18-oxocortisol by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been shown to be useful to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral forms of PA. PMID:27219889

  15. Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary synchronous bilateral breast cancer (PSBBC is a rare clinical entity. The reported incidence ranges between 0.3% and 12%. There are several controversial issues regarding PSBBC pertaining to the diagnostic criteria, nomenclature, and management policies. Materials and Methods: Fourteen cases of PSBBC treated between 2001 to 2010 at our institute were retrospectively analysed in regards to demographic data, management and follow up. Results: PSBBC constituted 0.19% of total breast cancer patients at our institute. Age ranged from 28 to 78 years. PSBBC were detected by clinical examination in eight cases and by mammography in six cases. Twelve patients underwent bilateral modified radical mastectomy, one had unilateral mastectomy on one side and breast conservation on the other side and one patient has bilateral breast conservation. Majority of patients belonged to stage 2 and stage 3. All patients were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma. Five cases were ER/PR positive and 8 patients were triple hormone receptor negative. Eight patients received unilateral and six received bilateral adjuvant radiotherapy. Nine patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Median follow up of patients was 15.4 months. Conclusion: PSBBC is a rare event warranting awareness and screening of the contralateral breast in patients with unilateral breast cancer. These patients require individualized treatment planning based on the tumor factors of the index lesion. Further multi institutional prospective studies are needed for adequate understanding of management of PSBBC.

  16. Thermodynamic temperature by primary radiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt, Klaus; Machin, Graham

    2016-03-28

    Above the freezing temperature of silver (1234.93 K), the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) gives a temperature, T90, in terms of a defining fixed-point blackbody and Planck's law of thermal radiation in ratio form. Alternatively, by using Planck's law directly, thermodynamic temperature can be determined by applying radiation detectors calibrated in absolute terms for their spectral responsivity. With the advent of high-quality semiconductor photodiodes and the development of high-accuracy cryogenic radiometers during the last two decades radiometric detector standards with very small uncertainties in the range of 0.01-0.02% have been developed for direct, absolute radiation thermometry with uncertainties comparable to those for the realization of the ITS-90. This article gives an overview of a number of design variants of different types of radiometer used for primary radiometry and describes their calibration. Furthermore, details and requirements regarding the experimental procedure for obtaining low uncertainty thermodynamic temperatures with these radiometers are presented, noting that such radiometers can also be used at temperatures well below the silver point. Finally, typical results obtained by these methods are reviewed. PMID:26903102

  17. Primary Immuno-deficiencies (PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghaffari1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 6 June, 2009 ; Accepted 22 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Primary immune-deficiencies (PID are associated with a wide range of clinical disorders along with variable symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate and improve our knowledge regarding PID from patients that were referred to Booali Sina Hospital.Materials and methods: We evaluated all of PID`s that were referred to Booali Sina Hospital from their data records. Demography, clinical and laboratory data were recorded and then analyzed.Results: In the duration of 3 years, we had 10 patients with PID (7 males and 3 females. Of these cases, 5 had hum oral (50%, 1case had phagocytic (10%, 3 cases had cellular (30% and 1 case had hyper IgE syndrome (10%. Many of them had respiratory and otitis media infections, while a few patients had adenitis, gastroenteritis, liver abscesses, bleedings and malignancy.Conclusion: PID is a diverse disorder that involves different immune systems. Knowledge from patient’s clinical symptoms and consideration in their differential diagnosis can be helpful in early diagnosis and an effective treatment.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(70: 76-80 (Persian

  18. Learning from UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The Australian Government is wise to examine other health care systems as it strives to improve the quality of care and address rising costs to both governments and individuals. Focus is currently on the United Kingdom, whose National Health Service (NHS) stands out as one that delivers good care at a reasonable price to all who need it. The Australian and UK systems have many similarities: universal access, tax payer support, no or low cost at point of delivery, and good population health outcomes. They also face similar pressures on services from aging, increasingly unwell yet expectant populations.However, there are also differences, largely in the way that health care is funded, organised and delivered. The NHS is a huge system for 60 million people in four home countries with diverging policies. Within England, the system is managed through 10 strategic health authorities, each responsible for about 5 million people and having the right to interpret national policy. Population based health care, including tertiary care, is funded locally via primary care trusts. PMID:19283244

  19. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. Methods: This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284, and three or more primaries (n=38. Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%, with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%, had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%, and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%. When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001. Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95% than for synchronous primaries (59% and single primaries (59%. The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991. Conclusion: Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent

  20. Primary prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S Z

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers in China. Accordingly, the mortality rates in 1990 (per 100,000) were 20.10 in certain cities and 24.32 in certain counties. More than 90% of HCC cases and 70% of controls were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 10-50). In the same group of patients, 8-27% of those with HCC and 0-11% of the healthy controls were also infected with hepatitis C (HCV) (OR = 2.11-17.29). There appears to be some correlation between HBV markers and the OR. The government requires that 85% of infants be immunized with HBV vaccine. In 1992, there were 3 million infants inoculated with HB vaccines. Aflatoxins have been found as contaminants in food, particularly in corn, peanut oil, soya sauce and fermented soya beans. The intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by people of ten different villages correlated with HCC mortality rates (r = 0.55; P aflatoxins. These adducts are higher in hyperendemic HCC areas and cases. Most people have now changed their staple food and eat rice instead of corn. Six large epidemiological studies have confirmed that people who drink pond-ditch water experience higher HCC mortality rates than people who drink deep-well water. Recent research has found that the blue-green algal toxin microcystin (MCYST) was a contaminant of pond-ditch water. MCYST is a strong promoter of HCC and will induce severe intrahepatic haemorrhages and liver necrosis. More than 80% of people in Qidong County have already changed their sources of water from pond-ditches to deep wells. Therefore, a combined strategy of the prevention of hepatitis, control of crops and control of drinking water is advocated for the primary prevention of HCC in China.

