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Sample records for bfs

  1. On the bias of BFS

    CERN Document Server

    Kurant, Maciej; Thiran, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Breadth First Search (BFS) and other graph traversal techniques are widely used for measuring large unknown graphs, such as online social networks. It has been empirically observed that an incomplete BFS is biased toward high degree nodes. In contrast to more studied sampling techniques, such as random walks, the precise bias of BFS has not been characterized to date. In this paper, we quantify the degree bias of BFS sampling. In particular, we calculate the node degree distribution expected to be observed by BFS as a function of the fraction of covered nodes, in a random graph $RG(p_k)$ with a given degree distribution $p_k$. Furthermore, we also show that, for $RG(p_k)$, all commonly used graph traversal techniques (BFS, DFS, Forest Fire, and Snowball Sampling) lead to the same bias, and we show how to correct for this bias. To give a broader perspective, we compare this class of exploration techniques to random walks that are well-studied and easier to analyze. Next, we study by simulation the effect of gr...

  2. BFS Human Behaviour Model for Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Molan, Marija; Molan, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    The Butterfly Flower Shower (BFS) Human Behaviour Model describes human behaviour in each demanding, possible accidental situation. The BFS human behaviour model is presented for a traffic situation. The key elements (perception, cognition, reaction) of the human behaviour are identified. Also possible limitations and errors in all elements of human behaviour are presented. The model is presented as the butterfly on the flower under the shower of interventions. The flower is environment descr...

  3. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report 2008 of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) includes the following topics: Decommissioning of the Asse repository. Further topical working areas of BfS: status of conversion of the Konrad Mine into a repository for radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation; the German mobile telecommunication research program; natural and mn-made ultraviolet radiation; radiation exposure by natural radionuclides in drinking water in Germany; frequency of childhood cancer in the vicinity of German NPPs - the KiKK study. Selected working areas of BfS: protection from hazardous effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, protection from environmental radioactivity, nuclear safety, management of radioactive wastes, the environmental research program of the Federal environmental Ministry - research for enhancing nuclear safety and radiological protection.

  4. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress report submitted by Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz reveals that this federal radiation protection agency is not only entrusted with the fulfillment of the federal administrative tasks imposed by law but engages in applications-oriented research regarding the operational, metrological and health-related aspects of radiation protection, regarding nuclear safety and radioactive waste management. In addition, BfS takes care of public-relations tasks. The reports submitted by the BfS departments are completed by summaries of the main research results. (DG)

  5. Analysis of BFS-75-1 critical experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Sang Ji

    2001-03-01

    As the second stage of critical experiment plan for developing the KALIMER core design, an experimental program named BFS-75-1 was carried out through the second half of 1998 to the first half of 1999, for which a critical mock-up core was constructed at the BFS-1 facility in IPPE. In this work, the K-CORE system, being used in the KALIMER conceptual core design, has been validated against BFS-75-1 experiment by comparing the calculated results to the measurements. The validation results show that the effective multiplication factor can be predicted within 0.2% error. The fission reaction rate distributions are calculated within 10% error in the core region, but are found to be in poor agreement in the blanket region. The calculated values agree with the measured ones within 3% for principal one and 7% for minor actinide spectal index according to various measurement method respectively. The calculation for sodium void reactivity worth shows the large deviation from measurement value in case of central void but 24% deviation at the core boundary region. Deviations are found ranged from 1% to 7% in the most of control rod experiment except the trap type control rod simulated by pellets. In the calculations of small sample reactivity worth, the first order perturbation method results in the calculated errors less than 8% for U-235, U-238, Pu-239 and B-10, but much higher calculated errors for other materials. The calculated value for Doppler effect shows the large deviation from experiment value but the reason for these unacceptable deviations has not been identified yet.

  6. Analysis of BFS-55-1 experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral computation system, K-CORE system is under construction by the LMR development team in KAERI for the core design and its performance analysis of Korean won LMR, KALIMER. The comparative analysis between the calculational results and experimental data of the BFS-SS-1 critical assembly has been performed to validate the neutronic calculation system recently constructed in the K-CORE system. The analysis includes the comparison of computational results to those obtained with the IPPE's calculation system to comprehend two difference group constants and computation systems. The BFS-55 critical assembly is a metallic uranium-plutonium fueled and simple-configured core for benchmark test. The neutronic calculation system in the K-CORE system consists of the neutron cross section library, KFS and the modular computation systems carrying out special functions required for the core nuclear design. The Russian IPPE's neutronic calculation system is composed of the nuclear data set, ABBN and related computation system for the analysis of experimental data of BFS experiments and the core nuclear design. The comparative analysis was given to k-effective, several reaction rate ratios at the core center, and sodium void reactivity effect. All k-effective values calculated with both diffusion theory calculation systems were obtained to be 0.97251 ± 0.00143, if the heterogeneity being particularly important due to multiregion cell configuration in the BFS-55 critical assembly is not considered rigorously. Ratios of calculational-to-experimental values (C/E's) for several reaction rates at the core center were obtained to be within the discrepancy of 2.4% for the IPPE's calculation system, and 6.2% for the K-CORE system, respectively; IPPE's better calculational estimation is attributed to computed with both calculation systems are very close to the experimental results. The comparative results show that the neutronic calculation system combined with the cross section

  7. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report 2011 of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) includes the following main articles: Fukushima and the consequences, new power lines across Germany and the management of radioactive wastes in Germany. Further topics of the BfS were reasonable exposure to sun and skin cancer prevention, individual health assessment of lung cancer with low-dose CT, occupational radiation exposure in medicine, radiation protection at setting up digital radio of security authorities and organizations, importance of laboratory ring experiments for incorporation monitoring, defence against nuclear hazards: cooperation and exercises in 2011, new developments with regard to radioactivity in drinking water, reportable events in nuclear facilities in 2011, decommissioning of a permanently shut down NPP. The environmental research program of the Federal Environmental ministry - research for strengthening nuclear safety and radiation protection: German uranium miners biobank: consequences of uranium mining and radiological impacts, German miners cohort study, health effects of strong magnetic fields of NMR imaging, radiation exposure due to nuclear medical examinations, national survey on the radio-cesium contamination of wild boars.

  8. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the 'stone sack' to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods

  9. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the `stone sack` to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods.

  10. Analysis of Homogeneous BFS-73-1 MA Benchmark Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Il; Yoo, Jae Woon; Song, Hoon; Jang, Jin Wook; Kim, Yeong Il

    2007-06-15

    Analysis of BFS-73-1 critical assembly for MA transmutation has been carried out by using K-CORE system mainly, DIF3D code. All of measured data are compared with the results of analysis and sensitiveness of calculation conditions, for example, number of neutron energy groups, mesh size used, and analysis method, are assessed. Effective multiplication factor was in good agreement within experimental uncertainty in both transport and diffusion calculations. Fission rate distribution of U-235 and U-238 is also fairly good agreed with experimental results within maximum 5% in core region. But large discrepancy was seen in blanket region and it tends to increase as the location closes to core boundary. Largest error of relative reaction rate ratio was seen in Am-243 fission and U-238 capture. For the case of Am-243, the error lay on appropriate range considering the measurement uncertainty of that as 4.6%. Sample reactivity worths for scattering dominant isotope was greatly differ from the experimental results, which can be explained in terms of sample heterogeneity effect, sample self shielding and finally resonance bilinear correction effect. These effects will be evaluated as future study. C/E of effective delayed neutron fraction is within 4%, which is within the measurement uncertainty.

  11. BFS, a Legacy to the International Reactor Physics, Criticality Safety, and Nuclear Data Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Anatoly Tsibulya; Yevgeniy Rozhikhin

    2012-03-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. Data provided by these two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades The Russian Federation has been a major contributor to both projects with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) as the major contributor from the Russian Federation. Included in the benchmark specifications from the BFS facilities are 34 critical configurations from BFS-49, 61, 62, 73, 79, 81, 97, 99, and 101; spectral characteristics measurements from BFS-31, 42, 57, 59, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101; reactivity effects measurements from BFS-62-3A; reactivity coefficients and kinetics measurements from BFS-73; and reaction rate measurements from BFS-42, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101.

  12. BFS Method for Alloys Optimized and Verified for the Study of Ordered Intermetallic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The aerospace industry has a need for new metallic alloys that are lightweight and have high strength at elevated temperatures. The BFS (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith) method is a new, computationally efficient and physically sound quantum semi-perturbative approach for describing metals and their defects. Based on a simple interpretation of the alloy formation process that identifies strain and chemical contributions to the energy of the alloy, the method provides an atom-by-atom description of an alloy. Its implementation requires little more than algebra and the solution of transcendental equations. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, we have demonstrated that BFS can investigate the properties of a large number of alloys with a minimum computational effort on low-level computers. This screening allows the selection of the best alloy candidates for a particular application and, therefore, promises large cost savings over current approaches.

  13. Analysis of BFS-62-3A critical experiment benchmark model - IGCAR results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BFS 62-3A assembly is a full scale model of BN-600 hybrid core. The MOX zone is represented as a ring between medium enriched (MEZ) and high enriched zones (HEZ). The hybrid core with steel reflector is represented in a 120 deg sector of BFS. For a homogenised 3-D core of BFS, equivalent experimental data of keff and SVRE values were derived by including the following corrections to the actually obtained experimental results: (a) heterogeneity effect and (b) 3-D model simplification effect. The nuclear data used was XSET-98. It is a 26 group set with ABBN type self-shielding factor table. The benchmark models were analysed by diffusion theory. 3-D calculations were done by TREDFR code in 26 groups with 6 triangular meshes per fuel assembly. The number of triangles was 24414. Axial mesh size corrections were estimated for some cases. The convergence criteria for were 0.000001 for keff and 0.0001 for point wise fission source. The multiplication factor of the reference core of the benchmark is compared with measured. The multiplication factor is predicted with in the uncertainty margin. The SVRE values were computed as Δk/k1k2 and compared to measured values. It is found that the predictions are with in the uncertainty margin except in the MOX region. Reason for this needs to be investigated. As a first step, axial mesh size effect was estimated for MOX SVRE (sodium void reactivity effect) case with use finer meshes in the reference core as well the MOX voided core. By increasing the axial meshe from 35 to 54 both the keff reduced by the same amount leaving the MOX SVRE worth unchanged

  14. JNC results of BFS-62-3A benchmark calculation (CRP: Phase 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is the results of JNC, Japan, for the Phase 5 of IAEA CRP benchmark problem (BFS-62-3A critical experiment). Analytical Method of JNC is based on Nuclear Data Library JENDL-3.2; Group Constant Set JFS-3-J3.2R: 70-group, ABBN-type self-shielding factor table based on JENDL-3.2; Effective Cross-section - Current-weighted multigroup transport cross-section. Cell model for the BFS as-built tube and pellets was (Case 1) Homogeneous Model based on IPPE definition; (Case 2) Homogeneous atomic density equivalent to JNC's heterogeneous calculation only to cross-check the adjusted correction factors; (Case 3) Heterogeneous model based on JNC's evaluation, One-dimensional plate-stretch model with Tone's background cross-section method (CASUP code). Basic diffusion Calculation was done in 18-groups and three-dimensional Hex-Z model (by the CITATION code), with Isotropic diffusion coefficients (Case 1 and 2), and Benoist's anisotropic diffusion coefficients (Case 3). For sodium void reactivity, the exact perturbation theory was applied both to basic calculation and correction calculations, ultra-fine energy group correction - approx. 100,000 group constants below 50 keV, and ABBN-type 175 group constants with shielding factors above 50 keV. Transport theory and mesh size correction 18-group, was used for three-dimensional Hex-Z model (the MINIHEX code based on the S4-P0 transport method, which was developed by JNC. Effective delayed Neutron fraction in the reactivity scale was fixed at 0.00623 by IPPE evaluation. Analytical Results of criticality values and sodium void reactivity coefficient obtained by JNC are presented. JNC made a cross-check of the homogeneous model and the adjusted correction factors submitted by IPPE, and confirmed they are consistent. JNC standard system showed quite satisfactory analytical results for the criticality and the sodium void reactivity of BFS-62-3A experiment. JNC calculated the cross-section sensitivity coefficients of BFS

  15. Analysis of measurements for a uranium-free core experiment at the BFS-2 critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes a series of calculations that were carried out to model various measurements from the BFS-58-1-I1 experiment. BFS-58-1-I1 was a mock-up of a uranium-free, Pu burning core at BFS-2, a Russian critical assembly operated by IPPE. The experiment measured values of Keff, Na void reactivity worth, material sample reactivity worths and reaction rate ratios. The experiments were modelled using a number of different methods. Basic nuclear data was taken from JENDL-3.2, in either 70 or 18 groups. Cross-section data for the various material regions of the assembly were calculated by either SLAROM or CASUP; the heterogeneous structure of the core regions was modelled in these calculations, with 3 different options considered for representing the (essentially 2D) geometry of the assembly components in a 1D cell model. Whole reactor calculations of flux and Keff were done using both a diffusion model (CITATION) and a transport model (TWOTRAN2), both using an RZ geometry. Reactivity worths were calculated both directly from differences in Keff values and by using the exact perturbation calculations of PERKY and SN-PERT (for CITATION and TWOTRAN2, respectively). Initial calculations included a number of inaccuracies in the assembly representation, a result of communication difficulties between JNC and IPPE; these errors were removed for the final calculations that are presented. Calculations for the experiments have also been carried out in Russia (IPPE) and France (CEA) as part of an international comparison exercise, some of those results are also presented here. The calculated value of Keff was 1.1%Δk/k higher than the measured value, Na void worth C/E values were ∼1.06; these results were considered to be reasonable. (Discrepancies in certain Na void values were probably due to experimental causes , though the effect should be investigated in any future experiments.) Several sample worth values were small compared with calculational uncertainties

  16. KAERI results on BFS-62 3A critical experiment analysis (Phase 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is reporting on the KAERI's results on the BFS-62-3 A critical experiment analysis (Phase-5 ). In Phase-5 Model a homogeneous full core model is employed. Transport and diffusion calculations in R-Z model are carried out. R-Z model is used to test the transport effect and to provide the spectral weighting in generation of effective group XS. Based on the Hex-Z model, the sodium void reactivity effects (SVRE) are calculated for the voided regions. Cross Section Library KAFAX was based on the nuclear data file: JEF-2.2, ENDF-B/VI, prepared in MATXS format with multi-groups. Effective Cross Section(XS) Generation was done by cell XS calculation and group collapsing from 80 to 25 and 9 groups. BFS-62-3A Critical Experiment was modelled in R-Z and Hex-Z geometry. Results of Sodium Void Reactivity Effects include: Effect of Axial Mesh Size Change; Effect of Different Regionwise Spectrum Weighting in XS Collapsing; and differences caused by using JEF-2.2 and ENDF-B/VI libraries. A summary of KAERl Results is presented

  17. Effects of Exciting Evaluated Nuclear Date Files on Nuclear Parameters of the BFS-62-3A Assembly Benchmark Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail

    2002-01-01

    This report is continuation of studying of the experiments performed on BFS-62-3A critical assembly in Russia. The objective of work is definition of the cross section uncertainties on reactor neutronics parameters as applied to the hybrid core of the BN-600 reactor of Beloyarskaya NPP. Two-dimensional benchmark model of BFS-62-3A was created specially for these purposes and experimental values were reduced to it. Benchmark characteristics for this assembly are (1)criticality; (2)central fiss...

  18. PROMILLE database as a part of JNC reactor physics analytical system for BFS-2 fast critical facility experiments analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PROMILLE database for experimental data from the BFS-2 fast critical facility (Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Russia) has been developed and embedded into the JNC reactor physics analytical system to provide a strict documentation format, a common data source for different analytical tools and a unique export interface with different reactor codes. PROMILLE should be considered not only as a database but also as a bank of interfaces because of its dynamic role in the analytical process. The database currently accepts data from the simulation materials (pellets, tubes and bars) as well as full cores descriptions. A core description involves all different unit cells forming loading elements, all types of the loading elements forming a layout and the layout itself. In fact it is a description of criticality experiments. Export interfaces for the CITATION-FBR code and the SLAROM and CASUP codes have been developed. The PROMILLE software was developed with MS Visual Basic 6.0 and the data is kept in the data tables generated with the MS Access database management system. Data for eight BFS-2 assembly configurations have been incorporated. They include BFS-58-1i1 uranium-free plutonium assembly with inert material included in its fuel matrix and also seven BFS-62 modifications simulating different stages of investigation of MOX fuel based BN-600 core. (author)

  19. FZK/IKET results on 3D homogeneous model for BFS-62 critical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper includes preliminary results of FZK/IKET, Germany, for Phase 5 of IAEA CRP on 'Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of Liquid Metal Fast Reactor Reactivity Effects'. Previous Phases were devoted to calculation analyses (reactivity effects and influence of their uncertainties on modeling hypothetical accidents) of a BN-600 reactor model that is partially (option 1) or fully (option 2) loaded with MOX fuel. Currently the BN-600 reactor (under operation since 1980) is fully loaded with UOX fuel. The MOX options have been suggested recently to burn Pu in the reactor with fast spectrum. Phase 5 is to analyze a 3D homogeneous model for the BFS-62 critical experiment that was conducted recently at IPPE, Obninsk, Russia. The BFS-62 experimental core represents in full scale a BN-600 core partially loaded with MOX fuel. The 3D homogeneous model for the BFS-62 was developed at IPPE for benchmarking codes and data libraries used by participants of the CRP. In particular, the whole core reactivity and effects related to voiding of the reactor core and above core reactor subregions are to be calculated. The above core structures in the BN-600 with MOX contain a large fraction of sodium, therefore in case of boiling (during a hypothetical accident) of sodium there a corresponding large negative reactivity effects may compensate a positive effect of the very core voiding. The experimental values are adjusted to make possible comparisons with computation results obtained for the homogeneous benchmark model. A new cross-section library - based on nuclear data files available from the Internet - has been recently developed at FZK. The main purpose of this library are safety studies. The master library includes data for 545 energy groups, includes alternative data evaluations (ENDF, JEFF, JENDL). For this benchmark, a 21-group composition-dependent cross-section set was generated on the basis of JEFF 3.0. 3D calculations were performed with 11

  20. The resistance of austenitic stainless steels to pitting corrosion in simulated BFS/OPC pore waters containing thiosulphate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current plans for the disposal of intermediate-level nuclear waste involve the use of austenitic stainless steel drums. The immediate environment seen by both the inner and outer surfaces of these drums will be alkaline, as a consequence of the encasement of both the drum and its contents in concrete. Normally there would be no risk of localized corrosion of the steel in this situation, but a possible complication is introduced by the use of blast-furnace slag (BFS) to decrease the permeability of the concrete. Metal sulphides in the BFS react with air and water to yield thiosulphate ions, which are known to be corrosive towards stainless steels in environments of near-neutral pH. This research was carried out to study the effects of thiosulphate at alkaline pH, simulating the concrete environment. Types 304L and 316L stainless steel have been tested for pitting corrosion resistance in simulated BFS/Ordinary Portland Cement pore waters of pH 10-13, at 20oC and 50oC. The results show that the 316L steel is essentially immune to pitting. The 304L steel shows some pitting at the higher temperature, especially at the higher chloride concentrations, but only at pH values of less than 12, which would require serious deterioration of the cement matrix. (author)

  1. Analysis of the BFS-62 critical experiment. A report produced for BNFL (Joint European contribution)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A benchmark analysis for a hybrid UOX/MOX fuelled core of the BN-600 reactor was proposed during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project 'Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce Calculational Uncertainties of LMFR Reactivity Effects'. Phase 5 of the benchmark focuses on validation of calculated sodium void coefficient distributions and integral reactivity coefficients by comparison with experimental measurements made in the critical facility BFS-62. The European. participation in Phase 5 of the benchmark analyses consists of a joint contribution from France (CEA Cadarache) and the UK (Serco Assurance Winfrith - sponsored by BNFL). Calculations have been performed using the ERANOS code and data system, which has been developed in the framework of the European collaboration on fast reactors. Results are presented in this paper for the sodium void reactivity effect based on calculated values of the absolute core reactivity. The spatial distribution of the void effect, determined using first order perturbation theory with the diffusion theory approximation, is also presented

  2. Structural analysis of the Bucaramanga segment (bs) of the Bucaramanga faults system (bfs), between Pailitas and Curumani, Cesar - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bucaramanga Segment (BS) of the Bucaramanga Faults System (BFS), located among the municipalities of Pailitas and Curumani, Department of Cesar, Colombia, has been interpreted as a reverse type fault of high angle, with the East Block up-lifted. By means of structural and microstructural analysis of the units outcropping, the behavior of this fault segment is established for this sector, as well as its relationship with the surrounding structures. The obtained results indicate that the BS presents a NNW direction with left lateral component and a strong shear zone of about 5 km wide, in which ductile (mylonites) and brittle (cataclasites) fault rocks are present. The occurrence of pseudotachylites in the BS suggests frictional slip faults, probably with seismic events associated. Additionally, it was found that the BFS is superimposed by two major phases of deformation, the first is related to low-angle thrust faults with tectonic transport to the West and the second, comprises NE-SW right lateral faults, related to a EspIritu Santo Faults left branching splay.

  3. Development of a three dimensional homogeneous calculation model for the BFS-62 critical experiment. Preparation of adjusted equivalent measured values for sodium void reactivity values. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BFS-62 critical experiments are currently used as 'benchmark' for verification of IPPE codes and nuclear data, which have been used in the study of loading a significant amount of Pu in fast reactors. The BFS-62 experiments have been performed at BFS-2 critical facility of IPPE (Obninsk). The experimental program has been arranged in such a way that the effect of replacement of uranium dioxied blanket by the steel reflector as well as the effect of replacing UOX by MOX on the main characteristics of the reactor model was studied. Wide experimental program, including measurements of the criticality-keff, spectral indices, radial and axial fission rate distributions, control rod mock-up worth, sodium void reactivity effect SVRE and some other important nuclear physics parameters, was fulfilled in the core. Series of 4 BFS-62 critical assemblies have been designed for studying the changes in BN-600 reactor physics from existing state to hybrid core. All the assemblies are modeling the reactor state prior to refueling, i.e. with all control rod mock-ups withdrawn from the core. The following items are chosen for the analysis in this report: Description of the critical assembly BFS-62-3A as the 3rd assembly in a series of 4 BFS critical assemblies studying BN-600 reactor with MOX-UOX hybrid zone and steel reflector; Development of a 3D homogeneous calculation model for the BFS-62-3A critical experiment as the mock-up of BN-600 reactor with hybrid zone and steel reflector; Evaluation of measured nuclear physics parameters keff and SVRE (sodium void reactivity effect); Preparation of adjusted equivalent measured values for keff and SVRE. Main series of calculations are performed using 3D HEX-Z diffusion code TRIGEX in 26 groups, with the ABBN-93 cross-section set. In addition, precise calculations are made, in 299 groups and Ps-approximation in scattering, by Monte-Carlo code MMKKENO and discrete ordinate code TWODANT. All calculations are based on the common system

  4. Comparison of non-leakage and leakage terms of SVRW in BFS-62-3A and BN-600 hybrid core. Appendix 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As was presented in PHYSOR2004, there exists a difference in region-wise SVRW values between BFS-62-3A and BN-600 hybrid core. Here shows the breakdown into non-leakage and leakage terms for both the cores. Please note that SVRW in BN-600 hybrid core was calculated by voiding all fuel assemblies in each zone and subsequently divided by 6 to obtain an equivalent value to those in BFS-62-3A. Another point to be noted is that all the results were based on heterogeneous cell calculation in fuel zones, which is different from the condition discussed in IAEA CRP. One item to be noted is relatively negative SVRW measured in BFS-62-3A than that calculated in the BN-600 hybrid core, as shown. The significant difference in SVRW is mainly due to temperature and CR axial position differences. It surely suggests both difficulty in applying the bias correction method and possible effectiveness of the nuclear constant adjustment method, in decreasing predicted uncertainty of SVRW of the BN-600 hybrid core by reflecting BFS-62-3A measurement data

  5. Advancement of gamma-spectroscopic measuring systems of BfS and adaptation of measuring and evaluation techniques to the requirements of emergency response. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report on advancement of gamma-spectroscopic measuring systems of BfS and adaptation of measuring and evaluation techniques to the requirements of emergency response covers the following issues: results of literature search, calculation of geometric factors, calibration for the helicopter, combination of geometric factors and calibration, measuring flights, detection limit and performance optimization, identification of activities in the air volume.

  6. Advancement of gamma-spectroscopic measuring systems of BfS and adaptation of measuring and evaluation techniques to the requirements of emergency response. Final report; Weiterentwicklung der aero-gammaspektrometrischen Messsysteme des BfS und Anpassung der Mess- und Auswerteverfahren an die Anforderungen des Notfallschutzes. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, Rainer; Mameghani, Raphael; Stuchels, Regina; Hummel, Lothar (comps.)

    2015-08-15

    The final report on advancement of gamma-spectroscopic measuring systems of BfS and adaptation of measuring and evaluation techniques to the requirements of emergency response covers the following issues: results of literature search, calculation of geometric factors, calibration for the helicopter, combination of geometric factors and calibration, measuring flights, detection limit and performance optimization, identification of activities in the air volume.

  7. An Effective and Efficient MapReduce Algorithm for Computing BFS-Based Traversals of Large-Scale RDF Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cuzzocrea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a leading instance of big data is represented by Web data that lead to the definition of so-called big Web data. Indeed, extending beyond to a large number of critical applications (e.g., Web advertisement, these data expose several characteristics that clearly adhere to the well-known 3V properties (i.e., volume, velocity, variety. Resource Description Framework (RDF is a significant formalism and language for the so-called Semantic Web, due to the fact that a very wide family of Web entities can be naturally modeled in a graph-shaped manner. In this context, RDF graphs play a first-class role, because they are widely used in the context of modern Web applications and systems, including the emerging context of social networks. When RDF graphs are defined on top of big (Web data, they lead to the so-called large-scale RDF graphs, which reasonably populate the next-generation Semantic Web. In order to process such kind of big data, MapReduce, an open source computational framework specifically tailored to big data processing, has emerged during the last years as the reference implementation for this critical setting. In line with this trend, in this paper, we present an approach for efficiently implementing traversals of large-scale RDF graphs over MapReduce that is based on the Breadth First Search (BFS strategy for visiting (RDF graphs to be decomposed and processed according to the MapReduce framework. We demonstrate how such implementation speeds-up the analysis of RDF graphs with respect to competitor approaches. Experimental results clearly support our contributions.

  8. Development of 3D full-core ERANOS-2.2/MCNPX-2.7.0 models and neutronic analysis of the BFS-2 zero-power facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper is addressing the development and validation against experimental data of 3D full-core models of the BFS-2 zero-power fast-reactor using both the deterministic system code ERANOS-2.2 and the stochastic code MCNPX-2.7.0. The model configuration of BFS considered for analysis is the BFS-62-3A benchmark. To extend the - deterministic/stochastic - code-to-code comparison, neutronic parameters, i.e. reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates, were also simulated at the cell level with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT-1.1.7 with two modern data libraries, ENDF-B/VII and JEFF-3.1.1. The BFS-2 critical zero-power facility at the Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) was designed for simulations of the core and shielding of sodium-cooled, fast reactors, for neutron data validation and comparison with experimental results. At the BFS-2 facility, the BFS-62-3A critical benchmark experiment was set-up as a mock-up of the BN-600 reactor, with hybrid MOX fuel and stainless steel reflectors. A UO2 blanket and a large non-homogeneous stainless-steel reflector surround the core. The lattice is hexagonal of pitch 5.1 cm and metallic dowels are used to keep in central position cylindrical rods made of different types of material (fissile, fertile, blanket, plenum, shielding and absorber). A typical subassembly is formed in piling up various pellets of about 1 cm in height and 4.6 cm in diameter, conferring large heterogeneity in the axial direction. The full-core model development was a complex task due to the large number of subassemblies and the axial subassembly heterogeneity. In ERANOS-2.2, it was necessary to homogenize axially per region the pellets used to form the subassembly. The self-shielded macroscopic cross-sections were calculated using the cell code ECCO in association with JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VI.8 data libraries. The core calculations were performed with broad cross-sections data in 33 neutron energy groups with the solver AVNM in the

  9. Development of 3D full-core ERANOS-2.2/MCNPX-2.7.0 models and neutronic analysis of the BFS-2 zero-power facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardin, G.; Alonso, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mikityuk, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present paper is addressing the development and validation against experimental data of 3D full-core models of the BFS-2 zero-power fast-reactor using both the deterministic system code ERANOS-2.2 and the stochastic code MCNPX-2.7.0. The model configuration of BFS considered for analysis is the BFS-62-3A benchmark. To extend the - deterministic/stochastic - code-to-code comparison, neutronic parameters, i.e. reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates, were also simulated at the cell level with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT-1.1.7 with two modern data libraries, ENDF-B/VII and JEFF-3.1.1. The BFS-2 critical zero-power facility at the Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) was designed for simulations of the core and shielding of sodium-cooled, fast reactors, for neutron data validation and comparison with experimental results. At the BFS-2 facility, the BFS-62-3A critical benchmark experiment was set-up as a mock-up of the BN-600 reactor, with hybrid MOX fuel and stainless steel reflectors. A UO{sub 2} blanket and a large non-homogeneous stainless-steel reflector surround the core. The lattice is hexagonal of pitch 5.1 cm and metallic dowels are used to keep in central position cylindrical rods made of different types of material (fissile, fertile, blanket, plenum, shielding and absorber). A typical subassembly is formed in piling up various pellets of about 1 cm in height and 4.6 cm in diameter, conferring large heterogeneity in the axial direction. The full-core model development was a complex task due to the large number of subassemblies and the axial subassembly heterogeneity. In ERANOS-2.2, it was necessary to homogenize axially per region the pellets used to form the subassembly. The self-shielded macroscopic cross-sections were calculated using the cell code ECCO in association with JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VI.8 data libraries. The core calculations were performed with broad cross-sections data in 33 neutron energy groups with the solver AVNM in the

  10. Large scale in-situ experiments on sealing constructions in underground disposal facilities for radioactive wastes. Examples of recent BfS- and GRS-activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows examples of in-situ constructions and laboratory tests that have been designed and implemented by BfS und GRS in order to demonstrate the technical feasibility of special constructions for the sealing of drifts and shafts in different salt formations. Since a direct verification of the long-term functionality (for times scales envisaged in long-term safety assessments) of such constructions is often not possible, an overall understanding of the main chemical and physical processes involved needs to be developed. Such an understanding is required in order to extrapolate the evolution of a sealing system with a sufficient degree of reliability. Laboratory tests and large-scale in-situ tests are necessary and integral parts of the procedures for enhancing the process understanding. Based on a safety case, BfS has developed a robust decommissioning concept for the closure of the low- and intermediate-level waste disposal facility Morsleben (ERAM) which also takes into account the retention of radionuclides by combined effects of different sealing components. GRS has contributed to this concept with laboratory tests and modelling of the long-term behaviour of the sealing material 'Salt concrete' foreseen for the sealing constructions in Morsleben. Salt concrete is based on the cement Portlandite i.e., on CaO. Furthermore GRS has also investigated the MgO based 'Sorel concrete' employed by BfS for the Asse project. The chemical corrosion path and the subsequent permeability changes for both concretes have been investigated with test procedures developed in the GRS laboratory. GRS has also developed and tested in laboratory and in-situ experiments a new Self-Sealing material 'Selbst Verheilender Versatz - SVV' (SVV, German for Self Sealing Backfill) which is able to achieve an instantaneous and long-lasting permeability reduction within the complex system consisting of the sealing construction and the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) upon brine intrusion

  11. Analysis of the BN-600 fast-spectrum core mock-up at BFS-2 zero-power facility using MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We model the BFS-62-3A experiment with the MCNPX code and four nuclear libraries. ► We show the impact on reactivity of heterogeneous structures in the reactor. ► We model experimental uncertainties, e.g. in materials dimension and density. ► The model agrees with experiments on k-eff, CR worth, Na voids and fission rates. ► The analysis questions experimental data measured in the reflector region. - Abstract: A 3D full-core heterogeneous model of the BFS-62-3A critical benchmark experiment was developed and validated using the Monte Carlo MCNPX-2.4.0 code. The BFS-2 critical facility at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) was designed for simulation of fast reactor core neutronics, and for the validation of codes and nuclear data. The BFS-62-3A critical benchmark experiment was set-up as a mock-up of the BN-600 reactor core with (U, Pu) O2 fuel of 17% Pu content and stainless-steel reflectors. It was operated to measure the effective multiplication factor, spectral indices, radial fission rate distributions, control rod worths and sodium void effects. In the present study, special care was taken to run the MCNPX model to make Monte-Carlo confidence intervals comparable with uncertainties reported in the experiments; such as in material dimensions, number densities and isotopic compositions. In addition to the effective multiplication factor, sodium void effect, fission rate distributions and control rod worth were calculated. Simulations were carried out with four different modern nuclear data libraries; the primary aim being to estimate sensitivity of the results to the nuclear data. This task, besides being a library comparison, is also meant as a first step towards a code-to-code verification with deterministic methods. Results agree well with experimental values on most of the nuclear characteristics, even though a discrepancy up to more than 20% was found on the flux distribution in the stainless-steel reflector

  12. Graph Compression by BFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Apostolico

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

  13. Possible remaining reasons of the differences on SVRW between BFS-62-3A and BN-600 hybrid core. Appendix 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document Action 5.12v1 prepared by Dr. G.Rimpault mentions that there are unknown reasons on the differences of SVRW between the BN-600 hybrid core and BFS-62-3A. In this note possible reasons are investigated for LEZ and MOX region voiding. Calculations were based on heterogeneous cell calculation in fuel zones, and SVRW in BN-600 hybrid core was calculated by voiding all fuel assemblies in each zone and subsequently divided by 6 to obtain equivalent values to those in BFS-62-3A. Effects of the following parameters on SVRW were investigated. 1. Na density difference; 2. Temperature difference; 3. Pu presence in LEZ, MEZ, and HEZ (1.0∼1.7wt% only in BN-600); 4. FP presence (only in BN-600); 5. Control rod partially inserted (only in BN-600). The investigation was made in a step-by-step manner by removing the differences from BN-600 hybrid core model, except that the difference in Na density was removed by changing BFS-62-3A results. Since what is of interest in IAEA CRP Phase 3 (BN-600 hybrid core benchmark model analysis) is the sodium density coefficient, the difference was adjusted at first. The difference of the 3rd parameters was roughly removed by changing Pu in the UO2 regions to U-235. Obtained reactivity data are compared in a form of upper, lower, and total energy integrated values with a energy boundary of 31.8 keV, since the most influential scattering (slowing down) components has change sign around 30-40 keV. The effect of the 5th parameter is found to be negligible and not shown. The scattering components are compared in the 70 energy group structure, for LEZ and MOX, respectively. It is clearly found in LEZ region case that the differences are reduced as steps proceed. The 3rd parameter affects the higher energy region. In MOX region, temperature effect is found but the other 2 parameters are not clear. The other differences such as Pu concentration in the region may affect the remaining difference

  14. Comments on the BfS draft report: comparative options evaluation - preliminary status: Step 1 - technical evaluation of the decommissioning options for the final repository for radioactive wastes Asse''. Status 25.11.2009 (AP-A7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comments on the BfS draft report: comparative options evaluation - preliminary status of Step 1 - technical evaluation of the decommissioning options for the final repository for radioactive wastes Asse'' (status 25.11.2009) cover the following topics: Safety in the operational phase; environmental impacts in case of an uncontrollable brine intrusion; preliminary long-term safety assessment; feasibility; time required.

  15. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  16. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  17. The calibration laboratories for the measurement of radon and short-lived radon decay products at the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to guarantee a high level of accuracy in all areas concerned with radon and radon decay products measurement the BfS has established a quality assurance management system. A set of calibration chambers and containers was installed in the laboratories which were subsequently accredited as a German calibration service (DKD) calibration laboratory for the units of radon and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. It is traced back to the national standard established at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), which is at the same time the national institute for science and technology, and the highest technical authority for metrology in Germany. The equipment makes possible scientific investigations as well as calibrations for the measuring quantity ''concentration of Rn-222 in air'' in the range between 50 Bq/m3 and 100 kBq/m3 and also for the measuring quantity ''potential alpha-energy concentration'' (PAEC) in the range between 2 MeV/cm3 (3.2 E-7 J/m3) and 4000 MeV/cm3 (6.4 E-4 J/m3). (orig.)

  18. The features of neutronic calculations for fast reactors with hybrid cores on the basis of BFS-62-3A critical assembly experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitenkova, E. F.; Novikov, N. V. [Nuclear Safety Inst. of Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, Moscow, 115119 (Russian Federation); Blokhin, A. I. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering Named after A.I. Leypunsky, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249030 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    The different (U-Pu) fuel compositions are considered for next generation of sodium fast breeder reactors. The considerable discrepancies in axial and radial neutron spectra for hybrid reactor systems compared to the cores with UO{sub 2} fuel cause increasing uncertainty of generating the group nuclear constants in those reactor systems. The calculation results of BFS-62-3A critical assembly which is considered as full-scale model of BN-600 hybrid core with steel reflector specify quite different spectra in local areas. For those systems the MCNP 5 calculations demonstrate significant sensitivity of effective multiplication factor K{sub eff} and spectral indices to nuclear data libraries. For {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu the results of calculated radial fission rate distributions against the reconstructed ones are analyzed. Comparative analysis of spectral indices, neutron spectra and radial fission rate distributions are performed using the different versions of ENDF/B, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, JEFF-3.1.1 libraries and BROND-3 for Fe, Cr isotopes. For analyzing the fission rate sensitivity to the plutonium presence in the fuel {sup 239}Pu is substituted for {sup 235}U (enrichment 90%) in the FA areas containing the plutonium. For {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu radial fission rate distributions the explanation of pick values discrepancies is based on the group fission constants analyses and possible underestimation of some features at the experimental data recovery method (Westcott factors, temperature dependence). (authors)

  19. Impact of a Backwards Faded Scaffolding (BFS) Approach to Inquiry-Based Astronomy Laboratory Experiences on Undergraduate Non-Science Majors' Views of Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Daniel Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to support effective instruction in undergraduate astronomy, the Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) team introduced an inquiry-based laboratory curriculum designed using Backwards Faded Scaffolding (BFS) inquiry teaching framework. A major goal of the curriculum design was to enhance student learning beyond content knowledge alone toward more informed understandings of scientific inquiry through authentic astronomy inquiry experiences using astronomical data sets available online. This study explored the impact of that curriculum on undergraduate non-science majors’ views of the nature of scientific inquiry (NOSI). Over 200 introductory astronomy students’ were surveyed using the VOSI-4 questionnaire pre and post intervention. These data were analyzed for significant shifts in understanding of two aspects of NOSI; Distinction Between Data and Evidence (DvE) and Multiple Methods of Science (MMS). These results informed an investigation of lab instructors’ observations of students’ interactions with the intervention curriculum compared to traditional labs. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests showed significant shifts in the distributions of Fall (n=112) and Spring (n=98) samples toward more informed understandings of DvE (Fall, z=-3.811, p<.00 Spring, z=-3.698, p<.001) , while there was no significant change for understanding of MMS (Fall, z=-.112, p=.910; Spring, z=-.607, p=.544). Instructor interview analysis suggested that the curriculum provided multiple opportunities for students to evaluate and determine the relevance of data with respect to specific research questions, however they may not have realized they were exclusively engaged in observational rather than experimental inquiries possibly leading students to accommodate their astronomy inquiry experiences within persistent misconceptions of "The Scientific Method” as the only valid method for inquiry. The results of the study suggest that a purposefully scaffolded

  20. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2012. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects are tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMU's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2012.

  1. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2013. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects are tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2013.

  2. An Empirical Evaluation of BFS, and DFS Search Algorithms on J2ME Platform, and SVG Tiny Parsing on J2ME Platform Using SAX, StAX, and DOM Parsers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Sengirova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics Tiny, an XML-based data representation format was used in our Global Train Route Planner J2ME application to render and manipulate train network  images. The SVG Tiny format enables the application to be adaptable with any train network map. We compared three parsing models namely DOM (Document Object Model, SAX (Simple API for XML, and StAX (Streaming API for XML which were used to visualize the images on mobile phone. We present here the result of the runtime performances, and memory footprints of those parsing models. This is a significant study because handheld devices like mobile phones require seamless interactivity (i.e. high performance with users and an efficient parsing mechanism with less memory footprints. We also empirically investigated two route searching algorithms - graph and matrix based implementation of DFS (Depth First Search, and matrix based BFS (Breadth First Search – for performance and memory footprints on a J2ME mobile device emulator. We concluded that DOM parser and DFS based on graph implementation are of better performance than the others.

  3. Third experts' discussion meeting on the concept of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) for ''Man-machine interaction in nuclear power plants''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, BMU), research programmes on the topic 'Man-Machine-Interaction in Nuclear Power Plants' are placed within the framework of public participation competition by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Bfs) in Salzgitter. Main foci of the 3rd expert discussions were: 1. Representation of the results of the previous research programmes in the field of Human Factors by the institutions having carried out the research like - further development of the compilation and interpretation of notifiable and other events and their causes, - organisational requirements during the operation of NPP, and - utilization of new information technologies, in particular in control rooms of nuclear power plants taking into consideration the points of contact between man and machine. 2. Summary reports on the interaction man - machine from the point of view of foreign countries (Sweden), constructors, operators, authorities, universities and experts. 3. Future importance of Human Factors, e.g. for new reactor concepts. (orig./DG)

  4. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O1BFS 1860 and its use in the preparation of candidate vaccine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Hema; D Chandran; S B Nagendrakumar; M Madhanmohan; V A Srinivasan

    2009-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in India. A stable, full-length cDNA clone of FMDV type O1BFS 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage T7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pGEMR-7Zf(–). An ∼8.2 kb PCR product was amplified from the cDNA clone and a full-length RNA was generated from it by in vitro transcription. Transfection of BHK-21 cells with the in vitro transcripts resulted in the production of infectious recombinant FMDV particles as evidenced by cytopathic effects (CPE). Further, characterization of the recombinant virus by immunofluorescence, microneutralization test (MNT), antigen ELISA, RT-PCR, plaque assay and electron microscopy revealed similarity to the parental strain. The immunogenicity of an oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared using the inactivated recombinant virus was tested in guinea pigs and cattle. Neutralizing antibodies were produced in both vaccinated guinea pigs and cattle. Vaccinated animals were protected on challenge. The results demonstrated that the recombinant virus was as stable and effective as the parental strain for the preparation of inactivated vaccine, suggesting the potential application of this strategy to make genetically engineered FMDV vaccines.

  5. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O 1 BFS 1860 and its use in the preparation of candidate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, M; Chandran, D; Nagendrakumar, S B; Madhanmohan, M; Srinivasan, V A

    2009-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in India. A stable,full-length cDNA clone of FMDV type O 1 BFS 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage T7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pGEM R- - 7Zf(-). An 8.2 kb PCR product was amplified from the cDNA clone and a full-length RNA was generated from it by in vitro transcription.Transfection of BHK-21 cells with the in vitro transcripts resulted in the production of infectious recombinant FMDV particles as evidenced by cytopathic effects (CPE). Further, characterization of the recombinant virus by immunofluorescence, microneutralization test (MNT), antigen ELISA,RT-PCR, plaque assay and electron microscopy revealed similarity to the parental strain. The immunogenicity of an oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared using the inactivated recombinant virus was tested in guinea pigs and cattle. Neutralizing antibodies were produced in both vaccinated guinea pigs and cattle. Vaccinated animals were protected on challenge. The results demonstrated that the recombinant virus was as stable and effective as the parental strain for the preparation of inactivated vaccine, suggesting the potential application of this strategy to make genetically engineered FMDV vaccines. PMID:19430118

  6. The effect of sulfate activation on the early age hydration of BFS:PC composite cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, N. C.; Li, X.; Bai, Y.; Milestone, N. B.

    2015-09-01

    Blast furnace slag/Portland cement composites are routinely used for immobilising intermediate level nuclear wastes in the UK. Using high cement replacement levels reduces hydration exotherm and lowers pH. Although a lower grout pH will be beneficial in reducing the corrosion of certain encapsulated reactive metals such as aluminium, the degree of slag reaction will also be lower which may result in the formation of less hydration products and which in turn may reduce the capacity to immobilise waste ions. Adding neutral salts such as calcium and sodium sulfate to the composite cement can potentially increase slag activation without significantly altering the pH of the cement matrix. Thus the corrosion of any encapsulated metals would not be affected. This paper describes some of the properties of a hydrated 9:1 blast furnace slag:Portland cement matrix containing added sulfates of calcium and sodium. The findings show that all additives caused an increase in the amount of slag that reacted when cured for up to 28 days. This produced more material able to chemically bind waste ions. Activation with gypsum produced the highest rate of slag reaction.

  7. Development of Low—creep Bricks for Hot Blast Stoves of BFs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOShuying

    1998-01-01

    Low-creep rate brick H1SS and H2SS have been studied in Luoyang Refractories Co., Ltd.on the basis of former results using different grade synthetic mullite and natural sillimanite concen-trate,Good microstructure and high temperature properties can be obtained by using high quality raw material and reasonable proportioning and technology.The creep values of H1SS and H2SS are less han 0.5% at 1400℃ and 0.45% at 1350℃。

  8. The effect of sulfate activation on the early age hydration of BFS:PC composite cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, N.C., E-mail: nick.collier@sheffield.ac.uk; Li, X.; Bai, Y.; Milestone, N.B.

    2015-09-15

    Blast furnace slag/Portland cement composites are routinely used for immobilising intermediate level nuclear wastes in the UK. Using high cement replacement levels reduces hydration exotherm and lowers pH. Although a lower grout pH will be beneficial in reducing the corrosion of certain encapsulated reactive metals such as aluminium, the degree of slag reaction will also be lower which may result in the formation of less hydration products and which in turn may reduce the capacity to immobilise waste ions. Adding neutral salts such as calcium and sodium sulfate to the composite cement can potentially increase slag activation without significantly altering the pH of the cement matrix. Thus the corrosion of any encapsulated metals would not be affected. This paper describes some of the properties of a hydrated 9:1 blast furnace slag:Portland cement matrix containing added sulfates of calcium and sodium. The findings show that all additives caused an increase in the amount of slag that reacted when cured for up to 28 days. This produced more material able to chemically bind waste ions. Activation with gypsum produced the highest rate of slag reaction.

  9. Self-Sensing Properties of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag (BFS Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcés

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several researchers have shown the good performance of alkali activated slag cement and concretes. Besides their good mechanical properties and durability, this type of cement is a good alternative to Portland cements if sustainability is considered. Moreover, multifunctional cement composites have been developed in the last decades for their functional applications (self-sensing, EMI shielding, self-heating, etc.. In this study, the strain and damage sensing possible application of carbon fiber reinforced alkali activated slag pastes has been evaluated. Cement pastes with 0, 0.29 and 0.58 vol % carbon fiber addition were prepared. Both carbon fiber dosages showed sensing properties. For strain sensing, function gage factors of up to 661 were calculated for compressive cycles. Furthermore, all composites with carbon fibers suffered a sudden increase in their resistivity when internal damages began, prior to any external signal of damage. Hence, this material may be suitable as strain or damage sensor.

  10. Self-Sensing Properties of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Garcés; Emilio Zornoza; Oscar Galao; Josep Lluís Vilaplana; Francisco Javier Baeza

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, several researchers have shown the good performance of alkali activated slag cement and concretes. Besides their good mechanical properties and durability, this type of cement is a good alternative to Portland cements if sustainability is considered. Moreover, multifunctional cement composites have been developed in the last decades for their functional applications (self-sensing, EMI shielding, self-heating, etc.). In this study, the strain and damage sensing possible applic...

  11. The effect of sulfate activation on the early age hydration of BFS:PC composite cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace slag/Portland cement composites are routinely used for immobilising intermediate level nuclear wastes in the UK. Using high cement replacement levels reduces hydration exotherm and lowers pH. Although a lower grout pH will be beneficial in reducing the corrosion of certain encapsulated reactive metals such as aluminium, the degree of slag reaction will also be lower which may result in the formation of less hydration products and which in turn may reduce the capacity to immobilise waste ions. Adding neutral salts such as calcium and sodium sulfate to the composite cement can potentially increase slag activation without significantly altering the pH of the cement matrix. Thus the corrosion of any encapsulated metals would not be affected. This paper describes some of the properties of a hydrated 9:1 blast furnace slag:Portland cement matrix containing added sulfates of calcium and sodium. The findings show that all additives caused an increase in the amount of slag that reacted when cured for up to 28 days. This produced more material able to chemically bind waste ions. Activation with gypsum produced the highest rate of slag reaction

  12. A 115dB-DR Audio DAC with –61dBFS out-of-band noise

    OpenAIRE

    Westerveld, Hugo; Schinkel, Daniël; Tuijl, van, S.

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-band noise (OBN) is troublesome in analog circuits that process the output of a noise-shaping audio DAC. It causes slewing in amplifiers and aliasing in sampling circuits like ADCs and class-D amplifiers. Nonlinearity in these circuits also causes cross-modulation of the OBN into the audio band. These mechanisms lead to a higher noise level and more distortion in the audio band. OBN also leads to interference in the LF and MF band, compromising e.g. AM radio reception. To avoid these p...

  13. A 115dB-DR Audio DAC with –61dBFS out-of-band noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Hugo; Schinkel, Daniël; Tuijl, van Ed

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-band noise (OBN) is troublesome in analog circuits that process the output of a noise-shaping audio DAC. It causes slewing in amplifiers and aliasing in sampling circuits like ADCs and class-D amplifiers. Nonlinearity in these circuits also causes cross-modulation of the OBN into the audio ba

  14. Guidelines for the investigation and evaluation of radioactivity in drinking water. Recommendations of BMU, BMG, BfS, UBA, DVGM and BDEW - prepared under assistance of Federal representatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guidelines for the investigation and evaluation of radioactivity in drinking water cover the following topics: Terms and symbols, radiation units; radioactivity in the drinking water and radiation exposure, legal and scientific fundamentals; concept for the investigation and evaluation of radioactivity related parameters; practical application; analytical determination of the radioactivity related parameters. The application of the guidelines should provide a continuously high level of drinking water quality with respect to the natural radioactivity that allows a safe and non-hazardous incorporation of drinking water. The guidelines were prepared by several German institutions under assistance of Federal representatives.

  15. HLA linkage and B14, DR1, BfS haplotype association with the genes for late onset and cryptic 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollack, M S; Levine, L S; O'Neill, G J; Pang, S.; Lorenzen, F; Kohn, B.; Rondanini, G F; Chiumello, G; New, M I; Dupont, B.

    1981-01-01

    Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH-def) has been established to be an HLA-linked, recessive monogenetic disease. However, two nonclassical forms of 21-OH-def have also been described: "cryptic" 21-OH-def, which has been shown to be HLA-linked, and "late onset" 21-OH-def, for which the status of linkage to HLA has been less certain. We now describe studies of eight additional unrelated probands with symptomatic, "late onset" 21-OH-def, and conclude...

  16. Speeches on the inauguration of the BfS Vice-President, the Manager of the Radiation Hygiene Section and the Manager of the Nuclear Safety Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speeches by the Federal Minister for the Environment and the gentlemen in charge of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz provide information on the perceived tasks of the Bundesamt: the principles of radiation protection, implementation of the new ICRP recommendations, the formation of the radiation protection register, cooperation on the amendment of the nuclear law with regard to disposal - terminal storage area Konrad, terminal storage project Gorleben, terminal storage area Moosleben. (HSCH)

  17. Guidelines for the investigation and evaluation of radioactivity in drinking water. Recommendations of BMU, BMG, BfS, UBA, DVGM and BDEW - prepared under assistance of Federal representatives; Leitfaden zur Untersuchung und Bewertung von Radioaktivitaet im Trinkwasser. Empfehlung von BMU, BMG, BfS, UBA, DVGW und BDEW - erstellt unter Mitwirkung von Laendervertretern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrcke, Klaus; Beyermann, Margit; Buenger, Thomas [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    2012-07-10

    The guidelines for the investigation and evaluation of radioactivity in drinking water cover the following topics: Terms and symbols, radiation units; radioactivity in the drinking water and radiation exposure, legal and scientific fundamentals; concept for the investigation and evaluation of radioactivity related parameters; practical application; analytical determination of the radioactivity related parameters. The application of the guidelines should provide a continuously high level of drinking water quality with respect to the natural radioactivity that allows a safe and non-hazardous incorporation of drinking water. The guidelines were prepared by several German institutions under assistance of Federal representatives.

  18. An Empirical Evaluation of BFS, and DFS Search Algorithms on J2ME Platform, and SVG Tiny Parsing on J2ME Platform Using SAX, StAX, and DOM Parsers

    OpenAIRE

    Venera Sengirova; Aidana Oralbekova; Nathar Shah

    2012-01-01

    SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) Tiny, an XML-based data representation format was used in our Global Train Route Planner J2ME application to render and manipulate train network  images. The SVG Tiny format enables the application to be adaptable with any train network map. We compared three parsing models namely DOM (Document Object Model), SAX (Simple API for XML), and StAX (Streaming API for XML) which were used to visualize the images on mobile phone. We present here the result of the runti...

  19. Biological ensilage of fish - optimization of stability, safety and functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enes Dapkevicius, M.L.N.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with stability, safety, and functionality aspects of biological fish silage (BFS) obtained by lactic acid fermentation. BFS may provide an economically viable, environment friendly way of upgrading fish waste.BFS has been found advantageous when compared to the so-called acid proce

  20. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014; Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebermann, Lutz (comp.)

    2015-07-01

    The information on the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014 includes the following contributions: Bfs concentrates the radiation protection expertise; knowledge generation, knowledge testing knowledge application: the BfS as scientific organization; radiation protection and health; radiation protection and environment, safety of nuclear waste management; safety in nuclear technology; specific challenges for BfS.

  1. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information on the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014 includes the following contributions: Bfs concentrates the radiation protection expertise; knowledge generation, knowledge testing knowledge application: the BfS as scientific organization; radiation protection and health; radiation protection and environment, safety of nuclear waste management; safety in nuclear technology; specific challenges for BfS.

  2. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Debarati Bhattacharjee; Ajay Kumar; Ipsita Biswas

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of back face signature (BFS) or behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) is a critical aspect of ballistic evaluation of body armour. BFS is the impact experienced by the armour wearing body, when subjected to a non-penetrating projectile. Mineral or polymeric clay is used to measure the BFS. In addition to stopping the projectile, the body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within permissible limits. The extent of the BFS depends upon the behavior of the backing materia...

