WorldWideScience

Sample records for bfs

  1. BFS Human Behaviour Model for Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Molan, Marija; Molan, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    The Butterfly Flower Shower (BFS) Human Behaviour Model describes human behaviour in each demanding, possible accidental situation. The BFS human behaviour model is presented for a traffic situation. The key elements (perception, cognition, reaction) of the human behaviour are identified. Also possible limitations and errors in all elements of human behaviour are presented. The model is presented as the butterfly on the flower under the shower of interventions. The flower is environment descr...

  2. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report 2011 of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) includes the following main articles: Fukushima and the consequences, new power lines across Germany and the management of radioactive wastes in Germany. Further topics of the BfS were reasonable exposure to sun and skin cancer prevention, individual health assessment of lung cancer with low-dose CT, occupational radiation exposure in medicine, radiation protection at setting up digital radio of security authorities and organizations, importance of laboratory ring experiments for incorporation monitoring, defence against nuclear hazards: cooperation and exercises in 2011, new developments with regard to radioactivity in drinking water, reportable events in nuclear facilities in 2011, decommissioning of a permanently shut down NPP. The environmental research program of the Federal Environmental ministry - research for strengthening nuclear safety and radiation protection: German uranium miners biobank: consequences of uranium mining and radiological impacts, German miners cohort study, health effects of strong magnetic fields of NMR imaging, radiation exposure due to nuclear medical examinations, national survey on the radio-cesium contamination of wild boars.

  3. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 2011; Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Jahresbericht 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebermann, Lutz (comp.)

    2012-07-01

    The annual report 2011 of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) includes the following main articles: Fukushima and the consequences, new power lines across Germany and the management of radioactive wastes in Germany. Further topics of the BfS were reasonable exposure to sun and skin cancer prevention, individual health assessment of lung cancer with low-dose CT, occupational radiation exposure in medicine, radiation protection at setting up digital radio of security authorities and organizations, importance of laboratory ring experiments for incorporation monitoring, defence against nuclear hazards: cooperation and exercises in 2011, new developments with regard to radioactivity in drinking water, reportable events in nuclear facilities in 2011, decommissioning of a permanently shut down NPP. The environmental research program of the Federal Environmental ministry - research for strengthening nuclear safety and radiation protection: German uranium miners biobank: consequences of uranium mining and radiological impacts, German miners cohort study, health effects of strong magnetic fields of NMR imaging, radiation exposure due to nuclear medical examinations, national survey on the radio-cesium contamination of wild boars.

  4. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the `stone sack` to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods.

  5. BFS, a Legacy to the International Reactor Physics, Criticality Safety, and Nuclear Data Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Anatoly Tsibulya; Yevgeniy Rozhikhin

    2012-03-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. Data provided by these two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades The Russian Federation has been a major contributor to both projects with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) as the major contributor from the Russian Federation. Included in the benchmark specifications from the BFS facilities are 34 critical configurations from BFS-49, 61, 62, 73, 79, 81, 97, 99, and 101; spectral characteristics measurements from BFS-31, 42, 57, 59, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101; reactivity effects measurements from BFS-62-3A; reactivity coefficients and kinetics measurements from BFS-73; and reaction rate measurements from BFS-42, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101.

  6. Current state and further developments in IMIS/KOALA of BFS; Stand und weiteres Vorgehen der IMIS/KOALA Entwicklungen des BFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebler, C.; Gerich, B.; Stanko, M.; Harms, W. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    Several years ago the planning started to completely rework the ''Integrated Measuring and Information System'' IMIS in the BfS entirely. Aim of this as KOALA called development is to build up a new IMIS gradually in modular 4-layers software architecture from very simple, interchangeable and open-source modules. These are connected by standardised interfaces with each other. A high availability as well as intuitive, web-based operability should be guaranteed by a robust IT implementation. All emergency response systems should be brought together symbiotically by the multiple use of components in the BfS in this architecture. The present state as well as the planning for the other action by this development is described and the first results are shown.

  7. Analysis of measurements for a uranium-free core experiment at the BFS-2 critical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Stuart [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-04-01

    This document describes a series of calculations that were carried out to model various measurements from the BFS-58-1-I1 experiment. BFS-58-1-I1 was a mock-up of a uranium-free, Pu burning core at BFS-2, a Russian critical assembly operated by IPPE. The experiment measured values of Keff, Na void reactivity worth, material sample reactivity worths and reaction rate ratios. The experiments were modelled using a number of different methods. Basic nuclear data was taken from JENDL-3.2, in either 70 or 18 groups. Cross-section data for the various material regions of the assembly were calculated by either SLAROM or CASUP; the heterogeneous structure of the core regions was modelled in these calculations, with 3 different options considered for representing the (essentially 2D) geometry of the assembly components in a 1D cell model. Whole reactor calculations of flux and Keff were done using both a diffusion model (CITATION) and a transport model (TWOTRAN2), both using an RZ geometry. Reactivity worths were calculated both directly from differences in Keff values and by using the exact perturbation calculations of PERKY and SN-PERT (for CITATION and TWOTRAN2, respectively). Initial calculations included a number of inaccuracies in the assembly representation, a result of communication difficulties between JNC and IPPE; these errors were removed for the final calculations that are presented. Calculations for the experiments have also been carried out in Russia (IPPE) and France (CEA) as part of an international comparison exercise, some of those results are also presented here. The calculated value of Keff was 1.1%{delta}k/k higher than the measured value, Na void worth C/E values were {approx}1.06; these results were considered to be reasonable. (Discrepancies in certain Na void values were probably due to experimental causes , though the effect should be investigated in any future experiments.) Several sample worth values were small compared with calculational

  8. Effects of Exciting Evaluated Nuclear Date Files on Nuclear Parameters of the BFS-62-3A Assembly Benchmark Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail

    2002-01-01

    This report is continuation of studying of the experiments performed on BFS-62-3A critical assembly in Russia. The objective of work is definition of the cross section uncertainties on reactor neutronics parameters as applied to the hybrid core of the BN-600 reactor of Beloyarskaya NPP. Two-dimensional benchmark model of BFS-62-3A was created specially for these purposes and experimental values were reduced to it. Benchmark characteristics for this assembly are (1)criticality; (2)central fiss...

  9. The resistance of austenitic stainless steels to pitting corrosion in simulated BFS/OPC pore waters containing thiosulphate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current plans for the disposal of intermediate-level nuclear waste involve the use of austenitic stainless steel drums. The immediate environment seen by both the inner and outer surfaces of these drums will be alkaline, as a consequence of the encasement of both the drum and its contents in concrete. Normally there would be no risk of localized corrosion of the steel in this situation, but a possible complication is introduced by the use of blast-furnace slag (BFS) to decrease the permeability of the concrete. Metal sulphides in the BFS react with air and water to yield thiosulphate ions, which are known to be corrosive towards stainless steels in environments of near-neutral pH. This research was carried out to study the effects of thiosulphate at alkaline pH, simulating the concrete environment. Types 304L and 316L stainless steel have been tested for pitting corrosion resistance in simulated BFS/Ordinary Portland Cement pore waters of pH 10-13, at 20oC and 50oC. The results show that the 316L steel is essentially immune to pitting. The 304L steel shows some pitting at the higher temperature, especially at the higher chloride concentrations, but only at pH values of less than 12, which would require serious deterioration of the cement matrix. (author)

  10. Development of a three dimensional homogeneous calculation model for the BFS-62 critical experiment. Preparation of adjusted equivalent measured values for sodium void reactivity values. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BFS-62 critical experiments are currently used as 'benchmark' for verification of IPPE codes and nuclear data, which have been used in the study of loading a significant amount of Pu in fast reactors. The BFS-62 experiments have been performed at BFS-2 critical facility of IPPE (Obninsk). The experimental program has been arranged in such a way that the effect of replacement of uranium dioxied blanket by the steel reflector as well as the effect of replacing UOX by MOX on the main characteristics of the reactor model was studied. Wide experimental program, including measurements of the criticality-keff, spectral indices, radial and axial fission rate distributions, control rod mock-up worth, sodium void reactivity effect SVRE and some other important nuclear physics parameters, was fulfilled in the core. Series of 4 BFS-62 critical assemblies have been designed for studying the changes in BN-600 reactor physics from existing state to hybrid core. All the assemblies are modeling the reactor state prior to refueling, i.e. with all control rod mock-ups withdrawn from the core. The following items are chosen for the analysis in this report: Description of the critical assembly BFS-62-3A as the 3rd assembly in a series of 4 BFS critical assemblies studying BN-600 reactor with MOX-UOX hybrid zone and steel reflector; Development of a 3D homogeneous calculation model for the BFS-62-3A critical experiment as the mock-up of BN-600 reactor with hybrid zone and steel reflector; Evaluation of measured nuclear physics parameters keff and SVRE (sodium void reactivity effect); Preparation of adjusted equivalent measured values for keff and SVRE. Main series of calculations are performed using 3D HEX-Z diffusion code TRIGEX in 26 groups, with the ABBN-93 cross-section set. In addition, precise calculations are made, in 299 groups and Ps-approximation in scattering, by Monte-Carlo code MMKKENO and discrete ordinate code TWODANT. All calculations are based on the common system

  11. An Effective and Efficient MapReduce Algorithm for Computing BFS-Based Traversals of Large-Scale RDF Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cuzzocrea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a leading instance of big data is represented by Web data that lead to the definition of so-called big Web data. Indeed, extending beyond to a large number of critical applications (e.g., Web advertisement, these data expose several characteristics that clearly adhere to the well-known 3V properties (i.e., volume, velocity, variety. Resource Description Framework (RDF is a significant formalism and language for the so-called Semantic Web, due to the fact that a very wide family of Web entities can be naturally modeled in a graph-shaped manner. In this context, RDF graphs play a first-class role, because they are widely used in the context of modern Web applications and systems, including the emerging context of social networks. When RDF graphs are defined on top of big (Web data, they lead to the so-called large-scale RDF graphs, which reasonably populate the next-generation Semantic Web. In order to process such kind of big data, MapReduce, an open source computational framework specifically tailored to big data processing, has emerged during the last years as the reference implementation for this critical setting. In line with this trend, in this paper, we present an approach for efficiently implementing traversals of large-scale RDF graphs over MapReduce that is based on the Breadth First Search (BFS strategy for visiting (RDF graphs to be decomposed and processed according to the MapReduce framework. We demonstrate how such implementation speeds-up the analysis of RDF graphs with respect to competitor approaches. Experimental results clearly support our contributions.

  12. Graph Compression by BFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Apostolico

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

  13. Analysis of the BN-600 fast-spectrum core mock-up at BFS-2 zero-power facility using MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We model the BFS-62-3A experiment with the MCNPX code and four nuclear libraries. ► We show the impact on reactivity of heterogeneous structures in the reactor. ► We model experimental uncertainties, e.g. in materials dimension and density. ► The model agrees with experiments on k-eff, CR worth, Na voids and fission rates. ► The analysis questions experimental data measured in the reflector region. - Abstract: A 3D full-core heterogeneous model of the BFS-62-3A critical benchmark experiment was developed and validated using the Monte Carlo MCNPX-2.4.0 code. The BFS-2 critical facility at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) was designed for simulation of fast reactor core neutronics, and for the validation of codes and nuclear data. The BFS-62-3A critical benchmark experiment was set-up as a mock-up of the BN-600 reactor core with (U, Pu) O2 fuel of 17% Pu content and stainless-steel reflectors. It was operated to measure the effective multiplication factor, spectral indices, radial fission rate distributions, control rod worths and sodium void effects. In the present study, special care was taken to run the MCNPX model to make Monte-Carlo confidence intervals comparable with uncertainties reported in the experiments; such as in material dimensions, number densities and isotopic compositions. In addition to the effective multiplication factor, sodium void effect, fission rate distributions and control rod worth were calculated. Simulations were carried out with four different modern nuclear data libraries; the primary aim being to estimate sensitivity of the results to the nuclear data. This task, besides being a library comparison, is also meant as a first step towards a code-to-code verification with deterministic methods. Results agree well with experimental values on most of the nuclear characteristics, even though a discrepancy up to more than 20% was found on the flux distribution in the stainless-steel reflector

  14. Large scale in-situ experiments on sealing constructions in underground disposal facilities for radioactive wastes. Examples of recent BfS- and GRS-activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows examples of in-situ constructions and laboratory tests that have been designed and implemented by BfS und GRS in order to demonstrate the technical feasibility of special constructions for the sealing of drifts and shafts in different salt formations. Since a direct verification of the long-term functionality (for times scales envisaged in long-term safety assessments) of such constructions is often not possible, an overall understanding of the main chemical and physical processes involved needs to be developed. Such an understanding is required in order to extrapolate the evolution of a sealing system with a sufficient degree of reliability. Laboratory tests and large-scale in-situ tests are necessary and integral parts of the procedures for enhancing the process understanding. Based on a safety case, BfS has developed a robust decommissioning concept for the closure of the low- and intermediate-level waste disposal facility Morsleben (ERAM) which also takes into account the retention of radionuclides by combined effects of different sealing components. GRS has contributed to this concept with laboratory tests and modelling of the long-term behaviour of the sealing material 'Salt concrete' foreseen for the sealing constructions in Morsleben. Salt concrete is based on the cement Portlandite i.e., on CaO. Furthermore GRS has also investigated the MgO based 'Sorel concrete' employed by BfS for the Asse project. The chemical corrosion path and the subsequent permeability changes for both concretes have been investigated with test procedures developed in the GRS laboratory. GRS has also developed and tested in laboratory and in-situ experiments a new Self-Sealing material 'Selbst Verheilender Versatz - SVV' (SVV, German for Self Sealing Backfill) which is able to achieve an instantaneous and long-lasting permeability reduction within the complex system consisting of the sealing construction and the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) upon brine intrusion

  15. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  16. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G. [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J. [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M. [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T. [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y. [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y. [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  17. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2013. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects are tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2013.

  18. Third experts' discussion meeting on the concept of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) for ''Man-machine interaction in nuclear power plants''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, BMU), research programmes on the topic 'Man-Machine-Interaction in Nuclear Power Plants' are placed within the framework of public participation competition by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Bfs) in Salzgitter. Main foci of the 3rd expert discussions were: 1. Representation of the results of the previous research programmes in the field of Human Factors by the institutions having carried out the research like - further development of the compilation and interpretation of notifiable and other events and their causes, - organisational requirements during the operation of NPP, and - utilization of new information technologies, in particular in control rooms of nuclear power plants taking into consideration the points of contact between man and machine. 2. Summary reports on the interaction man - machine from the point of view of foreign countries (Sweden), constructors, operators, authorities, universities and experts. 3. Future importance of Human Factors, e.g. for new reactor concepts. (orig./DG)

  19. An Empirical Evaluation of BFS, and DFS Search Algorithms on J2ME Platform, and SVG Tiny Parsing on J2ME Platform Using SAX, StAX, and DOM Parsers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Sengirova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics Tiny, an XML-based data representation format was used in our Global Train Route Planner J2ME application to render and manipulate train network  images. The SVG Tiny format enables the application to be adaptable with any train network map. We compared three parsing models namely DOM (Document Object Model, SAX (Simple API for XML, and StAX (Streaming API for XML which were used to visualize the images on mobile phone. We present here the result of the runtime performances, and memory footprints of those parsing models. This is a significant study because handheld devices like mobile phones require seamless interactivity (i.e. high performance with users and an efficient parsing mechanism with less memory footprints. We also empirically investigated two route searching algorithms - graph and matrix based implementation of DFS (Depth First Search, and matrix based BFS (Breadth First Search – for performance and memory footprints on a J2ME mobile device emulator. We concluded that DOM parser and DFS based on graph implementation are of better performance than the others.

  20. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O1BFS 1860 and its use in the preparation of candidate vaccine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Hema; D Chandran; S B Nagendrakumar; M Madhanmohan; V A Srinivasan

    2009-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in India. A stable, full-length cDNA clone of FMDV type O1BFS 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage T7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pGEMR-7Zf(–). An ∼8.2 kb PCR product was amplified from the cDNA clone and a full-length RNA was generated from it by in vitro transcription. Transfection of BHK-21 cells with the in vitro transcripts resulted in the production of infectious recombinant FMDV particles as evidenced by cytopathic effects (CPE). Further, characterization of the recombinant virus by immunofluorescence, microneutralization test (MNT), antigen ELISA, RT-PCR, plaque assay and electron microscopy revealed similarity to the parental strain. The immunogenicity of an oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared using the inactivated recombinant virus was tested in guinea pigs and cattle. Neutralizing antibodies were produced in both vaccinated guinea pigs and cattle. Vaccinated animals were protected on challenge. The results demonstrated that the recombinant virus was as stable and effective as the parental strain for the preparation of inactivated vaccine, suggesting the potential application of this strategy to make genetically engineered FMDV vaccines.

  1. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O 1 BFS 1860 and its use in the preparation of candidate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, M; Chandran, D; Nagendrakumar, S B; Madhanmohan, M; Srinivasan, V A

    2009-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in India. A stable,full-length cDNA clone of FMDV type O 1 BFS 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage T7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pGEM R- - 7Zf(-). An 8.2 kb PCR product was amplified from the cDNA clone and a full-length RNA was generated from it by in vitro transcription.Transfection of BHK-21 cells with the in vitro transcripts resulted in the production of infectious recombinant FMDV particles as evidenced by cytopathic effects (CPE). Further, characterization of the recombinant virus by immunofluorescence, microneutralization test (MNT), antigen ELISA,RT-PCR, plaque assay and electron microscopy revealed similarity to the parental strain. The immunogenicity of an oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared using the inactivated recombinant virus was tested in guinea pigs and cattle. Neutralizing antibodies were produced in both vaccinated guinea pigs and cattle. Vaccinated animals were protected on challenge. The results demonstrated that the recombinant virus was as stable and effective as the parental strain for the preparation of inactivated vaccine, suggesting the potential application of this strategy to make genetically engineered FMDV vaccines. PMID:19430118

  2. Self-Sensing Properties of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag (BFS Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcés

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several researchers have shown the good performance of alkali activated slag cement and concretes. Besides their good mechanical properties and durability, this type of cement is a good alternative to Portland cements if sustainability is considered. Moreover, multifunctional cement composites have been developed in the last decades for their functional applications (self-sensing, EMI shielding, self-heating, etc.. In this study, the strain and damage sensing possible application of carbon fiber reinforced alkali activated slag pastes has been evaluated. Cement pastes with 0, 0.29 and 0.58 vol % carbon fiber addition were prepared. Both carbon fiber dosages showed sensing properties. For strain sensing, function gage factors of up to 661 were calculated for compressive cycles. Furthermore, all composites with carbon fibers suffered a sudden increase in their resistivity when internal damages began, prior to any external signal of damage. Hence, this material may be suitable as strain or damage sensor.

  3. Self-Sensing Properties of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Garcés; Emilio Zornoza; Oscar Galao; Josep Lluís Vilaplana; Francisco Javier Baeza

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, several researchers have shown the good performance of alkali activated slag cement and concretes. Besides their good mechanical properties and durability, this type of cement is a good alternative to Portland cements if sustainability is considered. Moreover, multifunctional cement composites have been developed in the last decades for their functional applications (self-sensing, EMI shielding, self-heating, etc.). In this study, the strain and damage sensing possible applic...

  4. Development of Low—creep Bricks for Hot Blast Stoves of BFs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOShuying

    1998-01-01

    Low-creep rate brick H1SS and H2SS have been studied in Luoyang Refractories Co., Ltd.on the basis of former results using different grade synthetic mullite and natural sillimanite concen-trate,Good microstructure and high temperature properties can be obtained by using high quality raw material and reasonable proportioning and technology.The creep values of H1SS and H2SS are less han 0.5% at 1400℃ and 0.45% at 1350℃。

  5. The effect of sulfate activation on the early age hydration of BFS:PC composite cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, N.C., E-mail: nick.collier@sheffield.ac.uk; Li, X.; Bai, Y.; Milestone, N.B.

    2015-09-15

    Blast furnace slag/Portland cement composites are routinely used for immobilising intermediate level nuclear wastes in the UK. Using high cement replacement levels reduces hydration exotherm and lowers pH. Although a lower grout pH will be beneficial in reducing the corrosion of certain encapsulated reactive metals such as aluminium, the degree of slag reaction will also be lower which may result in the formation of less hydration products and which in turn may reduce the capacity to immobilise waste ions. Adding neutral salts such as calcium and sodium sulfate to the composite cement can potentially increase slag activation without significantly altering the pH of the cement matrix. Thus the corrosion of any encapsulated metals would not be affected. This paper describes some of the properties of a hydrated 9:1 blast furnace slag:Portland cement matrix containing added sulfates of calcium and sodium. The findings show that all additives caused an increase in the amount of slag that reacted when cured for up to 28 days. This produced more material able to chemically bind waste ions. Activation with gypsum produced the highest rate of slag reaction.

  6. The effect of sulfate activation on the early age hydration of BFS:PC composite cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blast furnace slag/Portland cement composites are routinely used for immobilising intermediate level nuclear wastes in the UK. Using high cement replacement levels reduces hydration exotherm and lowers pH. Although a lower grout pH will be beneficial in reducing the corrosion of certain encapsulated reactive metals such as aluminium, the degree of slag reaction will also be lower which may result in the formation of less hydration products and which in turn may reduce the capacity to immobilise waste ions. Adding neutral salts such as calcium and sodium sulfate to the composite cement can potentially increase slag activation without significantly altering the pH of the cement matrix. Thus the corrosion of any encapsulated metals would not be affected. This paper describes some of the properties of a hydrated 9:1 blast furnace slag:Portland cement matrix containing added sulfates of calcium and sodium. The findings show that all additives caused an increase in the amount of slag that reacted when cured for up to 28 days. This produced more material able to chemically bind waste ions. Activation with gypsum produced the highest rate of slag reaction

  7. A 115dB-DR Audio DAC with –61dBFS out-of-band noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Hugo; Schinkel, Daniël; Tuijl, van Ed

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-band noise (OBN) is troublesome in analog circuits that process the output of a noise-shaping audio DAC. It causes slewing in amplifiers and aliasing in sampling circuits like ADCs and class-D amplifiers. Nonlinearity in these circuits also causes cross-modulation of the OBN into the audio ba

  8. Bifosfonatos (BFs como transportadores osteotrópicos no planejamento de fármacos dirigidos Bisphosphonates as osteotropic carriers for designing site-directed drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Fioravanti Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug therapy involving bone tissue diseases is difficult, calling for the design of specific drugs. The present paper is a brief review of a new site-directed system termed ODDS (osteotropic drug delivery system, based on a latenciation process, using bisphosphonates as bone carriers. This is an important tool for the rational prodrug design for obtaining selective drugs.

  9. HLA linkage and B14, DR1, BfS haplotype association with the genes for late onset and cryptic 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollack, M S; Levine, L S; O'Neill, G J; Pang, S.; Lorenzen, F; Kohn, B.; Rondanini, G F; Chiumello, G; New, M I; Dupont, B.

    1981-01-01

    Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH-def) has been established to be an HLA-linked, recessive monogenetic disease. However, two nonclassical forms of 21-OH-def have also been described: "cryptic" 21-OH-def, which has been shown to be HLA-linked, and "late onset" 21-OH-def, for which the status of linkage to HLA has been less certain. We now describe studies of eight additional unrelated probands with symptomatic, "late onset" 21-OH-def, and conclude...

  10. Speeches on the inauguration of the BfS Vice-President, the Manager of the Radiation Hygiene Section and the Manager of the Nuclear Safety Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speeches by the Federal Minister for the Environment and the gentlemen in charge of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz provide information on the perceived tasks of the Bundesamt: the principles of radiation protection, implementation of the new ICRP recommendations, the formation of the radiation protection register, cooperation on the amendment of the nuclear law with regard to disposal - terminal storage area Konrad, terminal storage project Gorleben, terminal storage area Moosleben. (HSCH)

  11. Guidelines for the investigation and evaluation of radioactivity in drinking water. Recommendations of BMU, BMG, BfS, UBA, DVGM and BDEW - prepared under assistance of Federal representatives; Leitfaden zur Untersuchung und Bewertung von Radioaktivitaet im Trinkwasser. Empfehlung von BMU, BMG, BfS, UBA, DVGW und BDEW - erstellt unter Mitwirkung von Laendervertretern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrcke, Klaus; Beyermann, Margit; Buenger, Thomas [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    2012-07-10

    The guidelines for the investigation and evaluation of radioactivity in drinking water cover the following topics: Terms and symbols, radiation units; radioactivity in the drinking water and radiation exposure, legal and scientific fundamentals; concept for the investigation and evaluation of radioactivity related parameters; practical application; analytical determination of the radioactivity related parameters. The application of the guidelines should provide a continuously high level of drinking water quality with respect to the natural radioactivity that allows a safe and non-hazardous incorporation of drinking water. The guidelines were prepared by several German institutions under assistance of Federal representatives.

  12. Biological ensilage of fish - optimization of stability, safety and functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enes Dapkevicius, M.L.N.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with stability, safety, and functionality aspects of biological fish silage (BFS) obtained by lactic acid fermentation. BFS may provide an economically viable, environment friendly way of upgrading fish waste.BFS has been found advantageous when compared to the so-called acid proce

  13. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014; Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebermann, Lutz (comp.)

    2015-07-01

    The information on the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014 includes the following contributions: Bfs concentrates the radiation protection expertise; knowledge generation, knowledge testing knowledge application: the BfS as scientific organization; radiation protection and health; radiation protection and environment, safety of nuclear waste management; safety in nuclear technology; specific challenges for BfS.

  14. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information on the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz 1989-2014 includes the following contributions: Bfs concentrates the radiation protection expertise; knowledge generation, knowledge testing knowledge application: the BfS as scientific organization; radiation protection and health; radiation protection and environment, safety of nuclear waste management; safety in nuclear technology; specific challenges for BfS.

  15. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    OpenAIRE

    Debarati Bhattacharjee; Ajay Kumar; Ipsita Biswas

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of back face signature (BFS) or behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) is a critical aspect of ballistic evaluation of body armour. BFS is the impact experienced by the armour wearing body, when subjected to a non-penetrating projectile. Mineral or polymeric clay is used to measure the BFS. In addition to stopping the projectile, the body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within permissible limits. The extent of the BFS depends upon the behavior of the backing materia...

  16. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2002. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS); Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2002. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und verwaltete Ressortforschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesumweltministeriums (BMU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergler, I.; Bernhard, C.; Goedde, R.; Loebke-Reinl, A.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.

    2004-03-01

    The Federal Office of Radiation Protection awards research projects in the field of radiation protection on the behalf of the Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). The findings of these projects serve as decision-making aids in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of the BMU's specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as technical evaluation of the research and study projects is the task of the Federal Office of Radiation Protection. The present report provides information on the preliminary and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects in the year 2002 within the BMU's Applied Research Programme. (orig.) [German] Das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz vergibt im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit Untersuchungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet des Strahlenschutzes. Die Ergebnisse dieser Vorhaben dienen als Entscheidungshilfen bei der Erarbeitung von Strahlenschutzvorschriften und bei der Erfuellung der Fachaufgaben des BMU im Bereich Strahlenschutz. Die Planung, fachliche und administrative Vorbereitung, Vergabe, Begleitung sowie die fachliche Bewertung der Ergebnisse der Untersuchungsvorhaben ist Aufgabe des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Der vorliegende Bericht informiert ueber die Ergebnisse bzw. Zwischenergebnisse von Strahlenschutzvorhaben des BMU Ressortforschungsprogramms im Jahr 2002. (orig.)

  17. Machining variability impacts on the strength of a 'chair-side' CAD-CAM ceramic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2012-08-01

    To develop a novel methodology to generate specimens for bi-axial flexure strength (BFS) determination from a \\'chair-side\\' CAD-CAM feldspathic ceramic with surface defect integrals analogous to the clinical state. The hypotheses tested were: BFS and surface roughness (R(a)) are independent of machining variability introduced by the renewal or deterioration of form-grinding tools and that a post-machining annealing cycle would significantly modify BFS.

  18. The Environmental Impact and Cost Analysis of Concrete Mixing Blast Furnace Slag Containing Titanium Gypsum and Sludge in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental effects and cost of the Industrial Waste addictive Blast Furnace Slag (W-BFS using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and compared it to general BFS. The environmental impacts of W-BFS were as follows: 1.12 × 10−1 kg-CO2 eq/kg, 3.18 × 10−5 kg-Ethylene eq/kg, 4.79 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-PO43− eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-CFC11 eq/kg and 3.94 × 10−3 kg-Antimony eq/kg. Among the environmental impact category, GWP and AP were 9.28 × 10−2 kg-CO2 eq/kg and 3.33 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg at a raw material stage, accounting for 80% and 70% of total environmental impact respectively. In EP, POCP and ADP, in addition, raw material stage accounted for a great portion in total environmental impact because of “W” among input materials. In ODP, however, compared to the environmental impact of raw materials, oil, which was used in transporting BFS to the W-BFS manufacturing factory, was more influential. In terms of GWP, POCP and ODP, W-BFS was higher than general BFS. In terms of AP, EP and ADP, in contrast, the former was lower than the latter. In terms of cost, W-BFS (41.7 US$/ton was lower than general BFS by about 17% because of the use of waste additives comprised of industrial wastes instead of natural gypsum ,which has been commonly used in general BFS. In terms of GWP and POCP, the W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 25%. In terms of AP and EP, the former was lower than the latter by 30%. In terms of ADP, furthermore, W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 11%. In aggregate-related ODP, however, almost no change was found. In terms of cost, when W-BFS was added by 10% and 30%, it was able to reduce cost by 3% and 7% respectively, compared to plain concrete. Compared to BFS-mixed concrete as well, cost could be saved by 1% additionally because W-BFS (US$41.7/ton is lower than common cement (US$100.3/ton by about 60% in terms of production costs.

  19. Development of engineered cementitious composites with limestone powder and blast furnace slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Qian, S.; Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.; Li, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays limestone powder and blast furnace slag (BFS) are widely used in concrete as blended materials in cement. The replacement of Portland cement by limestone powder and BFS can lower the cost and enhance the greenness of concrete, since the production of these two materials needs less energy an

  20. Experimental branching fractions, transition probabilities and oscillator strengths in Eu I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branching fractions (BFs) of 64 spectral lines for 27 levels in Eu I were measured by the emission spectrum of a hollow cathode lamp (HCL). The transition probabilities and oscillator strengths of these lines were determined by using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique to combine the BFs with experimental radiative lifetimes of the relative levels reported in the literature. (paper)

  1. Test and evaluation of item control technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary is given of the work carried out on Task 3 at the IPPE's BFS facility in Obninsk, Russia. Methods and concepts of Item Control Technology from LANL and SNL were examined. At BFS the nuclear material accounting items are plutonium and highly enriched uranium disks. Work was done on identification techniques and safeguards for these materials

  2. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz. Scientific publications, papers and lectures 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the scientific work of BfS (Federal Office for Radiation Protection) staff are usually published in professional journals or presented at congresses and meetings. The publications cover the fields radiation hygiene, radiation protection, nuclear safety, as well as nuclear waste management and transport. The annex contains a list of every thing published so far by BfS. (DG)

  3. Evaluation of the usefulness of modified biological fingerprints in chest radiographs for patient recognition and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoichiro; Matsunobu, Yusuke; Morishita, Junji

    2016-07-01

    We have been developing an image-searching method to identify misfiled images in a PACS server. Developing new biological fingerprints (BFs) that would reduce the influence of differences in positioning and breathing phases to improve the performance of recognition is desirable. In our previous studies, the whole lung field (WLF) that included the shadows of the body and lungs was affected by differences in positioning and/or breathing phases. In this study, we showed the usefulness of a circumscribed lung with a rectangular region of interest and the upper half of a chest radiograph as modified BFs. We used 200 images as hypothetically misfiled images. The cross-correlation identifies the resemblance between the BFs in the misfiled images and the corresponding BFs in the database images. The modified BFs indicated better results than did WLF in a receiver operating characteristic analysis; therefore, they could be used as identifiers for patient recognition and identification. PMID:27132238

  4. An Adaptive Cross-Architecture Combination Method for Graph Traversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Yang; Song, Shuaiwen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-06-18

    Breadth-First Search (BFS) is widely used in many real-world applications including computational biology, social networks, and electronic design automation. The combination method, using both top-down and bottom-up techniques, is the most effective BFS approach. However, current combination methods rely on trial-and-error and exhaustive search to locate the optimal switching point, which may cause significant runtime overhead. To solve this problem, we design an adaptive method based on regression analysis to predict an optimal switching point for the combination method at runtime within less than 0.1% of the BFS execution time.

  5. Bureau for Food Security Travel and Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — FTRAMS is a travel data collection system for BFS that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.)...

  6. Final repository Morsleben. Operational safety and radiation protection; Endlager Morsleben. Betriebliche Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz fuer Mensch und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-15

    The Information booklet on the final repository Morsleben prepared by BfS includes information on the following issues: stability of the repository, water in repository, operational radiation protection, discharge of radioactive materials, environmental monitoring.

  7. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are organization and tasks of the departments of the BfS: Central Department Z (administration, legal concerns); Department S Radiation Hygiene; Department ST Radiation Protection; Department KT Nuclear Safety; Department ET Nuclear Waste Management and Transport. (HP)

  8. Use of Monte Carlo simulation for computational analysis of critical systems on IPPE's facility addressing needs of nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, Olga; Tsibulya, Anatoly [FSUE ' SSC RF-IPPE' , 249033, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    The critical facility BFS-1 critical facility was built at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk, Russia) for full-scale modeling of fast-reactor cores, blankets, in-vessel shielding, and storage. Whereas BFS-1 is a fast-reactor assembly; however, it is a very flexible assembly that can easily be reconfigured to represent numerous other types of reactor designs. This paper describes specific problems with calculation of evaluation neutron physics characteristics of integral experiments performed on BFS facility. The analysis available integral experiments performed on different critical configuration of BFS facility were performed. Calculations of criticality, central reaction rate ratios, and fission rate distributions were carried out by the MCNP5 Monte-Carlo code with different files of evaluated nuclear data. MCNP calculations with multigroup library with 299 energy groups were also made for comparison with pointwise library calculations. (authors)

  9. Experimental study on workability of alkali activated fly ash and slag-based geopolymer concretes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbi, K.A.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Zuo, Y.; Grunewald, S.; Keulen, A.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on workability and strength of geopolymer concrete made of fly ash (FA), blast furnace slag (BFS) and a multicompound activator of Na2SiO3 and NaOH solutions. The FA/BFS ratios were 100:0, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70 and 0:100. The workability of geopolymer

  10. Activation of pozzolanic and latent-hydraulic reactions by Alkalis in order to repair concrete cracks

    OpenAIRE

    Gruyaert, Elke; Van Tittelboom, Kim; Rahier, Hubert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-01-01

    The low degree of hydration of fly ash (FA) and slag (BFS) particles in high-volume FA and BFS concrete offers the possibility to activate the unreacted particles upon crack formation to close the crack. In this paper, a preliminary study is performed to evaluate the use of alkaline activators to stimulate the formation of reaction products in the crack. First, the reaction rates of crushed pastes mixed with alkaline solutions or water were monitored by calorimetry. These tests showed that al...

  11. Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials

    OpenAIRE

    María V. Borrachero; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; Lourdes Soriano; Mauro M. Tashima; José L.P. Melges; Jorge L. Akasaki; Vinícius N. Castaldelli

    2013-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part...

  12. Effect of Limestone Powder on Microstructure of Ternary Cementitious System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to reach sustainability favours the development of ternary composite cement. The synergistic effect on mechanical behaviour at 28 days between limestone powder (LP) and pozzolanic additives, i.e. fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS), has been documented. In order to better understand the synergistic effect, this article investigated the effect of LP on the microstructure of PC-FA and PC-BFS cementitious system. The mineralogy and pore structure were determined after 28 days ...

  13. Impact of extraction methods on bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Viet Hoang; Klai, Nouha; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal

    2016-09-15

    Effect of ten extraction methods on flocculation activity and chemical composition of bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit was studied. The results showed that the chemical method was better than physical method with respect to the extracted BFs weight and its flocculation activity. Cell lysis did not affect to the flocculation activity of BFs. Among ten extraction methods, EDTA (20 g/L) was the best one with extracted BFs dry weight of 6242 mg/L and flocculation activity of 83%. Optimization of EDTA concentration showed that 5 g EDTA/L (or 0.2 g EDTA/g SS) was suitable for recovery of BFs from backwashed sludge. The flocculation activity of BFs was 94% when using 2.4 mg of BFs/g of kaolin. The outcome of this study suggested that backwashed sludge of the bio-filtration unit was a potential source for exploiting bio-flocculants.

  14. Performance evaluation of biofilters and biotrickling filters in odor control of n-butyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Han, Zhiying; Wu, Weixiang; Shi, Dezhi; Chen, Yingxu; Li, Wenhong

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of swine production in China, odor pollution associated with piggery facilities has become an increasing environmental concern. N-butyric acid (n-BA) is one of the key odor compounds selected to represent volatile fatty acids (VFAs) found in piggery facilities. In this study, two biofilters (BFs) packed with compost (BFC) or sludge (BFS) and two biotrickling filters (BTFs) packed with pall rings (BTFP) or multidimensional hollow balls (BTFM), respectively, were compared with regard to their performances in the removal of n-BA. The non-biological removal capacities of packing material of the bioreactors on a per unit volume basis were BFS>BFC>BTFM>BTFP. Maximum biological removal capacities per unit volume of packing material of the bioreactors all exceeded 9.1 kg/m(3)·d and in the order of BFC>BTFM>BFS>BTFP. Kinetic analysis as well as overall evaluation by radar graphs showed that the BTFs achieved superior removal rates to the BFs in the order of BTFM>BTFP>BFC>BFS. The biotrickling filter packed with multidimensional hollow balls could be an effective technology for VFAs removal. Results from this research provide economical and effective alternatives for odor control in piggery facilities.

  15. Development of an effective delayed neutron fraction calculation code, BETA-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taek Kyum; Song, Hoon; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    BETA-K, an effective delayed neutron fraction calculation code consistent with Nodal Expansion Method (NEM), has been developed. By using relevant output files of DIF3D code, it can calculate the effective delayed neutron fraction({beta}{sub eff}), neutron lifetime(l{sub eff}), fission spectrum ({chi}-bar) and fission yield data({nu}) for each fissionable isotope, composition of fuels and over the whole core. BETA-K code has been validated by comparing the calculated values to the measured ones of effective delayed neutron fraction in two critical experiments, BFS73-1 and BFS55-1. BFS73-1 is a metal uranium core and BFS55-1 is a metal plutonium core. The C/E values, 1.007 and 0.992 for BFS73-1 and BFS55-1 respectively, agreed well with the experimental values within the experiment errors. BETA-K code predicts 0.00709 and 0.356 {mu}sec as the effective delayed neutron fraction and neutron life time for the uranium metallic fueled equilibrium core of 150MWe KALIMER. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Impact of extraction methods on bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Viet Hoang; Klai, Nouha; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal

    2016-09-15

    Effect of ten extraction methods on flocculation activity and chemical composition of bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit was studied. The results showed that the chemical method was better than physical method with respect to the extracted BFs weight and its flocculation activity. Cell lysis did not affect to the flocculation activity of BFs. Among ten extraction methods, EDTA (20 g/L) was the best one with extracted BFs dry weight of 6242 mg/L and flocculation activity of 83%. Optimization of EDTA concentration showed that 5 g EDTA/L (or 0.2 g EDTA/g SS) was suitable for recovery of BFs from backwashed sludge. The flocculation activity of BFs was 94% when using 2.4 mg of BFs/g of kaolin. The outcome of this study suggested that backwashed sludge of the bio-filtration unit was a potential source for exploiting bio-flocculants. PMID:27243923

  17. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati\tBhattacharjee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The\tmeasurement\tof back face signature\t(BFS or\tbehind armour\tblunt trauma (BABT is\ta critical\taspect of ballistic evaluation of body\tarmour. BFS is the impact experienced by the\tarmour wearing body,\twhen subjected to\ta non-penetrating\tprojectile. Mineral\tor polymeric\tclay\tis used to measure the\tBFS. In addition to stopping the\tprojectile,\tthe body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within\tpermissible limits.\tThe\textent of\tthe BFS depends upon the\tbehavior\tof the backing material\tin different loading conditions and prior history.\tThis\tpaper explains some of the\tstudies carried out on the backing\tmaterial used for ballistic evaluation\tin Terminal Ballistics Research\tLaboratory, Chandigarh. It has been observed\tthat\tthe backing material is highly non-linear\tviscoelastic in nature. The depth\tof\tdeformation is also linearly\tproportional to the\timpact\tenergy\tand\ttemperature. The\teffect of time\ton the depth of deformation\tis gradual and does\tnot influence the BFS values during a\tstandard\tballistic evaluation comprising of 6-8\tshots.