  1. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekel Hamiyet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Findings Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus and cup to disc ratio (C/D, mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 ± 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 ± 3.85 μ initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 ± 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 ± 19.49 μ initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Conclusions Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  2. Familial varieties of primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, M; Gunasekera, T G; Gordon, R D

    2001-12-01

    1. Improved approaches to screening and diagnosis have revealed primary aldosteronism (PAL) to be much more common than previously thought, with most patients normokalaemic. The spectrum of this disorder has been further broadened by the study of familial varieties. 2. Familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I) is a glucocorticoid-remediable form of PAL caused by the inheritance of an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- regulated, hybrid CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene. Diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by the advent of genetic testing. The severity of hypertension varies widely in FH-I, even among members of the same family, and has demonstrated relationships with gender, degree of biochemical disturbance and hybrid gene crossover point position. Hormone "day curve" studies show that the hybrid gene dominates over wild-type CYP11B2 in terms of aldosterone regulation. This may be due, in part, to a defect in wild-type CYP11B2-induced aldosterone production. Control of hypertension in FH-I requires only partial suppression of ACTH and much smaller glucocorticoid doses than previously recommended. 3. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II (FH-II) is not glucocorticoid remediable and is not associated with the hybrid gene mutation. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II is clinically, biochemically and morphologically indistinguishable from apparently non-familial PAL. Linkage studies in one informative family did not show segregation of FH-II with the CYP11B2, AT1 or MEN1 genes, but a genome-wide search has revealed linkage with a locus in chromosome 7. As has already occurred in FH-I, elucidation of causative mutations is likely to facilitate earlier detection of PAL. PMID:11903322

  3. Etiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Lleo; Pietro Invernizzi; Ian R Mackay; Harry Prince; Ren-Qian Zhong; M Eric Gershwin

    2008-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease of the liver characterized by progressive bile duct destruction eventually leading to cirrhosis and liver failure.The serological hallmark of the disease is the presence of circulating antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA).These reflect the presence of autoreactive T and B cells to the culprit antigens,the E2 subunits of mitochondrial 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase enzymes,chiefly pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2).The disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors.Genetic predisposition is indicated by the higher familial incidence of the disease particularly among siblings and the high concordance rate among monozygotic twins.Environmental triggering events appear crucial to disrupt a preexisting unstable immune tolerance of genetic origin allowing,after a long latency,the emergence of clinical disease.Initiating mimetopes of the vulnerable epitope of the PDC-E2 autoantigen can be derived from microbes that utilize the PDC enzyme or,alternatively,environmental xenobiotics/chemical compounds that modify the structure of native proteins to make them immunogenic.A further alternative as a source of antigen is PDC-E2 derived from apoptotic cells.In the effector phase the biliary ductular cell,by reason of its proclivity to express the antigen PDC-E2 in the course of apoptosis,undergoes a multilineage immune attack comprised of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and antibody.In this article,we critically review the available evidence on etiopathogenesis of PBC and present interpretations of complex data,new developments and theories,and nominate directions for future research.

  4. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王细文; 梁平; 李洪艳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is defined as a malignant hepatic tumour containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Strictly, it should be distinguished from collision tumour and carcinoma with foci of spindle-shaped epithelial cells. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is rare, and less than 11 adequately documented cases have been reported. In this article, a case of primary hepatic carcinosarcoma was discussed as to its potential histogenesis.

  5. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary malignant melanoma most commonly originates from the skin; other less common extra cutaneous sites include squamous mucous membranes, uvea, retina, leptomeninges, genitourinary tract, digestive tract, biliary tract, and upper respiratory tract. Primary melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly rare. We are reporting a histo-pathologically proven rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus and its findings on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography

  6. 16 CFR 316.3 - Primary purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary purpose. 316.3 Section 316.3....3 Primary purpose. (a) In applying the term “commercial electronic mail message” defined in the CAN-SPAM Act, 15 U.S.C. 7702(2), the “primary purpose” of an electronic mail message shall be deemed to...

  7. Mineralogical correlation between primary and replacement dolomites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志诚; 杨守业; 陈智娜

    1997-01-01

    Primary dolostones occur in the Upper Sinian Dengying Formation. Based on mineralogieal study the indicators for correlation between the primary dolomites which are not influenced by the diagenesis and the replacement dolomites of different periods have been obtained. It is shown that the primary dolomites are characterized by crystal forms precipitated and deposited directly from sea water, stable and homogeneous distribution of Mg and Ca, ideal chemical composition, regular modulated microstructures, low positive δ13C and low negative δ18O.

  8. Affect simulation with primary and secondary emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Becker-Asano, Christian; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Prendinger, Helmut; Lester, James; Ishizuka, Mitzuru

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the WASABI Affect Simulation Architecture is introduced, in which a virtual human’s cognitive reasoning capabilities are combined with simulated embodiment to achieve the simulation of primary and secondary emotions. In modeling primary emotions we follow the idea of “Core Affect” in combination with a continuous progression of bodily feeling in three-dimensional emotion space (PAD space), that is only subsequently categorized into discrete emotions. In humans, primary emotions ...