  3. Machining variability impacts on the strength of a 'chair-side' CAD-CAM ceramic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2012-08-01

    To develop a novel methodology to generate specimens for bi-axial flexure strength (BFS) determination from a \\'chair-side\\' CAD-CAM feldspathic ceramic with surface defect integrals analogous to the clinical state. The hypotheses tested were: BFS and surface roughness (R(a)) are independent of machining variability introduced by the renewal or deterioration of form-grinding tools and that a post-machining annealing cycle would significantly modify BFS.

  4. Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700

  5. The Environmental Impact and Cost Analysis of Concrete Mixing Blast Furnace Slag Containing Titanium Gypsum and Sludge in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental effects and cost of the Industrial Waste addictive Blast Furnace Slag (W-BFS using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and compared it to general BFS. The environmental impacts of W-BFS were as follows: 1.12 × 10−1 kg-CO2 eq/kg, 3.18 × 10−5 kg-Ethylene eq/kg, 4.79 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-PO43− eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-CFC11 eq/kg and 3.94 × 10−3 kg-Antimony eq/kg. Among the environmental impact category, GWP and AP were 9.28 × 10−2 kg-CO2 eq/kg and 3.33 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg at a raw material stage, accounting for 80% and 70% of total environmental impact respectively. In EP, POCP and ADP, in addition, raw material stage accounted for a great portion in total environmental impact because of “W” among input materials. In ODP, however, compared to the environmental impact of raw materials, oil, which was used in transporting BFS to the W-BFS manufacturing factory, was more influential. In terms of GWP, POCP and ODP, W-BFS was higher than general BFS. In terms of AP, EP and ADP, in contrast, the former was lower than the latter. In terms of cost, W-BFS (41.7 US$/ton was lower than general BFS by about 17% because of the use of waste additives comprised of industrial wastes instead of natural gypsum ,which has been commonly used in general BFS. In terms of GWP and POCP, the W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 25%. In terms of AP and EP, the former was lower than the latter by 30%. In terms of ADP, furthermore, W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 11%. In aggregate-related ODP, however, almost no change was found. In terms of cost, when W-BFS was added by 10% and 30%, it was able to reduce cost by 3% and 7% respectively, compared to plain concrete. Compared to BFS-mixed concrete as well, cost could be saved by 1% additionally because W-BFS (US$41.7/ton is lower than common cement (US$100.3/ton by about 60% in terms of production costs.

  6. Development of engineered cementitious composites with limestone powder and blast furnace slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Qian, S.; Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.; Li, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays limestone powder and blast furnace slag (BFS) are widely used in concrete as blended materials in cement. The replacement of Portland cement by limestone powder and BFS can lower the cost and enhance the greenness of concrete, since the production of these two materials needs less energy an

  7. Experimental branching fractions, transition probabilities and oscillator strengths in Eu I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branching fractions (BFs) of 64 spectral lines for 27 levels in Eu I were measured by the emission spectrum of a hollow cathode lamp (HCL). The transition probabilities and oscillator strengths of these lines were determined by using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique to combine the BFs with experimental radiative lifetimes of the relative levels reported in the literature. (paper)

  8. Test and evaluation of item control technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary is given of the work carried out on Task 3 at the IPPE's BFS facility in Obninsk, Russia. Methods and concepts of Item Control Technology from LANL and SNL were examined. At BFS the nuclear material accounting items are plutonium and highly enriched uranium disks. Work was done on identification techniques and safeguards for these materials

  9. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz. Scientific publications, papers and lectures 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the scientific work of BfS (Federal Office for Radiation Protection) staff are usually published in professional journals or presented at congresses and meetings. The publications cover the fields radiation hygiene, radiation protection, nuclear safety, as well as nuclear waste management and transport. The annex contains a list of every thing published so far by BfS. (DG)

  10. Evaluation of the usefulness of modified biological fingerprints in chest radiographs for patient recognition and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoichiro; Matsunobu, Yusuke; Morishita, Junji

    2016-07-01

    We have been developing an image-searching method to identify misfiled images in a PACS server. Developing new biological fingerprints (BFs) that would reduce the influence of differences in positioning and breathing phases to improve the performance of recognition is desirable. In our previous studies, the whole lung field (WLF) that included the shadows of the body and lungs was affected by differences in positioning and/or breathing phases. In this study, we showed the usefulness of a circumscribed lung with a rectangular region of interest and the upper half of a chest radiograph as modified BFs. We used 200 images as hypothetically misfiled images. The cross-correlation identifies the resemblance between the BFs in the misfiled images and the corresponding BFs in the database images. The modified BFs indicated better results than did WLF in a receiver operating characteristic analysis; therefore, they could be used as identifiers for patient recognition and identification. PMID:27132238

  11. Brain Fag Syndrome - a myth or a reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, B A; Morakinyo, O; Adewuya, A O

    2009-05-01

    The Brain Fag Syndrome (BFS) is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culture bound syndrome. BFS is a tetrad of somatic complaints; cognitive impairments; sleep related complaints; and other somatic impairments. Prince first described this psychiatric illness associated with study among African students in 1960. There have been questions relating to the nosological status of the syndrome as to whether: BFS is an objective or subjective phenomenon; it is one phenomenon or a variant of other known disorders; it is a mental illness? These three questions pose challenges to the culture bound/depressive or anxiety equivalent approach to the condition. The scope of this paper is the scope of BFS history from its first reference in the psychological medicine to the most contemporary descriptions in transcultural psychiatry. The conceptual history of BFS is divided into four major perspectives: Traditional medicine, Psychoanalysis, Biopsychological and Transcultural psychiatry. This helps to outline some of the key issues, helps to clarify its nosological status, its present status and helps to set the stage for the future progress. From its conceptual history, BFS as a phenomenon, with its distinct presentations, is subjectively real and is best classified with the framework of psychiatry, psychology and or sociology. The existence of BFS is evidenced by case as well as epidemiological reports of the condition in different locations. However, its course, response to treatment and outcome deserve more attention than has been given. PMID:19582315

  12. Study habits among Nigerian secondary school students with brain fag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Morakinyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fag Syndrome (BFS is a psychiatric disorder associated with study affecting two to four out of every ten African students. One of the consequences of this illness is early foreclosure of education in affected students. Etiological factors such as nervous predisposition, motivation for achievement, and psycho-stimulant use have been found associated with it. However, the contributions of study habits to the pathogenesis of this study-related illness deserve more attention than has been given. We carried out this cross-sectional study to ascertain the types of study habits associated with BFS among a sample of senior secondary school students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Five hundred students from six schools in Ile-Ife were selected using a stratified random sampling technique. The selected students completed the Socio-demographic Data Schedule, the Brain Fag Syndrome Scale, and Bakare’s Study Habit Inventory. The prevalence of BFS was 40.2% (201. There were no significant socio-demographic variables identifying BFS students apart from those without BFS. The significant measures of study habits that predicted BFS were homework and assignments, examinations, and written work. Those with BFS had 3.58 times the odds to perform poorly on homework and assignments, 3.27 times the odds to perform poorly on examinations, and 1.01 times the odds to perform poorly on written work compared to those without BFS. We concluded that the results of this study suggest that homework and assignments, examinations, and written work were significant study habit variables associated with BFS.

  13. An Adaptive Cross-Architecture Combination Method for Graph Traversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Yang; Song, Shuaiwen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-06-18

    Breadth-First Search (BFS) is widely used in many real-world applications including computational biology, social networks, and electronic design automation. The combination method, using both top-down and bottom-up techniques, is the most effective BFS approach. However, current combination methods rely on trial-and-error and exhaustive search to locate the optimal switching point, which may cause significant runtime overhead. To solve this problem, we design an adaptive method based on regression analysis to predict an optimal switching point for the combination method at runtime within less than 0.1% of the BFS execution time.

  14. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are organization and tasks of the departments of the BfS: Central Department Z (administration, legal concerns); Department S Radiation Hygiene; Department ST Radiation Protection; Department KT Nuclear Safety; Department ET Nuclear Waste Management and Transport. (HP)

  15. Final repository Morsleben. Operational safety and radiation protection; Endlager Morsleben. Betriebliche Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz fuer Mensch und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-15

    The Information booklet on the final repository Morsleben prepared by BfS includes information on the following issues: stability of the repository, water in repository, operational radiation protection, discharge of radioactive materials, environmental monitoring.

  16. Final repository Morsleben. Operational safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information booklet on the final repository Morsleben prepared by BfS includes information on the following issues: stability of the repository, water in repository, operational radiation protection, discharge of radioactive materials, environmental monitoring.

  17. Use of Monte Carlo simulation for computational analysis of critical systems on IPPE's facility addressing needs of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical facility BFS-1 critical facility was built at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk, Russia) for full-scale modeling of fast-reactor cores, blankets, in-vessel shielding, and storage. Whereas BFS-1 is a fast-reactor assembly; however, it is a very flexible assembly that can easily be reconfigured to represent numerous other types of reactor designs. This paper describes specific problems with calculation of evaluation neutron physics characteristics of integral experiments performed on BFS facility. The analysis available integral experiments performed on different critical configuration of BFS facility were performed. Calculations of criticality, central reaction rate ratios, and fission rate distributions were carried out by the MCNP5 Monte-Carlo code with different files of evaluated nuclear data. MCNP calculations with multigroup library with 299 energy groups were also made for comparison with pointwise library calculations. (authors)

  18. Bureau for Food Security Travel and Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — FTRAMS is a travel data collection system for BFS that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.)...

  19. The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Johansson Westholm

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on Phosphorus (P removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%, P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material.

  20. Use of Monte Carlo simulation for computational analysis of critical systems on IPPE's facility addressing needs of nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, Olga; Tsibulya, Anatoly [FSUE ' SSC RF-IPPE' , 249033, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    The critical facility BFS-1 critical facility was built at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk, Russia) for full-scale modeling of fast-reactor cores, blankets, in-vessel shielding, and storage. Whereas BFS-1 is a fast-reactor assembly; however, it is a very flexible assembly that can easily be reconfigured to represent numerous other types of reactor designs. This paper describes specific problems with calculation of evaluation neutron physics characteristics of integral experiments performed on BFS facility. The analysis available integral experiments performed on different critical configuration of BFS facility were performed. Calculations of criticality, central reaction rate ratios, and fission rate distributions were carried out by the MCNP5 Monte-Carlo code with different files of evaluated nuclear data. MCNP calculations with multigroup library with 299 energy groups were also made for comparison with pointwise library calculations. (authors)

  1. Activation of pozzolanic and latent-hydraulic reactions by Alkalis in order to repair concrete cracks

    OpenAIRE

    Gruyaert, Elke; Van Tittelboom, Kim; Rahier, Hubert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-01-01

    The low degree of hydration of fly ash (FA) and slag (BFS) particles in high-volume FA and BFS concrete offers the possibility to activate the unreacted particles upon crack formation to close the crack. In this paper, a preliminary study is performed to evaluate the use of alkaline activators to stimulate the formation of reaction products in the crack. First, the reaction rates of crushed pastes mixed with alkaline solutions or water were monitored by calorimetry. These tests showed that al...

  2. Effect of Limestone Powder on Microstructure of Ternary Cementitious System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to reach sustainability favours the development of ternary composite cement. The synergistic effect on mechanical behaviour at 28 days between limestone powder (LP) and pozzolanic additives, i.e. fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS), has been documented. In order to better understand the synergistic effect, this article investigated the effect of LP on the microstructure of PC-FA and PC-BFS cementitious system. The mineralogy and pore structure were determined after 28 days ...

  3. Experimental study on workability of alkali activated fly ash and slag-based geopolymer concretes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbi, K.A.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Zuo, Y.; Grunewald, S.; Keulen, A.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on workability and strength of geopolymer concrete made of fly ash (FA), blast furnace slag (BFS) and a multicompound activator of Na2SiO3 and NaOH solutions. The FA/BFS ratios were 100:0, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70 and 0:100. The workability of geopolymer

  4. Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials

    OpenAIRE

    María V. Borrachero; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; Lourdes Soriano; Mauro M. Tashima; José L.P. Melges; Jorge L. Akasaki; Vinícius N. Castaldelli

    2013-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part...

  5. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati\tBhattacharjee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The\tmeasurement\tof back face signature\t(BFS or\tbehind armour\tblunt trauma (BABT is\ta critical\taspect of ballistic evaluation of body\tarmour. BFS is the impact experienced by the\tarmour wearing body,\twhen subjected to\ta non-penetrating\tprojectile. Mineral\tor polymeric\tclay\tis used to measure the\tBFS. In addition to stopping the\tprojectile,\tthe body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within\tpermissible limits.\tThe\textent of\tthe BFS depends upon the\tbehavior\tof the backing material\tin different loading conditions and prior history.\tThis\tpaper explains some of the\tstudies carried out on the backing\tmaterial used for ballistic evaluation\tin Terminal Ballistics Research\tLaboratory, Chandigarh. It has been observed\tthat\tthe backing material is highly non-linear\tviscoelastic in nature. The depth\tof\tdeformation is also linearly\tproportional to the\timpact\tenergy\tand\ttemperature. The\teffect of time\ton the depth of deformation\tis gradual and does\tnot influence the BFS values during a\tstandard\tballistic evaluation comprising of 6-8\tshots.

  6. Impact of extraction methods on bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Viet Hoang; Klai, Nouha; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal

    2016-09-15

    Effect of ten extraction methods on flocculation activity and chemical composition of bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit was studied. The results showed that the chemical method was better than physical method with respect to the extracted BFs weight and its flocculation activity. Cell lysis did not affect to the flocculation activity of BFs. Among ten extraction methods, EDTA (20 g/L) was the best one with extracted BFs dry weight of 6242 mg/L and flocculation activity of 83%. Optimization of EDTA concentration showed that 5 g EDTA/L (or 0.2 g EDTA/g SS) was suitable for recovery of BFs from backwashed sludge. The flocculation activity of BFs was 94% when using 2.4 mg of BFs/g of kaolin. The outcome of this study suggested that backwashed sludge of the bio-filtration unit was a potential source for exploiting bio-flocculants. PMID:27243923

  7. Development of an effective delayed neutron fraction calculation code, BETA-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taek Kyum; Song, Hoon; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    BETA-K, an effective delayed neutron fraction calculation code consistent with Nodal Expansion Method (NEM), has been developed. By using relevant output files of DIF3D code, it can calculate the effective delayed neutron fraction({beta}{sub eff}), neutron lifetime(l{sub eff}), fission spectrum ({chi}-bar) and fission yield data({nu}) for each fissionable isotope, composition of fuels and over the whole core. BETA-K code has been validated by comparing the calculated values to the measured ones of effective delayed neutron fraction in two critical experiments, BFS73-1 and BFS55-1. BFS73-1 is a metal uranium core and BFS55-1 is a metal plutonium core. The C/E values, 1.007 and 0.992 for BFS73-1 and BFS55-1 respectively, agreed well with the experimental values within the experiment errors. BETA-K code predicts 0.00709 and 0.356 {mu}sec as the effective delayed neutron fraction and neutron life time for the uranium metallic fueled equilibrium core of 150MWe KALIMER. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Development of an effective delayed neutron fraction calculation code for hexagonal core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BETA-K, an effective delayed neutron fraction calculation code consistent with Nodal Expansion Method(NEM) of hexagonal geometric core, has been developed. By using relevant output files of DIF3D code, it can calculate the effective delayed neutron fraction(betaeff) and neutron lifetime(leff) for each fissionable isotope, composition of fuels and over the whole core. BETA-K code has been validated by comparing the calculated values to the measured ones of effective delayed neutron fraction in two critical experiments, BFS73-1 and BFS55-1. BFS73-1 is a metal uranium core and BFS55-1 is a metal plutonium core. The C/E values, 1.007 and 0.992 for BFS73-1 and BFS55-1 respectively, agreed well with the experimental values within the experiment errors. BETA-K code predicts 0.00709 and 0.356μ sec as the effective delayed neutron fraction and neutron life time for the uranium metallic fueled equilibrium core of 150MWe KALIMER

  9. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Bhattacharjee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of back face signature (BFS or behind armour blunt trauma (BABT is a critical aspect of ballistic evaluation of body armour. BFS is the impact experienced by the armour wearing body, when subjected to a non-penetrating projectile. Mineral or polymeric clay is used to measure the BFS. In addition to stopping the projectile, the body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within permissible limits. The extent of the BFS depends upon the behavior of the backing material in different loading conditions and prior history. This paper explains some of the studies carried out on the backing material used for ballistic evaluation in Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory, Chandigarh. It has been observed that the backing material is highly non-linear viscoelastic in nature. The depth of deformation is also linearly proportional to the impact energy and temperature. The effect of time on the depth of deformation is gradual and does not influence the BFS values during a standard ballistic evaluation comprising of 6-8 shots.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.462-466, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.3821

  10. Criticality experiments: analysis, evaluation, and programs. 7. Program of Experimental Investigations on Critical Facilities at IPPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, the BFS-1, BFS-2, MATR, and RF-GS critical facilities remain in operation at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). BFS-1 and BFS-2 are universal facilities primarily intended for use with solid component elements; however, the license allows the use of water in central sub-zones. The BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities are used for simulation of fast systems as well as systems with intermediate and thermal spectra. The MATR critical facility is intended for research of temperature effects on water-moderated cores over a wide range of temperatures (up to 250 deg. C) and pressures. The RF-GS critical facility is designed (with adaptable opportunities) for the simulation of multiplying systems with a water moderator. The experimental programs are being developed in the following directions: 1. use of plutonium released from the military programs as fuel for the BN and VVER reactors as well as for its immobilization in geological formations; 2. based on the perspective of the nuclear fuel cycle (in accordance with the initiative of the President of the Russian Federation), implemented in a new generation of fast reactors; 3. investigations of prospective reactors and accelerator-driven systems and creation of benchmarks for testing of calculational codes and neutron data for nontraditional materials. A considerable part of these investigations is being carried out in cooperation with foreign laboratories (United States, Japan, France, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea, etc.). These programs are focused in three main directions. The first is concerned with the BN-600 reactor. Investigations into the use of a hybrid zone with this reactor have been carried out since 1999 and include the BFS-62-1 core (BN-600 initial state), BFS-62-2 (uranium core, steel reflector), BFS-62-3 (hybrid core, steel reflector), and BFS-62-4 (hybrid core, radial blanket). These experiments will be finished at the beginning of 2001 and are being carried out in

  11. Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority of adsorption was completed in 5~10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically by acid treatment. The relative contribution of adsorption to the total removal of phosphate was 26%~28%. Phosphate adsorption on BFS and SFS follows the Freundlich isotherm, with the related constants ofk 6.372 and 1/n 1.739 for BFS, and ofk 1.705 and 1/n 1.718 for SFS. The pH and Ca2+ concentration were decreased with the addition of phosphate, suggesting the formation of calcium phosphate precipitation. At pH 2.93 and 6.93, phosphate was desorbed by about 36%~43% and 9%~11%, respectively.These results indicate that the P adsorption on the slag is not completely reversible and that the bond between the slag particles and adsorbed phosphate is strong. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of BFS and SFS before and after phosphate adsorption verify SFS is related to the formation of phosphate calcium precipitation and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results show that BFS and SFS removed phosphate nearly 100%, indicating they are promising adsorbents for the phosphate removal in wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  12. Influence of silane content and filler distribution on chemical-mechanical properties of resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathy Aparecida XAVIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of silane concentration and filler size distribution on the chemical-mechanical properties of experimental composites. Experimental composites with silane contents of 0%, 1% and 3% (in relation to filler mass and composites with mixtures of barium glass particles (median size = 0.4, 1 and 2 μm and nanometric silica were prepared for silane and filler analyses, respectively. The degree of conversion (DC was analyzed by FTIR. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS was tested after 24-h or 90-d storage in water, and fracture toughness, after 24 h. The data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05. The DC was not significantly affected by the silane content or filler distribution. The 0% silane group had the lowest immediate BFS, and the 90-d storage time reduced the strength of the 0% and 3% groups. BFS was not affected by filler distribution, and aging decreased the BFS of all the groups. Silanization increased the fracture toughness of both the 1% and 3% groups, similarly. Significantly higher fracture toughness was observed for mixtures with 2 μm glass particles. Based on the results, 3% silane content boosted the initial strength, but was more prone to degradation after water storage. Variations in the filler distribution did not affect BFS, but fracture toughness was significantly improved by increasing the filler size.

  13. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas. PMID:15382877

  14. Interaction of gramicidin with DPPC/DODAB bilayer fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camilla A; Olivares-Ortega, Constanza; Soto-Arriaza, Marco A; Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin (Gr) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) 1:1 large unilamellar vesicles (LVs) or bilayer fragments (BFs) was evaluated by means of several techniques. The major methods were: 1) Gr intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy; 2) dynamic light scattering for sizing and zeta-potential analysis; 3) determination of the bilayer phase transition from extrinsic fluorescence of bilayer probes; 4) pictures of the dispersions for evaluation of coloidal stability over a range of time and NaCl concentration. For Gr in LVs, the Gr dimeric channel conformation is suggested from: 1) CD and intrinsic fluorescence spectra similar to those in trifluoroethanol (TFE); 2) KCl or glucose permeation through the LVs/Gr bilayer. For Gr in BFs, the intertwined dimeric, non-channel Gr conformation is evidenced by CD and intrinsic fluorescence spectra similar to those in ethanol. Both LVs and BFs shield Gr tryptophans against quenching by acrylamide but the Stern-Volmer quenching constant was slightly higher for Gr in BFs confirming that the peptide is more exposed to the water phase in BFs than in LVs. The DPPC/DODAB/Gr supramolecular assemblies may predict the behavior of other antimicrobial peptides in assemblies with lipids. PMID:22960286

  15. Minimal Sign Representation of Boolean Functions: Algorithms and Exact Results for Low Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezener, Can Eren; Oztop, Erhan

    2015-08-01

    Boolean functions (BFs) are central in many fields of engineering and mathematics, such as cryptography, circuit design, and combinatorics. Moreover, they provide a simple framework for studying neural computation mechanisms of the brain. Many representation schemes for BFs exist to satisfy the needs of the domain they are used in. In neural computation, it is of interest to know how many input lines a neuron would need to represent a given BF. A common BF representation to study this is the so-called polynomial sign representation where [Formula: see text] and 1 are associated with true and false, respectively. The polynomial is treated as a real-valued function and evaluated at its parameters, and the sign of the polynomial is then taken as the function value. The number of input lines for the modeled neuron is exactly the number of terms in the polynomial. This letter investigates the minimum number of terms, that is, the minimum threshold density, that is sufficient to represent a given BF and more generally aims to find the maximum over this quantity for all BFs in a given dimension. With this work, for the first time exact results for four- and five-variable BFs are obtained, and strong bounds for six-variable BFs are derived. In addition, some connections between the sign representation framework and bent functions are derived, which are generally studied for their desirable cryptographic properties. PMID:26079754

  16. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  17. Validation of criticality calculation for systems with MOX powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005-2006, a series of experiments referred to as BFS/MOX was conducted at the BFS-1 experimental facility in IPPE, Russia. The program was designed to provide a basis for validation of criticality calculations for MOX fuel manufacturing processes and particularly with low-moderated MOX fissile media. The extensive experimental program was performed on those configurations, including criticality and reactor-type parameters measurements. The experiments were evaluated, peer reviewed, and analyzed with various codes and cross-section data. Criticality validation study was performed employing sensitivity/uncertainty technique based on the generalized linear least square method. The paper illustrates different tools' performance when calculating criticality for the BFS/MOX configurations and focused upon the validation process and results for generic application systems with weapons-grade plutonium. (authors)

  18. Development of an MgO-based binder for stabilizing fine sediments and storing CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Seo, Jeong-Yun; Hwang, Inseong

    2015-12-01

    An MgO-based binder was developed that could stabilize fine dredged sediments for reuse and store CO2. Initially, a binder consisting of fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was developed by using alkaline activators such as KOH, NaOH, and lime. The FA0.4-BFS0.6 binder (mixed at a FA-to-BFS weight ratio of 4:6) showed the highest compressive strength of 10.7 MPa among FA/BFS binders when 5 M KOH was used. When lime (L) was tested as an alkaline activator, the strength was comparable with those obtained when KOH or NaOH was used. The L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder (10 % lime mixed with the FA/BFS binder) showed the highest strength of 11.0 MPa. Finally, by amending this L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder with MgO, a novel MgO-based binder (MgO0.5-(L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9) 0.5) was developed, which demonstrated the 28th day strength of 11.9 MPa. The MgO-based binder was successfully applied to stabilize a fine sediment to yield a compressive strength of 4.78 MPa in 365 days, which was higher than that obtained by the Portland cement (PC) system (3.22 MPa). Carbon dioxide sequestration was evidenced by three observations: (1) the decrease in pH of the treated sediment from 12.2 to 11.0; (2) the progress of the carbonation front inward the treated sediment; and (3) the presence of magnesium carbonates. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that 67.2 kg of CO2 per ton of the treated sediment could be stored under the atmospheric condition during 1 year. PMID:26224682

  19. On Dynamic Breadth-First Search in External-Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    We provide the first non-trivial result on dynamic breadth-first search (BFS) in external-memory: For general sparse undirected graphs of initially $n$ nodes and O(n) edges and monotone update sequences of either $\\Theta(n)$ edge insertions or $\\Theta(n)$ edge deletions, we prove an amortized high-probability bound of $O(n/B^{2/3}+\\sort(n)\\cdot \\log B)$ I/Os per update. In contrast, the currently best approach for static BFS on sparse undirected graphs requires $\\Omega(n/B^{1/2}+\\sort(n))$ I/Os.

  20. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure published by BfS describes the actual situation of Asse II with respect to the debate on an interim storage and the status of the realization of a final repository search law. During the visit of the new environment minister Hendricks in the underground facility repository Asse II the issue interim storage site and the retrieval of the corroded casks with radioactive waste were discussed. The challenges for BFS include the acceleration of the retrieval process and the safety of the procedure.

  1. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress report submitted by Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz reveals that this federal radiation protection agency is not only entrusted with the fulfillment of the federal administrative tasks imposed by law but engages in applications-oriented research regarding the operational, metrological and health-related aspects of radiation protection, regarding nuclear safety and radioactive waste management. In addition, BfS takes care of public-relations tasks. The reports submitted by the BfS departments are completed by summaries of the main research results. (orig.)

  2. Natural radioactivity in construction materials and the resulting radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BfS report on the natural radioactivity in construction materials and the resulting radiation exposure covers the following topics: Procedures of sampling. Measuring methods: measurement of the specific activity (gamma spectrometry, determination of the radon exhalation). Radiation exposure estimation: radon exposure, external radiation exposure. Measuring results: specific activity, radon exhalation, total exposure. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity of construction materials: overview on the existing requirements of the radiation protection law, EU recommendations ''Radiation Protection 112'', Austrian norm S 5200 ''radioactivity on construction materials (OeNORM). EU basic norm draft, requirements according building laws. BfS evaluation proposal.

  3. A Blended Cement Containing Blast Furnace Slag and Phosphorous Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Blended cement containing blast furnace slag(BFS) and phosphorous slag(PS) is a new kind of cement.The total content of blended materials could increase if two additives were used. Using the same admixtures, the properties of the blended cement with 70% additives could reach the standard of 525-grade slag cement according to GB.The strength of cement with 80% additives could reach the standard of 425-grade slag cement.The tests of strength, pore structure,hydration products,inhibiting alkali-aggregate reaction, resistance to sulfate corrosion of BFS-PSC were performed.

  4. Information feedback strategy for beltways in intelligent transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Li, Jian-Qing; Chen, Bo-Kui; Huang, Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    As an important part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), the information feedback strategy has drawn more and more scholars' attention. A variety of feedback strategies are proposed to improve the traffic efficiency. These strategies are based on simple route scenarios, but most route scenarios are always complex in reality. In this letter, based on a complex beltway scenario, we propose a new traffic information feedback strategy called Beltway Feedback Strategy (BFS). The simulation results show that the BFS can effectively improve the transportation ability of beltways.

  5. Information on Asse II; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    The brochure published by BfS describes the actual situation of Asse II with respect to the debate on an interim storage and the status of the realization of a final repository search law. During the visit of the new environment minister Hendricks in the underground facility repository Asse II the issue interim storage site and the retrieval of the corroded casks with radioactive waste were discussed. The challenges for BFS include the acceleration of the retrieval process and the safety of the procedure.

  6. 78 FR 13855 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the... International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD). The meeting will be held from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m... and Integrated Pest Management as related to refinement of current USAID/BFS research focus areas...

  7. The interaction of pH, pore solution composition and solid phase composition of carbonated blast furnace slag cement paste activated with aqueous sodium monofluorophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempl, J.; Copuroglu, O.

    2015-01-01

    Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) is a waste product of industrial steel production and a common additive in the cement industry in Northern European countries. However, cementitious materials made from slag-rich cement, particularly CEM III /B, are very susceptible to carbonation. Recent investigations have

  8. Calculation of Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Pure Elements and their Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Phillip; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A simple algorithm for computing the coefficient of thermal expansion of pure elements and their alloys, based on features of the binding energy curve, is introduced. The BFS method for alloys is used to determine the binding energy curves of intermetallic alloys and Ni-base superalloys.

  9. Monitoring of mining-induced ambient radioactivity. 11th expert meeting on ambient radioactivity monitoring, held on 28/29 March 2000 at Schlema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 11th expert meeting was the first exclusively devoted to aspects of monitoring mining-induced ambient radioactivity, and therefore was held 'on site', in the formerly important uranium mining area of Schlema. The meeting was organised by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (BfS) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU). (orig./CB)

  10. IPPE critical facilities and their research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 40th anniversary of BFS zero power fast critical facilities family took place in 2001. An extensive neutron physics research program for justification of fast sodium-cooled reactors core physics has been carried out on them. Advanced reactors core physics research is fulfilled today to solve both traditional and non-traditional tasks of nuclear power industry

  11. Effect of Limestone Powder on Microstructure of Ternary Cementitious System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to reach sustainability favours the development of ternary composite cement. The synergistic effect on mechanical behaviour at 28 days between limestone powder (LP) and pozzolanic additives, i.e. fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS), has been documented. In order to better understa

  12. Self-healing behavior of strain hardening cementitious composites incorporating local waste materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, S.; Zhou, J.; Rooij, M.R. de; Schlangen, E.; Ye, G.; Breugel, K. van

    2009-01-01

    The self-healing behavior of a series of pre-cracked fiber reinforced strain hardening cementitious composites incorporating blast furnace slag (BFS) and limestone powder (LP) with relatively high water/binder ratio is investigated in this paper, focusing on the recovery of its deflection capacity.

  13. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information brochure (BfS) on Asse - responsibility - discusses the issue of radioactive waste disposal. The members of the final repository commission have to present the final report on the site selection for the final repository. The central question is the safe disposal of nuclear waste for a million of years.

  14. Measuring the absorption mean cross section in 6Li relative to 235U fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the fact that the neutron absorption cross section in 6Li is used as one of standards for determinaton of neutron-physical characteristics of fast reactors the ratio of mean cross sections for absorption by 6Li (A6) and 235U fission F25 are experimentalli investigated. The measurements have been performed in the KBR-8, KBR-10,BFS/39/1 bfs-44, BFS/45a-1 and BFS-46 critical assemblies which are characterized by various neutron spectra by means of a lithium counter with semiconductor detectors. Ratios A6/F25 for investigated assemblies constituted respectively 0.605+-0.009; 0.604+-0.004; 0.581+-0.009; 0.590+-0.574+-0.005. The values of 235U diffusion mean cross sections obtained on the base of these fata and calculated using the CRAB-1 program (given in brackets) are equal respectively 1.53+-0.005 (1.51) 2.38+-0.08 (2.42); 1.935+-0.060 (1.95); 1.89+-0.08 (1.95); 1.780+-0.11 (1.69); 1.90+-0.06 (1.89)

  15. Stability of (A,B)-invariant subspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Carrera, Marta; Puerta Coll, Xavier; Puerta Sales, Ferran

    2005-01-01

    Given a pair of matrices (A;B) we study the stability of their invariant subspaces from the geometry of the manifold of quadruples (A;B; S; F) where S is an (A;B)-invariant subspace and F is such that (A + BF)S ½ S. In particular, we derive a su±cient computable condition of stability.

  16. An efficient electrocatalyst as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells: BaFe0·95Sn0·05O3-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feifei; Ni, Meng; He, Wei; Chen, Yubo; Yang, Guangming; Chen, Dengjie; Shao, Zongping

    2016-09-01

    The B-site substitution with the minor amount of tin in BaFeO3-δ parent oxide is expected to stabilize a single perovskite lattice structure. In this study, a composition of BaFe0·95Sn0·05O3-δ (BFS) as a new cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) is synthesized and characterized. Special attention is paid to the exploration of some basic properties including phase structure, oxygen non-stoichiometry, electrical conductivity, oxygen bulk diffusion coefficient, and surface exchange coefficient, which are of significant importance to the electrochemical activity of cathode materials. BFS holds a single cubic perovskite structure over temperature range of cell operation, determined by in-situ X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscope. A high oxygen vacancy concentration at cell operating temperatures is observed by combining thermo-gravimetric data and iodometric titration result. Furthermore, electrical conductivity relaxation measurement illustrates the fast oxygen bulk diffusion and surface exchange kinetics. Accordingly, testing cells based on BFS cathode material demonstrate the low polarization resistance of 0.033 Ω cm2 and high peak power density of 1033 mW cm-2 at 700 °C, as well as a relatively stable long-term operation for ∼300 h. The results obtained suggest that BFS perovskite oxide holds a great promise as an oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for IT-SOFCs.

  17. Federal Office for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are organization and tasks of the departments of the BfS: 1) Press and Public Information; 2) Self-Surveillance of the Morsleben Repository (ERAM); 3) Quality Assurance Monitoring; 4) Central Department (administration, legal concerns); 5) Department Radiation Hygiene; 6) Department Radiation Protection; 7) Department Nuclear Safety; 8) Department Nuclear Waste Management and Transport. (HP)

  18. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Responsibility; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Verantwortung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    The information brochure (BfS) on Asse - responsibility - discusses the issue of radioactive waste disposal. The members of the final repository commission have to present the final report on the site selection for the final repository. The central question is the safe disposal of nuclear waste for a million of years.

  19. Zirconia-reinforced dental restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The series of studies conducted in this thesis showed that there are several ways to enhance the performance of fixed restorations regarding the application of zirconia. One possible way is to change the sintering procedure of zirconia, so that the physical properties of zirconia such BFS, density o

  20. Evaluation of spatial variability of metal bioavailability in soils using geostatistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2012-01-01

    performed using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst. Results show that BFs of copper span a range of 6 orders of magnitude, and have signifficant spatial variability at local and continental scales. The model nugget variance is signifficantly higher than zero, suggesting the presence of spatial variability at...

  1. Effect of Ceramic Surface Treatments After Machine Grinding on the Biaxial Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM Dental Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Hossein; Aghajani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments after machining grinding on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of machinable dental ceramics with different crystalline phases. Materials and Methods: Disk-shape specimens (10mm in diameter and 1.3mm in thickness) of machinable ceramic cores (two silica-based and one zirconia-based ceramics) were prepared. Each type of the ceramic surfaces was then randomly treated (n=15) with different treatments as follows: 1) machined finish as control, 2) machined finish and sandblasting with alumina, and 3) machined finish and hydrofluoric acid etching for the leucite and lithium disilicate-based ceramics, and for the zirconia; 1) machined finish and post-sintered as control, 2) machined finish, post-sintered, and sandblasting, and 3) machined finish, post-sintered, and Nd;YAG laser irradiation. The BFS were measured in a universal testing machine. Data based were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results: The mean BFS of machined finish only surfaces for leucite ceramic was significantly higher than that of sandblasted (P=0.001) and acid etched surfaces (P=0.005). A significantly lower BFS was found after sandblasting for lithium disilicate compared with that of other groups (Plaser irradiation (Plaser irradiation may lead to substantial strength degradation of zirconia. PMID:27148372

  2. From dose rate to web-sites: making measurements accessible, understandable and helpful to the lay public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key role of public information in emergency preparedness has more recently been corroborated by the experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP. Information should meet quality criteria such as openness, accessibility and authenticity. Existing information portals of radiation monitoring networks were frequently used even in Europe, although there was no imminent radiation risk. BfS responded by increasing the polling frequency, publishing current data not validated, refurbishing the web-site of the BfS 'odlinfo.bfs.de' and adding explanatory text. Public feedback served as a valuable input for improving the site's design. Additional services were implemented for developers of smart phone apps. Web-sites similar to 'ODLinfo' are available both on European and international levels. NGOs and grass root projects established platforms for uploading and visualising private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 March 2011. The BfS site is compared with other platforms. Government information has to compete with non-official sources. Options on information strategies are discussed. (authors)

  3. Constructing COMSOL Models of a Bacteriological Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert; Mansell, James

    2012-01-01

    We show very initial work on a specific bioelectrochemical system (BES), a bacteriologically driven 'fuel cell' (BFS), that is intended to process waste products, such as CO2 and brine. (1) Processing is the priority, not power generation (2) Really a Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC)

  4. Germany. Annex V [Planning and Design Considerations for Geological Repository Programmes of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, the Federal Government is responsible for the safe final disposal of radioactive waste. The responsibility for construction and operation is delegated to the Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS), a subordinated body of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear safety (BMU). However, because BfS does not provide for the necessary technical infrastructures it has nominated the private German Company for the Construction and Operation of Waste Repositories (DBE) to construct and operate the repository on behalf of BfS. Nevertheless, BfS will be the licensing applicant for the repository and the Federal State where the repository is located in will be the licensing authority. BMU on the other side establishes the safety requirements/criteria that are to be considered in the licensing process and oversees all licensing and implementing activities. Since the early sixties, i.e. from the very beginning of nuclear energy, the German policy has decided that all types of radioactive waste are to be disposed of in deep geological formations

  5. Sampling properties of directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Son, Seung-Woo; Bizhani, Golnoosh; Foster, David V; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2012-01-01

    For many real-world networks only a small "sampled" version of the original network may be investigated; those results are then used to draw conclusions about the actual system. Variants of breadth-first search (BFS) sampling, which are based on epidemic processes, are widely used. Although it is well established that BFS sampling fails, in most cases, to capture the IN-component(s) of directed networks, a description of the effects of BFS sampling on other topological properties are all but absent from the literature. To systematically study the effects of sampling biases on directed networks, we compare BFS sampling to random sampling on complete large-scale directed networks. We present new results and a thorough analysis of the topological properties of seven different complete directed networks (prior to sampling), including three versions of Wikipedia, three different sources of sampled World Wide Web data, and an Internet-based social network. We detail the differences that sampling method and coverage...

  6. Transient and residual stresses in a pressable glass-ceramic before and after resin-cement coating determined using profilometry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-05-01

    The effect of heat-pressing and subsequent pre-cementation (acid-etching) and resin-cementation operative techniques on the development of transient and residual stresses in different thicknesses of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were characterised using profilometry prior to biaxial flexure strength (BFS) determination.

  7. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  8. Prompt gamma ray evaluation for chlorine analysis in blended cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single prompt gamma ray energy has been evaluated to measure chlorine concentration in fly ash (FA), Super-Pozz (SPZ) and blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete specimens using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) setup. The gamma ray yield data from chloride concentration measurement in FA, SPZ and BFS cement concretes for 2.86–3.10, 5.72 and 6.11 MeV chlorine gamma rays were analyzed to identify a gamma ray with common slope (gamma ray yield/Cl conc. wt%) for the FA, BFS and SPZ cement concretes. The gamma ray yield data for FA and SPZ cement concretes with varying chloride concentration were measured previously using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. In the current study, new data have been measured for chlorine detection in the BFS cement concrete using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup for 2.86–3.10, 5.72, and 6.11 MeV chlorine gamma rays. The minimum detection limit of chlorine in BFS cement concrete (MDC) was found to be 0.034±0.010, 0.032±0.010, 0.033±0.010 for 2.86–3.10, 5.72 and 6.11 MeV gamma ray, respectively. The new BFS cement concrete data, along with the previous measurements for FA and SPZ cement concretes, have been utilized to identify a gamma ray with a common slope to analyze the Cl concentration in all of these blended cement concretes. It has been observed that the 6.11 MeV chlorine gamma ray has a common slope of 5295±265 gamma rays/wt % Cl concentration for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in blended cement concrete was measured to be 0.033±0.010 wt % for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA. Thus, the 6.11 MeV chlorine gamma ray can be used for chlorine analysis of blended cement concretes. - Highlights: • New data on chlorine measurements in BFS cement concrete is presented. • Single chlorine gamma ray was evaluated for chlorine analysis in blended cement concrete. • 6.11 Me

  9. Effects of different fibre sources and fat addition on cholesterol and cholesterol-related lipids in blood serum, bile and body tissues of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, M; Hanneken, H; Wittmann, M; Gerdemann, M M; Machmuller, A

    2002-04-01

    Knowledge is limited on the efficacy of hindgut-fermentable dietary fibre to reduce blood, bile and body tissue cholesterol levels. In three experiments with growing pigs the effects of different kinds and levels of bacterially fermentable fibre (BFS) on cholesterol metabolism were examined. Various diets calculated to have similar contents of metabolizable energy were supplied for complete fattening periods. In the first experiment, a stepwise increase from 12 to 20% BFS was performed by supplementing diets with fermentable fibre from sugar beet pulp (modelling hemicelluloses and pectin). Beet pulp, rye bran (modelling cellulose) and citrus pulp (pectin) were offered either independently or in a mixture in the second experiment. These diets were opposed to rations characterized in carbohydrate type by starch either mostly non-resistant (cassava) or partly resistant (maize) to small intestinal digestion. The third experiment was planned to explore the interactions of BFS from citrus pulp with fat either through additional coconut oil/palm kernel oil blend or full-fat soybeans. In all experiments the increase of the BFS content was associated with a constant (cellulose) or decreasing (hemicelluloses, pectin) dietary proportion of non-digestible fibre. In experiment 1 an inverse dose-response relationship between BFS content and cholesterol in blood serum and adipose tissue as well as bile acid concentration in bile was noted while muscle cholesterol did not respond. In experiment 2 the ingredients characterized by cellulose and hemicelluloses/pectin reduced cholesterol-related traits relative to the low-BFS-high-starch controls whereas, except in adipose tissue cholesterol content, the pectinous ingredient had the opposite effect. However, the changes in serum cholesterol mainly affected HDL and not LDL cholesterol. Adipose tissue cholesterol also was slightly lower with partly resistant starch compared to non-resistant starch in the diet. Experiment 3 showed that

  10. Volatilization of elemental mercury from fresh blast furnace sludge mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste with elevated mercury (Hg) content due to enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the volatilization potential of Hg, fresh samples of BFS mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS; a residue of gas purification from steel making, processed simultaneously in the cleaning devices of BFS and hence mixed with BFS) were studied in sealed column experiments at different temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C) for four weeks (total Hg: 0.178 mg kg(-1)). The systems were regularly flushed with ambient air (every 24 h for the first 100 h, followed by every 72 h) for 20 min at a flow rate of 0.25 ± 0.03 L min(-1) and elemental Hg vapor was trapped on gold coated sand. Volatilization was 0.276 ± 0.065 ng (x m: 0.284 ng) at 15 °C, 5.55 ± 2.83 ng (x m: 5.09 ng) at 25 °C, and 2.37 ± 0.514 ng (x m: 2.34 ng) at 35 °C. Surprisingly, Hg fluxes were lower at 35 than 25 °C. For all temperature variants, an elevated Hg flux was observed within the first 100 h followed by a decrease of volatilization thereafter. However, the background level of ambient air was not achieved at the end of the experiments indicating that BFS mixed with BOFS still possessed Hg volatilization potential. PMID:26444147

  11. The implementation of biofiltration systems, rainwater tanks and urban irrigation in a single-layer urban canopy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, Matthias; Coutts, Andrew; Goehler, Maren; Broadbent, Ashley; Wouters, Hendrik; van Lipzig, Nicole; Gebert, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Urban vegetation is generally considered as a key tool to modify the urban energy balance through enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). Given that vegetation is most effective when it is healthy, stormwater harvesting and retention strategies (such as water sensitive urban design) could be used to support vegetation and promote ET. This study presents the implementation of a vegetated lined bio-filtration system (BFS) combined with a rainwater tank (RWT) and urban irrigation system in the single-layer urban canopy model Community Land Model-Urban. Runoff from roof and impervious road surface fractions is harvested and used to support an adequate soil moisture level for vegetation in the BFS. In a first stage, modelled soil moisture dynamics are evaluated and found reliable compared to observed soil moisture levels from biofiltration pits in Smith Street, Melbourne (Australia). Secondly, the impact of BFS, RWT and urban irrigation on ET is illustrated for a two-month period in 2012 using varying characteristics for all components. Results indicate that (i) a large amount of stormwater is potentially available for indoor and outdoor water demands, including irrigation of urban vegetation, (ii) ET from the BFS is an order of magnitude larger compared to the contributions from the impervious surfaces, even though the former only covers 10% of the surface fraction and (iii) attention should be paid to the cover fraction and soil texture of the BFS, size of the RWT and the surface fractions contributing to the collection of water in the RWT. Overall, this study reveals that this model development can effectuate future research with state-of-the-art urban climate models to further explore the benefits of vegetated biofiltration systems as a water sensitive urban design tool optimised with an urban irrigation system to maintain healthy vegetation.

  12. Gas Generation Rates as an Indicator for the Long Term Stability of Radioactive Waste Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the 'Act on the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards' (Atomic Energy Act) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) is legally responsible for the construction and operation of federal facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. Within the scope of this responsibility, particular due to par. 74(1) Ordinance on Radiation Protection, BfS defines all safety-related requirements on waste packages envisaged for disposal, establishes guidelines for the conditioning of radioactive waste and approves the fulfillment of the waste acceptance requirements within the radioactive waste quality control system. BfS also provides criteria to enable the assessment of methods for the treatment and packaging of radioactive waste to produce waste packages suitable for disposal according to par. 74(2) Ordinance on Radiation Protection. Due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany, quality control measures for all types of radioactive waste products are carried out prior to interim storage with respect to the future disposal. As a result BfS approves the demonstrated properties of the radioactive waste packages and confirms the fulfillment of the respective requirements. After several years of storage the properties of waste packages might have changed. By proving, that such changes have no significant impact on the quality of the waste product, the effort of requalification could be minimized. Therefore, data on the long-term behavior of radioactive waste products need to be acquired and indicators to prove the long-term stability have to be quantified. Preferably, such indicators can be determined easily with non-destructive methods, even for legacy waste packages. A promising parameter is the gas generation rate. The relationship between gas generation rate and long term stability is presented as first result of an ongoing study on behalf of BfS. Permissible gas

  13. Results of nuclear design accuracy evaluation on BN-600 hybrid core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear design accuracy on the BN-600 hybrid core has been evaluated using the JNC's nuclear analysis system for FBR cores, by utilizing the critical experiment analysis results on BFS-62 configuration that had been obtained under JNC's efforts for Russian surplus weapons plutonium disposition. In the BN-600 hybrid core design, a part of the current UO2 fuel region is replaced by MOX fuel, and the peripheral blanket region by stainless steel reflectors, respectively. These changes were simulated in a series of critical experiment configurations (BFS-62-1 to 4). Based on the analysis results on both BFS-62 configurations and other fast reactor cores, nuclear design accuracy on the BN-600 hybrid core has been evaluated by applying both the group constant adjustment method and the bias method. Evaluated nuclear parameters include, the ciriticality, fission rate distribution, sodium void reactivity, control rod worth, burn-up reactivity loss, etc. It is concluded, by applying the group constant adjustment method, that the evaluated accuracy (uncertainty) of most of the nuclear parameters can be decreased to less than half of those based on the basic nuclear constant without reflecting any experimental data. The improvement was mainly achieved by reducing the covariance of the iron elastic cross section. This significant effect results from the feature of the BN-600 hybrid core, which has relatively larger power density, adopts U235 as the main fissile nuclide, and has the stainless steel reflector surrounding the fuel region. In addition, good consistency of analysis results between the BFS and other fast reactor cores is confirmed. Information obtained by BFS-62 experiment show significant contribution to the accuracy improvement. It is also found that the bias method shows less significant effects on the accuracy improvement than the group constant adjustment method. Furthermore, the bias method may degrade the accuracy for certain nuclear parameters that have large

  14. Sampling properties of directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S-W; Christensen, C; Bizhani, G; Foster, D V; Grassberger, P; Paczuski, M

    2012-10-01

    For many real-world networks only a small "sampled" version of the original network may be investigated; those results are then used to draw conclusions about the actual system. Variants of breadth-first search (BFS) sampling, which are based on epidemic processes, are widely used. Although it is well established that BFS sampling fails, in most cases, to capture the IN component(s) of directed networks, a description of the effects of BFS sampling on other topological properties is all but absent from the literature. To systematically study the effects of sampling biases on directed networks, we compare BFS sampling to random sampling on complete large-scale directed networks. We present new results and a thorough analysis of the topological properties of seven complete directed networks (prior to sampling), including three versions of Wikipedia, three different sources of sampled World Wide Web data, and an Internet-based social network. We detail the differences that sampling method and coverage can make to the structural properties of sampled versions of these seven networks. Most notably, we find that sampling method and coverage affect both the bow-tie structure and the number and structure of strongly connected components in sampled networks. In addition, at a low sampling coverage (i.e., less than 40%), the values of average degree, variance of out-degree, degree autocorrelation, and link reciprocity are overestimated by 30% or more in BFS-sampled networks and only attain values within 10% of the corresponding values in the complete networks when sampling coverage is in excess of 65%. These results may cause us to rethink what we know about the structure, function, and evolution of real-world directed networks. PMID:23214649

  15. Change of the chemical barrier performance of cement materials altered by hydrothermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement has been considered to be a useful material because its chemical property is potentially suitable for immobilization of radioactive waste. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cement material is very important parameter in the TRU waste disposal system containing long-life radionuclides. For the long term, in the disposal environment, cement materials must be altered by dissolution, chemical reaction with ions dissolved in the ground water, and hydrothermal reaction etc. Once the composition or crystallinity of minerals in cement is changed, the chemical properties, especially sorption, might be changed. However, the mechanism of the process of cement alteration and mechanism of radionuclide sorption onto cement are not yet fully understood. In this paper, the hydrothermal alteration process was studied experimentally, and the effect of alteration on the sorption properties of cement was investigated by the bath sorption test for Sr and Se. The results follow: 1) OPC and OPC/BFS-blended cement (hereafter BFS cement) were heated at temperatures up to 70degC in the synthetic cement equilibrated groundwater or distilled water for 1 month. Changes of crystallinity of the minerals were observed. For example, it was observed that the crystallinity of CSH-gel might increase. Ettringite decomposed on heating. For treatment in distilled water, monosulphate was formed only in the case of BFS cement. 2) In the case of Sr (as a representative cation) sorption, the distribution coefficient for hydrothermally altered OPC and BFS cement decreased as the alteration temperature increased. This is mainly caused by the decrease of distribution coefficient for the CSH-gel phase in cement accompanying the change of its crystallinity. In the case of Se(as a model anion, selenite) sorption, the distribution coefficient decreased as the alteration temperature increased for OPC in both distilled water and synthetic ground water, and also for BFS in groundwater. This is

  16. Approval procedures for clinical trials in the field of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of ionizing radiation for the purpose of medical research in Germany needs to be approved by the national authority for radiation protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS). For studies in the field of radiation oncology, differentiation between use of radiation for ''medical care (Heilkunde)'' versus ''medical research'' frequently leads to contradictions. The aim of this article is to provide principle investigators, individuals, and institutions involved in the process, as well as institutional review or ethics committees, with the necessary information for this assessment. Information on the legal frame and the approval procedures are also provided. A workshop was co-organized by the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO), the Working Party for Radiation Oncology (ARO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG), the German Society for Medical Physics (DGMP), and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) in October 2013. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop and the follow-up discussions between the organizers and the BfS. Differentiating between ''Heilkunde'' which does not need to be approved by the BfS and ''medical research'' is whether the specific application of radiation (beam quality, dose, schedule, target volume, etc.) is a clinically established and recognized procedure. This must be answered by the qualified physician(s) (''fachkundiger Arzt'' according to German radiation protection law) in charge of the study and the treatments of the patients within the study, taking into consideration of the best available evidence from clinical studies, guidelines and consensus papers. Among the important parameters for assessment are indication, total dose, and fractionation. Radiation treatments applied outside clinical trials do not require approval by the BfS, even if they are applied within a randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial

  17. A Method for Estimating Mass-Transfer Coefficients in a Biofilter from Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Michael; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Feilberg, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    A membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) was used in combination with a developed computer model to study and improve management of a biofilter (BF) treating malodorous ventilation air from a meat rendering facility. The MIMS was used to determine percentage removal efficiencies (REs) of selected...... sulfur gases and to provide toluene retention profiles for the model to determine the air velocity and overall mass-transfer coefficient of toluene. The mass-transfer coefficient of toluene was used as a reference for determining the mass transfer of sulfur gases. By presenting the model to scenarios of......, knowing the relationship between mass-transfer coefficients and air velocity for a given type of BF allows for an improved dimensioning and managing of this and similar BFs. This research demonstrates that it is possible to estimate mass-transfer coefficients and air velocity in BFs using MIMS in...