  18. Energy Absorption and Dynamic Deformation of Backing Material for Ballistic Evaluation of Body Armour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Bhattacharjee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of back face signature (BFS or behind armour blunt trauma (BABT is a critical aspect of ballistic evaluation of body armour. BFS is the impact experienced by the armour wearing body, when subjected to a non-penetrating projectile. Mineral or polymeric clay is used to measure the BFS. In addition to stopping the projectile, the body armour can be used only when the BFS also falls within permissible limits. The extent of the BFS depends upon the behavior of the backing material in different loading conditions and prior history. This paper explains some of the studies carried out on the backing material used for ballistic evaluation in Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory, Chandigarh. It has been observed that the backing material is highly non-linear viscoelastic in nature. The depth of deformation is also linearly proportional to the impact energy and temperature. The effect of time on the depth of deformation is gradual and does not influence the BFS values during a standard ballistic evaluation comprising of 6-8 shots.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.462-466, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.3821

  19. Effect of Ceramic Surface Treatments After Machine Grinding on the Biaxial Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM Dental Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Hossein; Aghajani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments after machining grinding on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of machinable dental ceramics with different crystalline phases. Materials and Methods: Disk-shape specimens (10mm in diameter and 1.3mm in thickness) of machinable ceramic cores (two silica-based and one zirconia-based ceramics) were prepared. Each type of the ceramic surfaces was then randomly treated (n=15) with different treatments as follows: 1) machined finish as control, 2) machined finish and sandblasting with alumina, and 3) machined finish and hydrofluoric acid etching for the leucite and lithium disilicate-based ceramics, and for the zirconia; 1) machined finish and post-sintered as control, 2) machined finish, post-sintered, and sandblasting, and 3) machined finish, post-sintered, and Nd;YAG laser irradiation. The BFS were measured in a universal testing machine. Data based were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results: The mean BFS of machined finish only surfaces for leucite ceramic was significantly higher than that of sandblasted (P=0.001) and acid etched surfaces (P=0.005). A significantly lower BFS was found after sandblasting for lithium disilicate compared with that of other groups (P<0.05). Sandblasting significantly increased the BFS for the zirconia (P<0.05), but the BFS was significantly decreased after laser irradiation (P<0.05). Conclusions: The BFS of the machinable ceramics was affected by the type of ceramic material and surface treatment method. Sandblasting with alumina was detrimental to the strength of only silica-based ceramics. Nd:YAG laser irradiation may lead to substantial strength degradation of zirconia. PMID:27148372

  20. Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.s [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A.; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman,; Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 {+-} 0.011 and 0.038 {+-} 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

  1. Interaction of gramicidin with DPPC/DODAB bilayer fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camilla A; Olivares-Ortega, Constanza; Soto-Arriaza, Marco A; Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin (Gr) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) 1:1 large unilamellar vesicles (LVs) or bilayer fragments (BFs) was evaluated by means of several techniques. The major methods were: 1) Gr intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy; 2) dynamic light scattering for sizing and zeta-potential analysis; 3) determination of the bilayer phase transition from extrinsic fluorescence of bilayer probes; 4) pictures of the dispersions for evaluation of coloidal stability over a range of time and NaCl concentration. For Gr in LVs, the Gr dimeric channel conformation is suggested from: 1) CD and intrinsic fluorescence spectra similar to those in trifluoroethanol (TFE); 2) KCl or glucose permeation through the LVs/Gr bilayer. For Gr in BFs, the intertwined dimeric, non-channel Gr conformation is evidenced by CD and intrinsic fluorescence spectra similar to those in ethanol. Both LVs and BFs shield Gr tryptophans against quenching by acrylamide but the Stern-Volmer quenching constant was slightly higher for Gr in BFs confirming that the peptide is more exposed to the water phase in BFs than in LVs. The DPPC/DODAB/Gr supramolecular assemblies may predict the behavior of other antimicrobial peptides in assemblies with lipids. PMID:22960286

  2. Influence of silane content and filler distribution on chemical-mechanical properties of resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathy Aparecida XAVIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of silane concentration and filler size distribution on the chemical-mechanical properties of experimental composites. Experimental composites with silane contents of 0%, 1% and 3% (in relation to filler mass and composites with mixtures of barium glass particles (median size = 0.4, 1 and 2 μm and nanometric silica were prepared for silane and filler analyses, respectively. The degree of conversion (DC was analyzed by FTIR. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS was tested after 24-h or 90-d storage in water, and fracture toughness, after 24 h. The data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05. The DC was not significantly affected by the silane content or filler distribution. The 0% silane group had the lowest immediate BFS, and the 90-d storage time reduced the strength of the 0% and 3% groups. BFS was not affected by filler distribution, and aging decreased the BFS of all the groups. Silanization increased the fracture toughness of both the 1% and 3% groups, similarly. Significantly higher fracture toughness was observed for mixtures with 2 μm glass particles. Based on the results, 3% silane content boosted the initial strength, but was more prone to degradation after water storage. Variations in the filler distribution did not affect BFS, but fracture toughness was significantly improved by increasing the filler size.

  3. Minimal Sign Representation of Boolean Functions: Algorithms and Exact Results for Low Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezener, Can Eren; Oztop, Erhan

    2015-08-01

    Boolean functions (BFs) are central in many fields of engineering and mathematics, such as cryptography, circuit design, and combinatorics. Moreover, they provide a simple framework for studying neural computation mechanisms of the brain. Many representation schemes for BFs exist to satisfy the needs of the domain they are used in. In neural computation, it is of interest to know how many input lines a neuron would need to represent a given BF. A common BF representation to study this is the so-called polynomial sign representation where [Formula: see text] and 1 are associated with true and false, respectively. The polynomial is treated as a real-valued function and evaluated at its parameters, and the sign of the polynomial is then taken as the function value. The number of input lines for the modeled neuron is exactly the number of terms in the polynomial. This letter investigates the minimum number of terms, that is, the minimum threshold density, that is sufficient to represent a given BF and more generally aims to find the maximum over this quantity for all BFs in a given dimension. With this work, for the first time exact results for four- and five-variable BFs are obtained, and strong bounds for six-variable BFs are derived. In addition, some connections between the sign representation framework and bent functions are derived, which are generally studied for their desirable cryptographic properties.

  4. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas. PMID:15382877

  5. Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority of adsorption was completed in 5~10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically by acid treatment. The relative contribution of adsorption to the total removal of phosphate was 26%~28%. Phosphate adsorption on BFS and SFS follows the Freundlich isotherm, with the related constants ofk 6.372 and 1/n 1.739 for BFS, and ofk 1.705 and 1/n 1.718 for SFS. The pH and Ca2+ concentration were decreased with the addition of phosphate, suggesting the formation of calcium phosphate precipitation. At pH 2.93 and 6.93, phosphate was desorbed by about 36%~43% and 9%~11%, respectively.These results indicate that the P adsorption on the slag is not completely reversible and that the bond between the slag particles and adsorbed phosphate is strong. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of BFS and SFS before and after phosphate adsorption verify SFS is related to the formation of phosphate calcium precipitation and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results show that BFS and SFS removed phosphate nearly 100%, indicating they are promising adsorbents for the phosphate removal in wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  6. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  7. Few-mode fiber based distributed curvature sensor through quasi-single-mode Brillouin frequency shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Ruoxu; Liu, Deming; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Can; Wei, Huifeng; Tong, Weijun; Shum, Perry Ping; Tang, Ming

    2016-04-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a few-mode fiber (FMF) based optical-fiber sensor for distributed curvature measurement through quasi-single-mode Brillouin frequency shift (BFS). By central-alignment splicing FMF and single-mode fiber (SMF) with a fusion taper, a SMF-components-compatible distributed curvature sensor based on FMF is realized using the conventional Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system. The distributed BFS change induced by bending in FMF has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The precise BFS response to the curvature along the fiber link has been calibrated. A proof-of-concept experiment is implemented to validate its effectiveness in distributed curvature measurement. PMID:27192275

  8. Information on Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure published by BfS describes the actual situation of Asse II with respect to the debate on an interim storage and the status of the realization of a final repository search law. During the visit of the new environment minister Hendricks in the underground facility repository Asse II the issue interim storage site and the retrieval of the corroded casks with radioactive waste were discussed. The challenges for BFS include the acceleration of the retrieval process and the safety of the procedure.

  9. Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress report submitted by Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz reveals that this federal radiation protection agency is not only entrusted with the fulfillment of the federal administrative tasks imposed by law but engages in applications-oriented research regarding the operational, metrological and health-related aspects of radiation protection, regarding nuclear safety and radioactive waste management. In addition, BfS takes care of public-relations tasks. The reports submitted by the BfS departments are completed by summaries of the main research results. (orig.)

  10. On Dynamic Breadth-First Search in External-Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    We provide the first non-trivial result on dynamic breadth-first search (BFS) in external-memory: For general sparse undirected graphs of initially $n$ nodes and O(n) edges and monotone update sequences of either $\\Theta(n)$ edge insertions or $\\Theta(n)$ edge deletions, we prove an amortized high-probability bound of $O(n/B^{2/3}+\\sort(n)\\cdot \\log B)$ I/Os per update. In contrast, the currently best approach for static BFS on sparse undirected graphs requires $\\Omega(n/B^{1/2}+\\sort(n))$ I/Os.

  11. Development of an MgO-based binder for stabilizing fine sediments and storing CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Seo, Jeong-Yun; Hwang, Inseong

    2015-12-01

    An MgO-based binder was developed that could stabilize fine dredged sediments for reuse and store CO2. Initially, a binder consisting of fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was developed by using alkaline activators such as KOH, NaOH, and lime. The FA0.4-BFS0.6 binder (mixed at a FA-to-BFS weight ratio of 4:6) showed the highest compressive strength of 10.7 MPa among FA/BFS binders when 5 M KOH was used. When lime (L) was tested as an alkaline activator, the strength was comparable with those obtained when KOH or NaOH was used. The L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder (10 % lime mixed with the FA/BFS binder) showed the highest strength of 11.0 MPa. Finally, by amending this L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder with MgO, a novel MgO-based binder (MgO0.5-(L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9) 0.5) was developed, which demonstrated the 28th day strength of 11.9 MPa. The MgO-based binder was successfully applied to stabilize a fine sediment to yield a compressive strength of 4.78 MPa in 365 days, which was higher than that obtained by the Portland cement (PC) system (3.22 MPa). Carbon dioxide sequestration was evidenced by three observations: (1) the decrease in pH of the treated sediment from 12.2 to 11.0; (2) the progress of the carbonation front inward the treated sediment; and (3) the presence of magnesium carbonates. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that 67.2 kg of CO2 per ton of the treated sediment could be stored under the atmospheric condition during 1 year. PMID:26224682

  12. A Blended Cement Containing Blast Furnace Slag and Phosphorous Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Blended cement containing blast furnace slag(BFS) and phosphorous slag(PS) is a new kind of cement.The total content of blended materials could increase if two additives were used. Using the same admixtures, the properties of the blended cement with 70% additives could reach the standard of 525-grade slag cement according to GB.The strength of cement with 80% additives could reach the standard of 425-grade slag cement.The tests of strength, pore structure,hydration products,inhibiting alkali-aggregate reaction, resistance to sulfate corrosion of BFS-PSC were performed.

  13. Calculation of Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Pure Elements and their Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Phillip; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A simple algorithm for computing the coefficient of thermal expansion of pure elements and their alloys, based on features of the binding energy curve, is introduced. The BFS method for alloys is used to determine the binding energy curves of intermetallic alloys and Ni-base superalloys.

  14. An efficient electrocatalyst as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells: BaFe0·95Sn0·05O3-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feifei; Ni, Meng; He, Wei; Chen, Yubo; Yang, Guangming; Chen, Dengjie; Shao, Zongping

    2016-09-01

    The B-site substitution with the minor amount of tin in BaFeO3-δ parent oxide is expected to stabilize a single perovskite lattice structure. In this study, a composition of BaFe0·95Sn0·05O3-δ (BFS) as a new cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) is synthesized and characterized. Special attention is paid to the exploration of some basic properties including phase structure, oxygen non-stoichiometry, electrical conductivity, oxygen bulk diffusion coefficient, and surface exchange coefficient, which are of significant importance to the electrochemical activity of cathode materials. BFS holds a single cubic perovskite structure over temperature range of cell operation, determined by in-situ X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscope. A high oxygen vacancy concentration at cell operating temperatures is observed by combining thermo-gravimetric data and iodometric titration result. Furthermore, electrical conductivity relaxation measurement illustrates the fast oxygen bulk diffusion and surface exchange kinetics. Accordingly, testing cells based on BFS cathode material demonstrate the low polarization resistance of 0.033 Ω cm2 and high peak power density of 1033 mW cm-2 at 700 °C, as well as a relatively stable long-term operation for ∼300 h. The results obtained suggest that BFS perovskite oxide holds a great promise as an oxygen reduction electrocatalyst for IT-SOFCs.

  15. The interaction of pH, pore solution composition and solid phase composition of carbonated blast furnace slag cement paste activated with aqueous sodium monofluorophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempl, J.; Copuroglu, O.

    2015-01-01

    Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) is a waste product of industrial steel production and a common additive in the cement industry in Northern European countries. However, cementitious materials made from slag-rich cement, particularly CEM III /B, are very susceptible to carbonation. Recent investigations have

  16. Biaxial flexural strength of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements heat-cured with an LED lamp during setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G. Fabian; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L. Brain; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ket

  17. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Responsibility; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Verantwortung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    The information brochure (BfS) on Asse - responsibility - discusses the issue of radioactive waste disposal. The members of the final repository commission have to present the final report on the site selection for the final repository. The central question is the safe disposal of nuclear waste for a million of years.

  18. Constructing COMSOL Models of a Bacteriological Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Robert; Mansell, James

    2012-01-01

    We show very initial work on a specific bioelectrochemical system (BES), a bacteriologically driven 'fuel cell' (BFS), that is intended to process waste products, such as CO2 and brine. (1) Processing is the priority, not power generation (2) Really a Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC)

  19. Measuring the absorption mean cross section in 6Li relative to 235U fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the fact that the neutron absorption cross section in 6Li is used as one of standards for determinaton of neutron-physical characteristics of fast reactors the ratio of mean cross sections for absorption by 6Li (A6) and 235U fission F25 are experimentalli investigated. The measurements have been performed in the KBR-8, KBR-10,BFS/39/1 bfs-44, BFS/45a-1 and BFS-46 critical assemblies which are characterized by various neutron spectra by means of a lithium counter with semiconductor detectors. Ratios A6/F25 for investigated assemblies constituted respectively 0.605+-0.009; 0.604+-0.004; 0.581+-0.009; 0.590+-0.574+-0.005. The values of 235U diffusion mean cross sections obtained on the base of these fata and calculated using the CRAB-1 program (given in brackets) are equal respectively 1.53+-0.005 (1.51) 2.38+-0.08 (2.42); 1.935+-0.060 (1.95); 1.89+-0.08 (1.95); 1.780+-0.11 (1.69); 1.90+-0.06 (1.89)

  20. Prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease antibodies in dairy herds in the Netherlands four years after vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Terpstra, C.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 298 serum samples were collected from Dutch cattle born in 1988 or before, and examined in the virus neutralisation test for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus types A10Holland, O1BFS, and C1Detmold. All the cattle had been vaccinated at least twice during the annual vaccinat

  1. Zirconia-reinforced dental restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The series of studies conducted in this thesis showed that there are several ways to enhance the performance of fixed restorations regarding the application of zirconia. One possible way is to change the sintering procedure of zirconia, so that the physical properties of zirconia such BFS, density o

  2. Anatomy of a rift system: Triassic-Jurassic basins of eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlische, R.W. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)); Olsen, P.E. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Basins containing the early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup formed during the incipient rifting of Pangaea. The basins are characterized by the following: (1) The border fault systems (BFS) represent reactivated older faults. (2) A regionally persistent northwest-southeast to west-northeast-east-southeast extension direction reactivated northeast- to north-striking structures as predominantly normal dip-slip faults. (3) The half-grabens are lozenge-shaped basins in which subsidence-fault slip was greatest at or near the center of the BFS and decreased to zero toward either end. (4) Transverse folds in the hanging walls immediately adjacent to the BFS formed as a result of higher-frequency variations in subsidence. (5) Subsidence also decreased in a direction perpendicular to the BFS. (6) Intrabasinal faults are overwhelmingly synthetic and predominantly post-depositional. (7) Younger strata progressively onlap prerift rocks of the hanging wall block; this indicates that the basins grew both in width and length as they filled. (8) In all basins initial sedimentation was fluvial, reflecting an oversupply of sediment with respect to basin capacity. (9) Sediments were derived largely from the hanging wall block, which sloped toward the basin, and from streams that entered the basin axially; a direct footwall source was minor, owing to footwall uplift. (10) In strike-slip-dominated basins, subsidence was considerably less than in dip-slip basins, and mosaics of strike- and dip-slip faults are common.

  3. Sampling properties of directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Son, Seung-Woo; Bizhani, Golnoosh; Foster, David V; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2012-01-01

    For many real-world networks only a small "sampled" version of the original network may be investigated; those results are then used to draw conclusions about the actual system. Variants of breadth-first search (BFS) sampling, which are based on epidemic processes, are widely used. Although it is well established that BFS sampling fails, in most cases, to capture the IN-component(s) of directed networks, a description of the effects of BFS sampling on other topological properties are all but absent from the literature. To systematically study the effects of sampling biases on directed networks, we compare BFS sampling to random sampling on complete large-scale directed networks. We present new results and a thorough analysis of the topological properties of seven different complete directed networks (prior to sampling), including three versions of Wikipedia, three different sources of sampled World Wide Web data, and an Internet-based social network. We detail the differences that sampling method and coverage...

  4. Evaluation of spatial variability of metal bioavailability in soils using geostatistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2012-01-01

    is performed using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst. Results show that BFs of copper span a range of 6 orders of magnitude, and have signifficant spatial variability at local and continental scales. The model nugget variance is signifficantly higher than zero, suggesting the presence of spatial variability...

  5. Effect of Limestone Powder on Microstructure of Ternary Cementitious System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to reach sustainability favours the development of ternary composite cement. The synergistic effect on mechanical behaviour at 28 days between limestone powder (LP) and pozzolanic additives, i.e. fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS), has been documented. In order to better understa

  6. Transient and residual stresses in a pressable glass-ceramic before and after resin-cement coating determined using profilometry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-05-01

    The effect of heat-pressing and subsequent pre-cementation (acid-etching) and resin-cementation operative techniques on the development of transient and residual stresses in different thicknesses of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were characterised using profilometry prior to biaxial flexure strength (BFS) determination.

  7. Monitoring of mining-induced ambient radioactivity. 11th expert meeting on ambient radioactivity monitoring, held on 28/29 March 2000 at Schlema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 11th expert meeting was the first exclusively devoted to aspects of monitoring mining-induced ambient radioactivity, and therefore was held 'on site', in the formerly important uranium mining area of Schlema. The meeting was organised by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (BfS) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU). (orig./CB)

  8. The Nature of Benefit Finding in Parents of a Child with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samios, Christina; Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Sofronoff, Kate

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the nature of benefit finding in 220 parents of a child with Asperger syndrome (AS) by developing and validating a multi-item Benefit Finding Scale for Parents of Children with AS (BFS-PCAS) and examining the relationships of benefit finding dimensions with positive and negative indicators of adjustment. Parents of…

  9. From dose rate to web-sites: making measurements accessible, understandable and helpful to the lay public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key role of public information in emergency preparedness has more recently been corroborated by the experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP. Information should meet quality criteria such as openness, accessibility and authenticity. Existing information portals of radiation monitoring networks were frequently used even in Europe, although there was no imminent radiation risk. BfS responded by increasing the polling frequency, publishing current data not validated, refurbishing the web-site of the BfS 'odlinfo.bfs.de' and adding explanatory text. Public feedback served as a valuable input for improving the site's design. Additional services were implemented for developers of smart phone apps. Web-sites similar to 'ODLinfo' are available both on European and international levels. NGOs and grass root projects established platforms for uploading and visualising private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 March 2011. The BfS site is compared with other platforms. Government information has to compete with non-official sources. Options on information strategies are discussed. (authors)

  10. Using a Bayesian Probabilistic Forecasting Model to Analyze the Uncertainty in Real-Time Dynamic Control of the Flood Limiting Water Level for Reservoir Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dedi; Li, Xiang; Guo, Shenglian;

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic control of the flood limiting water level (FLWL) is a valuable and effective way to maximize the benefits from reservoir operation without exceeding the design risk. In order to analyze the impacts of input uncertainty, a Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) is adopted. Applying quantile wat...

  11. Self-healing behavior of strain hardening cementitious composites incorporating local waste materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, S.; Zhou, J.; Rooij, M.R. de; Schlangen, E.; Ye, G.; Breugel, K. van

    2009-01-01

    The self-healing behavior of a series of pre-cracked fiber reinforced strain hardening cementitious composites incorporating blast furnace slag (BFS) and limestone powder (LP) with relatively high water/binder ratio is investigated in this paper, focusing on the recovery of its deflection capacity.

  12. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  13. Effects of different fibre sources and fat addition on cholesterol and cholesterol-related lipids in blood serum, bile and body tissues of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, M; Hanneken, H; Wittmann, M; Gerdemann, M M; Machmuller, A

    2002-04-01

    Knowledge is limited on the efficacy of hindgut-fermentable dietary fibre to reduce blood, bile and body tissue cholesterol levels. In three experiments with growing pigs the effects of different kinds and levels of bacterially fermentable fibre (BFS) on cholesterol metabolism were examined. Various diets calculated to have similar contents of metabolizable energy were supplied for complete fattening periods. In the first experiment, a stepwise increase from 12 to 20% BFS was performed by supplementing diets with fermentable fibre from sugar beet pulp (modelling hemicelluloses and pectin). Beet pulp, rye bran (modelling cellulose) and citrus pulp (pectin) were offered either independently or in a mixture in the second experiment. These diets were opposed to rations characterized in carbohydrate type by starch either mostly non-resistant (cassava) or partly resistant (maize) to small intestinal digestion. The third experiment was planned to explore the interactions of BFS from citrus pulp with fat either through additional coconut oil/palm kernel oil blend or full-fat soybeans. In all experiments the increase of the BFS content was associated with a constant (cellulose) or decreasing (hemicelluloses, pectin) dietary proportion of non-digestible fibre. In experiment 1 an inverse dose-response relationship between BFS content and cholesterol in blood serum and adipose tissue as well as bile acid concentration in bile was noted while muscle cholesterol did not respond. In experiment 2 the ingredients characterized by cellulose and hemicelluloses/pectin reduced cholesterol-related traits relative to the low-BFS-high-starch controls whereas, except in adipose tissue cholesterol content, the pectinous ingredient had the opposite effect. However, the changes in serum cholesterol mainly affected HDL and not LDL cholesterol. Adipose tissue cholesterol also was slightly lower with partly resistant starch compared to non-resistant starch in the diet. Experiment 3 showed that

  14. Volatilization of elemental mercury from fresh blast furnace sludge mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste with elevated mercury (Hg) content due to enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the volatilization potential of Hg, fresh samples of BFS mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS; a residue of gas purification from steel making, processed simultaneously in the cleaning devices of BFS and hence mixed with BFS) were studied in sealed column experiments at different temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C) for four weeks (total Hg: 0.178 mg kg(-1)). The systems were regularly flushed with ambient air (every 24 h for the first 100 h, followed by every 72 h) for 20 min at a flow rate of 0.25 ± 0.03 L min(-1) and elemental Hg vapor was trapped on gold coated sand. Volatilization was 0.276 ± 0.065 ng (x m: 0.284 ng) at 15 °C, 5.55 ± 2.83 ng (x m: 5.09 ng) at 25 °C, and 2.37 ± 0.514 ng (x m: 2.34 ng) at 35 °C. Surprisingly, Hg fluxes were lower at 35 than 25 °C. For all temperature variants, an elevated Hg flux was observed within the first 100 h followed by a decrease of volatilization thereafter. However, the background level of ambient air was not achieved at the end of the experiments indicating that BFS mixed with BOFS still possessed Hg volatilization potential. PMID:26444147

  15. Effects of hunter-gatherer subsistence mode on arterial distensibility in Cameroonian pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogoum, Daniel; Ngatchou, William; Janssen, Christophe; Leeman, Marc; Van Bortel, Luc; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Degaute, Jean Paul; Van de Borne, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to assess whether arterial distensibility estimated by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI) differs between Cameroon traditional pygmies (TPs) on hunter-gather subsistence mode, contemporary pygmies who migrated to semiurban area, and the Bantou farmers (BFs) sharing the same environment. For that purpose, we recorded carotid-femoral PWV (ComplioR) in age and sex carefully matched 20 TPs, 20 contemporary pygmies, and 22 BFs. Aortic AI corrected for heart rate and blood pressures were generated from pressure wave analysis (SphygmoCor). Lipid profile was determined in TP and BF participants. TPs were shorter (P=0.02) with lower body weight (Ppygmies and BFs. TPs had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than BFs (Ppygmies (6.82±0.36 m/s) or BFs (6.93±0.29 m/s); however, after its adjustment for age, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, the difference was slightly attenuated (P=0.051). PWV adjusted for weight did not differ between groups (P=0.10). In the whole study population but not in TPs taken separately, multivariate regression analysis revealed that PWV was independently associated with mean arterial pressure, age, and TP status (P<0.001), whereas age, mean arterial pressure, and height emerged as independent determinants of aortic AI corrected for heart rate (P<0.001). Aortic AI corrected for heart rate did not differ in the 3 groups. In conclusion, hunter-gather lifestyle is associated with low atherosclerosis risk translated by lower aortic stiffness attributed at least partly to low weight and blunted effects of aging and blood pressures on TP arterial structure and function.

  16. The implementation of biofiltration systems, rainwater tanks and urban irrigation in a single-layer urban canopy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, Matthias; Coutts, Andrew; Goehler, Maren; Broadbent, Ashley; Wouters, Hendrik; van Lipzig, Nicole; Gebert, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Urban vegetation is generally considered as a key tool to modify the urban energy balance through enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). Given that vegetation is most effective when it is healthy, stormwater harvesting and retention strategies (such as water sensitive urban design) could be used to support vegetation and promote ET. This study presents the implementation of a vegetated lined bio-filtration system (BFS) combined with a rainwater tank (RWT) and urban irrigation system in the single-layer urban canopy model Community Land Model-Urban. Runoff from roof and impervious road surface fractions is harvested and used to support an adequate soil moisture level for vegetation in the BFS. In a first stage, modelled soil moisture dynamics are evaluated and found reliable compared to observed soil moisture levels from biofiltration pits in Smith Street, Melbourne (Australia). Secondly, the impact of BFS, RWT and urban irrigation on ET is illustrated for a two-month period in 2012 using varying characteristics for all components. Results indicate that (i) a large amount of stormwater is potentially available for indoor and outdoor water demands, including irrigation of urban vegetation, (ii) ET from the BFS is an order of magnitude larger compared to the contributions from the impervious surfaces, even though the former only covers 10% of the surface fraction and (iii) attention should be paid to the cover fraction and soil texture of the BFS, size of the RWT and the surface fractions contributing to the collection of water in the RWT. Overall, this study reveals that this model development can effectuate future research with state-of-the-art urban climate models to further explore the benefits of vegetated biofiltration systems as a water sensitive urban design tool optimised with an urban irrigation system to maintain healthy vegetation.

  17. Biaxial Flexural Strength of High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomer Cements Heat-Cured with an LED Lamp during Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabián Molina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n=30: without heating (Group 1, heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 30 s while setting (Group 2, and heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 60 s while setting (Group 3. Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (α=0.05. Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400 mW/cm2 during setting for 30 s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30 s and 60 s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times.

  18. Gas Generation Rates as an Indicator for the Long Term Stability of Radioactive Waste Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the 'Act on the Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards' (Atomic Energy Act) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS) is legally responsible for the construction and operation of federal facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. Within the scope of this responsibility, particular due to par. 74(1) Ordinance on Radiation Protection, BfS defines all safety-related requirements on waste packages envisaged for disposal, establishes guidelines for the conditioning of radioactive waste and approves the fulfillment of the waste acceptance requirements within the radioactive waste quality control system. BfS also provides criteria to enable the assessment of methods for the treatment and packaging of radioactive waste to produce waste packages suitable for disposal according to par. 74(2) Ordinance on Radiation Protection. Due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany, quality control measures for all types of radioactive waste products are carried out prior to interim storage with respect to the future disposal. As a result BfS approves the demonstrated properties of the radioactive waste packages and confirms the fulfillment of the respective requirements. After several years of storage the properties of waste packages might have changed. By proving, that such changes have no significant impact on the quality of the waste product, the effort of requalification could be minimized. Therefore, data on the long-term behavior of radioactive waste products need to be acquired and indicators to prove the long-term stability have to be quantified. Preferably, such indicators can be determined easily with non-destructive methods, even for legacy waste packages. A promising parameter is the gas generation rate. The relationship between gas generation rate and long term stability is presented as first result of an ongoing study on behalf of BfS. Permissible gas

  19. Sampling properties of directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S-W; Christensen, C; Bizhani, G; Foster, D V; Grassberger, P; Paczuski, M

    2012-10-01

    For many real-world networks only a small "sampled" version of the original network may be investigated; those results are then used to draw conclusions about the actual system. Variants of breadth-first search (BFS) sampling, which are based on epidemic processes, are widely used. Although it is well established that BFS sampling fails, in most cases, to capture the IN component(s) of directed networks, a description of the effects of BFS sampling on other topological properties is all but absent from the literature. To systematically study the effects of sampling biases on directed networks, we compare BFS sampling to random sampling on complete large-scale directed networks. We present new results and a thorough analysis of the topological properties of seven complete directed networks (prior to sampling), including three versions of Wikipedia, three different sources of sampled World Wide Web data, and an Internet-based social network. We detail the differences that sampling method and coverage can make to the structural properties of sampled versions of these seven networks. Most notably, we find that sampling method and coverage affect both the bow-tie structure and the number and structure of strongly connected components in sampled networks. In addition, at a low sampling coverage (i.e., less than 40%), the values of average degree, variance of out-degree, degree autocorrelation, and link reciprocity are overestimated by 30% or more in BFS-sampled networks and only attain values within 10% of the corresponding values in the complete networks when sampling coverage is in excess of 65%. These results may cause us to rethink what we know about the structure, function, and evolution of real-world directed networks. PMID:23214649

  20. Reinforcement of Denture Base Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nejatiant

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: PMMA has been the most popular denture base material because of its advantages including good aesthetics, accurate fit, stability in the oral environment, easy laboratory and clinical manipulation and inexpensive equipments since the 1930’s. However, its fracture resistance is not satisfactory. Aim: The aim of this study is to improve the fracture resistance of denture bases made of PMMA by assessing the effect of resin type, packing and processing variables on biaxial flexural strength (BFS. Materials & methods: 930 discs, 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thick were prepared with the following variables: a. Veined (V and Plain (P PMMA. b. 5 different powder/liquid ratios by volume (1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1, 3.5:1. c. Conventional (C and Injection packing methods (I. d. Dry heat (D Water bath (W; and e. different curing times. The discs were trimmed and stored in 37°C tap water for 50 hours before carrying out BFS test, according to BS EN ISO 1567: 2001. BFS test was carried out using a tensile-testing machine (Lloyd LRX, Lloyd instruments Ltd (Figure.1 b, with a x-head speed of 1mm/min. ONE-WAY ANOVA analysis and TUKEY’S comparison were carried out (MINITAB. The temperature within the curing baths and inside of curing resin was evaluated by using a thermocouple. Results: BFS of Powder/liquid ratio of 1.5:1 is significantly lower than the other four ratios. Among the last four ratios, 2.5:1 was the strongest one although the difference was not significant. BFS of the plain type of PMMA is significantly higher than the veined type.• BFS of conventionally packed PMMA discs was greater than the injectional packed ones and the difference is significant. Water bath cured resin showed a significant higher BFS compared with dry heat curing. • Changing the curing time in the dry heat bath from 7h @ 75º C and 2hrs @ 95º C to 5hrs @ 75º C and 3hrs @ 95º C and then 2hrs @ 95º C improves BFS of PMMA. In the water bath the trend is identical

  1. Branch Pathway Blocking in Artemisia annua is a Useful Method for Obtaining High Yield Artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zongyou; Zhang, Fangyuan; Pan, Qifang; Fu, Xueqing; Jiang, Weimin; Shen, Qian; Yan, Tingxiang; Shi, Pu; Lu, Xu; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-03-01

    There are many biosynthetic pathways competing for the metabolic flux with the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. To study the relationship between genes encoding enzymes at branching points and the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, β-caryophyllene, β-farnesene and squalene were sprayed on young seedlings of A. annua. Transient expression assays indicated that the transcription levels of β-caryophyllene synthase (CPS), β-farnesene synthase (BFS) and squalene synthase (SQS) were inhibited by β-caryophyllene, β-farnesene and squalene, respectively, while expression of some artemisinin biosynthetic pathway genes increased. Thus, inhibition of these genes encoding enzymes at branching points may be helpful to improve the artemisinin content. For further study, the expression levels of four branch pathway genes CPS, BFS, germacrene A synthase (GAS) and SQS were down-regulated by the antisense method in A. annua. In anti-CPS transgenic plants, mRNA levels of BFS and ADS were increased, and the contents of β-farnesene, artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) were increased by 212, 77 and 132%, respectively. The expression levels of CPS, SQS, GAS, amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), amorphadiene 12-hydroxylase (CYP71AV1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) were increased in anti-BFS transgenic plants and, at the same time, the contents of artemisinin and DHAA were increased by 77% and 54%, respectively, and the content of squalene was increased by 235%. In anti-GAS transgenic plants, mRNA levels of CPS, BFS, ADS and ALDH1 were increased. The contents of artemisinin and DHAA were enhanced by 103% and 130%, respectively. In anti-SQS transgenic plants, the transcription levels of BFS, GAS, CPS, ADS, CYP71AV1 and ALDH1 were all increased. Contents of artemisinin and DHAA were enhanced by 71% and 223%, respectively, while β-farnesene was raised to 123%. The mRNA level of artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase (DBR2) had changed little in

  2. Flowsheet finalisation for immobilisation of SGHWR wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises research and development work carried out during the year ended March 1983 on the programme for cementing the Winfrith Reactor (SGHWR) sludge. Further results from the characterisation programme are reported, together with data from the cementation programme. Formulations based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) have been tested. The results show that a blend of 90% BFS/10% OPC by weight, gives the best properties. Chemical pretreatment as a method for producing a stable waste form is discussed. A dewatering pretreatment to provide a sludge suitable for direct cementation is also outlined. A flowsheet for cementing the SGHWR sludge is proposed based on these laboratory and pilot scale studies. The major components required for the active plant are identified and provisional plant layouts are given. (author)

  3. Properties of Cement Mortar with Phosphogpysum under Steam Curing Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungju Mun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to utilize waste PG as an admixture for concrete products cured by steam. For the study, waste PG was classified into 4 forms (dehydrate, β-hemihydrate, III-anhydrite, and II-anhydrite, which were calcined at various temperatures. Also, various admixtures were prepared with PG, fly-ash (FA, and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS. The basic properties of cement mortars containing these admixtures were analyzed and examined through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, compressive strength, and acid corrosion resistance. According to the results, cement mortars made with III-anhydrite of waste PG and BFS exhibited strength similar to that of cement mortars made with II-anhydrite. Therefore, III-anhydrite PG calcined at lower temperature can be used as a steam curing admixture for concrete second production.

  4. Bayesian model comparison with intractable likelihoods

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Richard G; Rowing, Ellen; Evdemon-Hogan, Melina

    2015-01-01

    Markov random field models are used widely in computer science, statistical physics and spatial statistics and network analysis. However, Bayesian analysis of these models using standard Monte Carlo methods is not possible due to their intractable likelihood functions. Several methods have been developed that permit exact, or close to exact, simulation from the posterior distribution. However, estimating the evidence and Bayes' factors (BFs) for these models remains challenging in general. This paper describes new random weight importance sampling and sequential Monte Carlo methods for estimating BFs that use simulation to circumvent the evaluation of the intractable likelihood, and compares them to existing methods. In some cases we observe an advantage in the use of biased weight estimates; an initial investigation into the theoretical and empirical properties of this class of methods is presented.

  5. Licensing Procedures for Interim Storage of Spent Fuel in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the waste management concept in Germany spent fuel is stored in interim storage facilities for 40 years until disposal in a geological repository. The storage concept bases on dry storage of the spent fuel in metallic transport and storage casks, standing upright in halls of reinforced concrete. Storage of spent fuel as well as significant modifications of the storage require a license according to art. 6 of the Atomic Energy Act. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz - BfS) is the competent licensing authority. The mode of the licensing procedure — whether formalized or non-formalized — depends on the necessity to carry out an environmental impact assessment. Formalized licensing procedures include a public participation procedure. In the following, the licensing prodecures are illustrated and a short overview over the current licensing procedures conducted by BfS is given. (author)

  6. Teaching Inquiry using NASA Earth-System Science: Preparing Pre- and Inservice K-12 Educators to Use Authentic Inquiry in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, T. D.; Tebockhorst, D.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching Inquiry using NASA Earth-System Science (TINES) is a comprehensive program to train and support pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers, and to provide them with an opportunity to use NASA Earth Science mission data and Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) observations to incorporate scientific inquiry-based learning in the classroom. It uses an innovative blended-learning professional development approach that combines a peer-reviewed pedagogical technique called backward-faded scaffolding (BFS), which provides a more natural entry path to understanding the scientific process, with pre-workshop online content learning and in-situ and online data resources from NASA and GLOBE. This presentation will describe efforts to date, share our impressions and evaluations, and discuss the effectiveness of the BFS approach to both professional development and classroom pedagogy.

  7. Cosmetic Outcome of Posterior Approach Ptosis Surgery (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert A.; Lew, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that posterior approach ptosis surgery, with or without blepharoplasty, can improve the cosmetic appearance of the eyelid. Methods In a retrospective, observational, consecutive case cohort study, 261 patients who had posterior approach upper eyelid ptosis surgery with or without concurrent blepharoplasty performed by one surgeon, between 1997 and 2009, were reviewed. Patients were included if they had symmetric eyelid position within 1.5 mm at 3 months after surgery. Outcome measures were subjective grading of eyelid margin contour, millimeters of tarsal platform show (TPS), and millimeters of eyebrow fat span (BFS). Paired preoperative and postoperative standardized photographs were viewed in masked fashion by three experts. Results One hundred and forty patients (55 men, 85 women, mean age 70 years, range 20–93) who underwent 233 posterior approach procedures for correction of upper eyelid ptosis had postoperative eyelid symmetry within 1.5 mm. Concurrent blepharoplasty was performed in 67 cases. Eyelid contour scores were significantly improved following surgery (P=.009). Ptosis surgery, without blepharoplasty, decreased the TPS, from 6.1±2.5 mm to 4.8±2.0 mm (P<.001). Patients who underwent concurrent blepharoplasty had a statistically insignificant increase of TPS from 4.0±3.5 mm to 4.3±3.6 mm, had a decrease of BFS from 20.8±6.3 mm to 17.7±6.4 mm (P=.001), and showed similar BFS symmetry postoperatively, compared to patients who had ptosis surgery only. Conclusions Posterior approach surgery alone was often successful in controlling TPS: it shortened the TPS. Blepharoplasty combined with posterior approach ptosis surgery tended to lengthen the TPS and shorten the BFS. PMID:22253486

  8. The Investigation of TLC Model Checker Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Shkarupylo, Vadym Viktorovych; Tomičić, Igor; Kasian, Kostiantyn Mykolaiovych

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation and comparison of TLC model checking method (TLA Checker) properties. There are two different approaches to method usage which are considered. The first one consists of a transition system states attendance by breadth-first search (BFS), and the second one by depth-first search (DFS). The Kripke structure has been chosen as a transition system model. A case study has been conducted, where composite web service usage scenario has been considered. Obtained ...

  9. Preliminary estudies on the use of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in the manufacture of alkali activated binders

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldelli, V.N.; Mitsuuchi Tashima, Mauro; Melges, J.L.; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; AKASAKI, JORGE LUIS; Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan

    2014-01-01

    Alkali activated binders require the addition of a mineral-rich amorphous silica and alumina. This paper proposes the use of a mineral residue from the burning of sugar cane bagasse. The alkali activated mixtures were prepared containing binary mixtures of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and other mineral admixtures: fly ash (FA) or blast furnace slag (BFS). As alkaline activators, mixtures of alkali (Na+ or K+) hydroxide and alkali (Na+ or K+) silicate were used. Alkali-activated pastes and mo...

  10. CT findings of mucoid impaction in 13 case: Speculation on their etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucoid impaction presents a typical appearance on plain radiography and CT. If the lesion is multiple with manifestations of diffuse bronchopathy, it usually is a medical disease. On the other hand, if the lesion is single, an effort should be made to determine the underlying disease. The most frequent cause of the latter lesion is lung cancer, which generally can be depicted by CT. We retrospectively reviewed 13 cases of chest CT with obstructive mucoid impaction, in which CT and BFS(bronchofiberscopy) did not reveal a specific underlying cause. Women in the twenties and thirties were dominant and a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis was present in nine, BFS, done in nine, showed bronchial obstruction, and also luminal narrowing and cicatricial mucosal changes proximal to the obstruction in all them. Endobronchial tuberculosis was proven in only one case by bronchial wall biopsy. Lobectomy was performed in three. At the bronchial obstruction site, thickened bronchial walls were connected to proximal bronchi and there was no evidence of a clear underlying pathology except submucosal fibrosis in all three. The level of bronchial obstruction , determined by CT and BFS, was in the main bronchus in one, lobar bronchi in six, and divisional or segmental bronchi in seven, CT additionally showed calcific spots in their parenchyma connected to the bronchial obstruction in seven cases, and other changes suggestive of tuberculous origin in eight patients. In the context of the clinical history, BFS results, CT findings and pathologic findings of surgical specimen, most, if not all, of these 13 lesions are supported to be a sequela of endobronchial tuberculosis

  11. Neural Mechanisms of Inhibitory Response in a Battlefield Scenario: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Li-Wei; Shih, Yi-Cheng; Chikara, Rupesh Kumar; Chuang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Erik C.

    2016-01-01

    The stop-signal paradigm has been widely adopted as a way to parametrically quantify the response inhibition process. To evaluate inhibitory function in realistic environmental settings, the current study compared stop-signal responses in two different scenarios: one uses simple visual symbols as go and stop signals, and the other translates the typical design into a battlefield scenario (BFS) where a sniper-scope view was the background, a terrorist image was the go signal, a hostage image was the stop signal, and the task instructions were to shoot at terrorists only when hostages were not present but to refrain from shooting if hostages appeared. The BFS created a threatening environment and allowed the evaluation of how participants’ inhibitory control manifest in this realistic stop-signal task. In order to investigate the participants’ brain activities with both high spatial and temporal resolution, simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were acquired. The results demonstrated that both scenarios induced increased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and presupplementary motor area (preSMA), which have been linked to response inhibition. Notably, in right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) we found both higher blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation and synchronization of theta-alpha activities (4–12 Hz) in the BFS than in the traditional scenario after the stop signal. The higher activation of rTPJ in the BFS may be related to morality judgments or attentional reorienting. These results provided new insights into the complex brain networks involved in inhibitory control within naturalistic environments. PMID:27199708

  12. Open and fast available dose rate data for the public. Challenges and opportunities of internet based communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BfS website ''ODLInfo'' had been operational for many years when it suddenly became frequently visited by the public due to the Fukushima accident. BfS responded with increased polling frequency of the gamma probes in the network and a higher frequency in update of the web site. Not yet validated data were also published. The web site was extended by explanatory text and additional functionalities, including a complete translation into english language. Many questions directed to BfS by E-mail and related to this web site had to be answered. This was used as a valuable feedback for improving the its design. Additional services were implemented for providers of special applications of smartphones. The market is characterized by a great variability between serious and lurid apps. BfS seeks to support providers in giving explanatory help. Similar websites exist on European and international level. The EU is publishing data from member states on the EURDEP site. NGOs established platforms for uploading and visualizing private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 march 2011. This development has important implication for emergency preparedness. Information platforms must be authentic and timely. They must compete with alternative data sources in contents and presentation. Data must be presented understandable. Ideally, the public can understand the data and set it into relation to reference values. Often people want to compare their own measurements - sometimes collected with low quality equipment - with official data. Radiation issues are much better understood by the lay public if visible effects in the variability of the measured dose rate are explained.

  13. Effect of Biofumigation on Typical Weeds of Strawberry Fields

    OpenAIRE

    González Zamora, José Enrique; López Martínez, Nuria; Aguirre Jiménez, Itziar; Avilla Hernández, Carlos; Lopez Medina, Jose

    2006-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of biofumigation using fresh organic matter on typical weeds present in strawberry fields of southern Spain. Field experiments consisted of biofumigation (BF) treatment over 45 days, at two locations, with hen droppings or horse manure at a dose of 3 kg m-2, alone or in combination with solarization (BF+S) in an experimental randomized block design. Results showed good control of the main weed species, Poa annua, Portulaca oleracea and Lolium...