  9. Knowledge of cereals among primary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Murko, Ana

    2015-01-01

    In human diet cereals represent an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and elements, which are needed for healthy growth and development. This thesis is thus focused on knowledge of cereals among primary school students. We were assessing the knowledge of different cereals among primary school students based on their age and type of environment they live in. Beside these two variables, we took into consideration also their gender. 240 primary school students from sixth ...

  10. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread. PMID:17349340

  11. Primary multifocal osseous lymphoma in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of primary multifocal osseous lymphoma in a 6-year-old girl presenting with multifocal osteolytic lesions without systemic symptoms or identifiable non-osseous primary tumor. The differential diagnoses for such a presentation include histiocytosis X, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, metastatic disease, and primary bone lymphoma. Although non-Hodgkin lymphoma is common in the pediatric population, its presentation as a primary bone tumor, especially with multifocal disease, is extremely rare and is frequently misdiagnosed. We hope that awareness of this entity will help radiologists achieve timely diagnosis and intervention. (orig.)

  12. EJSCREEN Version 1, Primary EJ Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The primary EJ index measures how much a particular place contributes to overall nationwide differences in environmental indicator values between demographic...

  13. Primary multifocal osseous lymphoma in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takashi S.P. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Ferguson, Polly J. [University of Iowa, Department of Pediatrics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Khanna, Geetika [Washington University, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2008-12-15

    We report a case of primary multifocal osseous lymphoma in a 6-year-old girl presenting with multifocal osteolytic lesions without systemic symptoms or identifiable non-osseous primary tumor. The differential diagnoses for such a presentation include histiocytosis X, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, metastatic disease, and primary bone lymphoma. Although non-Hodgkin lymphoma is common in the pediatric population, its presentation as a primary bone tumor, especially with multifocal disease, is extremely rare and is frequently misdiagnosed. We hope that awareness of this entity will help radiologists achieve timely diagnosis and intervention. (orig.)

  14. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  15. Endodontic treatment in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Sajeev; Love, Robert M

    2004-08-01

    A number of factors are involved in the development of pulp and periapical disease in primary and permanent teeth, with dental caries being the main factor. Although these factors are similar, the clinical management of a primary or permanent tooth with pulp or periapical disease may be quite different. This is based mainly on the differences between the two types of teeth, with primary tooth longevity, coronal structural integrity, root canal morphology, and root anatomy being important features to be taken into account when treatment planning. This paper reviews some aspects of primary teeth and the various treatment options for the management of pulp and periapical disease.

  16. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective

  17. Inflammatory markers in primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šomlóová, Z; Petrák, O; Rosa, J; Štrauch, B; Indra, T; Zelinka, T; Haluzík, M; Zikán, V; Holaj, R; Widimský, J

    2016-06-20

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension with a high frequency of cardiovascular complications. The unfavorable cardiometabolic profile may be due to aldosterone-mediated activation of inflammatory cells, circulatory cytokines and activation of collagen synthesis in the vessel wall. Aim of our study was to evaluate differences in the levels of hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha and N-terminal propeptide of collagen I (PINP) in patients with PA and essential hypertension (EH) as a control group, and between the subtypes of PA (aldosterone producing adenoma - APA, idiopathic hyperaldosteronism - IHA). We studied 28 patients with PA (IHA - 10 patients, APA - 12 patients, 6 unclassified) and 28 matched patients with EH. There were no differences in the levels of inflammatory markers between the followed groups [EH vs. PA: TNF-alpha (5.09 [3.68-6.32] vs. 4.84 [3.62-6.50] pg/ml), IL-6 (0.94 [0.70-1.13] vs. 0.97 [0.71-1.28] pg/ml), hsCRP (0.53 [0.25-1.54] vs. 0.37 [0.31-0.61] mg/l), leukocytes (6.35+/-1.42 vs. 5.97+/-1.29 10(9) l); APA vs. IHA: TNF-alpha (4.54 [3.62-7.03] vs. 5.19 [4.23-5.27] pg/ml), IL-6 (0.96 [0.63-1.21] vs. 0.90 [0.65-1.06] pg/ml), hsCRP (0.34 [0.29-0.47] vs. 0.75 [0.36-1.11] mg/l), leukocytes (6.37+/-1.41 vs. 5.71+/-1.21 10(9) l)]. Significant differences in the levels of PINP between PA and EH group were observed (35.18 [28.46-41.16] vs. 45.21 [36.95-62.81] microg/l, p

  18. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellanger Jérôme

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other

  19. VHA Support Service Center Primary Care Management Module (PCMM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Primary Care Management Module (PCMM) was developed to assist VA facilities in implementing Primary Care. PCMM supports both Primary Care and non-Primary Care...

  20. 29 CFR 452.103 - Primary elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary elections. 452.103 Section 452.103 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.103 Primary elections. The...

  1. 29 CFR 452.29 - Primary elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Primary elections. 452.29 Section 452.29 Labor Regulations... GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.29 Primary elections. Where a union holds...

  2. Primary Medical Care and Children's Learning Problems

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Patrick J; Feldman, William; Rosser, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the major learning problems that confront the primary-care physician. They discuss why they believe that the primary-care physician has an important role in case finding, referral, case management, and advocacy for the child with learning problems and his or her family.