  18. A comparative study of the pore structures and surfaces of hardened cement pastes of potential use in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of water vapour adsorption at 200C and mercury intrusion have been used to compare the surfaces and pore structures of hardened cement pastes made from ordinary portland cement (OPC) and the additives blast furnace slag (BFS) and pulverised fuel ash (PFA). The results suggest that each additive, after taking part in the hydration reaction with OPC, produces a paste whose gel pore structure is similar to that derived from OPC alone. The BET adsorption surface area of the cement pastes, in the form of half inch diameter coupons was ca. 55 m2 g-1 and was not influenced by the presence of the additives. However the pastes containing the additives have a larger and better interconnected meso and macropore structure than OPC which may account for larger diffusion coefficients reported elsewhere for caesium ions passing through concrete containing BFS in comparison with a concrete containing OPC alone. (author)

  19. Licensing Procedures for Interim Storage of Spent Fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the waste management concept in Germany spent fuel is stored in interim storage facilities for 40 years until disposal in a geological repository. The storage concept bases on dry storage of the spent fuel in metallic transport and storage casks, standing upright in halls of reinforced concrete. Storage of spent fuel as well as significant modifications of the storage require a license according to art. 6 of the Atomic Energy Act. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz - BfS) is the competent licensing authority. The mode of the licensing procedure — whether formalized or non-formalized — depends on the necessity to carry out an environmental impact assessment. Formalized licensing procedures include a public participation procedure. In the following, the licensing prodecures are illustrated and a short overview over the current licensing procedures conducted by BfS is given. (author)

  20. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Hajime, E-mail: h.kinoshita@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Carro-Mateo, Beatriz [The Public University of Navarra, C/Esquíroz, 30 trasera, Pamplona 31007 (Spain); Marchand, Geraldine [The National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Collier, Nick [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Milestone, Neil [Industrial Research Ltd., 69 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt, 5040 (New Zealand)

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  1. Flowsheet finalisation for immobilisation of SGHWR wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises research and development work carried out during the year ended March 1983 on the programme for cementing the Winfrith Reactor (SGHWR) sludge. Further results from the characterisation programme are reported, together with data from the cementation programme. Formulations based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) have been tested. The results show that a blend of 90% BFS/10% OPC by weight, gives the best properties. Chemical pretreatment as a method for producing a stable waste form is discussed. A dewatering pretreatment to provide a sludge suitable for direct cementation is also outlined. A flowsheet for cementing the SGHWR sludge is proposed based on these laboratory and pilot scale studies. The major components required for the active plant are identified and provisional plant layouts are given. (author)

  2. The immobilization of anion exchange resins in polymer modified cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic anion exchange resins, loaded with 99-Tc as the pertechnate ion, were incorporated into polymer modified cements (Flexocrete Ltd, Preston). BFS/OPC (9:1 mix) also was modified by three polymers from the same source (styrene acrylic (2) styrene butadiene) and loaded with anion exchanger containing the pertechnate. Composites were tested for initial compressive strengths, under water and radiation stability and leach rate. IAEA standard leach testing was with simulated sea and ground waters. Ground water leaching also was carried out on composites subjected to 1.109 rads (γ). Leach testing correlated well with compressive strength. Modified composites performed better than the BFS/OPC mix under all conditions studied and were able to encapsulate higher resin loadings. (author)

  3. Properties of Cement Mortar with Phosphogpysum under Steam Curing Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungju Mun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to utilize waste PG as an admixture for concrete products cured by steam. For the study, waste PG was classified into 4 forms (dehydrate, β-hemihydrate, III-anhydrite, and II-anhydrite, which were calcined at various temperatures. Also, various admixtures were prepared with PG, fly-ash (FA, and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS. The basic properties of cement mortars containing these admixtures were analyzed and examined through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, compressive strength, and acid corrosion resistance. According to the results, cement mortars made with III-anhydrite of waste PG and BFS exhibited strength similar to that of cement mortars made with II-anhydrite. Therefore, III-anhydrite PG calcined at lower temperature can be used as a steam curing admixture for concrete second production.

  4. The importance of research for the regulatory framework of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in Germany (BfS) is carrying out a research program in the field of radiation protection. More that 60 research and study contracts in 11 different radiation protection areas are funded every year, and these are carried out mainly by universities and research centers. The results of these projects are used in developing radiation protection regulations, guidelines and procedures to fulfill the special radiation protection tasks of the BMU, the execution of which is required by law. Planning, scientific and administrative management, provision of assistance as well as expert evaluation of the results from these projects lies within the area of responsibility of the BfS. A report issued annually provides information on preliminary and final results of radiation protection research projects in Germany (author) Germany (author)

  5. Teaching Inquiry using NASA Earth-System Science: Preparing Pre- and Inservice K-12 Educators to Use Authentic Inquiry in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, T. D.; Tebockhorst, D.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching Inquiry using NASA Earth-System Science (TINES) is a comprehensive program to train and support pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers, and to provide them with an opportunity to use NASA Earth Science mission data and Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) observations to incorporate scientific inquiry-based learning in the classroom. It uses an innovative blended-learning professional development approach that combines a peer-reviewed pedagogical technique called backward-faded scaffolding (BFS), which provides a more natural entry path to understanding the scientific process, with pre-workshop online content learning and in-situ and online data resources from NASA and GLOBE. This presentation will describe efforts to date, share our impressions and evaluations, and discuss the effectiveness of the BFS approach to both professional development and classroom pedagogy.

  6. The Investigation of TLC Model Checker Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Shkarupylo, Vadym Viktorovych; Tomičić, Igor; Kasian, Kostiantyn Mykolaiovych

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation and comparison of TLC model checking method (TLA Checker) properties. There are two different approaches to method usage which are considered. The first one consists of a transition system states attendance by breadth-first search (BFS), and the second one by depth-first search (DFS). The Kripke structure has been chosen as a transition system model. A case study has been conducted, where composite web service usage scenario has been considered. Obtained ...

  7. Heavy Metal Accumulation as Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.F.) K. Presl Ex Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Tulika Talukdar; Dibyendu Talukdar

    2015-01-01

    Bioaccumulation potential of six ecotypes, collected from six different industrial zones of lower Indo-Gangetic basin of West Bengal, India,of Monochoria vaginalis, commonly known as oval-leafed pondweed has been investigated based on chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) andCopper (Cu) accumulation pattern in different plant organs. Bioaccumulation potential was assessed by bioaccumulation factors (BFs-leavesmetal concentration/soil metal concentration), bioconcentration factors (BCFs- roots metal/soi...

  8. Public relations work in the field of radioactive waste disposal in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since the early sixties, radioactive waste disposal in the Federal Republic of Germany has been based on the decision that all kinds of radioactive wastes are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. One operating repository and two different disposal projects are currently under way in Germany. The Morsleben Repository for Radioactive Waste (ERAM), presently the only approved repository, is intended for low and medium level radioactive wastes. The Konrad Mine is designed as a repository for radioactive wastes with a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being explored for its suitability as a repository for all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, including heat-generating, high-level wastes. Within the scope of the Atomic Energy Act the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is responsible for the construction and operation of disposal facilities for radioactive wastes. To this end, the BfS is entitled to place orders to third parties, for example to 'Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe' (DBE). In contrast to other countries where work is aimed at site selection, German activities are mainly directed to winning the acceptance of pre-selected sites. This work started in 1978 for the Gorleben site and in early 1980 for the Konrad site. At BfS, the Division of Press and Public Information operates an Information Office in Gartow for the general aspects of the German waste management as well as the site exploration programme of the Gorleben saltdome; - issues press releases, leaflets and brochures; - answers questions by telephone and in writing; and takes part in fairs and exhibitions. This activities of the BfS are directed especially to the general public whereas the DBE carries out site-depending public relations work especially by operating information offices at the sites with main emphasis on looking after visitors and being in contact with the

  9. Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites with Basalt Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guojun; Wang, Weihong; Shen, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    Basalt fibers (BFs) were surface-treated with a vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent to improve the mechanical properties of wood fiber-reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. Basalt fibers were characterized with SEM and FT-IR. The effects of the basalt fiber content and apparent morphology on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were investigated in this paper. The results show that the BF coated with the vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent resulted in an im...

  10. Licensing procedure for interim stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coalition agreement of October 1998 signed by the parties in government contains a provision about the treatment of spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants which, in principle, seeks to avoid transports and terminate, which would also end transports to France and the UK, by July 1, 2005. After that date, all fuel elements arising are to be managed by direct disposal. Pending the start of operation of a suitable repository, this concept requires safekeeping of spent fuel elements in appropriate storage facilities. The consensus agreement between the federal government and the power utilities contains this approach with the goal of building on-site storage facilities. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), as the competent supervisory authority under Sec. 6 of the Atomic Energy Act, has received licensing applications for temporary and on-site stores, respectively, as decentralized interim stores for all nuclear power plant sites in Germany (with the exception of Muelheim-Kaerlich, for which special regulations exist). Three technical concepts, namely two variants of a hall structure, a tunnel concept for Neckarwestheim, and a temporary store, must be examined by BfS in a licensing procedure including as its main steps public participation, examination of the preconditions for a permit, and drafting of the licensing decision. In addition, on-site stores require that an environmental impact assessment be carried out. Proceedings are conducted at BfS largely in parallel and speedily by a project group set up. BfS intends to finish all steps involving public participation still this year. When all preconditions have been met for licensing decisions to be granted, and with an assumed construction period of two years, on-site interim stores ought to be available from 2005 on. (orig.)

  11. Preliminary estudies on the use of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in the manufacture of alkali activated binders

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldelli, V.N.; Mitsuuchi Tashima, Mauro; Melges, J.L.; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; AKASAKI, JORGE LUIS; Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan

    2014-01-01

    Alkali activated binders require the addition of a mineral-rich amorphous silica and alumina. This paper proposes the use of a mineral residue from the burning of sugar cane bagasse. The alkali activated mixtures were prepared containing binary mixtures of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and other mineral admixtures: fly ash (FA) or blast furnace slag (BFS). As alkaline activators, mixtures of alkali (Na+ or K+) hydroxide and alkali (Na+ or K+) silicate were used. Alkali-activated pastes and mo...

  12. Research requirements on mobile phones. Statement of the SSK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the SSK published its statement on protection of the population from electromagnetic fields. (''Grenzwerte und Vorsorgemassnahmen zum Schutz der Bevoelkerung vor elektromagnetischen Feldern''). This was followed in 2002 by ''Weiterentwicklung der Forschung zum Schutz vor nichtionisierender Strahlung''. After an expert meeting in June 2001, the BfS developed a research programme which between 2002 and 2005 was granted 8.5 million Euros by the BMU. (orig.)

  13. Applicability of the linear-quadratic formalism for modeling local tumor control probability in high dose per fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To compare the linear-quadratic (LQ) and the LQ-L formalism (linear cell survival curve beyond a threshold dose dT) for modeling local tumor control probability (TCP) in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods: This study is based on 395 patients from 13 German and Austrian centers treated with SBRT for stage I NSCLC. The median number of SBRT fractions was 3 (range 1–8) and median single fraction dose was 12.5 Gy (2.9–33 Gy); dose was prescribed to the median 65% PTV encompassing isodose (60–100%). Assuming an α/β-value of 10 Gy, we modeled TCP as a sigmoid-shaped function of the biologically effective dose (BED). Models were compared using maximum likelihood ratio tests as well as Bayes factors (BFs). Results: There was strong evidence for a dose–response relationship in the total patient cohort (BFs > 20), which was lacking in single-fraction SBRT (BFs T) at 11 Gy (68% CI 8–14 Gy) or 22 Gy (14–42 Gy), respectively. However, the fit of the LQ-L models was not significantly better than a fit without the dT parameter (p = 0.07, BF = 2.1 and p = 0.86, BF = 0.8, respectively). Generally, isocentric doses resulted in much better dose–response relationships than PTV encompassing doses (BFs > 20). Conclusion: Our data suggest accurate modeling of local tumor control in fractionated SBRT for stage I NSCLC with the traditional LQ formalism

  14. The interaction of pH, pore solution composition and solid phase composition of carbonated blast furnace slag cement paste activated with aqueous sodium monofluorophosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Kempl, J.; Copuroglu,O.

    2015-01-01

    Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) is a waste product of industrial steel production and a common additive in the cement industry in Northern European countries. However, cementitious materials made from slag-rich cement, particularly CEM III /B, are very susceptible to carbonation. Recent investigations have shown that the surface application of aqueous sodium monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) as pre- and post-carbonation treatment can improve the surface durability of cementitious materials with a high BF...

  15. Open and fast available dose rate data for the public. Challenges and opportunities of internet based communication; Offene und schnelle Verfuegbarkeit von ODL-Messwerten in der Oeffentlichkeit. Herausforderungen und Chancen durch internetbasierte Kommunikationsformen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehringer, M.; Luff, R.; Schiesewitz, M. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    The BfS website ''ODLInfo'' had been operational for many years when it suddenly became frequently visited by the public due to the Fukushima accident. BfS responded with increased polling frequency of the gamma probes in the network and a higher frequency in update of the web site. Not yet validated data were also published. The web site was extended by explanatory text and additional functionalities, including a complete translation into english language. Many questions directed to BfS by E-mail and related to this web site had to be answered. This was used as a valuable feedback for improving the its design. Additional services were implemented for providers of special applications of smartphones. The market is characterized by a great variability between serious and lurid apps. BfS seeks to support providers in giving explanatory help. Similar websites exist on European and international level. The EU is publishing data from member states on the EURDEP site. NGOs established platforms for uploading and visualizing private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 march 2011. This development has important implication for emergency preparedness. Information platforms must be authentic and timely. They must compete with alternative data sources in contents and presentation. Data must be presented understandable. Ideally, the public can understand the data and set it into relation to reference values. Often people want to compare their own measurements - sometimes collected with low quality equipment - with official data. Radiation issues are much better understood by the lay public if visible effects in the variability of the measured dose rate are explained.

  16. Open and fast available dose rate data for the public. Challenges and opportunities of internet based communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BfS website ''ODLInfo'' had been operational for many years when it suddenly became frequently visited by the public due to the Fukushima accident. BfS responded with increased polling frequency of the gamma probes in the network and a higher frequency in update of the web site. Not yet validated data were also published. The web site was extended by explanatory text and additional functionalities, including a complete translation into english language. Many questions directed to BfS by E-mail and related to this web site had to be answered. This was used as a valuable feedback for improving the its design. Additional services were implemented for providers of special applications of smartphones. The market is characterized by a great variability between serious and lurid apps. BfS seeks to support providers in giving explanatory help. Similar websites exist on European and international level. The EU is publishing data from member states on the EURDEP site. NGOs established platforms for uploading and visualizing private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 march 2011. This development has important implication for emergency preparedness. Information platforms must be authentic and timely. They must compete with alternative data sources in contents and presentation. Data must be presented understandable. Ideally, the public can understand the data and set it into relation to reference values. Often people want to compare their own measurements - sometimes collected with low quality equipment - with official data. Radiation issues are much better understood by the lay public if visible effects in the variability of the measured dose rate are explained.

  17. Geographic information processing in the Integrated Measuring and Information System (IMIS). An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As most public administrations the Federal Office for Radiation Protection faces various tasks and requirements with geographic information playing an important role. All the more this is true for the Department of Emergency Protection with its Integrated Measuring and Information System (IMIS) and the tasks of information provision for the public. Crucial part in geographic information extraction and provision is cartographic representation. In BfS the different requirements shall be met by a common software architecture, based on web services.

  18. An International Approach to identify the root causes of Childhood Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Living near a nuclear site is one of the risk factors studied for childhood leukemia. The IRSN and BfS brought together scientists from several disciplines under the aegis of the European Association MelodiGLO to take stock of the existing epidemiological studies, their contributions and their limitations as well as to identify the analysis and research avenues to provide more robust answers. (author)

  19. Fast Structuring of Radio Networks for Multi-Message Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari, Mohsen; Haeupler, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We introduce collision free layerings as a powerful way to structure radio networks. These layerings can replace hard-to-compute BFS-trees in many contexts while having an efficient randomized distributed construction. We demonstrate their versatility by using them to provide near optimal distributed algorithms for several multi-message communication primitives. Designing efficient communication primitives for radio networks has a rich history that began 25 years ago when Bar-Yehuda et al. in...

  20. Effect of Biofumigation on Typical Weeds of Strawberry Fields

    OpenAIRE

    González Zamora, José Enrique; López Martínez, Nuria; Aguirre Jiménez, Itziar; Avilla Hernández, Carlos; Lopez Medina, Jose

    2006-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of biofumigation using fresh organic matter on typical weeds present in strawberry fields of southern Spain. Field experiments consisted of biofumigation (BF) treatment over 45 days, at two locations, with hen droppings or horse manure at a dose of 3 kg m-2, alone or in combination with solarization (BF+S) in an experimental randomized block design. Results showed good control of the main weed species, Poa annua, Portulaca oleracea and Lolium...

  1. Stability of (A, B)-invariant subspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Puerta Sales, Ferran; Puerta Coll, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Given a pair of matrices (A,B) we study the stability of their invariant subspaces from a geometric point of view. The main tool is the manifold of quadruples((A;B); F; S) where S is an (A,B)-invariant subspace and F is such that (A + BF)S C S. From the geometry of this manifold we derive sufficient computable conditions of stability.

  2. Integral test of JENDL-3.3 for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral test of JENDL-3.3 was performed for fast reactors. Various types of fast reactors were analyzed. Calculation values of the nuclear characteristics were greatly especially affected by the revisions of the cross sections of U-235 capture and elastic scattering reactions. The C/E values were improved for ZPPR cross where plutonium is mainly fueled, but not for BFS cores where uranium is mainly fueled. (author)

  3. Towards zero-waste mineral carbon sequestration via two-way valorization of ironmaking slag

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Yi Wai; Santos, Rafael; Elsen, Jan; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Martens, Johan; Van Gerven, Tom

    2014-01-01

    A three-stage process was developed to transform blast furnace slag (BFS) into two valuable products: precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) and zeolitic materials. The conceptualized process aims to simultaneously achieve sustainable CO2 sequestration and solid waste elimination. Calcium is first selectively extracted by leaching with an organic acid, followed by carbonation of the leachate to precipitate CaCO3. In parallel, the hydrothermal conversion of the extracted solid residues in alkali...

  4. Effect of Ceramic Surface Treatments After Machine Grinding on the Biaxial Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM Dental Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Hossein; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Aghajani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments after machining grinding on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of machinable dental ceramics with different crystalline phases. Materials and Methods: Disk-shape specimens (10mm in diameter and 1.3mm in thickness) of machinable ceramic cores (two silica-based and one zirconia-based ceramics) were prepared. Each type of the ceramic surfaces was then randomly treated (n=15) with different treatments as ...

  5. Neural Mechanisms of Inhibitory Response in a Battlefield Scenario: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Li-Wei; Shih, Yi-Cheng; Chikara, Rupesh Kumar; Chuang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Erik C.

    2016-01-01

    The stop-signal paradigm has been widely adopted as a way to parametrically quantify the response inhibition process. To evaluate inhibitory function in realistic environmental settings, the current study compared stop-signal responses in two different scenarios: one uses simple visual symbols as go and stop signals, and the other translates the typical design into a battlefield scenario (BFS) where a sniper-scope view was the background, a terrorist image was the go signal, a hostage image was the stop signal, and the task instructions were to shoot at terrorists only when hostages were not present but to refrain from shooting if hostages appeared. The BFS created a threatening environment and allowed the evaluation of how participants’ inhibitory control manifest in this realistic stop-signal task. In order to investigate the participants’ brain activities with both high spatial and temporal resolution, simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were acquired. The results demonstrated that both scenarios induced increased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and presupplementary motor area (preSMA), which have been linked to response inhibition. Notably, in right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) we found both higher blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation and synchronization of theta-alpha activities (4–12 Hz) in the BFS than in the traditional scenario after the stop signal. The higher activation of rTPJ in the BFS may be related to morality judgments or attentional reorienting. These results provided new insights into the complex brain networks involved in inhibitory control within naturalistic environments. PMID:27199708

  6. Zirconia-reinforced dental restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Feilzer, A.J.; Kleverlaan, C. J.; Chen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The series of studies conducted in this thesis showed that there are several ways to enhance the performance of fixed restorations regarding the application of zirconia. One possible way is to change the sintering procedure of zirconia, so that the physical properties of zirconia such BFS, density or grain size can also be changed. In the other hand, with the experimental zirconia-silica coating technique, the bond strength of zirconia frameworks can be improved, in order to reduce the clinic...

  7. CT findings of mucoid impaction in 13 case: Speculation on their etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucoid impaction presents a typical appearance on plain radiography and CT. If the lesion is multiple with manifestations of diffuse bronchopathy, it usually is a medical disease. On the other hand, if the lesion is single, an effort should be made to determine the underlying disease. The most frequent cause of the latter lesion is lung cancer, which generally can be depicted by CT. We retrospectively reviewed 13 cases of chest CT with obstructive mucoid impaction, in which CT and BFS(bronchofiberscopy) did not reveal a specific underlying cause. Women in the twenties and thirties were dominant and a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis was present in nine, BFS, done in nine, showed bronchial obstruction, and also luminal narrowing and cicatricial mucosal changes proximal to the obstruction in all them. Endobronchial tuberculosis was proven in only one case by bronchial wall biopsy. Lobectomy was performed in three. At the bronchial obstruction site, thickened bronchial walls were connected to proximal bronchi and there was no evidence of a clear underlying pathology except submucosal fibrosis in all three. The level of bronchial obstruction , determined by CT and BFS, was in the main bronchus in one, lobar bronchi in six, and divisional or segmental bronchi in seven, CT additionally showed calcific spots in their parenchyma connected to the bronchial obstruction in seven cases, and other changes suggestive of tuberculous origin in eight patients. In the context of the clinical history, BFS results, CT findings and pathologic findings of surgical specimen, most, if not all, of these 13 lesions are supported to be a sequela of endobronchial tuberculosis

  8. Incorporation monitoring in Germany. Quo vadis?; Inkorporationsueberwachung in Deutschland. Quo Vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froning, Martina; Breustedt, Bastian; Scholl, Clemens [Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Garching (Germany). Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung

    2015-07-01

    In 1970 a study group incorporation monitoring (AKI) was founded in the research center Karlsruhe. In the last decade the AKO and the respective group in the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) have identified the necessity to develop a test point concept. The actual state of incorporation monitoring in Germany is, the future of the test point concept and related questions are discussed in the contribution.

  9. The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge. Chemical treatment was performed by acetic acid adsorption on BFS.Microscopic observation was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM method. Changes in examined surface area properties were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods.Increasing of specific surface area, decreasing of pore size and better pore size distribution in BFS samples were registered after the applied experimental procedure. The obtained results revealed that the performed chemical and heat treatment presented the activation of blast furnace sludge.

  10. Comparison of Dynamical Behaviors Between Monofunctional and Bifunctional Two-Component Signaling Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiyan; Wu, Yahao; Yuan, Zhanjiang

    2015-06-01

    Two-component signaling modules exist extensively in bacteria and microbes. These modules can be, based on their distinct network structures, divided into two types: the monofunctional system (denoted by MFS) where the sensor kinase (SK) modulates only phosphorylation of the response regulator (RR), and the bifunctional system (denoted by BFS) where the SK catalyzes both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the RR. Here, we analyze dynamical behaviors of these two systems based on stability theory, focusing on differences between them. The analysis of the deterministic behavior indicates that there is no difference between the two modules, that is, each system has the unique stable steady state. However, there are significant differences in stochastic behavior between them. Specifically, if the mean phosphorylated SK level is kept the same for the two modules, then the variance and the Fano factor for the phosphorylated RR in the BFS are always no less than those in the MFS, indicating that bifunctionality always enhances fluctuations. The correlation between the phosphorylated SK and the phosphorylated RR in the BFS is always positive mainly due to competition between system components, but this correlation in the MFS may be positive, almost zero, or negative, depending on the ratio between two rate constants. Our overall analysis indicates that differences between dynamical behaviors of monofunctional and bifunctional signaling modules are mainly in the stochastic rather than deterministic aspect.

  11. Applicability of alkali activated slag-seeded Egyptian Sinai kaolin for the immobilization of 60Co radionuclide

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    The present work was established to determine the applicability of local Egyptian kaolinite and blast furnace slag (BFS) as raw materials toward the synthesis of geopolymers and subsequent immobilization of cobalt-60, which is one of the most abundant radionuclides generated in radioactive waste streams in Egypt. XRF, XRD, FT-IR, and SEM techniques were used to characterize the local raw materials and their corresponding alkali activated products. Metakaolin (MK) was obtained by thermal treatment of Egyptian Sinai kaolin 750 °C/4 h. MK and five different BFS content (5, 10, 30, 50 and 80%) were used to synthesize geopolymeric matrices using an alkaline activator of Si-modulus = 1.35 at solid/liquid ratios of 0.8. Compressive strength tests were performed indicating that 50% BFS addition gave the highest values of compressive strength. The IAEA standard leaching tests of cobalt-60 from the solidified waste matrices were carried out. The effective diffusion coefficients of cobalt-60 radionuclides from the solidified waste matrices were calculated to be in the order of 10-14 cm2/s. Leaching of radionuclides was examined to be controlled by the wash-off mechanism with very acceptable values. These results gave encouragement that the tested Egyptian raw materials can be conveniently applied for the synthesis of geopolymers that can be used as a low-cost and high-efficiency materials for the immobilization of radioactive waste.

  12. Planning of ADS related R and D in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADS oriented R and D were initiated in Russia by ITEP in close cooperation with LANL in early nineties. In October 1998 the Scientific Council of the Ministry of Russian Federation for Atomic Power (MINATOM) decided to develop a Program of ADS related R and D coordinated and partly financed by MINATOM. Experimental investigations of ADS parameters include critical assembly in ITEP for precision measurements of neutron and kinetic parameters of subcritical multiplicating systems driven by pulsed neutron D-T generator; fast-thermal 'neutron valved' blankets imitated at the BFS-1 facility (IPPE) coupled with microtron accelerator. BFS-1 and BFS-2 critical assemblies are used to investigate the transmutation of minor actinides (MA). Theoretical methods and related computer codes are developed for the calculations of physical and thermohydraulic parameters of ADS covering transition processes and emergency situations in thermal, fast and cascade (two-stage) multiplicating blankets; neutron yields and spectra for the targets of various geometries and structures irradiated by GeV protons and ions; heat release, beam moderation, gas production and radiation damages in the target and window beam materials. (author)

  13. Binary breath figures for straightforward and controllable self-assembly of microspherical caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianliang; Xu, Bingang; Tao, Xiaoming; Li, Lei

    2016-05-11

    The intense interest surrounding asymmetrical microparticles originates from their unique anisotropic properties and promising applications. In this work, direct self-assembly of polymeric microspherical caps without the assistance of any additives has been achieved by using low-surface-tension methanol (MeOH) and high-surface-tension water as binary breath figures (BFs). With the evaporation of polystyrene (PS) solution containing low-boiling-point solvent in the binary vapors, the formed MeOH BFs could quickly diffuse into solution, while water BFs tended to remain at the solution surface. This led to the formation of a gradient nonsolvent layer at the vapor/solution interface, which induced the formation of nuclei and guided further asymmetrical growth of polymer particles. After the spontaneous removal of MeOH, water and residual solvent by evaporation, polymeric microspherical caps were left on the substrate. Through controlling the proportion of water introduced by adjusting the ratios of MeOH and water, polymeric microspherical caps with a range of controllable shapes (divided at different positions of a sphere) were successfully obtained. The formation mechanism was explained based on the difference of vapor pressure, surface tension and miscibility between the employed solvents and nonsolvents. A solvent possessing a high vapor pressure, low surface tension and good miscibility with MeOH contributed to the formation of microspherical caps. This flexible, green and straightforward technique is a nondestructive strategy, and avoids complicated work on design, preparation and removal of hard templates and additives. PMID:27139817

  14. Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Guozhuo; Ye, Shufeng; Tian, Yajun; Wang, Qi; Ni, Jiandi; Chen, Yunfa

    2009-07-30

    The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper. PMID:19124194

  15. Optimising blends of blast furnace slag for the immobilisation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferred route for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste in the UK is the immobilisation in a cementitious matrix. One cement system that is used by nuclear industry is a blend of blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The material now used for the BFS is a blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and calumite, a coarser fraction of GGBS with the same composition. The aim of this project was to optimize the performance properties of this blend by analysing the rheology of the system. A series of 5 BFS blends were considered in this study to analyse the effect of particle size distribution (PSD) on the reactivity and performance of the cement powder. 3 different water/solid (w/s) ratios have been used: 0.33, 0.35 and 0.37. The isothermal calorimetry results show that the w/s ratio has minimal effect on the heat of hydration whereas the change in PSD consistently causes a chemical change. The total heat evolution conforms to UK grout formulation regulations. The semi-adiabatic calorimetry analysis suggests the PSD has an effect on the physical properties of the grouts produced. Changes in phase formation is observed within all the 5 blends at 28 days, confirming that PSD influences phase composition. This document is a poster

  16. Applicability of alkali activated slag-seeded Egyptian Sinai kaolin for the immobilization of {sup 60}Co radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, M.R., E-mail: elnaggar74@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    The present work was established to determine the applicability of local Egyptian kaolinite and blast furnace slag (BFS) as raw materials toward the synthesis of geopolymers and subsequent immobilization of cobalt-60, which is one of the most abundant radionuclides generated in radioactive waste streams in Egypt. XRF, XRD, FT-IR, and SEM techniques were used to characterize the local raw materials and their corresponding alkali activated products. Metakaolin (MK) was obtained by thermal treatment of Egyptian Sinai kaolin 750 °C/4 h. MK and five different BFS content (5, 10, 30, 50 and 80%) were used to synthesize geopolymeric matrices using an alkaline activator of Si-modulus = 1.35 at solid/liquid ratios of 0.8. Compressive strength tests were performed indicating that 50% BFS addition gave the highest values of compressive strength. The IAEA standard leaching tests of cobalt-60 from the solidified waste matrices were carried out. The effective diffusion coefficients of cobalt-60 radionuclides from the solidified waste matrices were calculated to be in the order of 10{sup −14} cm{sup 2}/s. Leaching of radionuclides was examined to be controlled by the wash-off mechanism with very acceptable values. These results gave encouragement that the tested Egyptian raw materials can be conveniently applied for the synthesis of geopolymers that can be used as a low-cost and high-efficiency materials for the immobilization of radioactive waste.

  17. Sequential extraction of inorganic mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Andrée, Corlin-Anna; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-10-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is an industrial waste with elevated mercury (Hg) contents due to the enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the potential pollution status of dumped BFS, 14 samples with total Hg contents ranging from 3.91 to 20.8 mg kg(-1) from five different locations in Europe were sequentially extracted. Extracts used included demineralized water (fraction 1, F1), 0.1 mol L(-1) CH3COOH + 0.01 mol L(-1) HCl (F2), 1 mol L(-1) KOH (F3), 7.9 mol L(-1) HNO3 (F4), and aqua regia (F5). The total recovery ranged from 72.3 to 114 %, indicating that the procedure was reliable when adapted to this industrial waste. Mercury mainly resided in the fraction of "elemental" Hg (48.5-98.8 %) rather being present as slightly soluble Hg species associated with sludge particles. Minor amounts were found as mercuric sulfide (F5; 0.725-37.3 %) and Hg in crystalline metal ores and silicates (F6; 2.21-15.1 %). The ecotoxically relevant fractions (F1 and F2) were not of significance (F1, BFS dumped for many years has a rather low environmental risk potential regarding Hg. PMID:26032453

  18. Parallel Breadth-First Search on Distributed Memory Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Computational Research Division; Buluc, Aydin; Madduri, Kamesh

    2011-04-15

    Data-intensive, graph-based computations are pervasive in several scientific applications, and are known to to be quite challenging to implement on distributed memory systems. In this work, we explore the design space of parallel algorithms for Breadth-First Search (BFS), a key subroutine in several graph algorithms. We present two highly-tuned par- allel approaches for BFS on large parallel systems: a level-synchronous strategy that relies on a simple vertex-based partitioning of the graph, and a two-dimensional sparse matrix- partitioning-based approach that mitigates parallel commu- nication overhead. For both approaches, we also present hybrid versions with intra-node multithreading. Our novel hybrid two-dimensional algorithm reduces communication times by up to a factor of 3.5, relative to a common vertex based approach. Our experimental study identifies execu- tion regimes in which these approaches will be competitive, and we demonstrate extremely high performance on lead- ing distributed-memory parallel systems. For instance, for a 40,000-core parallel execution on Hopper, an AMD Magny- Cours based system, we achieve a BFS performance rate of 17.8 billion edge visits per second on an undirected graph of 4.3 billion vertices and 68.7 billion edges with skewed degree distribution.

  19. Joint European contribution to phase 5 of the BN600 hybrid reactor benchmark core analysis (European ERANOS formulaire for fast reactor core analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid UOX/MOX fueled core of the BN-600 reactor was endorsed as an international benchmark. BFS-2 critical facility was designed for full size simulation of core and shielding of large fast reactors (up tp 3000 MWe). Wide experimental programme including measurements of criticality, fission rates, rod worths, and SVRE was established. Four BFS-62 critical assemblies have been designed to study changes in BN-600 reactor physics-when moving to a hybrid MOX core. BFS-62-3A assembly is a full scale model of the BN-600 reactor hybrid core. it consists of three regions of UO2 fuel, axial and radial fertile blankets, MOX fuel added in a ring between MC and OC zones, 120 deg sector of stainless steel reflector included within radial blanket. Joint European contribution to the Phase 5 benchmark analysis was performed by Serco Assurance Winfrith (UK) and CEA Cadarache (France). Analysis was carried out using Version 1.2 of the ERANOS code; and data system for advanced and fast reactor core applications. Nuclear data is based on the JEF2.2 nuclear data evaluation (including sodium). Results for Phase 5 of the BN-600 benchmark have been determined for criticality and SVRE in both diffusion and transport theory. Full details of the results are presented in a paper posted on the IAEA Business Collaborator website nad a brief summary is provided in this paper

  20. Identities for the electron forms 2 and their 3D representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New type of identities for products of the electron forms 2 (Fs2) and the bilinear forms (BFs) are derived. The identities are found for both temporal Fs2 describing the electron energy and quasi energy densities and spatial Fs2 describing the linear momentum and quasi linear momentum densities. The identities allow one to transform the quasi energy densities into the energy densities as well as the quasi linear momentum densities into the linear momentum densities. It is shown that by choosing any one of the 16 electron temporal or spatial Fs2 one can represent the remaining 15 temporal or spatial Fs2 as combinations of a chosen form 2 (F2) and the derivatives of a number of BFs. Any one of such 16 sets of identities can be considered as a specific form of an irreducible representation for the temporal or spatial Fs2. Similar to the bilinear identities for BFs the derived identities can be used for reduction different physical quantities describing the electron to the forms defined by the basic physical observables. As an example we consider transformation of the electron energy density to a new fundamental form that presents the energy density through the linear momentum density. - Highlights: ► New type of identities connecting electron forms 2 and bilinear forms is derived.► Identities are found for temporal and spatial forms 2. ► Irreducible representation of the identities is derived. ► New forms of the electron energy density are presented.

  1. A Novel Algorithm for Detecting Protein Complexes with the Breadth First Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most biological processes are carried out by protein complexes. A substantial number of false positives of the protein-protein interaction (PPI data can compromise the utility of the datasets for complexes reconstruction. In order to reduce the impact of such discrepancies, a number of data integration and affinity scoring schemes have been devised. The methods encode the reliabilities (confidence of physical interactions between pairs of proteins. The challenge now is to identify novel and meaningful protein complexes from the weighted PPI network. To address this problem, a novel protein complex mining algorithm ClusterBFS (Cluster with Breadth-First Search is proposed. Based on the weighted density, ClusterBFS detects protein complexes of the weighted network by the breadth first search algorithm, which originates from a given seed protein used as starting-point. The experimental results show that ClusterBFS performs significantly better than the other computational approaches in terms of the identification of protein complexes.

  2. Flow sheet model evaluation of nuclear hydrogen steelmaking processes with VHTR-IS (very high temperature reactor and iodine-sulfur process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) and nuclear hydrogen partial reduction steelmaking (NHPRS) systems were proposed using very high temperature reactor, and thermochemical hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process. Heat input and CO2 emissions of these systems were analyzed by heat and mass balance calculation. Total net heat input to the NHS system was 28.4 GJ/t-high quality steel (HQS), including material production, material transportation, and power generation. This value was much larger than that of a blast furnace steelmaking (BFS) system of 17.6 GJ/t-HQS. Reduction of hydrogen consumption in the shaft furnace and electricity consumption in the electric arc furnace were desired for lowering the heat input. Total net heat input of a NHPRS system was 31.9 GJ/t-HQS. Optimization of operation parameters such as the reduction ratio of partial reduced ore (PRO) and ratio of the PRO input to the blast furnace is desired to decrease the heat input. CO2 emissions of the NHS system and the NHPRS system were 9% and 50% of that from the BFS system. Substitution of coal by hydrogen and reduction of transportation weight contributed to the reduction. Steelmaking cost was also evaluated. When steelmaking scale of each system was unified to one million t-HQS/y, NHS was economically competitive to BFS and Midrex steelmaking. And NHS was advantageous at higher cost of resources. (author)

  3. Study on two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering system with mixture medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI; Wuliji

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,a method of choosing mixture medium in two-cell stimulated Brillouinscattering(SBS)system to improve the system performance is proposed.The Brillouin frequency shift(BFS)of mixture medium varies with the mixing ratio andthus the difference of the BFS between the two cells can be eliminated.The two-cellSBS system with acetone(C3H6O)in its generator cell and mixture liquid ofCCl4/C2Cl4 in its amplifier cell is investigated.The C3H6O has a high optical breakdown threshold and the mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 has a small absorption coeffi-cient and the same BFS as that of C3H6O when the volume fraction of CCl4 is 4%.Compared with two-cell SBS system with the same liquid(C2Cl4)or different liquid(C3H6O and C2Cl4)in generator and amplifier cell,the SBS system with mixture liq-uid(CCl4/C2Cl4)in amplifier cell and C3H6O in generator cell improves thepower-load,energy reflectivity(ER),phase conjugation(PC)fidelity and ER stabil-ity.

  4. Study on two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering system with mixture medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI Wuliji; L(U) ZhiWei; LI Qiang; BA DeXin; HE WeiMing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method of choosing mixture medium in two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) system to improve the system performance is proposed. The Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) of mixture medium varies with the mixing ratio and thus the difference of the BFS between the two cells can be eliminated. The two-cell SBS system with acetone (C3H6O) in its generator cell and mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 in its amplifier cell is investigated. The C3H6O has a high optical break- down threshold and the mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 has a small absorption coefficient and the same BFS as that of C3H6O when the volume fraction of CCl4 is 4%. Compared with two-cell SBS system with the same liquid (C2Cl4) or different liquid (C3H6O and C2Cl4) in generator and amplifier cell, the SBS system with mixture liquid (CCl4/C2Cl4) in amplifier cell and C3H6O in generator cell improves the power-load, energy reflectivity (ER), phase conjugation (PC) fidelity and ER stability.

  5. Core Design Studies for TRU Transmutation in a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this research project is (1) to develop the conceptual core designs for TRU transmutation covering a large variation in power level and conversion ratio and (2) to perform relevant verification and validation analyses through the analyses of fast critical experimental assemblies. An homogeneous and detailed heterogeneous models of metal fueled critical assemblies, BFS-73-1, BFS-75-1, and BFS-55-1, were produced from this study through a review of the critical experiments. Based on these models, BFS critical assemblies were analyzed by a fast reactor analysis code system (TRANSX/ TWODANT/DIF3D) with different evaluated nuclear data files including ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-AC2008 in addition to ENDF/B-VI.6. A study of library difference on computational results by both a conventional diffusion method and a Monte-Carlo transport method has been carried out with those models. In addition to the analysis by the design code, Monte-Carlo high fidelity simulation was carried out to support the diffusion solution, mainly an effect of unit fuel cell heterogeneity. BFS and ZPPR critical assemblies were analyzed by both KAERI and ANL systems and the results of the analyses were reviewed by the other side. This improve the reliability of the results of both institutes. For the effective TRU transmutation, the conceptual core design was performed under core power ranged from 1,500MWt to 4,500MWt and found that there is no appreciable degradation in performance or reactivity coefficients for the core power level up to 1,800 MWe and confirmed the possibility of the large scaled transmutation reactor. Even at each pre-determined power level, performance parameters, reactivity coefficients and its implication on the safety analysis can be different when a target TRU conversion ratio changes. In order to address this aspect of design, a variation study of TRU conversion ratio change was covered. Three ATWS events such as UTOP, ULOF and ULOHS are

  6. Longitudinal Evaluation of Cornea With Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Scheimpflug Imaging Before and After Lasik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Biswas, Sayantan; Yu, Marco; Jhanji, Vishal

    2015-07-01

    Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the latest advancement in anterior segment imaging. There are limited data regarding its performance after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). We compared the reliability of swept-source OCT and Scheimpflug imaging for evaluation of corneal parameters in refractive surgery candidates with myopia or myopic astigmatism. Three consecutive measurements were obtained preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively using swept-source OCT and Scheimpflug imaging. The study parameters included central corneal thickness (CCT), thinnest corneal thickness (TCT), keratometry at steep (Ks) and flat (Kf) axes, mean keratometry (Km), and, anterior and posterior best fit spheres (Ant and Post BFS). The main outcome measures included reliability of measurements before and after LASIK was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and reproducibility coefficients (RC). Association between the mean value of corneal parameters with age, spherical equivalent (SEQ), and residual bed thickness (RBT) and association of variance heterogeneity of corneal parameters and these covariates were analyzed. Twenty-six right eyes of 26 participants (mean age, 32.7 ± 6.9 yrs; mean SEQ, -6.27 ± 1.67 D) were included. Preoperatively, swept-source OCT demonstrated significantly higher ICC for Ks, CCT, TCT, and Post BFS (P ≤ 0.016), compared with Scheimpflug imaging. Swept-source OCT demonstrated significantly smaller RC values for CCT, TCT, and Post BFS (P ≤ 0.001). After LASIK, both devices had significant differences in measurements for all corneal parameters (P ≤ 0.015). Swept-source OCT demonstrated a significantly higher ICC and smaller RC for all measurements, compared with Scheimpflug imaging (P ≤ 0.001). Association of variance heterogeneity was only found in pre-LASIK Ant BFS and post-LASIK Post BFS for swept-source OCT, whereas significant association of variance heterogeneity was noted for all measurements except Ks and

  7. Understanding crash mechanism on urban expressways using high-resolution traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Moinul; Muromachi, Yasunori

    2013-08-01

    Urban expressways play a vital role in the modern mega cities by serving peak hour traffic alongside reducing travel time for moderate to long distance intra-city trips. Thus, ensuring safety on these roads holds high priority. Little knowledge has been acquired till date regarding crash mechanism on these roads. This study uses high-resolution traffic data collected from the detectors to identify factors influencing crash. It also identifies traffic patterns associated with different types of crashes and explains crash phenomena thereby. Unlike most of the previous studies on conventional expressways, the research separately investigates the basic freeway segments (BFS) and the ramp areas. The study employs random multinomial logit, a random forest of logit models, to rank the variables; expectation maximization clustering algorithm to identify crash prone traffic patterns and classification and regression trees to explain crash phenomena. As accentuated by the study outcome, crash mechanism is not generic throughout the expressway and it varies from the BFS to the ramp vicinities. The level of congestion and speed difference between upstream and downstream traffic best explains crashes and their types for the BFS, whereas, the ramp flow has the highest influence in determining the types of crashes within the ramp vicinities. The paper also discusses about the applicability of different countermeasures, such as, variable speed limits, temporary restriction on lane changing, posting warnings, etc., to attenuate different patterns of hazardous traffic conditions. The study outcome can be utilized in designing location and traffic condition specific proactive road safety management systems for urban expressways. PMID:23628939

  8. Estimation of accuracy for calculation of neutron field distribution in fast reactor on the reactor experiments basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of a neutron field distribution in fast reactor is the basic method for forecasting of such characteristics as local and average energy release values in pins and subassemblies, radiation doze on constructional materials, burning out of fuel. And calculation remains dominating means of the control over these parameters. Accuracy of calculation is numerical expression for reliability of definition of the specified characteristics and base for formation of design limits and reserves. The purpose of the given work consist in estimation of accuracy of modern computing means for calculation by the analysis of the available experimental data received on BFS critical facility (IPPE, Russia) and BN-600 power reactor. The comparison analysis of calculation and experimental data on measurement of fission rates distributions for 235U, 238U, 239Pu at critical assemblies BFS 62-th, BFS 66-th series and integrated quantity of fissions at BN-600 subassemblies by gamma-scanning method has been fulfilled. For carrying out of the analysis the integrated system MODEXSYS has been developed. This system includes up-to-date version of diffusion program TRIGEX, precision program MMKKENO, database of experimental data and benchmark models of experiments. Combination of various calculation methods allowed to reveal methodical uncertainties of calculation. Calculation of energy release distribution in traditional cores of fast reactors with sodium coolant is carried out on the average with accuracy 2-3%, the maximum discrepancies do not exceed 5%. On the border of core and radial blanket the methodical error of diffusion approximation, reaching 10% for 238U fission reaction rate, is experimentally confirmed. In the traditional uranium blanket an error reach value of 20%, and discrepancies have regular character: calculation data give lower values of reactions rates in relation to experiment. At transition to the steel reflector character of calculation-experimental discrepancies

  9. Influence of increased temperature from cement hydration on aluminium corrosion prevention when LiNO3 is added to the cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of increased temperature from cement hydration was checked on aluminum corrosion prevention when LiNO3 was added to the cement used for aluminum waste cementation. At first, the temperature at the center of a 0.2-m3 cement or mortar form was measured. Then, because the reaction mechanism of LiNO3 involves formation of insoluble LiH 2AlO2 5H2O (Li-Al) preservation film on an aluminum surface, the Li-Al film solubility was measured in a 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution at temperatures from 283 to 353 K. In a second experiment, an aluminum specimen was soaked in a 0.1 M KOH solution with 3 wt% of dissolved LiNO3, and the volume of generated hydrogen gas was measured. Finally, aluminum plates were solidified with mortar in a full-scale test. The mortar mixture contained ordinary portland cement (OPC), blast furnace slag (BFS), and sand with a 1.5 wt% LiNO3 addition, and the volume of generated hydrogen gas was measured. When only OPC was used, the temperature increased to ∼363 K. With the BFS and sand addition, this temperature increase was reduced by ∼40 to 323 K. The Li-Al film solubility became larger as the temperature of the solution increased. The volume of hydrogen gas generation became large as the temperature increased, especially over 323 K. When the mortar consisted of OPC, BFS, sand, and LiNO3, the volume of hydrogen gas generation from aluminum was reduced, becoming 3 addition. Thus, it appears that the temperature did not have much influence on the ability of LiNO3 to prevent aluminum corrosion, although the ability was gradually lessened as the temperature increased

  10. Assessment of secondary bubble formation on a backward-facing step geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, G. L.; Fajardo, P.; Guijarro, A.

    2016-07-01

    Flow visualization experiments and numerical simulations were performed on a narrow three-dimensional backward-facing step (BFS) flow with the main objective of characterizing the secondary bubble appearing at the top wall. The BFS has been widely studied because of its geometrical simplicity as well as its ability to reproduce most of the flow features appearing in many applications in which separation occurs. A BFS test rig with an expansion ratio of 2 and two aspect ratios (AR = 4 and AR = 8) was developed. Tests were performed at range of Reynolds numbers ranging from 50 to 1000; visualization experiments provided a qualitative description of secondary bubble and wall-jet flows. Large eddy simulations were carried out with two different codes for validation. Numerical solutions, once validated with experimental data from the literature, were used to acquire a deeper understanding of the experimental visualizations, to characterize the secondary bubble as a function of the flow variables (Reynolds and AR) and to analyze the effect of the secondary bubble on primary reattachment length. Finally, to decouple the sidewall effects due to the non-slip condition and the intrinsic flow three-dimensionality, numerical experiments with free-slip conditions over the sidewalls were computed. The main differences were as follows: When the non-slip condition is used, the secondary bubble appears at a Reynolds number of approximately 200, increases with the Reynolds number, and is limited to a small part of the span. This recirculation zone interacts with the wall-jets and causes the maximum and minimum lengths in the reattachment line of the primary recirculation. Under free slip conditions, the recirculation bubble appears at a higher Reynolds number and covers the entire channel span.

  11. Realization of the German Concept for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel - Current Situation and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German government has determined a phase out of nuclear power. With respect to the management of spent fuel it was decided to terminate transports to reprocessing plants by 2005 and to set up interim storage facilities on power plant sites. This paper gives an overview of the German concept for spent fuel management focused on the new on-site interim storage concept and the applied interim storage facilities. Since the end of the year 1998, the utilities have applied for permission of on-site interim storage in 13 storage facilities and 5 storage areas; one application for the interim storage facility Stade was withdrawn due to the planned final shut down of Stade nuclear power plant in autumn 2003. In 2001 and 2002, 3 on-site storage areas and 2 on-site storage facilities for spent fuel were licensed by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). A main task in 2002 and 2003 has been the examination of the safety and security of the planned interim storage facilities and the verification of the licensing prerequisites. In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, BfS has also examined the attack with a big passenger airplane. Up to now, these aircraft crash analyses have been performed for three on-site interim storage facilities; the fundamental results will be presented. It is the objective of BfS to conclude the licensing procedures for the applied on-site interim storage facilities in 2003. With an assumed construction period for the storage buildings of about two years, the on-site interim storage facilities could then be available in the year 2005

  12. BisGMA/TEGDMA dental nanocomposites containing glyoxylic acid-modified high-aspect ratio hydroxyapatite nanofibers with enhanced dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of the glyoxylic acid (GA) modification of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofibers on their dispersion in bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) dental composites and also to investigate the mechanical properties, water absorption and water solubility of the resulting dental resins and composites. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy images showed that microsized HAP nanofiber bundles could be effectively broken down into individual HAP nanofibers with an average length of ∼15 µm after the surface modification process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis characterization confirmed that GA was chemically grafted on the HAP nanofiber surface, hypothetically by reacting with the amine group on the HAP nanofiber surface. The enhanced dispersion of HAP nanofibers in the dental matrix led to increased biaxial flexural strength (BFS) compared with the corresponding dental resins and composites filled with untreated HAP nanofibers. In addition, impregnation of small mass fractions of the GA-modified HAP nanofibers into the BisGMA/TEGDMA dental resins (5 wt%, 10 wt%) or composites (2 wt%, 3 wt%) could also substantially improve the BFS in comparison with the controls (pure resins or dental composites filled with silica particles alone). Larger mass fractions could not increase the mechanical property further or even degraded the BFS values. Water behavior testing results indicated that the addition of the GA-modified HAP nanofibers resulted in higher water absorption and water solubility values, which are not preferred for clinical application. In summary, well-dispersed HAP nanofibers and their dental composites with enhanced mechanical properties have been successfully fabricated, but the water absorption and water solubility of such dental composites need to be further improved. (paper)

  13. Schätzung der Kosten von Regulierungen und Identifizierung von Potenzialen für die Vereinfachung und Kostenreduktion im Bereich Statistik : Forschungsbericht im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Statistik

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Christoph; Bergmann, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Forschungsbericht - Das Projekt "Schätzung der Kosten von Regulierungen und Identifizierung von Potenzialen für die Vereinfachung und Kostenreduktion im Bereich Statistik" wurde von Januar bis Juli 2013 vom Schweizerischen Institut für Klein? und Mittelunternehmen der Universität St. Gallen im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Statistik (BfS) bearbeitet. Das Vorgehen im Projekt orientiert sich am Handbuch Regulierungs?Checkup vom Staatssekretariat für Wirtschaft SECO (2011). Die Schätzung der Regul...

  14. Die Bundesstatistik als Anbieter und Nutzer von raumbezogenen Daten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Humbel

    Einige konkrete und potentielle Anwendungen der vorhandenen Daten sollen das Potential und die Breite der Fragestellungen, die damit angegangen werden können, illustrieren. Eine besondere Stellung dürfte in Zukunft aber auch die Satellitenfernerkundung erhalten, deren Daten und Auswertungen eine willkommene Ergänzung für die eher traditionellen GIS-Datensätze bilden werden. Ein erster Pilotversuch wurde vor wenigen Monaten im BFS gestartet, der zum Ziel hat, die Machbarkeit einer gesamtschweizerischen Unterscheidung von Laub-, Nadel- und Mischwald als Ergänzung der auf der Grundlage von konventionellen Luftbildern erhobenen Arealstatistik nachzuweisen.

  15. Characterisation and modelling of blended cements and their application to radioactive waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the chemistry of cements, including blends with FA and BFS, pertinent to the immobilization of radioactive waste are described. The methodology and development of a model for predicting the solid and liquid phase composition in aged cement blends are given. Experimental work, backed up by thermodynamic calculations (where possible), has given valuable insight into some of the important interactions between selected (active and inactive) radwaste components and cements. The effects of elevated pressure and temperature on blended cement are also investigated. (author)

  16. Robust Data Mining: An Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sangmun; Yang, Le; Park, Kyungjin; Choi, Yongsun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a RDM method by integrating a DM method for pre-processing unclear data and finding significant factors into a multidisciplinary RD method for providing the best factor settings. Based on the results of the DM method, we found important factors for placebo tablet manufacturing among a large data set. By using the BFS method, the CFBS method in its pure form is exhaustive, but the use of a stopping criterion expedites the probability of searching the entire data set...

  17. Morteros a base de vidrio de desecho/escoria de alto horno; activación mecanoquímica del vidrio en soluciones alcalinas.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ivan Escalante; Lester J. Espinoza Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Composite cements of Blast Furnace Slag (EAH) and Waste Glass (WG) were investigated. A fraction WG was subjected to mechanochemical activation aiming to solubilize its SiO4 to obtain solutions of sodium silicate (SS) with silica modulus greater than zero to improve the compressive strength of the cements.  With the solutions obtained by AMQ, composites of 0 to 100% WG were prepared, and as referred to cements 100% BFS with standard alkaline activation. The strength of the latter decreased af...