  14. Fast Structuring of Radio Networks for Multi-Message Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari, Mohsen; Haeupler, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We introduce collision free layerings as a powerful way to structure radio networks. These layerings can replace hard-to-compute BFS-trees in many contexts while having an efficient randomized distributed construction. We demonstrate their versatility by using them to provide near optimal distributed algorithms for several multi-message communication primitives. Designing efficient communication primitives for radio networks has a rich history that began 25 years ago when Bar-Yehuda et al. in...

  15. An International Approach to identify the root causes of Childhood Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Living near a nuclear site is one of the risk factors studied for childhood leukemia. The IRSN and BfS brought together scientists from several disciplines under the aegis of the European Association MelodiGLO to take stock of the existing epidemiological studies, their contributions and their limitations as well as to identify the analysis and research avenues to provide more robust answers. (author)

  16. Effect of Ceramic Surface Treatments After Machine Grinding on the Biaxial Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM Dental Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Hossein; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Aghajani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments after machining grinding on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of machinable dental ceramics with different crystalline phases. Materials and Methods: Disk-shape specimens (10mm in diameter and 1.3mm in thickness) of machinable ceramic cores (two silica-based and one zirconia-based ceramics) were prepared. Each type of the ceramic surfaces was then randomly treated (n=15) with different treatments as ...

  17. Incorporation monitoring in Germany. Quo vadis?; Inkorporationsueberwachung in Deutschland. Quo Vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froning, Martina; Breustedt, Bastian; Scholl, Clemens [Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Garching (Germany). Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung

    2015-07-01

    In 1970 a study group incorporation monitoring (AKI) was founded in the research center Karlsruhe. In the last decade the AKO and the respective group in the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) have identified the necessity to develop a test point concept. The actual state of incorporation monitoring in Germany is, the future of the test point concept and related questions are discussed in the contribution.

  18. Applicability of alkali activated slag-seeded Egyptian Sinai kaolin for the immobilization of {sup 60}Co radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, M.R., E-mail: elnaggar74@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    The present work was established to determine the applicability of local Egyptian kaolinite and blast furnace slag (BFS) as raw materials toward the synthesis of geopolymers and subsequent immobilization of cobalt-60, which is one of the most abundant radionuclides generated in radioactive waste streams in Egypt. XRF, XRD, FT-IR, and SEM techniques were used to characterize the local raw materials and their corresponding alkali activated products. Metakaolin (MK) was obtained by thermal treatment of Egyptian Sinai kaolin 750 °C/4 h. MK and five different BFS content (5, 10, 30, 50 and 80%) were used to synthesize geopolymeric matrices using an alkaline activator of Si-modulus = 1.35 at solid/liquid ratios of 0.8. Compressive strength tests were performed indicating that 50% BFS addition gave the highest values of compressive strength. The IAEA standard leaching tests of cobalt-60 from the solidified waste matrices were carried out. The effective diffusion coefficients of cobalt-60 radionuclides from the solidified waste matrices were calculated to be in the order of 10{sup −14} cm{sup 2}/s. Leaching of radionuclides was examined to be controlled by the wash-off mechanism with very acceptable values. These results gave encouragement that the tested Egyptian raw materials can be conveniently applied for the synthesis of geopolymers that can be used as a low-cost and high-efficiency materials for the immobilization of radioactive waste.

  19. The Change in Surface Area Properties of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace sludge-BFS is a by-product and waste material of the iron and steel industry. Recently, the adsorption capabilities of blast furnace sludge have been attracting great interest. It is known that materials with modified surface properties can be obtained by different chemical and thermal treatments.The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of chemical treatment by acetic acid and thermal treatment by heating at 700 °C, on the surface properties of blast furnace sludge. Chemical treatment was performed by acetic acid adsorption on BFS.Microscopic observation was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM method. Changes in examined surface area properties were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods.Increasing of specific surface area, decreasing of pore size and better pore size distribution in BFS samples were registered after the applied experimental procedure. The obtained results revealed that the performed chemical and heat treatment presented the activation of blast furnace sludge.

  20. Planning of ADS related R and D in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADS oriented R and D were initiated in Russia by ITEP in close cooperation with LANL in early nineties. In October 1998 the Scientific Council of the Ministry of Russian Federation for Atomic Power (MINATOM) decided to develop a Program of ADS related R and D coordinated and partly financed by MINATOM. Experimental investigations of ADS parameters include critical assembly in ITEP for precision measurements of neutron and kinetic parameters of subcritical multiplicating systems driven by pulsed neutron D-T generator; fast-thermal 'neutron valved' blankets imitated at the BFS-1 facility (IPPE) coupled with microtron accelerator. BFS-1 and BFS-2 critical assemblies are used to investigate the transmutation of minor actinides (MA). Theoretical methods and related computer codes are developed for the calculations of physical and thermohydraulic parameters of ADS covering transition processes and emergency situations in thermal, fast and cascade (two-stage) multiplicating blankets; neutron yields and spectra for the targets of various geometries and structures irradiated by GeV protons and ions; heat release, beam moderation, gas production and radiation damages in the target and window beam materials. (author)

  1. Distribution of chitin/chitosan-like bioflocculant-producing potential in the genus Citrobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Kato, Dai-Ichiro; Negoro, Seiji; Ike, Michihiko; Takeo, Masahiro

    2013-11-01

    Some strains belonging to the genera Citrobacter and Enterobacter have been reported to produce chitin/chitosan-like bioflocculants (BFs) from acetate. In this study, to investigate the distribution of the BF-producing potential in the genus Citrobacter and to screen stably and highly BF-producing strains, we obtained 36 Citrobacter strains from different culture collection centers, which were distributed among seven species in the genus, and tested for the flocculating activities of their culture supernatants using a kaolin suspension method. As a result, 21 strains belonging to C. freundii (17 strains in 23 strains tested), C. braakii (two in two), C. youngae (one in one), and C. werkmanii (one in two) showed flocculating activity, but this ability was limited to cells grown on acetate. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the hydrolysates from the BFs of five selected strains indicated that they consisted of glucosamine and/or N-acetylglucosamine, such as the chitin/chitosan-like BF (BF04) produced by Citrobacter sp. TKF04 (Fujita et al. J Biosci Bioeng 89: 40-46, 2000). Gel filtration chromatography using a high-performance liquid chromatography system revealed that the molecular weight ranges of these BFs varied, but the average sizes were all above 1.66 × 10⁶Da.

  2. Binary breath figures for straightforward and controllable self-assembly of microspherical caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianliang; Xu, Bingang; Tao, Xiaoming; Li, Lei

    2016-05-11

    The intense interest surrounding asymmetrical microparticles originates from their unique anisotropic properties and promising applications. In this work, direct self-assembly of polymeric microspherical caps without the assistance of any additives has been achieved by using low-surface-tension methanol (MeOH) and high-surface-tension water as binary breath figures (BFs). With the evaporation of polystyrene (PS) solution containing low-boiling-point solvent in the binary vapors, the formed MeOH BFs could quickly diffuse into solution, while water BFs tended to remain at the solution surface. This led to the formation of a gradient nonsolvent layer at the vapor/solution interface, which induced the formation of nuclei and guided further asymmetrical growth of polymer particles. After the spontaneous removal of MeOH, water and residual solvent by evaporation, polymeric microspherical caps were left on the substrate. Through controlling the proportion of water introduced by adjusting the ratios of MeOH and water, polymeric microspherical caps with a range of controllable shapes (divided at different positions of a sphere) were successfully obtained. The formation mechanism was explained based on the difference of vapor pressure, surface tension and miscibility between the employed solvents and nonsolvents. A solvent possessing a high vapor pressure, low surface tension and good miscibility with MeOH contributed to the formation of microspherical caps. This flexible, green and straightforward technique is a nondestructive strategy, and avoids complicated work on design, preparation and removal of hard templates and additives. PMID:27139817

  3. Sulphate removal over barium-modified blast-furnace-slag geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtti, Hanna; Luukkonen, Tero; Niskanen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Sari; Kangas, Teija; Tynjälä, Pekka; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-11-01

    Blast-furnace slag and metakaolin were geopolymerised, modified with barium or treated with a combination of these methods in order to obtain an efficient SO4(2-) sorbent for mine water treatment. Of prepared materials, barium-modified blast-furnace slag geopolymer (Ba-BFS-GP) exhibited the highest SO4(2-) maximum sorption capacity (up to 119mgg(-1)) and it compared also favourably to materials reported in the literature. Therefore, Ba-BFS-GP was selected for further studies and the factors affecting to the sorption efficiency were assessed. Several isotherms were applied to describe the experimental results of Ba-BFS-GP and the Sips model showed the best fit. Kinetic studies showed that the sorption process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In the dynamic removal experiments with columns, total SO4(2-) removal was observed initially when treating mine effluent. The novel modification method of geopolymer material proved to be technically suitable in achieving extremely low concentrations of SO4(2-) (<2mgL(-1)) in mine effluents.

  4. Arsenic Removal from Water Using Industrial By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava M. Lekić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, removal of arsenic ions using two industrial by-products as adsorbents is represented. Removal of As(III and As(V from water was carried out with industrial by-products: residual from the groundwater treatment process, iron-manganese oxide coated sand (IMOCS, and blast furnace slag from steel production (BFS, both inexpensive and locally available. In addition, the BFS was modified in order to minimise its deteriorating impact on the initial water quality. Kinetic and equilibrium studies were carried out using batch and fixed-bed column adsorption techniques under the conditions that are likely to occur in real water treatment systems. To evaluate the application for real groundwater treatment, the capacities of the selected materials were further compared to those exhibited by commercial sorbents, which were examined under the same experimental conditions. IMOCS was found to be a good and inexpensive sorbent for arsenic, while BFS and modified slag showed the highest affinity towards arsenic. All examined waste materials exhibited better sorption performances for As(V. The maximum sorption capacity in the batch reactor was obtained for blast furnace slag, 4040 μgAs(V/g.

  5. Parallel Breadth-First Search on Distributed Memory Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Computational Research Division; Buluc, Aydin; Madduri, Kamesh

    2011-04-15

    Data-intensive, graph-based computations are pervasive in several scientific applications, and are known to to be quite challenging to implement on distributed memory systems. In this work, we explore the design space of parallel algorithms for Breadth-First Search (BFS), a key subroutine in several graph algorithms. We present two highly-tuned par- allel approaches for BFS on large parallel systems: a level-synchronous strategy that relies on a simple vertex-based partitioning of the graph, and a two-dimensional sparse matrix- partitioning-based approach that mitigates parallel commu- nication overhead. For both approaches, we also present hybrid versions with intra-node multithreading. Our novel hybrid two-dimensional algorithm reduces communication times by up to a factor of 3.5, relative to a common vertex based approach. Our experimental study identifies execu- tion regimes in which these approaches will be competitive, and we demonstrate extremely high performance on lead- ing distributed-memory parallel systems. For instance, for a 40,000-core parallel execution on Hopper, an AMD Magny- Cours based system, we achieve a BFS performance rate of 17.8 billion edge visits per second on an undirected graph of 4.3 billion vertices and 68.7 billion edges with skewed degree distribution.

  6. Applicability of alkali activated slag-seeded Egyptian Sinai kaolin for the immobilization of 60Co radionuclide

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    The present work was established to determine the applicability of local Egyptian kaolinite and blast furnace slag (BFS) as raw materials toward the synthesis of geopolymers and subsequent immobilization of cobalt-60, which is one of the most abundant radionuclides generated in radioactive waste streams in Egypt. XRF, XRD, FT-IR, and SEM techniques were used to characterize the local raw materials and their corresponding alkali activated products. Metakaolin (MK) was obtained by thermal treatment of Egyptian Sinai kaolin 750 °C/4 h. MK and five different BFS content (5, 10, 30, 50 and 80%) were used to synthesize geopolymeric matrices using an alkaline activator of Si-modulus = 1.35 at solid/liquid ratios of 0.8. Compressive strength tests were performed indicating that 50% BFS addition gave the highest values of compressive strength. The IAEA standard leaching tests of cobalt-60 from the solidified waste matrices were carried out. The effective diffusion coefficients of cobalt-60 radionuclides from the solidified waste matrices were calculated to be in the order of 10-14 cm2/s. Leaching of radionuclides was examined to be controlled by the wash-off mechanism with very acceptable values. These results gave encouragement that the tested Egyptian raw materials can be conveniently applied for the synthesis of geopolymers that can be used as a low-cost and high-efficiency materials for the immobilization of radioactive waste.

  7. Understanding crash mechanism on urban expressways using high-resolution traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Moinul; Muromachi, Yasunori

    2013-08-01

    Urban expressways play a vital role in the modern mega cities by serving peak hour traffic alongside reducing travel time for moderate to long distance intra-city trips. Thus, ensuring safety on these roads holds high priority. Little knowledge has been acquired till date regarding crash mechanism on these roads. This study uses high-resolution traffic data collected from the detectors to identify factors influencing crash. It also identifies traffic patterns associated with different types of crashes and explains crash phenomena thereby. Unlike most of the previous studies on conventional expressways, the research separately investigates the basic freeway segments (BFS) and the ramp areas. The study employs random multinomial logit, a random forest of logit models, to rank the variables; expectation maximization clustering algorithm to identify crash prone traffic patterns and classification and regression trees to explain crash phenomena. As accentuated by the study outcome, crash mechanism is not generic throughout the expressway and it varies from the BFS to the ramp vicinities. The level of congestion and speed difference between upstream and downstream traffic best explains crashes and their types for the BFS, whereas, the ramp flow has the highest influence in determining the types of crashes within the ramp vicinities. The paper also discusses about the applicability of different countermeasures, such as, variable speed limits, temporary restriction on lane changing, posting warnings, etc., to attenuate different patterns of hazardous traffic conditions. The study outcome can be utilized in designing location and traffic condition specific proactive road safety management systems for urban expressways.

  8. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures.

  9. Study on two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering system with mixture medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI Wuliji; L(U) ZhiWei; LI Qiang; BA DeXin; HE WeiMing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method of choosing mixture medium in two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) system to improve the system performance is proposed. The Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) of mixture medium varies with the mixing ratio and thus the difference of the BFS between the two cells can be eliminated. The two-cell SBS system with acetone (C3H6O) in its generator cell and mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 in its amplifier cell is investigated. The C3H6O has a high optical break- down threshold and the mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 has a small absorption coefficient and the same BFS as that of C3H6O when the volume fraction of CCl4 is 4%. Compared with two-cell SBS system with the same liquid (C2Cl4) or different liquid (C3H6O and C2Cl4) in generator and amplifier cell, the SBS system with mixture liquid (CCl4/C2Cl4) in amplifier cell and C3H6O in generator cell improves the power-load, energy reflectivity (ER), phase conjugation (PC) fidelity and ER stability.

  10. Study on two-cell stimulated Brillouin scattering system with mixture medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI; Wuliji

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,a method of choosing mixture medium in two-cell stimulated Brillouinscattering(SBS)system to improve the system performance is proposed.The Brillouin frequency shift(BFS)of mixture medium varies with the mixing ratio andthus the difference of the BFS between the two cells can be eliminated.The two-cellSBS system with acetone(C3H6O)in its generator cell and mixture liquid ofCCl4/C2Cl4 in its amplifier cell is investigated.The C3H6O has a high optical breakdown threshold and the mixture liquid of CCl4/C2Cl4 has a small absorption coeffi-cient and the same BFS as that of C3H6O when the volume fraction of CCl4 is 4%.Compared with two-cell SBS system with the same liquid(C2Cl4)or different liquid(C3H6O and C2Cl4)in generator and amplifier cell,the SBS system with mixture liq-uid(CCl4/C2Cl4)in amplifier cell and C3H6O in generator cell improves thepower-load,energy reflectivity(ER),phase conjugation(PC)fidelity and ER stabil-ity.

  11. Optimising blends of blast furnace slag for the immobilisation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferred route for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste in the UK is the immobilisation in a cementitious matrix. One cement system that is used by nuclear industry is a blend of blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The material now used for the BFS is a blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and calumite, a coarser fraction of GGBS with the same composition. The aim of this project was to optimize the performance properties of this blend by analysing the rheology of the system. A series of 5 BFS blends were considered in this study to analyse the effect of particle size distribution (PSD) on the reactivity and performance of the cement powder. 3 different water/solid (w/s) ratios have been used: 0.33, 0.35 and 0.37. The isothermal calorimetry results show that the w/s ratio has minimal effect on the heat of hydration whereas the change in PSD consistently causes a chemical change. The total heat evolution conforms to UK grout formulation regulations. The semi-adiabatic calorimetry analysis suggests the PSD has an effect on the physical properties of the grouts produced. Changes in phase formation is observed within all the 5 blends at 28 days, confirming that PSD influences phase composition. This document is a poster

  12. Radiation protection research projects. Status report 2007; Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie

    2009-01-15

    In Behalf of the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMU) the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) assigns research contracts concerning radiation protection topics. The results of these research projects are supposed to provide decision support for the development of radiation protection regulations and other specific radiation protection tasks of the BMU. The BfS is basically charged for the planning, the technical and administrative prearrangements, the assignment, the expert monitoring and the technical evaluation of the results. The report is the compiled information on the results or intermediate results (status reports) of these research projects for the year 2007. [German] Das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) vergibt im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU) Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet des Strahlenschutzes. Die Ergebnisse dieser Vorhaben dienen als Entscheidungshilfen bei der Erarbeitung von Strahlenschutzvorschriften und bei der Erfuellung sonstiger Fachaufgaben des BMU im Bereich Strahlenschutz. Die Planung, fachliche und administrative Vorbereitung, Vergabe, Begleitung sowie die fachliche Bewertung der Ergebnisse der Untersuchungsvorhaben ist grundsaetzlich Aufgabe des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Der vorliegende Bericht informiert ueber die Ergebnisse bzw. Zwischenergebnisse (in Form von Statusberichten) von Strahlenschutzvorhaben des BMU-Ressortforschungsprogramms im Jahr 2007. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of Dynamical Behaviors Between Monofunctional and Bifunctional Two-Component Signaling Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiyan; Wu, Yahao; Yuan, Zhanjiang

    2015-06-01

    Two-component signaling modules exist extensively in bacteria and microbes. These modules can be, based on their distinct network structures, divided into two types: the monofunctional system (denoted by MFS) where the sensor kinase (SK) modulates only phosphorylation of the response regulator (RR), and the bifunctional system (denoted by BFS) where the SK catalyzes both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the RR. Here, we analyze dynamical behaviors of these two systems based on stability theory, focusing on differences between them. The analysis of the deterministic behavior indicates that there is no difference between the two modules, that is, each system has the unique stable steady state. However, there are significant differences in stochastic behavior between them. Specifically, if the mean phosphorylated SK level is kept the same for the two modules, then the variance and the Fano factor for the phosphorylated RR in the BFS are always no less than those in the MFS, indicating that bifunctionality always enhances fluctuations. The correlation between the phosphorylated SK and the phosphorylated RR in the BFS is always positive mainly due to competition between system components, but this correlation in the MFS may be positive, almost zero, or negative, depending on the ratio between two rate constants. Our overall analysis indicates that differences between dynamical behaviors of monofunctional and bifunctional signaling modules are mainly in the stochastic rather than deterministic aspect.

  14. Sulphate removal over barium-modified blast-furnace-slag geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtti, Hanna; Luukkonen, Tero; Niskanen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Sari; Kangas, Teija; Tynjälä, Pekka; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-11-01

    Blast-furnace slag and metakaolin were geopolymerised, modified with barium or treated with a combination of these methods in order to obtain an efficient SO4(2-) sorbent for mine water treatment. Of prepared materials, barium-modified blast-furnace slag geopolymer (Ba-BFS-GP) exhibited the highest SO4(2-) maximum sorption capacity (up to 119mgg(-1)) and it compared also favourably to materials reported in the literature. Therefore, Ba-BFS-GP was selected for further studies and the factors affecting to the sorption efficiency were assessed. Several isotherms were applied to describe the experimental results of Ba-BFS-GP and the Sips model showed the best fit. Kinetic studies showed that the sorption process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In the dynamic removal experiments with columns, total SO4(2-) removal was observed initially when treating mine effluent. The novel modification method of geopolymer material proved to be technically suitable in achieving extremely low concentrations of SO4(2-) (<2mgL(-1)) in mine effluents. PMID:27318734

  15. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Formation Over A Separated Flow Region Under Steady And Pulsatile Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, M. Mehdi; Martinuzzi, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Several researchers have observed that the formation, morphology and susceptibility of bacterial biofilms are affected by the local hydrodynamic condition and, in particular, shear stresses acting on the fluid-biofilm interface. A backwards facing step (BFS) experimental model has been widely utilized as an in vitro model to examine and characterize the effect of flow separation and recirculation zones comparable to those present within various medical devices as well as those observed in vivo. The specific geometry of BFS covers a vide range of flow features observed in physiological or environmental conditions. The hypothesis of this study is that the flow behavior and structures can effectively contribute to the transport and attachment of cells and affecting the morphology of adhered colonies as well as suspended structures (i.e. biofilm streamers). Hence, the formation of the recirculation region occurring within a backward facing step (BFS) under steady and pulsatile conditions as well as three-dimensional flow structures arising close to the side walls are investigated to correlate to biofilms behavior. This hypothesis is investigated using a backward facing step incorporated into a flow cell under steady and pulsatile flow regimes to study the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) UC18 as the study microorganism.

  16. Preparation of a new sorbent with hydrated lime and blast furnace slag for phosphorus removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Guozhuo; Ye, Shufeng; Tian, Yajun; Wang, Qi; Ni, Jiandi; Chen, Yunfa

    2009-07-30

    The removal of dissolvable inorganic phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)) by sorbents prepared from hydrated lime (HL) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was fundamentally studied by an orthogonal experiment design. Based on statistic analysis, it is revealed that the weight ratio of BFS/HL is the most significant variable, and an optimized preparation condition is figured out. With the increase of HL content, the adsorption capacity increases, suggesting that the HL plays the important role in the removal process in the gross. However, in the lower HL content, it is interesting that the adsorption capacity of as-prepared sorbents exceed the sum of the capacities of the same ratio of BFS and HL. The further analysis indicate the excess capacities linearly depend on the specific surface area of sorbents, suggesting that the removal of H(2)PO(4)(-) is closely related with the microstructure of sorbents in the lower HL content, according to the characterization with SEM, XRD and pore analysis. Additionally, an adsorption model and kinetic are discussed in this paper. PMID:19124194

  17. Extended haplotypes in rheumatoid arthritis and preliminary evidence for an interaction with immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, A; Briggs, D; Welsh, K; Jacoby, R; Williamson, E; Jones, V

    1986-06-01

    The incidence of extended haplotypes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex was compared between 20 probands with RA, their unaffected family members, and 42 controls. One haplotype only, HLA-Bw62 BfS C4A*3 C4B*3 DR4 GLO2, was significantly increased in the patient group, whereas HLA-B7 BfS C4A*3 C4B*1 DR2 GLO1, which was the most common haplotype in the control groups, was absent. The immunoglobulin allotype Glm(2) was significantly increased in frequency in the RA patients, and analysis showed that of the seven patients carrying Bw62-DR4, five were G1m(2) positive. Further, the increase in frequency of the phenotype Gm(1,2,17,21,3,5,23) was also significant and was carried by two of four probands with the extended haplotype HLA-Bw62 BfS C4A*3 C4B*3 DR4 GLO2 and by one proband also bearing this haplotype but with a null allele at the C4A locus. The striking association of G1m(2) and Bw62 with DR4 in our patients suggests that in interaction of immunoglobulin genes with DR4 is stronger when DR4 is associated with particular haplotypes rather than with DR4 in general.

  18. A Novel Algorithm for Detecting Protein Complexes with the Breadth First Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most biological processes are carried out by protein complexes. A substantial number of false positives of the protein-protein interaction (PPI data can compromise the utility of the datasets for complexes reconstruction. In order to reduce the impact of such discrepancies, a number of data integration and affinity scoring schemes have been devised. The methods encode the reliabilities (confidence of physical interactions between pairs of proteins. The challenge now is to identify novel and meaningful protein complexes from the weighted PPI network. To address this problem, a novel protein complex mining algorithm ClusterBFS (Cluster with Breadth-First Search is proposed. Based on the weighted density, ClusterBFS detects protein complexes of the weighted network by the breadth first search algorithm, which originates from a given seed protein used as starting-point. The experimental results show that ClusterBFS performs significantly better than the other computational approaches in terms of the identification of protein complexes.

  19. Interaction of antimicrobial preservatives with blow-fill-seal packs: correlating sorption with solubility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Aeshna; Dare, Manish; Sangamwar, Abhay; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of four commonly used ophthalmic antimicrobial preservatives [benzyl alcohol (BA), chlorbutol (CBL), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)] with Blow-Fill-Seal (BFS) packs. Effect of packaging material [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP)], humidity (25% RH, 75% RH) and concentration (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mM BA/CBL in LDPE) was studied. BKC and CG gave negligible loss (preservative. Loss of BA switched from Case II to anomalous behavior with increasing initial concentration. A two-stage sorption behavior was inherent at all concentrations. Loss of CBL followed anomalous behavior with biphasic kinetics of loss. It was concluded that all the four preservatives were appropriate for use in PP BFS packs. However, only BKC and CG were amenable to be used in LDPE BFS packs. Lastly, an empirical expression consisting of the "solubility parameter distance" and "molar volume" of preservatives was developed to correlate the preservative loss in LDPE with the physicochemical properties of the preservatives.

  20. Flow sheet model evaluation of nuclear hydrogen steelmaking processes with VHTR-IS (very high temperature reactor and iodine-sulfur process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) and nuclear hydrogen partial reduction steelmaking (NHPRS) systems were proposed using very high temperature reactor, and thermochemical hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process. Heat input and CO2 emissions of these systems were analyzed by heat and mass balance calculation. Total net heat input to the NHS system was 28.4 GJ/t-high quality steel (HQS), including material production, material transportation, and power generation. This value was much larger than that of a blast furnace steelmaking (BFS) system of 17.6 GJ/t-HQS. Reduction of hydrogen consumption in the shaft furnace and electricity consumption in the electric arc furnace were desired for lowering the heat input. Total net heat input of a NHPRS system was 31.9 GJ/t-HQS. Optimization of operation parameters such as the reduction ratio of partial reduced ore (PRO) and ratio of the PRO input to the blast furnace is desired to decrease the heat input. CO2 emissions of the NHS system and the NHPRS system were 9% and 50% of that from the BFS system. Substitution of coal by hydrogen and reduction of transportation weight contributed to the reduction. Steelmaking cost was also evaluated. When steelmaking scale of each system was unified to one million t-HQS/y, NHS was economically competitive to BFS and Midrex steelmaking. And NHS was advantageous at higher cost of resources. (author)

  1. Assessment of secondary bubble formation on a backward-facing step geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, G. L.; Fajardo, P.; Guijarro, A.

    2016-07-01

    Flow visualization experiments and numerical simulations were performed on a narrow three-dimensional backward-facing step (BFS) flow with the main objective of characterizing the secondary bubble appearing at the top wall. The BFS has been widely studied because of its geometrical simplicity as well as its ability to reproduce most of the flow features appearing in many applications in which separation occurs. A BFS test rig with an expansion ratio of 2 and two aspect ratios (AR = 4 and AR = 8) was developed. Tests were performed at range of Reynolds numbers ranging from 50 to 1000; visualization experiments provided a qualitative description of secondary bubble and wall-jet flows. Large eddy simulations were carried out with two different codes for validation. Numerical solutions, once validated with experimental data from the literature, were used to acquire a deeper understanding of the experimental visualizations, to characterize the secondary bubble as a function of the flow variables (Reynolds and AR) and to analyze the effect of the secondary bubble on primary reattachment length. Finally, to decouple the sidewall effects due to the non-slip condition and the intrinsic flow three-dimensionality, numerical experiments with free-slip conditions over the sidewalls were computed. The main differences were as follows: When the non-slip condition is used, the secondary bubble appears at a Reynolds number of approximately 200, increases with the Reynolds number, and is limited to a small part of the span. This recirculation zone interacts with the wall-jets and causes the maximum and minimum lengths in the reattachment line of the primary recirculation. Under free slip conditions, the recirculation bubble appears at a higher Reynolds number and covers the entire channel span.

  2. Desynchronization and rebound of beta oscillations during conscious and unconscious local neuronal processing in the macaque lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis I; Kapoor, Vishal; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that control mechanisms are not tightly bound to conscious perception since both conscious and unconscious information can trigger control processes, probably through the activation of higher-order association areas like the prefrontal cortex. Studying the modulation of control-related prefrontal signals in a microscopic, neuronal level during conscious and unconscious neuronal processing, and under control-free conditions could provide an elementary understanding of these interactions. Here we performed extracellular electrophysiological recordings in the macaque lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) during monocular physical alternation (PA) and binocular flash suppression (BFS) and studied the local scale relationship between beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations, a rhythmic signal believed to reflect the current sensory, motor, or cognitive state (status-quo), and conscious or unconscious neuronal processing. First, we show that beta oscillations are observed in the LPFC during resting state. Both PA and BFS had a strong impact on the power of this spontaneous rhythm with the modulation pattern of beta power being identical across these two conditions. Specifically, both perceptual dominance and suppression of local neuronal populations in BFS were accompanied by a transient beta desynchronization followed by beta activity rebound, a pattern also observed when perception occurred without any underlying visual competition in PA. These results indicate that under control-free conditions, at least one rhythmic signal known to reflect control processes in the LPFC (i.e., beta oscillations) is not obstructed by local neuronal, and accordingly perceptual, suppression, thus being independent from temporally co-existing conscious and unconscious local neuronal representations. Future studies could reveal the additive effects of motor or cognitive control demands on prefrontal beta oscillations during conscious and unconscious processing.

  3. Die Bundesstatistik als Anbieter und Nutzer von raumbezogenen Daten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Humbel

    Einige konkrete und potentielle Anwendungen der vorhandenen Daten sollen das Potential und die Breite der Fragestellungen, die damit angegangen werden können, illustrieren. Eine besondere Stellung dürfte in Zukunft aber auch die Satellitenfernerkundung erhalten, deren Daten und Auswertungen eine willkommene Ergänzung für die eher traditionellen GIS-Datensätze bilden werden. Ein erster Pilotversuch wurde vor wenigen Monaten im BFS gestartet, der zum Ziel hat, die Machbarkeit einer gesamtschweizerischen Unterscheidung von Laub-, Nadel- und Mischwald als Ergänzung der auf der Grundlage von konventionellen Luftbildern erhobenen Arealstatistik nachzuweisen.

  4. Characterisation and modelling of blended cements and their application to radioactive waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the chemistry of cements, including blends with FA and BFS, pertinent to the immobilization of radioactive waste are described. The methodology and development of a model for predicting the solid and liquid phase composition in aged cement blends are given. Experimental work, backed up by thermodynamic calculations (where possible), has given valuable insight into some of the important interactions between selected (active and inactive) radwaste components and cements. The effects of elevated pressure and temperature on blended cement are also investigated. (author)

  5. Robust Data Mining: An Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sangmun; Yang, Le; Park, Kyungjin; Choi, Yongsun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a RDM method by integrating a DM method for pre-processing unclear data and finding significant factors into a multidisciplinary RD method for providing the best factor settings. Based on the results of the DM method, we found important factors for placebo tablet manufacturing among a large data set. By using the BFS method, the CFBS method in its pure form is exhaustive, but the use of a stopping criterion expedites the probability of searching the entire data set...

  6. Morteros a base de vidrio de desecho/escoria de alto horno; activación mecanoquímica del vidrio en soluciones alcalinas.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ivan Escalante; Lester J. Espinoza Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Composite cements of Blast Furnace Slag (EAH) and Waste Glass (WG) were investigated. A fraction WG was subjected to mechanochemical activation aiming to solubilize its SiO4 to obtain solutions of sodium silicate (SS) with silica modulus greater than zero to improve the compressive strength of the cements.  With the solutions obtained by AMQ, composites of 0 to 100% WG were prepared, and as referred to cements 100% BFS with standard alkaline activation. The strength of the latter decreased af...

  7. European study of occupational radiation exposure (ESOREX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure (ESOREX) project was initiated by the general directive EC DG XI and carried out by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Germany (BfS). It consists of surveys carried out in the 28 European states. The study provides comparable description of the national administrative structures used to monitor and register individual occupational radiation exposure and the national dose statistics. It will establish the basis for identifying differences between the states and assessing the possibilities for European harmonisation. (author)

  8. Überprüfung der klinischen Umsetzung der Dosisreferenzwerte 2004 des Bundesamtes für Strahlenschutz an drei Kliniken

    OpenAIRE

    Knoch, Caira

    2015-01-01

    Die Röntgenverordnung (RöV) regelt in § 17a die Qualitätssicherung durch die ärztlichen Stellen. Ein Teil dieser Überprüfung betrifft die Einhaltung oder Überschreitung der Diagnostischen Referenzwerte (DRW) nach § 16 Abs. 1. RöV. Dazu werden mittels Umfragen und statistischen Untersuchungen vom Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (BfS) die jeweils gültigen DRW aufgestellt. In dieser Arbeit soll die Einführung und Einhaltung der DRW für radiographische Thoraxaufnahmen und CT-Untersuchungen an drei K...

  9. Atomistic Modeling of the U-Zr System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomistic modeling using the BFS method for alloys and ab initio based parameters is proposed for the study of fundamental properties of U-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Due to its basic atomistic nature and the universal character of the parametrization, the approach can be used for diverse problems such as the interaction between fuel and cladding and temperature gradient fuel constituent redistribution. In the first case, preliminary results for the formation of an interaction layer using large scale simulations are presented. For the second case, a mean field formalism is introduced in order to determine concentration profiles for arbitrary changes in temperature in the radial direction. (author)

  10. CFD based numerical modules for safety analysis at NPPs: validation and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the examples of use of the developed software for modeling of a fuel assembly, namely, for research of a hydraulic resistance factor of a spacer are demonstrated. The calculations are carried out on a sequence of condensed grids with an amount of nodes from a range 107 - 108, for which the convergence was obtained. Moreover, the attention of the paper is focused on validation and verification of software with usage of such tests as: full turbulent flow of water in a round pipe and backward-facing step (BFS) flow

  11. Development of porosity of cement paste blended with supplementary cementitious materials after carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, B.; YE, guang

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) like fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) are normally used to replace parts of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to reduce the cost and CO2 emission. Some consequences are the reduction of portlandite (CH) content and the formation of C-S-H with low Ca/Si ratio, due to pozzolanic reactions. It is known that carbonation of portlandite leads to a reduction in the porosity which is ascribed to the positive difference of molar volumes between CH and ...

  12. Future Resources for Eco-building Materials: I.Metallurgical Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Delong; LI Hui

    2009-01-01

    In order to make an effectivily recycle use of iron and steel slags that are main industrial wastes generated in Chinese metallurgical industry,the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed,such as preparing cement-steel slag blended cement with steel slag after metal recovery,using the fine powder of blast furnace slag (BFS)for manufacturing slag cement and high performance concrete.A further research on using these available resources more efficiently were discussed.

  13. The Asse. On inconvenient truths and the suppression of disagreeable principles; Die Asse. Ueber unbequeme Wahrheiten und das Verdraengen unliebsamer Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The retrieval of radioactive wastes and the closure of the repository Asse II is a very complex project: not only with respect to technical aspects but also with respect to public information. The information brochure no 29 edited by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz BfS is dealing with the rather philosophic questions knowledge and truth. The German expert on constitutional law Peter Bull answered to the question whether subjectively assumed health hazards could inhibit a reasonable solution: it has to be expected from the public to bear inconvenient truth. Clarification is necessary instead of wrong populism and suppression of obnoxious findings.

  14. Auto-Stabilisation et Confinement de Fautes Malicieuses : Optimalit\\'e du Protocole min+1

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, Swan; Tixeuil, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    A self-stabilizing is naturally resilient to transients faults (that is, faults of finite duration). Recently, a new class of protocol appears. These protocols are self-stabilizing and are moreover resilient to a limited number of permanent faults. In this article, we interest in self-stabilizing protocols that tolerate very hard permanent faults: Byzantine faults. We introduce two new scheme of Byzantine containment in self-stabilizing systems. We show that, for the problem of BFS spanning tree construction, the well known self-stabilizing protocol min+1 provides without significant modification the best Byzantine containment with respect to these new schemes.

  15. An identity on alternating sums of squares of binomial coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, R.

    2008-02-15

    The BFR (Binomial Failure Rate Model) model has been used in many applications related to the safety of nuclear power plants either in the original form described here or in a number of modified versions. The importance of these models is reflected in the fact that they are described or even recommended in regulatory documents. It is therefore evident that mathematical properties of the binomial coefficients are relevant to probabilistic safety evaluation and hence to the work carried out in the department of nuclear safety of BfS. (orig.)

  16. Epidemiological study to childrens cancer in the environment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the KiKK-study were presented in December 2007, followed by scientific publications in January 2008. The results caused a long-lasting debate, and the study was evaluated by different groups. Amongst these, the evaluation given by the SSK is of special importance. Now, BfS presents its final evaluation: The findings of the KiKK-study cannot be explained on the basis of current knowledge, but they give cause for further research activities. Scientific disciplines outside radiation biology and radiation epidemiology have to be involved. (orig.)

  17. Benchmark calculations of sodium fast critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high expectations from fast critical experiments impose the additional requirements on reliability of final reconstructed values, obtained in experiments at critical facility. Benchmark calculations of critical experiments are characterized by impossibility of complete experiment reconstruction, the large amounts of input data (dependent and independent) with very different reliability. It should also take into account different sensitivity of the measured and appropriate calculated characteristics to the identical changes of geometry parameters, temperature, and isotopic composition of individual materials. The calculations of critical facility experiments are produced for the benchmark models, generated by the specific reconstructing codes with its features when adjusting model parameters, and using the nuclear data library. The generated benchmark model, providing the agreed calculated and experimental values for one or more neutronic characteristics can lead to considerable differences for other key characteristics. The sensitivity of key neutronic characteristics to the extra steel allocation in the core, and ENDF/B nuclear data sources is performed using a few calculated models of BFS-62-3A and BFS1-97 critical assemblies. The comparative analysis of the calculated effective multiplication factor, spectral indices, sodium void reactivity, and radial fission-rate distributions leads to quite different models, providing the best agreement the calculated and experimental neutronic characteristics. This fact should be considered during the refinement of computational models and code-verification purpose. (author)

  18. Improved Reactivity of Fly Ash-Slag Geopolymer by the Addition of Silica Fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the improved reactivity of a geopolymer based on a combination of fly ash and blast furnace slag (BFS by the addition of silica fume. The geopolymer was synthesized by activating a mixture of fly ash, BFS, and three different types of silica fume with alkali activator. X-ray diffraction (XRD and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES were utilized to characterize the reaction. The silicate structure was also analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. From these results, it was found that the replacement of fly ash with the silica fume led to a significant decrease in the Q4(1Al and an increase in the Q4(2Al, Q4(3Al, and Q4(4Al. The Si/Al ratio of the aluminosilicate gel was relatively constant, ranging from 2.0 to 2.6, while the Si/Al ratio of the C-S-H gel increased with the addition of silica fume. Therefore, some of the Al dissolved from the slag contributed to the formation of aluminosilicate gel, and the remnant slag particles mostly participated in the formation of the C-(A-S-H gel with a decrease in the Q2(1Al. The increase in the reactivity of slag caused by the addition of silica fume was attributed to the reaction of the Al in the slag with the silica fume.

  19. Reductive Capacity Measurement of Waste Forms for Secondary Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jungseok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-09-28

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  20. Forewarning system for controlling Yellow Sigatoka in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara de Almeida Rios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to evaluate the Biological Forewarning System (BFS for controlling Yellow Sigatoka in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was carried out in the town of Nova Porteirinha. One tested 7 treatments, using 6 gross sum (GS values (1,000; 1,300; 1,600; 1,900; 2,200, and 2,500 and the systematic disease control every 15 days. The treatments were distributed into 7 plots (120 plants/plot with ‘Prata-Anã’ and 10 plants from each plot were weekly evaluated with regard to leaf emission rate and disease incidence on the leaves 2, 3 and 4. The more advanced lesion stages and their intensity were used to calculate the gross sum, which aided in decision-making for chemical control. One collected data on production and firmness, pH, and acidity analysis of fruits. For the GS 2,500 treatment, taking into account 2-year evaluation, there was a reduction from 12 to 3 applications, i.e. 75% less fungicide was applied, without loss in productivity. Therefore, one suggests, taking into account the conditions of Nova Porteirinha, the application of BFS for chemical control of Yellow Sigatoka, using the GS value of 2,500 as an indicator of the correct time to perform pulverization.

  1. Arrays of Hollow Silica Half-Nanospheres Via the Breath Figure Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2015-04-21

    Breath figures (BFs) are patterns of liquid droplets that usually form upon condensation on a cold surface. Earlier work has shown that BFs can be used to produce continuous films of porous honeycomb-structured patterns on various types of materials, paving the path to a number of important applications such as the manufacturing of highly ordered nano- and micron-sized templates, micro lenses, and superhydrophobic coatings. It is worth noting, however, that few new findings have been reported in this area in recent years, limiting pursuits of novel architectures and key applications. In this report, an alternative method is described by which arrays of hollow silica half-nanospheres can be produced via BF templates. In the present method, a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) protocol performed while the BF is formed on a glass substrate yields a nanostructured pattern of silica half-spheres, which size (100-700 nm) and density across the glass surface vary with substrate modification and with the relative rates of water condensation and hydrolysis from silica precursors (a process carried out at room temperature). This method of forming arrays of hollow half-nanospheres via the BF approach may be applicable to various other oxides and a broad range of substrates including large-area flexible plastics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Disposal of High-Temperature Slags: A Review of Integration of Heat Recovery and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays with the continuous urbanization in China, the carbon emission and resource shortage have been serious issues, for which the disposal of blast furnace slags (BFS) and steel slags (SS) discharged from the metallurgical industry make up a significant strategy. The output of crude steel reached 823 Mt in China in 2014 and the thermal heat in these slags was equivalent to ~18 Mt of standard coal. Herein, the recent advances were systemically reviewed and analyzed, mainly from two respects, i.e., integration of heat recovery and material recycling and crystallization control of the slags. It was first found that for the heat recovery from BFS, the most intensively investigated physical method and chemical method were centrifugal granulation and gasification reaction, respectively. Furthermore, a two-step approach could contribute to a promising strategy for the treatment of slags, i.e., the liquid slags were first granulated into small particles, and then other further treatment was performed such as gasification reaction. With regard to SS, the effective disposal could be achieved using a selective crystallization and phase separation (SCPS) method, and moreover, the solid solution of 2CaO·SiO2 and the target phases could act as a promising enriched phase to extract the valuable elements.