  3. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers' thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  4. Teaching Primary Science: How Research Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlen, Wynne

    2010-01-01

    The very first edition of "Primary Science Review" included an article entitled "Teaching primary science--how research can help" (Harlen, 1986), which announced that a section of the journal would be for reports of research and particularly for teachers reporting their classroom research. The intervening 24 years have seen momentous change in…

  5. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Griffith (Linda); M. Cowan (Morton); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); R. Kohn (Robert); J. Puck (Jennifer); S.-Y. Pai (Sung-Yun); B. Ballard (Barbara); S.C. Bauer (Sarah); J. Bleesing (Jack); M. Boyle (Marcia); R.W. Brower (Ronald); R.H. Buckley (Rebecca); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); L.M. Burroughs (Lauri); F. Candotti (Fabio); A. Cant (Andrew); T. Chatila (Talal); C. Cunningham-Rundles (Charlotte); M.C. Dinauer (Mary); J. Dvorak (Jennie); A. Filipovich (Alexandra); L.A. Fleisher (Lee); H.B. Gaspar (Bobby); T. Gungor (Tayfun); E. Haddad (Elie); E. Hovermale (Emily); F. Huang (Faith); A. Hurley (Alan); M. Hurley (Mary); S.K. Iyengar (Sudha); E.M. Kang (Elizabeth); B.R. Logan (Brent); J.R. Long-Boyle (Janel); H. Malech (Harry); S.A. McGhee (Sean); S. Modell (Sieglinde); S. Modell (Sieglinde); H.D. Ochs (Hans); R.J. O'Reilly (Richard); R. Parkman (Robertson); D. Rawlings (D.); J.M. Routes (John); P. Shearer (P.); T.N. Small (Trudy); H. Smith (H.); K.E. Sullivan (Kathleen); P. Szabolcs (Paul); A.J. Thrasher (Adrian); D. Torgerson; P. Veys (Paul); K. Weinberg (Kenneth); J.C. Zuniga-Pflucker (Juan Carlos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SC

  6. Primary angiosarcoma of bone. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Baliaka, A; Balis, GC; Michalopoulou-Manoloutsiou, E; Papanikolaou, A; Nikolaidou, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary malignant vascular tumors of bone are very rare accounting for less than 1% of primary bone malignancies. They are characterized by unknown etiology, variable biologic behavior and histological appearance. Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignant vascular tumor derived from mesenchymal cells with endothelial differentiation.

  7. Isolated Primary Schwannoma of Urinary Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suresh; Paul, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    Primary schwannoma of urinary bladder is a very rare tumour. It usually occurs in association with Von Recklinghausen’s disease. It arises from Schwann’s cells in the nerve sheath. We report here a very rare case of primary schwannoma of urinary bladder managed by complete transurethral resection. PMID:27437301

  8. Associations between first and second primary cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    Patients surviving certain types of cancer are at increased risk of a second primary cancer. We tested the hypothesis that excess risk of a second primary cancer is due mainly to excess risk of it being the same type of cancer as the first, rather than to excess risk of it being a different type....

  9. Oxidative stress in primary glomerular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markan, Suchita; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Sud, Kamal;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure.......To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure....

  10. Can Gamification Be Introduced within Primary Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Veronica; López, Magdalena; Maldonado, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Training through gamification is everyday a more evident reality in Primary Education classes. The teachers' view about this has been modified as it is shown in the study published by aDeSe in 2012. However, does it really have place in the students' curricular development in the primary education stage? For the sake of responding to this…

  11. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poropat, Goran; Giljaca, Vanja; Stimac, Davor;

    2011-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a progressive chronic cholestatic liver disease that usually leads to the development of cirrhosis. Studies evaluating bile acids in the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis have shown a potential benefit of their use. However, no influence on patients...

  12. Cyclosporin A for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yanzhang; Christensen, E; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporin A has been used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but the therapeutic responses in randomised clinical trials have been heterogeneous.......Cyclosporin A has been used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but the therapeutic responses in randomised clinical trials have been heterogeneous....

  13. Monomorphic cutaneous metastases with different primaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumaran R

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Telangiectatic type of secondary cutaneous metastases is described with primary malignancies in different organs in a female and in a male. The clinical and histopathological features of the secondary metastases are described along with the features of the primaries manifesting as adenocarcinoma of breast in the former and squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx in the latter.

  14. Primary care practice composition in 34 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Heinemann, Stephanie; Greß, Stefan; Schäfer, Willemijn

    2015-01-01

    Health care needs in the population change through ageing and increasing multimorbidity. Primary health care might accommodate to this through the composition of practices in terms of the professionals working in them. The aim of this article is to describe the composition of primary care practices

  15. Primary care team composition in 34 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.; Heinemann, S.; Greß, S.; Schäfer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Health care needs in the population change through ageing and increasing multimorbidity. Primary health care might accommodate to this through the composition of practices in terms of the professionals working in them. The aim of this article is to describe the composition of primary care practices

  16. 12 CFR 619.9260 - Primary security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary security. 619.9260 Section 619.9260 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9260 Primary security. The basic collateral securing the loan....

  17. D-penicillamine for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yanzhang; Frederiksen, S L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    D-penicillamine is used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis due to its hepatic copper decreasing and immunomodulatory potentials. The results from randomised clinical trials have been inconsistent.......D-penicillamine is used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis due to its hepatic copper decreasing and immunomodulatory potentials. The results from randomised clinical trials have been inconsistent....