  18. Monitoring of ground level air in the framework of trace analysis: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Trace analysis allows the sensitive detection of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air in the range of μBq/m3. Typical time scales of less than one day up to a few days can be obtained in routine operation. Trace analysis measurements are performed in the framework of the German Integrated Measuring and Information system (IMIS) as well as within the International Monitoring System (IMS) used for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Within the environmental monitoring programmes of IMIS the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) performs measurements of aerosol bound radionuclides as well as of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere. Aerosols are collected on filters with high volume air samplers and analysed by γ-spectrometry, α-spectrometry and integral measurements of the β-activity with preceding radiochemical separation. Noble gas samples from 15 sites worldwide are analysed to observe the 85Kr-release from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and from 7 sites in Germany to monitor the 133Xe emitted from nuclear power plants. As part of the IMS an automatic aerosol sampling and measuring system as well as an automatic noble gas sampling and measuring system will be operated by the BfS at mount Schauinsland near Freiburg. Due to the expertise in noble gas measurements the BfS had been chosen to perform intercomparison experiments in advance with several automatic noble gas sampling and measuring systems to be used within the IMS. The general principles of the methods used for trace analysis and results from the BfS will be presented and discussed. In order to establish quality assurance programmes for trace analysis performed for IMIS a close collaboration between the involved German institutions has been established. First steps for the expansion of the cooperation to other European laboratories have been made. An informal data exchange between trace analysis laboratories in Europe (Ring of Five

  19. PERL-2 and LAVR-2 programs for Monte Carlo calculation of reactivity disturbances with trajectory correlation using random numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realization of BESM-6 computer of a technique is described for calculating a wide class of reactivity disturbances by plotting trajectories in undisturbed and disturbed systems using one sequence of random numbers. The technique was realized on the base of earlier created programs of calculation of widespreed (PERL) and local (LAVR) reactivity disturbances. The efficiency of the technique and programs is demonstrated by calculation of change of effective neutron-multiplication factor when absorber is substituted for fuel element in a BFS-40 critical assembly and by calculation of control drum characteristics

  20. European study of occupational radiation exposure (ESOREX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure (ESOREX) project was initiated by the general directive EC DG XI and carried out by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Germany (BfS). It consists of surveys carried out in the 28 European states. The study provides comparable description of the national administrative structures used to monitor and register individual occupational radiation exposure and the national dose statistics. It will establish the basis for identifying differences between the states and assessing the possibilities for European harmonisation. (author)

  1. The Asse. On inconvenient truths and the suppression of disagreeable principles; Die Asse. Ueber unbequeme Wahrheiten und das Verdraengen unliebsamer Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The retrieval of radioactive wastes and the closure of the repository Asse II is a very complex project: not only with respect to technical aspects but also with respect to public information. The information brochure no 29 edited by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz BfS is dealing with the rather philosophic questions knowledge and truth. The German expert on constitutional law Peter Bull answered to the question whether subjectively assumed health hazards could inhibit a reasonable solution: it has to be expected from the public to bear inconvenient truth. Clarification is necessary instead of wrong populism and suppression of obnoxious findings.

  2. Atomistic Modeling of the U-Zr System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomistic modeling using the BFS method for alloys and ab initio based parameters is proposed for the study of fundamental properties of U-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Due to its basic atomistic nature and the universal character of the parametrization, the approach can be used for diverse problems such as the interaction between fuel and cladding and temperature gradient fuel constituent redistribution. In the first case, preliminary results for the formation of an interaction layer using large scale simulations are presented. For the second case, a mean field formalism is introduced in order to determine concentration profiles for arbitrary changes in temperature in the radial direction. (author)

  3. CFD based numerical modules for safety analysis at NPPs: validation and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the examples of use of the developed software for modeling of a fuel assembly, namely, for research of a hydraulic resistance factor of a spacer are demonstrated. The calculations are carried out on a sequence of condensed grids with an amount of nodes from a range 107 - 108, for which the convergence was obtained. Moreover, the attention of the paper is focused on validation and verification of software with usage of such tests as: full turbulent flow of water in a round pipe and backward-facing step (BFS) flow

  4. Monitoring ground-level air for trace analysis: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace analysis enables the sensitive detection of radionuclide concentrations in ground-level air in the range of microbecquerel per cubic meter (μBq m-3). Typical sampling intervals of less than one day up to a few days can be used in routine operation. Trace analysis measurements are performed in the framework of the German Integrated Measuring and Information system (IMIS) and the International Monitoring System (IMS) used for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Within the environmental monitoring programmes of the German IMIS the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) performs measurements of aerosol-bound radionuclides and of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere. Aerosols are collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and analysed by γ-spectrometry, α-spectrometry, and integral measurements of β-activity, with preceding radiochemical separation. Noble gas samples from 15 sites world-wide are analysed to observe the 85Kr-release from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and from seven sites in Germany to monitor the 133Xe emitted from nuclear power plants. As part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBT an automatic aerosol sampling and measuring system and an automatic noble gas sampling and measuring system will be operated by the BfS at Mount Schauinsland near Freiburg. Because of its expertise in noble gas measurements the BfS had been chosen to perform an intercomparison experiment in the BfS laboratory in Freiburg with several automatic noble gas sampling and measurement systems before their installation at IMS sites. To establish quality-assurance programmes for trace analysis performed for the German IMIS close collaboration between the involved German institutions has been established. First steps have been taken to expand cooperation to other European laboratories. Informal data exchange already occurs between trace-analysis laboratories in Europe (Ring of Five) and helps in cases of

  5. Summary record of the panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following questions were debated: Is there a real need for additional MOX experiments? Which proposal or combination of proposals seems to best fill the need? What are the prospects for an international co-operative programme? The recommendations of the panel can be summarised as follows: investigate the possibility of releasing and evaluating unpublished experimental data (especially the ERASME/S and BFS-49 data); define a framework and method for the selection and performance of new experimental programme(s) of interest; help disseminate and assess sensitivity/uncertainty methods. (A.L.B.)

  6. Development of porosity of cement paste blended with supplementary cementitious materials after carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, B.; YE, guang

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) like fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) are normally used to replace parts of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to reduce the cost and CO2 emission. Some consequences are the reduction of portlandite (CH) content and the formation of C-S-H with low Ca/Si ratio, due to pozzolanic reactions. It is known that carbonation of portlandite leads to a reduction in the porosity which is ascribed to the positive difference of molar volumes between CH and ...

  7. Calculation results for systems with steel reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows the results of Joint JNC-IPPE experiment BFS-62 for UOX and MOX cores with different types of radial blankets: uranium dioxide and steel reflector. Results of analysis of BN-600 hybrid core uncertainties are presented. The following parameters are shown: multiplication factor; U-235 and Pu-239 fission reaction rates for the core, uranium blanket, steel reflector; U-238 fission reaction rates for for the core, uranium blanket, steel reflector. Thus the steel reflector problem was revealed. The presentation includes the ABBN calculation scheme as well as resutlts related to ZPR-3-53, ZPR-3-54 and CIRANO experiments

  8. Überprüfung der klinischen Umsetzung der Dosisreferenzwerte 2004 des Bundesamtes für Strahlenschutz an drei Kliniken

    OpenAIRE

    Knoch, Caira

    2015-01-01

    Die Röntgenverordnung (RöV) regelt in § 17a die Qualitätssicherung durch die ärztlichen Stellen. Ein Teil dieser Überprüfung betrifft die Einhaltung oder Überschreitung der Diagnostischen Referenzwerte (DRW) nach § 16 Abs. 1. RöV. Dazu werden mittels Umfragen und statistischen Untersuchungen vom Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (BfS) die jeweils gültigen DRW aufgestellt. In dieser Arbeit soll die Einführung und Einhaltung der DRW für radiographische Thoraxaufnahmen und CT-Untersuchungen an drei K...

  9. Using a Bayesian Probabilistic Forecasting Model to Analyze the Uncertainty in Real-Time Dynamic Control of the Flood Limiting Water Level for Reservoir Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dedi; Li, Xiang; Guo, Shenglian;

    2015-01-01

    as a whole, thus producing only one boundary [Scheme II]. The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China was selected as a case study in this paper. The application results show that the thresholds of maximum outflow, which impact the downstream and maximum reservoir levels, are not exceeded during the...... Bayesian forecasting system and the matching operation are beneficial for the decision makers of the Three Gorges Reservoir....... inflow values and their uncertainties obtained from the BFS, the reservoir operation results from different schemes can be analyzed in terms of benefits, dam safety, and downstream impacts during the flood season. When the reservoir FLWL dynamic control operation is implemented, there are two fundamental...

  10. Assessment of the fears of the public concerning possible hazards from HF electromagnetic fields of mobile phone equipment - annual enquiries. Final report on the enquiry of 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Federal Radiation Protection Office) carries out a continuous series of investigations on citizens' fears concerning the potential hazards of HF electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones (''Ermittlung der Befuerchtungen und Aengste der breiten Oeffentlichkeit hinsichtlich moeglicher Gefahren der hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen Felder des Mobilfunks''). For this purpose, enquiries by telephone were carried out annually between 2003 and 2006 among representative parts of the population by the Institut fuer angewandte Sozialwissenschaft. These are to investigate the awareness of the population of health risks of electromagnetic fields and also show changes in awareness over the period under investigation. (orig.)

  11. Calculation of the nuclear transition charge density in a microscopic adgIBM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formulae of proton and neutron boson structure functions (BFS's) are deduced in terms of a microscopic approach of sdgIBM (namely, microscopic sdgIBM). For the nucleus 190Os, the value of BSF's is worked out. Due to the high similarity, the maximum F-spin truncation is made under the full-symmetry approximation. Thereafter, calculations of E2 and E4 transition charge densities (TCD's) are performed in the sdgIBM-1. It is found that the E2 and E4 TCD's can be reproduced quite satisfactorily in the uniform frame of microscopic sdgIBM-1

  12. A network-flow based valve-switching aware binding algorithm for flow-based microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseng, Kai-Han; You, Sheng-Chi; Minhass, Wajid Hassan;

    2013-01-01

    -flow based resource binding algorithm based on breadth-first search (BFS) and minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) in architectural-level synthesis. The experimental results show that our methodology not only makes significant reduction of valve-switching activities but also diminishes the application completion...... biochip needs more chip-integrated micro-valves, i.e., the basic unit of fluid-handling functionality, to manipulate the fluid flow for biochemical applications. Moreover, frequent switching of micro-valves results in decreased reliability. To minimize the valve-switching activities, we develop a network...

  13. Epidemiological study to childrens cancer in the environment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the KiKK-study were presented in December 2007, followed by scientific publications in January 2008. The results caused a long-lasting debate, and the study was evaluated by different groups. Amongst these, the evaluation given by the SSK is of special importance. Now, BfS presents its final evaluation: The findings of the KiKK-study cannot be explained on the basis of current knowledge, but they give cause for further research activities. Scientific disciplines outside radiation biology and radiation epidemiology have to be involved. (orig.)

  14. The influence of age and depression on intellectual and memory performances

    OpenAIRE

    Mormont, Christian

    1984-01-01

    Since we know that both aging and depression impair intellectual functioning, a question arises about specificity of impairment in each condition. Intellectual and memory performances (WAIS, visual and verbal tests, attention task) were correlated on the one hand with a mood score (BfS) and one the other with age in a group of 101 men (age: 49 to 86; means = 59). We found that: 1 degree some intellectual tasks are more impaired by depression than by aging; 2 degrees the digit symbol substitut...

  15. Estudio de la biocompatibilidad in vitro de formulaciones acrílicas autocurables portadoras de bisfosfonatos de nueva síntesis

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, J.; Fernández, M; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, L.; Vázquez, B.; López-Bravo, A.; San Román, J.

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el estudio de la biocompatibilidad in vitro, empleando cultivos celulares de fibroblastos embrionarios humanos, de tres sistemas acrílicos de liberación controlada de bisfosfonatos (BFs). Estos sistemas, basados en metacrilato de metilo (MMA), metacrilato de vitamina E (MVE) y trietilenglicol dimetacrilato (TEGDMA), han sido diseñados para su aplicación en el tratamiento de enfermedades caracterizadas por una elevada resorción osteoclástica. En su preparación se ha...

  16. Cambios refractivos y corneales en ortoqueratología

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Zurbito, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo general: - Conocer qué parámetros de las lentes de ortoqueratología, adaptadas en el centro Marsden, han dado lugar a resultados efectivos en una muestra concreta de población. Objetivos específicos: - Valorar la validez de la regla del factor de Jessen en el conjunto de la muestra y en rangos específicos. - Observar la variación de la excentricidad, el radio apical, la queratometría y la BFS Flat y evaluar su posible implicación o correlación con el cambio refractivo. ...

  17. Future Resources for Eco-building Materials: I.Metallurgical Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Delong; LI Hui

    2009-01-01

    In order to make an effectivily recycle use of iron and steel slags that are main industrial wastes generated in Chinese metallurgical industry,the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed,such as preparing cement-steel slag blended cement with steel slag after metal recovery,using the fine powder of blast furnace slag (BFS)for manufacturing slag cement and high performance concrete.A further research on using these available resources more efficiently were discussed.

  18. Regulations for the disposal of radioactive waste in the Konrad repository - 59105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany low / medium level waste, which is classified here as radioactive waste with negligible heat generation, will be disposed of in the Konrad underground repository. The construction and the operation of this nuclear facility required authorization by different fields of law, i.e., by nuclear law, mining law and water law. Whereas the nuclear law considers solely radiological aspects, the relevant permit issued according to the water law considers the impact of radioactive as well as non-radioactive harmful substances. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) as operator of the repository and permit holder has (a) to record the disposed of radioactive and non-radioactive harmful substances and (b) to balance them. To meet these requirements BfS has developed a concept, which led to a site specific solution. Threshold values were defined for recording and for balancing the harmful substances. It had to be verified that by disposal of radioactive waste packages according to these values an adverse effect on the near-surface groundwater can be excluded. The Lower Saxony Water Management, Coastal Protection and Nature Conservation Agency (NLWKN) as the responsible water law regulatory authority approved the operator's concept as appropriate to comply with the requirements of the Water Law Permit. Nonetheless, collateral clauses were imposed to assure this. (authors)

  19. Benchmark calculations of sodium fast critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high expectations from fast critical experiments impose the additional requirements on reliability of final reconstructed values, obtained in experiments at critical facility. Benchmark calculations of critical experiments are characterized by impossibility of complete experiment reconstruction, the large amounts of input data (dependent and independent) with very different reliability. It should also take into account different sensitivity of the measured and appropriate calculated characteristics to the identical changes of geometry parameters, temperature, and isotopic composition of individual materials. The calculations of critical facility experiments are produced for the benchmark models, generated by the specific reconstructing codes with its features when adjusting model parameters, and using the nuclear data library. The generated benchmark model, providing the agreed calculated and experimental values for one or more neutronic characteristics can lead to considerable differences for other key characteristics. The sensitivity of key neutronic characteristics to the extra steel allocation in the core, and ENDF/B nuclear data sources is performed using a few calculated models of BFS-62-3A and BFS1-97 critical assemblies. The comparative analysis of the calculated effective multiplication factor, spectral indices, sodium void reactivity, and radial fission-rate distributions leads to quite different models, providing the best agreement the calculated and experimental neutronic characteristics. This fact should be considered during the refinement of computational models and code-verification purpose. (author)

  20. From knowledge to action - the radiation protection research programme in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of man from the dangers of ionising and non -ionising radiation is one of the most important responsibilities assigned to the German Office of Radiation Protection (B.f.S.) within the scope of activities mandated by the Atomic Energy Act, the Radiation Protection Ordinance, the X -ray Ordinance, and the Precautionary Radiation Protection Act. Implementation of these tasks, in particular the development of radiation protection guidelines and the supervision of their implementation, is only possible within a broad scientific-technical basis. Fundamental statements of the problem as well as questions related to the concrete implementation of individual radiation protection measures have to be investigated and answered. To acquire the necessary decision-making tools and for adequate implementation in the area of radiation protection, a broad thematic spectrum of investigative projects must be carried out. Overall planning, expert and administrative preparation, awarding of grants, assistance during the research projects as well scientific assessment of the results is the responsibility of the B.f.S.. This contribution provides information on final results of radiation protection projects within the Radiation Protection Research Programme for the year 2005. The findings of these projects serve as decision-making aids in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfillment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. (authors)

  1. Mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as filter media in a biofilter system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, D B; Vigueras-Cortés, J M; Garzón-Zúñiga, M A

    2016-01-01

    The biofiltration system over organic bed (BFOB) uses organic filter material (OFM) to treat municipal wastewater (MWW). This study evaluated the performance of a BFOB system employing mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as OFM. It also evaluated the effect of hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) in order to achieve the operational parameters required to remove organic matter, suspended material, and pathogens, thus meeting Mexican and US regulations for reuse in irrigation. Two biofilters (BFs) connected in series were installed; the first one aerated (0.62 m(3)air m(-2)h(-1)) and the second one unaerated. The source of MWW was a treatment plant located in Durango, Mexico. For 200 days, three HLRs (0.54, 1.07, and 1.34 m(3)m(-2)d(-1)) were tested. The maximum HLR at which the system showed a high removal efficiency of pollutants and met regulatory standards for reuse in irrigation was 1.07 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), achieving removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) 92%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 78%, total suspended solids (TSS) 95%, and four log units of fecal coliforms. Electrical conductivity in the effluent ensures that it would not cause soil salinity. Therefore, mesquite wood chips can be considered an innovative material suitable as OFM for BFs treating wastewaters. PMID:27003088

  2. Heavy Metal Accumulation as Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.F. K. Presl Ex Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Talukdar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation potential of six ecotypes, collected from six different industrial zones of lower Indo-Gangetic basin of West Bengal, India,of Monochoria vaginalis, commonly known as oval-leafed pondweed has been investigated based on chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd andCopper (Cu accumulation pattern in different plant organs. Bioaccumulation potential was assessed by bioaccumulation factors (BFs-leavesmetal concentration/soil metal concentration, bioconcentration factors (BCFs- roots metal/soil metal, transfer factors (TFs-leaves +rhizomes/roots and enrichment factors (EFs-metals in edible parts/soil metal. Accumulation pattern significantly differed among ecotypes,and accumulation in plant organs was highly metal-specific. BFs for Cr and Cd were >>1 in most of the ecotypes while high TFs (>>1 werenoticed in six ecotypes for Cr and Cu. BCFs was >>1 in all the ecotypes for Cd accumulation only. EFs values for the three metals hoveredaround 1 but it was > 1.0 for Cu in all the six ecotypes. The results suggested that Cr and Cu predominantly accumulated in leaves and rhizomeswhile Cd was predominantly sequestered in roots of M. vaginalis ecotypes. Cu, a redox active metal, showed higher capability than Cd and Crto accumulate in edible parts. In the present study, potential plant parts in M. vaginalis have been identified as bioaccumulation organs withoutany apparent symptoms of toxicity which can be used as phytoremediation of heavy metal contamination in aquatic ecosystems of lower Indo-Gangetic basin of India.

  3. The Litvinenko 210polonium case. German experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high scientific standards of the BfS were necessary in order to characterize and evaluate the low activities of 210Po found during the deployment in Hamburg. The evaluation of the measurements enabled the BfS to offer effective radiation protection advice and to assist the police investigation. The majority of the 210Po traces were found in places that had been in skin contact with Kovtun, leading to the conclusion that Kovtun had most probably incorporated 210Po before his visit to Hamburg in October 2006. As yet, no formal charges have been brought by the German authorities against Kovtun and the costs of the operation remain under discussion. Strategies to improve the internal and external deployment communication of the ZUB are being developed and implemented to deal with both the real and the perceived threats that occur during such an incident. Open communication from the onset of a deployment is essential, both between the institutions involved and between deployment leaders and the press. This will save precious time and resources, lower anxiety in the public and emergency workers and could, in a culture of trust where radiation protection advice is listened to and followed, ultimately save lives. (orig.)

  4. Reductive capacity measurement of waste forms for secondary radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jung-Seok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-12-01

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  5. Morsleben waste acceptance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Morsleben waste acceptance requirements take into account the valid stipulations in the permanent operational license of the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (Eram) dated April 22, 1986, and in the documents underlying it. In line with the guaranteed continued validity until June 30, 2000 of this permanent operational license, also the classification of radioactive waste by waste types (A) and radiation protection groups (S) was retained. The revised requirements to be met by radioactive waste to be disposed of in Eram as issued by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) effective August 1996 constitute the safety framework which must be adhered to by this waste. They also take into account other stipulations by the BfS, especially voluntary restrictions and conditions imposed by the self-surveillance. Eram accepts the 'solid waste' and 'spent sealed radiation sources' categories. The waste generators must observe the requirements to be met by waste to be stored permanently. In the case of solid waste, these conditions include criteria to be met by waste forms, activity limitations for radionuclides and groups of radionuclides, and packaging criteria. (orig.)

  6. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the integrity of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of simulated sea dumping conditions on some physical properties of 9:1 blast furnace slag-ordinary Portland cement (BFS-OPC) grout are described. Using measurements of ultrasound transit time and diametral compression strength it has been shown that minor degradation occurs during pressurisation/depressurisation treatment, and that less degradation occurs when the grout is pressurised in air than when it is open to the ingress of water. It is inferred that microcracking or matrix/inclusion separation occurs during pressurisation, but it is predicted that such cracking might self-heal in the presence of water as a result of continued cement hydration. The mass properties of the material are not altered significantly by the degradation resulting from pressurisation/depressurisation treatment. On the basis of its behaviour under pressurisation, 9:1 BFS-OPC mixture is considered to be suitable for use as either a matrix material in monolithic packages or a grout for composite packages for sea disposal. (author)

  7. Calculation of ex-core detector weighting functions for a sodium-cooled tru burner mockup using MCNP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power regulation systems of fast reactors are based on the signals of excore detectors. The excore detector weighting functions, which establish correspondence between the core power distribution and detector signal, are very useful for detector response analyses, e.g., in rod drop experiments. This paper presents the calculation of the weighting functions for a TRU burner mockup of the Korean Prototype Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (named BFS-76-1A) using the MCNP5 multi-group adjoint capability. For generation of the weighting functions, all fuel assemblies were considered and each of them was divided into ten horizontal layers. Then the weighting functions for individual fuel assembly horizontal layers, the assembly weighting functions, and the shape annealing functions at RCP (Reactor Critical Point) and at conditions under which a control rod group was fully inserted into the core while other control rods at RCP were determined and evaluated. The results indicate that the weighting functions can be considered relatively insensitive to the control rods position during the rod drop experiments and therefore those weighting values at RCP can be applied to the dynamic rod worth simulation for the BFS-76-1A. (author)

  8. Multithreaded Asynchronous Graph Traversal for In-Memory and Semi-External Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Pearce, Roger

    2010-11-01

    Processing large graphs is becoming increasingly important for many domains such as social networks, bioinformatics, etc. Unfortunately, many algorithms and implementations do not scale with increasing graph sizes. As a result, researchers have attempted to meet the growing data demands using parallel and external memory techniques. We present a novel asynchronous approach to compute Breadth-First-Search (BFS), Single-Source-Shortest-Paths, and Connected Components for large graphs in shared memory. Our highly parallel asynchronous approach hides data latency due to both poor locality and delays in the underlying graph data storage. We present an experimental study applying our technique to both In-Memory and Semi-External Memory graphs utilizing multi-core processors and solid-state memory devices. Our experiments using synthetic and real-world datasets show that our asynchronous approach is able to overcome data latencies and provide significant speedup over alternative approaches. For example, on billion vertex graphs our asynchronous BFS scales up to 14x on 16-cores. © 2010 IEEE.

  9. Forewarning system for controlling Yellow Sigatoka in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara de Almeida Rios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to evaluate the Biological Forewarning System (BFS for controlling Yellow Sigatoka in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was carried out in the town of Nova Porteirinha. One tested 7 treatments, using 6 gross sum (GS values (1,000; 1,300; 1,600; 1,900; 2,200, and 2,500 and the systematic disease control every 15 days. The treatments were distributed into 7 plots (120 plants/plot with ‘Prata-Anã’ and 10 plants from each plot were weekly evaluated with regard to leaf emission rate and disease incidence on the leaves 2, 3 and 4. The more advanced lesion stages and their intensity were used to calculate the gross sum, which aided in decision-making for chemical control. One collected data on production and firmness, pH, and acidity analysis of fruits. For the GS 2,500 treatment, taking into account 2-year evaluation, there was a reduction from 12 to 3 applications, i.e. 75% less fungicide was applied, without loss in productivity. Therefore, one suggests, taking into account the conditions of Nova Porteirinha, the application of BFS for chemical control of Yellow Sigatoka, using the GS value of 2,500 as an indicator of the correct time to perform pulverization.

  10. Norepinephrine is necessary for experience-dependent plasticity in the developing mouse auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kathryn N; Liles, L Cameron; Weinshenker, David; Liu, Robert C

    2015-02-11

    Critical periods are developmental windows during which the stimuli an animal encounters can reshape response properties in the affected system to a profound degree. Despite this window's importance, the neural mechanisms that regulate it are not completely understood. Pioneering studies in visual cortex initially indicated that norepinephrine (NE) permits ocular dominance column plasticity during the critical period, but later research has suggested otherwise. More recent work implicating NE in experience-dependent plasticity in the adult auditory cortex led us to re-examine the role of NE in critical period plasticity. Here, we exposed dopamine β-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh(-/-)) mice, which lack NE completely from birth, to a biased acoustic environment during the auditory cortical critical period. This manipulation led to a redistribution of best frequencies (BFs) across auditory cortex in our control mice, consistent with prior work. By contrast, Dbh(-/-) mice failed to exhibit the expected redistribution of BFs, even though NE-deficient and NE-competent mice showed comparable auditory cortical organization when reared in a quiet colony environment. These data suggest that while intrinsic tonotopic patterning of auditory cortical circuitry occurs independently from NE, NE is required for critical period plasticity in auditory cortex. PMID:25673838

  11. Long term atmospheric radioxenon measurements and iodine-131 detections over Europe in 2011 and 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) continuously monitors the activity concentration of 133Xe in ground level air in Germany since 1976. Since 2004, Xenon is measured at Schauinsland in samples with 24 hours sampling time with the automated system SPALAX as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Furthermore the BfS operates two high air volume samplers, one in Freiburg and one at the monitoring station Schauinsland. The surveillance of radioactive traces in the atmosphere is part of the German monitoring program of the Integrated Measurement and Information System (IMIS). The available data set allow the study of trends over long time periods and therefore the influence of different sources. Possible sources and their contribution could be investigated by the methods of Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM). Beside radioactive xenon isotopes also the medical isotope 131I is released in traces into the atmosphere and the detection at single trace analysis stations is not exceptional. However, in autumn 2011 and spring 2012 traces of this radioisotope were detected over longer periods over Europe. These events clearly showed the importance of a fast, transboundary and comprehensive data exchange between institutions to identify and localize the source.

  12. Experimental Verification of the Theoretical Prediction of the Phase Structure of a Ni-Al-Ti-Cr-Cu Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Bozzolo, G.; Noebe, R. D.; Howe, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys was applied to the study of NiAl-based materials to assess the effect of alloying additions on structure. Ternary, quaternary and even pentalloys based on NiAl with additions of Ti, Cr and Cu were studied and experimental verification of the theoretical predictions including the phase structure of a Ni-Al-Ti-Cr-Cu alloy is presented. Two approaches were used, Monte Carlo simulations to determine low energy structures, and analytical calculations of the energy of high symmetry configurations which give physical insight into preferred structures. The energetics for site occupancy in ternary and quaternary systems were calculated leading to an indirect determination of solubility limits at 0 K. Precipitate formation with information concerning structure and lattice parameter were also 'observed' computationally and the general characteristics of a Ni-Al-Ti-Cr-Cu alloy were correctly predicted. The results indicate that the BFS method for alloys can be a useful tool for alloy design and can be used to complement experimental alloy design programs.

  13. Experimental drop testing of waste containers for the Konrad repository - 59269

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The Konrad repository for not heat generating radioactive wastes was licensed in 2002 primarily. Due to legal actions the final confirmation of this license took place not until 2007. Subsequently, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) began scheduling backfitting of the former iron ore mine into a repository. The licensed repository volume is 303, 000 m3 considering estimations of expected waste volumes to be disposed off. The mine itself would offer a much larger volume. Waste packages can be disposed off as recently as the repository is ready for operation what is expected not before the end of this decade. Nevertheless, there is high interest of qualified and certified waste conditioning and packaging for disposal today, what for from BAM and BfS tested, evaluated and certified containers are needed. In recent years numerous container prototypes made of steel, concrete and ductile cast iron have been tested by BAM, the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing in Germany. To cover the Konrad test requirements in a conservative manner container drop tests are performed mostly onto the unyielding IAEA target of BAMs large drop test facility instead of a representative foundation of the repository

  14. The Effectiveness of High Quality Supplementary Cementitious Materials for Mitigating ASR Expansion in Concrete with High Alkali Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prasetia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alkali silica reaction (ASR is influenced by external factors such as the surrounding environment of high alkalinity. Countries with cold climate have a high probability to be exposed to high concentrations of NaCl solution by the deicing salt. This condition will lead to serious ASR problems in concrete, if the aggregates contain reactive silica. The main research work in this paper is to investigate the effect of 15% replacement ratio of high quality fine fly ash (FA15% and 42% replacement ratio of blast furnace slag (BFS42% on the ASR mitigation in concrete with different alkali amount inside the pore solution. The experiments were conducted according to the accelerated mortar bars experiment following the JIS A1146 mortar bar test method. In addition, post-analysis such as observation of ASR gel formation by the Uranyl Acetate Fluorescence Method and observation of thin sections using a Polarizing Microscope were also conducted. The mortar bar tests show a very good mitigation effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs. The results show that only small ASR expansions, which can be categorized as “innocuous”, occurred for specimens with 1.2% Na2Oeq using FA15% and BFS42%. However, larger alkali amount inside the system will require more SCMs amount.

  15. Reductive Capacity Measurement of Waste Forms for Secondary Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jungseok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-09-28

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  16. Arrays of Hollow Silica Half-Nanospheres Via the Breath Figure Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2015-04-21

    Breath figures (BFs) are patterns of liquid droplets that usually form upon condensation on a cold surface. Earlier work has shown that BFs can be used to produce continuous films of porous honeycomb-structured patterns on various types of materials, paving the path to a number of important applications such as the manufacturing of highly ordered nano- and micron-sized templates, micro lenses, and superhydrophobic coatings. It is worth noting, however, that few new findings have been reported in this area in recent years, limiting pursuits of novel architectures and key applications. In this report, an alternative method is described by which arrays of hollow silica half-nanospheres can be produced via BF templates. In the present method, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) protocol performed while the BF is formed on a glass substrate yields a nanostructured pattern of silica half-spheres, which size (100-700 nm) and density across the glass surface vary with substrate modification and with the relative rates of water condensation and hydrolysis from silica precursors (a process carried out at room temperature). This method of forming arrays of hollow half-nanospheres via the BF approach may be applicable to various other oxides and a broad range of substrates including large-area flexible plastics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Approval procedures for clinical trials in the field of radiation oncology; Genehmigungsverfahren klinischer Studien im Bereich der Radioonkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Monique; Buettner, Daniel [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Habeck, Matthias; Habeck, Uta; Brix, Gunnar [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institut fuer Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Willich, Normann [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Muenster (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany); Schmidberger, Heinz [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Mainz (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Noelling, Torsten

    2015-12-15

    Application of ionizing radiation for the purpose of medical research in Germany needs to be approved by the national authority for radiation protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS). For studies in the field of radiation oncology, differentiation between use of radiation for ''medical care (Heilkunde)'' versus ''medical research'' frequently leads to contradictions. The aim of this article is to provide principle investigators, individuals, and institutions involved in the process, as well as institutional review or ethics committees, with the necessary information for this assessment. Information on the legal frame and the approval procedures are also provided. A workshop was co-organized by the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO), the Working Party for Radiation Oncology (ARO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG), the German Society for Medical Physics (DGMP), and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) in October 2013. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop and the follow-up discussions between the organizers and the BfS. Differentiating between ''Heilkunde'' which does not need to be approved by the BfS and ''medical research'' is whether the specific application of radiation (beam quality, dose, schedule, target volume, etc.) is a clinically established and recognized procedure. This must be answered by the qualified physician(s) (''fachkundiger Arzt'' according to German radiation protection law) in charge of the study and the treatments of the patients within the study, taking into consideration of the best available evidence from clinical studies, guidelines and consensus papers. Among the important parameters for assessment are indication, total dose, and fractionation. Radiation treatments applied outside clinical trials do not require approval by the BfS, even if they are applied within a randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial

  18. [Uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant and the discovery of 226Ra, 232Th hyperaccumulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Di-Yun; Song, Gang; Yue, Yu-Mei

    2011-04-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-gamma-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146.3, 226.6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986.2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 26Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2.20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 2266Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-2). The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma. were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th. PMID:21717763

  19. Biofiltration of a mixture of ethylene, ammonia, n-butanol, and acetone gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Li, Congna; Heber, Albert J; Ni, Jiqin; Huang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study describes cleaning of a waste gas stream using bench scale biofilters (BFs) or biotrickling filters (BTFs). The gas stream contained a mixture of acetone, n-butanol, methane, ethylene, and ammonia, and was diverted uniformly to six biofilters and four biotrickling filters. The biofilters were packed with either perlite (BF-P), polyurethane foam (BF-F), or a mixture of compost, wood chips, and straw (BF-C), whereas the biotrickling filters contained either perlite (BTF-P) or polyurethane foam (BTF-F). Experimental results showed that both BFs and BTFs packed with various media were able to achieve complete removal of highly soluble compounds such as acetone, n-butanol, and ammonia of which the dimensionless Henry's constants (H) are less than 0.01. Methane was not removed due to its extreme insolubility (H>30). However, the ethylene (H ≈ 9) removal efficiencies depended on trickle water flow rates, media surface areas, and ammonia gas levels. PMID:23138059

  20. Disposal of High-Temperature Slags: A Review of Integration of Heat Recovery and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays with the continuous urbanization in China, the carbon emission and resource shortage have been serious issues, for which the disposal of blast furnace slags (BFS) and steel slags (SS) discharged from the metallurgical industry make up a significant strategy. The output of crude steel reached 823 Mt in China in 2014 and the thermal heat in these slags was equivalent to ~18 Mt of standard coal. Herein, the recent advances were systemically reviewed and analyzed, mainly from two respects, i.e., integration of heat recovery and material recycling and crystallization control of the slags. It was first found that for the heat recovery from BFS, the most intensively investigated physical method and chemical method were centrifugal granulation and gasification reaction, respectively. Furthermore, a two-step approach could contribute to a promising strategy for the treatment of slags, i.e., the liquid slags were first granulated into small particles, and then other further treatment was performed such as gasification reaction. With regard to SS, the effective disposal could be achieved using a selective crystallization and phase separation (SCPS) method, and moreover, the solid solution of 2CaO·SiO2 and the target phases could act as a promising enriched phase to extract the valuable elements.

  1. Quality Assurance of Dose rate Measurements in Fields of Natural Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: By order of the German environmental ministry the Bundesanstalt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) is responsible for the quality assurance of measuring programmes performed in former uranium mining areas of East Germany. The properties of the very complex fields of terrestrial and cosmic radiation are not sufficiently considered at the calibration of environmental dose rate meters by national standard laboratories. Therefore, BfS organises annually a countrywide intercomparison of field instruments of local authorities, institutions and firms on reference measuring sites in a former uranium mine environment in Thuringia. There three areas of natural and enhanced activity were prepared. Nuclide spectra and spatial dose rate distributions are well known. Reference instruments are ionisation chambers of different filling pressure and proportional counters carefully calibrated with photon sources over a broad energy and angle range. By measurements in the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) underground laboratory in a former salt mine in 925 m depth the internal background of probes was determined. The response for cosmic radiation was measured on a deep clear lake where the terrestrial radiation is shielded by the water. About 30 institutions participated in the last years with about 90 instruments annually. Whereas considerable and partially type specific deviations were observed at the first intercomparisons now a good level of agreement was obtained. (author)

  2. A Mars 2011 Balloon Mission Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I.; Lew, T.; Perry, W.

    Mars Scouts are competitively selected PI-led missions to further Mars exploration in ways that satisfy NASA s overall objectives but are not currently in the planned line of missions The current 2006 Announcement of Opportunity AO for Mars Scouts has just closed The goal of this SwRI study was to develop a new balloon mission concept to where it could be credibly proposed for the AO The balloon system was defined in the study as consisting of two parts the balloon flight system BFS and the balloon deployment inflation system DIS The BFS includes the balloon envelope accessory hardware and gondola The balloon includes the envelope seams end fittings load core inflation tube diffusers payload tether shock attenuator and separation hardware The DIS includes the balloon container deployment hardware sequencer tankage gas and control hardware Trade studies were performed to better define the mission design space These studies included 1 effect of varied atmospheric thermal loads 2 effect of varying latitudes 3 effect of payload mass for varying altitudes 4 effect of radiative material properties on balloon size mass 5 effect of material areal densities on balloon size mass and 6 effect of inflation gas on system masses Results of the balloon trade study for the Mars 2011 mission opportunity will be presented

  3. Immobilisation in cement of ion exchange resins arising from the purification of reagents, used for the decontamination of reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of reactors normally results in large volumes of liquid effluent. At present the most effective method of reducing the volume of waste is to remove the activity by passing the solution through an ion exchange column. The aim of the programme at present is to show that ion exchange resins used to remove activity from decontaminating agents can be successfully immobilised in cement. To achieve this, blends of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and ground granulated Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) will be used initially. Initial results presented in a previous report showed that BFS blended with OPC in the ratio 9:1 produced a satisfactory product containing 40% ion exchange resin. Further work has now been undertaken to improve the product's properties and the waste loading. The use of microsilica, a finely divided form of silicon dioxide, has also been investigated as an additive to cement. This has resulted in a further improvement in the product's properties. The mechanical and rheological properties of waste forms incorporating microsilica have been investigated. The final part of the report deals with the immobilisation of ion exchange resin which has been treated with simulant decontaminating solution, together with an assessment of the effect of picolinic acid and formic acid on cement hydration. A new technique for measuring the expansion of grouts in the first 48 hours curing has been evaluated. (author)

  4. Contents specification criteria for package design approvals in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for a package design for the transport of radioactive and fissile material are established in the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material - 1996 Edition (TS-R-1). Beginning with the first edition in 1961 the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material were developed consequently to a high standard to protect persons, property and the environment from the effects of radiation during the transport of radioactive material by placing the primary reliance on the package design. One important part of the package design approval procedure is to show that all dose rate limits and other requirements relating to radiation shielding are fulfilled when the maximum radioactive contents is considered. The applicant has to find covering parameters for the contents description which will be fixed in the package design approval certificate as maximum permissible parameters. This paper describes the contents description for spent fuel elements and vitrified high level radioactive waste (HAW) from the reprocessing which are acceptable to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) as the competent authority for package design approval. Such parameters for spent fuel elements are i.e. enrichment, burn-up, cooling time, or the description by source strengths for gamma and neutron emitters. It is also shown which specific evidences, i.e. for weak areas of the shielding, are requested by BfS. (author)

  5. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) is a leading research center under the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation. IPPE encompasses many installations and many specialists who perform fundamental and applied investigations in nuclear power and technology for the national nuclear program. IPPE has a key role in the national nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC ampersand A) system both as a nuclear facility and also as a training center for MPC ampersand A. As a participant in the US-Russian Laboratory-to-Laboratory Cooperative Program in MPC ampersand A, IPPE is conducting several tasks in collaboration with US Department of Energy national laboratories. The main goal of these tasks is the rapid improvement of MPC ampersand A at one of the most sensitive operating IPPE installations, the BFS critical facility, which has large numbers of fuel items containing highly enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium. After the completion of several test, evaluation, and demonstration tasks, it is hoped that the tested and adopted methods and procedures can be applied not only to the entire population of BFS fuel items, but also to other facilities at IPPE and other Russian nuclear institutes and operating facilities. The collaborative tasks cover seven areas: computerized nuclear material accounting, entry control and portals, item control and inventory, design evaluation and analysis, gamma and neutron assay, an integrated demonstration, and physical protection elements and test bed

  6. Occupational radiation exposure in Central and Eastern European countries - ESOREX EAST -. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the European Commission, the BfS is currently executing a project entitled 'European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure - ESOREX'. The project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In each of these countries the - 1. administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, - 2. numbers and dose distributions of occupationally radiation exposed persons in 1995 are surveyed. The aim is to describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the distributions of the workers and their doses. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyse the possibilities for a European harmonization. Because of the intention of numerous Central and Eastern European countries to join the European Community, the harmonization theme is also of considerable importance for these countries. The workshop served the preparing works to execute the ESOREX study also in ten Central and Eastern European countries. In order to establish the necessary contacts and to prepare the co-operation with the respective institutions of these states, the BfS organised, together with the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, an international introductory workshop in Prague in September 1998. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.)

  7. 从腐败食品中分离的乳酸菌生物被膜形成的影响因素%Effect of Different Cultivation Conditions on Biofilm Formation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spoiled Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽斯; 张宏梅; 刘学禄; 张文艳; 黄宝威; 许佳晶; 郑添信; 刘彦兰

    2011-01-01

    从腐败的蔬菜和肉质食品中分离筛选乳酸菌(LAB),并以其作为研究对象,对乳酸菌生物成膜不同影响因素进行研究.生化分离鉴定乳酸菌,在不同的营养物质浓度及培养条件下,用96孔板法检测乳酸菌成膜.在无外添加物,37℃和42℃的培养温度,pH 4有利于乳酸菌生物膜的形成,低温不利于生物膜的形成.低浓度的NaCl可促进LAB形成生物膜,但高于某浓度,就抑制LAB成膜.不同LAB菌株对不同葡萄糖浓度成膜效果不同,且与温度交互作用.结果表明,腐败食品中乳酸菌具有一定的生物被膜形成能力,控制乳酸菌生物膜的形成对于防治食品的腐败变质具有一定的意义.%To isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoiled food and investigate the effect of different factors on biofilm formation. The strains were identified by the biochemistry methods. Biofilm formation was tested by microtiter-plate method under the different nutrient conditions, temperature and pH. The strains' biofilm was detected by microtiter - plate method. 37℃, 42℃ and pH4 suboptimal for growth increased the production of biofilm. Low concentration of sodium chloride enhanced the biofilm formation (BF), but above a certain level, BFs were restrained. Different concentrations of glucose have different effect on strains biofilm formation at different temperatures. BFs were spread widely among lactic acid bacteria from spoiled food. Preventing the formation of BFs has its significance in food preservation.

  8. Economic development influences on sediment-bound nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of lakes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhaokui; Wang, Shengrui

    2015-12-01

    China has been confronted with serious water quality deterioration concurrent with rapid socioeconomic progress during the past 40 years. Consequently, knowledge about economic growth and lake water quality dynamics is important to understand eutrophication processes. Objectives were to (i) reconstruct historical nutrient accumulation and the basin economic progress on burial flux (BF); (ii) determine forms and structures of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sediment and water using six cores in three of the most severely eutrophic lake areas in China (i.e., Eastern Plain, Yunnan-Guizhou Plain, and Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang regions). Results suggest that BFs of total nitrogen (TN) continued to increase in sediment, whereas total phosphorus (TP) levels were consistent or only slightly increased, except in highly polluted lakes during the past decades. Similar results were observed for concentrations of nutrients in water (i.e., increased N/P). This historical distribution pattern was correlated to long-term fertilization practices of farmers in the watershed (N fertilization exceeds that of P) and was contingent upon pollution control policies (e.g., emphasized P whereas N was ignored). Vertical profiles of BFs indicated that lake nutrient accumulation included three stages in China. Nutrient accumulation started in the 1980s, accelerated from the 1990s, and then declined after 2000. Before the 1980s, nutrients were relatively low and stable, with nutrient inputs being controlled by natural processes. Thereafter, N- and P-bound sediments dramatically increased due to the increasing influence of anthropogenic processes. Nutrients were primarily derived from industries and domestic sewage. After 2000, BFs of nutrients were steady and even decreased, owing to implementation of watershed load reduction policies. The decreasing NaOH-extracted P (Fe/Al-P) and increasing organic phosphorus (OP) indicated that the source of exogenous pollution underwent a shift. Inputs of

  9. Container Approval for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste with Negligible Heat Generation in the German Konrad Repository - 12148

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the license for the Konrad repository was finally confirmed by legal decision in 2007, the Federal Institute for Radiation Protection (BfS) has been performing further planning and preparation work to prepare the repository for operation. Waste conditioning and packaging has been continued by different waste producers as the nuclear industry and federal research institutes on the basis of the official disposal requirements. The necessary prerequisites for this are approved containers as well as certified waste conditioning and packaging procedures. The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) is responsible for container design testing and evaluation of quality assurance measures on behalf of BfS under consideration of the Konrad disposal requirements. Besides assessing the container handling stability (stacking tests, handling loads), design testing procedures are performed that include fire tests (800 deg. C, 1 hour) and drop tests from different heights and drop orientations. This paper presents the current state of BAM design testing experiences about relevant container types (box shaped, cylindrical) made of steel sheets, ductile cast iron or concrete. It explains usual testing and evaluation methods which range from experimental testing to analytical and numerical calculations. Another focus has been laid on already existing containers and packages. The question arises as to how they can be evaluated properly especially with respect to lack of completeness of safety assessment and fabrication documentation. At present BAM works on numerous applications for container design testing for the Konrad repository. Some licensing procedures were successfully finished in the past and BfS certified several container types like steel sheet, concrete until cast iron containers which are now available for waste packaging for final disposal. However, large quantities of radioactive wastes had been placed into interim storage using containers which

  10. Estimation of accuracy for calculation of neutron field distribution in fast reactor on the reactor experiments basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseyev, A.V.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.; Kotchetkov, A.L.; Semyonov, M.Yu.; Seryogin, A.S.; Tsyboulya, A.M. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, named after A. Leypunsky (SSC RF - IPPE), 1 Bondarenko Square, Obninsk, Kaluga Region 249033 (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Calculation of a neutron field distribution in fast reactor is the basic method for forecasting of such characteristics as local and average energy release values in pins and subassemblies, radiation doze on constructional materials, burning out of fuel. And calculation remains dominating means of the control over these parameters. Accuracy of calculation is numerical expression for reliability of definition of the specified characteristics and base for formation of design limits and reserves. The purpose of the given work consist in estimation of accuracy of modern computing means for calculation by the analysis of the available experimental data received on BFS critical facility (IPPE, Russia) and BN-600 power reactor. The comparison analysis of calculation and experimental data on measurement of fission rates distributions for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu at critical assemblies BFS 62-th, BFS 66-th series and integrated quantity of fissions at BN-600 subassemblies by gamma-scanning method has been fulfilled. For carrying out of the analysis the integrated system MODEXSYS has been developed. This system includes up-to-date version of diffusion program TRIGEX, precision program MMKKENO, database of experimental data and benchmark models of experiments. Combination of various calculation methods allowed to reveal methodical uncertainties of calculation. Calculation of energy release distribution in traditional cores of fast reactors with sodium coolant is carried out on the average with accuracy 2-3%, the maximum discrepancies do not exceed 5%. On the border of core and radial blanket the methodical error of diffusion approximation, reaching 10% for {sup 238}U fission reaction rate, is experimentally confirmed. In the traditional uranium blanket an error reach value of 20%, and discrepancies have regular character: calculation data give lower values of reactions rates in relation to experiment. At transition to the steel reflector character of calculation

  11. Childhood leukaemia around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) published a report on the incidence of childhood cancers among children living in the vicinity of 16 German nuclear power plants. The results show a significantly enhanced risk of leukaemia in children aged below 5 years, who live within 5 km from a nuclear power plant. The study is known as KiKK (Epidemiologische Studie zu Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken) and stirred considerable concern about the safety of nuclear installations. In this review we summarise the present state-of-the art regarding childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations and present the main results of the KiKK study with a critical evaluation

  12. Effect of Cement Type on Autogenous Deformation of Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietro, Lura; Ye, Guang; van Breugel, Klaas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, measurements of non-evaporable water content, chemical shrinkage, autogenous deformation, internal relative humidity (RH), pore solution composition, and early-age elastic modulus are presented and discussed. All experiments were performed on Portland cement and blast-furnace slag ......, taking into account the influence of the dissolved salts in the pore solution, 2) the BFS cement paste studied shows pronounced self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage, mainly caused by its very fine pore structure.......In this paper, measurements of non-evaporable water content, chemical shrinkage, autogenous deformation, internal relative humidity (RH), pore solution composition, and early-age elastic modulus are presented and discussed. All experiments were performed on Portland cement and blast-furnace slag...

  13. Further investigations of the properties of polymer modified cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concludes the work done on behalf of the Department of the Environment on polymer modified cement composites. Topics covered include: the influence of cure schedule on flexural properties, observation of the onset and cracking during flexural testing, measurement of water permeability and caesium diffusion rates, and the use of Back Scattered Electron Imaging to identify the polymer phase. The properties of epoxide resin modified cements in the previous report were disappointing. Air entrainment of the mixing stage was a likely cause of the poor performance of these products and procedures to overcome this problem were devised. The range of polymer additives investigated was broadened by the inclusion of modified acrylic latexes and a polymensable acrylate resin additive. Properties for OPC and 9 BFS: 1 OPC cements are compared and the modification of properties achieved by polymer additions to both cement systems is discussed. (author)

  14. Principles of radiation protection and legal basis for workers and public protection - a description of the Federal Radiation Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of traditional mining and uranium industry, public concern and the need for decisions on restoration and remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites require systematic investigations and objective evaluations of the existing radiological situation. With this intention a comprehensive Federal project has been lauched to study the contributions of the geologic conditions and mining activities to the radiation exposure of the public. The responsibility for the whole project was delegated to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Topics covered in this paper include: Radiological evaluation and legal basis of the radiological protection for workers and for the public; Radiological protection for workers and the public in case of remedial actions

  15. The equilibrium leach testing of CAGR hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium leach tests were carried out on a laboratory scale in order to investigate the long-term performance of an intermediate level waste repository. The tests involved leaching fully active Commercial Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (CAGR) hulls in the presence of crushed matrix and backfill materials. The matrix materials used were blast furnace slag (BFS)/ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and epoxide MS7531/MS7532, and the backfill materials were bentonite and pulverised fuel ash/ordinary Portland cement (PFA/OPC). Comparison of the long-lived radionuclide concentrations with the derived drinking water levels indicates that the performance of a repository under oxidising conditions would tend to be limited by the release of I-129 and Tc-99. (author)

  16. Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites with Basalt Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Basalt fibers (BFs were surface-treated with a vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent to improve the mechanical properties of wood fiber-reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE composites. Basalt fibers were characterized with SEM and FT-IR. The effects of the basalt fiber content and apparent morphology on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were investigated in this paper. The results show that the BF coated with the vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties due to the increased interfacial compatibility between the BF and HDPE. The flexural strength and impact properties significantly increased with 4 wt.% modified basalt fibers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6441

  17. Evaluation on Calculation Accuracy of the Sodium Void Reactivity for Low Void Effect Fast Reactor Cores with Experimental Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation accuracy of the sodium void reactivity for safety-enhanced fast reactor core concepts was evaluated with analyses of critical experiments. In these concepts, heterogeneous core configuration and sodium plenum replacement are adopted to reduce the sodium void reactivity to around zero. In the past, a variety of critical experiments for heterogeneous cores had been carried out in the ZPPR facility, some of which are compiled in the IRPhEP handbook. Further, several experiments for core with sodium plenum had been performed in the BFS-2 facility. Calculation analyses of above mentioned critical experiments have been performed by using the Japanese current reactor physics analytical system. These analyses clarified that accuracy for homogeneous and axially-heterogeneous cores was sufficient, though accuracy for the radially-heterogeneous core and/or core with sodium plenum was not satisfactory. In order to achieve satisfactory accuracy for various types of cores, investigation on several design methods was performed. (author)

  18. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityanand Zadbuke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  19. Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaliza Maia Rebelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5, using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC and pH (9 and 12. Depending of the temperature two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC; Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC. An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of all cell parameters. The study showed the potentiality of BFS in the synthesis of well-crystallized LDHs without the presence of other crystalline phases.

  20. Hydrogen evolution by metal corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the final disposal of radioactive waste in rock salt hydrogen can be produced by anaerobic corrosion of metal packaging materials if water is present in the repository. On behalf of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) we experimentally determined the hydrogen evolution rates and associated corrosion rates of steels in crushed rock salt and different brines. The hydrogen formation was monitored nearly on line by gas chromatography without interrupting the corrosion process. The time-dependent curve of the hydrogen formation and corrosion rates is characterized by a maximum during the beginning of the experiments. With rising temperature the maximum grows and is shifted to the beginning of the corrosion reaction. Caused by protective layer formation the hydrogen evolution then declines and very low end values are attained. This is especially important for the long-term extrapolation of corrosion data in risk analysis for the final disposal of radioactive wastes. (orig.)

  1. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  2. Quantum Approximate Methods for the Atomistic Modeling of Multicomponent Alloys. Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Garces, Jorge; Mosca, Hugo; Gargano, pablo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Abel, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the role of quantum approximate methods in the understanding of complex multicomponent alloys at the atomic level. The need to accelerate materials design programs based on economical and efficient modeling techniques provides the framework for the introduction of approximations and simplifications in otherwise rigorous theoretical schemes. As a promising example of the role that such approximate methods might have in the development of complex systems, the BFS method for alloys is presented and applied to Ru-rich Ni-base superalloys and also to the NiAI(Ti,Cu) system, highlighting the benefits that can be obtained from introducing simple modeling techniques to the investigation of such complex systems.

  3. Interim report of evaluation of research and development problems in 2002 FY. Research and development of collaboration with Russian Institutes for Russian weapon plutonium demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of above theme was carried out by data from JNC and discussion at the evaluation committee, which is composed by 14 members. The evaluation method, procedure, items, evaluation standard and results are stated. BFS-2 critical experiment was finished. Three bodies irradiation examination had been finished and the post-irradiation examination will be begun soon. Technical possibility of 1.3 ton weapon plutonium disposition by MOX reactor core was confirmed. Possibility of BN reactor core fuel design was discussed and confirmed by data of hybrid reactor core and fuel design obtained. Safety analysis of BN600 hybrid reactor core was carried out and compared with analytical results of Russia. The last design step of production line for equipment of RIAR facility was attained and a part of them began to be bought. The references consist of interim evaluation of R and D problem, measures of evaluation results, supplementary explanation data, explanation data of problem and OHP. (S.Y.)