  3. A Linear Time Complexity of Breadth-First Search Using P System with Membrane Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einallah Salehi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the known methods for solving the problems with exponential time complexity such as NP-complete problems is using the brute force algorithms. Recently, a new parallel computational framework called Membrane Computing is introduced which can be applied in brute force algorithms. The usual way to find a solution for the problems with exponential time complexity with Membrane Computing techniques is by P System with active membrane using division rule. It makes an exponential workspace and solves the problems with exponential complexity in a polynomial (even linear time. On the other hand, searching is currently one of the most used methods for finding solution for problems in real life, that the blind search algorithms are accurate, but their time complexity is exponential such as breadth-first search (BFS algorithm. In this paper, we proposed a new approach for implementation of BFS by using P system with division rule technique for first time. The theorem shows time complexity of BSF in this framework on randomly binary trees reduced from O(2d to O(d.

  4. Reductive capacity measurement of waste forms for secondary radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jung-Seok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-12-01

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  5. Multithreaded Asynchronous Graph Traversal for In-Memory and Semi-External Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Pearce, Roger

    2010-11-01

    Processing large graphs is becoming increasingly important for many domains such as social networks, bioinformatics, etc. Unfortunately, many algorithms and implementations do not scale with increasing graph sizes. As a result, researchers have attempted to meet the growing data demands using parallel and external memory techniques. We present a novel asynchronous approach to compute Breadth-First-Search (BFS), Single-Source-Shortest-Paths, and Connected Components for large graphs in shared memory. Our highly parallel asynchronous approach hides data latency due to both poor locality and delays in the underlying graph data storage. We present an experimental study applying our technique to both In-Memory and Semi-External Memory graphs utilizing multi-core processors and solid-state memory devices. Our experiments using synthetic and real-world datasets show that our asynchronous approach is able to overcome data latencies and provide significant speedup over alternative approaches. For example, on billion vertex graphs our asynchronous BFS scales up to 14x on 16-cores. © 2010 IEEE.

  6. Effects of Beer Factory Sludge on Soil Properties and Sugarbeet Growth%啤酒厂废弃污泥对土壤性质及甜菜生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万才; 侯月玲; 徐光乐

    2005-01-01

    研究了啤酒厂废弃污泥(简称BFS)与土壤分别以0、10、20、40、80和160t/hm2的比例混合,在糖用甜菜栽培上利用的可能性.研究表明:BFS对甜菜叶和根产量都有影响,对叶的影响比根要大,最高的产质量处理是BFS 10t/hm2,甜菜根的质量参数随BFS量的增加而降低,这表明矿物态氮与甜菜根的质量参数负相关.另外,由于BFS中含有大量的有机氮需要矿化分解,应孵化6~7个月后再施用.

  7. 1H NMR metabolite fingerprinting as a new tool for body fluid identification in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scano, Paola; Locci, Emanuela; Noto, Antonio; Navarra, Gabriele; Murgia, Federica; Lussu, Milena; Barberini, Luigi; Atzori, Luigi; De Giorgio, Fabio; Rosa, Maria Francesca; d'Aloja, Ernesto

    2013-08-01

    In this feasibility study, we propose, for the first time, (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with mathematical strategies as a valid tool for body fluid (BF) trace identification in forensic science. In order to assess the ability of this approach to identify traces composed either by a single or by two different BFs, samples of blood, urine, saliva, and semen were collected from different donors, and binary mixtures were prepared. (1)H NMR analyses were carried out for all samples. Spectral data of the whole set were firstly submitted to unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA); it showed that samples of the same BF cluster well on the basis of their characterizing molecular components and that mixtures exhibit intermediate characteristics among BF typologies. Furthermore, samples were divided into a training set and a test set. An average NMR spectral profile for each typology of BF was obtained from the training set and validated as representative of each BF class. Finally, a fitting procedure, based on a system of linear equations with the four obtained average spectral profiles, was applied to the test set and the mixture samples; it showed that BFs can be unambiguously identified, even as components of a mixture. The successful use of this mathematical procedure has the advantage, in forensics, of overcoming bias due to the analyst's personal judgment. We therefore propose this combined approach as a valid, fast, and non-destructive tool for addressing the challenges in the identification of composite traces in forensics.

  8. Ammonia biofiltration and community analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yin; Wenfeng, Xu

    2009-09-01

    Biological removal of ammonia was investigated using compost and sludge as packing materials in laboratory-scale biofilters. The aim of this study is to characterize the composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in two biofilters designed to remove ammonia. Experimental tests and measurements included analysis of removal efficiency and metabolic products. The inlet concentration of ammonia applied was 20-100 mg m(-3). Removal efficiencies of BFC and BFS were in the range of 97-99% and 95-99%, respectively. Periodic analysis of the biofilter packing materials showed ammonia was removed from air stream by nitrification and by the improved absorption of NH(3) in the resultant acidity. Nitrate was the dominant product of NH(3) transformation. Changes in the composition of AOB were examined by using nested PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of DGGE bands. DGGE analysis of biofilter samples revealed that shifts in the community structure of AOB were observed in the experiment; however, the idle phase did not cause the structural shift of AOB. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the population of AOB showed Nitrosospira sp. remains the predominant population in BFC, while Nitrosomonas sp. is the predominant population in BFS.

  9. Mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as filter media in a biofilter system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, D B; Vigueras-Cortés, J M; Garzón-Zúñiga, M A

    2016-01-01

    The biofiltration system over organic bed (BFOB) uses organic filter material (OFM) to treat municipal wastewater (MWW). This study evaluated the performance of a BFOB system employing mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as OFM. It also evaluated the effect of hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) in order to achieve the operational parameters required to remove organic matter, suspended material, and pathogens, thus meeting Mexican and US regulations for reuse in irrigation. Two biofilters (BFs) connected in series were installed; the first one aerated (0.62 m(3)air m(-2)h(-1)) and the second one unaerated. The source of MWW was a treatment plant located in Durango, Mexico. For 200 days, three HLRs (0.54, 1.07, and 1.34 m(3)m(-2)d(-1)) were tested. The maximum HLR at which the system showed a high removal efficiency of pollutants and met regulatory standards for reuse in irrigation was 1.07 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), achieving removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) 92%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 78%, total suspended solids (TSS) 95%, and four log units of fecal coliforms. Electrical conductivity in the effluent ensures that it would not cause soil salinity. Therefore, mesquite wood chips can be considered an innovative material suitable as OFM for BFs treating wastewaters.

  10. Nonuniform changes in MRI measurements of the thigh muscles after two hamstring strengthening exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Garrues, Mirian A; Cronin, John B; Contreras, Bret; Los Arcos, Asier; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Maffulli, Nicola; Idoate, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Although many different hamstring strengthening exercises exist, the effect on site specific activation of these exercises on different muscles of the leg is unclear. This study investigated the effects of the eccentric leg curl (LC) and lunge (L) exercises on the biceps femoris long head (BFl), biceps femoris short head (BFs), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor magnus (AM). Each leg of 11 male professional soccer players was randomly assigned to an LC or L exercise protocol (3 sets of 6 repetitions). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the subjects' thighs were performed before and 48 hours after the intervention. Fifteen axial scans of the thigh interspaced by a distance of 1/15 right femur length (Lf) were obtained. The fMRI data were analyzed for signal intensity changes. No significant changes were observed in absolute short tau inversion recovery values for the SM and BFs. Significant changes for the ST (∼21-45%) from sections 4 to 10, AM (∼2-13%) at section 4, and BFl (∼ -3 vs. 8%) at section 7 were noted. LC exercises load all the regions of the ST muscle. The L exercises load the proximal regions of the BFl and AM. These findings may have relevance when designing protocols for prevention and rehabilitation of hamstring injuries. PMID:23443215

  11. 啤酒厂污泥对土壤性质及甜菜生长的影响%Effects of Beer Factory Sludge on Soil Properties and Growth of Sugar Beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万才; 刘长庆; 徐光乐

    2005-01-01

    研究了啤酒厂污泥(以下简称BFS)在甜菜(Beta vulgaris saccharifera L.)上利用的可能性,BFS与土壤的混合比例分别是0,10,20,40,80和160t/hm2,研究表明:BFS对甜菜叶和根的产量都有影响,对叶的影响比根要大,最高的含糖量、矫正含糖量及产量的处理是BFS10 t/hm2处理,10 t/hm2啤酒厂污泥处理对块根的品质和质量来说是最佳处理;甜菜根的质量参数随BFS添加量的增加而降低,这表明矿物态氮与甜菜根的质量参数负相关,过量的氮刺激了甜菜的顶端生长而减少了糖的积累,光合能量被用来植物的生长而不是以糖的形式储存;另外,由于BFS中含有大量的有机氮需要矿化分解,应孵化6-7个月后再施用.

  12. Immobilisation in cement of ion exchange resins arising from the purification of reagents, used for the decontamination of reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of reactors normally results in large volumes of liquid effluent. At present the most effective method of reducing the volume of waste is to remove the activity by passing the solution through an ion exchange column. The aim of the programme at present is to show that ion exchange resins used to remove activity from decontaminating agents can be successfully immobilised in cement. To achieve this, blends of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and ground granulated Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) will be used initially. Initial results presented in a previous report showed that BFS blended with OPC in the ratio 9:1 produced a satisfactory product containing 40% ion exchange resin. Further work has now been undertaken to improve the product's properties and the waste loading. The use of microsilica, a finely divided form of silicon dioxide, has also been investigated as an additive to cement. This has resulted in a further improvement in the product's properties. The mechanical and rheological properties of waste forms incorporating microsilica have been investigated. The final part of the report deals with the immobilisation of ion exchange resin which has been treated with simulant decontaminating solution, together with an assessment of the effect of picolinic acid and formic acid on cement hydration. A new technique for measuring the expansion of grouts in the first 48 hours curing has been evaluated. (author)

  13. A Mars 2011 Balloon Mission Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I.; Lew, T.; Perry, W.

    Mars Scouts are competitively selected PI-led missions to further Mars exploration in ways that satisfy NASA s overall objectives but are not currently in the planned line of missions The current 2006 Announcement of Opportunity AO for Mars Scouts has just closed The goal of this SwRI study was to develop a new balloon mission concept to where it could be credibly proposed for the AO The balloon system was defined in the study as consisting of two parts the balloon flight system BFS and the balloon deployment inflation system DIS The BFS includes the balloon envelope accessory hardware and gondola The balloon includes the envelope seams end fittings load core inflation tube diffusers payload tether shock attenuator and separation hardware The DIS includes the balloon container deployment hardware sequencer tankage gas and control hardware Trade studies were performed to better define the mission design space These studies included 1 effect of varied atmospheric thermal loads 2 effect of varying latitudes 3 effect of payload mass for varying altitudes 4 effect of radiative material properties on balloon size mass 5 effect of material areal densities on balloon size mass and 6 effect of inflation gas on system masses Results of the balloon trade study for the Mars 2011 mission opportunity will be presented

  14. Impact of Packing and Processing Technique on Mechanical Properties of Acrylic Denture Base Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Nejatian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The fracture resistance of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA as the most popular denture base material is not satisfactory. Different factors can be involved in denture fracture. Among them, flexural fatigue and impact are the most common failure mechanisms of an acrylic denture base. It has been shown that there is a correlation between the static strength and fatigue life of composite resins. Therefore, the transverse strength of the denture base materials can be an important indicator of their service life. In order to improve the fracture resistance of PMMA, extensive studies have been carried out; however, only a few promising results were achieved, which are limited to some mechanical properties of PMMA at the cost of other properties. This study aimed at optimizing the packing and processing condition of heat-cured PMMA as a denture base resin in order to improve its biaxial flexural strength (BFS. The results showed that the plain type of resin with a powder/monomer ratio of 2.5:1 or less, packed conventionally and cured in a water bath for 2 h at 95 °C provides the highest BFS. Also, it was found that the performance of the dry heat processor is inconsistent with the number of flasks being loaded.

  15. Calculation of ex-core detector weighting functions for a sodium-cooled tru burner mockup using MCNP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power regulation systems of fast reactors are based on the signals of excore detectors. The excore detector weighting functions, which establish correspondence between the core power distribution and detector signal, are very useful for detector response analyses, e.g., in rod drop experiments. This paper presents the calculation of the weighting functions for a TRU burner mockup of the Korean Prototype Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (named BFS-76-1A) using the MCNP5 multi-group adjoint capability. For generation of the weighting functions, all fuel assemblies were considered and each of them was divided into ten horizontal layers. Then the weighting functions for individual fuel assembly horizontal layers, the assembly weighting functions, and the shape annealing functions at RCP (Reactor Critical Point) and at conditions under which a control rod group was fully inserted into the core while other control rods at RCP were determined and evaluated. The results indicate that the weighting functions can be considered relatively insensitive to the control rods position during the rod drop experiments and therefore those weighting values at RCP can be applied to the dynamic rod worth simulation for the BFS-76-1A. (author)

  16. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the integrity of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of simulated sea dumping conditions on some physical properties of 9:1 blast furnace slag-ordinary Portland cement (BFS-OPC) grout are described. Using measurements of ultrasound transit time and diametral compression strength it has been shown that minor degradation occurs during pressurisation/depressurisation treatment, and that less degradation occurs when the grout is pressurised in air than when it is open to the ingress of water. It is inferred that microcracking or matrix/inclusion separation occurs during pressurisation, but it is predicted that such cracking might self-heal in the presence of water as a result of continued cement hydration. The mass properties of the material are not altered significantly by the degradation resulting from pressurisation/depressurisation treatment. On the basis of its behaviour under pressurisation, 9:1 BFS-OPC mixture is considered to be suitable for use as either a matrix material in monolithic packages or a grout for composite packages for sea disposal. (author)

  17. Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on orthogonally-polarized four-tone probe wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaobin; Lin, Wenqiao; Yang, Zhisheng; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The tolerance of the non-local effect in the BOTDA method using a dual-tone probe wave with fixed frequency separation is theoretically and experimentally investigated in this paper. The presented analysis points out that when the sensing fiber consists of two long fiber segments with large BFS difference (> 100 MHz), there will always be only one probe tone interacting with the pump pulse in the front fiber segment. Therefore, although the pulse distortion problem can still be overcome in this case, the conventional non-local effect would impose systematic error on the estimated BFS of the hotspot located at the end of the front fiber segment. For the purpose of avoiding the impact of non-local effect and eliminating the pump distortion problem simultaneously when using high probe power, a novel method based on a four-tone probe wave is proposed, in which the probe light consists of two pairs of orthogonally-polarized dual-tone probe waves with opposite frequency scanning direction. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of realizing 2 m spatial resolution over 104-km-long sensing fiber without the impact of non-local effect.

  18. Approval procedures for clinical trials in the field of radiation oncology; Genehmigungsverfahren klinischer Studien im Bereich der Radioonkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Monique; Buettner, Daniel [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Habeck, Matthias; Habeck, Uta; Brix, Gunnar [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institut fuer Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Willich, Normann [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Muenster (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany); Schmidberger, Heinz [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Mainz (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Noelling, Torsten

    2015-12-15

    Application of ionizing radiation for the purpose of medical research in Germany needs to be approved by the national authority for radiation protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS). For studies in the field of radiation oncology, differentiation between use of radiation for ''medical care (Heilkunde)'' versus ''medical research'' frequently leads to contradictions. The aim of this article is to provide principle investigators, individuals, and institutions involved in the process, as well as institutional review or ethics committees, with the necessary information for this assessment. Information on the legal frame and the approval procedures are also provided. A workshop was co-organized by the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO), the Working Party for Radiation Oncology (ARO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG), the German Society for Medical Physics (DGMP), and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) in October 2013. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop and the follow-up discussions between the organizers and the BfS. Differentiating between ''Heilkunde'' which does not need to be approved by the BfS and ''medical research'' is whether the specific application of radiation (beam quality, dose, schedule, target volume, etc.) is a clinically established and recognized procedure. This must be answered by the qualified physician(s) (''fachkundiger Arzt'' according to German radiation protection law) in charge of the study and the treatments of the patients within the study, taking into consideration of the best available evidence from clinical studies, guidelines and consensus papers. Among the important parameters for assessment are indication, total dose, and fractionation. Radiation treatments applied outside clinical trials do not require approval by the BfS, even if they are applied within a randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial

  19. Norepinephrine is necessary for experience-dependent plasticity in the developing mouse auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kathryn N; Liles, L Cameron; Weinshenker, David; Liu, Robert C

    2015-02-11

    Critical periods are developmental windows during which the stimuli an animal encounters can reshape response properties in the affected system to a profound degree. Despite this window's importance, the neural mechanisms that regulate it are not completely understood. Pioneering studies in visual cortex initially indicated that norepinephrine (NE) permits ocular dominance column plasticity during the critical period, but later research has suggested otherwise. More recent work implicating NE in experience-dependent plasticity in the adult auditory cortex led us to re-examine the role of NE in critical period plasticity. Here, we exposed dopamine β-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh(-/-)) mice, which lack NE completely from birth, to a biased acoustic environment during the auditory cortical critical period. This manipulation led to a redistribution of best frequencies (BFs) across auditory cortex in our control mice, consistent with prior work. By contrast, Dbh(-/-) mice failed to exhibit the expected redistribution of BFs, even though NE-deficient and NE-competent mice showed comparable auditory cortical organization when reared in a quiet colony environment. These data suggest that while intrinsic tonotopic patterning of auditory cortical circuitry occurs independently from NE, NE is required for critical period plasticity in auditory cortex. PMID:25673838

  20. The Effectiveness of High Quality Supplementary Cementitious Materials for Mitigating ASR Expansion in Concrete with High Alkali Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prasetia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alkali silica reaction (ASR is influenced by external factors such as the surrounding environment of high alkalinity. Countries with cold climate have a high probability to be exposed to high concentrations of NaCl solution by the deicing salt. This condition will lead to serious ASR problems in concrete, if the aggregates contain reactive silica. The main research work in this paper is to investigate the effect of 15% replacement ratio of high quality fine fly ash (FA15% and 42% replacement ratio of blast furnace slag (BFS42% on the ASR mitigation in concrete with different alkali amount inside the pore solution. The experiments were conducted according to the accelerated mortar bars experiment following the JIS A1146 mortar bar test method. In addition, post-analysis such as observation of ASR gel formation by the Uranyl Acetate Fluorescence Method and observation of thin sections using a Polarizing Microscope were also conducted. The mortar bar tests show a very good mitigation effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs. The results show that only small ASR expansions, which can be categorized as “innocuous”, occurred for specimens with 1.2% Na2Oeq using FA15% and BFS42%. However, larger alkali amount inside the system will require more SCMs amount.

  1. Mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as filter media in a biofilter system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, D B; Vigueras-Cortés, J M; Garzón-Zúñiga, M A

    2016-01-01

    The biofiltration system over organic bed (BFOB) uses organic filter material (OFM) to treat municipal wastewater (MWW). This study evaluated the performance of a BFOB system employing mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as OFM. It also evaluated the effect of hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) in order to achieve the operational parameters required to remove organic matter, suspended material, and pathogens, thus meeting Mexican and US regulations for reuse in irrigation. Two biofilters (BFs) connected in series were installed; the first one aerated (0.62 m(3)air m(-2)h(-1)) and the second one unaerated. The source of MWW was a treatment plant located in Durango, Mexico. For 200 days, three HLRs (0.54, 1.07, and 1.34 m(3)m(-2)d(-1)) were tested. The maximum HLR at which the system showed a high removal efficiency of pollutants and met regulatory standards for reuse in irrigation was 1.07 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), achieving removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) 92%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 78%, total suspended solids (TSS) 95%, and four log units of fecal coliforms. Electrical conductivity in the effluent ensures that it would not cause soil salinity. Therefore, mesquite wood chips can be considered an innovative material suitable as OFM for BFs treating wastewaters. PMID:27003088

  2. Disposal of High-Temperature Slags: A Review of Integration of Heat Recovery and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays with the continuous urbanization in China, the carbon emission and resource shortage have been serious issues, for which the disposal of blast furnace slags (BFS) and steel slags (SS) discharged from the metallurgical industry make up a significant strategy. The output of crude steel reached 823 Mt in China in 2014 and the thermal heat in these slags was equivalent to ~18 Mt of standard coal. Herein, the recent advances were systemically reviewed and analyzed, mainly from two respects, i.e., integration of heat recovery and material recycling and crystallization control of the slags. It was first found that for the heat recovery from BFS, the most intensively investigated physical method and chemical method were centrifugal granulation and gasification reaction, respectively. Furthermore, a two-step approach could contribute to a promising strategy for the treatment of slags, i.e., the liquid slags were first granulated into small particles, and then other further treatment was performed such as gasification reaction. With regard to SS, the effective disposal could be achieved using a selective crystallization and phase separation (SCPS) method, and moreover, the solid solution of 2CaO·SiO2 and the target phases could act as a promising enriched phase to extract the valuable elements.

  3. Signal processing using artificial neural network for BOTDA sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Wang, Liang; Guo, Nan; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Lu, Chao

    2016-03-21

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of artificial neural network (ANN) to process sensing signals obtained from Brillouin optical time domain analyzer (BOTDA). The distributed temperature information is extracted directly from the local Brillouin gain spectra (BGSs) along the fiber under test without the process of determination of Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) and hence conversion from BFS to temperature. Unlike our previous work for short sensing distance where ANN is trained by measured BGSs, here we employ ideal BGSs with different linewidths to train the ANN in order to take the linewidth variation due to different conditions from the training and testing phases into account, making it feasible for long distance sensing. Moreover, the performance of ANN is compared with other two techniques, Lorentzian curve fitting and cross-correlation method, and our results show that ANN has higher accuracy and larger tolerance to measurement error, especially at large frequency scanning step. We also show that the temperature extraction from BOTDA measurements employing ANN is significantly faster than the other two approaches. Hence ANN can be an excellent alternative tool to process BGSs measured by BOTDA and obtain temperature distribution along the fiber, especially when large frequency scanning step is adopted to significantly reduce the measurement time but without sacrifice of sensing accuracy. PMID:27136863

  4. 新钢8号高炉降低生铁硅偏差操作实践%Operation Practice of Reducing Pig Iron Silicon Deviation in NO.8 BF in Xinyu Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小敏; 邓勇

    2015-01-01

    The standard silicon deviation in NO.8 BF has been at a relatively high level among the same type of BFs.Through the transition of the BF operation concept and finer management,the standard silicon deviation is reduced to relatively low level among the same type of BFs,and stable blast furnace operation is realized,silicon content in hot metal is decreased,the purpose of saving coke & reducing consumption is achieved.%8#高炉硅标准偏差在同类型高炉中一直处于偏高水平,通过高炉操作理念的转变及精细化管理,将硅标准偏差降低至同类型高炉中较好水平。实现了高炉稳定顺行,铁水含硅量下降,从而达到节焦降耗目的。

  5. [Uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant and the discovery of 226Ra, 232Th hyperaccumulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Di-Yun; Song, Gang; Yue, Yu-Mei

    2011-04-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-gamma-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146.3, 226.6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986.2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 26Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2.20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 2266Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-2). The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma. were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th. PMID:21717763

  6. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) is a leading research center under the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation. IPPE encompasses many installations and many specialists who perform fundamental and applied investigations in nuclear power and technology for the national nuclear program. IPPE has a key role in the national nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC ampersand A) system both as a nuclear facility and also as a training center for MPC ampersand A. As a participant in the US-Russian Laboratory-to-Laboratory Cooperative Program in MPC ampersand A, IPPE is conducting several tasks in collaboration with US Department of Energy national laboratories. The main goal of these tasks is the rapid improvement of MPC ampersand A at one of the most sensitive operating IPPE installations, the BFS critical facility, which has large numbers of fuel items containing highly enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium. After the completion of several test, evaluation, and demonstration tasks, it is hoped that the tested and adopted methods and procedures can be applied not only to the entire population of BFS fuel items, but also to other facilities at IPPE and other Russian nuclear institutes and operating facilities. The collaborative tasks cover seven areas: computerized nuclear material accounting, entry control and portals, item control and inventory, design evaluation and analysis, gamma and neutron assay, an integrated demonstration, and physical protection elements and test bed

  7. Atomistic Method Applied to Computational Modeling of Surface Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    the BFS (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith) method for the calculation of the energetics, consists of a small number of simple PCbased computer codes that deal with the different aspects of surface alloy formation. Two analysis modes are available within this package. The first mode provides an atom-by-atom description of real and virtual stages 1. during the process of surface alloying, based on the construction of catalogues of configurations where each configuration describes one possible atomic distribution. BFS analysis of this catalogue provides information on accessible states, possible ordering patterns, and details of island formation or film growth. More importantly, it provides insight into the evolution of the system. Software developed by the Computational Materials Group allows for the study of an arbitrary number of elements forming surface alloys, including an arbitrary number of surface atomic layers. The second mode involves large-scale temperature-dependent computer 2. simulations that use the BFS method for the energetics and provide information on the dynamic processes during surface alloying. These simulations require the implementation of Monte-Carlo-based codes with high efficiency within current workstation environments. This methodology capitalizes on the advantages of the BFS method: there are no restrictions on the number or type of elements or on the type of crystallographic structure considered. This removes any restrictions in the definition of the configuration catalogues used in the analytical calculations, thus allowing for the study of arbitrary ordering patterns, ultimately leading to the actual surface alloy structure. Moreover, the Monte Carlo numerical technique used for the large-scale simulations allows for a detailed visualization of the simulated process, the main advantage of this type of analysis being the ability to understand the underlying features that drive these processes. Because of the simplicity of the BFS method for e

  8. Economic development influences on sediment-bound nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of lakes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhaokui; Wang, Shengrui

    2015-12-01

    China has been confronted with serious water quality deterioration concurrent with rapid socioeconomic progress during the past 40 years. Consequently, knowledge about economic growth and lake water quality dynamics is important to understand eutrophication processes. Objectives were to (i) reconstruct historical nutrient accumulation and the basin economic progress on burial flux (BF); (ii) determine forms and structures of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sediment and water using six cores in three of the most severely eutrophic lake areas in China (i.e., Eastern Plain, Yunnan-Guizhou Plain, and Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang regions). Results suggest that BFs of total nitrogen (TN) continued to increase in sediment, whereas total phosphorus (TP) levels were consistent or only slightly increased, except in highly polluted lakes during the past decades. Similar results were observed for concentrations of nutrients in water (i.e., increased N/P). This historical distribution pattern was correlated to long-term fertilization practices of farmers in the watershed (N fertilization exceeds that of P) and was contingent upon pollution control policies (e.g., emphasized P whereas N was ignored). Vertical profiles of BFs indicated that lake nutrient accumulation included three stages in China. Nutrient accumulation started in the 1980s, accelerated from the 1990s, and then declined after 2000. Before the 1980s, nutrients were relatively low and stable, with nutrient inputs being controlled by natural processes. Thereafter, N- and P-bound sediments dramatically increased due to the increasing influence of anthropogenic processes. Nutrients were primarily derived from industries and domestic sewage. After 2000, BFs of nutrients were steady and even decreased, owing to implementation of watershed load reduction policies. The decreasing NaOH-extracted P (Fe/Al-P) and increasing organic phosphorus (OP) indicated that the source of exogenous pollution underwent a shift. Inputs of

  9. Economic development influences on sediment-bound nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of lakes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhaokui; Wang, Shengrui

    2015-12-01

    China has been confronted with serious water quality deterioration concurrent with rapid socioeconomic progress during the past 40 years. Consequently, knowledge about economic growth and lake water quality dynamics is important to understand eutrophication processes. Objectives were to (i) reconstruct historical nutrient accumulation and the basin economic progress on burial flux (BF); (ii) determine forms and structures of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sediment and water using six cores in three of the most severely eutrophic lake areas in China (i.e., Eastern Plain, Yunnan-Guizhou Plain, and Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang regions). Results suggest that BFs of total nitrogen (TN) continued to increase in sediment, whereas total phosphorus (TP) levels were consistent or only slightly increased, except in highly polluted lakes during the past decades. Similar results were observed for concentrations of nutrients in water (i.e., increased N/P). This historical distribution pattern was correlated to long-term fertilization practices of farmers in the watershed (N fertilization exceeds that of P) and was contingent upon pollution control policies (e.g., emphasized P whereas N was ignored). Vertical profiles of BFs indicated that lake nutrient accumulation included three stages in China. Nutrient accumulation started in the 1980s, accelerated from the 1990s, and then declined after 2000. Before the 1980s, nutrients were relatively low and stable, with nutrient inputs being controlled by natural processes. Thereafter, N- and P-bound sediments dramatically increased due to the increasing influence of anthropogenic processes. Nutrients were primarily derived from industries and domestic sewage. After 2000, BFs of nutrients were steady and even decreased, owing to implementation of watershed load reduction policies. The decreasing NaOH-extracted P (Fe/Al-P) and increasing organic phosphorus (OP) indicated that the source of exogenous pollution underwent a shift. Inputs of

  10. 从腐败食品中分离的乳酸菌生物被膜形成的影响因素%Effect of Different Cultivation Conditions on Biofilm Formation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Spoiled Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽斯; 张宏梅; 刘学禄; 张文艳; 黄宝威; 许佳晶; 郑添信; 刘彦兰

    2011-01-01

    从腐败的蔬菜和肉质食品中分离筛选乳酸菌(LAB),并以其作为研究对象,对乳酸菌生物成膜不同影响因素进行研究.生化分离鉴定乳酸菌,在不同的营养物质浓度及培养条件下,用96孔板法检测乳酸菌成膜.在无外添加物,37℃和42℃的培养温度,pH 4有利于乳酸菌生物膜的形成,低温不利于生物膜的形成.低浓度的NaCl可促进LAB形成生物膜,但高于某浓度,就抑制LAB成膜.不同LAB菌株对不同葡萄糖浓度成膜效果不同,且与温度交互作用.结果表明,腐败食品中乳酸菌具有一定的生物被膜形成能力,控制乳酸菌生物膜的形成对于防治食品的腐败变质具有一定的意义.%To isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoiled food and investigate the effect of different factors on biofilm formation. The strains were identified by the biochemistry methods. Biofilm formation was tested by microtiter-plate method under the different nutrient conditions, temperature and pH. The strains' biofilm was detected by microtiter - plate method. 37℃, 42℃ and pH4 suboptimal for growth increased the production of biofilm. Low concentration of sodium chloride enhanced the biofilm formation (BF), but above a certain level, BFs were restrained. Different concentrations of glucose have different effect on strains biofilm formation at different temperatures. BFs were spread widely among lactic acid bacteria from spoiled food. Preventing the formation of BFs has its significance in food preservation.

  11. 一种改进的BNS网络论坛搜索算法%An Improved BNS Search Algorithm of Internet Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗桂兰; 段发梅; 张丽娜; 朱翻; 刘朝明

    2011-01-01

    为了提高网页在互联网中的搜索效率,基于非结构化P2P网络的多种搜索算法和网络蜘蛛搜索算法,提出了一种广度优先搜索(BFS)和非贪婪性搜索(NGS)相结合的改进搜索算法(BNS).并通过该算法的性能分析与大理学院校园BBS的应用测试,结果表明,BNS算法在搜索速率、相关度和准确率上都优于BFS和NGS算法,该算法的实际应用提高了网络论坛运行效率.

  12. Coexistence of an MHC chromosomal segment marked by HLA B17,BfS,C4A6,B1,DR7, and DQw9 in different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, P H; Dawkins, R L; Williamson, J; Tokunaga, K; Christiansen, F T; Charoenwong, P

    1988-09-01

    Previously we have shown that the supratype HLA B17 BfS C4A6 B1 DR7 (17 6 1 7) carrying a C4/Bgl II RFLP correlating with C4A6 coexists in whites and Thai/Chinese. Using conventional and PFGE/Southern blotting with class II, class III, and TNF probes as well as serologic DQ subtyping, we have extended these comparisons and now report that four examples each of white and Oriental 17 6 1 7 bear DQw9, as well as an approximately 10kb fragment hybridizing with a DR beta probe following digestion of genomic DNA with Hind III. Furthermore, Oriental and white 17 6 1 7 share a genomic insertion of some 70kb close to the class II region. These data suggest that 17 6 1 7 may mark a highly conserved chromosomal segment which provides new insights into the biology and evolution of the major histocompatibility complex.

  13. Further development of acquisition and evaluation of notifiable incidents and other registrated events during the operation of nuclear power plants, related to human failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project SR 2039/1 aims at further developing the existing reporting system designed to register and evaluate incidents and other events in order to enable a proper incorporation of human factor related incidents. Another objective consists in suggesting techniques and methods to include HF aspects in the acquisition and evaluation of incidents below the reporting threshold. Since the acquisition and evaluation of such incidents is the duty of the operator, the development of efficient methods is supported. Naturally, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) have a legitimate interest in making sure of the efficiency of registration and evaluation of such incidents for which operators are directly responsible. Therefore, a survey concept is suggested which helps to accomplish this task. (orig./DG)

  14. Indoor Positioning Using Nonparametric Belief Propagation Based on Spanning Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonparametric belief propagation (NBP is one of the best-known methods for cooperative localization in sensor networks. It is capable of providing information about location estimation with appropriate uncertainty and to accommodate non-Gaussian distance measurement errors. However, the accuracy of NBP is questionable in loopy networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel approach, NBP based on spanning trees (NBP-ST created by breadth first search (BFS method. In addition, we propose a reliable indoor model based on obtained measurements in our lab. According to our simulation results, NBP-ST performs better than NBP in terms of accuracy and communication cost in the networks with high connectivity (i.e., highly loopy networks. Furthermore, the computational and communication costs are nearly constant with respect to the transmission radius. However, the drawbacks of proposed method are a little bit higher computational cost and poor performance in low-connected networks.

  15. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  16. Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites with Basalt Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Basalt fibers (BFs were surface-treated with a vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent to improve the mechanical properties of wood fiber-reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE composites. Basalt fibers were characterized with SEM and FT-IR. The effects of the basalt fiber content and apparent morphology on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were investigated in this paper. The results show that the BF coated with the vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties due to the increased interfacial compatibility between the BF and HDPE. The flexural strength and impact properties significantly increased with 4 wt.% modified basalt fibers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6441

  17. Quantum Approximate Methods for the Atomistic Modeling of Multicomponent Alloys. Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Garces, Jorge; Mosca, Hugo; Gargano, pablo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Abel, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the role of quantum approximate methods in the understanding of complex multicomponent alloys at the atomic level. The need to accelerate materials design programs based on economical and efficient modeling techniques provides the framework for the introduction of approximations and simplifications in otherwise rigorous theoretical schemes. As a promising example of the role that such approximate methods might have in the development of complex systems, the BFS method for alloys is presented and applied to Ru-rich Ni-base superalloys and also to the NiAI(Ti,Cu) system, highlighting the benefits that can be obtained from introducing simple modeling techniques to the investigation of such complex systems.

  18. Bayesian Uncertainty Analyses Via Deterministic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysztofowicz, R.

    2001-05-01

    Rational decision-making requires that the total uncertainty about a variate of interest (a predictand) be quantified in terms of a probability distribution, conditional on all available information and knowledge. Suppose the state-of-knowledge is embodied in a deterministic model, which is imperfect and outputs only an estimate of the predictand. Fundamentals are presented of three Bayesian approaches to producing a probability distribution of the predictand via any deterministic model. The Bayesian Processor of Output (BPO) quantifies the total uncertainty in terms of a posterior distribution, conditional on model output. The Bayesian Processor of Ensemble (BPE) quantifies the total uncertainty in terms of a posterior distribution, conditional on an ensemble of model output. The Bayesian Forecasting System (BFS) decomposes the total uncertainty into input uncertainty and model uncertainty, which are characterized independently and then integrated into a predictive distribution.

  19. Radiation protection research projects. Program report 2014. Report on research program radiation protection of the Federal ministry for environment, nature conservation and reactor safety with technical and administrative steering by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects se rve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. The tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection involve planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects. This report provides information on results, i.e. preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2014.

  20. The characterization of insoluble dissolver residues and the development of treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization studies have been carried out on the insoluble residue arising from laboratory scale dissolution of single pins of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). Similar characterization work has also been completed on six samples of insoluble residue recovered from the reprocessing of complete sub-assemblies of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in PFR. Treatment methods for the dissolver insolubles have consisted of preparing immobilized samples in sand/ordinary portland cement (OPC), sand/pulverized fly ash (PFA)/OPC, and blast furnace slag (BFS)/OPC. A programme of leach testing has been carried out according to the conditions laid down in the international Standard Organization Test. Four samples of DFR originated insoluble residues and six samples of PFR originated insoluble residues have been immobilized and leach tested. Variations have included experiments to evaluate the leach rate under temperature influence and to acid wash prior to immobilization

  1. The equilibrium leach testing of CAGR hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium leach tests were carried out on a laboratory scale in order to investigate the long-term performance of an intermediate level waste repository. The tests involved leaching fully active Commercial Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (CAGR) hulls in the presence of crushed matrix and backfill materials. The matrix materials used were blast furnace slag (BFS)/ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and epoxide MS7531/MS7532, and the backfill materials were bentonite and pulverised fuel ash/ordinary Portland cement (PFA/OPC). Comparison of the long-lived radionuclide concentrations with the derived drinking water levels indicates that the performance of a repository under oxidising conditions would tend to be limited by the release of I-129 and Tc-99. (author)

  2. Interim report of evaluation of research and development problems in 2002 FY. Research and development of collaboration with Russian Institutes for Russian weapon plutonium demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of above theme was carried out by data from JNC and discussion at the evaluation committee, which is composed by 14 members. The evaluation method, procedure, items, evaluation standard and results are stated. BFS-2 critical experiment was finished. Three bodies irradiation examination had been finished and the post-irradiation examination will be begun soon. Technical possibility of 1.3 ton weapon plutonium disposition by MOX reactor core was confirmed. Possibility of BN reactor core fuel design was discussed and confirmed by data of hybrid reactor core and fuel design obtained. Safety analysis of BN600 hybrid reactor core was carried out and compared with analytical results of Russia. The last design step of production line for equipment of RIAR facility was attained and a part of them began to be bought. The references consist of interim evaluation of R and D problem, measures of evaluation results, supplementary explanation data, explanation data of problem and OHP. (S.Y.)

  3. Hidróxidos duplos lamelares à base de escória de alto forno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaliza Maia Rebelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotalcite like compounds (HT were prepared by co-precipitation (Mg/Al = 3.5, using an acid solution with blast furnace slag and MgCl2.6H2O and aqueous solutions of NaOH. The following synthesis variables were investigated: temperature (30 and 45 ºC and pH (9 and 12. Depending of the temperature two systems were observed: Mg-Al-CO3 (T = 30 ºC; Mg-Al-Cl-CO3 (T = 45 ºC. An increase in the pH of synthesis and Mg2+ concentration produced HTs well-crystallized and with greater values of all cell parameters. The study showed the potentiality of BFS in the synthesis of well-crystallized LDHs without the presence of other crystalline phases.

  4. Solving standard traveling salesman problem and multiple traveling salesman problem by using branch-and-bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Wan Jaafar, Wan Nurhadani; Jamil, Siti Jasmida

    2013-04-01

    The standard Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is the classical Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) while Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP) is an extension of TSP when more than one salesman is involved. The objective of MTSP is to find the least costly route that the traveling salesman problem can take if he wishes to visit exactly once each of a list of n cities and then return back to the home city. There are a few methods that can be used to solve MTSP. The objective of this research is to implement an exact method called Branch-and-Bound (B&B) algorithm. Briefly, the idea of B&B algorithm is to start with the associated Assignment Problem (AP). A branching strategy will be applied to the TSP and MTSP which is Breadth-first-Search (BFS). 11 nodes of cities are implemented for both problem and the solutions to the problem are presented.

  5. Temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor with a thin-diameter polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based on Brillouin dynamic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lei; Zhang, Hongying; Dong, Yongkang; Zhou, Dengwang; Jiang, Taofei; Gao, Wei; Lu, Zhiwei; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-15

    A temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor based on Brillouin dynamic gratings (BDGs) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The principle is to measure the hydrostatic pressure induced birefringence changes through exciting and probing the BDGs in a thin-diameter pure silica polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber. The temperature cross-talk to the hydrostatic pressure sensing can be compensated through measuring the temperature-induced Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) changes using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. A distributed measurement of hydrostatic pressure is demonstrated experimentally using a 4-m sensing fiber, which has a high sensitivity, with a maximum measurement error less than 0.03 MPa at a 20-cm spatial resolution. PMID:27628411

  6. A network-flow based valve-switching aware binding algorithm for flow-based microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseng, Kai-Han; You, Sheng-Chi; Minhass, Wajid Hassan;

    2013-01-01

    biochip needs more chip-integrated micro-valves, i.e., the basic unit of fluid-handling functionality, to manipulate the fluid flow for biochemical applications. Moreover, frequent switching of micro-valves results in decreased reliability. To minimize the valve-switching activities, we develop a network-flow...... based resource binding algorithm based on breadth-first search (BFS) and minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) in architectural-level synthesis. The experimental results show that our methodology not only makes significant reduction of valve-switching activities but also diminishes the application completion......Designs of flow-based microfluidic biochips are receiving much attention recently because they replace conventional biological automation paradigm and are able to integrate different biochemical analysis functions on a chip. However, as the design complexity increases, a flow-based microfluidic...

  7. Lanthanides migration and immobilization in U-Zr nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzolo, G., E-mail: guille_bozzolo@yahoo.com [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hofman, G.L.; Yacout, A.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigaciones y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499, B165KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-06-15

    Redistribution of lanthanides fission products during irradiation and migration to the surface of U-Zr based metallic fuels is a concern due to their interaction with the cladding. The existing remedy for preventing this effect is the introduction of diffusion barriers on the cladding inner surface or by adding thermodynamically stable compound-forming elements to the fuel. Exploring this second option, in this work atomistic modeling with the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys is used to study the formation of lanthanide-rich precipitates in U-Zr fuel and the segregation patterns of all constituents to the surface. Surface energies for all elements were computed and, together with the underlying concepts of the computational methodology and large scale simulations, the migration of lanthanides to the surface region in U-Zr fuels is explained. The role of additions to the fuel such as In, Ga, and Tl for immobilization of lanthanides is discussed.

  8. Further investigations of the properties of polymer modified cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concludes the work done on behalf of the Department of the Environment on polymer modified cement composites. Topics covered include: the influence of cure schedule on flexural properties, observation of the onset and cracking during flexural testing, measurement of water permeability and caesium diffusion rates, and the use of Back Scattered Electron Imaging to identify the polymer phase. The properties of epoxide resin modified cements in the previous report were disappointing. Air entrainment of the mixing stage was a likely cause of the poor performance of these products and procedures to overcome this problem were devised. The range of polymer additives investigated was broadened by the inclusion of modified acrylic latexes and a polymensable acrylate resin additive. Properties for OPC and 9 BFS: 1 OPC cements are compared and the modification of properties achieved by polymer additions to both cement systems is discussed. (author)

  9. Temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor with a thin-diameter polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based on Brillouin dynamic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lei; Zhang, Hongying; Dong, Yongkang; Zhou, Dengwang; Jiang, Taofei; Gao, Wei; Lu, Zhiwei; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-15

    A temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor based on Brillouin dynamic gratings (BDGs) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The principle is to measure the hydrostatic pressure induced birefringence changes through exciting and probing the BDGs in a thin-diameter pure silica polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber. The temperature cross-talk to the hydrostatic pressure sensing can be compensated through measuring the temperature-induced Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) changes using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. A distributed measurement of hydrostatic pressure is demonstrated experimentally using a 4-m sensing fiber, which has a high sensitivity, with a maximum measurement error less than 0.03 MPa at a 20-cm spatial resolution.