  18. The Power and Potential of Primary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Denise N.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    Using primary sources with students has untapped potential for expanding and deepening the reading experiences of elementary and middle grade students. Primary sources expands teachers' palette of reading materials, allows students to connect more closely to topics for learning, and deepens their understanding of the past. This article argues for…

  19. 45 CFR 96.125 - Primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary prevention. 96.125 Section 96.125 Public... Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.125 Primary prevention. (a) For purposes of § 96.124, each State/Territory shall develop and implement a comprehensive prevention program which includes a broad array...

  20. D-penicillamine for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, S L; Chen, Weikeng

    2006-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a cholestatic disease. D-penicillamine is suggested as a treatment option due to its copper reducing and immunomodulatory potential.......Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a cholestatic disease. D-penicillamine is suggested as a treatment option due to its copper reducing and immunomodulatory potential....

  1. A pathophysiological view of primary headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L

    2000-01-01

    The cerebral circulation is innervated by sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory nerves which store a considerable number of neurotransmitters. The role of these has been evaluated in primary headaches. A clear association between head pain and the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP...... normalised. These data show the involvement of sensory and parasympathetic mechanisms in the pathophysiology of primary headaches....

  2. An Introduction to Primary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Gerald, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Physical Education is a core component of the primary school curriculum. The primary years are perhaps the most significant period for motor development in children, a time during which basic movement competencies are developed and which offers the first opportunity for embedding physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle. This is the first…

  3. Primary extradural meningioma arising from the calvarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumours. Meningiomas arising at other locations are termed primary extradural meningiomas (EDM and are rare. Here we report a case of EDM arising from the calvarium – a primary calvarial meningioma (PCM.

  4. Primary hyperparathyroidism: adenoma or hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt-Piñeres Aiken Felipe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: primary hyperparathyroidism (PH is a symptomatic or asymptomaticclinical entity, characterized by the autonomous production of parathyroid hormone (PTH. Its classical presentation exhibits an increase of the serum calcium andparathyroid hormone levels. Parathyroid scintigrafy, among other imaging modalities,is frequently used to detect the hyperfunctioning glands.Clinical case: number 1. Female, 69 years old, asymptomatic, hypertension of recentonset, osteopenia, increased intact PTHi level and serum calcium concentration, andlow phosphate level, multinodular goiter (ultrasound, and focal increased uptake inthe inferolateral aspect of thyroid right lobe (parathyroid scintigraphy consistent withparathyroid adenoma, confirmed by surgery and histopathology examination. Number2. Female, 69 years old, with history of chronic hypertension, nephrolithiasis andpartial thyroidectomy, actually with chronic diarrhea and headaches, erosive chronicduodenitis (endoscopy, increase of PTHi and serum calcium levels, changes in contrastneck CT scan and US consistent with thyroidectomy, and parathyroid scintigraphy withthree areas of focal increased isonitrile uptake consistent with parathyroid hyperplasia,confirmed by surgery and histopathologic findings.Conclusion: the parathyroid Scintigraphy (planar and Spect, double phase and doubletracer done in combination, have good sensibility, specificity and diagnostic accuracyof parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasia, improving surgical procedures, with minimalincision or invasion, ad quality of life of hyperparathyroidism patients. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:350-354RESUMEN:Introducción: el hiperparatiroidismo primario (HP es una entidad clínica sintomáticao asintomática, caracterizada por la producción autónoma de parathormona (PTH.Se presenta elevación del calcio sérico y de la parathormona (PTH, aunque estaúltima puede permanecer dentro en los rangos normales altos. La gammagraf

  5. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erasmus, Christiaan, E-mail: christiaan.erasmus@gmail.com [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Kok, Schalk [Advanced Mathematical Modelling, CSIR Modelling and Digital Science, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hindley, Michael P. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2013-05-15

    Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux fields and constant stress fields, but it does not allow for the effect of movement of stress locations around a graphite component during life, nor does it allow primary creep to be applied rate-dependently to graphite components subject to lower fast neutron flux. This paper shows that a differential form of primary irradiation creep in graphite combined with the secondary creep formulation proposed by Kennedy et al. performs well when predicting creep behaviour in experimental samples. The significance of primary irradiation creep in particular in regions with lower flux is investigated. It is shown that in low flux regions with a realistic operating lifetime primary irradiation creep is significant and is larger than secondary irradiation creep.

  6. Global marine primary production constrains fisheries catches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassot, Emmanuel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Mélin, Frédéric; Watson, Reg; Gascuel, Didier; Le Pape, Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Primary production must constrain the amount of fish and invertebrates available to expanding fisheries; however the degree of limitation has only been demonstrated at regional scales to date. Here we show that phytoplanktonic primary production, estimated from an ocean-colour satellite (SeaWiFS), is related to global fisheries catches at the scale of Large Marine Ecosystems, while accounting for temperature and ecological factors such as ecosystem size and type, species richness, animal body size, and the degree and nature of fisheries exploitation. Indeed we show that global fisheries catches since 1950 have been increasingly constrained by the amount of primary production. The primary production appropriated by current global fisheries is 17-112% higher than that appropriated by sustainable fisheries. Global primary production appears to be declining, in some part due to climate variability and change, with consequences for the near future fisheries catches.