  4. Childhood leukaemia around nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, Andrzej (Centre for Radiation Protection Research, GMT Dept., Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Feychting, Maria (Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    In December 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) published a report on the incidence of childhood cancers among children living in the vicinity of 16 German nuclear power plants. The results show a significantly enhanced risk of leukaemia in children aged below 5 years, who live within 5 km from a nuclear power plant. The study is known as KiKK (Epidemiologische Studie zu Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken) and stirred considerable concern about the safety of nuclear installations. In this review we summarise the present state-of-the art regarding childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations and present the main results of the KiKK study with a critical evaluation

  5. Benchmark calculations of 150-group cross section library for LMR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of diversification of selection of cross section library for neutron calculation of LMR, the 150 multi-group cross section library was generated from ENDF-VI release. The set was then examined by analyzing measured reactivity quantities such as control rod worth, Doppler effect and sodium void effect for BFS critical assemblies that we obtained through the critical experiment plan for developing the KALIMER core design. The calculated results based on 9 group structure using the new set were also compared with those of JEF set based on the same group structure and compared with those of the same set based on 25 group structure to find the proper group structure. ENDF-VI-based set shows a small deviation in predicting measured integral quantities in comparison with the previous set and a small group effect

  6. Expansive failure reactions and their prevention in the encapsulation of phenol formaldehyde type ion exchange resins in cement based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewatit DN is a phenol formaldehyde based ion exchange resin used to remove radioactive caesium from liquid waste streams such as fuel cooling ponds and effluents. This paper presents the results of a study of the encapsulation of the bead form of the resin in cement with particular reference to the mechanisms of its interaction with the encapsulant. When incorporated in pure ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at loadings in excess of 15 wt % an unstable product results due to expansion of the systems and at higher waste loadings failure results after only a few days. Evidence from differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy all indicate the cause of the expansive reaction to be the formation of crystals of calcium salts around and within the resin beads. Addition of BFS and sodium hydroxide prevent the formation of these salts by removal of calcium hydroxide from the system in other reactions. (author)

  7. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for centrifuge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce and adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. Three possible types of encapsulants for Centrifuge Cake;- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements, and Polymers, are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie. Storage Transport, handling and emplacement Disposal, and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of nine parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on Centrifuge Cake. (author)

  8. Blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection at different technological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficiency of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at two blast furnaces (BFs) in Spain and Ukraine which operate at different burden and blast conditions has been analyzed using statistical methods, calculation of material and heat balances and mathematical model. Effect of PCI on the parameters of blast furnace operation, pig iron quality and also on interactions between process parameters has been studied. At high-grade burden and high parameters of the combined blast, dependence of coke consumption rate on PC amounts is linear up to a high rate of PCI. At unfavorable burden and technological conditions dependence of the main furnace operating parameters on PC rate has extreme character. High efficiency of PC use can be achieved at the different conditions due to optimization of the technological regime. (Author) 31 refs

  9. Investigations of enhanced outdoor radon concentration in Johanngeorgenstadt (Erzgebirge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the 90's the Federal Office for Radiation protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) carried out measurements of long-term outdoor radon concentrations in areas influenced by mining in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. In the region Johanngeorgenstadt (Erzgebirge) were measured very high long-term radon concentrations up to 620 Bq/m3 in the surrounding area of waste rock piles. In order to find the reasons for the enhanced radon concentrations we have carried out both short- and long-term investigations of the radon exhalation. In particular, radon concentrations have also been measured at a height of 15 cm above the ground to get genuine information on the local distribution of the radon level. We have found, that radon is being extensively released with diurnal and pronounced seasonal variations. The seasonal pattern is governed by convection processes triggered by temperature gradient between the waste rock pile and the atmosphere. (orig.)

  10. Radiation protection research projects. Program report 2014. Report on research program radiation protection of the Federal ministry for environment, nature conservation and reactor safety with technical and administrative steering by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects se rve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. The tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection involve planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects. This report provides information on results, i.e. preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2014.

  11. Indoor Positioning Using Nonparametric Belief Propagation Based on Spanning Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Savic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonparametric belief propagation (NBP is one of the best-known methods for cooperative localization in sensor networks. It is capable of providing information about location estimation with appropriate uncertainty and to accommodate non-Gaussian distance measurement errors. However, the accuracy of NBP is questionable in loopy networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel approach, NBP based on spanning trees (NBP-ST created by breadth first search (BFS method. In addition, we propose a reliable indoor model based on obtained measurements in our lab. According to our simulation results, NBP-ST performs better than NBP in terms of accuracy and communication cost in the networks with high connectivity (i.e., highly loopy networks. Furthermore, the computational and communication costs are nearly constant with respect to the transmission radius. However, the drawbacks of proposed method are a little bit higher computational cost and poor performance in low-connected networks.

  12. Further development of acquisition and evaluation of notifiable incidents and other registrated events during the operation of nuclear power plants, related to human failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project SR 2039/1 aims at further developing the existing reporting system designed to register and evaluate incidents and other events in order to enable a proper incorporation of human factor related incidents. Another objective consists in suggesting techniques and methods to include HF aspects in the acquisition and evaluation of incidents below the reporting threshold. Since the acquisition and evaluation of such incidents is the duty of the operator, the development of efficient methods is supported. Naturally, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) have a legitimate interest in making sure of the efficiency of registration and evaluation of such incidents for which operators are directly responsible. Therefore, a survey concept is suggested which helps to accomplish this task. (orig./DG)

  13. Radiation protection research projects. Program report 2014. Report on research program radiation protection of the Federal ministry for environment, nature conservation and reactor safety with technical and administrative steering by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz; Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2014. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela

    2015-09-15

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects se rve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. The tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection involve planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects. This report provides information on results, i.e. preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2014.

  14. Evaluation of the accuracy of group calculations for reactor criticality perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For calculations of criticality perturbations it is necessary to use group constants which take into account not only the peculiarities of the intra-group flux but also those of the behaviour of the adjoint flux. A new method is proposed for obtaining bilinear-averaged constants of this type on the basis of the resonance characteristics of the importance function and the difference between the value of neutron importance at the group boundary and the group-averaged value (the bsup(+j) factor). A number of calculations are made for the ratios of reactivity coefficients in the BFS assemblies. Values have been obtained for the difference between the results of calculation with bilinear-averaged constants and those averaged conventionally (over flux). In many cases, this difference exceeds the experimental error. (author)

  15. The characterization of insoluble dissolver residues and the development of treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization studies have been carried out on the insoluble residue arising from laboratory scale dissolution of single pins of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). Similar characterization work has also been completed on six samples of insoluble residue recovered from the reprocessing of complete sub-assemblies of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in PFR. Treatment methods for the dissolver insolubles have consisted of preparing immobilized samples in sand/ordinary portland cement (OPC), sand/pulverized fly ash (PFA)/OPC, and blast furnace slag (BFS)/OPC. A programme of leach testing has been carried out according to the conditions laid down in the international Standard Organization Test. Four samples of DFR originated insoluble residues and six samples of PFR originated insoluble residues have been immobilized and leach tested. Variations have included experiments to evaluate the leach rate under temperature influence and to acid wash prior to immobilization

  16. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP)

  17. The uranium and plutonium Doppler-effect investigation in the fast critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental investigations into the reactivity Doppler effects in 238 U and Pu by means of measuring the reactivity coefficients for cold (27 deg C) and heated (600 deg C) samples of depleted uranium dioxide and plutonium realized in several BFS and KBR critical assemblies are considered. The method of computational analysis ensuring the comparison between the measuring results and calculational data obtained using algorithms taking into account the factors of resonance self-shielding for the BNAB system of group constants and their Doppler increments is described. Basing on the results of comparison the measuring results for 238 U with calculational data the conclusion is made that the approach discussed gives an opportunity to take into account the Doppler increments in the forbidden resonance range

  18. 一种改进的BNS网络论坛搜索算法%An Improved BNS Search Algorithm of Internet Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗桂兰; 段发梅; 张丽娜; 朱翻; 刘朝明

    2011-01-01

    为了提高网页在互联网中的搜索效率,基于非结构化P2P网络的多种搜索算法和网络蜘蛛搜索算法,提出了一种广度优先搜索(BFS)和非贪婪性搜索(NGS)相结合的改进搜索算法(BNS).并通过该算法的性能分析与大理学院校园BBS的应用测试,结果表明,BNS算法在搜索速率、相关度和准确率上都优于BFS和NGS算法,该算法的实际应用提高了网络论坛运行效率.

  19. European study of occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX -. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESOREX-Project consists of several surveys executed in the Member States of the European Union, furthermore in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Its purpose is to survey in each of these countries 1. the administrative systems used to register individual occupational radiation exposure, 2. the numbers of occupationally radiation exposed persons and dose distributions for the year 1995. The study shall describe and compare the administrative structures of the various national registration systems and the quantity structures. It shall identify the differences between the states and analyze the possibilities for a European harmonization. In order to achieve the co-operation of the European states the European Commission and the BfS organized an international introductory workshop in Luxembourg in May, 1997. The proceedings reflect the presentations of the participants and the results of the discussions. (orig.)

  20. Vision based motion planning of humanoid robot arm for grasping task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the robust and efficient motion control approach for a redundant humanoid arm of BHR-02 (Beijing Humanoid Robot-02). This work is based on the numerical algorithm for computing the Inverse Kinematics of redundant arm and stereo based vision system to detect the pose and position of target object. Forward recursion formula with backward cycle computation method is used to reach in the vicinity of target object. Then BFS (Broyden Fletcher Shanno) method is then used to grasp object in real-time. Vision is a very important non contact sensor for humanoid robots. A method combining visual feed forward and visual feedback is proposed. Visual feed forward facilitates the reach in the vicinity of the object and reduces the manipulation time. Visual feedback increases the robustness by compensating the weak calibration errors. Effectiveness of the proposed strategy is proved through experiments. (author)

  1. Bioaccumulation and elimination of 60 Co and 137 Cs by Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilization of 60 Co, retained in marine sediment by microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was studied the capacity of a bi valve mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana, which lives in the local bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co previously sorbed in the sediment. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the transference of 60 Co from the sediment to the animal was insignificant (bioaccumulation factor (BF) of the order of 10-3). At the same time, the capacity of microorganisms, present in the bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co was studied. The results showed that this via of transference was important, considering the much greater microorganism biomass in relation to the biomass of bentonic organisms, as a whole. For 137 Cs the determined BF from water to the animal was 2.2. and, as in the case of 60 Co, the soft tissues concentrated more 137 Cs than shell. Remaining viscera showed the highest BFs. In another series of experiments, the loss of 60 Co or 137 Cs, previously accumulated by A. brasiliana, was followed in aquaria with or without sediment and the respective biological half-lives were calculated. Soft tissues retained 60 Co longer (biological half-life = 117 days) than shells, whereas for 137 Cs the opposite was observed and shells showed a biological half life of 38.5 days. The low values of 60 Co and 137 Cs BFS do not allow to classify A. brasiliana as good biological indicator for pollution by there radionuclides. However since A brasiliana is consumed by the local population and is commercialized to other areas, it was recommended that its contamination by 60 Co or 137 Cs should be monitored. (author)

  2. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  3. The don't know option in progress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravesloot, C J; Van der Schaaf, M F; Muijtjens, A M M; Haaring, C; Kruitwagen, C L J J; Beek, F J A; Bakker, J; Van Schaik, J P J; Ten Cate, Th J

    2015-12-01

    Formula scoring (FS) is the use of a don't know option (DKO) with subtraction of points for wrong answers. Its effect on construct validity and reliability of progress test scores, is subject of discussion. Choosing a DKO may not only be affected by knowledge level, but also by risk taking tendency, and may thus introduce construct-irrelevant variance into the knowledge measurement. On the other hand, FS may result in more reliable test scores. To evaluate the impact of FS on construct validity and reliability of progress test scores, a progress test for radiology residents was divided into two tests of 100 parallel items (A and B). Each test had a FS and a number-right (NR) version, A-FS, B-FS, A-NR, and B-NR. Participants (337) were randomly divided into two groups. One group took test A-FS followed by B-NR, and the second group test B-FS followed by A-NR. Evidence for impaired construct validity was sought in a hierarchical regression analysis by investigating how much of the participants' FS-score variance was explained by the DKO-score, compared to the contribution of the knowledge level (NR-score), while controlling for Group, Gender, and Training length. Cronbach's alpha was used to estimate NR and FS-score reliability per year group. NR score was found to explain 27 % of the variance of FS [F(1,332) = 219.2, p trade-off between systematic and random measurement error. PMID:25912621

  4. The immobilisation of clinoptilolite within cementitious systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zeolitic ion exchanger clinoptilolite was encapsulated within various cementitious systems in order to assess their suitability for the retention of the radioelements, Cs and Sr. The pozzolanic reaction of clinoptilolite is reduced in composites containing BFS and PFA and appears not to continue after 7 days of hydration. Ca(OH)2 persists up to 360 days of hydration in a 9:1BFS:OPC system with 10% clinoptilolite added, despite the presence of unreacted pozzolana. This may be due to low pH of the pore solution, if Na and K act as counter cations in the aluminous C-S-H, a product of pozzolanic hydration or are exchanged onto the clinoptilolite. Saturation of the pore solution with Ca may prevent further dissolution of Ca(OH)2. Cs leaching occurs in all samples during accelerated tests due to breakdown of the clinoptilolite structure. The alternative cement system calcium sulfo-aluminate cement (CSA) has a different hydration chemistry and properties to OPC and OPC composites with a lower pore solution pH. Clinoptilolite appears to react in a hydrating CSA system with significant reaction continuing between 28 and 90 days of hydration. Leaching of Cs from CSA is higher than from an OPC system, in which almost all of the clinoptilolite crystallinity is lost. The major product of CSA hydration is ettringite. Cs may be adsorbed within cation sites of the C-S-H in an OPC system but not by ettringite which does not retain Cs so Cs has high mobility and leachability through the CSA matrix. (authors)

  5. Allotyping human complement factor B in Asian Indian type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N; Kaur, G; Tandon, N; Mehra, N K

    2008-12-01

    Human complement factor B (BF) is an essential component of the alternate complement pathway and therefore important in innate immune and autoimmune responses. The BF gene is located in the central region of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and is known to encode more than 30 protein variants that can be resolved by isoelectric focusing and gel electrophoresis. There are three BF alleles - BF*S, BF*FB and BF*FA - that differ in codon 7 at nucleotide positions 94 and 95. These alleles have CGG, TGG or CAG triplets at their codon 7, respectively, that code for Arg, Trp or Gln residues. We have developed a novel polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers-based allotyping assay that can identify nucleotide substitutions in codon 7 in all the three BF alleles. The assay was validated by sequencing and amplified fragment length polymorphism. Using this SSP assay, we report the BF alleles located on the multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3 haplotypes that are unique in the Indian population and are associated with autoimmunity. The common type 1 diabetes (T1D)-favoring Caucasian haplotype HLA-A1-B8-DR3 (ancestral haplotype AH8.1) carries BF*S. However, in the North Indian T1D patients, the most common haplotype is HLA-A26-B8-DR3 (AH8.2) and this carried BF*FB. Because of its association with AH8.2, the BF*FB was overrepresented in the patients (51.03%) compared with healthy controls (32.7%, OR = 2.148, 95% CI = 1.34-3.44, P = 0.002). Similar studies on allotyping BF alleles in different haplotypes in various populations could have important implications in understanding mechanisms of MHC haplotypic diversifications and disease associations and designing future therapeutic approaches. PMID:19000152

  6. Airborne contamination during blow-fill-seal pharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, W; Matheis, W; Dean-Netcher, M; Edwards, A

    1998-01-01

    The routes of airborne contamination, during Blow-Fill-Seal (BFS) production, were studied using tracer gas, particles and bacteria. The prevention of airborne contamination, by the air shower at the point of fill, was effective (> 99.2% efficient). However, microbe-carrying particles could gain access, by deposition or air exchange, when the containers were cut open and before they shuttled under the protection of the air shower. The use of SF6 tracer gas demonstrated that when the air shower was not on, 50% of the air within the containers came from the area round the machine. When the air shower was switched on, only about 5% of the air came from the surroundings. Airborne microbial contamination of containers is in proportion to: the number of airborne microbes around the machine, the time the container is open, the neck area and the amount of air left within the container. The likely microbial contamination rate can be calculated from a model incorporating these variables. Microbial contamination of containers during BFS manufacturing is normally very low, but by increasing the naturally occurring bacteria in the air of the production rooms by about 100-fold, it was possible to verify the accuracy of this model. The contamination model agrees well with the observation that microbial contamination levels of between 1 in 10(5) and in 10(7) will be found when small containers (< 10 ml) are filled in conventionally ventilated rooms. To achieve similar contamination rates when filling of larger bottles, it is likely that unidirectional flow, or barrier technology will be required. PMID:9691671

  7. Cement Solidification Method For Intermediate-Level Liquid Waste Containing Sodium Sulphate (Na2SO4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new cement solidification method for intermediate-level liquid waste containing large amounts of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) has been developed. This method involves two safety concepts for disposal sites: reduction in the amount of sulphate ion (SO42-) released from solidified wastes and reduction in the amount of hydrogen gas generated due to radiolysis of the water present in the solidified waste. In order to eliminate SO42- release from solidified wastes, two chemical reactions were important in our solidification method: (1) Barium-compounds (Ba(OH)2.8H2O, etc) were reacted with SO42- to form BaSO4, and (2) using alumina cement material, SO42- was mineralized as ettringite, 3CaO.Al2O3.3CaSO3.2H2O. Based on leaching tests, the amount of SO42- released from the solidified forms into ion exchange water under anaerobic conditions was less than 1 x 10-3 mol/L. Thus, this method should be effective in preventing engineered concrete barrier layers from cracking. In order to evaluate the amount of hydrogen gas generated from cement solids due to radiolysis of hydrated and non-hydrated water in the solid, gamma-ray irradiation experiments on solidified alumina cement (ALC), solidified ordinary portland cement (OPC), solidified ordinary portland cement blended with blast-furnace slag (OPC-BFS), and synthetic ettringite were performed. As a result, the generation rate of hydrogen gas from ALC was less than those from OPC and OPC-BFS and approximately equal to that from ettringite. (authors)

  8. Efficient Breadth-First Search on the Cell/BE Processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpazza, Daniele P.; Villa, Oreste; Petrini, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    Multi-core processors are a shift of paradigm in computer architecture that promises a dramatic increase in performance. But multi-core processors also bring an unprecedented level of complexity in algorithmic design and software development. In this paper we describe the challenges involved in designing a breadth-first search (BFS) for advanced multi-core processors. The proposed methodology combines a high-level algorithmic design that captures the machine-independent aspects, to guarantee portability with performance to future processors, with a low-level implementation that embeds processor-specific optimizations. Using a fine-graind global coordination strategy derived by the Bulk-Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model we have determined an accurate performance model that has guided the implementation and the optimization of our algorithms. To validate our approach, we use a state-of-the-art multicore processor, the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell BE). Our experiments, obtained on a pre-production Cell BE board running at 3.2 GHz, show almost linear speedups when using multiple synergistic processing elements, and an impressive level of performance when compared to other processors. The Cell BE is typically an order of magnitude faster than conventional processors, such as the AMD Opteron and the Intel Pentium 4 and Woodcrest, an order of magnitude faster than the MTA-2 multi-threaded processor, and two orders of magnitude faster than a BlueGene/L processor. Index Terms—Multi-core processors, Parallel Computing, Cell Broadband Engine, Parallelization Techniques, Graph Exploration Algorithms, Breadth-First Search, BFS.

  9. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M. [South China Agricultural University, Guangdong (China)

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  10. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2015-02-19

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  11. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  12. Atomistic Method Applied to Computational Modeling of Surface Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    the BFS (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith) method for the calculation of the energetics, consists of a small number of simple PCbased computer codes that deal with the different aspects of surface alloy formation. Two analysis modes are available within this package. The first mode provides an atom-by-atom description of real and virtual stages 1. during the process of surface alloying, based on the construction of catalogues of configurations where each configuration describes one possible atomic distribution. BFS analysis of this catalogue provides information on accessible states, possible ordering patterns, and details of island formation or film growth. More importantly, it provides insight into the evolution of the system. Software developed by the Computational Materials Group allows for the study of an arbitrary number of elements forming surface alloys, including an arbitrary number of surface atomic layers. The second mode involves large-scale temperature-dependent computer 2. simulations that use the BFS method for the energetics and provide information on the dynamic processes during surface alloying. These simulations require the implementation of Monte-Carlo-based codes with high efficiency within current workstation environments. This methodology capitalizes on the advantages of the BFS method: there are no restrictions on the number or type of elements or on the type of crystallographic structure considered. This removes any restrictions in the definition of the configuration catalogues used in the analytical calculations, thus allowing for the study of arbitrary ordering patterns, ultimately leading to the actual surface alloy structure. Moreover, the Monte Carlo numerical technique used for the large-scale simulations allows for a detailed visualization of the simulated process, the main advantage of this type of analysis being the ability to understand the underlying features that drive these processes. Because of the simplicity of the BFS method for e

  13. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that

  14. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2006. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons occupationally exposed to radiation are monitored by several official dosimetric services who transmit their records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The number of dose recordings reported to the Radiation Protection Register has annually increased to more than three million records per year and thus accumulated to more than 34 million dose records at the end of 2006. In 2006, about 312,000 workers were monitored with dosimeters for occupational radiation exposure. About 18 % of the monitored persons received a measurable personal dose. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.75 mSv. This value is the lowest average annual dose since dose monitoring for occupational worker was introduced. It remains below the dose limit of one Milli-Sievert (1 mSv) for the general public and amounts only 4 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. Since Aug. 2003 aircraft crew personnel is subject to dose monitoring if it is employed in accordance with the German employment act and likely to receive an effective dose of at least 1 mSv per year from cosmic radiation during flight operation. This accounts for about 33.000 pilots and flight attendants. 45 air lines report the monthly accumulated dose values of their personnel via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 71 Person-Sv and thus significant higher than the total collective dose of all workers at terrestrial work places (41 Person-Sv). The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 2.2 mSv. Workers who execute tasks in foreign radiation controlled areas, (so called ''outside-workers'' who e.g. perform maintenance work in different nuclear power plants) must have a valid radiation passport. In 2006, about 62,000 outside-workers had a valid radiation passport. The average annual dose

  15. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2013-2014. Report of the radiation protection register; Die berufliche Strahlenexposition in Deutschland 2013-2014. Bericht des Strahlenschutzregisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Mordek, Else; Schlosser, Andrea; Spiesl, Josef

    2015-10-15

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2014, about 358,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 5 % into the past five years. 15 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.50 mSv corresponding to less than 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, two persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 26.0 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 39,500 aircraft crew members by using certified computer pro-grammes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 74.8 person-Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.89 mSv in 2014. In 2014, about 58,500 outside-workers were in possession of

  16. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2012. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2012, about 350,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 10 % into the past five years. 19 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.52 mSv corresponding to 2.6 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, 2 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 27.9 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 40,000 aircraft crew members by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 78.5 person- Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.96 mSv and decreased compared to 2011 (2.12 mSv) due to solar cycle. In 2012, about

  17. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2013-2014. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2014, about 358,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 5 % into the past five years. 15 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.50 mSv corresponding to less than 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, two persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 26.0 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 39,500 aircraft crew members by using certified computer pro-grammes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 74.8 person-Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.89 mSv in 2014. In 2014, about 58,500 outside-workers were in possession of

  18. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2011. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2011, about 350,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased during the past five years continuously by 10 %. Only 19 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.58 mSv corresponding to 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, 7 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. two cases per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 38.5 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. In 2010, 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 39,000 members of the aircraft crew personnel by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 83 person-Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters (38.5 person-Sv). The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 2.12 mSv and decreased compared to 2010 (2,30 mSv). In 2011, about 70,000 outside-workers were in

  19. Satellite Formation Reconfiguration Using Co-evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization and Pareto Optimal Solution%基于协同进化粒子群和Pareto最优解的卫星编队队形重构方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海滨; 马广富; 庄宇飞; 吕跃勇

    2011-01-01

    针对卫星编队自主队形重构问题,提出了基于协同进化粒子群优化(CPSO)和Pareto最优解的求解方法.首先,使用Legendre伪谱法(LPM)将队形重构问题离散化为非线性规划(NLP)问题;其次,根据卫星编队的特点及碰撞规避的需要,使用CPSO算法对重构问题采用既独立又集中的求解方式,避免了传统优化方法对梯度的求解;然后,使用一种深度-广度优先搜索(D-BFS)算法,能够高效地找到CPSO进化中所有Pareto最优解,提升了算法的效率.仿真结果表明,该方法快速有效,能够满足实时性的要求,使得卫星编队的自主运行成为可能.%This paper proposes an optimal trajectory planning method for satellite formation reconfiguration using co-evolutionary particle swarm optimization (CPSO) and Pareto optimal solution. First, the Legendre pseudospectral method (LPM) is employed to transform the reconfiguration problem into a parameter optimization nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. Next, according to the features of satellite formation and the constraints of collision avoidance, a CPSO algorithm is used to solve the reconfiguration problem separately in a centralized way to avoid the computational complexity of calculating the gradient information with traditional optimization methods. Then, a depth-breadth first search (D-BFS) algorithm is used to search all the Pareto optimal solutions needed by the CPSO, with which the entire redundant search could be avoided. Simulations show that the method could solve the reconfiguration problem in real time, and guarantee collision avoidance during the entire reconfiguration process even when the number of collocation points or number of satellites increases.

  20. Thyroid exposure in Belorussian and Ukrainian children after the Chernobyl accident and resulting risk of thyroid cancer. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986 - to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements - to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968-1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities - to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986-2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases - to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies - to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been accompanied by the BFS project StSch 4299 Range of applicability of epidemiological studies with aggregate data for risk factor determination. The purpose of that project is to explore by simulation calculations to which degree there is an ecologic bias in the risk studies performed in the frame of the present project. The results of project StSch 4299 indicate that the ecologic bias of excess absolute risk estimates is small because: - radiation is the dominating cause of thyroid cancer among those who were children or adolescents in the highly contaminated areas at the time of the accident - there is no indication that the dose-response for thyroid cancer after exposures during childhood is non-linear in the dose range of 0.05-1.0 Gy - the variability of average doses in the age

  1. Ideas in support to the definition of the Phase 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid UOX/MOX fuelled core of the BN-600 reactor was endorsed as an international benchmark. Phases 1 and 2 consist of RZ and HEX-Z homogeneous models of the hybrid version of the BN-600 reactor. Phase 3 consists of RZ and HEX-Z heterogeneous models of the hybrid version of the BN-600 reactor. Phase 4 consists of RZ and HEX-Z heterogeneous models of the full MOX version of the BN-600 reactor. Phase 5 consists of the Analysis of BFS-62 hybrid configuration in support to Phase 3 studies. The background strategy was defined to make the world safer by using weapon grade Plutonium for civil application. Make that use safe by checking the behaviour of the BN-600 core with limited (hybrid core: Phases 1, 2 and 3) and then full use of MOX (Phase 4); Verify uncertainties on reactivity coefficients and especially on SVRE with some BFS-62 experiments (Phase 5) and use of Minor Actinides in the fuel (Phase 6 and possibly Phase 7). The French Strategy was make the link between existing reactors PWR and GEN-IV ones. From 2030 - 2040, Introduction of 4th generation systems was planned. The P4 and N4 PWR reactors will reach 40 years lifetime at 2025-2035. Lifetime extension to 50 years is considered. The replacement of PWR reactors by Gen IV systems will be effective. Proposal of Phase 6 considers to develop a strategy in connection with GEN IV criteria, use BN-600 as a demonstrator of GEN IV cores, use spent fuels from WWERs, RBMKs as a fuel for use in LMFBR (BN-600 being the first in the row). In Russia, there are roughly 9 GWe WWER and 10.2 GWe RBMK reactors. UOX is being used (no MOX being used), burn up rate is 45 GWd/ton. At the moment, no reprocessing is performed but a reasonable scenario is to develop a simplified dry reprocessing or a dry reprocessing to extract both MA and Pu resulting in no separation and limited Proliferation. Pu vector will no longer be weapon grade. There will be no blanket as far as possible. Study the BN-600 behaviour with this type of fuel

  2. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2010. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetric services that transmit the records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2010, about 341,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased during the past five years. Only 18 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.66 mSv corresponding to 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In totally, 3 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, thus there were less then one cases per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreases to 40 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. In 2010, 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 37,000 members of the aircraft crew personnel by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 86 person-Sv and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters (40 person-Sv). The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel is 2.30 mSv and nearly constant compared to 2010 (2,35 mSv). In 2010, about 70,000 outside-workers were in

  3. Process flow sheet evaluation of a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking plant applying very high temperature reactors for efficient steel production with less CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CO2 emissions from a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking system was 13–21% of that from a blast furnace steelmaking system. • Heat input to shaft furnace in hydrogen steelmaking was large with much H2 consumption in the part. • Though hydrogen production thermal efficiency had influence on total heat input to hydrogen steelmaking, the effect on the CO2 emissions was small. • Steelmaking scale of a nuclear hydrogen steelamking plant with 2 VHTRs was a little smaller than that of the largest Midrex® steelmaking plants. - Abstract: Recently, CO2 reduction is an important problem for steelmaking. Substitution of coal, presently used as a reducing agent of iron ore in blast furnaces, to hydrogen produced by non-fossil energy is a way to reduce CO2 emissions. In this study, the idea of nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) system was investigated using very high temperature reactor (VHTR) and thermochemical hydrogen production iodine–sulfur (IS) process. Heat input and CO2 emissions including material production, material transportation, and electricity generation were evaluation criteria. Results of the NHS system were compared with those of a conventional blast furnace steelmaking (BFS) system. Influence of heat input options to the steelmaking process and hydrogen production thermal efficiency of IS process were investigated for the NHS system. Though heat input to the NHS system was 130–142% of that to the BFS system, CO2 emissions of the system were 13–21%. Pre-heating of hydrogen by coal combustion before blowing to a shaft furnace was effective to decrease heat input, although CO2 emissions increased. Direct pre-heating by nuclear heat was also effective without increase of CO2 emissions if close location of the nuclear reactor to the steelmaking plant was publicly accepted. Hydrogen production thermal efficiency had a significant influence on the heat input. Conceptual design of a plant unit of the NHS system producing steel of 1.47 × 106 t

  4. Process flow sheet evaluation of a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking plant applying very high temperature reactors for efficient steel production with less CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Seiji, E-mail: kasahara.seiji@jaea.go.jp; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Masuro

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • CO{sub 2} emissions from a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking system was 13–21% of that from a blast furnace steelmaking system. • Heat input to shaft furnace in hydrogen steelmaking was large with much H{sub 2} consumption in the part. • Though hydrogen production thermal efficiency had influence on total heat input to hydrogen steelmaking, the effect on the CO{sub 2} emissions was small. • Steelmaking scale of a nuclear hydrogen steelamking plant with 2 VHTRs was a little smaller than that of the largest Midrex{sup ®} steelmaking plants. - Abstract: Recently, CO{sub 2} reduction is an important problem for steelmaking. Substitution of coal, presently used as a reducing agent of iron ore in blast furnaces, to hydrogen produced by non-fossil energy is a way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, the idea of nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) system was investigated using very high temperature reactor (VHTR) and thermochemical hydrogen production iodine–sulfur (IS) process. Heat input and CO{sub 2} emissions including material production, material transportation, and electricity generation were evaluation criteria. Results of the NHS system were compared with those of a conventional blast furnace steelmaking (BFS) system. Influence of heat input options to the steelmaking process and hydrogen production thermal efficiency of IS process were investigated for the NHS system. Though heat input to the NHS system was 130–142% of that to the BFS system, CO{sub 2} emissions of the system were 13–21%. Pre-heating of hydrogen by coal combustion before blowing to a shaft furnace was effective to decrease heat input, although CO{sub 2} emissions increased. Direct pre-heating by nuclear heat was also effective without increase of CO{sub 2} emissions if close location of the nuclear reactor to the steelmaking plant was publicly accepted. Hydrogen production thermal efficiency had a significant influence on the heat input. Conceptual design of a

  5. The chemistry and expansion of limestone - Portland cement mortars exposed to sulphate containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some concretes in sulphate-bearing groundwaters can deteriorate slowly through chemical reactions which cause expansion and stress. The overall process involves diffusion of sulphate into the concrete, chemical reaction with some cement constituents, internal expansion and, finally, physical disruption of the reacted zone. This work addresses the chemical reactions and the expansion resulting from them so that the overall process of sulphate attack can be modelled eventually. The extent and rate of reaction of calcium sulphate with ordinary and sulphate resisting Portland cements (OPC and SRPC) have been measured under various conditions. Additionally, mortar bars were fabricated from OPC, OPC/BFS (blast furnace slag) and SRPC cements with carboniferous limestone and exposed to various sulphate-containing solutions. The linear expansion of the bars was continuously monitored over a period of about 200 days and, after exposure, the bars were analysed in detail. The results show that the bulk expansion during sulphate attack is proportional to sulphur taken up in insoluble ettringite and magnesium (when present) precipitated as brucite. The results are used to rationalise the behaviour of concretes in sulphate-bearing environments. (author)

  6. Faster Parallel Traversal of Scale Free Graphs at Extreme Scale with Vertex Delegates

    KAUST Repository

    Pearce, Roger

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. At extreme scale, irregularities in the structure of scale-free graphs such as social network graphs limit our ability to analyze these important and growing datasets. A key challenge is the presence of high-degree vertices (hubs), that leads to parallel workload and storage imbalances. The imbalances occur because existing partitioning techniques are not able to effectively partition high-degree vertices. We present techniques to distribute storage, computation, and communication of hubs for extreme scale graphs in distributed memory supercomputers. To balance the hub processing workload, we distribute hub data structures and related computation among a set of delegates. The delegates coordinate using highly optimized, yet portable, asynchronous broadcast and reduction operations. We demonstrate scalability of our new algorithmic technique using Breadth-First Search (BFS), Single Source Shortest Path (SSSP), K-Core Decomposition, and Page-Rank on synthetically generated scale-free graphs. Our results show excellent scalability on large scale-free graphs up to 131K cores of the IBM BG/P, and outperform the best known Graph500 performance on BG/P Intrepid by 15%

  7. Scaling Techniques for Massive Scale-Free Graphs in Distributed (External) Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Pearce, Roger

    2013-05-01

    We present techniques to process large scale-free graphs in distributed memory. Our aim is to scale to trillions of edges, and our research is targeted at leadership class supercomputers and clusters with local non-volatile memory, e.g., NAND Flash. We apply an edge list partitioning technique, designed to accommodate high-degree vertices (hubs) that create scaling challenges when processing scale-free graphs. In addition to partitioning hubs, we use ghost vertices to represent the hubs to reduce communication hotspots. We present a scaling study with three important graph algorithms: Breadth-First Search (BFS), K-Core decomposition, and Triangle Counting. We also demonstrate scalability on BG/P Intrepid by comparing to best known Graph500 results. We show results on two clusters with local NVRAM storage that are capable of traversing trillion-edge scale-free graphs. By leveraging node-local NAND Flash, our approach can process thirty-two times larger datasets with only a 39% performance degradation in Traversed Edges Per Second (TEPS). © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Genetic control of immune response in carriers of the 8.1 ancestral haplotype: correlation with levels of IgG subclasses: its relevance in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candore, Giuseppina; Campagna, Anna Maria; Cuppari, Irene; Di Carlo, Daniele; Mineo, Claudia; Caruso, Calogero

    2007-09-01

    Ancestral haplotype (AH) 8.1(HLA-A1, Cw7, B8, TNFAB*a2b3, TNFN*S, C2*C, Bf*s, C4A*Q0, C4B*1, DRB1*0301, DRB3*0101, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201) seems to be associated with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Different mechanisms are probably involved in increasing autoimmunity, such as unbalanced cytokine production and the lack of C4A protein. So AH 8.1 modifies immune response in many ways. In this study we demonstrate that IgG2 serum levels were significantly lower in 8.1 AH carriers than in 8.1 AH non-carriers. On the contrary, as regards IgG1, IgG3, IgG4 serum levels, no significant differences were observed between the two groups. In AH 8.1 carriers low IgG2 levels might take to slower clearance of the infectious agent and hence to a lasting presence of it. The persistence of infectious antigens could determine an increased production of autoantibodies with a higher risk of cross-reactions. PMID:17911430

  9. Genetic control of immune response in carriers of ancestral haplotype 8.1: the study of chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candore, Giuseppina; Balistreri, Carmela R; Campagna, Anna Maria; Colombo, Alfredo; Cuppari, Irene; Di-Carlo, Daniele; Grimaldi, Maria P; Orlando, Valentina; Piazza, Giuseppina; Vasto, Sonya; Lio, Domenico; Caruso, Calogero

    2006-11-01

    In all caucasian populations the association of an impressive number of autoimmune diseases with genes from the HLA-B8, DR3 haplotype that is part of the ancestral haplotype (AH) 8.1 HLA-A1, Cw7, B8, TNFAB*a2b3, TNFN*S, C2*C, Bf*s, C4A*Q0, C4B*1, DRB1*0301, DRB3*0101, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 has been reported by different research groups. This haplotype, which is more common in northern Europe, is also associated with a number of immune system dysfunctions in healthy subjects. Analyzing the data according to gender, some dysfunctions are observed in women but not in men, in agreement with the role of X-linked genes and/or estrogens in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases. It has been proposed that a small number of genes within the 8.1 AH modify immune responsiveness and hence affect multiple immunopathological diseases. In this article, we demonstrate that neutrophil chemotaxis is significantly decreased in carriers of this AH, suggesting that this impairment may also be related to the increased occurrence of autoimmune diseases in these individuals. PMID:17261794

  10. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of Nepalese alder (Alnus nepalensis growing in a lead-zinc spoil heap, Yunnan, south-western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A fast-growing alder species native to the eastern Himalayas, Nepalese alder (Alnus nepalensis, has recently received considerable attention in the restoration of contaminated lands due to its significant economic benefits and ecological functions. The bioaccumulation characteristics and phytoremediation potential of naturally regenerated Nepalese alder were evaluated in a lead-zinc spoil heap located in Lancang county, Yunnan province, south-western China. Results showed that bioaccumulation factors (BFs of A. nepalensis for Zn and Pb were always >1 in slightly contaminated soils (extractable Zn, Pb of 4.2-17.9 and 3.4-13.1 mg kg-1, respectively and >1 for Cd in contaminated soils (extractable Cd 0.3- 6.8 mg kg-1. By contrast, translocation factors (TFs for Zn were 1 for Pb in soil slightly contaminated by 13.1 mg kg-1 extractable Pb and >1 for Cd in contaminated soils (extractable Cd 2.6- 6.8 mg kg-1. Significant positive correlations were found between heavy metals (HMs in roots and extractable HMs in soils (p<0.01 and between HMs in shoots and extractable HMs in soils (p<0.05 except for Cd. Based on the accumulation capacity revealed in this study, we suggest that A.nepalensis is a promising tree species for phytostabilization of zinc and lead in soils slightly contaminated with Zn and Pb and for phytoextraction of cadmium in Cd-polluted soil.

  11. Hospital use of young children in Switzerland: A nation-wide study based on a complete survey over 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busato André

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children are known to be the most frequent hospital users compared to older children and young adults. Therefore, they are an important population from economic and policy perspectives of health care delivery. In Switzerland complete hospitalization discharge records for children [ Methods Stationary and outpatient hospitalization rates on aggregated ZIP code level were calculated based on census data provided by the Swiss federal statistical office (BfS. Thirty-seven hospital service areas for children [HSAP] were created with the method of "small area analysis", reflecting user-based health markets. Descriptive statistics and general linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The mean stationary hospitalization rate over four years was 66.1 discharges per 1000 children. Hospitalizations for respiratory problem are most dominant in young children (25.9% and highest hospitalization rates are associated with geographical factors of urban areas and specific language regions. Statistical models yielded significant effect estimates for these factors and a significant association between ambulatory/outpatient and stationary hospitalization rates. Conclusion The utilization-based approach, using HSAP as spatial representation of user-based health markets, is a valid instrument and allows assessing the supply and demand of children's health care services. The study provides for the first time estimates for several factors associated with the large variation in the utilization and provision of paediatric health care resources in Switzerland.

  12. Evolution of pH in a radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious materials in radioactive waste repositories establish high pH which brings many benefits. The pH will change with time as the chemical constitutents responsible for it are leached away. This has been simulated in the laboratory for a Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC), a slag-modified cement composed of 90% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and an ash-modified cement containing 90% Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) and 10% OPC. They have been leached in demineralised water and a synthetic groundwater typical of a clay environment. Leachate analyses for a variety of elements showed that the leachate was not usually in equilibrium with any of the solid phases. Nevertheless the experimental evolution of pH was not too different from that predicted by assuming equilibrium and the predictions offer a means of estimating a lower bound for pH as it evolves in a real repository. The experiments with synthetic groundwater showed that the dominant effect influencing pH was precipitation of CaCO3 from bicarbonates in the groundwater resulting in a reduction in both pH and buffer capacity. The ash-modified cement has particularly poor pH-buffering performance which is exacerbated in the groundwater. (author)

  13. Morteros a base de vidrio de desecho/escoria de alto horno; activación mecanoquímica del vidrio en soluciones alcalinas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ivan Escalante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite cements of Blast Furnace Slag (EAH and Waste Glass (WG were investigated. A fraction WG was subjected to mechanochemical activation aiming to solubilize its SiO4 to obtain solutions of sodium silicate (SS with silica modulus greater than zero to improve the compressive strength of the cements.  With the solutions obtained by AMQ, composites of 0 to 100% WG were prepared, and as referred to cements 100% BFS with standard alkaline activation. The strength of the latter decreased after increasing the Na2O content and decreased when the curing temperature was increased to 60oC. In contrast, 100% WG cements required very aggressive chemical activation conditions (12% Na2O at 60oC to obtain good mechanical properties. The composites with 25 and 50% WG required activation conditions similar to those 100% EAH cements, while those cements with 75% WG required activation conditions similar to those of 100% WG.   Keywords: waste glass, blast furnace slag, mechanochemical activation. 

  14. The degree of hydration assessment of blended cement pastes by differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. Morphological evolution of the solid phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo, S.M., E-mail: sm.monteagudo@alumnos.upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Moragues, A., E-mail: amoragues@caminos.upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gálvez, J.C., E-mail: jaime.galvez@upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Casati, M.J., E-mail: mariajesus.casati@upm.es [Departamento de Vehículos Aeroespaciales, Escuela de Ingeniería Aeronáutica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Reyes, E., E-mail: encarnacion.reyes@upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2014-09-20

    Highlights: • A proposal of hydration degree calculation for blended cement pastes is presented. • The method is based both on the contributions of various authors and on DTA–TG results. • Paste and mortar specimens with BFS, FA and SF mineral admixtures were used. • The evaluation of CH gives information on hydration and pozzolanic reactions. • The assessment of α provides an insight into future strength evolution. - Abstract: The degree of hydration assessment of cement paste from differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis data has been performed by several authors that have offered a number of proposals for technical application to blended cements. In this paper, two calculation methods are studied in detail. Then, a proposal of the degree of hydration calculation for blended cements, based on the analysis of experimental results of DTA–TG, is presented. The proposed method combines the contributions of the authors and allows straightforward calculation of the degree of hydration from the experimental results. Validation of the methodology was performed by macroscopic and microstructural tests through paste and mortar specimens with blast furnace slag, flying ash and silica fume mineral admixtures bei(g)ng used. Tests of scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive analyser on paste specimens, and of mechanical strength on mortar specimens with the same percentages of substitution, were performed. They showed good agreement with the information derived from the differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis data.

  15. Review of disposal techniques for radioactively contaminated organic ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic ion-exchange resins are used in the UK nuclear industry to remove radioactive nuclides from dilute aqueous solution. Resins represent a significant proportion of the organic content of ILW and LLW, particularly ILW. Spent resins are destined to be disposed of in the UK deep repository. There are concerns regarding the potential effects of organic materials on long-term repository performance, and these effects have been the subject of much recent research work. The object of this study has been to conduct a worldwide review of treatment and conditioning techniques available for spent organic ion-exchange resins with the intention of recommending the best option for dealing with the waste in the UK. Data on available techniques have been gathered together, and are presented in tabular form at the back of the report. The techniques have been reviewed and compared considering safety, practicality and cost, and a best option selected on the basis of current knowledge. On balance it would appear that wet oxidation using hydrogen peroxide with residue encapsulation in BFS/OPC is the most appropriate technique, probably implemented using a mobile plant. This conclusion and recommendation is not however clear cut and further advice regarding the acceptability of organic material in the repository is necessary before a definite recommendation can be made. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC's Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula

  17. Breadth-first search-based single-phase algorithms for bridge detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Vahid Khalilpour; Dagdeviren, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are promising technologies for exploring harsh environments, such as oceans, wild forests, volcanic regions and outer space. Since sensor nodes may have limited transmission range, application packets may be transmitted by multi-hop communication. Thus, connectivity is a very important issue. A bridge is a critical edge whose removal breaks the connectivity of the network. Hence, it is crucial to detect bridges and take preventions. Since sensor nodes are battery-powered, services running on nodes should consume low energy. In this paper, we propose energy-efficient and distributed bridge detection algorithms for WSNs. Our algorithms run single phase and they are integrated with the Breadth-First Search (BFS) algorithm, which is a popular routing algorithm. Our first algorithm is an extended version of Milic's algorithm, which is designed to reduce the message length. Our second algorithm is novel and uses ancestral knowledge to detect bridges. We explain the operation of the algorithms, analyze their proof of correctness, message, time, space and computational complexities. To evaluate practical importance, we provide testbed experiments and extensive simulations. We show that our proposed algorithms provide less resource consumption, and the energy savings of our algorithms are up by 5.5-times. PMID:23845930

  18. Cements with low Clinker Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lodeiro, I.; Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2015-11-01

    Hybrid alkaline cements are multi-component systems containing a high percentage of mineral additions (fly ash, blast furnace slag), low proportions (alkaline activators. The substantially lower amount of clinker needed to manufacture these binders in comparison to ordinary Portland cement is both economically and ecologically beneficial. Their enormous versatility in terms of the raw materials used has made them the object of considerable interest. The present study explored the mechanical strength of binary blends mixes; B1= 20% clinker (CK) + 80% fly ash (FA) and B2=20% clinker + 80% blast furnace slag (BFS), both hydrated in the presence and absence of an alkaline activator specifically designed for this purpose. The use of the activator enhanced the development of early age strength considerably. All the hydrated matrices were characterised with XRD, SEM/EDX and (29Si and 27Al) NMR. The use of the alkaline activator generated reaction products consisting primarily of a mix of gels ((N,C)-A-S-H and C-A-S-H) whose respective proportions were found to depend upon system composition and initial reactivity.

  19. KREX2 is not essential for either procyclic or bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carnes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei require RNA editing for maturation and translation. The edited RNAs primarily encode proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation system. These parasites undergo extensive changes in energy metabolism between the insect and bloodstream stages which are mirrored by alterations in RNA editing. Two U-specific exonucleases, KREX1 and KREX2, are both present in protein complexes (editosomes that catalyze RNA editing but the relative roles of each protein are not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The requirement for KREX2 for RNA editing in vivo was assessed in both procyclic (insect and bloodstream form parasites by methods that use homologous recombination for gene elimination. These studies resulted in null mutant cells in which both alleles were eliminated. The viability of these cells demonstrates that KREX2 is not essential in either life cycle stage, despite certain defects in RNA editing in vivo. Furthermore, editosomes isolated from KREX2 null cells require KREX1 for in vitro U-specific exonuclease activity. CONCLUSIONS: KREX2 is a U-specific exonuclease that is dispensable for RNA editing in vivo in T. brucei BFs and PFs. This result suggests that the U deletion activity, which is required for RNA editing, is primarily mediated in vivo by KREX1 which is normally found associated with only one type of editosome. The retention of the KREX2 gene implies a non-essential role or a role that is essential in other life cycle stages or conditions.

  20. Osteonecrose maxilar associada ao uso de bisfosfonatos Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Aparecida Brozoski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Os bisfosfonatos (BFs têm sido indicados para o tratamento de doenças do metabolismo ósseo. Atualmente, seu emprego terapêutico aumentou e, com ele, os efeitos adversos, dos quais um dos mais importantes é a indução da osteonecrose dos maxilares, uma complicação de difíceis tratamento e solução. Até o presente, não se sabe ao certo qual é o mecanismo de desenvolvimento da osteonecrose dos maxilares induzida por bisfosfonatos (ONMB, nem qual deve ser o tratamento estabelecido perante essa manifestação. Apesar de a literatura apresentar formas variadas de tratamento, não existe um protocolo definido. Apresentamos uma revisão sobre a ONMB, enfocando sua etiopatogenia e as formas reportadas de tratamento.Bisphosphonates (BPs have been used for the management of bone metabolic diseases. Currently their therapeutic use has increased, as also have their adverse effects, one of the most important being the bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ, a complication of difficult treatment and solution. Until now, the physiopathology of BRONJ remains unclear, and its treatment is uncertain. Although the literature provides several treatment options, there is no defined protocol. We present a review about BRONJ, focusing on its pathogenesis and its reported forms of treatment.

  1. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-01

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects. PMID:26852633

  2. Establishment of Collaboration System for SFR Technology Development between Korea and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) Review of the technical status and plane associated with STCs on the SFR R and D · The objective of the study was accomplished by constructing an human network and investigating the status on the following 5 STCs - Analysis of BFS -73 -1 and 75-1 critical experiments using ERANOS. - SFR : Elector-magnetic pumps or mechanical pumps; criteria for selection, description and modeling - Phenix end of life tests - SC-CO2 Brayton cycle : Investigation of sodium-carbon dioxide interactions; potential consequences on reactor operation - Evaluation of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant for SFR intermediate loop 2) Holding KAERI-CEA SFR technical meeting on STCs - Final investigation at SFR technical meeting held at CEA Cadarache from Jan. 5 to Jan. 7 in 2010. - Agreement on further action plan for completing the STC - Deduction of future collaboration topics and agreed to submit into the next JCCNE - Agreed to hold next SFR technical meeting in Korea on around October 2010

  3. Conference Report. Repository experts met in Essen. Keen interest in the 1st technical discussion of repository mining organized by DMT and GNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mid-March 2012, more than 200 participants met at the Essen technology service providers, DMT GmbH and Co. KG, for the '1st Essen Technical Discussion of Repository Mining.' In cooperation with GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH of Essen, DMT had invited to a lecture event about this very topical subject. A new platform was to be created for exchanges of experience and discussions with colleagues in the field and with representatives of the competent authorities of the federal and state administrations. The 5 lectures presented by Georg Arens (Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety - BMU), Dr. Ute Blohm Hieber (Nuclear Power, Transport, Demolition and Waste Management Unit of the EU Commission - DG ENER-D.2), Matthias Ranft (Federal Office of Radiation Protection - BfS), Wilhelm Bollingerfehr (DBE Technology), and Dr. Philipp Birkhaeuser (Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle - Nagra, Switzerland) discussed both national German and European as well as international topics and aspects of final storage of radioactive waste. (orig.)

  4. Loads imposed on dual purpose casks in German on-site-storage facilities for long term intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with recent changes of the atomic energy act and in order to secure reliable removal of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants' fuel storage ponds the German utilities filed license applications for a total of 12 onsite- storage facilities for spent fuel assemblies. By the end of 2003 the last of these storage facilities were licensed and are currently under construction. The first on-site-storage facility of that line became operational in late 2002. There are several design lines of storage facilities with different handling procedures or possible accident conditions. Short term interim storage facilities for a few casks are characterized by individual concrete hoods shielding the casks in horizontal position whereas long term intermediate storage facilities currently erected for large numbers of casks typically feature a condensed pattern of casks stored in upright position and massive structures of reinforced concrete. TUeV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e. V. (now TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG) has been contracted as a body of independent experts for the assessment of all related safety requirements on behalf of the national licensing authority, the federal office for radiation protection (BfS)

  5. The degree of hydration assessment of blended cement pastes by differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. Morphological evolution of the solid phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A proposal of hydration degree calculation for blended cement pastes is presented. • The method is based both on the contributions of various authors and on DTA–TG results. • Paste and mortar specimens with BFS, FA and SF mineral admixtures were used. • The evaluation of CH gives information on hydration and pozzolanic reactions. • The assessment of α provides an insight into future strength evolution. - Abstract: The degree of hydration assessment of cement paste from differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis data has been performed by several authors that have offered a number of proposals for technical application to blended cements. In this paper, two calculation methods are studied in detail. Then, a proposal of the degree of hydration calculation for blended cements, based on the analysis of experimental results of DTA–TG, is presented. The proposed method combines the contributions of the authors and allows straightforward calculation of the degree of hydration from the experimental results. Validation of the methodology was performed by macroscopic and microstructural tests through paste and mortar specimens with blast furnace slag, flying ash and silica fume mineral admixtures bei(g)ng used. Tests of scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive analyser on paste specimens, and of mechanical strength on mortar specimens with the same percentages of substitution, were performed. They showed good agreement with the information derived from the differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis data

  6. Improved low-distortion sigma-delta ADC with DWA for WLAN standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Di; Yang Yintang; Zhu Zhangming; Shi Lichun; Wu Xiaofeng; Wang Jiangan, E-mail: lidi2004@126.co [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-02-15

    An improved low distortion sigma-delta ADC (analog-to-digital converter) for wireless local area network standards is presented. A feed-forward MASH 2-2 multi-bit cascaded sigma-delta ADC is adopted; however, this work shows a much better performance than the ADCs which have been presented to date by adding a feedback factor in the second stage to improve the performance of the in-band SNDR (signal to noise and distortion ratio), using 4-bit ADCs in both stages to minimize the quantization noise. Data weighted averaging technology is therefore used to decrease the mismatch noise induced by the 4-bit DACs, which improves the SFDR (spurious free dynamic range) of the ADC. The modulator has been implemented by a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process and operates at a single 1.8 V supply voltage. Experimental results show that for a 1.25 MHz - -6 dBFS input signal at 160 MHz sampling frequency, the improved ADC with all non-idealities considered achieves a peak SNDR of 80.9 dB and an SFDR of 87 dB, and the effective number of bits is 13.15 bits. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Changes in the 'medical research' licensing procedure under the German Radiation Protection Ordinance; Neuerungen im Genehmigungsverfahren 'Medizinische Forschung' gemaess Roentgen- und Strahlenschutzverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeck, M.; Minkov, V.; Griebel, J.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Oberschleissheim-Neuherberg (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit; Epsch, R.; Langer, M. [Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft e.V. (DRG), Berlin (Germany). Klinische Studienkoordination

    2012-06-15

    This publication outlines the 'medical research' licensing procedure as specified in the amendment of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance of November 1, 2011. The general licensing requirements for the use of radiation have not been changed by the amendment. Three so-called use restrictions (i.e., dose limits of 10 mSv and 20 mSv, age limit of 50 years) have been modified. They will only apply to healthy volunteers in the future. In addition, there are considerable simplifications with respect to applications and licensing procedures of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) regarding the use of radiation in the newly introduced 'accompanying diagnostics' ('Begleitdiagnostik') case group. The newly established, independent panel of experts at the German Radiological Society (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) may provide essential support to principal investigators, qualified physicians and sponsors for differentiating between 'medical research' and 'health care', the latter not being subject to licensing. An expert statement will be issued by the DRG within four weeks of an inquiry. This consulting service is subject to confidentiality, and is free of charge for inquirers and without any commitment. (orig.)