  10. Vision based motion planning of humanoid robot arm for grasping task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the robust and efficient motion control approach for a redundant humanoid arm of BHR-02 (Beijing Humanoid Robot-02). This work is based on the numerical algorithm for computing the Inverse Kinematics of redundant arm and stereo based vision system to detect the pose and position of target object. Forward recursion formula with backward cycle computation method is used to reach in the vicinity of target object. Then BFS (Broyden Fletcher Shanno) method is then used to grasp object in real-time. Vision is a very important non contact sensor for humanoid robots. A method combining visual feed forward and visual feedback is proposed. Visual feed forward facilitates the reach in the vicinity of the object and reduces the manipulation time. Visual feedback increases the robustness by compensating the weak calibration errors. Effectiveness of the proposed strategy is proved through experiments. (author)

  11. Radiation protection research projects. Program report 2014. Report on research program radiation protection of the Federal ministry for environment, nature conservation and reactor safety with technical and administrative steering by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz; Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2014. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela

    2015-09-15

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects se rve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. The tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection involve planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects. This report provides information on results, i.e. preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2014.

  12. Blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection at different technological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficiency of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at two blast furnaces (BFs) in Spain and Ukraine which operate at different burden and blast conditions has been analyzed using statistical methods, calculation of material and heat balances and mathematical model. Effect of PCI on the parameters of blast furnace operation, pig iron quality and also on interactions between process parameters has been studied. At high-grade burden and high parameters of the combined blast, dependence of coke consumption rate on PC amounts is linear up to a high rate of PCI. At unfavorable burden and technological conditions dependence of the main furnace operating parameters on PC rate has extreme character. High efficiency of PC use can be achieved at the different conditions due to optimization of the technological regime. (Author) 31 refs

  13. Bioaccumulation and elimination of 60 Co and 137 Cs by Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilization of 60 Co, retained in marine sediment by microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was studied the capacity of a bi valve mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana, which lives in the local bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co previously sorbed in the sediment. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the transference of 60 Co from the sediment to the animal was insignificant (bioaccumulation factor (BF) of the order of 10-3). At the same time, the capacity of microorganisms, present in the bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co was studied. The results showed that this via of transference was important, considering the much greater microorganism biomass in relation to the biomass of bentonic organisms, as a whole. For 137 Cs the determined BF from water to the animal was 2.2. and, as in the case of 60 Co, the soft tissues concentrated more 137 Cs than shell. Remaining viscera showed the highest BFs. In another series of experiments, the loss of 60 Co or 137 Cs, previously accumulated by A. brasiliana, was followed in aquaria with or without sediment and the respective biological half-lives were calculated. Soft tissues retained 60 Co longer (biological half-life = 117 days) than shells, whereas for 137 Cs the opposite was observed and shells showed a biological half life of 38.5 days. The low values of 60 Co and 137 Cs BFS do not allow to classify A. brasiliana as good biological indicator for pollution by there radionuclides. However since A brasiliana is consumed by the local population and is commercialized to other areas, it was recommended that its contamination by 60 Co or 137 Cs should be monitored. (author)

  14. Memory-Scalable GPU Spatial Hierarchy Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiming Hou; Xin Sun; Kun Zhou; Lauterbach, C; Manocha, D

    2011-04-01

    Recent GPU algorithms for constructing spatial hierarchies have achieved promising performance for moderately complex models by using the breadth-first search (BFS) construction order. While being able to exploit the massive parallelism on the GPU, the BFS order also consumes excessive GPU memory, which becomes a serious issue for interactive applications involving very complex models with more than a few million triangles. In this paper, we propose to use the partial breadth-first search (PBFS) construction order to control memory consumption while maximizing performance. We apply the PBFS order to two hierarchy construction algorithms. The first algorithm is for kd-trees that automatically balances between the level of parallelism and intermediate memory usage. With PBFS, peak memory consumption during construction can be efficiently controlled without costly CPU-GPU data transfer. We also develop memory allocation strategies to effectively limit memory fragmentation. The resulting algorithm scales well with GPU memory and constructs kd-trees of models with millions of triangles at interactive rates on GPUs with 1 GB memory. Compared with existing algorithms, our algorithm is an order of magnitude more scalable for a given GPU memory bound. The second algorithm is for out-of-core bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) construction for very large scenes based on the PBFS construction order. At each iteration, all constructed nodes are dumped to the CPU memory, and the GPU memory is freed for the next iteration's use. In this way, the algorithm is able to build trees that are too large to be stored in the GPU memory. Experiments show that our algorithm can construct BVHs for scenes with up to 20 M triangles, several times larger than previous GPU algorithms.

  15. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  16. The use of novel packing material for improving methane oxidation in biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Emanuel Manfred F; Duarte, Felipe V; Vieira, João Paulo R; Melo, Vinícius M; Souza, Cláudio L; Araújo, Juliana C; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto L

    2016-11-01

    The use of biofilters (working bed volume of 7.85 L) for the oxidation of CH4 at low concentrations (from 0.17%v/v to 3.63%v/v, typically in waste gas from anaerobic sewage treatment) was investigated and four empty bed residence times were tested (in min): 42.8, 29.5, 19.6, and 7.4. Mixtures of organic (composted leaves) and three non-organic materials (sponge-based material - SBM, blast furnace slag - BFS, and expanded vermiculite - ExpV) were used as packing media. Along 188 operational days after the steady state was reached (95 days for start-up), the CH4 mineralization decreased while the inlet loads gradually increased from 3.0 ± 0.8 gCH4 m(-3) h(-1) to 148.8 ± 4.4 gCH4 m(-3) h(-1). The biofilter packed with ExpV showed the best results, since the CH4 conversions decreased from 95.0 ± 5.0% to 12.7 ± 3.7% as a function of inlet concentration, compared to the other two biofilters (SBM and BFS) which showed CH4 conversions decreasing from 56.0 ± 5.4% to 3.5 ± 1.2% as a function of inlet concentration. The methanotrophic activity of biomass taken from ExpV biofilter was three times higher than the activity of biomass from the other two biofilters. Taken together, these results suggested that ExpV provides an attractive environment for microbial growth, besides the mechanical resistance provided to the whole packing media, showing the potential to its use in biofiltration of diffuse CH4 emissions.

  17. The immobilisation of clinoptilolite within cementitious systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zeolitic ion exchanger clinoptilolite was encapsulated within various cementitious systems in order to assess their suitability for the retention of the radioelements, Cs and Sr. The pozzolanic reaction of clinoptilolite is reduced in composites containing BFS and PFA and appears not to continue after 7 days of hydration. Ca(OH)2 persists up to 360 days of hydration in a 9:1BFS:OPC system with 10% clinoptilolite added, despite the presence of unreacted pozzolana. This may be due to low pH of the pore solution, if Na and K act as counter cations in the aluminous C-S-H, a product of pozzolanic hydration or are exchanged onto the clinoptilolite. Saturation of the pore solution with Ca may prevent further dissolution of Ca(OH)2. Cs leaching occurs in all samples during accelerated tests due to breakdown of the clinoptilolite structure. The alternative cement system calcium sulfo-aluminate cement (CSA) has a different hydration chemistry and properties to OPC and OPC composites with a lower pore solution pH. Clinoptilolite appears to react in a hydrating CSA system with significant reaction continuing between 28 and 90 days of hydration. Leaching of Cs from CSA is higher than from an OPC system, in which almost all of the clinoptilolite crystallinity is lost. The major product of CSA hydration is ettringite. Cs may be adsorbed within cation sites of the C-S-H in an OPC system but not by ettringite which does not retain Cs so Cs has high mobility and leachability through the CSA matrix. (authors)

  18. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M. [South China Agricultural University, Guangdong (China)

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  19. Synthesis of a proline-modified acrylic acid copolymer in supercritical CO2 for glass-ionomer dental cement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Roohpour, Nima; Darr, Jawwad A; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2009-06-01

    Supercritical (sc-) fluids (such as sc-CO(2)) represent interesting media for the synthesis of polymers in dental and biomedical applications. Sc-CO(2) has several advantages for polymerization reactions in comparison to conventional organic solvents. It has several advantages in comparison to conventional polymerization solvents, such as enhanced kinetics, being less harmful to the environment and simplified solvent removal process. In our previous work, we synthesized poly(acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PAA-IA-NVP) terpolymers in a supercritical CO(2)/methanol mixture for applications in glass-ionomer dental cements. In this study, proline-containing acrylic acid copolymers were synthesized, in a supercritical CO(2) mixture or in water. Subsequently, the synthesized polymers were used in commercially available glass-ionomer cement formulations (Fuji IX commercial GIC). Mechanical strength (compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and biaxial flexural strength (BFS)) and handling properties (working and setting time) of the resulting modified cements were evaluated. It was found that the polymerization reaction in an sc-CO(2)/methanol mixture was significantly faster than the corresponding polymerization reaction in water and the purification procedures were simpler for the former. Furthermore, glass-ionomer cement samples made from the terpolymer prepared in sc-CO(2)/methanol exhibited higher CS and DTS and comparable BFS compared to the same polymer synthesized in water. The working properties of glass-ionomer formulations made in sc-CO(2)/methanol were comparable and better than the values of those for polymers synthesized in water. PMID:19269267

  20. The use of novel packing material for improving methane oxidation in biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Emanuel Manfred F; Duarte, Felipe V; Vieira, João Paulo R; Melo, Vinícius M; Souza, Cláudio L; Araújo, Juliana C; Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto L

    2016-11-01

    The use of biofilters (working bed volume of 7.85 L) for the oxidation of CH4 at low concentrations (from 0.17%v/v to 3.63%v/v, typically in waste gas from anaerobic sewage treatment) was investigated and four empty bed residence times were tested (in min): 42.8, 29.5, 19.6, and 7.4. Mixtures of organic (composted leaves) and three non-organic materials (sponge-based material - SBM, blast furnace slag - BFS, and expanded vermiculite - ExpV) were used as packing media. Along 188 operational days after the steady state was reached (95 days for start-up), the CH4 mineralization decreased while the inlet loads gradually increased from 3.0 ± 0.8 gCH4 m(-3) h(-1) to 148.8 ± 4.4 gCH4 m(-3) h(-1). The biofilter packed with ExpV showed the best results, since the CH4 conversions decreased from 95.0 ± 5.0% to 12.7 ± 3.7% as a function of inlet concentration, compared to the other two biofilters (SBM and BFS) which showed CH4 conversions decreasing from 56.0 ± 5.4% to 3.5 ± 1.2% as a function of inlet concentration. The methanotrophic activity of biomass taken from ExpV biofilter was three times higher than the activity of biomass from the other two biofilters. Taken together, these results suggested that ExpV provides an attractive environment for microbial growth, besides the mechanical resistance provided to the whole packing media, showing the potential to its use in biofiltration of diffuse CH4 emissions. PMID:27505166

  1. Cement Solidification Method For Intermediate-Level Liquid Waste Containing Sodium Sulphate (Na2SO4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new cement solidification method for intermediate-level liquid waste containing large amounts of sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) has been developed. This method involves two safety concepts for disposal sites: reduction in the amount of sulphate ion (SO42-) released from solidified wastes and reduction in the amount of hydrogen gas generated due to radiolysis of the water present in the solidified waste. In order to eliminate SO42- release from solidified wastes, two chemical reactions were important in our solidification method: (1) Barium-compounds (Ba(OH)2.8H2O, etc) were reacted with SO42- to form BaSO4, and (2) using alumina cement material, SO42- was mineralized as ettringite, 3CaO.Al2O3.3CaSO3.2H2O. Based on leaching tests, the amount of SO42- released from the solidified forms into ion exchange water under anaerobic conditions was less than 1 x 10-3 mol/L. Thus, this method should be effective in preventing engineered concrete barrier layers from cracking. In order to evaluate the amount of hydrogen gas generated from cement solids due to radiolysis of hydrated and non-hydrated water in the solid, gamma-ray irradiation experiments on solidified alumina cement (ALC), solidified ordinary portland cement (OPC), solidified ordinary portland cement blended with blast-furnace slag (OPC-BFS), and synthetic ettringite were performed. As a result, the generation rate of hydrogen gas from ALC was less than those from OPC and OPC-BFS and approximately equal to that from ettringite. (authors)

  2. Airborne contamination during blow-fill-seal pharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, W; Matheis, W; Dean-Netcher, M; Edwards, A

    1998-01-01

    The routes of airborne contamination, during Blow-Fill-Seal (BFS) production, were studied using tracer gas, particles and bacteria. The prevention of airborne contamination, by the air shower at the point of fill, was effective (> 99.2% efficient). However, microbe-carrying particles could gain access, by deposition or air exchange, when the containers were cut open and before they shuttled under the protection of the air shower. The use of SF6 tracer gas demonstrated that when the air shower was not on, 50% of the air within the containers came from the area round the machine. When the air shower was switched on, only about 5% of the air came from the surroundings. Airborne microbial contamination of containers is in proportion to: the number of airborne microbes around the machine, the time the container is open, the neck area and the amount of air left within the container. The likely microbial contamination rate can be calculated from a model incorporating these variables. Microbial contamination of containers during BFS manufacturing is normally very low, but by increasing the naturally occurring bacteria in the air of the production rooms by about 100-fold, it was possible to verify the accuracy of this model. The contamination model agrees well with the observation that microbial contamination levels of between 1 in 10(5) and in 10(7) will be found when small containers (< 10 ml) are filled in conventionally ventilated rooms. To achieve similar contamination rates when filling of larger bottles, it is likely that unidirectional flow, or barrier technology will be required. PMID:9691671

  3. Factors for Consideration in an Open-Flame Test for Assessing Fire Blocking Performance of Barrier Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shonali Nazaré

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work reported here is to assess factors that could affect the outcome of a proposed open flame test for barrier fabrics (BF-open flame test. The BF-open flame test characterizes barrier effectiveness by monitoring the ignition of a flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF layer placed in contact with the upper side of the barrier fabric, exposed to a burner flame from below. Particular attention is given to the factors that influence the ignitibility of the FPUF, including thermal resistance, permeability, and structural integrity of the barrier fabrics (BFs. A number of barrier fabrics, displaying a wide range of the properties, are tested with the BF-open flame test. Visual observations of the FPUF burning behavior and BF char patterns, in addition to heat flux measurements on the unexposed side of the barrier fabrics, are used to assess the protective performance of the BF specimen under the open flame test conditions. The temperature and heat transfer measurements on the unexposed side of the BF and subsequent ranking of BFs for their thermal protective performance suggest that the BF-open flame test does not differentiate barrier fabrics based on their heat transfer properties. A similar conclusion is reached with regard to BF permeability characterized at room temperature. However, the outcome of this BF-open flame test is found to be heavily influenced by the structural integrity of thermally degraded BF. The BF-open flame test, in its current form, only ignited FPUF when structural failure of the barrier was observed.

  4. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  5. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2015-02-19

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  6. 阿司匹林,硝苯地平单用和合用对大鼠肠系膜微循环的影响%Effects of aspirin and nifedipine alone or in combi-nation on mesenteric microcirculation of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋益民; 覃建民; 李增晞; 石山

    1996-01-01

    To study the effects of the combination of aspirin (Asp) and nifedipine (Nif) on mesenteric microcirculation of rats. METHODS: Acute microcirculation disturbance (AMD) was produced by high molecular weight dextran (Mr 480 000, 360 mg and diameter (ABFV, VBFV, AD, VD) and blood flow state (BFS) were observed by intravital microcirculation method. RESULTS: Asp 2.5, 5 mg nificant increase of 11.1%, 31.3 %, 18.5 %,19.3 %, 30.5 %, 39.8 % of ABFV and 12.5 %,25.7 %, 12.6 %, 15.2 %, 29.6 %, 36.1% of VBFV respectively, the marked improvement of BFS, and the distinctive increase of 4.3 %,17.9 %, 35.9 %, 39.7 %, 15.2 %, 42.8 % of AD and 2.2 %, 4.2 %, 26.2 %, 27.4 %,3.4 %, 28.9 % of VD separately, and got a raise in the number of capillaries. Asp + Nif (1AMD. CONCLUSION: Asp was superior to Nif in the increase of BFV, but Nif was superior to Asp in expansion of blood vessel. Asp in combination with Nif produced marked synergistic action and protection againist AMD.%研究阿司匹林(Asp)与硝苯地平(Nif)并用对大鼠肠系膜微循环的影响.方法:Dextran(Mr480 000)360 mg·kg-1 iv制备大鼠肠系膜急性微循环障碍(AMD)模型,采用活体微循环法观察肠系膜微循环细动,静脉血流速度(ABFV,VBFV),血流状态(BFS),血管口径(AD,VD)的变化.结果:Asp 2.5,5 mg·kg-1,Nif 0.05,0.1 mg·kg-1,Asp+Nif(1+0.025),(2.5+0.05)mg·kg-1 iv可使ABFV增大各为11.1%,31.3%,18.5%,19.3%,30.5%,39.8%,VBFV则为12.5%,25.7%,12.6%,15.2%,29.6%,36.1%,BFS改善,AD增大各为4.3%,17.9%,35.9%,39.7%,15.2%,42.8%,VD则为2.2%,4.2%,26.2%,27.4%,3.4%,28.9%,CN增多,ivAsp+Nif可明显逆转AMD.结论:Asp增快ABFV,VBFV作用优于Nif,而Nif扩AD,VD作用强于Asp,两者合用呈协同效应,并对dextran诱导的AMD具有拮抗作用.

  7. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that

  8. Effect of Dosage of Fly Ash and Blast Furnace Slag on Performance of Concrete Prepared with Poorly Graded Sand%粉煤灰矿渣掺量对劣级配砂配制混凝土性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂红; 张雨杰; 陈航; 赵菊梅

    2015-01-01

    为生产优质的劣级配砂配制混凝土,通过调节粉煤灰矿渣掺量配制了6组劣级配砂配制混凝土,用Andreasen方程评价砂石堆积效应,并测试混凝土坍落度和抗压强度,研究粉煤灰矿渣掺量差异对劣级配砂配制混凝土工作性和抗压强度的影响。研究结果发现,劣级配砂与石混合仍可获得较紧密堆积,复掺40%粉煤灰、矿渣的混凝土及单掺30%粉煤灰的混凝土工作性满足泵送要求;各组混凝土56 d抗压强度均满足强度等级要求,且随粉煤灰含量增加混凝土抗压强度减小。可推断矿渣粉煤灰掺量对虽为劣级配砂配制但具有较紧密堆积混凝土工作性和抗压强度的影响,与对正常级配砂配制混凝土工作性和抗压强度的影响一致。%In order to fabricate high quality concrete using poorly graded sand,six groups of concrete with poor sand gradation were prepared with different dosages of fly ash (FA)and blast furnace slag (BFS). The sand and stone compactness of the concrete was evaluated using the Andreasen equation, and the slump and compressive strength of the concrete were tested to study the effect of the dosage of fly ash and blast furnace slag on the workability and compressive strength of the concrete prepared with poor sand gradation. The results showed that the poorly graded sand and crushed stones had an adequately dense packing;both the concrete groups with 40% FA +BFS replacement and 30% FA replacement satisfied the pumping requirement;the concrete compressive strength in each group at 56 d satisfied the requirement of the strength grade,and decreased with the increasing of the dosage of fly ash. Therefore,the effect of the FA and BFS dosage on the workability and compressive strength of the concrete with poor sand gradation and dense packing is similar to that on the concrete with normal sand gradation.

  9. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2013-2014. Report of the radiation protection register; Die berufliche Strahlenexposition in Deutschland 2013-2014. Bericht des Strahlenschutzregisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Mordek, Else; Schlosser, Andrea; Spiesl, Josef

    2015-10-15

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2014, about 358,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 5 % into the past five years. 15 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.50 mSv corresponding to less than 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, two persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 26.0 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 39,500 aircraft crew members by using certified computer pro-grammes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 74.8 person-Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.89 mSv in 2014. In 2014, about 58,500 outside-workers were in possession of

  10. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2012. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2012, about 350,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 10 % into the past five years. 19 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.52 mSv corresponding to 2.6 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, 2 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 27.9 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 40,000 aircraft crew members by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 78.5 person- Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.96 mSv and decreased compared to 2011 (2.12 mSv) due to solar cycle. In 2012, about

  11. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2013-2014. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2014, about 358,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased continuously by totally 5 % into the past five years. 15 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.50 mSv corresponding to less than 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, two persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. less than one case per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 26.0 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 39,500 aircraft crew members by using certified computer pro-grammes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 74.8 person-Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters. The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 1.89 mSv in 2014. In 2014, about 58,500 outside-workers were in possession of

  12. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2011. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetry services that transmit the dose records about individual radiation monitoring to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2011, about 350,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased during the past five years continuously by 10 %. Only 19 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.58 mSv corresponding to 3 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. In total, 7 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, i.e. two cases per 100,000 monitored persons. The collective dose of the monitored persons decreased to 38.5 Person-Sv, the lowest value since the last fifty years of occupational dose monitoring. In 2010, 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 39,000 members of the aircraft crew personnel by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 83 person-Sv, and thus significantly higher than the total collective dose of the workers monitored with personal dosemeters (38.5 person-Sv). The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 2.12 mSv and decreased compared to 2010 (2,30 mSv). In 2011, about 70,000 outside-workers were in

  13. Satellite Formation Reconfiguration Using Co-evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization and Pareto Optimal Solution%基于协同进化粒子群和Pareto最优解的卫星编队队形重构方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海滨; 马广富; 庄宇飞; 吕跃勇

    2011-01-01

    针对卫星编队自主队形重构问题,提出了基于协同进化粒子群优化(CPSO)和Pareto最优解的求解方法.首先,使用Legendre伪谱法(LPM)将队形重构问题离散化为非线性规划(NLP)问题;其次,根据卫星编队的特点及碰撞规避的需要,使用CPSO算法对重构问题采用既独立又集中的求解方式,避免了传统优化方法对梯度的求解;然后,使用一种深度-广度优先搜索(D-BFS)算法,能够高效地找到CPSO进化中所有Pareto最优解,提升了算法的效率.仿真结果表明,该方法快速有效,能够满足实时性的要求,使得卫星编队的自主运行成为可能.%This paper proposes an optimal trajectory planning method for satellite formation reconfiguration using co-evolutionary particle swarm optimization (CPSO) and Pareto optimal solution. First, the Legendre pseudospectral method (LPM) is employed to transform the reconfiguration problem into a parameter optimization nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. Next, according to the features of satellite formation and the constraints of collision avoidance, a CPSO algorithm is used to solve the reconfiguration problem separately in a centralized way to avoid the computational complexity of calculating the gradient information with traditional optimization methods. Then, a depth-breadth first search (D-BFS) algorithm is used to search all the Pareto optimal solutions needed by the CPSO, with which the entire redundant search could be avoided. Simulations show that the method could solve the reconfiguration problem in real time, and guarantee collision avoidance during the entire reconfiguration process even when the number of collocation points or number of satellites increases.

  14. Ideas in support to the definition of the Phase 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid UOX/MOX fuelled core of the BN-600 reactor was endorsed as an international benchmark. Phases 1 and 2 consist of RZ and HEX-Z homogeneous models of the hybrid version of the BN-600 reactor. Phase 3 consists of RZ and HEX-Z heterogeneous models of the hybrid version of the BN-600 reactor. Phase 4 consists of RZ and HEX-Z heterogeneous models of the full MOX version of the BN-600 reactor. Phase 5 consists of the Analysis of BFS-62 hybrid configuration in support to Phase 3 studies. The background strategy was defined to make the world safer by using weapon grade Plutonium for civil application. Make that use safe by checking the behaviour of the BN-600 core with limited (hybrid core: Phases 1, 2 and 3) and then full use of MOX (Phase 4); Verify uncertainties on reactivity coefficients and especially on SVRE with some BFS-62 experiments (Phase 5) and use of Minor Actinides in the fuel (Phase 6 and possibly Phase 7). The French Strategy was make the link between existing reactors PWR and GEN-IV ones. From 2030 - 2040, Introduction of 4th generation systems was planned. The P4 and N4 PWR reactors will reach 40 years lifetime at 2025-2035. Lifetime extension to 50 years is considered. The replacement of PWR reactors by Gen IV systems will be effective. Proposal of Phase 6 considers to develop a strategy in connection with GEN IV criteria, use BN-600 as a demonstrator of GEN IV cores, use spent fuels from WWERs, RBMKs as a fuel for use in LMFBR (BN-600 being the first in the row). In Russia, there are roughly 9 GWe WWER and 10.2 GWe RBMK reactors. UOX is being used (no MOX being used), burn up rate is 45 GWd/ton. At the moment, no reprocessing is performed but a reasonable scenario is to develop a simplified dry reprocessing or a dry reprocessing to extract both MA and Pu resulting in no separation and limited Proliferation. Pu vector will no longer be weapon grade. There will be no blanket as far as possible. Study the BN-600 behaviour with this type of fuel

  15. Eukaryotic Expression of Swamp Buffalo Follistatin%沼泽型水牛卵泡抑素基因的真核表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓继贤; 杨秀荣; 韦英明; 蒋和生

    2011-01-01

    In this study,follistatin gene was chosen as the candidate gene affecting the reproductive ability in buffalo. Re-combinant plasmid pEGFP-bFS was conducted and expressed in both buffalo fetal fibroblast (BFF) and BHK cells. pMD-bFS and pEGFP-Ni were digested with Xho Ⅰ ,Sac Ⅱ ,then eukaryotic expression vector-pEGFP-bFS was constructed. Buffalo fetal fibroblast and BHK cells were cultured with pEGFP-bFS intermixing LipofectamineTM 2000 in carbon dioxide incubator with 37 ℃ ,5% CO2 ,100% humidity. After 24 h,expression levels of recombinant vector were verified through observing directly under phase contrast fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results indicated that bFST expressed in both buffalo fibroblast and BHK cells. This study was a very significance to produce bioactive bFS engineered plasmid and research effects of bFS on reproductive ability.%试验通过候选基因法,选定卵泡抑素(follistatin,FS)作为影响水牛繁殖性能的主要候选基因,通过基因工程的方法,用Xho Ⅰ、Sac Ⅱ双酶切广西大学动物遗传育种与繁殖实验室克隆的添加有ACC的Kozaka序列的pMD-bFS质粒和pEGFP-N1,构建pEGFP-bFS真核表达质粒,将其与阳离子脂质体混匀后,分别转染体外培养的水牛胎儿成纤维(BFF)细胞和仓鼠肾(BHK)细胞系,经过48 h培养后,在相差荧光显微镜下观察绿色荧光蛋白的表达水平,用RT-PCR和Western blotting方法对转入质粒表达进行定性鉴定.结果显示,本研究成功构建了添加有ACC的Kozaka序列的pEGFP-bFS真核表达质粒,该重组质粒在BFF和HBK两种细胞均表达,但在HBK细胞系的表达量稍高.本研究结果将为下一步制备具有生物活性的bFS工程疫苗,研究bFS对水牛繁殖性能的影响提供参考.

  16. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2006. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, persons occupationally exposed to radiation are monitored by several official dosimetric services who transmit their records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The number of dose recordings reported to the Radiation Protection Register has annually increased to more than three million records per year and thus accumulated to more than 34 million dose records at the end of 2006. In 2006, about 312,000 workers were monitored with dosimeters for occupational radiation exposure. About 18 % of the monitored persons received a measurable personal dose. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.75 mSv. This value is the lowest average annual dose since dose monitoring for occupational worker was introduced. It remains below the dose limit of one Milli-Sievert (1 mSv) for the general public and amounts only 4 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. Since Aug. 2003 aircraft crew personnel is subject to dose monitoring if it is employed in accordance with the German employment act and likely to receive an effective dose of at least 1 mSv per year from cosmic radiation during flight operation. This accounts for about 33.000 pilots and flight attendants. 45 air lines report the monthly accumulated dose values of their personnel via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 71 Person-Sv and thus significant higher than the total collective dose of all workers at terrestrial work places (41 Person-Sv). The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 2.2 mSv. Workers who execute tasks in foreign radiation controlled areas, (so called ''outside-workers'' who e.g. perform maintenance work in different nuclear power plants) must have a valid radiation passport. In 2006, about 62,000 outside-workers had a valid radiation passport. The average annual dose

  17. Kinetic Adsorption of Ammonium Nitrogen by Substrate Materials for Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-Ling; CUI Li-Hua; OUYANG Ying; LONG Cui-Fen; TANG Xiao-Dan

    2011-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are engineered systems that utilize natural systems including wetland vegetations,soils,and their associated microbial assemblages to assist in treating wastewater.The kinetic adsorption of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) by CW substrate materials such as blast furnace slag (BFS),zeolite,ceramsite,vermiculite,gravel,paddy soil,red soil,and turf,was investigated using batch experiments and kinetic adsorption isotherms.Both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms could adequately predict the NH4+-N adsorption process.The maximum adsorption capacities of NH4+-N,estimated from the Langmuir isotherm,ranked as:zeolite (33 333.33 mg kg-1) > turf (29274.01 mg kg-1) > BFS (5 000mg kg-1) > vermiculite (3333.33 mg kg-1) > gravel (769.23 mg kg-1) > paddy soil (588.24 mg kg-1) > red soil (555.56mg kg-1) > ceramsite (107.53 mg kg-1).Some properties of the substrate materials,including bulk density,specific gravity,hydraulic conductivity,uniformity coefficient (K60),curvature coefficient (Cc),organic matter,pH,exchangeable (or active) Cu,Fe,Zn and Mn,total Cu,and Fe,Mn,Zn,Cd,Pb and Ca,had negative correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.Other properties of the substrate materials like particle diameter values of D10,D30 and D60 (the diameters of particle sizes of a substrate material at which 10%,30% and 60%,respectively,of the particles pass through the sieve based on the accumulative frequency),cation exchange capacity (CEC),exchangeable (or active) Ca and Mg,and total K and Mg had positive correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.In addition,active K and Na as well as the total Na had significant positive correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.This information would be useful for selection of suitable substrate materials for CWs.

  18. Process flow sheet evaluation of a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking plant applying very high temperature reactors for efficient steel production with less CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CO2 emissions from a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking system was 13–21% of that from a blast furnace steelmaking system. • Heat input to shaft furnace in hydrogen steelmaking was large with much H2 consumption in the part. • Though hydrogen production thermal efficiency had influence on total heat input to hydrogen steelmaking, the effect on the CO2 emissions was small. • Steelmaking scale of a nuclear hydrogen steelamking plant with 2 VHTRs was a little smaller than that of the largest Midrex® steelmaking plants. - Abstract: Recently, CO2 reduction is an important problem for steelmaking. Substitution of coal, presently used as a reducing agent of iron ore in blast furnaces, to hydrogen produced by non-fossil energy is a way to reduce CO2 emissions. In this study, the idea of nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) system was investigated using very high temperature reactor (VHTR) and thermochemical hydrogen production iodine–sulfur (IS) process. Heat input and CO2 emissions including material production, material transportation, and electricity generation were evaluation criteria. Results of the NHS system were compared with those of a conventional blast furnace steelmaking (BFS) system. Influence of heat input options to the steelmaking process and hydrogen production thermal efficiency of IS process were investigated for the NHS system. Though heat input to the NHS system was 130–142% of that to the BFS system, CO2 emissions of the system were 13–21%. Pre-heating of hydrogen by coal combustion before blowing to a shaft furnace was effective to decrease heat input, although CO2 emissions increased. Direct pre-heating by nuclear heat was also effective without increase of CO2 emissions if close location of the nuclear reactor to the steelmaking plant was publicly accepted. Hydrogen production thermal efficiency had a significant influence on the heat input. Conceptual design of a plant unit of the NHS system producing steel of 1.47 × 106 t

  19. Process flow sheet evaluation of a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking plant applying very high temperature reactors for efficient steel production with less CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Seiji, E-mail: kasahara.seiji@jaea.go.jp; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Masuro

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • CO{sub 2} emissions from a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking system was 13–21% of that from a blast furnace steelmaking system. • Heat input to shaft furnace in hydrogen steelmaking was large with much H{sub 2} consumption in the part. • Though hydrogen production thermal efficiency had influence on total heat input to hydrogen steelmaking, the effect on the CO{sub 2} emissions was small. • Steelmaking scale of a nuclear hydrogen steelamking plant with 2 VHTRs was a little smaller than that of the largest Midrex{sup ®} steelmaking plants. - Abstract: Recently, CO{sub 2} reduction is an important problem for steelmaking. Substitution of coal, presently used as a reducing agent of iron ore in blast furnaces, to hydrogen produced by non-fossil energy is a way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, the idea of nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) system was investigated using very high temperature reactor (VHTR) and thermochemical hydrogen production iodine–sulfur (IS) process. Heat input and CO{sub 2} emissions including material production, material transportation, and electricity generation were evaluation criteria. Results of the NHS system were compared with those of a conventional blast furnace steelmaking (BFS) system. Influence of heat input options to the steelmaking process and hydrogen production thermal efficiency of IS process were investigated for the NHS system. Though heat input to the NHS system was 130–142% of that to the BFS system, CO{sub 2} emissions of the system were 13–21%. Pre-heating of hydrogen by coal combustion before blowing to a shaft furnace was effective to decrease heat input, although CO{sub 2} emissions increased. Direct pre-heating by nuclear heat was also effective without increase of CO{sub 2} emissions if close location of the nuclear reactor to the steelmaking plant was publicly accepted. Hydrogen production thermal efficiency had a significant influence on the heat input. Conceptual design of a

  20. Faster Parallel Traversal of Scale Free Graphs at Extreme Scale with Vertex Delegates

    KAUST Repository

    Pearce, Roger

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. At extreme scale, irregularities in the structure of scale-free graphs such as social network graphs limit our ability to analyze these important and growing datasets. A key challenge is the presence of high-degree vertices (hubs), that leads to parallel workload and storage imbalances. The imbalances occur because existing partitioning techniques are not able to effectively partition high-degree vertices. We present techniques to distribute storage, computation, and communication of hubs for extreme scale graphs in distributed memory supercomputers. To balance the hub processing workload, we distribute hub data structures and related computation among a set of delegates. The delegates coordinate using highly optimized, yet portable, asynchronous broadcast and reduction operations. We demonstrate scalability of our new algorithmic technique using Breadth-First Search (BFS), Single Source Shortest Path (SSSP), K-Core Decomposition, and Page-Rank on synthetically generated scale-free graphs. Our results show excellent scalability on large scale-free graphs up to 131K cores of the IBM BG/P, and outperform the best known Graph500 performance on BG/P Intrepid by 15%

  1. The chemistry and expansion of limestone - Portland cement mortars exposed to sulphate containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some concretes in sulphate-bearing groundwaters can deteriorate slowly through chemical reactions which cause expansion and stress. The overall process involves diffusion of sulphate into the concrete, chemical reaction with some cement constituents, internal expansion and, finally, physical disruption of the reacted zone. This work addresses the chemical reactions and the expansion resulting from them so that the overall process of sulphate attack can be modelled eventually. The extent and rate of reaction of calcium sulphate with ordinary and sulphate resisting Portland cements (OPC and SRPC) have been measured under various conditions. Additionally, mortar bars were fabricated from OPC, OPC/BFS (blast furnace slag) and SRPC cements with carboniferous limestone and exposed to various sulphate-containing solutions. The linear expansion of the bars was continuously monitored over a period of about 200 days and, after exposure, the bars were analysed in detail. The results show that the bulk expansion during sulphate attack is proportional to sulphur taken up in insoluble ettringite and magnesium (when present) precipitated as brucite. The results are used to rationalise the behaviour of concretes in sulphate-bearing environments. (author)

  2. Real-time planar flow velocity measurements using an optical flow algorithm implemented on GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a high speed implementation of an optical flow algorithm which computes planar velocity fields in an experimental flow. Real-time computation of the flow velocity field allows the experimentalist to have instantaneous access to quantitative features of the flow. This can be very useful in many situations: fast evaluation of the performances and characteristics of a new setup, design optimization, easier and faster parametric studies, etc. It can also be a valuable measurement tool for closed-loop flow control experiments where fast estimation of the state of the flow is needed. The algorithm is implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The accuracy of the computation is shown. Computation speed and scalability are highlighted along with guidelines for further improvements. The system architecture is flexible, scalable and can be adapted on the fly in order to process higher resolutions or achieve higher precision. The set-up is applied on a Backward-Facing Step (BFS) flow in a hydro...

  3. A High Performance Sigma-Delta ADC for Audio Decoder Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a high performance sigma delta Analog to Digital Converter (ADC applied in computer audio decoder chip. In this design, a 3rd-order single-loop CIFF topology is chosen to achieve the high performance ADC. Its signal bandwidth is 20KHz, sampling frequency is 10.24MHz and oversampling ratio is 256. Local feedback coefficient is used to reduce quantization noise. The non-linear model of modulator is given and the stability is analyzed. It is got that when quantizer gain is bigger than 0.322 the system is stable. According to simulation, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR is 123.1dB and Effective Number of Bits (ENOB is 20.15bits. When input level is bigger than -3dBFs, the modulator is overload and becomes unstable. Then the integrator, quantizer and feed forward summation in ADC circuit are designed.  Then the ADC is implemented in 0.6um CMOS process, and the test result shows that its performance is 99.28dB.  

  4. KREX2 is not essential for either procyclic or bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carnes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei require RNA editing for maturation and translation. The edited RNAs primarily encode proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation system. These parasites undergo extensive changes in energy metabolism between the insect and bloodstream stages which are mirrored by alterations in RNA editing. Two U-specific exonucleases, KREX1 and KREX2, are both present in protein complexes (editosomes that catalyze RNA editing but the relative roles of each protein are not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The requirement for KREX2 for RNA editing in vivo was assessed in both procyclic (insect and bloodstream form parasites by methods that use homologous recombination for gene elimination. These studies resulted in null mutant cells in which both alleles were eliminated. The viability of these cells demonstrates that KREX2 is not essential in either life cycle stage, despite certain defects in RNA editing in vivo. Furthermore, editosomes isolated from KREX2 null cells require KREX1 for in vitro U-specific exonuclease activity. CONCLUSIONS: KREX2 is a U-specific exonuclease that is dispensable for RNA editing in vivo in T. brucei BFs and PFs. This result suggests that the U deletion activity, which is required for RNA editing, is primarily mediated in vivo by KREX1 which is normally found associated with only one type of editosome. The retention of the KREX2 gene implies a non-essential role or a role that is essential in other life cycle stages or conditions.

  5. Morteros a base de vidrio de desecho/escoria de alto horno; activación mecanoquímica del vidrio en soluciones alcalinas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ivan Escalante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite cements of Blast Furnace Slag (EAH and Waste Glass (WG were investigated. A fraction WG was subjected to mechanochemical activation aiming to solubilize its SiO4 to obtain solutions of sodium silicate (SS with silica modulus greater than zero to improve the compressive strength of the cements.  With the solutions obtained by AMQ, composites of 0 to 100% WG were prepared, and as referred to cements 100% BFS with standard alkaline activation. The strength of the latter decreased after increasing the Na2O content and decreased when the curing temperature was increased to 60oC. In contrast, 100% WG cements required very aggressive chemical activation conditions (12% Na2O at 60oC to obtain good mechanical properties. The composites with 25 and 50% WG required activation conditions similar to those 100% EAH cements, while those cements with 75% WG required activation conditions similar to those of 100% WG.   Keywords: waste glass, blast furnace slag, mechanochemical activation. 

  6. Hospital use of young children in Switzerland: A nation-wide study based on a complete survey over 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busato André

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children are known to be the most frequent hospital users compared to older children and young adults. Therefore, they are an important population from economic and policy perspectives of health care delivery. In Switzerland complete hospitalization discharge records for children [ Methods Stationary and outpatient hospitalization rates on aggregated ZIP code level were calculated based on census data provided by the Swiss federal statistical office (BfS. Thirty-seven hospital service areas for children [HSAP] were created with the method of "small area analysis", reflecting user-based health markets. Descriptive statistics and general linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The mean stationary hospitalization rate over four years was 66.1 discharges per 1000 children. Hospitalizations for respiratory problem are most dominant in young children (25.9% and highest hospitalization rates are associated with geographical factors of urban areas and specific language regions. Statistical models yielded significant effect estimates for these factors and a significant association between ambulatory/outpatient and stationary hospitalization rates. Conclusion The utilization-based approach, using HSAP as spatial representation of user-based health markets, is a valid instrument and allows assessing the supply and demand of children's health care services. The study provides for the first time estimates for several factors associated with the large variation in the utilization and provision of paediatric health care resources in Switzerland.

  7. A meshless scheme for incompressible fluid flow using a velocity-pressure correction method

    KAUST Repository

    Bourantas, Georgios

    2013-12-01

    A meshless point collocation method is proposed for the numerical solution of the steady state, incompressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations in their primitive u-v-p formulation. The flow equations are solved in their strong form using either a collocated or a semi-staggered "grid" configuration. The developed numerical scheme approximates the unknown field functions using the Moving Least Squares approximation. A velocity, along with a pressure correction scheme is applied in the context of the meshless point collocation method. The proposed meshless point collocation (MPC) scheme has the following characteristics: (i) it is a truly meshless method, (ii) there is no need for pressure boundary conditions since no pressure constitutive equation is solved, (iii) it incorporates simplicity and accuracy, (iv) results can be obtained using collocated or semi-staggered "grids", (v) there is no need for the usage of a curvilinear system of coordinates and (vi) it can solve steady and unsteady flows. The lid-driven cavity flow problem, for Reynolds numbers up to 5000, has been considered, by using both staggered and collocated grid configurations. Following, the Backward-Facing Step (BFS) flow problem was considered for Reynolds numbers up to 800 using a staggered grid. As a final example, the case of a laminar flow in a two-dimensional tube with an obstacle was examined. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Breadth-first search-based single-phase algorithms for bridge detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Vahid Khalilpour; Dagdeviren, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are promising technologies for exploring harsh environments, such as oceans, wild forests, volcanic regions and outer space. Since sensor nodes may have limited transmission range, application packets may be transmitted by multi-hop communication. Thus, connectivity is a very important issue. A bridge is a critical edge whose removal breaks the connectivity of the network. Hence, it is crucial to detect bridges and take preventions. Since sensor nodes are battery-powered, services running on nodes should consume low energy. In this paper, we propose energy-efficient and distributed bridge detection algorithms for WSNs. Our algorithms run single phase and they are integrated with the Breadth-First Search (BFS) algorithm, which is a popular routing algorithm. Our first algorithm is an extended version of Milic's algorithm, which is designed to reduce the message length. Our second algorithm is novel and uses ancestral knowledge to detect bridges. We explain the operation of the algorithms, analyze their proof of correctness, message, time, space and computational complexities. To evaluate practical importance, we provide testbed experiments and extensive simulations. We show that our proposed algorithms provide less resource consumption, and the energy savings of our algorithms are up by 5.5-times. PMID:23845930

  9. Cements with low Clinker Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lodeiro, I.; Fernández-Jiménez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2015-11-01

    Hybrid alkaline cements are multi-component systems containing a high percentage of mineral additions (fly ash, blast furnace slag), low proportions (alkaline activators. The substantially lower amount of clinker needed to manufacture these binders in comparison to ordinary Portland cement is both economically and ecologically beneficial. Their enormous versatility in terms of the raw materials used has made them the object of considerable interest. The present study explored the mechanical strength of binary blends mixes; B1= 20% clinker (CK) + 80% fly ash (FA) and B2=20% clinker + 80% blast furnace slag (BFS), both hydrated in the presence and absence of an alkaline activator specifically designed for this purpose. The use of the activator enhanced the development of early age strength considerably. All the hydrated matrices were characterised with XRD, SEM/EDX and (29Si and 27Al) NMR. The use of the alkaline activator generated reaction products consisting primarily of a mix of gels ((N,C)-A-S-H and C-A-S-H) whose respective proportions were found to depend upon system composition and initial reactivity.