  7. Primary phospholipase C and brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong Ryoul; Kang, Du-Seock; Lee, Cheol; Seok, Heon; Follo, Matilde Y; Cocco, Lucio; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, the primary phospholipase C (PLC) proteins, PLCβ, and PLCγ, are activated primarily by neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, and hormones through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Among the primary PLC isozymes, PLCβ1, PLCβ4, and PLCγ1 are highly expressed and differentially distributed, suggesting a specific role for each PLC subtype in different regions of the brain. Primary PLCs control neuronal activity, which is important for synapse function and development. In addition, dysregulation of primary PLC signaling is linked to several brain disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Huntington's disease, depression and Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we included current knowledge regarding the roles of primary PLC isozymes in brain disorders. PMID:26639088

  8. Primary to Post-Primary Transition for Students with Special Educational Needs from an Irish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Tom; Foley, Shane; Curtin, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores primary to post-primary transitions for students with Special Educational Needs (SEN) within mainstream schooling in an Irish context. A questionnaire was distributed to a cohort of sixth class students (n = 58) from four different primary schools in advance of their transfer and results were then compared with a similar cohort…

  9. Primary care for the Roma in Europe: Position paper of the European forum for primary care

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf Pim; Rotar Pavlič Danica; Zelko Erika; Vintges Marga; Willems Sara; Hanssens Lise

    2016-01-01

    Roma populations’ low health status and limited access to health services, including primary care, has been documented in many European countries, and warrants specific health policies and practices. A variety of experiences shows how primary care can adjust its practices to reduce the barriers to primary care for Roma populations.

  10. Research in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Henrique Norman

    2013-04-01

    Atenção Primária (CIAP, mais vinculado ao processo de trabalho como um todo do que à Classificação Internacional das Doenças (CID, que se relaciona mais ao processo de vigilância da morbimortalidade. A CIAP, atualmente na sua segunda versão, classifica o processo de cuidado em três diferentes segmentos: razão de encontro, diagnóstico e processo7. Assim, a CIAP-2 possibilita ao clínico ou pesquisador mudar para uma epidemiologia orientada ao episódio do cuidado, ou seja, permite uma análise ao longo do tempo do episódio de cuidado, na medida que esse se desenvolve, marcado pela transição (ou mudanças na relação entre a razão do encontro ou consulta, diagnóstico e intervenções realizadas. A CIAP-2 também é mais leve e com poucos códigos, se comparada ao CID, pois abarca os problemas mais comuns da prática, com frequência intermediária (definidos por taxa de ocorrência de 1-5/1.000 pacientes/ano ou frequentes (definidos por taxa de ocorrência ? 5/1.000 pacientes/ano7. Essa ferramenta desenvolvida pelos médicos de família é parte integrante da agenda da Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHO – Family International Classification6, entretanto necessita ganhar mais espaço na prática e nas pesquisas em APS no Brasil. A presente edição contribui para essa discussão trazendo três artigos – um de Portugal e dois do Brasil – que abordam o tema da CIAP. O primeiro, Tendência de classificação no Capítulo Z da CIAP-2 entre 2006 e 2011 em um centro de saúde de Medicina Familiar em Coimbra, Portugal, faz uma reflexão sobre o aumento do uso de códigos referentes a problemas sociais, que talvez reflita a crise econômica pela qual está passando Portugal. Já os artigos dos autores brasileiros versam sobre a aplicabilidade da CIAP como ferramenta de estudo da demanda em APS. O artigo A methodological proposal to research patients’ demands and pre-test probabilities in a paper form in primary care settings oferece uma

  11. Integrated primary health care in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawaine Powell Davies

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.

  12. PCATool: primary care assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Henrique Norman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (RBMFC  encerra o ano de 2013 com uma edição em comemoração ao nascimento da Dra. Barbara Starfield em 18 de dezembro (18/12/1932 - 10/6/2011. A foto da capa, intitulada  “Desayuno en Buitrago de Lozoya” retrata a amizade entre Barbara Starfield, seu marido Neil “Tony” Holtzman e Juan Gérvas e Mercedes Pérez Fernández (autora da foto, na qual desfrutam e compartilham a vida à mesa. A mesa também faz referência a uma característica marcante de Starfield: a de nutriz (do latim nuctrix, que possui a capacidade de nutrir; que sustenta. Como  afirmou seu marido Tony: - “Ela fez isso por meio de sua pesquisa, sua paixão altruísta e sua orientação àqueles que se preocupam com as pessoas, a justiça e a verdade”1.O editorial especial para esta edição foi escrito pelo Dr. Juan Gérvas e reflete a importância de se avaliar a qualidade da atenção primária à saúde (APS a fim de que ela possa, continuamente,  se fortalecer. Em decorrência disso, todos os artigos desta edição versam sobre o Instrumento de Avaliação da Atenção Primária, em inglês Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool, sua validação, adaptação e aplicação para a APS2. Starfield e colaboradores desenvolveram, no The Johns Hopkins Populations Care Policy Center for the Underserved Populations, o PCATool, instrumento que permite mensurar a presença e a extensão dos atributos essenciais e derivados da APS3. Os quatro atributos essenciais da APS: a acesso de primeiro contato; b continuidade do cuidado; c abrangência  (comprehensiveness; e d coordenação dos cuidados são subcomponentes do acesso e, portanto, a qualidade dos serviços passa pela melhoria de estruturas e processos (efetividade que garantam o acesso tanto no nível individual – atendendo os indivíduos e suas necessidades em saúde – como no nível populacional, em que o acesso volta-se à dimensão ética da