  8. Changes in the 'medical research' licensing procedure under the German Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication outlines the 'medical research' licensing procedure as specified in the amendment of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance of November 1, 2011. The general licensing requirements for the use of radiation have not been changed by the amendment. Three so-called use restrictions (i.e., dose limits of 10 mSv and 20 mSv, age limit of 50 years) have been modified. They will only apply to healthy volunteers in the future. In addition, there are considerable simplifications with respect to applications and licensing procedures of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) regarding the use of radiation in the newly introduced 'accompanying diagnostics' ('Begleitdiagnostik') case group. The newly established, independent panel of experts at the German Radiological Society (Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, DRG) may provide essential support to principal investigators, qualified physicians and sponsors for differentiating between 'medical research' and 'health care', the latter not being subject to licensing. An expert statement will be issued by the DRG within four weeks of an inquiry. This consulting service is subject to confidentiality, and is free of charge for inquirers and without any commitment. (orig.)

  9. On the continuance of validity of licences issued by the former GDR administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Licence for the Continued Operation of the Repository for Radioactive Waste'' given to the Dept for Repository for Radioactive Waste Morsleben (ERAM) of the state-owned collective combine Nuclear Reactor ''Bruno Leuschner'' in Greifswald by the National Office for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection within the Cabinet of the German Democratic Republic (SAAS) on 22.4.1986 is examined in detail with regard to its continuance. There are special regulations in force which ultimately render the licence for continued operation issued on 22.4.1986 effective in the form of a sham plan approval descision for the benefit of the National Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), para. 9b sec. 1. para 9a sec. 3. sentence and para. 23, sec. 1, no. 2 of the Atomic Energy Act. However the division of administrative law of the regional superior court of Magdeburg has declared the confinuance of the licence for continued operation issued on 22.4.1986 in this form, i.e. for the benefit of the National Office for Radiation Protection null and void. Some central aspects of this extensive legal problem are discussed. (orig./HSCH)

  10. Development and application of RP-HPLC methods for the analysis of transition metals and their radioactive isotops in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major criterion in the final disposal of nuclear waste is to keep possible changes in the geosphere due to the introduction of radioactive waste as small as possible and to prevent any escape into the biosphere in the long term. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has therefore established limit values for a number of nuclides. Verifying these limits has to date involved laborious wet chemical analysis. In order to accelerate quantification there is a need to develop rapid multielement methods. HPLC methods represent a starting point for this development. Chemical separation is necessary to quantify β-emitters via their radioactive radiation since they are characterized by a continuous energy spectrum. A method for quantifying transition metals and their radioactive isotopes from radioactive waste has been created by using a chelating agent to select the analytes and RP-HPLC to separate the complexes formed. In addition to separating the matrix, complexation on a precolumn has the advantage of enriching the analytes. The subject of this thesis is the development and application of the method including studies of the mobile and stationary phase, as well as the optimization of all parameters, such as pH value, sample volume etc., which influence separation, enrichment or detection. The method developed was successfully tested using cement samples. It was also used for investigations of ion exchange resins and for trace analysis in calcium fluoride. Furthermore, the transferability of the method to actinides was examined by using a different complexing agent. (orig.)

  11. 基于高校门户网站的有向网络模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明芳; 王力虎; 李稳国

    2009-01-01

    通过对广西师范大学门户网站的网页进行分层搜索,本文组建了一个以网页为节点、超链为边的有向网络,发现它的出八度分布均呈现良好的幂律分布特性,出度分布在开始部分出现弯曲.根据这些特性,本文提出了一种含有增长,择优和重连机制的有向网络演化模型,模型的演化机制较好的反应了广西师范大学网的这些特性.%By searching the college web-site of GuangXi Normal University. a BFS and layered algorithm is used to construct a directed network which web pages are treated as vertices and hyperlinks as directed edges in this paper. After doing statistical analysis to the network, some features trove been found that the vertex in-degree and out-degree indicate power-law distribution, and there is a curve in the beginning of out-degree distribution. According to these features, the evolvement model with growing, preferential and rewired mechanism of this complex directed network has been proposed. The Evolution Mechanism reflects some characteristics of the GuangXi Normal University Network.

  12. Calculational methods, codes and results of calculational and experimental investigations of control rod worth in power fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to present the main physical principles for selection of design characteristics of the fast reactor control rods (CR) system. The brief analysis of problems of CR physical calculations is given. Four components are described for the correction to the control rod worth calculated by the routine method based on the few - group three - dimensional diffusion code (TRIGEX) in hexagonal geometry. Principle considerations are given for the choice of the original task discretization methods implemented in this code to minimize the total error. Brief information is given about methods and codes used for the evaluation of error components of control rod worths calculated in a standard way. The results of experimental and calculational investigations of control rod physical characteristics are presented. These results were obtained at BFS critical assemblies simulating LMFBR cores. The investigations have been carried out for different types of core configurations. The experimental and calculated values are given on the distortion of power distribution due to the control rod insertion in the core. (author). 51 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Optimisation of loading Konrad-containers with nuclear waste arising from the decommissioning of a MOX-facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During decommissioning of the Siemens MOX facility in Hanau plutonium contaminated waste with a high content of fissionable material are accumulated. Main contributions to these solid wastes are plastics and metals from the decommissioning of glove boxes. The conditioning methods of the individual waste streams for disposal are qualified on a campaign-by-campaign basis. The responsibility for the approval of the applied conditioning method is with the German Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). An essential part of the waste qualification process is the evidence that the activity as the quantity of fissile material respectively fulfil the repository's demands on the acceptable amount of fissile material. For waste minimisation it is essential to exploit the marginal values of the waste acceptance criteria of the repository. At the same time it is necessary by minimize the steps to be taken during conditioning due to health physics aspects. For this reason different measurement devices are applied during decommissioning of the Hanau Mox plant. (orig.)

  14. Physico-chemical transformations of sulfated compounds during the leaching of highly sulfated cemented wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementation of sulfated evaporator concentrates leads to highly sulfated low level wastes, (ca. 25% w/w sodium sulfate solution as mix water), which exhibit the presence of U-phase, a sodium-bearing calcium monosulfphoaluminate-like phase. During the leaching of simulated highly sulfated OPC/BFS cements, cured at room temperature and containing U-phase, sodium sulfate, and ettringite, physico-chemical transformations have been pointed out (transformation of U-phase into ettringite). Samples having the same chemical composition, but cured at high temperature (maximal temperature during curing: 120 C), do not contain ettringite initially, but secondary ettringite is formed during leaching. XRD spectra point out the existence of precipitation fronts (or of phase formation fronts) varying linearly versus the square root of time. The analysis of leaching solutions has provided complementary data used in a code, the aim of which is to assess cement degradation, based on coupling between transport by diffusion and chemical reactions (DIFFUZON code). The U-phase-ettringite transformation is confirmed

  15. Acoustic emission monitoring of cement-based structures immobilising radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term performance of cementitious structures immobilising radioactive waste can be affected by physical and chemical processes within the encapsulating materials such as formation of new phases (e.g., vaterite, brucite), degradation of cement phases (e.g., CSH gel, portlandite), degradation of some waste components (e.g., organics), corrosion of metallic constituents (aluminium, magnesium), gas emission, further hydration etc. The corrosion of metals in the high pH cementitious environment is of especial concern as it can potentially cause wasteform cracking. One of the perspective non-destructive methods used to monitor and assess the mechanical properties of materials and structures is based on an acoustic emission (AE) technique. In this study an AE non-destructive technique was used to evaluate the mechanical performance of cementitious structures with encapsulated metallic waste such as aluminium. AE signals generated as a result of aluminium corrosion in a small-size blast furnace slag (BFS)/ordinary Portland cement (OPC) sample were detected, recorded and analysed. A procedure for AE data analysis including conventional parameter-based AE approach and signal-based analysis was applied and demonstrated to provide information on the aluminium corrosion process and its impact on the mechanical performance of the encapsulating cement matrix. (authors)

  16. Generation of transport correction factor through the comparison of reactivity coefficients by transport and diffusion theory calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to generate the transport correction factor to come close to the accuracy of the transport theory by using the result of diffusion theory calculation which mainly used in the core design of liquid metal reactor. The objective cores of this research are the BN-600 reactor proposed as IAEA CRP Benchmark core, the BFS-73-1 critical experiment in Russia IPPE, KALIMER-150 and KALIMER-600 Breakeven cores. For these cores, the feedback reactivity coefficients are calculated by using the K-CORE code system based on transport and diffusion theory, on and after they are compared with each other, and the transport correction factors are produced based on those results. According to the differences between the transport and diffusion calculation results, the values of the K-CORE code system show higher trends than those of other country participants and the measurement results. Through the update of nuclear data libraries and the comparison analysis of more numbers of experiments meaningful in statistical analysis, more accurate verification and improvement will be carried out. The result of this study will be utilized as the basic data for the development of reactivity coefficients analysis system, and will improve the credit of reactivity coefficients calculation in core design

  17. Operationalisation of the model 'risk-sovereignty' in the field of radiation protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central aim of the BfS research project titled ''operationalization of the 'risk sovereignty model' with special consideration to lifestyle and value approaches as a basis for risk communication in the field of radiation protection'' was the identification of suitable measures to enhance the degree of risk sovereignty of the German population with regard to radiation risks (mobile telephony, nuclear power, ultraviolet radiation and X-rays). This requires the development of a measuring instrument for capturing the prevailing degree of risk sovereignty in the whole population or in certain subgroups with regard to radiation risks empirically. In the first two phases of the project suitable instruments for the construct ''risk sovereignty'' have been developed. Furthermore a value-typology for the identification of different groups of persons as well as independent variables likely to have an influence on 'risk sovereignty' (information behavior, communication or participation intention) were included in the study. The empirical research is divided into a quantitative and a qualitative inquiry. Based on the empirical studies, a guidance document to improve the cognitive capability of people to build up risk sovereignty, in particular in relation to radiation was developed. For the three types of respondents, different strategies were recommended taking into account their needs and information seeking behavior

  18. Operationalisation of the model 'risk-sovereignty' in the field of radiation protection. Final report; Operationalisierung des Leitbildes 'Risikomuendigkeit' unter Beruecksichtigung von Lebensstil und Wertorientierung als Grundlage fuer die Risikokommunikation im Strahlenschutz. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, Ortwin (comp.); Ruddat, Michael; Sautter, Alexander

    2007-07-01

    The central aim of the BfS research project titled ''operationalization of the 'risk sovereignty model' with special consideration to lifestyle and value approaches as a basis for risk communication in the field of radiation protection'' was the identification of suitable measures to enhance the degree of risk sovereignty of the German population with regard to radiation risks (mobile telephony, nuclear power, ultraviolet radiation and X-rays). This requires the development of a measuring instrument for capturing the prevailing degree of risk sovereignty in the whole population or in certain subgroups with regard to radiation risks empirically. In the first two phases of the project suitable instruments for the construct ''risk sovereignty'' have been developed. Furthermore a value-typology for the identification of different groups of persons as well as independent variables likely to have an influence on 'risk sovereignty' (information behavior, communication or participation intention) were included in the study. The empirical research is divided into a quantitative and a qualitative inquiry. Based on the empirical studies, a guidance document to improve the cognitive capability of people to build up risk sovereignty, in particular in relation to radiation was developed. For the three types of respondents, different strategies were recommended taking into account their needs and information seeking behavior.

  19. Combined effect of blanching and sonication on quality parameters of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suheela; Sharma, Harish Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of blanching and sonication treatment on selected quality parameters of bottle gourd juice (BGJ). Bottle gourd cubes were blanched and juice was extracted. Effect of frequency (20-50kHz), amplitude (50-90%) and time (10-30min) was also studied on quality parameters like titratable acidity (TA), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), physical stability (PS), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC), browning index (BI), total plate count (TPC) and yeast & mold count (Y&M) of BGJ to derive the level of these parameters. Combined effect of blanching followed by sonication (BFS) showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in all quality parameters except TA. Highest percentage of TSS (5.9°B), PS (2%), AA (18.99mg/100g), TP (1010mg/100g) and TC (5.8mg/100g) was observed at 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min. Results suggested 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min as best treatment conditions for processing of BGJ. Microstructure examination, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction analysis of BGJ showed significant change in particle size and distribution. Moreover, TEM of blanched and sonicated samples of BGJ also showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in microbial profile. PMID:27245969

  20. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  1. The fifth research coordination meeting (RCM) on 'Updated codes and methods to reduce the calculational uncertainties of liquid metal fast reactors reactivity effects'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective of the CRP is to validate, verify and improve methodologies and computer codes used for the calculation of reactivity coefficients in fast reactors aiming at enhancing the utilization of plutonium and minor actinides. The objectives of the fifth RCM were: to review the progress achieved since the 4th RCM; to review and finalize the draft synthesis report on BN-600 MOX Fueled Core Benchmark Analysis (Phase 4); to compare the results of Phase 5 (BFS Benchmark Analysis); to agree on the work scope of Phase 6 (BN-Full MOX Minor Actinide Core Benchmark); to discuss the preparation of the final report. In this context, review and related discussions were made on the following items: summary review of Actions and results since the 4th RCM; finalization of the draft synthesis report on BN-600 full MOX-fueled core benchmark analysis (Phase 4); presentation of individual results for Phase 5 by Member States; preliminary inter-comparison analysis of the results for Phase 5; definition of the benchmark model and work scope to be performed for Phase 6; details of the work scope and future CRP timetable for preparing a final report

  2. Third research co-ordination meeting (RCM) on 'Updated codes and methods to reduce the calculational uncertainties of liquid metal fast reactors'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFBR Reactivity Effect, is to validate, verify and improve methodologies and computer codes used for the calculation of reactivity coefficients in fast reactors aiming at enhancing the utilization of plutonium and minor actinides. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) took place in Vienna on 24-26 November 1999 and the third RCM was scheduled for 12-16 November 2001 in Cadarache France. The objectives of the third RCM were: to review and finalize the draft synthesis report of Phase I (R-Z Homogeneous reactor core calculations) and Phase 2 (Hex-Z Homogeneous reactor core calculations); to compare the results of Phase 3 (Hex-Z Heterogeneous reactor core calculations and Burnup); to agree on the work scope of Phase 4 (BFS-62 Analysis); to discuss proposals for Phase 5 (Minor Actinides). In this context, review and related discussions were made on the following items: summary review of Actions and results since last meeting; presentation of individual results for Phase 3 by Member States; discussion of the comparison of the results for Phases 1 and 2; preliminary analysis of the results for Phase 3; definition of the work to be performed under Phase 4 of CRP; discussion of work scope for the next CRP Phases

  3. Evolution of pH in a radwaste repository: leaching of modified cements and reactions with groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious materials in radioactive waste repositories establish high pH which brings many benefits. The pH will change with time as the chemical constituents responsible for it are leached away. This has been simulated in the laboratory for a Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC), a slag-modified cement composed of 90% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and an ash-modified cement containing 90% Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) and 10% OPC. They have been leached in demineralised water and a synthetic groundwater typical of a clay environment. Leachate analyses for a variety of elements showed that the leachate was not usually in equilibrium with any of the solid phases. Nevertheless the experimental evolution of pH was not too different from that predicted by assuming equilibrium and the predictions offer a means of estimating a lower bound for pH as it evolves in a real repository. The experiments with synthetic groundwater showed that the dominant effect influencing pH was precipitation of CaCO3 from bicarbonates in the groundwater resulting in a reduction in both pH and buffer capacity. The ash-modified cement has particularly poor pH-buffering performance which is exacerbated in the groundwater. (author)

  4. Patterns of failure after iodine-125 seed implantation for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the site of relapse when biochemical failure (BF) occurs after iodine-125 seed implantation for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: From 2001–2009, 500 men underwent implantation in Wellington, New Zealand. Men who sustained BF were placed on relapse guidelines that delayed restaging and intervention until the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was ⩾20 ng/mL. Results: Most implants (86%) had a prostate D90 of ⩾90%, and multivariate analysis showed that this parameter was not a variable that affected the risk of BF. Of 21 BFs that occurred, the site of failure was discovered to be local in one case and distant in nine cases. Restaging failed to identify the site of relapse in two cases. In nine cases the trigger for restaging had not been reached. Conclusions: If post-implant dosimetry is generally within the optimal range, distant rather than local failure appears to be the main cause of BF. Hormone treatment is therefore the most commonly indicated secondary treatment intervention (STI). Delaying the start of STI prevents the unnecessary treatment of men who undergo PSA ‘bounce’ and have PSA dynamics initially mimicking those of BF

  5. Hydrochemistry of selected parameters at the Raft River KGRA, Cassia County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, D.L.; Ralston, D.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Low to moderate temperature (< 150/sup 0/C) geothermal fluids are being developed in the southern Raft River Valley of Idaho. Five deep geothermal wells ranging in depth from 4911 feet to 6543 feet (1490 to 1980 meters) and two intermediate depth (3858 feet or 1170 meters) injection wells have been drilled within the Raft River KGRA. Several shallower (1423-500 feet or 430-150 meters) wells have also been constructed to monitor the environmental effects of geothermal development of the shallower aquifer systems. Sampling of water from wells within the KGRA has been conducted since the onset of the project in 1974. Five analytical laboratories have conducted analyses on waters from the KGRA. Charge-balance error calculations conducted on the data produced from these laboratories indicated that data from three laboratories were reliable while two were not. A method of equating all data was established by using linear regression analyses on sets of paired data from various laboratories. The chemical data collected from the deep geothermal wells indicates that a two reservoir system exists within the Raft River KGRA. Each reservoir is associated with a major structural feature. These features are known as the Bridge Fault System (BFS) and the Narrows Structure (NS).

  6. 农业机器人导航中两类纹理边缘的快速跟踪与透视变换%Fast boundary tracking and projective transformation of cut-uncut surfaces for agricultural robot navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 汪亚明; 赵匀

    2005-01-01

    Active vision on application of agricultural field, especially with the boundary tracking of cut-uncut crop surfaces with similar colors, is quite a challenge. Two novel methods were proposed for its fast segmentation in order to navigate agricultural robot. The key to efficiency is based on a narrow band extraction of multi-scale features from regions of interest (ROI) and the multi-cues enhancement of pixel-rows. The former is related to the weighted mean of k-level extreme values of pixels. The latter is related to the feature enhancement of neighborhood rows and multi-evidence fuzzy recognition. The two approaches are nearly unsupervised and their guidance line is able to be adaptive to a changing environment.A real-time method of projective transformation (with less than 1 ms of parameter processing) and an auto-calibration method for camera's main pose (with the time cost less than 0. 5 s) were presented. Software for analyzing the cut-uncut lawn was developed. Experimental results were promising, in which correct segmentation was achieved within 55ms at 160× 120 resolutions with an average error below 5% for normal sequence, and the online boundary tracking of cut-uncut lawns was done autonomously at the speed of 8~9 frame per second (FPS) under 160× 120 resolutions, based on a tradeoff combination of the multi-rows Best Fit Step (MR-BFS) and the multi-evidence fuzzy enhancement from pixel-rows. If the color distances between sides of tracking boundary are relatively larger, the present method of color components operation plus bit-mask may be a good choice for multi-boundary tracking in the field, with full segmentation done within 20~30 ms for color sequence of 320× 240 resolutions. All the technique can be further used in real-time control over agricultural robot navigation without the involvement of human.%野外田间的主动摄像机视觉,尤其是对作物割过与未割过的高相似颜色表面进行实时识别与跟踪是一项极具挑

  7. Atomistic Simulation of High-Density Uranium Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Garcés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply an atomistic modeling approach to deal with interfacial phenomena in high-density uranium fuels. The effects of Si, as additive to Al or as U-Mo-particles coating, on the behavior of the Al/U-Mo interface is modeled by using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS method for alloys. The basic experimental features characterizing the real system are identified, via simulations and atom-by-atom analysis. These include (1 the trend indicating formation of interfacial compounds, (2 much reduced diffusion of Al into U-Mo solid solution due to the high Si concentration, (3 Si depletion in the Al matrix, (4 an unexpected interaction between Mo and Si which inhibits Si diffusion to deeper layers in the U-Mo solid solution, and (5 the minimum amount of Si needed to perform as an effective diffusion barrier. Simulation results related to alternatives to Si dispersed in the Al matrix, such as the use of C coating of U-Mo particles or Zr instead of the Al matrix, are also shown. Recent experimental results confirmed early theoretical proposals, along the lines of the results reported in this work, showing that atomistic computational modeling could become a valuable tool to aid the experimental work in the development of nuclear fuels.

  8. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for CAGR graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce an adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. This report details the work carried out under Phase 2 of the Product Evaluation Task Force programme, on CAGR graphite. Three possible types of encapsulants for CAGR graphites:-Inorganic cements, Polymer cements and Polymers are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie Storage, Transport, handling and emplacement, Disposal and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of three parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on CAGR graphite. (author)

  9. Decomposition of the adjoint representation of the small quantum sl$_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ostrik, V

    1997-01-01

    Given a finite type root datum and a primitive root of unity q=\\sqrt[l]{1}, G.~Lusztig has defined in [Lu] a remarkable finite dimensional Hopf algebra \\fu over the cyclotomic field {\\Bbb Q}(\\sqrt[l]{1}). In this note we study the adjoint representation \\ad of \\fu in the simplest case of the root datum sl_2. The semisimple part of this representation is of big importance in the study of local systems of conformal blocks in WZW model for \\hat{sl}_2 at level l-2 in arbitrary genus. The problem of distinguishing the semisimple part is closely related to the problem of integral representation of conformal blocks (see [BFS]). We find all the indecomposable direct summands of \\ad with multiplicities. It appears that \\ad is isomorphic to a direct sum of simple and projective modules. It can be lifted to a module over the (infinite dimensional) quantum universal enveloping algebra with divided powers U_q(sl_2) which is also a direct sum of simples and projectives.

  10. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for MEB crud/filter aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce an adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. This report details the work carried out, under Phase 2 of the Product Evaluation Task Force programme, on MEB Crud/Filter Aid. Three possible types of encapsulants for MEB Crud/Filter Aid:- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements, and Polymers are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision and analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations, ie Storage, Transport, handling and emplacement, Disposal and, Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of nine parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on MEB/Filter Aid. (author)

  11. Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation. 19. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 19th edition covers the amendments added since the 17th edition ( March 1994 ) referring to the following: (1) AtG sections 7 and 9a (Artikelgesetz, as of 19.7. 1994, published in BGBl I, p. 1618 ff); (2) incorporation of the legal requirements governing the environmental impact statement (EIS) in compliance with the EIS Act (UVPG) into the Nuclear Installations Ordinance (BGBl I, p. 181 ff); (3) amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) in sections 6, 22, 31, 42, 87, sub-sec. 2, due to the new act on medical products, in section 41 due to the amended act on health care facilities and services, and in section 87, sub-sec. 1 due to section 7 of the 31st penal reform law - 2nd law to combat environmental crime; (4) amendment of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act in section 11, extension of competence of the BfS (Federal Rad. Prot. Office); (5) amendment of the Penal Code, environmental crime committed by release of ionizing radiation, or faulty construction of a nuclear installation; (6) update of provisions concerning competences of the federal states in implementation of nuclear laws. In the 19th edition of the commentary, the numbering of the various acts and ordinances, and the relevant page numbering have been completely revised. (HP)

  12. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB)

  13. High-Density Polyethylene and Heat-Treated Bamboo Fiber Composites: Nonisothermal Crystallization Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat-treated bamboo fibers (BFs on nonisothermal crystallization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry under nitrogen. The Avrami-Jeziorny model was used to fit the measured crystallization data of the HDPE/BF composites and to obtain the model parameters for the crystallization process. The heat flow curves of neat HDPE and HDPE/heat-treated BF composites showed similar trends. Their crystallization mostly occurred within a temperature range between 379 K and 399 K, where HDPE turned from the liquid phase into the crystalline phase. Values of the Avrami exponent (n were in the range of 2.8~3.38. Lamellae of neat HDPE and their composites grew in a three-dimensional manner, which increased with increased heat-treatment temperature and could be attributed to the improved ability of heterogeneous nucleation and crystallization completeness. The values of the modified kinetic rate constant (KJ first increased and then decreased with increased cooling rate because the supercooling was improved by the increased number of nucleating sites. Heat-treated BF and/or a coupling agent could act as a nucleator for the crystallization of HDPE.

  14. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilization/solidification technology is one of the most widely used techniques for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Cement-based products, commonly referred to as grouts, are the predominant materials of choice because of their low associated processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. This blend is mixed with 106-AN at a mix ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents the final results of efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of WHC's Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula

  15. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for BWR/PWR dissolver wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce an adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. This report details the work carried out, under Phase 2 of the Product Evaluation Task Force programme, on BWR/PWR Dissolver Wastes. Three possible types of encapsulants for BWR/PWR Dissolver Wastes:- Inorganic cements, Polymer cements and Polymers are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie Storage, Transport, handling and emplacement, Disposal and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of three parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), is recommended for Phase 3 studies on BWR/PWR Dissolver Wastes. (author)

  16. Official dosimetry with individual electronic dosemeters - the concept in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Presently, in Germany passive dosemeters (film batches, RPL, TLD) are used for the official individual monitoring of occupational exposed personal. The application of electronic individual dosemeters (EPD) is carried out mainly for the operative radiation protection control particularly in nuclear power engineering companies, big hospitals und research centres. This means in such institutions double monitoring exists - legally and operatively. A crucial advantage of EPD compared to passive dosemeter is the possibility to adapt the monitoring period to the working time in the control area, e.g. a job related monitoring is available. Germany started a project for an optimized implementation of EPD into the official dosimetry. Objective of the project whose results will be described in the paper is the harmonization of radiation protection of companies workers and outside workers concerning the record of individual and job related exposures. The approval of the EPD by the Federal and Laender authorities as an official dosimetric system demands the implementation of special requirements concerning the data acquisition, data transfer and data evaluation. These issues are focuses of the Federal research project, supervised by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and performed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Cologne to develop a concept in the first stage. (author)

  17. A meshless scheme for incompressible fluid flow using a velocity-pressure correction method

    KAUST Repository

    Bourantas, Georgios

    2013-12-01

    A meshless point collocation method is proposed for the numerical solution of the steady state, incompressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations in their primitive u-v-p formulation. The flow equations are solved in their strong form using either a collocated or a semi-staggered "grid" configuration. The developed numerical scheme approximates the unknown field functions using the Moving Least Squares approximation. A velocity, along with a pressure correction scheme is applied in the context of the meshless point collocation method. The proposed meshless point collocation (MPC) scheme has the following characteristics: (i) it is a truly meshless method, (ii) there is no need for pressure boundary conditions since no pressure constitutive equation is solved, (iii) it incorporates simplicity and accuracy, (iv) results can be obtained using collocated or semi-staggered "grids", (v) there is no need for the usage of a curvilinear system of coordinates and (vi) it can solve steady and unsteady flows. The lid-driven cavity flow problem, for Reynolds numbers up to 5000, has been considered, by using both staggered and collocated grid configurations. Following, the Backward-Facing Step (BFS) flow problem was considered for Reynolds numbers up to 800 using a staggered grid. As a final example, the case of a laminar flow in a two-dimensional tube with an obstacle was examined. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Multiscale and Fractal Analysis of Silicon Content Time Series Observed in Blast Furnace Hot Metal Using Hurst Exponent Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shihua; Guo, Fan; Lai, Dejian; Yan, Fang; Tang, Feilai

    2015-09-01

    Hurst exponent is an important measure of nonlinearity of dynamical time series. In this paper, using rescaled-range (R/S) analysis, multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) methods, the multiscale Hurst exponent (MHE) and the multiscale generalized Hurst exponent (MGHE) of coarse-grained silicon content ([Si]) time series in blast furnace (BF) hot metal were calculated. First, we collected these [Si] time series from No. 1 BF of Nanchang Iron and Steel Co. and No. 10 BF of Xinyu Iron and Steel Co. in Jiangxi Province, China. Then, we analyzed and compared the estimated Hurst exponents and the generalized Hurst exponent of these observed time series with some simulated time series. Our results show that the observed time series from these BFs have negative correlation with the Hurst exponent less than 0.5, the generalized Hurst exponent H(q) is a nonlinear function of q, and such negative correlation and local various structure persist in their moving averages of the observed time series up to lag 5 or 10.

  19. Contributions to elaboration of concept and measures for optimized management of beyond-design-basis accidents in German LWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present Project SR 2227 ordered by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) within the framework of the Nuclear Regulatory Investigation Program of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), major contributions were worked out with regard to the concept and measures for an optimum influencing control of event sequences beyond the design basis of nuclear power plants with light water reactors. The studies dealt with extremely unlikely conditions under which core damage is to be expected due to the boundary conditions postulated or already has occurred. A total of 7 different basic scenarios were analysed with the MELCOR integral code for the PWR reference plant. These concerned LOCAs with small and large leaks in the reactor cooling system (RCS) and transients at low and high RCS pressure. The earliest moment of core destruction was calculated to occur after about half an hour, the latest one after 5.5 hours. The highest rate of H2 formation was determined for cases involving a rather slow progression of core destruction. The retention of released fission products in the RCS strongly depends on the release path into the containment. (orig./GL)

  20. Radon exposure at workplaces in mining and balneotherapy. Summary of the survey results in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In respect to the demands of the Euratom Basic Standards workplaces in more than 350 institutions in mines, show caves and visitors mines were measured as well as in balneotherapy. By onsite measurement and working time questioning the expected annual dose of the workers by radon progeny and direct radiation was calculated. In addition the respective data evaluated by the Materials Testing Institute at Dortmund (MPA) mainly from hard coal mines were considered togther with data received from the Federal Office for Radiaton Protection (BfS) concerning the non-uranium underground workplaces in the new federal countries, which are surveyed routinely. The statistical handling of the data gives a reliable picture for eventually necessary procedures if limits and interaction levels are introduced in Germany. One can assume that about 10% of the underground workplaces measured are exposed to annual doses of more than 15 mSv, while in balneotherapy a very small number of workers will reach this value. (orig./HP)

  1. Improved low-distortion sigma-delta ADC with DWA for WLAN standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved low distortion sigma-delta ADC (analog-to-digital converter) for wireless local area network standards is presented. A feed-forward MASH 2-2 multi-bit cascaded sigma-delta ADC is adopted; however, this work shows a much better performance than the ADCs which have been presented to date by adding a feedback factor in the second stage to improve the performance of the in-band SNDR (signal to noise and distortion ratio), using 4-bit ADCs in both stages to minimize the quantization noise. Data weighted averaging technology is therefore used to decrease the mismatch noise induced by the 4-bit DACs, which improves the SFDR (spurious free dynamic range) of the ADC. The modulator has been implemented by a 0.18 μm CMOS process and operates at a single 1.8 V supply voltage. Experimental results show that for a 1.25 MHz - -6 dBFS input signal at 160 MHz sampling frequency, the improved ADC with all non-idealities considered achieves a peak SNDR of 80.9 dB and an SFDR of 87 dB, and the effective number of bits is 13.15 bits. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Improved low-distortion sigma-delta ADC with DWA for WLAN standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Li; Yintang, Yang; Zhangming, Zhu; Lichun, Shi; Xiaofeng, Wu; Jiangan, Wang

    2010-02-01

    An improved low distortion sigma-delta ADC (analog-to-digital converter) for wireless local area network standards is presented. A feed-forward MASH 2-2 multi-bit cascaded sigma-delta ADC is adopted; however, this work shows a much better performance than the ADCs which have been presented to date by adding a feedback factor in the second stage to improve the performance of the in-band SNDR (signal to noise and distortion ratio), using 4-bit ADCs in both stages to minimize the quantization noise. Data weighted averaging technology is therefore used to decrease the mismatch noise induced by the 4-bit DACs, which improves the SFDR (spurious free dynamic range) of the ADC. The modulator has been implemented by a 0.18 μm CMOS process and operates at a single 1.8 V supply voltage. Experimental results show that for a 1.25 MHz @ -6 dBFS input signal at 160 MHz sampling frequency, the improved ADC with all non-idealities considered achieves a peak SNDR of 80.9 dB and an SFDR of 87 dB, and the effective number of bits is 13.15 bits.

  3. A High Performance Sigma-Delta ADC for Audio Decoder Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a high performance sigma delta Analog to Digital Converter (ADC applied in computer audio decoder chip. In this design, a 3rd-order single-loop CIFF topology is chosen to achieve the high performance ADC. Its signal bandwidth is 20KHz, sampling frequency is 10.24MHz and oversampling ratio is 256. Local feedback coefficient is used to reduce quantization noise. The non-linear model of modulator is given and the stability is analyzed. It is got that when quantizer gain is bigger than 0.322 the system is stable. According to simulation, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR is 123.1dB and Effective Number of Bits (ENOB is 20.15bits. When input level is bigger than -3dBFs, the modulator is overload and becomes unstable. Then the integrator, quantizer and feed forward summation in ADC circuit are designed.  Then the ADC is implemented in 0.6um CMOS process, and the test result shows that its performance is 99.28dB.  

  4. Benchmark-experiments for Pb and Bi neutron data testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expedience of accurate estimation of neutron data for Pb and Bi has increased recently in connection with the Accelerator-driven system (ADS) projects and the new generation fast reactors under development, which shall use lead or lead-bismuth coolant. Still the significant difference (10%) in the energy range of 100 keV - 500 keV, for the σtot from various data sets has been observed. The differences found are associated with the energy range, for which experimental information is lacking. The situation with Bi data is not better. In this connection, several benchmarks were assembled at BFS with uranium and plutonium fuel and lead or lead-bismuth coolant. The scope of the investigations included the measurements of the spectral indexes, distributions of the fission rates of the main isotopes, small samples worths and coolant voiding. The special program was connected with minor actinides. The influence of the plutonium isotope composition was investigated at the assemblies with reactor and weapon grade Pu. Calculations of the measured parameters were carried out using the most modern versions of nuclear data libraries. All the results of these experiments and their analysis have prepared for the construction of the benchmarks and planed as the candidates for the International data base IRPhEP. (authors)

  5. ARN results in interlaboratory comparison exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For years, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has been involved in several laboratory intercomparison programmes. The objective of participating in these exercises is to assure the quality of the determinations that the radiochemical laboratories of ARN carries out as part of its regulatory activity. Most of these determinations are related to its environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of nuclear and radioactive facilities existing in the country, in operation or not. Other determinations are related with effluent samples and monitoring activities performed inside the facilities. On the other hand, these intercomparisons are part of the requirements for the laboratories under ISO 17025. ARN laboratories are in process to obtain or maintain ISO 17025 accreditation as a priority objective. During the development of the intercomparisons, different samples have been tested in several matrices containing alpha, beta and gamma emitters. These exercises were organized by different laboratories as the IAEA, the EML and NIST from United States, the NPL and the NRPB from England, the BFS from Germany, and so on. The results were very satisfactory not only in direct measurements (gamma spectrometry) but also in those that require a previous intensive laboratory processing (alpha spectrometry and liquid scintillation), resulting in many cases better than the general average. This paper provides a summary of the results obtained in these exercises and the results are compared with the overall average of the participating laboratories. (author)

  6. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil. PMID:23947715

  7. Transit and absorption of nuclear industry derivatives by marine biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broard research program on radionuclides became necessary due to the construction of the Nuclear Power Plant at Angra dos Reis. As part of this program the research developped by the Marine Biology Departament, UFRJ, aimed at estimating the radiation doses to wich the population of the region might be exposed and to determine biological indicators to radioactive contamination. Up to the present moment, the bioacumulation factors (BFs) of 60Co, 137Cs and 131I by ''clam'' (Anomalocardia brasiliana) and the biological half-life of cobalt and cesium in this animal were determined, as well as the B.F. of 85Sr by ''snail'' (Strombus pugilis) and by ''barnacle'' (Megabalanus tintinnabulum). The remobilization of 60Co by microbiological activity in marine sediment was also studied. These studies were made using the standard methodology for bioaccumulation and elimination in closed water systems. The results showed an important microbiological activity in the remobilization of elements in the sediment. Due to the low bioaccumulation factors obtained the studied organisms were not considered ideal biological indicators for radioactive pollution. However, their importance as edible animals in the Angra dos Reis region recommends their radiometry for routine radiological monitoring. Studies on other organisms and/or radionuclides are now in progress at the Marine Biology Departament (UFRJ). (author)

  8. Implementation and test of proposals to integrate human factors in reporting and causal analysis in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project 'Implementation and Test of Proposals to integrate Human Factors in Reporting and Causal Analysis in Nuclear Power Plants' ('Implementation and Test', SR 2039/8) is based on two antecedent projects: 'Reporting System' (SR 2039/1) and 'Causal Analysis' (SR 2039/2). The project 'Implementation and Test' conducted various tests and introductory programs in cooperation with different target groups concerning the event analysis methodology 'SOL - Safety through Organizational Learning': Regulators, consultant organizations, union/works councillors and utilities. Thus, SOL was concurrently optimized and [apted for the practice in the German nuclear power industry. SOL was also validated in a German nuclear power plant using a concrete event. Results of the 'Implementation and Test' project demonstrate that SOL is fit to conduct event analyses practicably and economically with appropriate comprehensiveness and depth. SOL facilitates the identification of relevant contributing factors of events. This report concludes with various concrete proposals for the further development of the Program of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety (BMU) and the Federal Agency of R[iation Protection (BfS) concerning 'The Contribution of Humans to Safety of Nuclear Power Plants'. (orig.)

  9. Identification of release rates as a consequence of thermal impact on Radwaste - Experimental Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the fact that to our experiences fire accidents are of highest significance for the operational safety of a repository for Radwaste, a broad research project has been carried out in Germany on behalf of BfS (Federal Office for Radiation Protection) to develop a comprehensive approach for the determination of release rates under fire conditions. Various experiments were performed to target at the adjustment of theoretical models within safety and risk analysis of such installation. The investigations included the study of the release mechanisms caused by combustion of radioactive waste and the heating up of radioactive metallic scrap as well as the research of the behavior of an inactive waste drum in an open fire and the release rates out of waste simulation material. The experiments resulted in the identification of release rates as a consequence of thermal impact on Radwaste to allow a more realistic look at the nuclide specific risks and their consequences for safety assessments. Finally release fractions are calculated based on the thermal behavior of elements in the case of fire and their release rates. (authors)

  10. The mobility and human oral bioaccessibility of Zn and Pb in urban dusts of Estarreja (N Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinha, C; Reis, A P; Dias, A C; Abduljelil, A A; Noack, Y; Robert, S; Cave, M; Ferreira da Silva, E

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-one samples of urban dust were collected from Estarreja city (Portugal). The main objective of this work was to assess the potential availability of Pb and Zn present dust samples from Estarreja city via the oral ingestion exposure route using a combination of geochemical tests: (a) using sequential extraction to identify the fractionation of the Pb and Zn within the geochemical components that make up the dust and (b) in vitro bioaccessibility (BA) measurements to identify which components are the source(s) of the bioaccessible fraction (Bf). These samples were analysed for their quasi-total contents of Pb and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, for their element solid-phase distribution using selective sequential extraction method and for the Bfs of these elements using a physiologically based extraction test. The study showed that the concentrations of Zn were higher than Pb, but both are site-specific. The sequential extraction test shows that the exchangeable and acid-soluble phases are important bearing phases for Pb and Zn. The BA test showed that a high proportion of the total concentration is available for absorption into the human body (ranges from 22.5 to 84.1% for Pb and 28.7 to 86.3% for Zn). PMID:25027473

  11. The use of low departure aspheric surfaces in high quality wide angle lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Kristen E.; Jonas, Reginald P.; Wallace, Brian P.

    2015-09-01

    Modern lens designs for digital sensors, such as those required in medium volumes for cinematography, often require the use of one or two high departure aspheric surfaces. With departures from best fit sphere of up to a few millimeters, the use of such surfaces are accompanied by a number of consequences: high cost metrology, very tight opto-mechanical tolerances and image artifacts due to the sub-aperture grinding and polishing process. Previously we examined the use of multiple aspheric surfaces with very low departures from best fit sphere (BFS) and concluded that advantages may be gained in standard and telephoto lenses, but not in wide angle lens designs1. In this work we consider the potential benefits of low departure aspheric surfaces, as applied to wide angle lenses in particular. We review the number, placement, and nature of aspheric surfaces in some wide angle lens design examples, and look at the potential to redesign with an increased number of low departure aspheric surfaces that have the potential to be manufactured without the need for computer generated holograms (CGH's). The use and limitations of modern interferometers capable of measuring aspheric surfaces without the use of CGH's will be considered. In one example we examine the performance, manufacturing, and cost perspective, paying particular attention to testing and mechanical alignment tolerances.

  12. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2009. Report of the radiation protection register; Die berufliche Strahlenexposition in Deutschland 2009. Bericht des Strahlenschutzregisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard; Fritzsche, Else; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Spiesl, Josef

    2011-05-15

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetric services that transmit the records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2008, about 324,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased again after a slight decline during the past five years. Only 15 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.84 mSv which is 4 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. Since 2004, the average annual dose range from 0.75 mSv und 0.84 mSv. In totally, 13 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, thus there were 4 cases per 100,000 monitored persons. During the last five years the collective dose of the monitored workers ranges from 41 to 46 person-Sv and corresponds to the variation of exposures in the nuclear sector which comes from cyclic revision works in nuclear power plants. The number of persons monitored for exposure of the extremities increased continuously during the last five years and the extremity doses increased correspondingly. This domain of exposure gains increasingly in importance. In 2009, 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 37,000 members of the aircraft crew personnel by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil

  13. 放射性核素土壤-植物吸收与钍、镭富集植物的发现%Uptake of Radionuclides from Soil to Plant and the Discovery of 226Ra, 232Th Hyperaccumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 陈迪云; 宋刚; 岳玉美

    2011-01-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U、226Ra、232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-γ-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146. 3, 226. 6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 4OK were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986. 2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 226Ra,232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2. 20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 226Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10 -1 -10-2. The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th.%对采集珠江三角洲从化、台山等地的11种植物以及对应的土壤样品,采用HPGe-y能谱分析了其中的天然放射性核素U、Ra、Th和K的比活度,结果表明,土壤样品中U、Ra、Th和K的平均含量为151.8、146.3、226.6和665.5Bq/kg,高于我国和世界的平均值,植物样品中的U含量较低,大多数样品低于检出限,而Ra、Th和K的平均含量相对较高.铁芒萁(Dicranopteris dichotoma)样品中Ra、Th含量最高,平均值分别为285.9 Bq/kg、968.5 Bq/kg,对应的生物富集系数(bioconcentration factor)的平均值为2.20、4.23,而其它10种植物Ra、Th的生物富集系数均在10~10的范围.铁芒萁Ra和Th的富集系数和转移系数(translocation factor)都大于1,可以认为是Ra和Th的超富集植物.

  14. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2006. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons occupationally exposed to radiation are monitored by several official dosimetric services who transmit their records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The number of dose recordings reported to the Radiation Protection Register has annually increased to more than three million records per year and thus accumulated to more than 34 million dose records at the end of 2006. The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits by each radiation worker and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. Amongst others, the annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2006, about 312,000 workers were monitored with dosimeters for occupational radiation exposure. About 18 % of the monitored persons received a measurable personal dose. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.75 mSv. This value is the lowest average annual dose since dose monitoring for occupational worker was introduced. It remains below the dose limit of 1 mSv for the general public and amounts only 4 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. Since 2003 aircraft crew personnel is subject to dose monitoring if it is employed in accordance with the German employment act and likely to receive an effective dose of at least 1 mSv per year from cosmic radiation during flight operation. This accounts for about 33.000 pilots and flight attendants. 45 airlines report the monthly accumulated dose values of their personnel via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 71 Person-Sv and thus

  15. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2009. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetric services that transmit the records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2008, about 324,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased again after a slight decline during the past five years. Only 15 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.84 mSv which is 4 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. Since 2004, the average annual dose range from 0.75 mSv und 0.84 mSv. In totally, 13 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, thus there were 4 cases per 100,000 monitored persons. During the last five years the collective dose of the monitored workers ranges from 41 to 46 person-Sv and corresponds to the variation of exposures in the nuclear sector which comes from cyclic revision works in nuclear power plants. The number of persons monitored for exposure of the extremities increased continuously during the last five years and the extremity doses increased correspondingly. This domain of exposure gains increasingly in importance. In 2009, 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 37,000 members of the aircraft crew personnel by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation

  16. Benchmark Development in Support of Generation-IV Reactor Validation (IRPhEP 2010 Handbook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The March 2010 edition of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) Handbook includes additional benchmark data that can be implemented in the validation of data and methods for Generation IV (GEN-IV) reactor designs. Evaluations supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) efforts include the initial isothermal tests of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Site, the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) 10B and 10C experiments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the burn-up reactivity coefficient of Japan's JOYO reactor. An assessment of Russia's BFS-61 assemblies at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) provides additional information for lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) systems. Benchmarks in support of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) project include evaluations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments performed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland and the start-up core physics tests of Japan's High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor. The critical configuration of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the INL which used ternary ceramic fuel, U(18)O2-CaO-ZrO2, is of interest for fuel cycle research and development (FCR and D) and has some similarities to 'inert-matrix' fuels that are of interest in GEN-IV advanced reactor design. Two additional evaluations were revised to include additional evaluated experimental data, in support of light water reactor (LWR) and heavy water reactor (HWR) research; these include reactor physics experiments at Brazil's IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor Facility and the French High Flux Reactor (RHF), respectively. The IRPhEP Handbook now includes data from 45 experimental series (representing 24 reactor facilities) and represents contributions from 15 countries. These experimental measurements represent large investments of infrastructure, experience, and cost that have been evaluated and preserved as benchmarks for the validation of methods and collection of data in

  17. Expanding Astronomy Education Innovations to the International Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Tatge, Coty; Guffey, Sarah Katie

    2015-08-01

    In the course of learning astronomy, it is generally accepted that successful science learning experiences should result in learners developing a meaningful understanding of the nature of science as inquiry where: (i) students are engaged in questions; (ii) students are designing plans to pursue data; and (iii) students are generating and defending conclusions based on evidence they have collected. In support of these goals, we have systematically field-test three separate instructional tools that are ready to be field-tested beyond the United States. The first of these is called LECTURE-TUTORIALS. These are self-contained, classroom-ready, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course revision for implementation. Students are asked to reason about difficult concepts, while working in pairs, and to discuss their ideas openly. The second of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of BACKWARDS-FADED SCAFFOLDING as an overarching theme for instruction that leverage online science data. BFS is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design creates evidence, and only at the end introduces students to - what we believe is the most challenging part of inquiry - inventing scientifically appropriate questions. Third, contemporary ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS, including the TOAST and EGGS surveys, for astronomy & geology have been developed to help teachers measure the success of their implementation. Evaluation results consistently suggest that these tools help teachers better engage students in self-directed scientific

  18. Transporting existing VSC-24 canisters using a risk-based licensing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eventual disposition of the spent fuel assemblies loaded in canisters and casks currently designed and licensed only for on-site storage is an industry-wide issue. The canister-specific BUC evaluation approach developed by BFS can be used to license many of these storage canisters and casks for transportation. This will allow these storage canisters and casks to be transported intact to a long-term storage facility or repository, thereby minimizing fuel handling operations, impact on plant operations, and occupational exposure, as well as total infrastructure costs. Application of the proposed canister-specific BUC analysis approach to a preliminary evaluation of the 58 loaded MSBs demonstrates the benefits of this approach. The results of this preliminary evaluation show that a more rigorous analysis based on the known characteristics of the loaded spent fuel, rather than the design-basis fuel parameters, produces significantly lower maximum keff values and can be used to qualify many of the existing loaded storage canisters for transportation. Transportation certification for storage canisters having more reactive spent fuel payloads may require reliance on BUC approaches that are more aggressive than current NRC guidelines allow. Credit may be required for fission- product isotopes that do not have sufficient chemical assay data for benchmarking. In addition, reduced criticality safety margins may be required. For these more-aggressive BUC approaches, a risk assessment should be provided to support the NRC-approval basis. The risk assessment should evaluate the possibility and consequences of an accidental criticality event based upon inaccuracies in the characterization of the spent-fuel payloads

  19. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  20. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, P J; Inubushi, K

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK+fly ash, NPK+silicate slag, NPK+phosphogypsum(PG), NPK+blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK+revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK+silicate slag (50%)+RFS (50%), NPK+biochar, NPK+biochar+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+silicate slag+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+phosphogypsum (PG)+Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N2O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5-14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0-12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0-30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43-50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. PMID:26011612

  1. Simulation of potential accident scenarios for the emergency protection in the neighborhood of nuclear power plants using RODOS; Simulation potentieller Unfallszenarien fuer den Notfallschutz in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken mit RODOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, H.; Gering, F.; Arnold, K.; Gerich, B.; Heinrich, G.; Welte, U.

    2014-12-15

    Triggered by the Fukushima disaster, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in Germany started in March 2011 to investigate the potential radiological consequences of a ''Fukushima-like'' accident in a German nu-clear power plant and conducted appropriate simulations in 2012. Between end 2012 and end 2013, the first study was followed by a much more detailed and comprehensive investigation comprising more than 5.000 case studies for three nuclear power plant (NPP) sites in Germany. Based on these results the German Commission on Radio-logical Protection (SSK) has released a new recommendation in March 2014 for the extension of current emer-gency planning zones for nuclear power plants in Germany. Key results of this study are maximum distances, in which dose criteria for protective actions for the population are exceeded; all results are given for the largest source term scenario ''FKA'' (INES scale 7): - Threshold values for deterministic effects and high doses (effective doses higher than 1.000 mSv) can be ex-ceeded within a distance of about 3 km on average. - The dose criterion for ''evacuation'' can be exceeded within a distance of about 9 - 18 km (adults) resp. 14 -24 km (infants) on average (the given interval considers minimum and maximum values for the median value for all three NPP sites). - The dose criterion for ''sheltering'' can be exceeded within a distance of about 62 - 80 km (adults) resp. 91 - 114 km (infants) on average. - The dose criteria for ''iodine thyroid blocking'' can be exceeded within a distance of about 24 - 34 km (adults) resp. 148 - 161 km (infants) on average.

  2. DBE on site public relations tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thesis: There is no 'golden rule' for an immediate increase in acceptance of nuclear facility sites - this applies to nuclear power plants as well as waste management facilities. The German Company for the Construction and Operation of Repositories for Waste Products (DBE - entrusted on behalf of the Federal Government with the management of all three German waste repository sites (projects), Morsleben, Konrad, Gorleben - concentrates in the field of public relations work on the following: - caring for (and informing) visitors from home and abroad; - cooperation with local and regional authorities and their representatives, press, media, etc. including associate editing of the GORLEBEN-information leaflet which appears monthly or every second month in cooperation with the Federal Board for Radiation Protection (BfS), as well as press releases if required; - responding to inquiries and visit requests of press, radio and TV. Basic work: - early and comprehensive information of the public at the sites about progress of work and possible exceptional events with special involvement of local politicians and representatives as well as press agencies. Close contacts exist to the local paper and to a national paper; - municipal representatives and the media are regularly directly informed on site or sporadically at their own request; - special emphasis is placed on the spoken, explaining word, namely that communication and discussion are valued more highly than written material. Of course, transparencies, films and brochures are available to support the spoken word; - continual availability for discussion and information presentations e.g., also at weekends; - maintenance of casual contacts to opponents of the plant. In Gorleben - the site of further waste management facilities beside the exploration mine - there is close cooperation with representatives of the other important companies and institutions hence, visitors are generally pooled, i.e., the majority

  3. Tenth act amending the German atomic energy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 14, 2009, the German federal government introduced into parliament the 10th Act Amending the Atomic Energy Act. In the first reading in the federal parliament, Federal Minister for the Environment Gabriel emphasized 2 main points: Intensified protection of nuclear facilities and of transports of radioactive substances against unauthorized interventions; transfer by law to the Federal Office for Radiological Protection (BfS) of decommissioning of the Asse mine. Reliability review: The amendment to Sec.12 b of the Atomic Energy Act is to meet the different safety and security conditions after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the United States and other terrorist activities afterwards (London, Madrid) also with respect to hazards arising to nuclear facilities and nuclear transports. The bill must be seen in conjunction with the Ordinance on Reliability Reviews under the Atomic Energy Act dated July 1, 1999 which covers reviews of reliability of persons holding special responsibilities. Asse II mine: The competence of the Federal Office for Radiological Protection is achieved by an amendment to Sec.23, Para.1, Number 2, Atomic Energy Act, in which the words ''and for the Asse II mine'' are added after the word ''waste.'' Further proceedings depend on the additional provision in a new Sec.57 b, Atomic Energy Act. Accordingly, the operation and decommissioning of the Asse II mine are subject to the regulations applicable to facilities of the federation pursuant to Sec.9a, Para.3. In this way, Asse II is given the same legal status as the federal waste management facilities. Moreover, it is stipulated that the mine is to be shut down immediately. (orig.)