  10. The degree of hydration assessment of blended cement pastes by differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. Morphological evolution of the solid phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo, S.M., E-mail: sm.monteagudo@alumnos.upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Moragues, A., E-mail: amoragues@caminos.upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gálvez, J.C., E-mail: jaime.galvez@upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Casati, M.J., E-mail: mariajesus.casati@upm.es [Departamento de Vehículos Aeroespaciales, Escuela de Ingeniería Aeronáutica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Reyes, E., E-mail: encarnacion.reyes@upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2014-09-20

    Highlights: • A proposal of hydration degree calculation for blended cement pastes is presented. • The method is based both on the contributions of various authors and on DTA–TG results. • Paste and mortar specimens with BFS, FA and SF mineral admixtures were used. • The evaluation of CH gives information on hydration and pozzolanic reactions. • The assessment of α provides an insight into future strength evolution. - Abstract: The degree of hydration assessment of cement paste from differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis data has been performed by several authors that have offered a number of proposals for technical application to blended cements. In this paper, two calculation methods are studied in detail. Then, a proposal of the degree of hydration calculation for blended cements, based on the analysis of experimental results of DTA–TG, is presented. The proposed method combines the contributions of the authors and allows straightforward calculation of the degree of hydration from the experimental results. Validation of the methodology was performed by macroscopic and microstructural tests through paste and mortar specimens with blast furnace slag, flying ash and silica fume mineral admixtures bei(g)ng used. Tests of scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive analyser on paste specimens, and of mechanical strength on mortar specimens with the same percentages of substitution, were performed. They showed good agreement with the information derived from the differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis data.

  11. Coherent perfect absorbers for transient, periodic or chaotic optical fields: time-reversed lasers beyond threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, S

    2012-01-01

    Recent works [Y.D. Chong {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 105}, 053901 (2010); W. Wan {\\it et al.}, Science {\\bf 331}, 889 (2011)] have shown that the time-reversed process of lasing at threshold realizes a coherent perfect absorber (CPA). In a CPA, a lossy medium in an optical cavity with a specific degree of dissipation, equal in modulus to the gain of the lasing medium, can perfectly absorb coherent optical waves at discrete frequencies that are the time-reversed counterpart of the lasing modes. Here the concepts of time-reversal of lasing and CPA are extended for optical radiation emitted by a laser operated in an arbitrary (and generally highly-nonlinear) regime, i.e. for transient, chaotic or periodic coherent optical fields. We prove that any electromagnetic signal $E(t)$ generated by a laser system \\textbf{S} operated in an arbitrary regime can be perfectly absorbed by a CPA device $\\bf{S'}$ which is simply realized by placing inside \\textbf{S} a broadband linear absorber (attenuator) of appropriat...

  12. 高炉矿渣基充填胶凝材料的制备与应用%Preparation and Application Performance of Cementation Material Based on Blast Furnace Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏凯; 赵亮; 景娇燕

    2013-01-01

    以高炉矿渣为主要原料,用石灰作激活剂,硬石膏、氯化钙作早强剂,通过试验制备一种高炉矿渣基胶凝材料。以铁尾矿、粉煤灰和河砂为骨料,用所制备的胶凝材料和普硅水泥作胶结料进行不同浓度砂浆的应用性能试验。试验表明:相同条件下,试验制备的高炉矿渣基胶凝材料能完全代替水泥用于矿山生产,并具有生产成本低,节能降耗的优点。%In this paper, one new cementation material has been prepared using the blast-furnace slag (BFS) as the main material, lime as activator, anhydrite and calcium chloride as early strength agent, and iron tailings, fly ash and sand as aggregate. The application performance of new material and ordinary Portland cement has been compared using them as binder in mortars with different concentration. The result showed that under the same conditions, the prepared blast-furnace slag cementation material can completely replace cement in mine backfilling, and has the advantages of low cost, saving energy and reducing consumption.

  13. Combined effect of blanching and sonication on quality parameters of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suheela; Sharma, Harish Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of blanching and sonication treatment on selected quality parameters of bottle gourd juice (BGJ). Bottle gourd cubes were blanched and juice was extracted. Effect of frequency (20-50kHz), amplitude (50-90%) and time (10-30min) was also studied on quality parameters like titratable acidity (TA), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), physical stability (PS), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC), browning index (BI), total plate count (TPC) and yeast & mold count (Y&M) of BGJ to derive the level of these parameters. Combined effect of blanching followed by sonication (BFS) showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in all quality parameters except TA. Highest percentage of TSS (5.9°B), PS (2%), AA (18.99mg/100g), TP (1010mg/100g) and TC (5.8mg/100g) was observed at 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min. Results suggested 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min as best treatment conditions for processing of BGJ. Microstructure examination, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction analysis of BGJ showed significant change in particle size and distribution. Moreover, TEM of blanched and sonicated samples of BGJ also showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in microbial profile.

  14. Evolution of pH in a radwaste repository: leaching of modified cements and reactions with groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious materials in radioactive waste repositories establish high pH which brings many benefits. The pH will change with time as the chemical constituents responsible for it are leached away. This has been simulated in the laboratory for a Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC), a slag-modified cement composed of 90% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and an ash-modified cement containing 90% Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) and 10% OPC. They have been leached in demineralised water and a synthetic groundwater typical of a clay environment. Leachate analyses for a variety of elements showed that the leachate was not usually in equilibrium with any of the solid phases. Nevertheless the experimental evolution of pH was not too different from that predicted by assuming equilibrium and the predictions offer a means of estimating a lower bound for pH as it evolves in a real repository. The experiments with synthetic groundwater showed that the dominant effect influencing pH was precipitation of CaCO3 from bicarbonates in the groundwater resulting in a reduction in both pH and buffer capacity. The ash-modified cement has particularly poor pH-buffering performance which is exacerbated in the groundwater. (author)

  15. Improved low-distortion sigma-delta ADC with DWA for WLAN standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved low distortion sigma-delta ADC (analog-to-digital converter) for wireless local area network standards is presented. A feed-forward MASH 2-2 multi-bit cascaded sigma-delta ADC is adopted; however, this work shows a much better performance than the ADCs which have been presented to date by adding a feedback factor in the second stage to improve the performance of the in-band SNDR (signal to noise and distortion ratio), using 4-bit ADCs in both stages to minimize the quantization noise. Data weighted averaging technology is therefore used to decrease the mismatch noise induced by the 4-bit DACs, which improves the SFDR (spurious free dynamic range) of the ADC. The modulator has been implemented by a 0.18 μm CMOS process and operates at a single 1.8 V supply voltage. Experimental results show that for a 1.25 MHz - -6 dBFS input signal at 160 MHz sampling frequency, the improved ADC with all non-idealities considered achieves a peak SNDR of 80.9 dB and an SFDR of 87 dB, and the effective number of bits is 13.15 bits. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Improved low-distortion sigma-delta ADC with DWA for WLAN standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Li; Yintang, Yang; Zhangming, Zhu; Lichun, Shi; Xiaofeng, Wu; Jiangan, Wang

    2010-02-01

    An improved low distortion sigma-delta ADC (analog-to-digital converter) for wireless local area network standards is presented. A feed-forward MASH 2-2 multi-bit cascaded sigma-delta ADC is adopted; however, this work shows a much better performance than the ADCs which have been presented to date by adding a feedback factor in the second stage to improve the performance of the in-band SNDR (signal to noise and distortion ratio), using 4-bit ADCs in both stages to minimize the quantization noise. Data weighted averaging technology is therefore used to decrease the mismatch noise induced by the 4-bit DACs, which improves the SFDR (spurious free dynamic range) of the ADC. The modulator has been implemented by a 0.18 μm CMOS process and operates at a single 1.8 V supply voltage. Experimental results show that for a 1.25 MHz @ -6 dBFS input signal at 160 MHz sampling frequency, the improved ADC with all non-idealities considered achieves a peak SNDR of 80.9 dB and an SFDR of 87 dB, and the effective number of bits is 13.15 bits.

  17. Scaling Techniques for Massive Scale-Free Graphs in Distributed (External) Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Pearce, Roger

    2013-05-01

    We present techniques to process large scale-free graphs in distributed memory. Our aim is to scale to trillions of edges, and our research is targeted at leadership class supercomputers and clusters with local non-volatile memory, e.g., NAND Flash. We apply an edge list partitioning technique, designed to accommodate high-degree vertices (hubs) that create scaling challenges when processing scale-free graphs. In addition to partitioning hubs, we use ghost vertices to represent the hubs to reduce communication hotspots. We present a scaling study with three important graph algorithms: Breadth-First Search (BFS), K-Core decomposition, and Triangle Counting. We also demonstrate scalability on BG/P Intrepid by comparing to best known Graph500 results. We show results on two clusters with local NVRAM storage that are capable of traversing trillion-edge scale-free graphs. By leveraging node-local NAND Flash, our approach can process thirty-two times larger datasets with only a 39% performance degradation in Traversed Edges Per Second (TEPS). © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-01

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects. PMID:26852633

  19. Establishment of Collaboration System for SFR Technology Development between Korea and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) Review of the technical status and plane associated with STCs on the SFR R and D · The objective of the study was accomplished by constructing an human network and investigating the status on the following 5 STCs - Analysis of BFS -73 -1 and 75-1 critical experiments using ERANOS. - SFR : Elector-magnetic pumps or mechanical pumps; criteria for selection, description and modeling - Phenix end of life tests - SC-CO2 Brayton cycle : Investigation of sodium-carbon dioxide interactions; potential consequences on reactor operation - Evaluation of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant for SFR intermediate loop 2) Holding KAERI-CEA SFR technical meeting on STCs - Final investigation at SFR technical meeting held at CEA Cadarache from Jan. 5 to Jan. 7 in 2010. - Agreement on further action plan for completing the STC - Deduction of future collaboration topics and agreed to submit into the next JCCNE - Agreed to hold next SFR technical meeting in Korea on around October 2010

  20. Conference Report. Repository experts met in Essen. Keen interest in the 1st technical discussion of repository mining organized by DMT and GNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mid-March 2012, more than 200 participants met at the Essen technology service providers, DMT GmbH and Co. KG, for the '1st Essen Technical Discussion of Repository Mining.' In cooperation with GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH of Essen, DMT had invited to a lecture event about this very topical subject. A new platform was to be created for exchanges of experience and discussions with colleagues in the field and with representatives of the competent authorities of the federal and state administrations. The 5 lectures presented by Georg Arens (Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety - BMU), Dr. Ute Blohm Hieber (Nuclear Power, Transport, Demolition and Waste Management Unit of the EU Commission - DG ENER-D.2), Matthias Ranft (Federal Office of Radiation Protection - BfS), Wilhelm Bollingerfehr (DBE Technology), and Dr. Philipp Birkhaeuser (Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle - Nagra, Switzerland) discussed both national German and European as well as international topics and aspects of final storage of radioactive waste. (orig.)

  1. APINetworks Java. A Java approach to the efficient treatment of large-scale complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Caro, Camelia; Niño, Alfonso; Reyes, Sebastián; Castillo, Miriam

    2016-10-01

    We present a new version of the core structural package of our Application Programming Interface, APINetworks, for the treatment of complex networks in arbitrary computational environments. The new version is written in Java and presents several advantages over the previous C++ version: the portability of the Java code, the easiness of object-oriented design implementations, and the simplicity of memory management. In addition, some additional data structures are introduced for storing the sets of nodes and edges. Also, by resorting to the different garbage collectors currently available in the JVM the Java version is much more efficient than the C++ one with respect to memory management. In particular, the G1 collector is the most efficient one because of the parallel execution of G1 and the Java application. Using G1, APINetworks Java outperforms the C++ version and the well-known NetworkX and JGraphT packages in the building and BFS traversal of linear and complete networks. The better memory management of the present version allows for the modeling of much larger networks.

  2. Numerical Prediction of Entropy Generation in Separated Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiyad Abu-Nada

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present research investigates second law analysis of laminar flow over a backward facing step (BFS. Entropy generation due to separation, reattachment, recirculation and heat transfer is studied numerically. Local entropy generation distributions were obtained by solving momentum, energy, and entropy generation equations. The effect of dimensionless temperature difference number (τ and Brinkman number (Br on the total entropy generation number (Ns was investigated. Moreover, the effect of Reynolds number (Re on the value of Ns was reported. It was found that as Re increased the value of Ns increased. Also, as Br increased the value of Ns increased. However, it was found that as τ increased the value of Ns decreased. For the bottom wall of the channel, the maximum value of Ns occurs inside the recirculation zone and reduces to a minimum value at the point of reattachment point. Also, for Re ≥ 500, a second peak of entropy generation appears after the reattachment point. For the top wall of the channel, the value of Ns has a maximum value directly above the step and its value reduced downstream the step. The contribution of the top wall to Ns downstream the point of reattachment was relatively small.

  3. Multiscale and Fractal Analysis of Silicon Content Time Series Observed in Blast Furnace Hot Metal Using Hurst Exponent Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shihua; Guo, Fan; Lai, Dejian; Yan, Fang; Tang, Feilai

    2015-09-01

    Hurst exponent is an important measure of nonlinearity of dynamical time series. In this paper, using rescaled-range (R/S) analysis, multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) methods, the multiscale Hurst exponent (MHE) and the multiscale generalized Hurst exponent (MGHE) of coarse-grained silicon content ([Si]) time series in blast furnace (BF) hot metal were calculated. First, we collected these [Si] time series from No. 1 BF of Nanchang Iron and Steel Co. and No. 10 BF of Xinyu Iron and Steel Co. in Jiangxi Province, China. Then, we analyzed and compared the estimated Hurst exponents and the generalized Hurst exponent of these observed time series with some simulated time series. Our results show that the observed time series from these BFs have negative correlation with the Hurst exponent less than 0.5, the generalized Hurst exponent H(q) is a nonlinear function of q, and such negative correlation and local various structure persist in their moving averages of the observed time series up to lag 5 or 10.

  4. Combined effect of blanching and sonication on quality parameters of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Suheela; Sharma, Harish Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of blanching and sonication treatment on selected quality parameters of bottle gourd juice (BGJ). Bottle gourd cubes were blanched and juice was extracted. Effect of frequency (20-50kHz), amplitude (50-90%) and time (10-30min) was also studied on quality parameters like titratable acidity (TA), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), physical stability (PS), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC), browning index (BI), total plate count (TPC) and yeast & mold count (Y&M) of BGJ to derive the level of these parameters. Combined effect of blanching followed by sonication (BFS) showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in all quality parameters except TA. Highest percentage of TSS (5.9°B), PS (2%), AA (18.99mg/100g), TP (1010mg/100g) and TC (5.8mg/100g) was observed at 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min. Results suggested 70% amplitude, 50kHz frequency and 20min as best treatment conditions for processing of BGJ. Microstructure examination, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction analysis of BGJ showed significant change in particle size and distribution. Moreover, TEM of blanched and sonicated samples of BGJ also showed significant (P⩽0.05) change in microbial profile. PMID:27245969

  5. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  6. High-Density Polyethylene and Heat-Treated Bamboo Fiber Composites: Nonisothermal Crystallization Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat-treated bamboo fibers (BFs on nonisothermal crystallization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry under nitrogen. The Avrami-Jeziorny model was used to fit the measured crystallization data of the HDPE/BF composites and to obtain the model parameters for the crystallization process. The heat flow curves of neat HDPE and HDPE/heat-treated BF composites showed similar trends. Their crystallization mostly occurred within a temperature range between 379 K and 399 K, where HDPE turned from the liquid phase into the crystalline phase. Values of the Avrami exponent (n were in the range of 2.8~3.38. Lamellae of neat HDPE and their composites grew in a three-dimensional manner, which increased with increased heat-treatment temperature and could be attributed to the improved ability of heterogeneous nucleation and crystallization completeness. The values of the modified kinetic rate constant (KJ first increased and then decreased with increased cooling rate because the supercooling was improved by the increased number of nucleating sites. Heat-treated BF and/or a coupling agent could act as a nucleator for the crystallization of HDPE.

  7. 基于高校门户网站的有向网络模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明芳; 王力虎; 李稳国

    2009-01-01

    通过对广西师范大学门户网站的网页进行分层搜索,本文组建了一个以网页为节点、超链为边的有向网络,发现它的出八度分布均呈现良好的幂律分布特性,出度分布在开始部分出现弯曲.根据这些特性,本文提出了一种含有增长,择优和重连机制的有向网络演化模型,模型的演化机制较好的反应了广西师范大学网的这些特性.%By searching the college web-site of GuangXi Normal University. a BFS and layered algorithm is used to construct a directed network which web pages are treated as vertices and hyperlinks as directed edges in this paper. After doing statistical analysis to the network, some features trove been found that the vertex in-degree and out-degree indicate power-law distribution, and there is a curve in the beginning of out-degree distribution. According to these features, the evolvement model with growing, preferential and rewired mechanism of this complex directed network has been proposed. The Evolution Mechanism reflects some characteristics of the GuangXi Normal University Network.

  8. Patterns of failure after iodine-125 seed implantation for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the site of relapse when biochemical failure (BF) occurs after iodine-125 seed implantation for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: From 2001–2009, 500 men underwent implantation in Wellington, New Zealand. Men who sustained BF were placed on relapse guidelines that delayed restaging and intervention until the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was ⩾20 ng/mL. Results: Most implants (86%) had a prostate D90 of ⩾90%, and multivariate analysis showed that this parameter was not a variable that affected the risk of BF. Of 21 BFs that occurred, the site of failure was discovered to be local in one case and distant in nine cases. Restaging failed to identify the site of relapse in two cases. In nine cases the trigger for restaging had not been reached. Conclusions: If post-implant dosimetry is generally within the optimal range, distant rather than local failure appears to be the main cause of BF. Hormone treatment is therefore the most commonly indicated secondary treatment intervention (STI). Delaying the start of STI prevents the unnecessary treatment of men who undergo PSA ‘bounce’ and have PSA dynamics initially mimicking those of BF

  9. Review of disposal techniques for radioactively contaminated organic ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic ion-exchange resins are used in the UK nuclear industry to remove radioactive nuclides from dilute aqueous solution. Resins represent a significant proportion of the organic content of ILW and LLW, particularly ILW. Spent resins are destined to be disposed of in the UK deep repository. There are concerns regarding the potential effects of organic materials on long-term repository performance, and these effects have been the subject of much recent research work. The object of this study has been to conduct a worldwide review of treatment and conditioning techniques available for spent organic ion-exchange resins with the intention of recommending the best option for dealing with the waste in the UK. Data on available techniques have been gathered together, and are presented in tabular form at the back of the report. The techniques have been reviewed and compared considering safety, practicality and cost, and a best option selected on the basis of current knowledge. On balance it would appear that wet oxidation using hydrogen peroxide with residue encapsulation in BFS/OPC is the most appropriate technique, probably implemented using a mobile plant. This conclusion and recommendation is not however clear cut and further advice regarding the acceptability of organic material in the repository is necessary before a definite recommendation can be made. (Author)

  10. Improved low-distortion sigma-delta ADC with DWA for WLAN standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Di; Yang Yintang; Zhu Zhangming; Shi Lichun; Wu Xiaofeng; Wang Jiangan, E-mail: lidi2004@126.co [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-02-15

    An improved low distortion sigma-delta ADC (analog-to-digital converter) for wireless local area network standards is presented. A feed-forward MASH 2-2 multi-bit cascaded sigma-delta ADC is adopted; however, this work shows a much better performance than the ADCs which have been presented to date by adding a feedback factor in the second stage to improve the performance of the in-band SNDR (signal to noise and distortion ratio), using 4-bit ADCs in both stages to minimize the quantization noise. Data weighted averaging technology is therefore used to decrease the mismatch noise induced by the 4-bit DACs, which improves the SFDR (spurious free dynamic range) of the ADC. The modulator has been implemented by a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process and operates at a single 1.8 V supply voltage. Experimental results show that for a 1.25 MHz - -6 dBFS input signal at 160 MHz sampling frequency, the improved ADC with all non-idealities considered achieves a peak SNDR of 80.9 dB and an SFDR of 87 dB, and the effective number of bits is 13.15 bits. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Osteonecrose maxilar associada ao uso de bisfosfonatos Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Aparecida Brozoski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Os bisfosfonatos (BFs têm sido indicados para o tratamento de doenças do metabolismo ósseo. Atualmente, seu emprego terapêutico aumentou e, com ele, os efeitos adversos, dos quais um dos mais importantes é a indução da osteonecrose dos maxilares, uma complicação de difíceis tratamento e solução. Até o presente, não se sabe ao certo qual é o mecanismo de desenvolvimento da osteonecrose dos maxilares induzida por bisfosfonatos (ONMB, nem qual deve ser o tratamento estabelecido perante essa manifestação. Apesar de a literatura apresentar formas variadas de tratamento, não existe um protocolo definido. Apresentamos uma revisão sobre a ONMB, enfocando sua etiopatogenia e as formas reportadas de tratamento.Bisphosphonates (BPs have been used for the management of bone metabolic diseases. Currently their therapeutic use has increased, as also have their adverse effects, one of the most important being the bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ, a complication of difficult treatment and solution. Until now, the physiopathology of BRONJ remains unclear, and its treatment is uncertain. Although the literature provides several treatment options, there is no defined protocol. We present a review about BRONJ, focusing on its pathogenesis and its reported forms of treatment.

  12. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilization/solidification technology is one of the most widely used techniques for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Cement-based products, commonly referred to as grouts, are the predominant materials of choice because of their low associated processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. This blend is mixed with 106-AN at a mix ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents the final results of efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of WHC's Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula

  13. Investigation of coherent structures generated by acoustic tube in turbulent flow separation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyu; Geisler, Reinhard; Agocs, Janos; Schröder, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    An acoustic tube was designed in order to control the turbulent flow separation downstream of a backward-facing step. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the step height was Re h = 2.0 × 104. As an active flow control device, the acoustic tube generated periodic pressure perturbations at a frequency of f a = 100 Hz, which was close to the most amplified frequency of the shedding instability of the turbulent shear layer. Spanwise vortices rolled up due to the perturbations. 2D-2C particle image velocimetry was used to measure separated shear layer and the reattachment area downstream of the BFS. The flow control results show that the acoustic tube can suppress recirculation regions behind the step and reduce the reattachment length by 43.7 %. The roll-up and pairing processes of the vortices lead to an increase in the total Reynolds shear stress. The coherent structures are extracted by proper orthogonal decomposition and represented by two pairs of modes, of which the coherence is analyzed by the corresponding coefficients. Both the primary and secondary series of vortices are reconstructed as traveling waves with the fundamental frequency f a and the overtone frequency 2 f a, respectively.

  14. Integrated carbon dioxide/sludge gasification using waste heat from hot slags: syngas production and sulfur dioxide fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2015-04-01

    The integrated CO2/sludge gasification using the waste heat in hot slags, was explored with the aim of syngas production, waste heat recovery and sewage sludge disposal. The results demonstrated that hot slags presented multiple roles on sludge gasification, i.e., not only a good heat carrier (500-950 °C) but also an effective desulfurizer (800-900 °C). The total gas yields increased from 0.022 kg/kgsludge at 500 °C to 0.422 kg/kgsludge at 900 °C; meanwhile, the SO2 concentration at 900 °C remarkably reduced from 164 ppm to 114 ppm by blast furnace slags (BFS) and 93 ppm by steel slags (SS), respectively. A three-stage reaction was clarified including volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon using Gaussian fittings and the kinetic model was analyzed. Accordingly, a decline process using the integrated method was designed and the optimum slag/sludge ratio was deduced. These deciphered results appealed potential ways of reasonable disposal of sewage sludge and efficient recovery of waste heat from hot slags.

  15. Simulation of a modified neutron detector applied in CSNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhong-Jian; WANG Qing-Bin; WU Qing-Biao

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the response of a modified Anderson-Braun rem counter in the energy range from thermal energy to about 10 GeV using the FLUKA code.Also,we simulate the lethargy spectrum of CSNS outside the beam dump.Traditional BFs tube is replaced by the 3He tube,a layer of 0.6 cm lead is added outside the boron doped plastic attenuator and a sphere configuration is adopted.The simulation result shows that its response is exactly fit to H*(10) in the neutron energies between 10 keV and approximately 1 GeV,although the monitor slightly underestimates H*(10) in the energy range from thermal energy to about 10 keV.According to the characteristics of the CSNS,this modified counter increases the neutron energy response by 30% compared with the traditional monitors,and it can be applied in other kinds of stray field rich of high energy neutrons.

  16. The use of low departure aspheric surfaces in high quality wide angle lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Kristen E.; Jonas, Reginald P.; Wallace, Brian P.

    2015-09-01

    Modern lens designs for digital sensors, such as those required in medium volumes for cinematography, often require the use of one or two high departure aspheric surfaces. With departures from best fit sphere of up to a few millimeters, the use of such surfaces are accompanied by a number of consequences: high cost metrology, very tight opto-mechanical tolerances and image artifacts due to the sub-aperture grinding and polishing process. Previously we examined the use of multiple aspheric surfaces with very low departures from best fit sphere (BFS) and concluded that advantages may be gained in standard and telephoto lenses, but not in wide angle lens designs1. In this work we consider the potential benefits of low departure aspheric surfaces, as applied to wide angle lenses in particular. We review the number, placement, and nature of aspheric surfaces in some wide angle lens design examples, and look at the potential to redesign with an increased number of low departure aspheric surfaces that have the potential to be manufactured without the need for computer generated holograms (CGH's). The use and limitations of modern interferometers capable of measuring aspheric surfaces without the use of CGH's will be considered. In one example we examine the performance, manufacturing, and cost perspective, paying particular attention to testing and mechanical alignment tolerances.

  17. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for CAGR graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce an adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. This report details the work carried out under Phase 2 of the Product Evaluation Task Force programme, on CAGR graphite. Three possible types of encapsulants for CAGR graphites:-Inorganic cements, Polymer cements and Polymers are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie Storage, Transport, handling and emplacement, Disposal and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of three parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on CAGR graphite. (author)

  18. Atomistic Simulation of High-Density Uranium Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Garcés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply an atomistic modeling approach to deal with interfacial phenomena in high-density uranium fuels. The effects of Si, as additive to Al or as U-Mo-particles coating, on the behavior of the Al/U-Mo interface is modeled by using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS method for alloys. The basic experimental features characterizing the real system are identified, via simulations and atom-by-atom analysis. These include (1 the trend indicating formation of interfacial compounds, (2 much reduced diffusion of Al into U-Mo solid solution due to the high Si concentration, (3 Si depletion in the Al matrix, (4 an unexpected interaction between Mo and Si which inhibits Si diffusion to deeper layers in the U-Mo solid solution, and (5 the minimum amount of Si needed to perform as an effective diffusion barrier. Simulation results related to alternatives to Si dispersed in the Al matrix, such as the use of C coating of U-Mo particles or Zr instead of the Al matrix, are also shown. Recent experimental results confirmed early theoretical proposals, along the lines of the results reported in this work, showing that atomistic computational modeling could become a valuable tool to aid the experimental work in the development of nuclear fuels.

  19. Possible novel roles of poly(rC)-binding protein 1 in SH-SY5Y neurocytes: an analysis using a dynamic Bayesian network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Rong Huo; Jian-Tao Liang; Jun-Hua Zou; Lan-Ying Wang; Qi Li; Xiao-MinWang

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Poly(rC)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) belongs to the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family and participates in transcriptional and translational regulation.Previous work has identified transcripts targeted by both knockdown and overexpression of PCBP1 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells using a microarray or ProteomeLabTM protein fractionation 2-dimensions (PF-2D) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.The present study aimed to further determine whether these altered transcripts from major pathways (such as Wnt signaling,TGF-β signaling,cell cycling,and apoptosis) and two other genes,H2AFX and H2BFS (screened by PF-2D),have spatial relationships.[Methods] The genes were studied by qRT-PCR,and dynamic Bayesian network analysis was used to rebuild the coordination network of these transcripts.[Results] PCBP1 controlled the expression or activity of the seven transcripts.Moreover,PCBP1 indirectly regulated MAP2K2,FOS,FST,TP53 and WNT7B through H2AFX or regulated these genes through SAT.In contrast,TP53 and WNT7B are regulated by other genes.[Conclusion]The seven transcripts and PCBP1 are closely associated in a spatial interaction network.

  20. Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation. 19. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 19th edition covers the amendments added since the 17th edition ( March 1994 ) referring to the following: (1) AtG sections 7 and 9a (Artikelgesetz, as of 19.7. 1994, published in BGBl I, p. 1618 ff); (2) incorporation of the legal requirements governing the environmental impact statement (EIS) in compliance with the EIS Act (UVPG) into the Nuclear Installations Ordinance (BGBl I, p. 181 ff); (3) amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) in sections 6, 22, 31, 42, 87, sub-sec. 2, due to the new act on medical products, in section 41 due to the amended act on health care facilities and services, and in section 87, sub-sec. 1 due to section 7 of the 31st penal reform law - 2nd law to combat environmental crime; (4) amendment of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act in section 11, extension of competence of the BfS (Federal Rad. Prot. Office); (5) amendment of the Penal Code, environmental crime committed by release of ionizing radiation, or faulty construction of a nuclear installation; (6) update of provisions concerning competences of the federal states in implementation of nuclear laws. In the 19th edition of the commentary, the numbering of the various acts and ordinances, and the relevant page numbering have been completely revised. (HP)

  1. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB)

  2. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil. PMID:23947715

  3. 农业机器人导航中两类纹理边缘的快速跟踪与透视变换%Fast boundary tracking and projective transformation of cut-uncut surfaces for agricultural robot navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平; 汪亚明; 赵匀

    2005-01-01

    Active vision on application of agricultural field, especially with the boundary tracking of cut-uncut crop surfaces with similar colors, is quite a challenge. Two novel methods were proposed for its fast segmentation in order to navigate agricultural robot. The key to efficiency is based on a narrow band extraction of multi-scale features from regions of interest (ROI) and the multi-cues enhancement of pixel-rows. The former is related to the weighted mean of k-level extreme values of pixels. The latter is related to the feature enhancement of neighborhood rows and multi-evidence fuzzy recognition. The two approaches are nearly unsupervised and their guidance line is able to be adaptive to a changing environment.A real-time method of projective transformation (with less than 1 ms of parameter processing) and an auto-calibration method for camera's main pose (with the time cost less than 0. 5 s) were presented. Software for analyzing the cut-uncut lawn was developed. Experimental results were promising, in which correct segmentation was achieved within 55ms at 160× 120 resolutions with an average error below 5% for normal sequence, and the online boundary tracking of cut-uncut lawns was done autonomously at the speed of 8~9 frame per second (FPS) under 160× 120 resolutions, based on a tradeoff combination of the multi-rows Best Fit Step (MR-BFS) and the multi-evidence fuzzy enhancement from pixel-rows. If the color distances between sides of tracking boundary are relatively larger, the present method of color components operation plus bit-mask may be a good choice for multi-boundary tracking in the field, with full segmentation done within 20~30 ms for color sequence of 320× 240 resolutions. All the technique can be further used in real-time control over agricultural robot navigation without the involvement of human.%野外田间的主动摄像机视觉,尤其是对作物割过与未割过的高相似颜色表面进行实时识别与跟踪是一项极具挑

  4. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2009. Report of the radiation protection register; Die berufliche Strahlenexposition in Deutschland 2009. Bericht des Strahlenschutzregisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard; Fritzsche, Else; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Spiesl, Josef

    2011-05-15

    In Germany, persons who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are monitored by several official dosimetric services that transmit the records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''Optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. The annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2008, about 324,000 workers were monitored with dosemeters for occupational radiation exposure. The number increased again after a slight decline during the past five years. Only 15 % of the monitored persons received measurable personal doses. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.84 mSv which is 4 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. Since 2004, the average annual dose range from 0.75 mSv und 0.84 mSv. In totally, 13 persons exceeded the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, thus there were 4 cases per 100,000 monitored persons. During the last five years the collective dose of the monitored workers ranges from 41 to 46 person-Sv and corresponds to the variation of exposures in the nuclear sector which comes from cyclic revision works in nuclear power plants. The number of persons monitored for exposure of the extremities increased continuously during the last five years and the extremity doses increased correspondingly. This domain of exposure gains increasingly in importance. In 2009, 45 airlines calculated the route doses of 37,000 members of the aircraft crew personnel by using certified computer programmes for dose calculation and sent the accumulated monthly doses via the Federal Office for Civil

  5. 放射性核素土壤-植物吸收与钍、镭富集植物的发现%Uptake of Radionuclides from Soil to Plant and the Discovery of 226Ra, 232Th Hyperaccumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 陈迪云; 宋刚; 岳玉美

    2011-01-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U、226Ra、232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-γ-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146. 3, 226. 6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 4OK were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986. 2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 226Ra,232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2. 20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 226Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10 -1 -10-2. The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th.%对采集珠江三角洲从化、台山等地的11种植物以及对应的土壤样品,采用HPGe-y能谱分析了其中的天然放射性核素U、Ra、Th和K的比活度,结果表明,土壤样品中U、Ra、Th和K的平均含量为151.8、146.3、226.6和665.5Bq/kg,高于我国和世界的平均值,植物样品中的U含量较低,大多数样品低于检出限,而Ra、Th和K的平均含量相对较高.铁芒萁(Dicranopteris dichotoma)样品中Ra、Th含量最高,平均值分别为285.9 Bq/kg、968.5 Bq/kg,对应的生物富集系数(bioconcentration factor)的平均值为2.20、4.23,而其它10种植物Ra、Th的生物富集系数均在10~10的范围.铁芒萁Ra和Th的富集系数和转移系数(translocation factor)都大于1,可以认为是Ra和Th的超富集植物.

  6. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  7. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, P J; Inubushi, K

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK+fly ash, NPK+silicate slag, NPK+phosphogypsum(PG), NPK+blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK+revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK+silicate slag (50%)+RFS (50%), NPK+biochar, NPK+biochar+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+silicate slag+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+phosphogypsum (PG)+Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N2O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5-14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0-12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0-30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43-50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. PMID:26011612

  8. The Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model (ARTM) - Validation of a long-term atmospheric dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettrich, Sebastian; Wildermuth, Hans; Strobl, Christopher; Wenig, Mark

    2016-04-01

    In the last couple of years, the Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model (ARTM) has been developed by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Society for Plant and Reactor Security (GRS). ARTM is an atmospheric dispersion model for continuous long-term releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere, based on the Lagrangian particle model. This model, developed in the first place as a more realistic replacement for the out-dated Gaussian plume models, is currently being optimised for further scientific purposes to study atmospheric dispersion in short-range scenarios. It includes a diagnostic wind field model, allows for the application of building structures and multiple sources (including linear, 2-and 3-dimensional source geometries), and considers orography and surface roughness. As an output it calculates the activity concentration, dry and wet deposition and can model also the radioactive decay of Rn-222. As such, ARTM requires to undergo an intense validation process. While for short-term and short-range models, which were mainly developed for examining nuclear accidents or explosions, a few measurement data-sets are available for validation, data-sets for validating long-term models are very sparse and the existing ones mostly prove to be not applicable for validation. Here we present a strategy for the validation of long-term Lagrangian particle models based on the work with ARTM. In our validation study, the first part we present is a comprehensive analysis of the model sensitivities on different parameters like e.g. (simulation grid size resolution, starting random number, amount of simulation particles, etc.). This study provides a good estimation for the uncertainties of the simulation results and consequently can be used to generate model outputs comparable to the available measurements data at various distances from the emission source. This comparison between measurement data from selected scenarios and simulation results

  9. 基于讨论机制的头脑风暴优化算法%Discussion mechanism based brain storm optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉婷; 史玉回; 夏顺仁

    2013-01-01

    为了克服头脑风暴优化(BSO)算法易陷入局部最优导致早熟收敛的问题,提出新型的基于讨论机制的头脑风暴优化(DMBSO)算法.该算法运用组内讨论和组间讨论这一新机制取代BSO算法中的个体更新过程,分别控制算法的全局搜索和局部搜索能力.通过线性递减和线性递增方式调整组间讨论和组内讨论次数,使算法搜索初期加强全局搜索能力,搜索后期加强局部细致搜索能力,有效地防止早熟问题.对6个经典测试函数(BFs)的10维、20维、30维问题分别进行测试来评估DMBSO的效果.结果表明,DMBSO算法与BSO算法和经典的粒子群(PSO)算法相比,可以有效地避免陷入局部最优,稳定地找到更好的最优值,而且随着问题维度的增加,DMBSO表现出更强的鲁棒性.

  10. Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The research program sponsored by this grant, "Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design", covers a period of time of enormous change in the emerging field of computational materials science. The computational materials program started with the development of the BFS method for alloys, a quantum approximate method for atomistic analysis of alloys specifically tailored to effectively deal with the current challenges in the area of atomistic modeling and to support modern experimental programs. During the grant period, the program benefited from steady growth which, as detailed below, far exceeds its original set of goals and objectives. Not surprisingly, by the end of this grant, the methodology and the computational materials program became an established force in the materials communitiy, with substantial impact in several areas. Major achievements during the duration of the grant include the completion of a Level 1 Milestone for the HITEMP program at NASA Glenn, consisting of the planning, development and organization of an international conference held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in August of 2002, finalizing a period of rapid insertion of the methodology in the research community worlwide. The conference, attended by citizens of 17 countries representing various fields of the research community, resulted in a special issue of the leading journal in the area of applied surface science. Another element of the Level 1 Milestone was the presentation of the first version of the Alloy Design Workbench software package, currently known as "adwTools". This software package constitutes the first PC-based piece of software for atomistic simulations for both solid alloys and surfaces in the market.Dissemination of results and insertion in the materials community worldwide was a primary focus during this period. As a result, the P.I. was responsible for presenting 37 contributed talks, 19 invited talks, and publishing 71 articles in peer-reviewed journals, as

  11. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  12. Bacterial Toxin Fusion Proteins Elicit Mucosal Immunity against a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Antigen When Administered Intranasally to Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreerupa Challa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptides corresponding to the foot-and-mouth disease virus VP1 G-H loop are capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in some species but are considered relatively poor immunogens, especially at mucosal surfaces. However, intranasal administration of antigens along with the appropriate delivery vehicle/adjuvant has been shown to induce mucosal immune responses, and bacterial enterotoxins have long been known to be effective in this regard. In the current study, two different carrier/adjuvant approaches were used to augment mucosal immunity to the FMDV O1 BFS G-H loop epitope, in which the G-H loop was genetically coupled to the E. coli LT-B subunit and coexpressed with the LTA2 fragment (LTA2B-GH, or the nontoxic pseudomonas exotoxin A (ntPE was fused to LTA2B-GH at LT-A2 to enhance receptor targeting. Only guinea pigs that were inoculated intranasally with ntPE-LTA2B-GH and LTA2B-GH induced significant anti-G-H loop IgA antibodies in nasal washes at weeks 4 and 6 when compared to ovalbumin or G-H loop immunized animals. These were also the only groups that exhibited G-H loop-specific antigen-secreting cells in the nasal mucosa. These data demonstrate that fusion of nonreplicating antigens to LTA2B and ntPE-LTA2B has the potential to be used as carriers/adjuvants to induce mucosal immune responses against infectious diseases.

  13. The dynamic range of inner hair cell and organ of Corti responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, M A; Dallos, P

    2000-03-01

    Inner hair cell (IHC) and organ of Corti (OC) responses are measured from the apical three turns of the guinea pig cochlea, allowing access to regions with best, or most sensitive, frequencies at approximately 250, 1000, and 4000 Hz. In addition to measuring both ac and dc receptor potentials, the average value of the half-wave rectified response (AVEHR) is computed to better reflect the signal that induces transmitter release. This measure facilitates comparisons with single-unit responses in the auditory nerve. Although IHC ac responses exhibit compressive growth, response magnitudes at high levels depend on stimulus frequency. For example, IHCs with moderate and high best frequencies (BF) exhibit more linear responses below the BF of the cell, where higher sound-pressure levels are required to approach saturation. Because a similar frequency dependence is observed in extracellular OC responses, this phenomenon may originate in cochlear mechanics. At the most apical recording location, however, the pattern documented at the base of the cochlea is not seen in IHCs with low BFs around 250 Hz. In fact, more linear behavior is measured above the BF of the cell. These frequency-dependent features require modification of cochlear models that do not provide for longitudinal variations and generally depend on a single stage of saturation located at the synapse. Finally, behavior of dc and AVEHR responses suggests that a single IHC is capable of coding intensity over a large dynamic range [Patuzzi and Sellick, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 1734-1741 (1983); Smith et al., in Hearing--Physiological Bases and Psychophysics (Springer, Berlin, 1983); Smith, in Auditory Function (Wiley, New York, 1988)] and that information compiled over wide areas along the cochlear partition is not essential for loudness perception, consistent with psychophysical results [Viemeister, Hearing Res. 34, 267-274 (1988)].