  13. The application analyses for primary spectrum pyrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU; TaiRan

    2007-01-01

    In the applications of primary spectrum pyrometry, based on the dynamic range and the minimum sensibility of the sensor, the application issues, such as the measurement range and the measurement partition, were investigated through theoretical analyses. For a developed primary spectrum pyrometer, the theoretical predictions of measurement range and the distributions of measurement partition were presented through numerical simulations. And the measurement experiments of high-temperature blackbody and standard temperature lamp were processed to further verify the above theoretical analyses and numerical results. Therefore the research in the paper provides the helpful supports for the applications of primary spectrum pyrometer and other radiation pyrometers.……

  14. The three primary colors of mobile systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Zhiyong; Qian, Liang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the notion of "mobile 3C systems in which the "Communications", "Computing", and "Caching" (i.e., 3C) make up the three primary resources/funcationalties, akin to the three primary colors, for a mobile system. We argue that in future mobile networks, the roles of computing and caching are as intrinsic and essential as communications, and only the collective usage of these three primary resources can support the sustainable growth of mobile systems. By defining the 3C...

  15. Primary ovarian pregnancy with intrauterine contraceptive device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Saichandran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian pregnancy is a rare variant of extra-uterine pregnancies. However the cause for primary ovarian pregnancy is still obscure. Some studies have reported a strong correlation of this condition with intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD. The diagnosis of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is seldom made before surgery though ultrasound proves to be an invaluable tool for its diagnosis. We describe here about a case of primary ovarian pregnancy which was diagnosed only at the time of operation and was managed with wedge resection of the ovary. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1191-1193

  16. Imaging features of primary adrenal lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-ping; SUN Hao-ran; LI Ya-jun; BAI Ren-ju; GAO Shuo

    2009-01-01

    @@ Secondary involvement of the adrenal glands with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been reported to occur in up to 25% of patients during the course of disease. However, primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is very rare.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk of primary spontaneous pneumothorax . One theory is that the altered folliculin protein may trigger ... be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management These resources address the diagnosis or management of ...

  18. CPC Initiative - Participating Primary Care Practices

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative is a multi-payer initiative fostering collaboration between public and private health care payers to strengthen...

  19. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompmaker, IJ; Haagsma, EB; Jansen, PLM; Slooff, MJH

    1996-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic disease, strongly associated with ulcerative colitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Ulcerative colitis itself does not influence the liver transplant results. However; intensified screening after liver transplantation for carcinoma of the colon may be necessary.

  20. Primary Cilia, Signaling Networks and Cell Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veland, Iben Rønn

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based, sensory organelles that emerge from the centrosomal mother centriole to project from the surface of most quiescent cells in the human body. Ciliary entry is a tightly controlled process, involving diffusion barriers and gating complexes that maintain a unique...... this controls directional cell migration as a physiological response. The ciliary pocket is a membrane invagination with elevated activity of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE). In paper I, we show that the primary cilium regulates TGF-β signaling and the ciliary pocket is a compartment for CDE...... on formation of the primary cilium and CDE at the pocket region. The ciliary protein Inversin functions as a molecular switch between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. In paper II, we show that Inversin and the primary cilium control Wnt signaling and are required for polarization and cell migration...

  1. Environmental Control over the Primary Aluminum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> To strengthen environmental control over theprimary aluminum industry,the State Environ-mental Protection Administration of China hasrecently issued a notice addressing the follow-ing points:Strengthening environmental control over theexisting primary aluminum companies

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  3. Lipid Profile in patients of primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to estimate the lipid profile i.e TC,TG, LDL-c and HDL-c in patients of primary hypothyroidism . Eighty subjects (both males and females, age range 18 - 40) were recruited for this study. Patient group (B) was of 40 subjects, while the remaining 40 subjects were healthy age, BMI and sex matched individuals constituting control group (A). Study subjects were selected from Atomic Energy Medical Centre (CENUM) Mayo Hospital Lahore. Conclusions: Serum T3 and T4 levels are decreased (highly significant) in patients of primary hypothyroidism as compared to control group. Serum TSH level is increased (highly significant) in patients of primary hypothyroidism when comparing with the control group. Serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels are increased (highly significant) in patients of primary hypothyroidism as compared with the control group. (author)

  4. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S; Issac, Jyoti S; John, Sheen A; Harris, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the "gold-standard" over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel-titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed.

  5. Primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula K Purushotham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by yeast like encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Isolated primary pulmonary infection in an immunocompetent person is rare. We present a case, which was mistaken as carcinoma of lung and patient underwent pnemonectomy.

  6. Research on Spelling in Primary Grades (ERIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenbaugh, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Presents annotations of nine conference papers and practica in the ERIC database that deal with spelling research in the primary grades. Notes that the entries in the annotated bibliography were published between 1990 and 1992. (RS)

  7. Bisphosphonates for osteoporosis in primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudic, Jelena; Giljaca, Vanja; Krstic, Miodrag N;

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis often have osteoporosis - either postmenopausal or secondary to the liver disease. No systematic review or meta-analysis has assessed the effects of bisphosphonates for osteoporosis...

  8. Plasma exchange in primary biliary cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, P W N; Kingston, P.; Bull, J.; Thompson, R. P. H.