  4. The Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model (ARTM) - Validation of a long-term atmospheric dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettrich, Sebastian; Wildermuth, Hans; Strobl, Christopher; Wenig, Mark

    2016-04-01

    In the last couple of years, the Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model (ARTM) has been developed by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Society for Plant and Reactor Security (GRS). ARTM is an atmospheric dispersion model for continuous long-term releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere, based on the Lagrangian particle model. This model, developed in the first place as a more realistic replacement for the out-dated Gaussian plume models, is currently being optimised for further scientific purposes to study atmospheric dispersion in short-range scenarios. It includes a diagnostic wind field model, allows for the application of building structures and multiple sources (including linear, 2-and 3-dimensional source geometries), and considers orography and surface roughness. As an output it calculates the activity concentration, dry and wet deposition and can model also the radioactive decay of Rn-222. As such, ARTM requires to undergo an intense validation process. While for short-term and short-range models, which were mainly developed for examining nuclear accidents or explosions, a few measurement data-sets are available for validation, data-sets for validating long-term models are very sparse and the existing ones mostly prove to be not applicable for validation. Here we present a strategy for the validation of long-term Lagrangian particle models based on the work with ARTM. In our validation study, the first part we present is a comprehensive analysis of the model sensitivities on different parameters like e.g. (simulation grid size resolution, starting random number, amount of simulation particles, etc.). This study provides a good estimation for the uncertainties of the simulation results and consequently can be used to generate model outputs comparable to the available measurements data at various distances from the emission source. This comparison between measurement data from selected scenarios and simulation results

  5. Study of five haemogenetic markers (Gc, C3, Bf, Ag, and GALT) in six Indonesian populations and in 12 subgroups of Balinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, R; Breguet, G; Ney, R; Pflugshaupt, R; Bütler, R

    1988-08-01

    In various ethnic groups of the Indonesian archipelago and of Bali, the polymorphisms of the serum proteins Gc globulin (vitamin D-binding protein), C3 (complement component 3), Bf (complement factor B), Ag x,y (lipoprotein allotypes), and of the red cell enzyme system GALT (galactose-1P-uridyltransferase) were analysed. Among the studied proteins, the Gc system was the most informative one for the anthropologist. Besides considerable differences of frequencies of the common alleles Gc*1F, Gc*1S and Gc*2, a number of rare alleles (1A1, 1A3, 1A8, 1A9, 1A12, 1C2, 1C21, 1C24, and 2C8) and some new ones (1C28, 1C29, 1C30, 2C9) were observed. The presence of Gc*1A1 demonstrates the relationship to the Australo-Melanesian populations, but Mongolian variants (1A3, 1A8, 1A9, 1C2) were also encountered. Within the C3 system a very high frequency of the C3*S allele was observed in all populations. The rare alleles C3*F0.55, C3S1, and C3*S0.5 were observed in some groups. A new allele (C3*F0.35) was detected in a Chinese individual and in a nobleman from Bali. The frequency of the Bf*F allele was rather low in general, and the Bf*S0.7 allele was found in three Indonesian individuals only. The Ag*(x) frequencies were rather high, as it is known for Asiatic populations. Variability among subgroups was not very pronounced. The GALT*2 allele (Duarte variant of the enzyme) was observed very rarely; however, it was present in several populations. Enzyme activities could not be determined, and therefore we cannot tell whether the galactosaemia gene (GALT*0) was present or not. PMID:2851268

  6. A combined dosemeter for passive, long-term integration measurement of radon and its short-lived decay products in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radiation exposure of man, and especially the radiation exposure of professionally exposed persons, is predominantly caused by radon (Rn), a gas occurring naturally, and its short-lived decay products (RnDPs). Compared to the short-lived RnDPs, the inhalative radiation load caused by the radon gas itself is smaller in general by more than one order of magnitude. Because of this, and because of the fact that it is not known how much time is spent by professionaly exposed persons and persons from the general population in their spheres of life respectively of work, the development of a personnel dosemeter permitting to establish directly the dose-determining content of RnDPs in air is pre-eminent in order to establish the real, individual radiation exposure of persons, BfS, in cooperation with ULS, has developed, calibrated and tested under different conditions a passive personnel/area dosemeter for combined determination of the RnDP content and Rn concentration in atmosphere. The concordance of the effective measuring times of the dosemeter with the real exposure times of the persons concerned safeguards representative measuring results. The main factor of uncertainty in establishing individual radiation loads on the basis of Rn measurements, the assumption of mean steady-state factors, is thus eliminated. The dosemeter stands out by its matchbox size, simple use, sufficient detection efficiency, and its good value for money. Applications of the dosemeter comprise both routine measurements of large, professionally exposed groups of persons, and measurements of individual persons in areas with increased or varying Rn/RnDP concentrations. The optimum exposure time of the dosemeter is three months. (orig.)

  7. Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel before Final Disposal in Germany - Regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For spent nuclear fuel management in Germany the concept of dry interim storage in dual purpose casks before direct disposal is applied. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is the competent authority for licensing of interim storage facilities. The competent authority for surveillance of operation is the responsible authority of the respective federal state (Land). Currently operation licenses for storage facilities have been granted for a storage time of 40 years and are based on safety demonstrations for all safety issues as safe enclosure, shielding, sub-criticality and decay heat removal under consideration of operation conditions. In addition, transportability of the casks for the whole storage period has to be provided. Due to current delay in site selection and exploration of a disposal site, an extension of the storage time beyond 40 years could be needed. This will cause appropriate actions by the licensee and the competent authorities as well. A brief description of the regulatory base of licensing and surveillance of interim storage is given from the regulators view. Furthermore the current planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste and its interconnections between storage and disposal concepts are shortly explained. Finally the relevant aspects for licensing of extended storage time beyond 40 years will be discussed. Current activities on this issue, which have been initiated by the Federal Government, will be addressed. On the regulatory side a review and amendment of the safety guideline for interim storage of spent fuel has been performed and the procedure of periodic safety review is being implemented. A guideline for implementing an ageing management programme is available in a draft version. Regarding safety of long term storage a study focussing on the identification and evaluation of long term effects as well as gaps of knowledge has been finished in 2010. A continuation and update is currently underway

  8. 基于讨论机制的头脑风暴优化算法%Discussion mechanism based brain storm optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉婷; 史玉回; 夏顺仁

    2013-01-01

    为了克服头脑风暴优化(BSO)算法易陷入局部最优导致早熟收敛的问题,提出新型的基于讨论机制的头脑风暴优化(DMBSO)算法.该算法运用组内讨论和组间讨论这一新机制取代BSO算法中的个体更新过程,分别控制算法的全局搜索和局部搜索能力.通过线性递减和线性递增方式调整组间讨论和组内讨论次数,使算法搜索初期加强全局搜索能力,搜索后期加强局部细致搜索能力,有效地防止早熟问题.对6个经典测试函数(BFs)的10维、20维、30维问题分别进行测试来评估DMBSO的效果.结果表明,DMBSO算法与BSO算法和经典的粒子群(PSO)算法相比,可以有效地避免陷入局部最优,稳定地找到更好的最优值,而且随着问题维度的增加,DMBSO表现出更强的鲁棒性.

  9. Simulation of potential accident scenarios for the emergency protection in the neighborhood of nuclear power plants using RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggered by the Fukushima disaster, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in Germany started in March 2011 to investigate the potential radiological consequences of a ''Fukushima-like'' accident in a German nu-clear power plant and conducted appropriate simulations in 2012. Between end 2012 and end 2013, the first study was followed by a much more detailed and comprehensive investigation comprising more than 5.000 case studies for three nuclear power plant (NPP) sites in Germany. Based on these results the German Commission on Radio-logical Protection (SSK) has released a new recommendation in March 2014 for the extension of current emer-gency planning zones for nuclear power plants in Germany. Key results of this study are maximum distances, in which dose criteria for protective actions for the population are exceeded; all results are given for the largest source term scenario ''FKA'' (INES scale 7): - Threshold values for deterministic effects and high doses (effective doses higher than 1.000 mSv) can be ex-ceeded within a distance of about 3 km on average. - The dose criterion for ''evacuation'' can be exceeded within a distance of about 9 - 18 km (adults) resp. 14 -24 km (infants) on average (the given interval considers minimum and maximum values for the median value for all three NPP sites). - The dose criterion for ''sheltering'' can be exceeded within a distance of about 62 - 80 km (adults) resp. 91 - 114 km (infants) on average. - The dose criteria for ''iodine thyroid blocking'' can be exceeded within a distance of about 24 - 34 km (adults) resp. 148 - 161 km (infants) on average.

  10. The European Radiobiology Archives (ERA), its present status, relation to other radiobiology archives and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Radiobiology Archives (ERA) in cooperation with the US (National Radiobiology Archives, NRA) and Japanese (Japanese Radiobiology Archives, JRA) aim to collect most of the information still available in Europe on long-term animal experiments - including some selected human studies suitable for comparison with animal data - and to make them available to the scientific community for further analysis. Presently, the archives contain a description of the exposure conditions, animal strains, etc from ∝350.000 individuals, and data on survival and pathology are available from ∝200.000 individuals. These data are incorporated in an ACCESS 2000 database, which also includes means (forms with underlying computer code) for browsing through the data, searching for groups given certain treatments, using specific animal strains or age, etc. Other forms allow the selection of experimental groups, their evaluation by some statistical programs and their export for further detailed studies by interested scientists. The forms also allow researchers to combine groups and to pool diseases into larger classes, e.g. all malignant tumours, all lung tumours etc., features that are important when studies from different laboratories are to be evaluated. The use of the database is illustrated by an example on the selection and preparation for further analysis of data dealing with the effects of 224Ra. The collection of data will continue in the future; and the archives will liase with similar ventures such as the European 'pathbase'. The user interface will be developed further for accessibility and user friendliness and be continuously adjusted to the current state of the art of hardware and software. The archives are to be transferred to the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Neuherberg, Germany under the sponsorship of the European Commission and in collaboration with the European Late Effect Project Group (EULEP). (orig.)

  11. Effect of silica fume addition on the PGNAA measurement of chlorine in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nagadi, M.M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-03-15

    Pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and blast furnace slag (BFS) are added to Portland cement in concrete to prevent reinforcement steel corrosion in concrete. Further preventive measure against reinforcement steel corrosion require monitoring of chloride salts concentration in concrete using non-destructive techniques, such as the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. Due to interferences between gamma-rays from chlorine and calcium in PGNAA technique, detection limit of chlorine in concrete strongly depends upon calcium concentration in concrete. SF mainly contains silica and its addition to cement concrete reduces overall concentration of calcium in concrete. This may result in an improvement in detection limit of chlorine in SF-based concrete in PGNAA studies. Particularly for chlorine detection using 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays that strongly interfere with 6.42 MeV prompt gamma-rays from calcium. In this study, SF was added to Portland cement to prevent concrete reinforcement steel from corrosion. The chlorine concentration in SF cement concrete specimens containing 0.2-3.0 wt% chlorine was measured through yield of 1.16, 1.95, 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79, and 8.58 MeV chlorine gamma-rays using PGNAA technique. An excellent agreement was noted between the experimental yield of the prompt gamma-rays and the gamma-ray yield calculated through the Monte Carlo simulations. Further the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in SF cement concrete was calculated and compared with the MDC values of chlorine in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. The MDC of chlorine in SF-based concrete through 6.11 MeV, and 6.62 MeV chlorine gamma-rays was found to be improved as compared to those in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement.

  12. Effect of silica fume addition on the PGNAA measurement of chlorine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and blast furnace slag (BFS) are added to Portland cement in concrete to prevent reinforcement steel corrosion in concrete. Further preventive measure against reinforcement steel corrosion require monitoring of chloride salts concentration in concrete using non-destructive techniques, such as the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. Due to interferences between gamma-rays from chlorine and calcium in PGNAA technique, detection limit of chlorine in concrete strongly depends upon calcium concentration in concrete. SF mainly contains silica and its addition to cement concrete reduces overall concentration of calcium in concrete. This may result in an improvement in detection limit of chlorine in SF-based concrete in PGNAA studies. Particularly for chlorine detection using 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays that strongly interfere with 6.42 MeV prompt gamma-rays from calcium. In this study, SF was added to Portland cement to prevent concrete reinforcement steel from corrosion. The chlorine concentration in SF cement concrete specimens containing 0.2-3.0 wt% chlorine was measured through yield of 1.16, 1.95, 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79, and 8.58 MeV chlorine gamma-rays using PGNAA technique. An excellent agreement was noted between the experimental yield of the prompt gamma-rays and the gamma-ray yield calculated through the Monte Carlo simulations. Further the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in SF cement concrete was calculated and compared with the MDC values of chlorine in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. The MDC of chlorine in SF-based concrete through 6.11 MeV, and 6.62 MeV chlorine gamma-rays was found to be improved as compared to those in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement.

  13. Reproducibility of the uptake of U(VI) onto degraded cement pastes and calcium silicate hydrate phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U(VI) uptake in degraded cement pastes was undertaken in the laboratories of CEA/L3MR and SUBATECH in order to check the reproducibility of the study. Two well hydrated cement pastes, CEM I (ordinary portland cement, OPC) and CEM V (blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash added to OPC) were degraded using similar protocols. Equilibrium solutions and solid materials were characterised for three degradation states for each paste. All samples are free of portlandite and the pH of the equilibrated cement solutions vary in the range 9.8-12.2. Three calcium silicate hydrate phases (C-S-H) were synthesised in order to compare the sorption properties of degraded cement pastes and of hydrate phases in similar pH conditions. In order to avoid precipitation processes, the operational solubility limit was evaluated before batch experiments. These solubility values vary significantly in the pH range [9-13] with a 2.4 x 10-7 mol L-1 minimum at pH close to 10.5. In batch sorption experiments, the distribution ratio Rd values are high: 3 x 104 - 1.5 x 105 mL g-1. The uptake of U(VI) increases when comparing the least and the most degraded cement pastes whereas the initial composition of cement has relatively insensitive effect. Sorption isotherms, expressed as a log [U(VI)solid]/log[U(VI)solution] plots are linear. A slope of 1 is calculated indicating the predominance of sorption processes. As sorption and desorption values are close, the uptake mechanism seems reversible. The Rd values measured in C-S-H suspensions are in good agreement with Rd values of degraded cement pastes, and C-S-H materials could be one of the cementitious phases which control U(VI) uptake in cement pastes. (orig.)

  14. Bacterial Toxin Fusion Proteins Elicit Mucosal Immunity against a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Antigen When Administered Intranasally to Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreerupa Challa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptides corresponding to the foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 G-H loop are capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in some species but are considered relatively poor immunogens, especially at mucosal surfaces. However, intranasal administration of antigens along with the appropriate delivery vehicle/adjuvant has been shown to induce mucosal immune responses, and bacterial enterotoxins have long been known to be effective in this regard. In the current study, two different carrier/adjuvant approaches were used to augment mucosal immunity to the FMDV O1 BFS G-H loop epitope, in which the G-H loop was genetically coupled to the E. coli LT-B subunit and coexpressed with the LTA2 fragment (LTA2B-GH, or the nontoxic pseudomonas exotoxin A (ntPE was fused to LTA2B-GH at LT-A2 to enhance receptor targeting. Only guinea pigs that were inoculated intranasally with ntPE-LTA2B-GH and LTA2B-GH induced significant anti-G-H loop IgA antibodies in nasal washes at weeks 4 and 6 when compared to ovalbumin or G-H loop immunized animals. These were also the only groups that exhibited G-H loop-specific antigen-secreting cells in the nasal mucosa. These data demonstrate that fusion of nonreplicating antigens to LTA2B and ntPE-LTA2B has the potential to be used as carriers/adjuvants to induce mucosal immune responses against infectious diseases.

  15. Effect of East Asia summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  16. Experience with the loading and transport of fuel assembly transport casks, including CASTOR casks, and the radiation exposure of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 and 1998, six spent fuel assembly transports started from the nuclear power plant Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN), using CASTOR-V19 casks. Professor Kuni of Marburg University challenged the statement made by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS)) based on accepted scientific knowledge, according to which so-called CASTOR transports present no risk, either to the population or to the escorting police units. This paper shows that the collective dose during the loading of the CASTOR casks amounted to 4.5 mSv (gamma and neutrons) per cask at the most, and that the maximum individual dose amounted to 0.26 mSv. In addition to these doses, the collective dose during handling and transport must be considered: this amounted to 0.35 mSv (gamma and neutrons). The dose to the police escort was -2 (limit for surface contamination), presented degrees of contamination >4 Bq cm-2 upon reaching the Valognes/Cogema terminal. However, transport casks coming from French plants also revealed degrees of contamination >4 Bq cm-2, as well as 'hot spots'. No such contamination was found on NTL 11 casks transported from the GKN to Sellafield. Neither was any increased contamination found upon the arrival of CASTOR-V19 casks transported from GKN to Gorleben or Ahaus. The partially sensationalist media reports were inversely proportional to the actual radiological relevance of the matter. The German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK) confirmed that the radiological effect of such contaminated spent fuel transports is negligible. (author)

  17. Uptake, retention and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese Catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided in to three groups viz. large, medium and small based on their size and age and reared into the 137Cs spiked water. The concentration of 137Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured at certain intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137Cs was found but a steady state condition was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The Bfs at steady state condition and the required time were estimated to be 1.55 and 255 d, 1.76 and 180 d and 1.99 and 160 d for large, medium and small size fish respectively. To determine the effective halflife of 137Cs, the fish were transferred and reared into the non contaminated host water. The concentration of the remaining 137Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured up to 66 days. The average effective half-life of 137Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼ 142 days for all size of fish. The uptake rate and the retention capability of juvenile fish were found to be higher and therefore, more susceptible to 137Cs than adult and old fish and could be an important source of 137Cs in the human food chain. The distribution of 137Cs in different organs/tissues of the fish were determined. Accumulation of 137Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼ 75% of whole body accumulation. (author)

  18. Radon measurements in the context of intra-German cooperation in the field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies conducted in the course of the research project mainly deal with concentration measurements of the natural noble gas radon 222 in homes in the south of Saxony and Thuringia. The measurements were performed in cooperation with the BfS (Federal Office for Radiation Protection) using a screening method developed by WaBoLu. Five thousand homes in 120 communities were screened. While records of approximately 6000 long-term measurements in homes in the old Laender gave a median of approximately 40 Bq/m3 and peak values of several thousand Bq/m3, the median of all short-term measurements performed in Saxony and Thuringia, which included basements, was about 110 Bq/m3, and in some communities five times higher in some cases. In individual cases, measurements yielded extremely high concentrations ranging from several ten thousand Bq/m3 to 100 000 Bq/m3. One focal point of the work was a computer-aided map projection of the measurements. Furthermore, measurements of radon 222 and other natural radionuclides were performed in various waters, particularly drinking water. Measurements of natural radionuclides in soil and plants permitted calculation of transfer factors for absorption from the soil by plants. Further appendeces of the report give a detailed description of rehabilitation measures for the abatement of radon concentrations in buildings, a representation of a method of rapidly analyzing radon concentrations in buildings and a synopsis of the physical units commonly used for radon concentrations and the radiation exposure this entails. (orig./HP)

  19. Benign fasciculations and Corticosteroid use: possible association? An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orsini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciculations are characterized by visible subtle and fast contractions of muscle, even wormlike in movement, by the contraction of a fascicle of muscle fibers. The authors present the case study of a 28-year-old patient with the appearance of migratory and diffuse fasciculations with an onset after partial tapering off of oral corticosteroides (60 mg total dose indicated for treatment of Minimal change Glomerulopathy. Clinical Neurological physical exam allied with an ENMG, besides other complementary laboratory exams were used for screening the above-mentioned patient. Afterwards, current research relating to the topic at hand was made in order to update the data available in the Bireme, Scielo and PubMed Data Banks using the following key words: Fasciculation’s, motor neuron disease, and benign fasciculations in the Portuguese, English as well as Spanish language. Although fasciculation’s are most commonly associated with Motor neuron disease as well as with certain metabolic disorders, they may also be present in individuals with absolutely no underlying pathological disorders. In our case, fasciculation potentials that have been present for six months, with no other signs of a neurogenic disorder as well as absence of laboratory findings, the patient received a diagnosis of Benign Fasciculation Syndrome (BFS.We believe that the use of corticosteroides in high doses with subsequent tapering contributed to the fasciculation’s, especially due to the changes that this causes on the ionic channels. Fasciculation’s are symptoms seen in a large range of conditions, and also being the main symptom of the so-called Benign Fasciculation Syndrome. We have presented an example of this clinical syndrome in a patient whose complaint was fasciculation’s, with complete clinical remission of symptoms following complete tapering off of corticosteroid six months previously.

  20. Germany, country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of the licensing approach in Germany is the Act on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the protection against its hazards (Atomic Energy Act) with subordinated rules guidelines and standards. Due to the federal structure of Germany, the state authorities are responsible for the licensing of nuclear power plants. First applications of computer based Instrumentation and Control were introduced in the frame of minor upgrading projects, the associated assessment and licensing activities were performed on a case by case basis, with existing rules and guidelines (e.g. issued by KTA or the German Reactor Safety Commission - RSK) applied according to the safety rationale laid down in these documents. Since specific national standards and guidelines for digital Instrumentation and Control were not available, international standards, especially IEC 60880, have been used in addition. The structure consists of four protection goals and five auxiliary functions embracing these goals. The protection goals and the principle tasks to be performed in order to meet these goals are (definition according to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection BfS). This covers the following: Control of Reactivity, cooling of Fuel Elements, Enclosure of Radioactive Substances, Limitation of Radiation Exposure, Auxiliary functions embracing the protection goals referring to the reliability, entire plant, administration, instrumentation and control, power supplies. Depending on the safety importance of the functions and the associated reliability requirements, the I and C architecture (e.g. the degree of redundancy) is developed and appropriate equipment is selected to build up the I and C system. As mentioned above a clear requirement specification is an important pre-requisite for defining the process and the related I and C functions. Moreover it provides the basis for grading the requirements for a classification system. According to the RSK Guidelines following basic

  1. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Psyrup level of all sugar types when the δ(13)C value of honey, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations. PMID:24594168

  2. Determination of realistic exposure levels under consideration of farming and farm shopping at nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, the radiation exposure levels for individuals are determined according to the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) (1), considering reference persons at the highest exposure locations as example for several specified exposure paths, habits and behaviour. This issue was dealt with within the framework of Project StSch 4283, sponsored by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which included the analysis and assessment of the conservativeness of the assumptions for the reference persons in paragraph 47 StrlSchV (1) and the general administrative provisions (AVV) (2) for the exposure path 'ingestion of contaminated food' in the area of selected nuclear sites. The aim of the project, to determine the degree of conservativeness of the AVV via the ingestion paths, was realised by forming ratios between the 'critical group', i. e. the group with the maximum ingestions rates, which, according to StrlSchV (1) and AVV (2), is usually referred to for the calculation of the potential radiation exposure, and the 'reference group', the 'regional group within a of 5 km radius' and the group of the 'farm shop customers'. The respective value indicates by which factor the radiation exposure for the 'critical group', usually calculated according to AVV, is higher than the one that can be determined under consideration of realistic data on the site-specific conditions as well as shopping and eating habits that are typical for a region. The result shows that without consideration of the region's typical cultivation and consumption habits, the radiation exposure via the ingestion paths 'exhaust air' is overestimated by a factor of 10 on average, and 'waste water' by a factor of 20

  3. Autoimmune-associated HLA-B8-DR3 haplotypes in Asian Indians are unique in C4 complement gene copy numbers and HSP-2 1267A/G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurvinder; Kumar, Neeraj; Szilagyi, Agnes; Blasko, Bernadett; Fust, George; Rajczy, Katalin; Pozsonyi, Eva; Hosso, Adrienn; Petranyi, Gyozo; Tandon, Nikhil; Mehra, Narinder

    2008-09-01

    The classical AH8.1 (HLA-A1-B8-DR3-DQ2) is the most common Caucasian haplotype, associated with several autoimmune diseases, immunologic hyperreactivity and rapid progression to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, in Asian Indians, there are multiple unique B8-DR3 haplotypes that are associated with autoimmunity and differ significantly from the common Caucasian AH8.1. The Indian HLA-A1-B8-DR3 is therefore referred to as an AH8.1 variant. The aims of this study were to compare C4A and C4B copy numbers and to identify alleles in HSP70-2 and LTA in these haplotypes. The Indian B8-DR3 haplotypes differ from the Caucasian AH8.1 at C4A and HSP70-2 loci. The Indian B8-DR3 haplotypes have 1 copy each at C4A and C4B, while the Caucasian AH8.1 has 1 copy at C4B but no C4A gene. Moreover, the Indian and Caucasian B8-DR3 haplotypes had HSP70-2 1267 *A, and *G alleles, respectively. By contrast, the LTA 252 *G allele occurred both in the Indian and Caucasian haplotypes. The Indian haplotypes also contained Bf*F and TNF-308*G that were different from the Caucasian equivalents Bf*S and TNF-308*A. These differences and previous studies support the hypothesis that B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotypes in Asian Indian population might have originated independently of Caucasian AH8.1 selectively through recombination and mutations. Because autoimmune disease associations are shared among these otherwise diverse haplotypes, these data strongly suggest that some shared component(s) of all these associated haplotypes may be playing a key role in such associations. PMID:18657583

  4. The injection of ultrahigh rates of reducing gas into a modern blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buergler, T.; Skoeld, B.E. [Voestalpine, Linz (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The pilot plant for gas injection consists of a screw compressor unit to supply two blast furnaces with reduction gas. Almost all of the reducing gas will react in the raceway; only a small part will combust inside the tuyere. Comparing different injection systems in the case with two lances, the gas will react faster than for the one lance system where the gas is more trapped inside a beam. During the project the melting rate of the furnace was increased by more than 30 %. Injecting reducing gas compensates increased raceway adiabatic flame temperature, RAFT by higher oxygen enrichment rates. The operation results showed that a lower RAFT and low-quality raw material result in increased consumption of reducing agents. 1 kg coke oven gas, COG substitutes 0.81 kg oil and 1.03 kg coke. Sulfur input was reduced by 40 % in comparison with heavy fuel oil operation. The top-gas calorific value is increased up to 30 %. This reduces the consumption of natural gas used to control a constant calorific value in the gas network. A high hydrogen content up to 12 % is no problem for the gas consumers. Tests with simultaneous COG/BOF gas injection have shown that a decrease in the oil rate can be compensated. The replacement of a carbon-rich resultant such as coke and oil in the BF process with a carbon-lean resultant such as COG leads to an absolute reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions of the BF process and the power plant of approximately 184.000 t/a for both BFs or 102 kg/tHM. 3 refs., 98 figs., 16 tabs., 1 annex.

  5. Concept of assistance of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection with regard to prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the defence against the threats caused by radioactive substances, a general concept was elaborated under the overall control of the Federal Government. A number of competent organisations are involved in this, for example the Federal Office of Criminal Investigation, the Federal Armed Forces, and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In Germany, the 16 Federal States are responsible for the prevention of nuclear hazards. In the case of hazards caused by radioactive material, experts from the competent radiation protection authorities are consulted. For the prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, danger of dispersion), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection - a subordinate authority of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety responsible for radiation protection, nuclear safety, and waste management - was given order to elaborate a concept for assistance to those Federal States. The field of prevention of nuclear hazards ranges from combatting illegal trade with radioactive test sources up to the defence of nuclear fuels with the possibility to construct critical assemblies or the threatening by the distribution of airborne material which might enter the lungs. The latter are considered as serious cases of nuclear hazards. Since the expenditures for devices and personal to be trained would be inadequately high, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is prepared to support the Federal States if it becomes necessary. The concept includes a stand-by service, the search for radioactive material by helicopter or a ground team, analysis of the activity and the type of nuclides, risk assessment, and also measures to steam the risk. This concept will be presented. (author)

  6. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Jose A; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  7. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Jose A.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  8. Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The research program sponsored by this grant, "Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design", covers a period of time of enormous change in the emerging field of computational materials science. The computational materials program started with the development of the BFS method for alloys, a quantum approximate method for atomistic analysis of alloys specifically tailored to effectively deal with the current challenges in the area of atomistic modeling and to support modern experimental programs. During the grant period, the program benefited from steady growth which, as detailed below, far exceeds its original set of goals and objectives. Not surprisingly, by the end of this grant, the methodology and the computational materials program became an established force in the materials communitiy, with substantial impact in several areas. Major achievements during the duration of the grant include the completion of a Level 1 Milestone for the HITEMP program at NASA Glenn, consisting of the planning, development and organization of an international conference held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in August of 2002, finalizing a period of rapid insertion of the methodology in the research community worlwide. The conference, attended by citizens of 17 countries representing various fields of the research community, resulted in a special issue of the leading journal in the area of applied surface science. Another element of the Level 1 Milestone was the presentation of the first version of the Alloy Design Workbench software package, currently known as "adwTools". This software package constitutes the first PC-based piece of software for atomistic simulations for both solid alloys and surfaces in the market.Dissemination of results and insertion in the materials community worldwide was a primary focus during this period. As a result, the P.I. was responsible for presenting 37 contributed talks, 19 invited talks, and publishing 71 articles in peer-reviewed journals, as

  9. Outdoor 222Rn-concentrations in Germany – part 2 – former mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the German Federal States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, centuries of mining and milling activities resulted in numerous residues with increased levels of natural radioactivity such as waste rock dumps and tailings ponds. These may have altered potential radiation exposures of the population significantly. Especially waste rock dumps from old mining activities as well as 20th century uranium mining may, due to their radon (222Rn) exhalation capacity, lead to significant radiation exposures. They often lie close to or within residential areas. In order to study the impact on the natural radon level, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has run networks of radon measurement points in 16 former mining areas, together with 2 networks in regions not influenced by mining for comparison purposes. Representative overviews of the long-term outdoor radon concentrations could be established including estimates of regional background concentrations. Former mining and milling activities did not result in large-area impacts on the outdoor radon level. However, significantly increased radon concentrations were observed in close vicinity of shafts and large waste rock dumps. They are partly located in residential areas and need to be considered under radiation protection aspects. Examples are given that illustrate the consequences of the Wismut Ltd. Company's reclamation activities on the radon situation. - Highlights: • Long-term outdoor radon concentrations were measured in 16 former mining regions. • A method was developed to estimate outdoor radon background concentrations. • Detection thresholds and detection limits for mining influence were determined. • Implications of mining activities for natural outdoor radon level were studied. • Implications of reclamations for natural outdoor radon level were demonstrated

  10. Can Medical Diagnosis Benefit from "Unconscious Thought"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Amanda; Kostopoulou, Olga; Delaney, Brendan C

    2016-05-01

    The unconscious thought theory argues that making complex decisions after a period of distraction can lead to better decision quality than deciding either immediately or after conscious deliberation. Two studies have tested this unconscious thought effect (UTE) in clinical diagnosis with conflicting results. The studies used different methodologies and had methodological weaknesses. We attempted to replicate the UTE in medical diagnosis by providing favorable conditions for the effect while maintaining ecological validity. Family physicians (N= 116) diagnosed 3 complex cases in 1 of 3 thinking modes: immediate, unconscious (UT), and conscious (CT). Cases were divided into short sentences, which were presented briefly and sequentially on computer. After each case presentation, the immediate response group gave a diagnosis, the UT group performed a 2-back distraction task for 3 min before giving a diagnosis, and the CT group could take as long as necessary before giving a diagnosis. We found no differences in diagnostic accuracy between groups (P= 0.95). The CT group took a median of 7 s to diagnose, which suggests that physicians were able to diagnose "online," as information was being presented. The lack of a difference between the immediate and UT groups suggests that the distraction had no additional effect on performance. To assess the decisiveness of the evidence of this null result, we computed a Bayes factor (BF01) for the 2 comparisons of interest. We found a BF01of 5.76 for the UT versus immediate comparison and of 3.61 for the UT versus CT comparison. Both BFs provide substantial evidence in favor of the null hypothesis: physicians' diagnoses made after distraction are no better than diagnoses made either immediately or after self-paced deliberation. PMID:25852079

  11. The Construction of the Konrad Repository - Status and Perspective - 13034

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the Atomic Energy Act of Germany the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) is assigned with this duty. In 1982 the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad near Salzgitter (Federal State of Lower Saxony) was proposed as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. After 20 years of plan approval procedure the license was granted by the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony in May 2002. This decision was finally confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court in March 2007. The construction has started, but former assumptions about the beginning of waste emplacement tuned out to be too optimistic. In the course of the preparatory work and the implementation planning it turned out that many changes need to be done. As a matter of fact most of the documents and planning originate from the 1990's and need to be revised because from that time on until now no adaptation was appropriate. The necessity to apply the state-of-the-art technology and other legal implications give rise to further changes and new licensing procedures, especially building licenses. Furthermore, the license from 2002 also includes a lot of collateral clauses that need to be fulfilled before radioactive waste can be emplaced. With this in mind, the time frame for the construction of the Konrad repository was revised in 2010. As a result, the completion of the erection before 2019 does not seem to be realistic. (authors)

  12. Official dosimetry with personal electronic dosemeters - The framework in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, personal electronic dosemeters (AEPDs) are presently applied mainly for operational radiation protection monitoring particularly in nuclear power engineering companies, large hospitals and research centres. This is done in addition to the official dosimetry of record. Therefore, frequently, double monitoring occurs - officially and operationally. A crucial advantage of AEPDs compared with passive dosemeters is the ability to adapt the monitoring period to the working time in controlled areas and to allow an immediate readout of the dose after leaving the controlled area, e.g. a job-related monitoring is possible by correlating the readout dose with the job performed. Germany started a general research project, consisting of two parts, for an optimised implementation of personal electronic dosemeters into official dosimetry. The use of AEPDs as official dosemeters depends on an approval by Federal and Federal State ('Laender') authorities as an official dosimetry system, which has to comply with special requirements ensuring that the legal requirements are fulfilled. The formulation of these special requirements is in the focus of part one of the research project, supervised by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and performed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH. As a result of part one, a framework was developed which is the basis for a future technical implementation project. Part one is described in the paper, while part two is still to be initiated and will deal with the implementation and testing phase of the introduction of personal electronic dosemeters as official dosemeters. (authors)

  13. Emergency Preparedness in Germany: Manuals for Emergency Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, the emergency preparedness with respect to severe accidents (events beyond the design basis) is directed to prevent any impacts on the environment and, if that is no longer possible, to reduce these impacts. This involves, on the one hand, measures planned to be taken inside the nuclear power plant (on-site accident management) and, on the other hand, measures planned to be taken outside of the plant (off-site disaster control). Severe accident management scenarios (such as bleed and feed operation) and emergency organizations have been established in nuclear power plants over the last decade in order to reduce the environmental impacts of the accidents. Severe accident management measures can only be performed effectively if the participating personnel and parties are properly qualified and prepared for this task. Therefore, corresponding training exercises are of particular importance. Because of the beyond-design-basis character of these accidents, there are no detailed regulations and guidelines for the development of emergency preparedness in Germany. However, it has become common practice to perform at least one emergency exercise per year in every German nuclear plant. The extent of these training exercises range from simple alarm drills, up to commanded post exercises, based on complex scenarios involving the authorities and the plant manufacturer. BfS has launched a project for the development of a manual for planning, co-ordination, and assessment of on-site accident management exercises. The objective is to establish an approach with a sound technical basis harmonized on federal level. An important part of this project was to develop methods for systematic preparation, performance evaluation of emergency exercises. Volume 1 provides optimized exercises based on conventional event sheets, Volume 2 comprises the application of full-scope plant specific simulators. The current status of the manual is provided and proposals for a harmonized

  14. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  15. Effects of puerarin on the heart function and the level of serum TNF-α in diabetic rats%葛根素对糖尿病大鼠心功能及血清TNF-α水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一弛; 解砚英; 牟艳玲; 裴可灵

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨葛根素(Pue)对糖尿病心肌病(DCM)大鼠心功能改变及血清中肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-α)水平的影响.方法 SD大鼠一次性腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(STZ)60 mg·kg-1,8周后建立实验性糖尿病心肌损伤模型.随机分为DCM模型组、葛根素小剂量组(50 mg·kg-1·d-1) 和葛根素大剂量组( 200 mg·kg-1·d-1),每组10只.每天腹腔注射1次,连续用药8周后评价各组的体重(BW)、空腹血糖(BFS)、总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、谷草转氨酶(AST)、肌酸激酶(CK)、心肌型肌酸激酶同功酶(CK-MB)含量.小动物超声成像系统观测左心室舒张末期内径(LVIDd)、左心室收缩末期内径(LVIDs)、短轴缩短率(FS)及左心室射血分数(LVEF)的改变.酶联免疫吸附实验(ELISA)法测定TNF-α水平.结果 与DCM模型组相比,① 葛根素大剂量组体重明显升高(P<0.01),BFS、TC、TG及AST、LDH、CK、CK-MB均明显下降(P<0.01);② 葛根素大剂量组LVIDd值及LVIDs值明显下降(P<0.01),FS值及LVEF值明显升高(P<0.01,P<0.05);③ 葛根素用药组TNF-α水平明显降低,以高剂量组最明显(P<0.01).结论 葛根素能明显改善糖尿病大鼠的心功能,其心肌保护作用可能与降低血中TNF-α水平有关.%Aim To investigate effects of puerarin on the heart function and serum level of TNF-α in diabetic cardiomyopathy( DCM ) rats. Methods Male Spra-gue-Dawley( SD ) rats were intraperitonealy injected with streptozotocin ( STZ, 60 mg · kg -1 ) to establish DCM model. Then the model rats were randomly divid-ed into diabetic group, low dose puerarin( 50 mg · kg-1 ) and high dose puerarin( 200 mg · kg-1 ), 10 rats in each group. Corresponding drugs were intraper-itoneally injected once a day. The animals in normal control group and diabetic group were given equal sodium chloride. After 8 weeks, the effects of puerarin on the DCM were observed by echocardiography, including left ventricular internal diameter at

  16. Session Report - S. Voinis (Andra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The session addressed key issues related to the industrial feasibility of construction. It covered the implementer and regulator points of view. The conclusions derive from three presentations completed by the outcomes of six WG. At the Morsleben Repository, Germany, the licensing of the closure of the repository has been initiated by BfS. The closure concept is based on extensive backfilling with salt concrete complemented by seals. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing such a seal structure an in-situ experiment is performed in a drift of the repository. In the UK, the framework for implementing geological disposal of the higher activity radioactive waste is described in the White Paper published by the UK Government in June 2008. The process to site a facility will be staged and based on voluntarism and partnership with local communities. This process is in its early stage. The paper outlines the work being undertaken by the NDA. In canada, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has submitted information required for a CNSC licence to prepare the site and construct a DGR for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of their nuclear power reactors. That submission includes an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), as required for a Panel Review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), and the information required for a licence application under the NSCA Regulations. Discussions between the proponent and the regulator in the pre-licensing phase, clarified CNSC expectations for the characterization of the site and for the development of the EIS and application. They also helped to ensure that OPG understood these expectations. Outcomes WG session-1: - Start with construction but during operational phase: Simultaneous construction and operation activities. - Need for technical requirements/criteria: So that it can be judged whether 'products' meet the requirements; LT safety issues to be considered during

  17. Safety analysis of fusion reactors pertaining to nuclear incidents and accidents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BfS gave the projekt partners IPP, KIT, Oeko-Institut e. V., and GRS the order to carry out a literature study on the topic of safety of fusion power plants regarding nuclear incidents and accidents. In the framework of this study the actual status of science and technology of the safety concept of fusion power plants should be determined and the applicability of the nuclear safety regulations hitherto developed for nuclear power plants checked. For future commercial fusion power plants today only conceptional designs exist. The most advanced conceptual study for a future fusion power plant is the European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) from the year 2005, which is based on the tokamak principle. In this study also fundamental aspects of the safety concept of nuclear fusion are treated. Hereby several different conceptual approaches are discussed, which differ among others also in the lay-out approaches relevant for the safety of a facility like for instance the choice of the breeding concept or the materials for the blanket/divertor structure and the coolants. The safety concept of nuclear fusion is oriented on safety concepts for facilities with radioactive inventory. It is based on the concept of tiered safety levels. In order to check whether for the nuclear fusion a safety concept comparable with the nuclear fission at all is necessary, in a first step it was considered, which consequences are possible at a postulated release o large parts of the radioactive inventory of a fusion power plant. Such a worst-case scenario was compared with a corresponding, postulated release of large parts of the radioactive inventory of a nuclear power plant. As scale hereby served the radiological criterion, at the transgression of which in the environment of the facility an evacuation would be necessary. In a next step the transferability of the safety concept of the tiered safety levels of nuclear technology to the fusion was checked. Beside events transferable from

  18. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  19. Uranium accumulation in aquatic macrophytes in an uraniferous region: Relevance to natural attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Cristina; Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-08-01

    Phytoremediation potential of uranium (U) was investigated by submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent native aquatic macrophytes inhabiting along the streams of Horta da Vilariça, a uraniferous geochemical region of NE Portugal. The work has been undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to relate the U concentrations in water-sediment-plant system; and (ii) to identify the potentialities of aquatic plants to remediate U-contaminated waters based on accumulation pattern. A total of 25 plant species culminating 233 samples was collected from 15 study points along with surface water and contiguous sediments. Concentrations of U showed wide range of variations both in waters (0.61-5.56 μg L(-1), mean value 1.98 μg L(-1)) and sediments (124-23,910 μg kg(-1), mean value 3929 μg kg(-1)) and this is also reflected in plant species examined. The plant species exhibited the ability to accumulate U several orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding water. Maximum U concentrations was recorded in the bryophyte Scorpiurium deflexifolium (49,639 μg kg(-1)) followed by Fontinalis antipyretica (35,771 μg kg(-1)), shoots of Rorippa sylvestris (33,837 μg kg(-1)), roots of Oenanthe crocata (17,807 μg kg(-1)) as well as in Nasturtium officinale (10,995 μg kg(-1)). Scorpiurium deflexifolium displayed a high bioconcentration factor (BF) of ∼2.5 × 10(4) (mean value). The species Fontinalis antipyretica, Nasturtium officinale (roots) and Rorippa sylvestris (shoots) exhibited the mean BFs of 1.7 × 10(4), 5 × 10(3) and 4.8 × 10(3) respectively. Maximum translocation factor (TF) was very much pronounced in the rooted perennial herb Rorippa sylvestris showing extreme ability to transport U for the shoots and seems to be promising candidate to be used as bioindicator species. PMID:27164268

  20. Analysis of Monolith Cores from an Engineering Scale Demonstration of a Prospective Cast Stone Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The primary disposition path of Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the DOE Hanford Site is vitrification. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone. This report documents the coring and leach testing of monolithic samples cored from an engineering-scale demonstration (ES Demo) with non-radioactive simulants. The ES Demo was performed at SRNL in October of 2013 using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft. diameter x 3.25 ft. high container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average LAW composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. In 2014 core samples originally obtained approximately six months after filling the ES Demo were tested along with bench scale molded samples that were collected during the original pour. A latter set of core samples were obtained in late March of 2015, eighteen months after completion of the original ES Demo. Core samples were obtained using a 2” diameter x 11” long coring bit. The ES Demo was sampled in three different regions consisting of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner core zone. Cores from these three lateral zones were further segregated into upper, middle and lower vertical segments. Monolithic core samples were tested using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1315 which is designed to provide mass transfer rates

  1. Effect of silica fume addition on the PGNAA measurement of chlorine in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Garwan, M A; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Raashid, M; Khateeb-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    Pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and blast furnace slag (BFS) are added to Portland cement in concrete to prevent reinforcement steel corrosion in concrete. Further preventive measure against reinforcement steel corrosion require monitoring of chloride salts concentration in concrete using non-destructive techniques, such as the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. Due to interferences between gamma-rays from chlorine and calcium in PGNAA technique, detection limit of chlorine in concrete strongly depends upon calcium concentration in concrete. SF mainly contains silica and its addition to cement concrete reduces overall concentration of calcium in concrete. This may result in an improvement in detection limit of chlorine in SF-based concrete in PGNAA studies. Particularly for chlorine detection using 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays that strongly interfere with 6.42 MeV prompt gamma-rays from calcium. In this study, SF was added to Portland cement to prevent concrete reinforcement steel from corrosion. The chlorine concentration in SF cement concrete specimens containing 0.2-3.0 wt% chlorine was measured through yield of 1.16, 1.95, 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79, and 8.58 MeV chlorine gamma-rays using PGNAA technique. An excellent agreement was noted between the experimental yield of the prompt gamma-rays and the gamma-ray yield calculated through the Monte Carlo simulations. Further the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in SF cement concrete was calculated and compared with the MDC values of chlorine in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. The MDC of chlorine in SF-based concrete through 6.11 MeV, and 6.62 MeV chlorine gamma-rays was found to be improved as compared to those in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. PMID:20042342

  2. Severe accident analyses for shutdown modes and spent fuel pools to support PSA level 2 activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of Level 2 PSA at GRS two projects are being performed in order to investigate both shutdown modes and severe accident sequences following from external hazards of nuclear power plants as well as spent fuel pool behavior under severe accident conditions. These works are being done for both PWR and BWR respectively. For both projects, deterministic severe accident analyses using the MELCOR code are a main part of the activities in order to support the probabilistic part of these projects. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) financially support a project regarding deterministic analyses of severe accident sequences during shutdown modes and external hazards (flooding, aircraft crash, earthquakes and explosions pressure wave). These results can be used for supporting future Level 2 PSA studies. Within a research project financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) an extension of probabilistic analyses of spent fuel pools is being performed. Appropriate methods for the consideration to spent fuel pools inside a PSA Level 2 will be developed. The main goals are the identification of the impact of severe accidents inside spent fuel pools onto the plant behavior and the quantification of related releases of radionuclides into the environment. Results of MELCOR analyses done for the two projects mentioned above are presented. First, preliminary results of a severe accident sequence initiated by a loss of decay heat removal of a PWR shutdown mode are discussed. Following, preliminary results of the PWR spent fuel pool behavior after a 'Station Black-out' are shown. It could be shown that the integral code MELCOR is able to calculate the accident progression of an event starting from a shutdown mode of a PWR and the severe accident sequence inside of a PWR spent fuel pool. The results seem to be realistic

  3. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam, E-mail: litonaslam@yahoo.com [Dept. of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan); Kim, P.J., E-mail: pjkim@nongae.gsnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Inubushi, K. [Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and

  4. Atmospheric transport modelling for the CTBT radionuclide network in routine operation and after the Fukushima releases; Atmosphaerische Transportmodellierung fuer das Radionuklidmessnetz zur Ueberwachung des Kernwaffenteststoppvertrages im Regelbetrieb und nach den Freisetzungen in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.O.; Ceranna, L.; Boennemann, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). B4.3; Schlosser, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Freiburg (Germany). SW2.5

    2014-01-20

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all types of nuclear explosions. For verification of compliance with Treaty the International Monitoring System (IMS) is being built up by the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the CTBT-Organisation in Vienna. The IMS observes waveform signals (seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic) of explosions and traces of radionuclides in the atmosphere to proof the nuclear character of an event. The International Data Centre (IDC) provides analysis products for the IMS data such as various event bulletins, radionuclide reports, and atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) results confining the possible source region of detected radionuclides. The judgment on the character of a suspicious event remains with the member states. The German National Data Centre for verification of CTBT is hosted by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) in Hannover. The BGR operates four IMS stations (IS26, IS27, PS19, and AS35) and cooperates closely with the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) who operates the radionuclide station RN33 at mount Schauinsland and supports the NDC with radionuclide expertise. In response to the Fukushima accident caused by the large magnitude 9.0 Tohuku Earthquake and Tsunami the HSYSPLIT model driven by 0.5 degree NCEP data was used at the German NDC to simulate the primary transport pathways of potentially emitted radioisotopes. The analysis focuses on arrival times and dilution ratios at the radionuclide stations of the IMS. The arrival times were predicted correctly at most stations for ten days after the accident. Traces of the Fukushima emissions were detected at all IMS radionuclide stations on the Northern Hemisphere end of March. In April also some stations on the Southern Hemisphere detected some traces which passed the ITCZ. In respect to the CTBT context the influence of the Tohoku earthquake and the Fukushima emissions on the network capability to detect a

  5. ENETRAP: training and education in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition of radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of radiation protection experts (RPE) and officers (RPO) is becoming a real need. The ENETRAP project ('European Network for Education and Training in RAdiological Protection') aims at bringing together different ideas and approaches of education and training (E and T) in radiological protection (RP) in order to better integrate and harmonise national E and T activities on a European level. The project started in April 2005. 10 partners are involved in ENETRAP: SCK-CEN (coordinator), CEA-INSTN, FZK-FTU, BfS, ENEA, NRG, CIEMAT, HPA-RPD, UJF and UHI-NHC. These partners have years of experience with established E and T programmes and play an important role in the development of specific techniques such as e-learning or On-the-Job Training (OJT) related to RP. As a result of their fundamental scientific research, collaboration with industry and practical experience, the partners have a solid scientific knowledge of all aspects of RP and are ideally placed to transfer the know-how and estimate the needs in this field. The ENETRAP project aims at establishing a sustainable E and T infrastructure for RP as an essential component to combat the perceived decline in expertise and to ensure the continuation of the high level of RP knowledge. The main objectives of the ENETRAP project are (1) to better integrate existing E and T activities in the RP infrastructure of the European countries in order to combat the decline in both student numbers and teaching institutions, (2) to develop more harmonised approaches for E and T in RP in Europe, (3) to better integrate the national resources and capacities for E and T and (4) to provide the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of radiation in industry, medicine and research. Any such infrastructure must ensure that provision is

  6. Association between DNA damage response and repair genes and risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joellen M Schildkraut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We analyzed the association between 53 genes related to DNA repair and p53-mediated damage response and serous ovarian cancer risk using case-control data from the North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study (NCOCS, a population-based, case-control study. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis was restricted to 364 invasive serous ovarian cancer cases and 761 controls of white, non-Hispanic race. Statistical analysis was two staged: a screen using marginal Bayes factors (BFs for 484 SNPs and a modeling stage in which we calculated multivariate adjusted posterior probabilities of association for 77 SNPs that passed the screen. These probabilities were conditional on subject age at diagnosis/interview, batch, a DNA quality metric and genotypes of other SNPs and allowed for uncertainty in the genetic parameterizations of the SNPs and number of associated SNPs. Six SNPs had Bayes factors greater than 10 in favor of an association with invasive serous ovarian cancer. These included rs5762746 (median OR(odds ratio(per allele = 0.66; 95% credible interval (CI = 0.44-1.00 and rs6005835 (median OR(per allele = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.53-0.91 in CHEK2, rs2078486 (median OR(per allele = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.21-2.25 and rs12951053 (median OR(per allele = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.20-2.26 in TP53, rs411697 (median OR (rare homozygote = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.35 - 0.79 in BACH1 and rs10131 (median OR( rare homozygote = not estimable in LIG4. The six most highly associated SNPs are either predicted to be functionally significant or are in LD with such a variant. The variants in TP53 were confirmed to be associated in a large follow-up study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, further follow-up of the DNA repair and response pathways in a larger dataset is warranted to confirm these results.

  7. Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    JULY 2004 2nd World Congress of the Game Theory Society, Faculty of Luminy, Marseille, France 5-9 July 2004 Europa Organisation (europa@europa-organisation.com), +33 5 34 45 26 45, www.gts2004.org Budapest Workshop on Behavioral Economics, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 5-10 July 2004 Eva Dotzi (behavecon@ceu.hu), www.iza.org/en/calls_conferences/CallCEU_04.pdf FDA'04. 1st IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications, Bordeaux, France 19-20 July 2004 IFAC secretariat (fda04@lap.u-bordeaux1.fr), www.lap.u-bordeaux.fr/fda04/ Bachelier Finance Society Third World Congress, InterContinental Hotel, Chicago, IL, USA 21-24 July 2004 bfs2004@uic.edu, www.uic.edu/orgs/bachelier/ BS/IMS 2004. 6th World Congress of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Barcelona, Spain 26-31 July 2004 wc2004@pacifico-meetings.com, +34 93 402 13 85, www.imub.ub.es/events/wc2004 AUGUST 2004 Summer School in Econometrics. The Cointegrated VAR Model: Econometric Methodology and Macroeconomic Applications, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2-22 August 2004 Summerschool@econ.ku.dk, www.econ.ku.dk/summerschool SEPTEMBER 2004 First Bonzenfreies Colloquium on Market Dynamics and Quantitative Economics, Alessandria, Palazzo Borsalino, Italy 9-10 September 2004 colloquium@unipmn.it, www.mfn.unipmn.it/~colloqui/ Risk Analysis 2004. 4th International Conference on Computer Simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, Aldemar Paradise Royal Mare Hotel, Rhodes, Greece 27-29 September 2004 enquiries@wessex.ac.uk, +44 (0)238 029 3223, www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2004/risk04/ OCTOBER 2004 IRC Hedge 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 10, 11 October 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=10 NOVEMBER 2004 IRC DICE 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 22, 23 November 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=13 DECEMBER 2004

  8. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu Kumari, S; Gupta, Neha; Shiels, Alan; FitzGerald, Paul G; Menon, Anil G; Mathias, Richard T; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5(-/-)), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0(+/-); homozygous KO: AQP0(-/-); all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0(+/-) lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to confer

  9. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5−/−), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0+/−; homozygous KO: AQP0−/−; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0+/− lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to confer

  10. Evaluation of Technetium Getters to Improve the Performance of Cast Stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. One of the major radionuclides that Cast Stone has the potential to immobilize is technetium (Tc). The mechanism for immobilization is through the reduction of the highly mobile Tc(VII) species to the less mobile Tc(IV) species by the blast furnace slag (BFS) used in the Cast Stone formulation. Technetium immobilization through this method would be beneficial because Tc is one of the most difficult contaminants to address at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site due to its complex chemical behavior in tank waste, limited incorporation in mid- to high-temperature immobilization processes (vitrification, steam reformation, etc.), and high mobility in subsurface environments. In fact, the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (TC&WM EIS) identifies technetium-99 (99Tc) as one of the radioactive tank waste components contributing the most to the environmental impact associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site. The TC&WM EIS, along with an earlier supplemental waste-form risk assessment, used a diffusion-limited release model to estimate the release of different contaminants from the WTP process waste forms. In both of these predictive modeling exercises, where effective diffusivities based on grout performance data available at the time, groundwater at the 100-m down-gradient well exceeded the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for 99Tc. (900 pCi/L). Recent relatively short-term (63 day) leach

  11. Permission for the disposal of substances. Recommendation of the Radiation Protection Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Nineteen Eighties the German Radiation Protection Commission (SSK) has issued a number of recommendations for the release of weakly radioactive substances from the requirement of official approval for use. These have been summarised in a general guide [SSK 98]. The recommendations are based on the de minimis concept of the IAEA [IAEA 88] which allows an upper total dose limit for the general population of several 10 μSv per year from all substances exempt from official approval. As a means of modelling the disposal of exempt substances the general guide uses a model based on a study by Poschner and Schaller [POS 95]. The exemption values given in the general guide also take account of age groups and the dose coefficients given in the basic radiation protection standards of the EU [EU 96]. In the meantime the framework conditions have changed, due in part to new waste management regulations and in part to improvements in disposal technology. The changes in waste management law have resulted in particular from the Ordinance on the Environmentally Friendly Landfilling of Household Wastes (AbfAblV) of 20 February 2001, BGBl 2001, 305 and from the Ordinance on Landfills and Long-Term Storage Facilities (DepV) of 24 July 2002, BGBl 2002, 2807, in which the regulations of the Technical Code on Household Waste (TASi) [TASi 93] have been detailed and made binding. This has led to certain requirements being placed on existing as well as new landfills and storage facilities and related work processes, which in turn has impacted on dose calculation formulas (in particular soil sealing, covering, pretreatment of wastes). The consequences of the new requirements were investigated in a research project conducted by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (BfS) [THI 04]. For these reasons the Radiation Protection Commission has been commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) to work out a recommendation for

  12. Operación de hornos altos con inyección de carbón pulverizado en diferentes condiciones tecnológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formoso Prego, Antonio

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of pulverized coal injection (PCI at two blast furnaces (BFs in Spain and Ukraine which operate at different burden and blast conditions has been analyzed using statistical methods, calculation of material and heat balances and a mathematical model. Effect of PCI on the parameters of blast furnace operation, pig iron quality and also on interactions between process parameters has been studied. At high-grade burden and high parameters of the combined blast, dependence of coke consumption rate on PC amount is linear up to a high rate of PCI. At unfavorable burden and technological conditions dependence of the main furnace operating parameters on PC rate has extreme character. High efficiency of PC use can be achieved at the different conditions due to optimization of the technological regime.