  14. Expanding Astronomy Education Innovations to the International Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Tatge, Coty; Guffey, Sarah Katie

    2015-08-01

    In the course of learning astronomy, it is generally accepted that successful science learning experiences should result in learners developing a meaningful understanding of the nature of science as inquiry where: (i) students are engaged in questions; (ii) students are designing plans to pursue data; and (iii) students are generating and defending conclusions based on evidence they have collected. In support of these goals, we have systematically field-test three separate instructional tools that are ready to be field-tested beyond the United States. The first of these is called LECTURE-TUTORIALS. These are self-contained, classroom-ready, collaborative group activities. The materials are designed specifically to be easily integrated into the lecture course and directly address the needs of busy faculty for effective, student-centered, classroom-ready materials that do not require a drastic course revision for implementation. Students are asked to reason about difficult concepts, while working in pairs, and to discuss their ideas openly. The second of these is a series of computer-mediated, inquiry learning experiences based upon an inquiry-oriented teaching approach framed by the notions of BACKWARDS-FADED SCAFFOLDING as an overarching theme for instruction that leverage online science data. BFS is a strategy where the conventional and rigidly linear scientific method is turned on its head and students are first taught how to create conclusions based on evidence, then how experimental design creates evidence, and only at the end introduces students to - what we believe is the most challenging part of inquiry - inventing scientifically appropriate questions. Third, contemporary ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS, including the TOAST and EGGS surveys, for astronomy & geology have been developed to help teachers measure the success of their implementation. Evaluation results consistently suggest that these tools help teachers better engage students in self-directed scientific

  15. Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel before Final Disposal in Germany - Regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For spent nuclear fuel management in Germany the concept of dry interim storage in dual purpose casks before direct disposal is applied. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is the competent authority for licensing of interim storage facilities. The competent authority for surveillance of operation is the responsible authority of the respective federal state (Land). Currently operation licenses for storage facilities have been granted for a storage time of 40 years and are based on safety demonstrations for all safety issues as safe enclosure, shielding, sub-criticality and decay heat removal under consideration of operation conditions. In addition, transportability of the casks for the whole storage period has to be provided. Due to current delay in site selection and exploration of a disposal site, an extension of the storage time beyond 40 years could be needed. This will cause appropriate actions by the licensee and the competent authorities as well. A brief description of the regulatory base of licensing and surveillance of interim storage is given from the regulators view. Furthermore the current planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste and its interconnections between storage and disposal concepts are shortly explained. Finally the relevant aspects for licensing of extended storage time beyond 40 years will be discussed. Current activities on this issue, which have been initiated by the Federal Government, will be addressed. On the regulatory side a review and amendment of the safety guideline for interim storage of spent fuel has been performed and the procedure of periodic safety review is being implemented. A guideline for implementing an ageing management programme is available in a draft version. Regarding safety of long term storage a study focussing on the identification and evaluation of long term effects as well as gaps of knowledge has been finished in 2010. A continuation and update is currently underway

  16. Concept of assistance of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection with regard to prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the defence against the threats caused by radioactive substances, a general concept was elaborated under the overall control of the Federal Government. A number of competent organisations are involved in this, for example the Federal Office of Criminal Investigation, the Federal Armed Forces, and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In Germany, the 16 Federal States are responsible for the prevention of nuclear hazards. In the case of hazards caused by radioactive material, experts from the competent radiation protection authorities are consulted. For the prevention of serious cases of nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, danger of dispersion), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection - a subordinate authority of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety responsible for radiation protection, nuclear safety, and waste management - was given order to elaborate a concept for assistance to those Federal States. The field of prevention of nuclear hazards ranges from combatting illegal trade with radioactive test sources up to the defence of nuclear fuels with the possibility to construct critical assemblies or the threatening by the distribution of airborne material which might enter the lungs. The latter are considered as serious cases of nuclear hazards. Since the expenditures for devices and personal to be trained would be inadequately high, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) is prepared to support the Federal States if it becomes necessary. The concept includes a stand-by service, the search for radioactive material by helicopter or a ground team, analysis of the activity and the type of nuclides, risk assessment, and also measures to steam the risk. This concept will be presented. (author)

  17. Reproducibility of the uptake of U(VI) onto degraded cement pastes and calcium silicate hydrate phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U(VI) uptake in degraded cement pastes was undertaken in the laboratories of CEA/L3MR and SUBATECH in order to check the reproducibility of the study. Two well hydrated cement pastes, CEM I (ordinary portland cement, OPC) and CEM V (blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash added to OPC) were degraded using similar protocols. Equilibrium solutions and solid materials were characterised for three degradation states for each paste. All samples are free of portlandite and the pH of the equilibrated cement solutions vary in the range 9.8-12.2. Three calcium silicate hydrate phases (C-S-H) were synthesised in order to compare the sorption properties of degraded cement pastes and of hydrate phases in similar pH conditions. In order to avoid precipitation processes, the operational solubility limit was evaluated before batch experiments. These solubility values vary significantly in the pH range [9-13] with a 2.4 x 10-7 mol L-1 minimum at pH close to 10.5. In batch sorption experiments, the distribution ratio Rd values are high: 3 x 104 - 1.5 x 105 mL g-1. The uptake of U(VI) increases when comparing the least and the most degraded cement pastes whereas the initial composition of cement has relatively insensitive effect. Sorption isotherms, expressed as a log [U(VI)solid]/log[U(VI)solution] plots are linear. A slope of 1 is calculated indicating the predominance of sorption processes. As sorption and desorption values are close, the uptake mechanism seems reversible. The Rd values measured in C-S-H suspensions are in good agreement with Rd values of degraded cement pastes, and C-S-H materials could be one of the cementitious phases which control U(VI) uptake in cement pastes. (orig.)

  18. Can Medical Diagnosis Benefit from "Unconscious Thought"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Amanda; Kostopoulou, Olga; Delaney, Brendan C

    2016-05-01

    The unconscious thought theory argues that making complex decisions after a period of distraction can lead to better decision quality than deciding either immediately or after conscious deliberation. Two studies have tested this unconscious thought effect (UTE) in clinical diagnosis with conflicting results. The studies used different methodologies and had methodological weaknesses. We attempted to replicate the UTE in medical diagnosis by providing favorable conditions for the effect while maintaining ecological validity. Family physicians (N= 116) diagnosed 3 complex cases in 1 of 3 thinking modes: immediate, unconscious (UT), and conscious (CT). Cases were divided into short sentences, which were presented briefly and sequentially on computer. After each case presentation, the immediate response group gave a diagnosis, the UT group performed a 2-back distraction task for 3 min before giving a diagnosis, and the CT group could take as long as necessary before giving a diagnosis. We found no differences in diagnostic accuracy between groups (P= 0.95). The CT group took a median of 7 s to diagnose, which suggests that physicians were able to diagnose "online," as information was being presented. The lack of a difference between the immediate and UT groups suggests that the distraction had no additional effect on performance. To assess the decisiveness of the evidence of this null result, we computed a Bayes factor (BF01) for the 2 comparisons of interest. We found a BF01of 5.76 for the UT versus immediate comparison and of 3.61 for the UT versus CT comparison. Both BFs provide substantial evidence in favor of the null hypothesis: physicians' diagnoses made after distraction are no better than diagnoses made either immediately or after self-paced deliberation. PMID:25852079

  19. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Psyrup level of all sugar types when the δ(13)C value of honey, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations. PMID:24594168

  20. An Adaptive Memory Interface Controller for Improving Bandwidth Utilization of Hybrid and Reconfigurable Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellana, Vito G.; Tumeo, Antonino; Ferrandi, Fabrizio

    2014-05-30

    dynamically maps concurrent memory accesses to multiple ports. We present a case study on a typical irregular kernel, Graph Breadth First search (BFS), exploring different tradeoffs in terms of parallelism and number of memories.

  1. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Jose A.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  2. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Phoney, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations.

  3. Effect of silica fume addition on the PGNAA measurement of chlorine in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nagadi, M.M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-03-15

    Pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and blast furnace slag (BFS) are added to Portland cement in concrete to prevent reinforcement steel corrosion in concrete. Further preventive measure against reinforcement steel corrosion require monitoring of chloride salts concentration in concrete using non-destructive techniques, such as the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. Due to interferences between gamma-rays from chlorine and calcium in PGNAA technique, detection limit of chlorine in concrete strongly depends upon calcium concentration in concrete. SF mainly contains silica and its addition to cement concrete reduces overall concentration of calcium in concrete. This may result in an improvement in detection limit of chlorine in SF-based concrete in PGNAA studies. Particularly for chlorine detection using 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays that strongly interfere with 6.42 MeV prompt gamma-rays from calcium. In this study, SF was added to Portland cement to prevent concrete reinforcement steel from corrosion. The chlorine concentration in SF cement concrete specimens containing 0.2-3.0 wt% chlorine was measured through yield of 1.16, 1.95, 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79, and 8.58 MeV chlorine gamma-rays using PGNAA technique. An excellent agreement was noted between the experimental yield of the prompt gamma-rays and the gamma-ray yield calculated through the Monte Carlo simulations. Further the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in SF cement concrete was calculated and compared with the MDC values of chlorine in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. The MDC of chlorine in SF-based concrete through 6.11 MeV, and 6.62 MeV chlorine gamma-rays was found to be improved as compared to those in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement.

  4. Effect of silica fume addition on the PGNAA measurement of chlorine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and blast furnace slag (BFS) are added to Portland cement in concrete to prevent reinforcement steel corrosion in concrete. Further preventive measure against reinforcement steel corrosion require monitoring of chloride salts concentration in concrete using non-destructive techniques, such as the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. Due to interferences between gamma-rays from chlorine and calcium in PGNAA technique, detection limit of chlorine in concrete strongly depends upon calcium concentration in concrete. SF mainly contains silica and its addition to cement concrete reduces overall concentration of calcium in concrete. This may result in an improvement in detection limit of chlorine in SF-based concrete in PGNAA studies. Particularly for chlorine detection using 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays that strongly interfere with 6.42 MeV prompt gamma-rays from calcium. In this study, SF was added to Portland cement to prevent concrete reinforcement steel from corrosion. The chlorine concentration in SF cement concrete specimens containing 0.2-3.0 wt% chlorine was measured through yield of 1.16, 1.95, 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79, and 8.58 MeV chlorine gamma-rays using PGNAA technique. An excellent agreement was noted between the experimental yield of the prompt gamma-rays and the gamma-ray yield calculated through the Monte Carlo simulations. Further the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in SF cement concrete was calculated and compared with the MDC values of chlorine in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. The MDC of chlorine in SF-based concrete through 6.11 MeV, and 6.62 MeV chlorine gamma-rays was found to be improved as compared to those in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement.

  5. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Jose A; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  6. Effects of puerarin on the heart function and the level of serum TNF-α in diabetic rats%葛根素对糖尿病大鼠心功能及血清TNF-α水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一弛; 解砚英; 牟艳玲; 裴可灵

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨葛根素(Pue)对糖尿病心肌病(DCM)大鼠心功能改变及血清中肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-α)水平的影响.方法 SD大鼠一次性腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(STZ)60 mg·kg-1,8周后建立实验性糖尿病心肌损伤模型.随机分为DCM模型组、葛根素小剂量组(50 mg·kg-1·d-1) 和葛根素大剂量组( 200 mg·kg-1·d-1),每组10只.每天腹腔注射1次,连续用药8周后评价各组的体重(BW)、空腹血糖(BFS)、总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、谷草转氨酶(AST)、肌酸激酶(CK)、心肌型肌酸激酶同功酶(CK-MB)含量.小动物超声成像系统观测左心室舒张末期内径(LVIDd)、左心室收缩末期内径(LVIDs)、短轴缩短率(FS)及左心室射血分数(LVEF)的改变.酶联免疫吸附实验(ELISA)法测定TNF-α水平.结果 与DCM模型组相比,① 葛根素大剂量组体重明显升高(P<0.01),BFS、TC、TG及AST、LDH、CK、CK-MB均明显下降(P<0.01);② 葛根素大剂量组LVIDd值及LVIDs值明显下降(P<0.01),FS值及LVEF值明显升高(P<0.01,P<0.05);③ 葛根素用药组TNF-α水平明显降低,以高剂量组最明显(P<0.01).结论 葛根素能明显改善糖尿病大鼠的心功能,其心肌保护作用可能与降低血中TNF-α水平有关.%Aim To investigate effects of puerarin on the heart function and serum level of TNF-α in diabetic cardiomyopathy( DCM ) rats. Methods Male Spra-gue-Dawley( SD ) rats were intraperitonealy injected with streptozotocin ( STZ, 60 mg · kg -1 ) to establish DCM model. Then the model rats were randomly divid-ed into diabetic group, low dose puerarin( 50 mg · kg-1 ) and high dose puerarin( 200 mg · kg-1 ), 10 rats in each group. Corresponding drugs were intraper-itoneally injected once a day. The animals in normal control group and diabetic group were given equal sodium chloride. After 8 weeks, the effects of puerarin on the DCM were observed by echocardiography, including left ventricular internal diameter at

  7. Session Report - S. Voinis (Andra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The session addressed key issues related to the industrial feasibility of construction. It covered the implementer and regulator points of view. The conclusions derive from three presentations completed by the outcomes of six WG. At the Morsleben Repository, Germany, the licensing of the closure of the repository has been initiated by BfS. The closure concept is based on extensive backfilling with salt concrete complemented by seals. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing such a seal structure an in-situ experiment is performed in a drift of the repository. In the UK, the framework for implementing geological disposal of the higher activity radioactive waste is described in the White Paper published by the UK Government in June 2008. The process to site a facility will be staged and based on voluntarism and partnership with local communities. This process is in its early stage. The paper outlines the work being undertaken by the NDA. In canada, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has submitted information required for a CNSC licence to prepare the site and construct a DGR for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of their nuclear power reactors. That submission includes an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), as required for a Panel Review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), and the information required for a licence application under the NSCA Regulations. Discussions between the proponent and the regulator in the pre-licensing phase, clarified CNSC expectations for the characterization of the site and for the development of the EIS and application. They also helped to ensure that OPG understood these expectations. Outcomes WG session-1: - Start with construction but during operational phase: Simultaneous construction and operation activities. - Need for technical requirements/criteria: So that it can be judged whether 'products' meet the requirements; LT safety issues to be considered during

  8. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    graphite. Within the product quality control group (PKS) 16 scientists and engineers are currently working on the qualification of radioactive waste on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The nuclear safeguards group is coordinating the joint safeguards R and D programme between IAEA and BMWi. Research and development activities are integrated into national and international research programms and cooperations. They represent a substantial part of the Helmholtz Research programme ''Nuclear Safety Research''. Material science for nuclear waste management is the research subject of IEK-6, Nuclear Waste Management part. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of Technetium Getters to Improve the Performance of Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. One of the major radionuclides that Cast Stone has the potential to immobilize is technetium (Tc). The mechanism for immobilization is through the reduction of the highly mobile Tc(VII) species to the less mobile Tc(IV) species by the blast furnace slag (BFS) used in the Cast Stone formulation. Technetium immobilization through this method would be beneficial because Tc is one of the most difficult contaminants to address at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site due to its complex chemical behavior in tank waste, limited incorporation in mid- to high-temperature immobilization processes (vitrification, steam reformation, etc.), and high mobility in subsurface environments. In fact, the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (TC&WM EIS) identifies technetium-99 (99Tc) as one of the radioactive tank waste components contributing the most to the environmental impact associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site. The TC&WM EIS, along with an earlier supplemental waste-form risk assessment, used a diffusion-limited release model to estimate the release of different contaminants from the WTP process waste forms. In both of these predictive modeling exercises, where effective diffusivities based on grout performance data available at the time, groundwater at the 100-m down-gradient well exceeded the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for 99Tc. (900 pCi/L). Recent relatively

  10. Analysis of Monolith Cores from an Engineering Scale Demonstration of a Prospective Cast Stone Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The primary disposition path of Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the DOE Hanford Site is vitrification. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone. This report documents the coring and leach testing of monolithic samples cored from an engineering-scale demonstration (ES Demo) with non-radioactive simulants. The ES Demo was performed at SRNL in October of 2013 using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft. diameter x 3.25 ft. high container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average LAW composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. In 2014 core samples originally obtained approximately six months after filling the ES Demo were tested along with bench scale molded samples that were collected during the original pour. A latter set of core samples were obtained in late March of 2015, eighteen months after completion of the original ES Demo. Core samples were obtained using a 2” diameter x 11” long coring bit. The ES Demo was sampled in three different regions consisting of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner core zone. Cores from these three lateral zones were further segregated into upper, middle and lower vertical segments. Monolithic core samples were tested using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1315 which is designed to provide mass transfer rates

  11. Safety analysis of fusion reactors pertaining to nuclear incidents and accidents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BfS gave the projekt partners IPP, KIT, Oeko-Institut e. V., and GRS the order to carry out a literature study on the topic of safety of fusion power plants regarding nuclear incidents and accidents. In the framework of this study the actual status of science and technology of the safety concept of fusion power plants should be determined and the applicability of the nuclear safety regulations hitherto developed for nuclear power plants checked. For future commercial fusion power plants today only conceptional designs exist. The most advanced conceptual study for a future fusion power plant is the European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) from the year 2005, which is based on the tokamak principle. In this study also fundamental aspects of the safety concept of nuclear fusion are treated. Hereby several different conceptual approaches are discussed, which differ among others also in the lay-out approaches relevant for the safety of a facility like for instance the choice of the breeding concept or the materials for the blanket/divertor structure and the coolants. The safety concept of nuclear fusion is oriented on safety concepts for facilities with radioactive inventory. It is based on the concept of tiered safety levels. In order to check whether for the nuclear fusion a safety concept comparable with the nuclear fission at all is necessary, in a first step it was considered, which consequences are possible at a postulated release o large parts of the radioactive inventory of a fusion power plant. Such a worst-case scenario was compared with a corresponding, postulated release of large parts of the radioactive inventory of a nuclear power plant. As scale hereby served the radiological criterion, at the transgression of which in the environment of the facility an evacuation would be necessary. In a next step the transferability of the safety concept of the tiered safety levels of nuclear technology to the fusion was checked. Beside events transferable from

  12. Uranium accumulation in aquatic macrophytes in an uraniferous region: Relevance to natural attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Cristina; Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-08-01

    Phytoremediation potential of uranium (U) was investigated by submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent native aquatic macrophytes inhabiting along the streams of Horta da Vilariça, a uraniferous geochemical region of NE Portugal. The work has been undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to relate the U concentrations in water-sediment-plant system; and (ii) to identify the potentialities of aquatic plants to remediate U-contaminated waters based on accumulation pattern. A total of 25 plant species culminating 233 samples was collected from 15 study points along with surface water and contiguous sediments. Concentrations of U showed wide range of variations both in waters (0.61-5.56 μg L(-1), mean value 1.98 μg L(-1)) and sediments (124-23,910 μg kg(-1), mean value 3929 μg kg(-1)) and this is also reflected in plant species examined. The plant species exhibited the ability to accumulate U several orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding water. Maximum U concentrations was recorded in the bryophyte Scorpiurium deflexifolium (49,639 μg kg(-1)) followed by Fontinalis antipyretica (35,771 μg kg(-1)), shoots of Rorippa sylvestris (33,837 μg kg(-1)), roots of Oenanthe crocata (17,807 μg kg(-1)) as well as in Nasturtium officinale (10,995 μg kg(-1)). Scorpiurium deflexifolium displayed a high bioconcentration factor (BF) of ∼2.5 × 10(4) (mean value). The species Fontinalis antipyretica, Nasturtium officinale (roots) and Rorippa sylvestris (shoots) exhibited the mean BFs of 1.7 × 10(4), 5 × 10(3) and 4.8 × 10(3) respectively. Maximum translocation factor (TF) was very much pronounced in the rooted perennial herb Rorippa sylvestris showing extreme ability to transport U for the shoots and seems to be promising candidate to be used as bioindicator species. PMID:27164268

  13. Variable Elimination Resolution Algorithm Based on Dynamic Constraint of Lit-eral Size%基于子句文字长度动态约束的变量消除算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓瑶; 冯志勇; 饶国政; 王鑫

    2014-01-01

    变量消除算法作为一种重要的预处理算法已经应用于多种预处理器中。对比研究了在不同约束条件下,变量消除算法对简化性能和求解性能的影响,提出了基于子句文字长度动态约束的变量消除算法。该算法只允许当变量分解后的子句文字长度比原有子句文字少时,执行变量消除替换操作。在此基础上实现了一个基于MiniSat开源代码的可满足性问题预处理器MiniSat BFS。实验结果表明,与现有的基于子句数目约束的算法相比,新算法不仅降低了子句、变量和文字的数目,而且缩短了预处理过程和求解过程的时间消耗。更重要的是,改进后的算法在限定时间内可以求解更多的可满足性问题。%As an important preprocessing algorithm, variable elimination algorithm has been applied to a variety of preprocessors. By comparing and studying variable elimination resolution algorithm’influence of the preprocessing and solving process under different constraint conditions, this paper proposes a variable elimination resolution algo-rithm based on dynamic constraint of literal size. This algorithm only allows performing variable elimination replace-ment operation when the length of clauses after resolved is less than that of original one. Depending on that, this paper achieves a preprocessor based on MiniSat open source for satisfiability problems-MiniSat BFS. Finally, the experimental results show that, compared with the existing algorithm, the improved algorithm not only reduces the number of clauses, variables and characters, but also shortens the runtime of preprocessor and solver for indus-trial instances. It is worth mentioning that new algorithm can solve more instances within limited time.

  14. Application Value of Liquid Based Cytology Test in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer%液基细胞学检测在肺癌支气管刷片诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 房新志; 白合尼莎·阿不都热西提; 倪良凤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨纤维支气管镜刷片(bronchofiberscopic (BFS) washing cytology,BWC)液基细胞学检测(Liquid-based Cytology test,LCT)在肺癌诊断中的价值。方法:收集同时进行LCT和传统涂片检查的纤支镜刷片的病例543例,分析LCT和传统涂片对肺癌诊断的敏感度,特异性和分型的准确性。结果:LCT和传统涂片法诊断肺癌的敏感度分别为87.2%和81.8%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。特异性分别为91.2%和94.8%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。细胞学分型诊断与组织学的符合率,在LCT中,鳞癌为94.4%,腺癌95.7%,小细胞癌90.9%,总符合率为93.4%。结论:LCT是在支气管刷检制片,染色等方面便于实施质量控制的一项新技术,在肺癌诊断中具有较高的敏感度和分型诊断符合率。%Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of Liquid-based cytology test ( LCT) for lung cancer in bronchoscopically biopsied specimens.Methods 543 cases of bronchoscopically biopsied specimens were identified for lung cancer with LCT as well as conventional smear test .The results were analyzed for the sensitivity,specificity and concordance with pathology in the two methods. Results The sensitivity of LCT and conventional smear for lung cancer identification were 87.2% and 81.8%,respectively,the difference was significant (P <0.05), whereas the specificity were 91.2%and 94.8%,respectively.Analysis for the concordance between cytology and pathology in 289 specimens revealed that the identity rate of LCT was 94.4%in squamous carcinoma,95.7%in adenocarcinoma and 90.9%in small cell carcinoma. Conclusion LCT was an effective and practicable method for the identification of lung cancer with higher sensitivity and specificity comparable with conventional smear test.

  15. Atmospheric transport modelling for the CTBT radionuclide network in routine operation and after the Fukushima releases; Atmosphaerische Transportmodellierung fuer das Radionuklidmessnetz zur Ueberwachung des Kernwaffenteststoppvertrages im Regelbetrieb und nach den Freisetzungen in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.O.; Ceranna, L.; Boennemann, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). B4.3; Schlosser, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Freiburg (Germany). SW2.5

    2014-01-20

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all types of nuclear explosions. For verification of compliance with Treaty the International Monitoring System (IMS) is being built up by the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the CTBT-Organisation in Vienna. The IMS observes waveform signals (seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic) of explosions and traces of radionuclides in the atmosphere to proof the nuclear character of an event. The International Data Centre (IDC) provides analysis products for the IMS data such as various event bulletins, radionuclide reports, and atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) results confining the possible source region of detected radionuclides. The judgment on the character of a suspicious event remains with the member states. The German National Data Centre for verification of CTBT is hosted by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) in Hannover. The BGR operates four IMS stations (IS26, IS27, PS19, and AS35) and cooperates closely with the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) who operates the radionuclide station RN33 at mount Schauinsland and supports the NDC with radionuclide expertise. In response to the Fukushima accident caused by the large magnitude 9.0 Tohuku Earthquake and Tsunami the HSYSPLIT model driven by 0.5 degree NCEP data was used at the German NDC to simulate the primary transport pathways of potentially emitted radioisotopes. The analysis focuses on arrival times and dilution ratios at the radionuclide stations of the IMS. The arrival times were predicted correctly at most stations for ten days after the accident. Traces of the Fukushima emissions were detected at all IMS radionuclide stations on the Northern Hemisphere end of March. In April also some stations on the Southern Hemisphere detected some traces which passed the ITCZ. In respect to the CTBT context the influence of the Tohoku earthquake and the Fukushima emissions on the network capability to detect a

  16. Severe accident analyses for shutdown modes and spent fuel pools to support PSA level 2 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalik, M.; Mildenberger, O.; Loeffler, H.; Steinroetter, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In the field of Level 2 PSA at GRS two projects are being performed in order to investigate both shutdown modes and severe accident sequences following from external hazards of nuclear power plants as well as spent fuel pool behavior under severe accident conditions. These works are being done for both PWR and BWR respectively. For both projects, deterministic severe accident analyses using the MELCOR code are a main part of the activities in order to support the probabilistic part of these projects. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) financially support a project regarding deterministic analyses of severe accident sequences during shutdown modes and external hazards (flooding, aircraft crash, earthquakes and explosions pressure wave). These results can be used for supporting future Level 2 PSA studies. Within a research project financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) an extension of probabilistic analyses of spent fuel pools is being performed. Appropriate methods for the consideration to spent fuel pools inside a PSA Level 2 will be developed. The main goals are the identification of the impact of severe accidents inside spent fuel pools onto the plant behavior and the quantification of related releases of radionuclides into the environment. Results of MELCOR analyses done for the two projects mentioned above are presented. First, preliminary results of a severe accident sequence initiated by a loss of decay heat removal of a PWR shutdown mode are discussed. Following, preliminary results of the PWR spent fuel pool behavior after a 'Station Black-out' are shown. It could be shown that the integral code MELCOR is able to calculate the accident progression of an event starting from a shutdown mode of a PWR and the severe accident sequence inside of a PWR spent fuel pool. The results seem to be

  17. Shortest-path routing algorithm based on selected RSL in WlrelessHART%基于RSL筛选的WirelessHART最短路径路由算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党魁; 沈继忠; 董利达

    2012-01-01

    无线HART网络协议中提出的Graph路由是同类无线网络中健壮性最好的路由方式之一.针对目前实现该路由方式的算法非常少且性能不佳的现状,提出一种基于BFS的Graph路由算法.该算法得到的路由具有跳间冗余的特点,能够最大限度地增加路由健壮性,并且路径最短;引入RSL作为链路质量衡量标准,剔除质量较差的链路,同时对每跳的邻居数设置上限,保证了路由的健壮性,同时避免了低质量的链路带来的通信资源浪费.此外,论证了协议所没有提及的广播路由存在的必要,并给出了实现算法.%The Graph routing proposed by WirelessHART is one of the routing protocols which with best robustness among all the wireless networks. Since there is little algorithm on Graph routing at present and the routing performance is poor, a shortest-path Graph routing algorithm based on BFS( Breadth-First Search) is presented. The routing algorithm has a character of neighbor redundancies, which can maximize to increase the routing robustness. With the introduction of RSL(Receive Signal Level) as a link quality measurement, removing the links with poor quality, setting an upper limit to the number of neighbors in each hop, both methods are aimed to increase the routing robustness and minimize the waste communication resources. In addition, the necessary of broadcast routing which WirelessHART has not mentioned is demonstrated and the reality algorithm is also proposed.

  18. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N2O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and inorganic amendments in paddy

  19. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment (Definitions; Licensing requirements); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing regime; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response; Surveillance of installations and activities); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (General; Principal elements of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; Additional radiation protection norms); 7. Radioactive waste management (Atomic Energy Act 2002; Radiation Protection Ordinance; International obligations); 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Non-proliferation regime; Physical protection regime); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities: Federal authorities (Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Minister for Education and Research, Federal Minister of Finance, Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs, Federal Minister for Economy and Technology, Federal Minister of Defence, Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS, Federal Office of Economics and Export Control); Authorities of the Laender; 2. Advisory bodies (Reactor Safety Commission - RSK; Radiation Protection Commission - SSK; Disposal Commission - ESK; Nuclear Technology

  20. Engineering scale demonstration of a prospective Cast Stone process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Fowley, M.; Hansen, E.; Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Williams, M.

    2014-09-30

    This report documents an engineering-scale demonstration with non-radioactive simulants that was performed at SRNL using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. Over three days, the SCPF was used to fill a 1600 gallon container, staged outside the facility, with simulated Cast Stone grout. The container, staged outside the building approximately 60 ft from the SCPF, was instrumented with x-, y-, and z-axis thermocouples to monitor curing temperature. The container was also fitted with two formed core sampling vials. For the operation, the targeted grout production rate was 1.5 gpm. This required a salt solution flow rate of approximately 1 gpm and a premix feed rate of approximately 580 lb/h. During the final day of operation, the dry feed rate was increased to evaluate the ability of the system to handle increased throughput. Although non-steady state operational periods created free surface liquids, no bleed water was observed either before or after operations. The final surface slope at a fill height of 39.5 inches was 1-1.5 inches across the 8.5 foot diameter container, highest at the final fill point and lowest diametrically opposed to the fill point. During processing, grout was collected in cylindrical containers from both the mixer discharge and the discharge into the container. These samples were stored in a humid environment either in a closed box proximal to the container or inside the laboratory. Additional samples collected at these sampling points

  1. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam, E-mail: litonaslam@yahoo.com [Dept. of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan); Kim, P.J., E-mail: pjkim@nongae.gsnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Inubushi, K. [Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and

  2. European studies on occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The E.S.O.R.E.X. project was initiated by the European Commission in 1997. The objectives of this European study are: 1) to provide the European Commission and the national competent radiation protection authorities with reliable information on how personal radiation monitoring, reporting and recording of dosimetric results is organised in European countries. 2)To collect reliable and directly comparable data on individual and collective radiation exposure in all occupational sectors where radiation workers are employed. Recently the project continues with the name 'E.S.O.R.E.X. 2005' and managed under the responsibility of the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic (S.U.J.B.). The study is performed in close co-operation with the German B.f.S., which was leading the three previous E.S.O.R.E.X. studies: E.S.O.R.E.X. West, E.S.O.R.E.X. East and E.S.O.R.E.X. 2000. E.S.O.R.E.X. 2005 is scheduled for the next three years and the main goals will be to finalize the updating of the country reports by describing the current situation on the field of occupational exposure control, evaluation and registration of personal doses of radiation workers and as a second part of the study, to collect dosimetric data for the period of the years 2001- 2005. In the beginning of the E.S.O.R.E.X. 2005 study the 3. E.S.O.R.E.X. workshop has been organised in the year 2004. The meeting was aimed to present and discus the actual problems identified during the performance of E.S.O.R.E.X. studies and also to establish the ground for an European network that sets up personal contacts and encourages to mutual information exchange in the field of occupational exposure evaluation, regulation and registration and of another related problems. For this purpose a special web site www.esorex.cz has been created where also the discussing forum for certain problems is open. The poster will present the main feedback, highlights and results from the recent and also previous studies and from

  3. Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    JULY 2004 2nd World Congress of the Game Theory Society, Faculty of Luminy, Marseille, France 5-9 July 2004 Europa Organisation (europa@europa-organisation.com), +33 5 34 45 26 45, www.gts2004.org Budapest Workshop on Behavioral Economics, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 5-10 July 2004 Eva Dotzi (behavecon@ceu.hu), www.iza.org/en/calls_conferences/CallCEU_04.pdf FDA'04. 1st IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications, Bordeaux, France 19-20 July 2004 IFAC secretariat (fda04@lap.u-bordeaux1.fr), www.lap.u-bordeaux.fr/fda04/ Bachelier Finance Society Third World Congress, InterContinental Hotel, Chicago, IL, USA 21-24 July 2004 bfs2004@uic.edu, www.uic.edu/orgs/bachelier/ BS/IMS 2004. 6th World Congress of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Barcelona, Spain 26-31 July 2004 wc2004@pacifico-meetings.com, +34 93 402 13 85, www.imub.ub.es/events/wc2004 AUGUST 2004 Summer School in Econometrics. The Cointegrated VAR Model: Econometric Methodology and Macroeconomic Applications, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2-22 August 2004 Summerschool@econ.ku.dk, www.econ.ku.dk/summerschool SEPTEMBER 2004 First Bonzenfreies Colloquium on Market Dynamics and Quantitative Economics, Alessandria, Palazzo Borsalino, Italy 9-10 September 2004 colloquium@unipmn.it, www.mfn.unipmn.it/~colloqui/ Risk Analysis 2004. 4th International Conference on Computer Simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, Aldemar Paradise Royal Mare Hotel, Rhodes, Greece 27-29 September 2004 enquiries@wessex.ac.uk, +44 (0)238 029 3223, www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2004/risk04/ OCTOBER 2004 IRC Hedge 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 10, 11 October 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=10 NOVEMBER 2004 IRC DICE 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 22, 23 November 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=13 DECEMBER 2004

  4. Design of Wind and Solar Energy Hybrid Micro Grid Intelligent Terminal%风光互补微电网智能测控终端的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕继伟; 向驰; 付永长; 周振华; 宋春亮

    2012-01-01

    为了集中采集微网系统实时运行数据,并且对微网系统进行协调控制以及对蓄电池充放电进行有效管理,设计了微网智能测控终端。测控终端结构简单、运行可靠,硬件上采用高性能的ADSP—BF518数字信号处理芯片和高精度同步采样模数转换芯片AD7606,从而实现数据集中采集功能,并采用基于短期负荷预测的储能控制策略实现蓄电池管理。测控终端通过通信网络可以及时向监控中心上传数据,并能够接受中心下发遥控指令对微网系统进行控制。工程实践表明,该设计在微网实时监测与集中控制方面效果明显。%This paper proposes the intelligent terminal design just for measuring and sampling the real-time voltage and current data of micro grid, realization for coordinated control of micro grid and battery management. The terminal possesses the simple structure and reliable operation. The paper gives the use of high performance about ADSP - BFS18 and the measurement chip AD7606 on hardware design. The control strategy based on short-term load forecasting has been adopted in the energy storage and battery management system. The terminal can upload the sampled data and accept remote commands through the GPRS communication network. Engineering results show that the design is accurate and reliable in terms of micro grid measurement and control.

  5. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  6. Operación de hornos altos con inyección de carbón pulverizado en diferentes condiciones tecnológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formoso Prego, Antonio

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of pulverized coal injection (PCI at two blast furnaces (BFs in Spain and Ukraine which operate at different burden and blast conditions has been analyzed using statistical methods, calculation of material and heat balances and a mathematical model. Effect of PCI on the parameters of blast furnace operation, pig iron quality and also on interactions between process parameters has been studied. At high-grade burden and high parameters of the combined blast, dependence of coke consumption rate on PC amount is linear up to a high rate of PCI. At unfavorable burden and technological conditions dependence of the main furnace operating parameters on PC rate has extreme character. High efficiency of PC use can be achieved at the different conditions due to optimization of the technological regime.

    Se analiza la eficiencia de la inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP en dos hornos altos (HAs, en España y Ucrania, que operan en condiciones diferentes de viento y carga, usando un modelo matemático, métodos estadísticos y cálculos de los balances de materias y térmico. Se estudia el efecto de la ICP sobre los parámetros de operación de alto homo, calidad del arrabio y, también, las interacciones entre los parámetros de proceso. Al operar con una carga de calidad y altos parámetros de viento combinado el consumo de coque disminuye linealmente al incrementar, hasta tasas elevadas, la ICP. La dependencia entre los principales índices de fusión y el caudal de CP adquiere un carácter extremo cuando se opera con carga de baja calidad y en condiciones tecnológicas poco favorables. La alta eficiencia en la utilización de la ICP puede lograrse en condiciones diferentes mediante la optimización del régimen tecnológico.

  7. Effect of silica fume addition on the PGNAA measurement of chlorine in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Garwan, M A; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Raashid, M; Khateeb-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    Pozzolanic materials, such as fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and blast furnace slag (BFS) are added to Portland cement in concrete to prevent reinforcement steel corrosion in concrete. Further preventive measure against reinforcement steel corrosion require monitoring of chloride salts concentration in concrete using non-destructive techniques, such as the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. Due to interferences between gamma-rays from chlorine and calcium in PGNAA technique, detection limit of chlorine in concrete strongly depends upon calcium concentration in concrete. SF mainly contains silica and its addition to cement concrete reduces overall concentration of calcium in concrete. This may result in an improvement in detection limit of chlorine in SF-based concrete in PGNAA studies. Particularly for chlorine detection using 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays that strongly interfere with 6.42 MeV prompt gamma-rays from calcium. In this study, SF was added to Portland cement to prevent concrete reinforcement steel from corrosion. The chlorine concentration in SF cement concrete specimens containing 0.2-3.0 wt% chlorine was measured through yield of 1.16, 1.95, 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79, and 8.58 MeV chlorine gamma-rays using PGNAA technique. An excellent agreement was noted between the experimental yield of the prompt gamma-rays and the gamma-ray yield calculated through the Monte Carlo simulations. Further the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in SF cement concrete was calculated and compared with the MDC values of chlorine in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. The MDC of chlorine in SF-based concrete through 6.11 MeV, and 6.62 MeV chlorine gamma-rays was found to be improved as compared to those in plain concrete and concrete mixed with fly ash cement. PMID:20042342

  8. Association between DNA damage response and repair genes and risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joellen M Schildkraut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We analyzed the association between 53 genes related to DNA repair and p53-mediated damage response and serous ovarian cancer risk using case-control data from the North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study (NCOCS, a population-based, case-control study. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis was restricted to 364 invasive serous ovarian cancer cases and 761 controls of white, non-Hispanic race. Statistical analysis was two staged: a screen using marginal Bayes factors (BFs for 484 SNPs and a modeling stage in which we calculated multivariate adjusted posterior probabilities of association for 77 SNPs that passed the screen. These probabilities were conditional on subject age at diagnosis/interview, batch, a DNA quality metric and genotypes of other SNPs and allowed for uncertainty in the genetic parameterizations of the SNPs and number of associated SNPs. Six SNPs had Bayes factors greater than 10 in favor of an association with invasive serous ovarian cancer. These included rs5762746 (median OR(odds ratio(per allele = 0.66; 95% credible interval (CI = 0.44-1.00 and rs6005835 (median OR(per allele = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.53-0.91 in CHEK2, rs2078486 (median OR(per allele = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.21-2.25 and rs12951053 (median OR(per allele = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.20-2.26 in TP53, rs411697 (median OR (rare homozygote = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.35 - 0.79 in BACH1 and rs10131 (median OR( rare homozygote = not estimable in LIG4. The six most highly associated SNPs are either predicted to be functionally significant or are in LD with such a variant. The variants in TP53 were confirmed to be associated in a large follow-up study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, further follow-up of the DNA repair and response pathways in a larger dataset is warranted to confirm these results.

  9. Analysis of Monolith Cores from an Engineering Scale Demonstration of a Prospective Cast Stone Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The primary disposition path of Low Activity Waste (LAW) at the DOE Hanford Site is vitrification. A cementitious waste form is one of the alternatives being considered for the supplemental immobilization of the LAW that will not be treated by the primary vitrification facility. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has been directed to generate and collect data on cementitious or pozzolanic waste forms such as Cast Stone. This report documents the coring and leach testing of monolithic samples cored from an engineering-scale demonstration (ES Demo) with non-radioactive simulants. The ES Demo was performed at SRNL in October of 2013 using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft. diameter x 3.25 ft. high container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average LAW composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. In 2014 core samples originally obtained approximately six months after filling the ES Demo were tested along with bench scale molded samples that were collected during the original pour. A latter set of core samples were obtained in late March of 2015, eighteen months after completion of the original ES Demo. Core samples were obtained using a 2” diameter x 11” long coring bit. The ES Demo was sampled in three different regions consisting of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner core zone. Cores from these three lateral zones were further segregated into upper, middle and lower vertical segments. Monolithic core samples were tested using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1315, which is designed to provide mass transfer rates

  10. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the product quality control group (PKS) 16 scientists and engineers are currently working on the qualification of radioactive waste on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The nuclear safeguards group is coordinating the joint safeguards R and D programme between IAEA and BMWi. Research and development activities are integrated into national and international research programms and cooperations. They represent a substantial part of the Helmholtz Research programme ''Nuclear Safety Research''. Material science for nuclear waste management is the research subject of IEK-6, Nuclear Waste Management part. (orig.)

  11. Application of short-tail multiaxial and long-tail uniaxial pedicle screw spinal system for treatment of lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis%短尾万向联合长尾单向椎弓根螺钉在峡部裂性腰椎滑脱症中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉林; 焦云龙; 张华; 郭小伟; 李宝田; 张猛

    2014-01-01

    as well as fusion; Beaujon functional score (BFS)was recorded at 6 months after the surgery. Results The operation time was 90-135 min with the average of 112 min, the estimate blood loss was 300-750 ML with the average of 420 mL. Equina, nerve root injury had not happened during the operation, while cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 1 case due to dural laceration. All patients were followed up from 6 to 12 months (average 8.1 months). At 3, 6 months postoperatively, spondylolisthesis reduction rate and bone graft fusion rate was (93 ± 5)%, (91 ± 4)% and 81%, 100%respectively. BFS improvement rate was (79 ± 4)%. There were excellent in 51 cases, good in 16 cases, fair in 6 cases and poor in 1 case, with the excellent and good rate was 91% (67/74). No obvious loss of spondylolisthesis reduction improvement and intervertebral height were found during the follow-up. Conclusion For patients with LIS, short-tail multiaxial and long-tail uniaxial pedicle screw spinal system combined with intervertebral bone grafting could provide high fusion rate, less complication and satisfactory spondylolisthesis reduction.