    1981-01-01

    The symptoms of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis are frequently intractable to traditional therapy. Three patients are reported in whom several symptoms were alleviated by plasma exchange, using a Hemonetics Model 30 cell separator.

  9. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  10. Integrated Primary Care Information Database (IPCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrated Primary Care Information Database is a longitudinal observational database that was created specifically for pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacoeconomic studies, inlcuding data from computer-based patient records supplied voluntarily by general practitioners.

  11. Pulpectomy procedures in primary molar teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature loss of primary molars can cause a number of undesirable consequences including loss of arch length, insufficient space for erupting premolars and mesial tipping of the permanent molars. Pulpectomy of primary molar teeth is considered as a reasonable treatment approach to ensure either normal shedding or a long-term survival in instances of retention. Despite being a more conservative treatment option than extraction, efficient pulpectomy of bizarre and tortuous root canals encased in roots programmed for physiologic resorption that show close proximity to developing permanent tooth buds presents a critical endodontic challenge. This article aims to provide an overview of this treatment approach, including partial and total pulpectomy, in primary molar teeth. In addition, the recommended guidelines that should be followed, and the current updates that have been developed, while commencing total pulpectomy in primary molars are discussed.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (3 links) Motor Neurone Disease Association (UK) Muscular Dystrophy Association National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 link) ALS2-Related Disorders Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis ...

  13. Peripheral airway obstruction in primary pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, F; Ewert, R.; Hoeper, M; Olschewski, H.; Behr, J.; Winkler, J.; Wilkens, H.; Breuer, C.; Kubler, W; Borst, M

    2002-01-01

    Background: As there is controversy about changes in lung function in primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), lung mechanics were assessed with a focus on expiratory airflow in relation to pulmonary haemodynamics.

  14. Primary breast osteosarcoma: A diagnostic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraskeletal osteosarcomas account for < 1% of the soft tissue sarcomas and are known to more often localize in soft tissues of the lower extremities. Primary osteosarcomas of the breast are extremely rare. A majority of the reported cases were in fact initially erroneously diagnosed and treated as primary breast carcinomas. We recently got to treat an interesting case of a primary breast osteosarcoma and discuss its evaluation and management with added emphasis on the incremental role of technetium 99-methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m) bone scintigraphy in its clinical diagnosis. Tc-99m uptake can occasionally be seen in the delayed bone scintigraphy images of extra skeletal malignancies, but the uptakes are considered to be typically less intense than the uptakes noted in primary skeletal malignancies. Extraskeletal osteosarcomas are however the exceptions to this rule, the intense uptake in bone scintigraphy further aided in an accurate preoperative diagnosis and management of our patient

  15. Concussion management by primary care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleacher, M D; Dexter, W W

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess current concussion management practices of primary care providers. Methods An 11 item questionnaire was mailed to primary care providers in the state of Maine, with serial mailings to non‐respondents. Results Over 50% of the questionnaires were completed, with nearly 70% of primary care providers indicating that they routinely use published guidelines as a tool in managing patients with concussion. Nearly two thirds of providers were aware that neuropsychological tests could be used, but only 16% had access to such tests within a week of injury. Conclusions Primary care providers are using published concussion management guidelines with high frequency, but many are unable to access neuropsychological testing when it is required. PMID:16371479

  16. Primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma - Case report *

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Jayme; Tebet, Ana Carolina Franco; de Oliveira, Anna Rita Ferrante Mitidieri; Nasser, Kassila

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor rarely occurs in the skin and sobcutaneous tissues. Generally Ewing's sarcoma is a primary bone tumor, but when present in soft tissues it characterizes an extremely uncommon clinical picture. It usually involves the deep subcutaneous tissue or muscles, and more rarely occurs like a primary skin cancer. Most patients are white, women, and in the second decade of life. The clinical features are a superficial mass, in average measuring 2-3 cm, ...

  17. Wound Care in Primary Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Nail Ersoz; Ismail Hakki Ozerhan; Fatih Zor

    2008-01-01

    Wound care starts with occuring of wound. Primary health care wound care important as to affect on quality of healing. It is given information about the types of wounds, brief wound physiopathology and presented the options of wound care to primary health care wound care proffessionals in this article. Wound care must be done in a systematic process by health care professionals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000): 71-74

  18. Wound Care in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail Ersoz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound care starts with occuring of wound. Primary health care wound care important as to affect on quality of healing. It is given information about the types of wounds, brief wound physiopathology and presented the options of wound care to primary health care wound care proffessionals in this article. Wound care must be done in a systematic process by health care professionals. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 71-74

  19. Wound Care in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail Ersoz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound care starts with occuring of wound. Primary health care wound care important as to affect on quality of healing. It is given information about the types of wounds, brief wound physiopathology and presented the options of wound care to primary health care wound care proffessionals in this article. Wound care must be done in a systematic process by health care professionals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 71-74

  20. Primary Pulmonary Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    R Lluch-Garcia; Briones-Gomez, A; E Monzó Castellano; Sanchez-Toril, F; Lopez, A; Brotons, B

    2010-01-01

    A 21-year-old man presented to hospital with a two-month history of productive cough with no other symptoms. Radiology revealed a cavitating lesion in the left upper lobe for which a variety of diagnoses were considered. A biopsy revealed primary pulmonary Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Primary pulmonary Hodgkin’s lymphoma is an uncommon initial presentation; lung lesions usually occur later in the course of the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient began chemotherapy and full remission was achieved...