    Se analiza la eficiencia de la inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP en dos hornos altos (HAs, en España y Ucrania, que operan en condiciones diferentes de viento y carga, usando un modelo matemático, métodos estadísticos y cálculos de los balances de materias y térmico. Se estudia el efecto de la ICP sobre los parámetros de operación de alto homo, calidad del arrabio y, también, las interacciones entre los parámetros de proceso. Al operar con una carga de calidad y altos parámetros de viento combinado el consumo de coque disminuye linealmente al incrementar, hasta tasas elevadas, la ICP. La dependencia entre los principales índices de fusión y el caudal de CP adquiere un carácter extremo cuando se opera con carga de baja calidad y en condiciones tecnológicas poco favorables. La alta eficiencia en la utilización de la ICP puede lograrse en condiciones diferentes mediante la optimización del régimen tecnológico.

  13. European studies on occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The E.S.O.R.E.X. project was initiated by the European Commission in 1997. The objectives of this European study are: 1) to provide the European Commission and the national competent radiation protection authorities with reliable information on how personal radiation monitoring, reporting and recording of dosimetric results is organised in European countries. 2)To collect reliable and directly comparable data on individual and collective radiation exposure in all occupational sectors where radiation workers are employed. Recently the project continues with the name 'E.S.O.R.E.X. 2005' and managed under the responsibility of the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic (S.U.J.B.). The study is performed in close co-operation with the German B.f.S., which was leading the three previous E.S.O.R.E.X. studies: E.S.O.R.E.X. West, E.S.O.R.E.X. East and E.S.O.R.E.X. 2000. E.S.O.R.E.X. 2005 is scheduled for the next three years and the main goals will be to finalize the updating of the country reports by describing the current situation on the field of occupational exposure control, evaluation and registration of personal doses of radiation workers and as a second part of the study, to collect dosimetric data for the period of the years 2001- 2005. In the beginning of the E.S.O.R.E.X. 2005 study the 3. E.S.O.R.E.X. workshop has been organised in the year 2004. The meeting was aimed to present and discus the actual problems identified during the performance of E.S.O.R.E.X. studies and also to establish the ground for an European network that sets up personal contacts and encourages to mutual information exchange in the field of occupational exposure evaluation, regulation and registration and of another related problems. For this purpose a special web site www.esorex.cz has been created where also the discussing forum for certain problems is open. The poster will present the main feedback, highlights and results from the recent and also previous studies and from

  14. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the product quality control group (PKS) 16 scientists and engineers are currently working on the qualification of radioactive waste on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The nuclear safeguards group is coordinating the joint safeguards R and D programme between IAEA and BMWi. Research and development activities are integrated into national and international research programms and cooperations. They represent a substantial part of the Helmholtz Research programme ''Nuclear Safety Research''. Material science for nuclear waste management is the research subject of IEK-6, Nuclear Waste Management part. (orig.)

  15. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    graphite. Within the product quality control group (PKS) 16 scientists and engineers are currently working on the qualification of radioactive waste on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The nuclear safeguards group is coordinating the joint safeguards R and D programme between IAEA and BMWi. Research and development activities are integrated into national and international research programms and cooperations. They represent a substantial part of the Helmholtz Research programme ''Nuclear Safety Research''. Material science for nuclear waste management is the research subject of IEK-6, Nuclear Waste Management part. (orig.)

  16. Variable Elimination Resolution Algorithm Based on Dynamic Constraint of Lit-eral Size%基于子句文字长度动态约束的变量消除算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓瑶; 冯志勇; 饶国政; 王鑫

    2014-01-01

    变量消除算法作为一种重要的预处理算法已经应用于多种预处理器中。对比研究了在不同约束条件下,变量消除算法对简化性能和求解性能的影响,提出了基于子句文字长度动态约束的变量消除算法。该算法只允许当变量分解后的子句文字长度比原有子句文字少时,执行变量消除替换操作。在此基础上实现了一个基于MiniSat开源代码的可满足性问题预处理器MiniSat BFS。实验结果表明,与现有的基于子句数目约束的算法相比,新算法不仅降低了子句、变量和文字的数目,而且缩短了预处理过程和求解过程的时间消耗。更重要的是,改进后的算法在限定时间内可以求解更多的可满足性问题。%As an important preprocessing algorithm, variable elimination algorithm has been applied to a variety of preprocessors. By comparing and studying variable elimination resolution algorithm’influence of the preprocessing and solving process under different constraint conditions, this paper proposes a variable elimination resolution algo-rithm based on dynamic constraint of literal size. This algorithm only allows performing variable elimination replace-ment operation when the length of clauses after resolved is less than that of original one. Depending on that, this paper achieves a preprocessor based on MiniSat open source for satisfiability problems-MiniSat BFS. Finally, the experimental results show that, compared with the existing algorithm, the improved algorithm not only reduces the number of clauses, variables and characters, but also shortens the runtime of preprocessor and solver for indus-trial instances. It is worth mentioning that new algorithm can solve more instances within limited time.

  17. Severe accident analyses for shutdown modes and spent fuel pools to support PSA level 2 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalik, M.; Mildenberger, O.; Loeffler, H.; Steinroetter, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In the field of Level 2 PSA at GRS two projects are being performed in order to investigate both shutdown modes and severe accident sequences following from external hazards of nuclear power plants as well as spent fuel pool behavior under severe accident conditions. These works are being done for both PWR and BWR respectively. For both projects, deterministic severe accident analyses using the MELCOR code are a main part of the activities in order to support the probabilistic part of these projects. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) financially support a project regarding deterministic analyses of severe accident sequences during shutdown modes and external hazards (flooding, aircraft crash, earthquakes and explosions pressure wave). These results can be used for supporting future Level 2 PSA studies. Within a research project financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) an extension of probabilistic analyses of spent fuel pools is being performed. Appropriate methods for the consideration to spent fuel pools inside a PSA Level 2 will be developed. The main goals are the identification of the impact of severe accidents inside spent fuel pools onto the plant behavior and the quantification of related releases of radionuclides into the environment. Results of MELCOR analyses done for the two projects mentioned above are presented. First, preliminary results of a severe accident sequence initiated by a loss of decay heat removal of a PWR shutdown mode are discussed. Following, preliminary results of the PWR spent fuel pool behavior after a 'Station Black-out' are shown. It could be shown that the integral code MELCOR is able to calculate the accident progression of an event starting from a shutdown mode of a PWR and the severe accident sequence inside of a PWR spent fuel pool. The results seem to be

  18. Engineering scale demonstration of a prospective Cast Stone process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Fowley, M.; Hansen, E.; Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Williams, M.

    2014-09-30

    This report documents an engineering-scale demonstration with non-radioactive simulants that was performed at SRNL using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. Over three days, the SCPF was used to fill a 1600 gallon container, staged outside the facility, with simulated Cast Stone grout. The container, staged outside the building approximately 60 ft from the SCPF, was instrumented with x-, y-, and z-axis thermocouples to monitor curing temperature. The container was also fitted with two formed core sampling vials. For the operation, the targeted grout production rate was 1.5 gpm. This required a salt solution flow rate of approximately 1 gpm and a premix feed rate of approximately 580 lb/h. During the final day of operation, the dry feed rate was increased to evaluate the ability of the system to handle increased throughput. Although non-steady state operational periods created free surface liquids, no bleed water was observed either before or after operations. The final surface slope at a fill height of 39.5 inches was 1-1.5 inches across the 8.5 foot diameter container, highest at the final fill point and lowest diametrically opposed to the fill point. During processing, grout was collected in cylindrical containers from both the mixer discharge and the discharge into the container. These samples were stored in a humid environment either in a closed box proximal to the container or inside the laboratory. Additional samples collected at these sampling points

  19. Engineering scale demonstration of a prospective Cast Stone process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents an engineering-scale demonstration with non-radioactive simulants that was performed at SRNL using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. Over three days, the SCPF was used to fill a 1600 gallon container, staged outside the facility, with simulated Cast Stone grout. The container, staged outside the building approximately 60 ft from the SCPF, was instrumented with x-, y-, and z-axis thermocouples to monitor curing temperature. The container was also fitted with two formed core sampling vials. For the operation, the targeted grout production rate was 1.5 gpm. This required a salt solution flow rate of approximately 1 gpm and a premix feed rate of approximately 580 lb/h. During the final day of operation, the dry feed rate was increased to evaluate the ability of the system to handle increased throughput. Although non-steady state operational periods created free surface liquids, no bleed water was observed either before or after operations. The final surface slope at a fill height of 39.5 inches was 1-1.5 inches across the 8.5 foot diameter container, highest at the final fill point and lowest diametrically opposed to the fill point. During processing, grout was collected in cylindrical containers from both the mixer discharge and the discharge into the container. These samples were stored in a humid environment either in a closed box proximal to the container or inside the laboratory. Additional samples collected at these sampling points

  20. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Definitions; Licensing requirements); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing regime; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response; Surveillance of installations and activities); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (General; Principal elements of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; Additional radiation protection norms); 7. Radioactive waste management (Atomic Energy Act 2002; Radiation Protection Ordinance; International obligations); 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Non-proliferation regime; Physical protection regime); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities: Federal authorities (Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Minister for Education and Research, Federal Minister of Finance, Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs, Federal Minister for Economy and Technology, Federal Minister of Defence, Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS, Federal Office of Economics and Export Control); Authorities of the Laender; 2. Advisory bodies (Reactor Safety Commission - RSK; Radiation Protection Commission - SSK; Disposal Commission - ESK; Nuclear Technology

  1. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-fp-Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction fp and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have been

  2. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N2O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and inorganic amendments in paddy

  3. Evaluation of Technetium Getters to Improve the Performance of Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. One of the major radionuclides that Cast Stone has the potential to immobilize is technetium (Tc). The mechanism for immobilization is through the reduction of the highly mobile Tc(VII) species to the less mobile Tc(IV) species by the blast furnace slag (BFS) used in the Cast Stone formulation. Technetium immobilization through this method would be beneficial because Tc is one of the most difficult contaminants to address at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site due to its complex chemical behavior in tank waste, limited incorporation in mid- to high-temperature immobilization processes (vitrification, steam reformation, etc.), and high mobility in subsurface environments. In fact, the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (TC&WM EIS) identifies technetium-99 (99Tc) as one of the radioactive tank waste components contributing the most to the environmental impact associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site. The TC&WM EIS, along with an earlier supplemental waste-form risk assessment, used a diffusion-limited release model to estimate the release of different contaminants from the WTP process waste forms. In both of these predictive modeling exercises, where effective diffusivities based on grout performance data available at the time, groundwater at the 100-m down-gradient well exceeded the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for 99Tc. (900 pCi/L). Recent relatively

  4. SAD: Neutronics researches - Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for subcriticality measurements, when one measures the time constant of the neutron flux density decreasing after the proton pulse at different levels of subcriticality. During the stage of detailed design the experiments at BFS facility in IPPE (Obninsk) will be performed and SAD facility will be simulated with high precision and approaching the critical mode. Experimental results, technique and apparatus will be used during SAD physical startup

  5. Knowledge management in fast reactors and related fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    regarding BFS-1, BFS-2 and KOBR and post irradiation experience. In UK a super archive was prepared. In USA, TREAT and ZPPR data are currently on a magnetic tape and hard copies with some transfer to electronic files. It is therefore subject to loss. Hence selected ZPR and ZPPR log books are being scanned and selected critical configurations are being preserved. It is needless to emphasize that in R and D organizations like Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) with a mandate to conduct broad based multi disciplinary programme of scientific research and advanced engineering directed towards fast reactor technology and associated fuel cycle facilities, knowledge management plays a vital role. It also helps in our vision to achieve world class leadership in the fields of Fast Reactor technology and related Fuel Cycles. Also, India would like to achieve energy security through Fast Breeder Reactors. IGCAR has been operating a Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) successfully for the last 23 years with a unique Pu-U carbide fuel. The Centre has developed and nurturing world class expertise in the areas of fast reactor engineering, reactor safety and analysis, sodium technology, materials development and characterization, non destructive evaluation, in service inspection, reactor instrumentation, computer modeling etc. The centre had successfully reprocessed the Pu-U carbide fuel from FBTR of 150,000 MWd/t burn up. A lot of knowledge has been created in these domains and is being effectively managed and utilized. Learning from 380 reactor years of knowledge base of international experience and knowledge accrued from our own Fast Breeder Test Reactor through successful operation for 20 years and with major engineering experiments in fast reactor technology conducted, IGCAR has indigenously designed 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) and the reactor is under construction. With creative management of knowledge of the centre a Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility is

  6. Uncertainty assessment through a precipitation dependent HUP: an application to a small Southern Italy catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, D.; Versace, P.; Sirangelo, B.

    2009-04-01

    The present study focuses on the application of a precipitation dependent HUP (Hydrologic Uncertainty Processor) to assess the predictive uncertainty on water discharge predictions for a small headwater catchment located in Calabria (South Italy) through a complete example of the estimation procedure, modelling assumptions and results. The applied HUP was proposed by Krzysztofowicz in 1999, and is a component of the Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) which provides a general methodology for probabilistic forecasting via any deterministic hydrologic model. Within the BFS framework, the task of the HUP is to quantify the effects of various uncertainty sources on the forecasts, e.g. of river discharges, under the hypothesis that there is no precipitation uncertainty. According to the principle of Bayesian revision of a probability distribution, the general formulation of the HUP supplies the hydrologic uncertainty in terms of a family,g°(×|s,h0), of posterior densities of discharge H, for every possible realization s of the model river discharge process S and observation H0 = h0 of river discharge up to the forecast time. This result is obtained through the revision of a prior distribution g of the predictand, which exists before the preparation of a forecast, on the basis of a likelihood function f estimated from past evidence on model performance against observations. The implemented HUP rests on the following assumptions: precipitation dependent structure; nonstationarity of both actual river stage and model river stage process with lead time n; meta-gaussian formulation for all the conditional distributions. The study watershed is the test site of the Turbolo Creek catchment (29 km2), a tributary of the Crati River, located in Southern Italy. The hydro-meteorological database used within this study comprises rainfall, temperature, and discharge values sampled with a 20 minutes temporal resolution. The hydrologic response in the HUP is simulated by the RISE

  7. Optimisation of Protection as applicable to geological disposal: the ICRP view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfgang Weiss (BfS), vice-chair of ICRP Committee 4, recalled that the role of optimisation is to select the best protection options under the prevailing circumstances based on scientific considerations, societal concerns and ethical aspects as well as considerations of transparency. An important role of the concept of optimisation of protection is to foster a 'safety culture' and thereby to engender a state of thinking in everyone responsible for control of radiation exposures, such that they are continuously asking themselves the question, 'Have I done all that I reasonably can to avoid or reduce these doses?' Clearly, the answer to this question is a matter of judgement and necessitates co-operation between all parties involved and, as a minimum, the operating management and the regulatory agencies, but the dialogue would be more complete if other stakeholders were also involved. What kinds of checks and balances or factors would be needed to be considered for an 'optimal' system? Can indicators be identified? Quantitative methods may provide input to this dialogue but they should never be the sole input. The ICRP considers that the parameters to take into account include also social considerations and values, environmental considerations, as well as technical and economic considerations. Wolfgang Weiss approached the question of the distinction to be made between system optimisation (in the sense of taking account of social and economic as well as of all types of hazards) and optimisation of radiological protection. The position of the ICRP is that the system of protection that it proposes is based on both science (quantification of the health risk) and value judgement (what is an acceptable risk?) and optimisation is the recommended process to integrate both aspects. Indeed, there has been evolution since the old system of intervention levels to the new system, whereby, even if the level of the dose or risk (which is called constraint in ICRP-81 ) is met

  8. Radioactive materials in the ocean. Sources and their far reaching consequences. Field mapping of radionuclides in the North Sea. Actual concentrations of the radionuclides tritium, Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129, Cs-139, Pu-isotopes and Am-241; Radioactive Stoffe im Meer. Quellen und ihre weit reichenden Auswirkungen. Kartierung von Radionukliden in der Nordsee. Aktuelle Konzentration der Radionuklide Tritium, Sr-90, Tc-99, I-129, Cs-137, Pu-Isotope und Am-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, H.; Goroncy, I.; Herrmann, J. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH), Hamburg (Germany); Tosch, L.; Daraoui, A.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Sachse, R.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie; Alfimov, V.; Synal, H.A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zuerich (Switzerland); Nielsen, S.P. [RISOE Research Centre, Roskilde (Denmark); Rudjord, A.L.; Dwadall, M.; Gaevert, T. [Statens Stralevern (NRPA) (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    Radionuclide materials in the oceans are caused by different sources: global fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing, effluents from the nuclear reprocessing plants Sellafield and la Hague, fallout after the Chernobyl accident, sea-disposal of radioactive wastes in arctic regions of in the deep sea, the nuclear-powered submarine Komsomolets in the Norwegian Sea and effluents from nuclear power plants. The paper describes the results of an actual survey on the contamination distribution and radioactivity in the North Sea. The effluents of I-129 and Tc-99 from Sellafield and La Hague were rather different, so that the drift pathways will be observable over the next centuries due to the long half-time. These data could be a tool for climatic change studies in connection with the oceanic circulation. Modeling simulation results complete the observed geographic radionuclide distributions. [German] Radionuklide im Meer stammen aus verschiedenen Quellen: - globaler Fallout aus den oberirdischen Kernwaffentests, - Ableitungen aus den nuklearen Wiederaufbereitungsanlagen Sellafield und La Hague, - Fallout aus dem Unfall von Tschernobyl, - Versenkung radioaktiver Abfaelle in arktischen Gebieten oder der Tiefsee, - Atom-U-Boot Komsomolets in der Norwegischen See und, - Ableitungen aus Kernreaktoren. In Nord- und Ostsee spielen die beiden letztgenannten Quellen kaum eine Rolle. Radioaktive Kontamination der Meere wird je nach Radionuklid ueber grosse Distanzen mit den Meeresstroemungen verfrachtet. In einem vom BMU bzw. BfS gefoerderten Forschungsvorhaben wurde in Zusammenarbeit des Bundesamtes fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) mit dem Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie an der Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, der ETH Zuerich, dem Forschungszentrum RISOE in Daenemark und der norwegischen Strahlenschutzbehoerde (NRPA) eine aktuelle Bestandaufnahme von I-129, I-127, Tc-99 sowie Tritium, Sr-90, Cs- 137, den Transuranen Plutonium und Americium in der

  9. The Herdecke questionnaire on quality of life (HLQ): Validation of factorial structure and development of a short form within a naturopathy treated in-patient collective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Thomas; Büssing, Arndt; Beer, Andre-Michael; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) of patients has become a central evaluation parameter that also acts as an aid for decisions related to treatment strategies particularly for patients with chronic illnesses. In Germany, one of the newer instruments attempting to measure distinct QoL aspects is the "Herdecke Questionnaire for Quality of Life" (HLQ). In this study, we aimed to validate the HLQ with respect to its factorial structure, and to develop a short form. The validation has been carried out in relation to other questionnaires including the SF-36 Health Survey, the Mood-Scale Bf-S, the Giessen Physical Complaints Questionnaire GBB-24 and McGill's Pain Perception Scale SES. Methods Data for this study derived from a model project on the treatment of patients using naturopathy methods in Blankenstein Hospital, Hattingen. In total, 2,461 patients between the ages of 16 and 92 years (mean age: 58.0 ± 13.4 years) were included in this study. Most of the patients (62%) suffered from rheumatic diseases. Factorial validation of the HLQ, it's reliability and external consistency analysis and the development of a short form were carried out using the SPSS software. Results Structural analysis of the HLQ-items pointed to a 6-factor model. The internal consistency of both the long and the short version is excellent (Cronbach's α is 0.935 for the HLQ-L and 0.862 for the HLQ-S). The highest reliability in the HLQ-L was obtained for the "Initiative Power and Interest" scale, the lowest for the 2-item scales "Digestive Well-Being" and the "Physical Complaints". However, the scales found by factor analysis herein were only in part congruent with the original 5-scale model which was approved a multitrait analysis approach. The new instrument shows good correlations with several scales of other relevant QoL instruments. The scales "Initiative Power and Interest", "Social Interaction", "Mental Balance", "Motility", "Physical Complaints", "Digestive Well-Being" sufficiently

  10. The Herdecke questionnaire on quality of life (HLQ: Validation of factorial structure and development of a short form within a naturopathy treated in-patient collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Andre-Michael

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL of patients has become a central evaluation parameter that also acts as an aid for decisions related to treatment strategies particularly for patients with chronic illnesses. In Germany, one of the newer instruments attempting to measure distinct QoL aspects is the "Herdecke Questionnaire for Quality of Life" (HLQ. In this study, we aimed to validate the HLQ with respect to its factorial structure, and to develop a short form. The validation has been carried out in relation to other questionnaires including the SF-36 Health Survey, the Mood-Scale Bf-S, the Giessen Physical Complaints Questionnaire GBB-24 and McGill's Pain Perception Scale SES. Methods Data for this study derived from a model project on the treatment of patients using naturopathy methods in Blankenstein Hospital, Hattingen. In total, 2,461 patients between the ages of 16 and 92 years (mean age: 58.0 ± 13.4 years were included in this study. Most of the patients (62% suffered from rheumatic diseases. Factorial validation of the HLQ, it's reliability and external consistency analysis and the development of a short form were carried out using the SPSS software. Results Structural analysis of the HLQ-items pointed to a 6-factor model. The internal consistency of both the long and the short version is excellent (Cronbach's α is 0.935 for the HLQ-L and 0.862 for the HLQ-S. The highest reliability in the HLQ-L was obtained for the "Initiative Power and Interest" scale, the lowest for the 2-item scales "Digestive Well-Being" and the "Physical Complaints". However, the scales found by factor analysis herein were only in part congruent with the original 5-scale model which was approved a multitrait analysis approach. The new instrument shows good correlations with several scales of other relevant QoL instruments. The scales "Initiative Power and Interest", "Social Interaction", "Mental Balance", "Motility", "Physical Complaints", "Digestive Well

  11. Inverse modelling of radionuclide release rates using gamma dose rate observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Thomas; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian

    2015-04-01

    inversion method uses a Bayesian formulation considering uncertainties for the a priori source term and the observations (Eckhardt et al., 2008, Stohl et al., 2012). The a priori information on the source term is a first guess. The gamma dose rate observations are used to improve the first guess and to retrieve a reliable source term. The details of this method will be presented at the conference. This work is funded by the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz BfS, Forschungsvorhaben 3612S60026. References Davoine, X. and Bocquet, M., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1549-1564, 2007. Devell, L., et al., OCDE/GD(96)12, 1995. Eckhardt, S., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3881-3897, 2008. Saunier, O., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11403-11421, 2013. Stohl, A., et al., Atmos. Environ., 32, 4245-4264, 1998. Stohl, A., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2461-2474, 2005. Stohl, A., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2313-2343, 2012.

  12. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shiels, Alan [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); FitzGerald, Paul G. [Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Menon, Anil G. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mathias, Richard T. [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5{sup −/−}), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0{sup +/−}; homozygous KO: AQP0{sup −/−}; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0{sup +/−} lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and

  13. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2005. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    passport. In 2005, about 61,000 outside-workers had a valid radiation passport. The average annual dose of exposed outside-workers was 1.8 mSv and thus twice as high as the average dose of all radiation exposed persons. Two per thousand owner of radiation passports possessed more than one valid radiation passport, after several passports had been impermissible issued to them. Since Aug. 2003 aircraft crew personnel is subject to dose monitoring if it is employed in accordance with the German employment act and likely to receive an effective dose of at least 1 mSv per year from cosmic radiation during flight operation (31.000 employees). 45 air lines report the monthly accumulated dose values of their personnel via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation of the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 62 Person-Sv and thus higher than the total collective dose of all workers at terrestrial work places (46 Person-Sv). The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 2.0 mSv. (orig.)

  14. International nuclear safety experts complete IAEA peer review of German regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    policies, the regulatory framework and activities identified by the IRRS team were: Both BMU and UM BW have high quality and experienced staff, which are supported by experienced and competent technical support organizations. Both organizations have a high commitment to learning and self improvement; The team has also made recommendations and suggestions related to areas where the regulatory system as a whole could be improved. Examples include: There is room for improving information exchange and communication between the Federal and State regulatory bodies. Such enhanced communication would also lead to increased mutual trust and public confidence. In order to fulfill their regulatory responsibilities, BMU and UM BW should be staffed appropriately and develop a plan for a succession planning strategy. It could be very beneficial for the regulatory system, and helpful for worldwide learning, if all German 'Laender' (states) with nuclear power plants also took the opportunity to benefit from the experience of an IRRS mission, including making self- assessments against international best practice. The peer review consisted of an analysis of technical regulatory information, interviews, and discussions with key personnel at BMU and UM BW, as well as with regulatory inspectors at Neckarwestheim-1 Nuclear Power Plant to witness a regulatory inspection. Regulatory aspects were also discussed with Federal Minister Sigmar Gabriel and Minister Tanja Goenner of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Other organisations such as the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BFS), the Reactor Safety Commission (RSK), the technical support organisation Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), and the Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (ILK) were also involved. (author)

  15. A Bi-feedback System of Wireless Sensor Network Event Detection in the Internet of Things%面向物联网传感器事件监测的双向反馈系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 辛宇; 谢志强

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at general wireless sensor networks event detection algorithms hasn't allowed for the issues of the multidimensional dynamic uncertain data in Internet of Things, this paper proposes a bi-feedback system of wireless sensor networks event detection in the Internet of Things. The bi-feedback system consists of BS(Base Station Subsystem) and NSC Wireless Sensor Nodes Subsystem) , the BS devises the BS-DFTS (Dynamic Fault Tolerant Strategy) , which calculates the fault-tolerant threshold by factor analysis and feeds the fault-tolerant threshold back to the NS, to update the dynamic uncertain data detective parameters of NS; the NS devises the NS-DFTS (Dynamic Fault Tolerant Strategy) , which utilizes the fault-tolerant efficiency of ANN to minimize the communication cost, implements the event detection by the ANN event detective framework with the fault-tolerant threshold as argument, and feeds the result back to the BS to calculate the new fault-tolerant threshold, and implements the feedback loop between the BS and NS, to implement the event detection of the multidimensional dynamic uncertain data in Internet of Things. Finally, the effectiveness of BFS is proved by a serial of simulations.%针对一般无线传感器网络事件监测算法没有考虑物联网数据的动态不确定性问题,提出面向物联网多维动态不确定数据的事件监测双向反馈系统.该系统分为基站和无线传感器节点2个子系统,其中基站子系统(Base Station Subsystem,BS)采用BS动态容错训练策略,利用因子分析法计算容错阈值并将其反馈到无线传感器节点子系统(Wireless Sensor Nodes Subsystem,NS),以调整无线传感器节点子系统的动态不确定数据事件监测参数;其中无线传感器节点子系统采用NS动态容错训练策略,在利用人工神经网络的动态容错能力减少事件监测通信损耗的同时,通过所建立的以容错阈值为参数的人工神经网络事件监测模型进行事

  16. Joint exercises and training of law enforcers and radiation protection advisors for the defence against nuclear hazards in Germany - Experience gathered at the federal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint training and exercises between law enforcers and radiation protection advisors are an essential part of any response capability that is expected to respond to incidents involving the malicious use of radioactive materials. This paper sets out some experiences and information about training and exercises in the field of the defence against nuclear hazards that has been gathered by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection over the last few years. The principle aim of this paper is for the lessons learned to contribute to international best practise in training and exercises from a radiation protection standpoint. In case there is an incident f a serious and/or criminal nature, for instance an emergency with nuclear material or an attack with a radiological weapon, the Bundesland can call on the federal government for additional forces from a unit known as the 'Central federal support group for the defence against nuclear hazards' (abbreviated to ZUB from the German). The ZUB includes specialists from the Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Federal Police (BPol). In the paper, an example of the recent ZUB exercise in Cologne together with the Cologne authorities in IlD1e 2008 is presented. This example illustrates the scope, complexity and success of the large exercises the ZUB carries out with the German Bundeslaender and also serves as a basis for explaining some of the radiation protection issues that are often encountered during such exercises. These issues include: discrepancies between real and exercise radiation protection; training on a local level between police and radiation protection authorities; educating fire departments about radioactivity and the correct use of personal protective equipment during a deployment involving radioactive materials; the importance of experts outside the ZUB and the Bundesland; discrepancies between the timescale expectations of the police and the radiation

  17. Survey of four damage models for concrete.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leelavanichkul, Seubpong (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT)

    2009-08-01

    Four conventional damage plasticity models for concrete, the Karagozian and Case model (K&C), the Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma model (RHT), the Brannon-Fossum model (BF1), and the Continuous Surface Cap Model (CSCM) are compared. The K&C and RHT models have been used in commercial finite element programs many years, whereas the BF1 and CSCM models are relatively new. All four models are essentially isotropic plasticity models for which 'plasticity' is regarded as any form of inelasticity. All of the models support nonlinear elasticity, but with different formulations. All four models employ three shear strength surfaces. The 'yield surface' bounds an evolving set of elastically obtainable stress states. The 'limit surface' bounds stress states that can be reached by any means (elastic or plastic). To model softening, it is recognized that some stress states might be reached once, but, because of irreversible damage, might not be achievable again. In other words, softening is the process of collapse of the limit surface, ultimately down to a final 'residual surface' for fully failed material. The four models being compared differ in their softening evolution equations, as well as in their equations used to degrade the elastic stiffness. For all four models, the strength surfaces are cast in stress space. For all four models, it is recognized that scale effects are important for softening, but the models differ significantly in their approaches. The K&C documentation, for example, mentions that a particular material parameter affecting the damage evolution rate must be set by the user according to the mesh size to preserve energy to failure. Similarly, the BF1 model presumes that all material parameters are set to values appropriate to the scale of the element, and automated assignment of scale-appropriate values is available only through an enhanced implementation of BF1 (called BFS) that regards scale effects to be coupled to

  18. The Influence of Catgut Implantation at Acupoint on Insulin Resistance of Simple Obesity%穴位埋线对单纯性肥胖患者胰岛素抵抗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中成; 王嘉莉; 康钦凌; 张秀明; 王婧

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of catgut implantation at acupoint on insulin resistance of simple obesity.Methods All patients were separated into the treatment group(catgut implantation group)and the control group(acupuncture group)with 30 cases in each group.Acupoints of zhongwan,tianshu,qihai,shangjuxu,were selected and needled for 3 months.Such indexes as body weight,waistline,hip circumference,body mass index(BMI),fasting blood glucose(FBG),insulin and insulin resistance(IR) before and after treatment were observed.Results Both groups showed obvious anti-obesity effect to simple obesity,manifested by significant differences(P<0.05)at the indexes of body weight,waistline BMI and appetite before and after treatment.Self-comparison in each group showed such indexes as BFS,insulin and IR were significantly decreased after treatment than those before treatment (P<0.05)There was no significant difference at the above-mentioned indexes between the two groups(P>0.05).Conclusions Catgut implantation at acupoint can reduce fat for simple obesity patients by controlling the level of fasting blood sugar,fasting blood insulin and IR in patients.%目的 探讨穴位埋线对单纯性肥胖患者胰岛素抵抗的影响.方法 按随机数字表,分为治疗组(埋线组)和对照组(针刺组),各30例,治疗组取中脘、天枢、气海、上巨虚为主,1次/10d,3次一疗程,治疗3个月.观察治疗前后患者的体重、腰围、臀围、体重指数(BMI)及空腹血糖(FBG)、胰岛素(FINS)及胰岛素抵抗指数(IR).结果 治疗组和对照组对单纯性肥胖患者,都有明显的减肥作用,两组对肥胖指标体重、腰围、BMI及食欲较治疗前均有显著性差异(P<0.05);治疗前后自身比较发现,两组肥胖患者自身比较空腹血糖、胰岛素及IR的水平,治疗后较治疗前均显著降低(P<0.05);治疗后两组各指标比较,无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 穴位埋线对单纯性肥胖患者有明显的减肥作

  19. VARIABILITY OF KD VALUES IN CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS AND SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.; Shine, E.

    2012-02-02

    Measured distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values) for environmental contaminants provide input data for performance assessments (PA) that evaluate physical and chemical phenomena for release of radionuclides from wasteforms, degradation of engineered components and subsequent transport of radionuclides through environmental media. Research efforts at SRNL to study the effects of formulation and curing variability on the physiochemical properties of the saltstone wasteform produced at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) are ongoing and provide information for the PA and Saltstone Operations. Furthermore, the range and distribution of plutonium K{sub d} values in soils is not known. Knowledge of these parameters is needed to provide guidance for stochastic modeling in the PA. Under the current SRS liquid waste processing system, supernate from F & H Tank Farm tanks is processed to remove actinides and fission products, resulting in a low-curie Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS). At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), DSS is mixed with premix, comprised of blast furnace slag (BFS), Class F fly ash (FA), and portland cement (OPC) to form a grout mixture. The fresh grout is subsequently placed in SDF vaults where it cures through hydration reactions to produce saltstone, a hardened monolithic waste form. Variation in saltstone composition and cure conditions of grout can affect the saltstone's physiochemical properties. Variations in properties may originate from variables in DSS, premix, and water to premix ratio, grout mixing, placing, and curing conditions including time and temperature (Harbour et al. 2007; Harbour et al. 2009). There are no previous studies reported in the literature regarding the range and distribution of K{sub d} values in cementitious materials. Presently, the Savannah River Site (SRS) estimate ranges and distributions of K{sub d} values based on measurements of K{sub d} values made in sandy SRS sediments (Kaplan 2010). The actual

  20. Bilateral communication and information exchange, an attempt relating to mandate 8 of the Dutch-German commission (NDKK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: According to a memorandum of understanding between Germany and the Netherlands, the NDKK has to review the existing communication methods. Proceeding from this review proposals have to be developed to improve the bilateral communication and data exchange in case of events near the German-Dutch border and more generally for every event involving nuclear facilities. The NDKK has established a working group for reviewing and working out the proposals. Members of the working group are federal institutions resp. state institutions. Within their scope of duties are emergency management and communication, data collection and communication and expert advice to stakeholders. On the Dutch side the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) takes part, on the German side, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Lower Saxony State Agency for Ecology (NLOE) are involved. At international level, the ECURIE (European Community Urgent Radiological Information Exchange, system of the EU) and EMERCON (Emergency Convention, system of the IAEA) are used for early notification and subsequent messaging. The designated contact points and competent authorities are VROM (Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment) and BMU (German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety). According to a bilateral agreement, there is an additional direct communication for emergency notification between BMU and VROM. For the exchange of radiological measurement data the EURDEP standard (European Radiological Data Exchange Platform) is applied. In addition to the multinational procedure, it has been decided to exchange data directly in order to make the exchange faster and redundant. Presently, data are exchanged on a weekly basis by ftp, using EURDEP 2.0 format. The only NPP located near the Dutch-German border is the German NPP Emsland (KKE) close to the town of Lingen. Other nuclear facilities in this area

  1. Study on strength and shrinkage of high performance concrete with compound mineral admixtures%双掺矿物掺合料高性能混凝土的强度与收缩试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素梅; 贡金鑫

    2016-01-01

    对双掺粉煤灰和矿渣的高性能混凝土进行了强度和收缩试验,分析了粉煤灰和矿渣双掺比例(1∶2、2∶3、1∶1)及双掺总量(30%、40%、50%)的影响。研究表明,在双掺比例相同的条件下,随着双掺总量的增加,高性能混凝土强度降低,总收缩和干缩降低,自收缩增加;在双掺总量相同的条件下,随着双掺比例的增加,高性能混凝土早期强度降低,后期强度增加、总收缩降低、自收缩减少和干缩增加。在双掺情况下,单独增加粉煤灰或矿渣的掺量,粉煤灰降低早期强度和总收缩的效果更明显,但矿渣引起自收缩增大的幅度大于粉煤灰引起自收缩减小的幅度;相比于粉煤灰,矿渣降低干缩的效果更明显;矿渣增大自收缩的幅度远小于其降低干缩的幅度。通过回归分析得到了双掺高性能混凝土的收缩计算式。%Experiments were made on the strength and shrinkage properties of high performance concrete with fly ash( FA)and ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS),including the effect of the ratio of FA to GGBFS(1∶2,2∶3,1∶1)and the amount of FA and GG-BFS(30%,40%,50%).The results show that in the case of identical ratio of FA to GGBFS,the strength of the concrete decreases with the increase of the amount of the compound mineral admixtures,while the total shrinkage strain and the drying shrinkage strain reduces and the autogenous shrinkage strain increases. In the case of identical amount of the compound mineral admixtures,the strength of con-crete decreases at early age and increases later with the increase of ratio of FA to GGBFS,while total shrinkage strain and autogenous shrinkage strain decreases and drying shrinkage strain increases. For the compound mineral admixtures,the strength and total shrinkage strain of concrete decrease at early age with the increase of amount of FA or GGBFS. Contrast to GGBFS,the influence of FA is greater

  2. Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciences (FH) Zittau/Goerlitz; -The Association for Research and Lecturing in Nuclear Engineering in Southwest Germany (2007), consisting of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), the Materials Testing Laboratory (MPA) Stuttgart, and the Universities of Karlsruhe, Stuttgart and Heidelberg as well as the Universities of Applied Sciences in Ulm and Furtwangen; -The Nuclear Engineering Forum West (2009), consisting of the Juelich Research Centre (FZJ), the RWTH Aachen University, and the Aachen/Juelich University of Applied Sciences; - The subject-oriented Final Disposal Research Group, consisting of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the Technical University of Berlin, and the University of Clausthal-Zellerfeld; - The interregional Alliance of Competence in Radiation Research (2007), consisting of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in Salzgitter (BfS), the Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (ZSR) in Hanover, the German Research Centre for Environmental Health (GSF) in Munich, the Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig-Halle, the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, the Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt, and the research centres in Juelich, Dresden/Rossendorf, and Karlsruhe. International activities were geared to two initiatives for the promotion of young nuclear scientists, in particular to the: - ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Network); -WNU (World Nucl ear University). In both organizations, the Technical University of Munich is involved as the German representative of the Alliance of Competence. By the end of January 2010, the ENELA (European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy) with its headquarters in Munich also joined

  3. Disposal of radioactive waste: the forming of a new approach in Germany. Summary and international perspective. FSC Community Visit and National Workshop, Hitzacker, Hamburg, 5-8 October 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the authorities responsible for implementing and regulating radioactive waste management in Germany, respectively. The central theme of the event was 'the forming of a new approach to radioactive waste management in Germany'. The three-day event started with a community visit in Hitzacker, which included a one-day meeting with community representatives and other stakeholders. This was followed by a tour to radioactive waste management facilities in Gorleben, and then the national workshop, which took place in Hamburg. Sixty-five registered participants, from 13 countries, attended the event. About 60% were German stakeholders, the remainder came from FSC member countries and international organisations. The German stakeholders included local actors, academics, and representatives of state and federal governments, NGOs, waste producers and other companies. The international audience consisted of FSC, typically affiliated with national regulatory bodies, government, or implementing organisations, plus other delegates and academics. The event was structured as follows: The introductory session (Day 1 morning and early afternoon) took place in Hitzaker and explored the historical context and the current situation of radioactive waste management in Germany. It entailed plenary presentations by key actors of policy making processes and discussions focusing on stakeholder concerns about trust and confidence. Three sessions took place in Hamburg and addressed the topics 'The new proposed approach to site selection, with emphasis on basic premises' (Day 1 late afternoon), 'The new proposed approach to site selection, with emphasis on stakeholder involvement' (Day 2 afternoon), and 'The new approach to

  4. Geoarchaeologic and paleopedologic evidences for the holocene paleoenvironmental evolution of the Crisuri plain (Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Josan

    2007-12-01

    écouverte et décrite pour la première fois en Allemange du Sud par H. RITTWEGER (2000 sous le nom de "Black Floodplain Soils" (BFS. Ce type de sol s'est formé lors de la période Boréal-Atlantique et n'a acquis ses caractéristiques actuelles que pendant le Sub-boréal, quand le développement des processus illuviaux dans les plaines alluviales était devenu possible grâce à un climat plus sec qui avait permis l'abaissement du niveau des nappes phréatiques. Il est évident que la fossilisation a commencé avant la moitié du premier millénaire, au moment où l'horizon de la culture Basarabi était déjà constitué (VIIIème - VIème siècles avant J.C.. Cela est confirmé par le fait qu'il est séparé de cette couche de culture par un horizon alluvial argilo-sableux d'une puissance de 40­50 cm. La présence de l'horizon BFS est clairement liée, du point de vue morphogénétique, à l'optimum climatique de l'Atlantique - Sub-boréal, qui s'est manifesté dans la partie ouest de la Roumanie jusqu'à environ 3000 avant J.C. Cela est démontré par la présence de la culture Coţofeni (Âge du Bronze inférieur, dont la fossilisation ultérieure marque le déclin de la période de relative tranquillité morphogénétique pendant laquelle s'est formé l'horizon BFS. L'élaboration du niveau d'habitat Coţofeni a été possible grâce à l'établissement d'une situation stable du point de vue morpho-hydrodynamique sur les basses terrasses. Ces transformations indiquent aussi que le climat de la période Atlantique a été, au moins au cours de sa dernière phase, moins humide que ce qu'on le considère habituellement. Ce fait est également souligné par les recherches de T. JURCSÁK (1970 sur le site néolithique de Salca (englobé dans la ville d'Oradea. La reconstitution de la faune à partir des observations sur ce site (localisé au niveau de la première terrasse de la rivière Crişul Repede a montré la présence d'espèces forestières ainsi que steppiques

  5. ZZ KAFAX-F31, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on JEFF-3.1 for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    all the energy ranges, except between 1 and 10 keV in which one-sixteenth lethargy widths were used. (Table 2) The LANL 12-group structure (IGG=3) provided in the NJOY code was selected as a photon group structure. In the NJOY processing, an equilibrium core flux of the KALIMER-150 core was used as a weighting function. The background cross sections for a self-shielding were also selected from those of the calculations. The library has been validated through the fast benchmark experiments taken from the CSEWG benchmark specifications and BFS critical assemblies. 3 - Related or auxiliary programs: DANTSYS 3.0 (CCC-0547): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional, Multigroup, Discrete Ordinate Transport Code System; DOORS-3.2 (CCC-0650): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Neutron/Photon Transport Code System; PARTISN 4.00 (CCC-0707): Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System; TRANSX 2.15 (PSR-0317): Code System to Produce Neutron, Photon, and Particle Transport Tables for Discrete-Ordinates and Diffusion Codes from Cross Sections in MATXS Format

  6. ZZ KAFAX-E70, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    widths in almost all the energy ranges, except between 1 and 10 keV in which one-sixteenth lethargy widths were used. (Table 2) The LANL 12-group structure (IGG=3) provided in the NJOY code was selected as a photon group structure. In the NJOY processing, an equilibrium core flux of the KALIMER-150 core was used as a weighting function. The background cross sections for a self-shielding were also selected from those of the calculations. The library has been validated through the fast benchmark experiments taken from the CSEWG benchmark specifications and BFS critical assemblies. 3 - Related or auxiliary programs: DANTSYS 3.0 (CCC-0547): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional, Multigroup, Discrete Ordinate Transport Code System; DOORS-3.2 (CCC-0650): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Neutron/Photon Transport Code System; PARTISN 4.00 (CCC-0707): Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System; TRANSX 2.15 (PSR-0317): Code System to Produce Neutron, Photon, and Particle Transport Tables for Discrete-Ordinates and Diffusion Codes from Cross Sections in MATXS Format

  7. ZZ KAFAX-J33, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on JENDL-3.3 for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    which one-sixteenth lethargy widths were used. The LANL 12-group structure (IGG=3) provided in the NJOY code was selected as a photon group structure. In the NJOY processing, an equilibrium core flux of the KALIMER-150 core was used as a weighting function. The background cross sections for a self-shielding were also selected from those of the calculations. The library has been validated through the fast benchmark experiments taken from the CSEWG benchmark specifications and BFS critical assemblies. 3 - Related or auxiliary programs: DANTSYS 3.0 (CCC-0547): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional, Multigroup, Discrete Ordinate Transport Code System; DOORS-3.2 (CCC-0650): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Neutron/Photon Transport Code System; PARTISN 4.00 (CCC-0707): Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System; TRANSX 2.15 (PSR-0317): Code System to Produce Neutron, Photon, and Particle Transport Tables for Discrete-Ordinates and Diffusion Codes from Cross Sections in MATXS Format

  8. Variability Of KD Values In Cementitious Materials And Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured distribution coefficients (Kd values) for environmental contaminants provide input data for performance assessments (PA) that evaluate physical and chemical phenomena for release of radionuclides from wasteforms, degradation of engineered components and subsequent transport of radionuclides through environmental media. Research efforts at SRNL to study the effects of formulation and curing variability on the physiochemical properties of the saltstone wasteform produced at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) are ongoing and provide information for the PA and Saltstone Operations. Furthermore, the range and distribution of plutonium Kd values in soils is not known. Knowledge of these parameters is needed to provide guidance for stochastic modeling in the PA. Under the current SRS liquid waste processing system, supernate from F and H Tank Farm tanks is processed to remove actinides and fission products, resulting in a low-curie Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS). At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), DSS is mixed with premix, comprised of blast furnace slag (BFS), Class F fly ash (FA), and portland cement (OPC) to form a grout mixture. The fresh grout is subsequently placed in SDF vaults where it cures through hydration reactions to produce saltstone, a hardened monolithic waste form. Variation in saltstone composition and cure conditions of grout can affect the saltstone's physiochemical properties. Variations in properties may originate from variables in DSS, premix, and water to premix ratio, grout mixing, placing, and curing conditions including time and temperature (Harbour et al. 2007; Harbour et al. 2009). There are no previous studies reported in the literature regarding the range and distribution of Kd values in cementitious materials. Presently, the Savannah River Site (SRS) estimate ranges and distributions of Kd values based on measurements of Kd values made in sandy SRS sediments (Kaplan 2010). The actual cementitious material Kd values

  9. Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    2004 dkermani@fit.edu, +1 321 674 7412, http://kermani.math.fit.edu/ JULY 2004 2nd World Congress of the Game Theory Society, Faculty of Luminy, Marseille, France 5-9 July 2004 Europa Organisation (europa@europa-organisation.com), +33 5 34 45 26 45, www.gts2004.org Budapest Workshop on Behavioral Economics, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 5-10 July 2004 Eva Dotzi (behavecon@ceu.hu), www.iza.org/en/calls_conferences/CallCEU_04.pdf FDA'04 1st IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications, Bordeaux, France 19-20 July 2004 IFAC secretariat (fda04@lap.u-bordeaux1.fr), www.lap.u-bordeaux.fr/fda04/ Bachelier Finance Society Third World Congress, InterContinental Hotel, Chicago, IL, USA 21-24 July 2004 bfs2004@uic.edu, www.uic.edu/orgs/bachelier/ BS/IMS 2004 6th World Congress of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Barcelona, Spain 26-31 July 2004 wc2004@pacifico-meetings.com, +34 93 402 13 85, www.imub.ub.es/events/wc2004 AUGUST 2004 Summer School in Econometrics. The Cointegrated VAR Model: Econometric Methodology and Macroeconomic Applications, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2-22 August 2004 Summerschool@econ.ku.dk, www.econ.ku.dk/summerschool SEPTEMBER 2004 First Bonzenfreies Colloquium on Market Dynamics and Quantitative Economics, Alessandria, Palazzo Borsalino, Italy 9-10 September 2004 colloquium@unipmn.it, www.mfn.unipmn.it/~colloqui/ Risk Analysis 2004. 4th International Conference on Computer Simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, Aldemar Paradise Royal Mare Hotel, Rhodes, Greece 27-29 September 2004 enquiries@wessex.ac.uk, +44 (0)238 029 3223, www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2004/risk04/ OCTOBER 2004 IRC Hedge 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 10, 11 October 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=10 NOVEMBER 2004 IRC DICE 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 22, 23 November 2004 enquiries

  10. Advanced development of atomic energy in Germany and actual radioecological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahaus and Gorleben. However, current policy is for interim storage at reactor sites. The federal government through the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is responsible for building and operating final repositories for high-level waste, but progress in this has been hindered by opposition from Lander governments. Following an exhaustive site selection process the state government of Lower Saxony in 1977 declared the salt dome at Gorleben to be the location for a national centre for disposal of radioactive wastes. It is now being studied as a possible site for geological disposal of high-level wastes. These will be about 5% of total wastes with 99% of the radioactivity. A pilot conditioning plant is there. The site could be available as a final repository from 2025. Separated high-level wastes from reprocessing are expected to be returned to Germany by 2022 and stored. A total of 166 large casks of glass canisters will be involved, 39 of these are already in storage at Gorleben. A further 300+ casks with canisters of compacted wastes from reprocessing could immediately go to a final repository, the canisters possibly in to boreholes. The Ahaus facility is used for storing intermediate-level wastes, and the Konrad site (a former iron ore mine) was licensed in 2002 for their disposal with low-level wastes but is not expected to be operational before 2010 due to legal challenges - which were dismissed in March 2006, but appeals are pending. Konrad will take 95% of the waste volume, with 1% of the radioactivity. A salt dome repository at Morsleben in East Germany for low and intermediate-level wastes was licensed in 1981 and closed in 1998. Seventeen experimental and commercial reactors have been shut down and are being decommissioned. Five of these are WWER-440 units at Greifswald, closed in 1990 following reunification. Five are various BWRs, two are HTGRs, one is the large and relatively modern Muelheim-Kaerlich PWR shut down since 1988, one is Stade PWR

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Radiotherapy. Advances and Challenges in Radiation Protection of Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Accident reporting system; the Rosis experience (M. Coffey, J. Cunningham, Rosis, Ireland); 20 - Side effects of radiotherapy: general management (J. Bourhis, Estro); 21 - Cell therapy treatment for radiation induced cutaneous damage (JJ. Lataillade, Percy Military Hospital, Clamart); 22 - The Equipment: safety, commissioning, re-commissioning - calibration, A medical physicist point of view (A. Lisbona, Centre A. Gauducheau, Nantes, France); 23 - A manufacturer's point of view (U. Lutz, SNITEM - Siemens, Germany); 24 - The staff; radiation oncologist-Physicists, technologists, engineers: organisation, missions, responsibility. The Radiation Therapist profession: a challenge and an opportunity to improve the safety and the patient care in Radiation Oncology (G. Brusadin, EFRS); 25 - The EFOMP approach in reducing errors in Radiotherapy (H.J Van Kleffens, EFOMP); 26 - Education and training. The IAEA experience (R. Czarwinski, IAEA); 27 - The IAEA quality audits in radiotherapy (J. Izewska, IAEA); 28 - The external beam controls: Equal-Estro Experience (A. Veres, Equal-Estro); 29 - The Norwegian Program on Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy (KVIST) - Organisation, Benefits and Experiences of this initiative for stakeholders involvement (H.M. Olerud, NRPA, Norway); 30 - Audits in radiotherapy in Switzerland (A. Stuessi, FOPH, Switzerland); 31 - Clinical Audits: who should control what? - European guidelines (H. Jarvinen, STUK - Finland); 32 - The ICPR take home message (P. Ortiz Lopez, ICRP); 33-37 - National regulators experiences (C. Flannery, CRCPD, USA; J. Griebel, BFS, Germany; U. O'Doherty, UK; K. Petrova, Czech republic; JL. Godet, France); 38 - A road-map for Cancer Radiotherapy in France (D. Maraninchi, InCA); 39-40 - Synthesis and conclusions (A.C. Lacoste, M. Bourguignon, ASN)

  12. Materials characterization of radioactive waste forms using a multi-element detection method based on the instrumental neutron activation analysis. MEDINA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste has to meet the specifications and acceptance criteria defined by national regulatory and management authorities for its intermediate and final storage. In Germany the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) has established waste acceptance requirements for the Konrad repository. Konrad is the disposal for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and is located near the city of Salzgitter and is currently under construction. It will start operation not before the year 2021. The waste-acceptance-requirements are derived from a site-specific safety assessment. They include specific requirements on waste forms, packaging as well as limitations to activities of individual radionuclides and limitations to masses of non-radioactive harmful substances. The amount of chemically toxic elements in the waste is limited in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To comply with these requirements every waste package has to be characterised in its radiological and chemical composition. This characterisation can be performed on the basis of existing documentation or, if the documentation is insufficient, on further analytical analysis. Segmented or integral gamma-scanning as well as active or passive neutron counting are used worldwide as the standard measurement methods for the radiological characterisation and quality checking of radioactive waste. These techniques determine the isotope specific activity of waste packages, but they do not allow the detection of non-radioactive hazardous substances inside the waste packages. Against this background the Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology Transfer (NET) at RWTH Aachen University and the Institute of Safety Research and Reactor Technology at Forschungszentrum Juelich jointly develop an innovative non-destructive analytical technique called MEDINA - ''Multi-Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation'' for

  13. Materials characterization of radioactive waste forms using a multi-element detection method based on the instrumental neutron activation analysis. MEDINA; Stoffliche Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfallprodukte durch ein Multi-Element-Analyseverfahren basierend auf der instrumentellen Neutronen-Aktivierungs-Analyse. MEDINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenith, Andreas Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste has to meet the specifications and acceptance criteria defined by national regulatory and management authorities for its intermediate and final storage. In Germany the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) has established waste acceptance requirements for the Konrad repository. Konrad is the disposal for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and is located near the city of Salzgitter and is currently under construction. It will start operation not before the year 2021. The waste-acceptance-requirements are derived from a site-specific safety assessment. They include specific requirements on waste forms, packaging as well as limitations to activities of individual radionuclides and limitations to masses of non-radioactive harmful substances. The amount of chemically toxic elements in the waste is limited in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To comply with these requirements every waste package has to be characterised in its radiological and chemical composition. This characterisation can be performed on the basis of existing documentation or, if the documentation is insufficient, on further analytical analysis. Segmented or integral gamma-scanning as well as active or passive neutron counting are used worldwide as the standard measurement methods for the radiological characterisation and quality checking of radioactive waste. These techniques determine the isotope specific activity of waste packages, but they do not allow the detection of non-radioactive hazardous substances inside the waste packages. Against this background the Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology Transfer (NET) at RWTH Aachen University and the Institute of Safety Research and Reactor Technology at Forschungszentrum Juelich jointly develop an innovative non-destructive analytical technique called MEDINA - ''Multi-Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation'' for