  12. Knowledge management in fast reactors and related fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    regarding BFS-1, BFS-2 and KOBR and post irradiation experience. In UK a super archive was prepared. In USA, TREAT and ZPPR data are currently on a magnetic tape and hard copies with some transfer to electronic files. It is therefore subject to loss. Hence selected ZPR and ZPPR log books are being scanned and selected critical configurations are being preserved. It is needless to emphasize that in R and D organizations like Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) with a mandate to conduct broad based multi disciplinary programme of scientific research and advanced engineering directed towards fast reactor technology and associated fuel cycle facilities, knowledge management plays a vital role. It also helps in our vision to achieve world class leadership in the fields of Fast Reactor technology and related Fuel Cycles. Also, India would like to achieve energy security through Fast Breeder Reactors. IGCAR has been operating a Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) successfully for the last 23 years with a unique Pu-U carbide fuel. The Centre has developed and nurturing world class expertise in the areas of fast reactor engineering, reactor safety and analysis, sodium technology, materials development and characterization, non destructive evaluation, in service inspection, reactor instrumentation, computer modeling etc. The centre had successfully reprocessed the Pu-U carbide fuel from FBTR of 150,000 MWd/t burn up. A lot of knowledge has been created in these domains and is being effectively managed and utilized. Learning from 380 reactor years of knowledge base of international experience and knowledge accrued from our own Fast Breeder Test Reactor through successful operation for 20 years and with major engineering experiments in fast reactor technology conducted, IGCAR has indigenously designed 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) and the reactor is under construction. With creative management of knowledge of the centre a Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility is

  13. Relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 and left ventricular mass index in teenager hypertension%青春期高血压胰岛素样生长因子-1变化与心室质量指数的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚蕊; 徐小改; 张小平; 崔涛; 李晓霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血清胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)水平与青春期高血压及引起心血管损伤的关系,研究青春期高血压的发病机制.方法 选择太原市城乡部分中学生体检中筛查出的青少年高血压患者33例,其中男性18例,女性15例,年龄13~15岁;高血压前期36例,其中男性19例,女性17例,年龄13~15岁;健康对照组34名,其中男性15名,女性19名,年龄13~15岁.健康青少年及高血压前期、高血压患者均禁食12 h,检测血清IGF-1水平,采用酶联免疫吸附测定法,心脏超声检查,根据各项参数计算左心室质量指数(LVMI).统计学分析用单因素方差分析比较健康对照组、高血压前期组和高血压组空腹血糖(BFS)、LVMI、血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、IGF-1的差别;用Pearson直线相关分析血清IGF-1与LVMI、BFS、TC、TG、收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)的相关性.结果 高血压前期组LVMI、血清IGF-1水平高于健康对照组(P<0.05),高血压组LVMI、血清IGF-1水平高于高血压前期组和健康对照组(P<0.05);且血清IGF-1水平与SBP、DBP、LVMI之间均存在正相关(r=0.83,P<0.01;r=0.59,P<0.01;r=0.87,P<0.01).结论 血清IGF-1水平与青春期高血压密切相关,其参与了青春期高血压病的发生发展,且在高血压病心肌重构过程中起到了重要作用.%Objective To investigate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and left ventricular mass index(LVMI) in teenager hypertension, the role of IGF-1 in cardiovascular injury and the mechanism underlying teenager hypertension.Methods A cohort of high-school students from suburban or urban Taiyuan who underwent checkup for blood pressure were recruited in this study.The subjects comprised 33 cases of teenager hypertension (15 boys and 19 girls aged 13 to 15), 36 cases of teenager pre-hypertension (19 boys and 17 girls aged 13 to 15) and 34 normotensive teenagers (18 boys and 15 girls, aged 13 to 15).After a

  14. 鲍曼不动杆菌生物膜形成能力与生物膜相关基因及耐药性之间的关系%Correlation between the biofilm-forming ability, biofilm-related genes and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩欣欣; 李庆淑; 申丽婷; 胡丹; 曲彦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the biofilm-forming ability and the distribution of biofilm-related genes in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates as well as antimicrobial resistance,to analyze their relationships with the bacterial resistance phenotype.Methods A prospective study was conducted.Biofilm models of 70 strains Acinetobacter baumannii collected in Chengwu County People's Hospital from October 2012 to October 2013 were constructed using 96-well polystyrene plate.In order to analyze the biofilm-forming ability,a qualitative and quantitative analysis was conduct by crystal violet staining assay.And the antimicrobial resistance of different biofilm-forming ability strains was compared including imipenem,amikacin,meropenem,cefepime,sulbactam cefoperazone,trimethoprim,levofloxacin,gentamicin,ciprofloxacin,cefotaxime,ceftizoxime,aztreonam,piperacillin,ceftriaxone,cefuroxime.In addition,the expressions of biofilm-related gene Bap,bfs and intI1 were tested with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.Results Among 70 strains Acinetobacter baumannii,40 strains were multi-drug resistant (57.14%) and 6 strains were pan-drug resistant (8.57%); 68 strains had biofilm-forming ability (97.14%),14 of which were weakly positive,20 were positive and 34 were strongly positive.The antimicrobial resistant rate of Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem,amikacin,meropenem and cefepime was decreased,it was 30.00%,32.86%,38.57% and 41.43%,respectively.However,the antimicrobial resistant rates to other commonly used antibiotics were all higher than 50%.The drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to levofloxacin (85.71%,45.00%,38.24%,x2=9.225,P=0.010),cefepime (71.43%,45.00%,29.41%,x2=7.222,P=0.027),gentamicin (78.57%,55.00%,38.24%,x2 =6.601,P=0.037) was significantly decreased when biofilm-forming ability reinforced (weakly positive,positive,hadro-positive).Bap gene positive rate of weakly positive,positive and strong positive biofilm-forming strains

  15. Optimisation of Protection as applicable to geological disposal: the ICRP view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfgang Weiss (BfS), vice-chair of ICRP Committee 4, recalled that the role of optimisation is to select the best protection options under the prevailing circumstances based on scientific considerations, societal concerns and ethical aspects as well as considerations of transparency. An important role of the concept of optimisation of protection is to foster a 'safety culture' and thereby to engender a state of thinking in everyone responsible for control of radiation exposures, such that they are continuously asking themselves the question, 'Have I done all that I reasonably can to avoid or reduce these doses?' Clearly, the answer to this question is a matter of judgement and necessitates co-operation between all parties involved and, as a minimum, the operating management and the regulatory agencies, but the dialogue would be more complete if other stakeholders were also involved. What kinds of checks and balances or factors would be needed to be considered for an 'optimal' system? Can indicators be identified? Quantitative methods may provide input to this dialogue but they should never be the sole input. The ICRP considers that the parameters to take into account include also social considerations and values, environmental considerations, as well as technical and economic considerations. Wolfgang Weiss approached the question of the distinction to be made between system optimisation (in the sense of taking account of social and economic as well as of all types of hazards) and optimisation of radiological protection. The position of the ICRP is that the system of protection that it proposes is based on both science (quantification of the health risk) and value judgement (what is an acceptable risk?) and optimisation is the recommended process to integrate both aspects. Indeed, there has been evolution since the old system of intervention levels to the new system, whereby, even if the level of the dose or risk (which is called constraint in ICRP-81 ) is met

  16. 5种传统保健体育项目对中老年人多维心理及免疫功能影响的对比研究%Comparative Study on Five Kinds of Traditional Health Exercises for Multidimensional Psychological and Immune Function of Elder Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鹤军; 景涛; 王正伦

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨坚持传统保健体育项目人群与极少锻炼人群的心理及生理免疫健康水平的差异,为传统保健体育运动在中医“治未病”中的应用推广提供科学依据.方法 对南京市部分经常参加体育锻炼与极少锻炼者共计526位中老年人进行调查,并按锻炼项目分为太极拳/太极剑组、健身气功八段锦组、健身气功五禽戏组、健身气功易筋经组、步行/慢跑组,采用划字测验、瑞文测验、BFS心境测验、临床症状自评量表(SCL-90)测验对受试对象进行多维心理学评估,并进行免疫功能检测.结果 不同项目锻炼群体的中老年人心理指标存在差异,步行/慢跑对控制抑郁情绪作用明显;太极拳/太极剑能有效控制激动和愤怒情绪,改善心理健康状况;健身气功易筋经有愉悦身心之功效;健身气功五禽戏对提高注意集中水平、改善智力效果明显;健身气功八段锦锻炼对平静性有调控作用.极少锻炼人群心理及体质健康水平较低,各锻炼组与极少锻炼组CD3+T%、CD4+T%、自然杀伤细胞的总体平均百分比水平不同,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 坚持体育锻炼有利于中老年人群的心理健康及免疫功能的平衡.%Objective To explore the difference in psychological and physiological immune health of exercise-persisting elder adults and elder adults with seldome exercise, and provide evidence for application of traditional health sports in preventive treatment of disease. Methods A total of 526 elder adults in Nanjing were investigated and divided into Taijiquan/Taiji sword group, health qigong Baduanjin group, health qigong Wuqinxi group, health qigong Yijinjing group, walking/jogging group and group with seldom exercise. Deleting letter test, Raven's test, BFS mood scale and SCL-90, and the immune function were evaluated to test the multidimensional psychological state and immune function of groups. Results

  17. Materials characterization of radioactive waste forms using a multi-element detection method based on the instrumental neutron activation analysis. MEDINA; Stoffliche Charakterisierung radioaktiver Abfallprodukte durch ein Multi-Element-Analyseverfahren basierend auf der instrumentellen Neutronen-Aktivierungs-Analyse. MEDINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenith, Andreas Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste has to meet the specifications and acceptance criteria defined by national regulatory and management authorities for its intermediate and final storage. In Germany the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) has established waste acceptance requirements for the Konrad repository. Konrad is the disposal for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and is located near the city of Salzgitter and is currently under construction. It will start operation not before the year 2021. The waste-acceptance-requirements are derived from a site-specific safety assessment. They include specific requirements on waste forms, packaging as well as limitations to activities of individual radionuclides and limitations to masses of non-radioactive harmful substances. The amount of chemically toxic elements in the waste is limited in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To comply with these requirements every waste package has to be characterised in its radiological and chemical composition. This characterisation can be performed on the basis of existing documentation or, if the documentation is insufficient, on further analytical analysis. Segmented or integral gamma-scanning as well as active or passive neutron counting are used worldwide as the standard measurement methods for the radiological characterisation and quality checking of radioactive waste. These techniques determine the isotope specific activity of waste packages, but they do not allow the detection of non-radioactive hazardous substances inside the waste packages. Against this background the Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology Transfer (NET) at RWTH Aachen University and the Institute of Safety Research and Reactor Technology at Forschungszentrum Juelich jointly develop an innovative non-destructive analytical technique called MEDINA - ''Multi-Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation'' for

  18. A Bi-feedback System of Wireless Sensor Network Event Detection in the Internet of Things%面向物联网传感器事件监测的双向反馈系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 辛宇; 谢志强

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at general wireless sensor networks event detection algorithms hasn't allowed for the issues of the multidimensional dynamic uncertain data in Internet of Things, this paper proposes a bi-feedback system of wireless sensor networks event detection in the Internet of Things. The bi-feedback system consists of BS(Base Station Subsystem) and NSC Wireless Sensor Nodes Subsystem) , the BS devises the BS-DFTS (Dynamic Fault Tolerant Strategy) , which calculates the fault-tolerant threshold by factor analysis and feeds the fault-tolerant threshold back to the NS, to update the dynamic uncertain data detective parameters of NS; the NS devises the NS-DFTS (Dynamic Fault Tolerant Strategy) , which utilizes the fault-tolerant efficiency of ANN to minimize the communication cost, implements the event detection by the ANN event detective framework with the fault-tolerant threshold as argument, and feeds the result back to the BS to calculate the new fault-tolerant threshold, and implements the feedback loop between the BS and NS, to implement the event detection of the multidimensional dynamic uncertain data in Internet of Things. Finally, the effectiveness of BFS is proved by a serial of simulations.%针对一般无线传感器网络事件监测算法没有考虑物联网数据的动态不确定性问题,提出面向物联网多维动态不确定数据的事件监测双向反馈系统.该系统分为基站和无线传感器节点2个子系统,其中基站子系统(Base Station Subsystem,BS)采用BS动态容错训练策略,利用因子分析法计算容错阈值并将其反馈到无线传感器节点子系统(Wireless Sensor Nodes Subsystem,NS),以调整无线传感器节点子系统的动态不确定数据事件监测参数;其中无线传感器节点子系统采用NS动态容错训练策略,在利用人工神经网络的动态容错能力减少事件监测通信损耗的同时,通过所建立的以容错阈值为参数的人工神经网络事件监测模型进行事

  19. VARIABILITY OF KD VALUES IN CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS AND SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.; Shine, E.

    2012-02-02

    Measured distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values) for environmental contaminants provide input data for performance assessments (PA) that evaluate physical and chemical phenomena for release of radionuclides from wasteforms, degradation of engineered components and subsequent transport of radionuclides through environmental media. Research efforts at SRNL to study the effects of formulation and curing variability on the physiochemical properties of the saltstone wasteform produced at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) are ongoing and provide information for the PA and Saltstone Operations. Furthermore, the range and distribution of plutonium K{sub d} values in soils is not known. Knowledge of these parameters is needed to provide guidance for stochastic modeling in the PA. Under the current SRS liquid waste processing system, supernate from F & H Tank Farm tanks is processed to remove actinides and fission products, resulting in a low-curie Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS). At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), DSS is mixed with premix, comprised of blast furnace slag (BFS), Class F fly ash (FA), and portland cement (OPC) to form a grout mixture. The fresh grout is subsequently placed in SDF vaults where it cures through hydration reactions to produce saltstone, a hardened monolithic waste form. Variation in saltstone composition and cure conditions of grout can affect the saltstone's physiochemical properties. Variations in properties may originate from variables in DSS, premix, and water to premix ratio, grout mixing, placing, and curing conditions including time and temperature (Harbour et al. 2007; Harbour et al. 2009). There are no previous studies reported in the literature regarding the range and distribution of K{sub d} values in cementitious materials. Presently, the Savannah River Site (SRS) estimate ranges and distributions of K{sub d} values based on measurements of K{sub d} values made in sandy SRS sediments (Kaplan 2010). The actual

  20. Identification of high radon areas with passive methods and geological assessments in some Italian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Marta; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Internationally the indoor radon exposition as health hazard is widely recognized; so in many countries specific laws and regulations and so-called radon - risk maps have been introduced. Few Italian Regions have started surveys for the identification of 'radon prone areas', with independent standards and protocols and this involves a bigger uncertainty on the definition of a national risk map failing guidelines. In the present work a standardized methodology for indoor radon measurements has been set up by U-Series Srl (Bologna), with attention to the development of a passive measurement technique (solid state nuclear track detectors) on large scale. The developed technique has been validated through an inter-laboratory comparison conducted by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) in 2008 and repeated in 2009. An indoor radon monitoring survey has been conducted in all Italian Regions with the developed methodology and 5425 measurements have been elaborated to obtain the annual average radon concentration in regional scale and the relapse of seasonal fluctuations on radon concentrations were verified. For the survey, the detectors were installed in underground rooms in workplaces and the measurements were performed over one solar year. As a consequence of our developed methodology (measurements only in underground rooms), indoor radon concentrations resulted generally higher than the concentrations obtained in the National Survey; we estimated an annual mean radon concentration of 110 Bqm3 compared to 70 Bq/m3 obtained by the National Survey. Only for the Italian Regions with the largest number of sampling (Lombardia, with the case studies of Milano Province and Milano city, Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Puglia) the data obtained were georeferentiated and we elaborated these data using geostatistical technique in order to produce distribution maps of the annual average indoor radon concentration. We have integrated the elaborated maps with the

  1. 高效率WWW信息采集%Efficient World-Wide-Web Information Gathering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田范江; 王曦东; 王鼎兴

    2001-01-01

    随着WWW上的信息日益丰富,对高效率信息采集(IG)工具的需求日益迫切.由于网络资源非常 昂贵,因此,信息采集属于资源受限型任务.主要目标是设计面向特定领域的高效率信息采 集方法.提出了在不下载页面的情况下推测页面内容的方法,设计了不同的控制策略,并定 义了多种页面下载优先级定量指标,建造了一个信息采集系统——TH-Gatherer,并进行了 不同的实验以检验此方法.实验证明,可以在不实际下载页面的情况下,近似推测出候选页 面的内容,采用混合尺度的基于优先级的采集方法,在采集效率方面比当前许多信息采集工 具(包括Crawler和离线浏览工具)常用的宽度优先方法高4倍以上.实验结果表明,所设计的 获取方法在获取效率方面比当前常用的宽度优先方法高4倍以上.此方法适用于资源受限条件 下、特定领域的信息采集.%With the information available through World-Wide-Web becoming overwhelming, e fficient information gathering (IG) tools are necessary. Since the network resou rces are expensive, so IG is a resource-bounded task. The main purpose of this paper is to find an efficient gathering method for specific topic. This paper pr esents methods for predicting page's content without downloading it, designs dif ferent controlling strategies, and defines several kinds of page downloading pri ority measures. An IG system, TH-Gatherer, was built to test the methods, and d ifferent experiments were carried out. Through experiments, it was found that th e content of candidate pages can be predicted approximately without downloading. When the priority based gathering strategy and hybrid measure are used, the gat hering efficiency is four times of that of BFS strategy which is used by many cu rrent IG tools (including crawlers and off-line browsing tools). The method pre sented in this paper is suitable for resource

  2. Variability Of KD Values In Cementitious Materials And Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured distribution coefficients (Kd values) for environmental contaminants provide input data for performance assessments (PA) that evaluate physical and chemical phenomena for release of radionuclides from wasteforms, degradation of engineered components and subsequent transport of radionuclides through environmental media. Research efforts at SRNL to study the effects of formulation and curing variability on the physiochemical properties of the saltstone wasteform produced at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) are ongoing and provide information for the PA and Saltstone Operations. Furthermore, the range and distribution of plutonium Kd values in soils is not known. Knowledge of these parameters is needed to provide guidance for stochastic modeling in the PA. Under the current SRS liquid waste processing system, supernate from F and H Tank Farm tanks is processed to remove actinides and fission products, resulting in a low-curie Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS). At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), DSS is mixed with premix, comprised of blast furnace slag (BFS), Class F fly ash (FA), and portland cement (OPC) to form a grout mixture. The fresh grout is subsequently placed in SDF vaults where it cures through hydration reactions to produce saltstone, a hardened monolithic waste form. Variation in saltstone composition and cure conditions of grout can affect the saltstone's physiochemical properties. Variations in properties may originate from variables in DSS, premix, and water to premix ratio, grout mixing, placing, and curing conditions including time and temperature (Harbour et al. 2007; Harbour et al. 2009). There are no previous studies reported in the literature regarding the range and distribution of Kd values in cementitious materials. Presently, the Savannah River Site (SRS) estimate ranges and distributions of Kd values based on measurements of Kd values made in sandy SRS sediments (Kaplan 2010). The actual cementitious material Kd values

  3. ZZ KAFAX-F31, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on JEFF-3.1 for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    all the energy ranges, except between 1 and 10 keV in which one-sixteenth lethargy widths were used. (Table 2) The LANL 12-group structure (IGG=3) provided in the NJOY code was selected as a photon group structure. In the NJOY processing, an equilibrium core flux of the KALIMER-150 core was used as a weighting function. The background cross sections for a self-shielding were also selected from those of the calculations. The library has been validated through the fast benchmark experiments taken from the CSEWG benchmark specifications and BFS critical assemblies. 3 - Related or auxiliary programs: DANTSYS 3.0 (CCC-0547): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional, Multigroup, Discrete Ordinate Transport Code System; DOORS-3.2 (CCC-0650): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Neutron/Photon Transport Code System; PARTISN 4.00 (CCC-0707): Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System; TRANSX 2.15 (PSR-0317): Code System to Produce Neutron, Photon, and Particle Transport Tables for Discrete-Ordinates and Diffusion Codes from Cross Sections in MATXS Format

  4. ZZ KAFAX-E70, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    widths in almost all the energy ranges, except between 1 and 10 keV in which one-sixteenth lethargy widths were used. (Table 2) The LANL 12-group structure (IGG=3) provided in the NJOY code was selected as a photon group structure. In the NJOY processing, an equilibrium core flux of the KALIMER-150 core was used as a weighting function. The background cross sections for a self-shielding were also selected from those of the calculations. The library has been validated through the fast benchmark experiments taken from the CSEWG benchmark specifications and BFS critical assemblies. 3 - Related or auxiliary programs: DANTSYS 3.0 (CCC-0547): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional, Multigroup, Discrete Ordinate Transport Code System; DOORS-3.2 (CCC-0650): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Neutron/Photon Transport Code System; PARTISN 4.00 (CCC-0707): Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System; TRANSX 2.15 (PSR-0317): Code System to Produce Neutron, Photon, and Particle Transport Tables for Discrete-Ordinates and Diffusion Codes from Cross Sections in MATXS Format

  5. ZZ KAFAX-J33, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on JENDL-3.3 for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    which one-sixteenth lethargy widths were used. The LANL 12-group structure (IGG=3) provided in the NJOY code was selected as a photon group structure. In the NJOY processing, an equilibrium core flux of the KALIMER-150 core was used as a weighting function. The background cross sections for a self-shielding were also selected from those of the calculations. The library has been validated through the fast benchmark experiments taken from the CSEWG benchmark specifications and BFS critical assemblies. 3 - Related or auxiliary programs: DANTSYS 3.0 (CCC-0547): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional, Multigroup, Discrete Ordinate Transport Code System; DOORS-3.2 (CCC-0650): One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Neutron/Photon Transport Code System; PARTISN 4.00 (CCC-0707): Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System; TRANSX 2.15 (PSR-0317): Code System to Produce Neutron, Photon, and Particle Transport Tables for Discrete-Ordinates and Diffusion Codes from Cross Sections in MATXS Format

  6. Survey of four damage models for concrete.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leelavanichkul, Seubpong (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT)

    2009-08-01

    Four conventional damage plasticity models for concrete, the Karagozian and Case model (K&C), the Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma model (RHT), the Brannon-Fossum model (BF1), and the Continuous Surface Cap Model (CSCM) are compared. The K&C and RHT models have been used in commercial finite element programs many years, whereas the BF1 and CSCM models are relatively new. All four models are essentially isotropic plasticity models for which 'plasticity' is regarded as any form of inelasticity. All of the models support nonlinear elasticity, but with different formulations. All four models employ three shear strength surfaces. The 'yield surface' bounds an evolving set of elastically obtainable stress states. The 'limit surface' bounds stress states that can be reached by any means (elastic or plastic). To model softening, it is recognized that some stress states might be reached once, but, because of irreversible damage, might not be achievable again. In other words, softening is the process of collapse of the limit surface, ultimately down to a final 'residual surface' for fully failed material. The four models being compared differ in their softening evolution equations, as well as in their equations used to degrade the elastic stiffness. For all four models, the strength surfaces are cast in stress space. For all four models, it is recognized that scale effects are important for softening, but the models differ significantly in their approaches. The K&C documentation, for example, mentions that a particular material parameter affecting the damage evolution rate must be set by the user according to the mesh size to preserve energy to failure. Similarly, the BF1 model presumes that all material parameters are set to values appropriate to the scale of the element, and automated assignment of scale-appropriate values is available only through an enhanced implementation of BF1 (called BFS) that regards scale effects to be coupled to

  7. The Influence of Catgut Implantation at Acupoint on Insulin Resistance of Simple Obesity%穴位埋线对单纯性肥胖患者胰岛素抵抗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中成; 王嘉莉; 康钦凌; 张秀明; 王婧

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of catgut implantation at acupoint on insulin resistance of simple obesity.Methods All patients were separated into the treatment group(catgut implantation group)and the control group(acupuncture group)with 30 cases in each group.Acupoints of zhongwan,tianshu,qihai,shangjuxu,were selected and needled for 3 months.Such indexes as body weight,waistline,hip circumference,body mass index(BMI),fasting blood glucose(FBG),insulin and insulin resistance(IR) before and after treatment were observed.Results Both groups showed obvious anti-obesity effect to simple obesity,manifested by significant differences(P<0.05)at the indexes of body weight,waistline BMI and appetite before and after treatment.Self-comparison in each group showed such indexes as BFS,insulin and IR were significantly decreased after treatment than those before treatment (P<0.05)There was no significant difference at the above-mentioned indexes between the two groups(P>0.05).Conclusions Catgut implantation at acupoint can reduce fat for simple obesity patients by controlling the level of fasting blood sugar,fasting blood insulin and IR in patients.%目的 探讨穴位埋线对单纯性肥胖患者胰岛素抵抗的影响.方法 按随机数字表,分为治疗组(埋线组)和对照组(针刺组),各30例,治疗组取中脘、天枢、气海、上巨虚为主,1次/10d,3次一疗程,治疗3个月.观察治疗前后患者的体重、腰围、臀围、体重指数(BMI)及空腹血糖(FBG)、胰岛素(FINS)及胰岛素抵抗指数(IR).结果 治疗组和对照组对单纯性肥胖患者,都有明显的减肥作用,两组对肥胖指标体重、腰围、BMI及食欲较治疗前均有显著性差异(P<0.05);治疗前后自身比较发现,两组肥胖患者自身比较空腹血糖、胰岛素及IR的水平,治疗后较治疗前均显著降低(P<0.05);治疗后两组各指标比较,无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 穴位埋线对单纯性肥胖患者有明显的减肥作

  8. Geoarchaeologic and paleopedologic evidences for the holocene paleoenvironmental evolution of the Crisuri plain (Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Josan

    2007-12-01

    écouverte et décrite pour la première fois en Allemange du Sud par H. RITTWEGER (2000 sous le nom de "Black Floodplain Soils" (BFS. Ce type de sol s'est formé lors de la période Boréal-Atlantique et n'a acquis ses caractéristiques actuelles que pendant le Sub-boréal, quand le développement des processus illuviaux dans les plaines alluviales était devenu possible grâce à un climat plus sec qui avait permis l'abaissement du niveau des nappes phréatiques. Il est évident que la fossilisation a commencé avant la moitié du premier millénaire, au moment où l'horizon de la culture Basarabi était déjà constitué (VIIIème - VIème siècles avant J.C.. Cela est confirmé par le fait qu'il est séparé de cette couche de culture par un horizon alluvial argilo-sableux d'une puissance de 40­50 cm. La présence de l'horizon BFS est clairement liée, du point de vue morphogénétique, à l'optimum climatique de l'Atlantique - Sub-boréal, qui s'est manifesté dans la partie ouest de la Roumanie jusqu'à environ 3000 avant J.C. Cela est démontré par la présence de la culture Coţofeni (Âge du Bronze inférieur, dont la fossilisation ultérieure marque le déclin de la période de relative tranquillité morphogénétique pendant laquelle s'est formé l'horizon BFS. L'élaboration du niveau d'habitat Coţofeni a été possible grâce à l'établissement d'une situation stable du point de vue morpho-hydrodynamique sur les basses terrasses. Ces transformations indiquent aussi que le climat de la période Atlantique a été, au moins au cours de sa dernière phase, moins humide que ce qu'on le considère habituellement. Ce fait est également souligné par les recherches de T. JURCSÁK (1970 sur le site néolithique de Salca (englobé dans la ville d'Oradea. La reconstitution de la faune à partir des observations sur ce site (localisé au niveau de la première terrasse de la rivière Crişul Repede a montré la présence d'espèces forestières ainsi que steppiques

  9. Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciences (FH) Zittau/Goerlitz; -The Association for Research and Lecturing in Nuclear Engineering in Southwest Germany (2007), consisting of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), the Materials Testing Laboratory (MPA) Stuttgart, and the Universities of Karlsruhe, Stuttgart and Heidelberg as well as the Universities of Applied Sciences in Ulm and Furtwangen; -The Nuclear Engineering Forum West (2009), consisting of the Juelich Research Centre (FZJ), the RWTH Aachen University, and the Aachen/Juelich University of Applied Sciences; - The subject-oriented Final Disposal Research Group, consisting of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the Technical University of Berlin, and the University of Clausthal-Zellerfeld; - The interregional Alliance of Competence in Radiation Research (2007), consisting of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in Salzgitter (BfS), the Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (ZSR) in Hanover, the German Research Centre for Environmental Health (GSF) in Munich, the Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig-Halle, the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, the Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt, and the research centres in Juelich, Dresden/Rossendorf, and Karlsruhe. International activities were geared to two initiatives for the promotion of young nuclear scientists, in particular to the: - ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Network); -WNU (World Nucl ear University). In both organizations, the Technical University of Munich is involved as the German representative of the Alliance of Competence. By the end of January 2010, the ENELA (European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy) with its headquarters in Munich also joined

  10. Disposal of radioactive waste: the forming of a new approach in Germany. Summary and international perspective. FSC Community Visit and National Workshop, Hitzacker, Hamburg, 5-8 October 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), the authorities responsible for implementing and regulating radioactive waste management in Germany, respectively. The central theme of the event was 'the forming of a new approach to radioactive waste management in Germany'. The three-day event started with a community visit in Hitzacker, which included a one-day meeting with community representatives and other stakeholders. This was followed by a tour to radioactive waste management facilities in Gorleben, and then the national workshop, which took place in Hamburg. Sixty-five registered participants, from 13 countries, attended the event. About 60% were German stakeholders, the remainder came from FSC member countries and international organisations. The German stakeholders included local actors, academics, and representatives of state and federal governments, NGOs, waste producers and other companies. The international audience consisted of FSC, typically affiliated with national regulatory bodies, government, or implementing organisations, plus other delegates and academics. The event was structured as follows: The introductory session (Day 1 morning and early afternoon) took place in Hitzaker and explored the historical context and the current situation of radioactive waste management in Germany. It entailed plenary presentations by key actors of policy making processes and discussions focusing on stakeholder concerns about trust and confidence. Three sessions took place in Hamburg and addressed the topics 'The new proposed approach to site selection, with emphasis on basic premises' (Day 1 late afternoon), 'The new proposed approach to site selection, with emphasis on stakeholder involvement' (Day 2 afternoon), and 'The new approach to

  11. Joint exercises and training of law enforcers and radiation protection advisors for the defence against nuclear hazards in Germany - Experience gathered at the federal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint training and exercises between law enforcers and radiation protection advisors are an essential part of any response capability that is expected to respond to incidents involving the malicious use of radioactive materials. This paper sets out some experiences and information about training and exercises in the field of the defence against nuclear hazards that has been gathered by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection over the last few years. The principle aim of this paper is for the lessons learned to contribute to international best practise in training and exercises from a radiation protection standpoint. In case there is an incident f a serious and/or criminal nature, for instance an emergency with nuclear material or an attack with a radiological weapon, the Bundesland can call on the federal government for additional forces from a unit known as the 'Central federal support group for the defence against nuclear hazards' (abbreviated to ZUB from the German). The ZUB includes specialists from the Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA), the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and the Federal Police (BPol). In the paper, an example of the recent ZUB exercise in Cologne together with the Cologne authorities in IlD1e 2008 is presented. This example illustrates the scope, complexity and success of the large exercises the ZUB carries out with the German Bundeslaender and also serves as a basis for explaining some of the radiation protection issues that are often encountered during such exercises. These issues include: discrepancies between real and exercise radiation protection; training on a local level between police and radiation protection authorities; educating fire departments about radioactivity and the correct use of personal protective equipment during a deployment involving radioactive materials; the importance of experts outside the ZUB and the Bundesland; discrepancies between the timescale expectations of the police and the radiation

  12. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2005. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    passport. In 2005, about 61,000 outside-workers had a valid radiation passport. The average annual dose of exposed outside-workers was 1.8 mSv and thus twice as high as the average dose of all radiation exposed persons. Two per thousand owner of radiation passports possessed more than one valid radiation passport, after several passports had been impermissible issued to them. Since Aug. 2003 aircraft crew personnel is subject to dose monitoring if it is employed in accordance with the German employment act and likely to receive an effective dose of at least 1 mSv per year from cosmic radiation during flight operation (31.000 employees). 45 air lines report the monthly accumulated dose values of their personnel via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation of the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 62 Person-Sv and thus higher than the total collective dose of all workers at terrestrial work places (46 Person-Sv). The annual average dose of aircraft crew personnel was 2.0 mSv. (orig.)

  13. Study on strength and shrinkage of high performance concrete with compound mineral admixtures%双掺矿物掺合料高性能混凝土的强度与收缩试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素梅; 贡金鑫

    2016-01-01

    对双掺粉煤灰和矿渣的高性能混凝土进行了强度和收缩试验,分析了粉煤灰和矿渣双掺比例(1∶2、2∶3、1∶1)及双掺总量(30%、40%、50%)的影响。研究表明,在双掺比例相同的条件下,随着双掺总量的增加,高性能混凝土强度降低,总收缩和干缩降低,自收缩增加;在双掺总量相同的条件下,随着双掺比例的增加,高性能混凝土早期强度降低,后期强度增加、总收缩降低、自收缩减少和干缩增加。在双掺情况下,单独增加粉煤灰或矿渣的掺量,粉煤灰降低早期强度和总收缩的效果更明显,但矿渣引起自收缩增大的幅度大于粉煤灰引起自收缩减小的幅度;相比于粉煤灰,矿渣降低干缩的效果更明显;矿渣增大自收缩的幅度远小于其降低干缩的幅度。通过回归分析得到了双掺高性能混凝土的收缩计算式。%Experiments were made on the strength and shrinkage properties of high performance concrete with fly ash( FA)and ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS),including the effect of the ratio of FA to GGBFS(1∶2,2∶3,1∶1)and the amount of FA and GG-BFS(30%,40%,50%).The results show that in the case of identical ratio of FA to GGBFS,the strength of the concrete decreases with the increase of the amount of the compound mineral admixtures,while the total shrinkage strain and the drying shrinkage strain reduces and the autogenous shrinkage strain increases. In the case of identical amount of the compound mineral admixtures,the strength of con-crete decreases at early age and increases later with the increase of ratio of FA to GGBFS,while total shrinkage strain and autogenous shrinkage strain decreases and drying shrinkage strain increases. For the compound mineral admixtures,the strength and total shrinkage strain of concrete decrease at early age with the increase of amount of FA or GGBFS. Contrast to GGBFS,the influence of FA is greater

  14. 重组人β-防御素3对铜绿假单胞菌生物膜结构影响的初步研究%Inhibitory effects of recombinant human beta-defensin 3 on biofilm structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa:a preliminary study in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周菁; 陈章; 田坤; 吴奎; 肖贞良

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effects of recombinant human heta - defensin 3( rhBD - 3 )on the hiofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa( PA ) in vitro. Methods Standard gelose radial diffusion assay was used to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration( MIC ) of rhBD - 3 on PA. Then the early and mature biofilms of PA inoculated on polycarhonate membrane were obtained using plate culture method. These BFs were randomly divided into four groups: blank control group and three groups treated with different concentration of rhBD - 3(1/2MIC ,2MIC and 4MIC , respectively ). The appearance of biofilms on vehicle surface was observed under scanning electron microscope( SEM ). Viable count was conducted by serial dilution method. Results The MIC of rhBD - 3 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 64 μg/ml. The amount of viable bacterial adhered to the vehicle surface decreased 8.16 and 24 h after rhBD - 3 treatment. Furthermore ,it decreased progressively with the increase of rhBD - 3 concentration. Small amounts of sporadic and free bacteria as well as patchy polyose compounds were seen in rhBD - 3 groups under SEM. However,large amounts of evenly distributed microcolony and free bacteria as well as the crosslinking of polyose compounds were found in hlank control group. Conclusion rhBD - 3can prevent PA from forming BF in vitro. It can also destroy the structure of this biofilm in early or mature stage.%目的 研究重组人β-防御素3(rhBD-3)对铜绿假单胞菌(PA)形成生物膜的体外抑制作用.方法 平板培养法培养PA,得到早期和成熟期生物膜;琼脂糖弥散抗菌法测定最低抑菌浓度(MIC);扫描电镜(SEM)观察载体表面BF形态;连续稀释法行活菌计数.结果 rhBD-3对PA的MIC值是64 μg/ml.rhBD-3作用后8、16、24 h,膜片载体表面PA活菌黏附量减少,且随着rhBD-3浓度的增高,活菌群数量进行性减少;SEM观察见rhBD-3组少量散在的游离细菌,有少量小斑片状多糖复合物,而空白对

  15. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shiels, Alan [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); FitzGerald, Paul G. [Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Menon, Anil G. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mathias, Richard T. [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, NY (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5{sup −/−}), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0{sup +/−}; homozygous KO: AQP0{sup −/−}; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0{sup +/−} lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and

  16. Influences of ziprasidone and clozapine on efficacy,glucolipide metabolism and quality of life of schizophrenia%齐拉西酮与氯氮平对精神分裂症患者疗效及糖脂代谢和生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽华; 范勤毅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of ziprasidone and clozapine in schizophrenia and their influ‐ences on glucolipide metabolism and quality of life .Methods Seventy‐two schizophrenics were randomly divided into two groups of 36 ones each ,observation group took orally ziprasidone and control did clozapine for 12 weeks .Efficacies were assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and af‐ter treatment ,qualities of life with the Generic Quality of Life Inventory‐74 (GQOLI‐74) ,and the changes of blood‐fasting sugar (BFS) ,insulin ,low density lipoprotein (LDL) and body mass index (BMI) detected at the same time .Results After treatment the total and each factor scores of the PANSS of both groups lowered more significantly compared with pretreatment (P 0 .05) .The total ,physical ,psychological and social functioning score of the GQOLI‐74 height‐ened more significantly in observation group compared with pretreatment (P 0 .05) , those heightened more significantly after treatment compared with pretreatment in control group (P< 0 .05 or 0 .01) ,and those after treatment were significantly lower in observation than in control group (P< 0 .05 or 0 .01) .Conclusion Ziprasidone and clozapine have equivalent efficacy in schizophrenia ,but the former has less influence on glucolipide metabolism and could notably improve patients’ quality of life .%目的:探讨齐拉西酮与氯氮平治疗精神分裂症的临床疗效以及对患者糖脂代谢和生活质量的影响。方法将72例精神分裂症患者随机分为两组,每组36例,观察组口服齐拉西酮治疗,对照组口服氯氮平治疗,观察12周。治疗前后采用阳性与阴性症状量表评定临床疗效,生活质量综合评定问卷评定生活质量,同时检测空腹血糖、胰岛素、低密度脂蛋白及体质量指数的变化。结果治疗后两组阳性与阴性症状量表总分及各因子分均较治疗前显著下降( P <0.01)

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Radiotherapy. Advances and Challenges in Radiation Protection of Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Accident reporting system; the Rosis experience (M. Coffey, J. Cunningham, Rosis, Ireland); 20 - Side effects of radiotherapy: general management (J. Bourhis, Estro); 21 - Cell therapy treatment for radiation induced cutaneous damage (JJ. Lataillade, Percy Military Hospital, Clamart); 22 - The Equipment: safety, commissioning, re-commissioning - calibration, A medical physicist point of view (A. Lisbona, Centre A. Gauducheau, Nantes, France); 23 - A manufacturer's point of view (U. Lutz, SNITEM - Siemens, Germany); 24 - The staff; radiation oncologist-Physicists, technologists, engineers: organisation, missions, responsibility. The Radiation Therapist profession: a challenge and an opportunity to improve the safety and the patient care in Radiation Oncology (G. Brusadin, EFRS); 25 - The EFOMP approach in reducing errors in Radiotherapy (H.J Van Kleffens, EFOMP); 26 - Education and training. The IAEA experience (R. Czarwinski, IAEA); 27 - The IAEA quality audits in radiotherapy (J. Izewska, IAEA); 28 - The external beam controls: Equal-Estro Experience (A. Veres, Equal-Estro); 29 - The Norwegian Program on Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy (KVIST) - Organisation, Benefits and Experiences of this initiative for stakeholders involvement (H.M. Olerud, NRPA, Norway); 30 - Audits in radiotherapy in Switzerland (A. Stuessi, FOPH, Switzerland); 31 - Clinical Audits: who should control what? - European guidelines (H. Jarvinen, STUK - Finland); 32 - The ICPR take home message (P. Ortiz Lopez, ICRP); 33-37 - National regulators experiences (C. Flannery, CRCPD, USA; J. Griebel, BFS, Germany; U. O'Doherty, UK; K. Petrova, Czech republic; JL. Godet, France); 38 - A road-map for Cancer Radiotherapy in France (D. Maraninchi, InCA); 39-40 - Synthesis and conclusions (A.C. Lacoste, M. Bourguignon, ASN)

  18. 分数阶Fourier域强弱LFM信号检测与参数估计%Detection and Parameter Estimation of Strong and Weak LFM Signals in the Fractional Fourier Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐会法; 刘锋; 张鑫

    2011-01-01

    分数阶Fourier变换(FRFT)由于其特有的性质,非常适合处理线性调频(LFM)信号,尤其是,作为一种线性变换,可以克服多分量LFM信号之间的交叉项干扰.但是采用逐次消去法检测多分量LFM信号时,每检测一个LFM信号,都要对信号分别求旋转角α∈[0,π]的FRFT,再进行二维搜索,计算量很大.为了提高FRFT对多分量LFM信号的检测效率,本文提出一种在分数阶Fourier域检测强、弱LFM信号的新方法.首先,分析了逐次消去法和聚类分析法检测多分量LFM信号的原理,以及它们的优缺点.然后,提出一种聚类分析和逐次消去相结合的信号检测方法,利用平面截取信号在平面(u,α)上的尖峰,并引入基于广度优先搜索邻居(BFSN)的聚类算法,对截取的信号尖峰进行聚类分析,获得每个LFM信号对应的信号尖峰,实现多个较强信号的检测与参数估计,再利用逐次消去法实现弱信号的检测.该方法可以同时检测多个能量相近的LFM信号,提高了检测效率,以及次强信号的参数估计精度,并有效地抑制了强信号对弱信号的遮蔽影响.通过对信号进行平面切割处理,减少了BFSN聚类算法中输入集样本数量,降低了算法的计算量.最后,仿真结果验证了该方法的有效性.%The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is very suitable to process the linear frequency-modulated (LFM) signals because of its unique properties. Especially, as a linear transform, FRFT can avoid the cross-terms interference in multi-component LFM signals processing. However, if we use elimination one by one method to detect the multi-component LFM signals, we will compute the FRFT of signals with a e [O,π] for every LFM signal' s detection, and search the maximum. So the computation cost is very high. In order to improve the detection efficiency of the FRFT for multi-component LFM signals, a novel detection method is presented for the strong and weak LFM signals in the

  19. Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    2004 dkermani@fit.edu, +1 321 674 7412, http://kermani.math.fit.edu/ JULY 2004 2nd World Congress of the Game Theory Society, Faculty of Luminy, Marseille, France 5-9 July 2004 Europa Organisation (europa@europa-organisation.com), +33 5 34 45 26 45, www.gts2004.org Budapest Workshop on Behavioral Economics, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 5-10 July 2004 Eva Dotzi (behavecon@ceu.hu), www.iza.org/en/calls_conferences/CallCEU_04.pdf FDA'04 1st IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications, Bordeaux, France 19-20 July 2004 IFAC secretariat (fda04@lap.u-bordeaux1.fr), www.lap.u-bordeaux.fr/fda04/ Bachelier Finance Society Third World Congress, InterContinental Hotel, Chicago, IL, USA 21-24 July 2004 bfs2004@uic.edu, www.uic.edu/orgs/bachelier/ BS/IMS 2004 6th World Congress of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Barcelona, Spain 26-31 July 2004 wc2004@pacifico-meetings.com, +34 93 402 13 85, www.imub.ub.es/events/wc2004 AUGUST 2004 Summer School in Econometrics. The Cointegrated VAR Model: Econometric Methodology and Macroeconomic Applications, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2-22 August 2004 Summerschool@econ.ku.dk, www.econ.ku.dk/summerschool SEPTEMBER 2004 First Bonzenfreies Colloquium on Market Dynamics and Quantitative Economics, Alessandria, Palazzo Borsalino, Italy 9-10 September 2004 colloquium@unipmn.it, www.mfn.unipmn.it/~colloqui/ Risk Analysis 2004. 4th International Conference on Computer Simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, Aldemar Paradise Royal Mare Hotel, Rhodes, Greece 27-29 September 2004 enquiries@wessex.ac.uk, +44 (0)238 029 3223, www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2004/risk04/ OCTOBER 2004 IRC Hedge 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 10, 11 October 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=10 NOVEMBER 2004 IRC DICE 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 22, 23 November 2004 enquiries