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Sample records for bethune pas-de-calais realisation

  1. Living better in Nord-Pas de Calais region. For an energy turn and societal transformations - Full report, Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In 2008, the NGO Virage-energie Nord-Pas de Calais published a scenario of nuclear power phaseout including objectives of reduction of green gas emissions in the region of Nord-Pas de Calais. In 2013, Virage-energie Nord-Pas de Calais published Scenarios on energy sufficiency and societal transformations: the results of a research project on the evaluation of energy savings potentials from public policies and lifestyle changes. Using data models and assumptions, this study has highlighted that energy sufficiency could generate energy savings from 26 % to 40 %. Global scenarios presented in this report, realised with the financial support of ADEME and regional council of the region Nord-Pas de Calais in partnership with two academic laboratories (TVES, University of Lille 1 - Science and Technologies; and Ceraps, University of Lille 2 - Health and Law), complete previous works with a global vision for the future energetic and social systems. Scenarios explore interactions between energy, lifestyles, agriculture, food habits, consumer goods, industry, buildings, transport and employment, in order to identify and to reduce human, social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities to energetic crisis. Energy sufficiency and resilience are at the heart of this research. Energy sufficiency is a voluntary and organized strategy to reduce energy consumption through lifestyles changes and societal transformations. Energy sufficiency is different from energy efficiency, which concerns only improvement of technical performances in order to reduce energy consumption of a system (building, vehicle, etc.). Sufficiency re-evaluates uses and needs of energy, but also imaginary and culture of a society and its individual and collective organisations. Resilience is the capacity for a system (territory, population, etc.) to absorb a perturbation, to reorganize itself and to continue to remain in a functionally similar state. Through three possible scenarios for the territory and the

  2. Les détroits: de nouveaux territoires? L'exemple du pas de Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Picouet

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Comme tous les espaces maritimes, les détroits internationaux tendent à devenir de véritables territoires. Le détroit du pas de Calais en est sans doute l'un des exemples les plus achevés.

  3. [Evaluation of the website of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochoy, Michaël; Béné, Johana; Messaadi, Nassir; Auffret, Marine; Gautier, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    We posted the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center website and distributed a survey to its potential users between August 2014 and October 2014 (135 general practitioners, 45 pharmacists, 14 patients). Satisfaction was 7.3±1.6 out of 10 points for the visual aspect, 7.8±1.5 out of 10 points for navigation and 7.6±1.4 out of 10 points for content. The website was declared useful by 98% respondents, particularly for the reporting of adverse drugs reactions (89%). Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Facteur 4 en Nord-Pas de Calais : impacts socio-économiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Houdant

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de division par quatre des émissions de gaz à effet de serre à l’horizon 2050 aura des conséquences majeures sur les territoires, les ménages, les entreprises. Si l’objectif est global, les conséquences des changements drastiques nécessaires pour y parvenir seront localisées. Nous avons étudié les conséquences de la réduction forte des émissions de gaz à effet de serre dans la région Nord Pas de Calais à l’horizon 2020-2050, notamment pour la réhabilitation du logement et le transport des personnes. Une quantification des conséquences budgétaires de ces politiques incontournables montre que la contrainte devient forte voire insoutenable pour la majorité des ménages. Ces résultats conduisent à dresser une déclinaison des enjeux et des politiques sur le territoire régional.Cutting the greenhouse gas emissions by four by 2050 will have major consequences on local economies, households and policies. This objective is global, however, consequences will have to be faced and dealt with locally. We have studied the consequences of deep reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in the Nord Pas-de-Calais region by 2020-2050, in particular regarding housing renovation and mobility. Modelling the financial consequences of these necessary policies show that constraints become strong and even unbearable for a majority of household. These results call for well-informed and locally-based policies.

  5. L’église Notre-Dame de Rocquigny (Pas-de-Calais : restauration, reconstruction ou abandon ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Philippon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLe village de Rocquigny (274 habitants est situé au sud du département du Pas-de-Calais (canton de Bapaume, à proximité immédiate d’une des importantes lignes de front de la Grande Guerre : la ligne Hindenburg. Ce qui explique que la quasi-totalité des villages de ce territoire ont été totalement détruits notamment lors des grandes offensives de 1917.C’est ainsi que le village s’est retrouvé au cœur du vaste dispositif de la Reconstruction mis en œuvre dans les années 1920 par l...

  6. [Organ donation: point of view of private practice physicians in the region Nord-Pas de Calais in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaadi, N; Tavernier, B; Depouvourville, N; Depauw, C; Salouhou, M; Aquilina, J; Noel, C; Cottencin, O

    2011-06-01

    In 2008, in France, 222 patients died because they did not receive the graft they expected. The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of private practice physicians concerning organ donation. A postal questionnaire was sent to all private practice office-based physicians in the Nord-Pas de Calais region. This questionnaire was elaborated with a panel of physicians and sociologists. It was sent with the monthly journal of the regional union of private physicians of June 2008. Two hundred and seventy eight questionnaires were returned. One hundred and thirty four (48.2%) respondents declared they knew what the regulations about organ donation were. The majority of respondents approved organ donation. Information to patients was provided during visits by 34.53% (96) of practitioners. For those who were knowledgeable about regulations, 50.75% of them talked about organ donation. Physicians who had already had experience with organ donation were more inclined to talk about it with other patients. The practitioners described three actions they felt could have a positive influence on family acceptance: providing information before death, talking about organ donation in an appropriate sensitive way, and relying on the confidence established by a solid patient-physician relationship. Almost 90% of private physicians who responded to the survey were in favor of organ donation but only 34.5% delivered information and discussed the issue with their patients. The physicians coped with the topics more easily when they had experienced cases and when they were informed about existing regulations. A specific educational program on the current regulations and how to interact with patients on this subject during a visit could be a first answer to the problem and would be welcomed by practitioners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Quand la concertation produit de l’évitement. La mise en œuvre de Natura 2000 en région Nord-Pas-de-Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Fortier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le recours à des procédures fondées sur la délibération dans le domaine de l’action publique a connu un essor important ces dernières décennies. Débattre, dialoguer, se concerter apparaissent désormais comme une nécessité, un impératif. Mais au-delà de ces déclarations d’intention, force est d’admettre que la concertation ne se décrète pas. Il ne suffit pas de rassembler des acteurs d’horizons divers autour d’une table pour qu’un véritable travail d’échange, de confrontation de points de vue et de connaissances s’élabore et débouche sur des accords. A partir de la mise en place d’une procédure de gestion concertée de la biodiversité instaurée dans le cadre de la directive Habitats en région Nord-Pas-de-Calais, nous voudrions rendre compte des difficultés et des obstacles auxquels se trouvent parfois confrontés ces modes d’action collective.During the last decade, the use of procedure based on debate has known a great development in public action. Debating, discussing, consulting together are now recognized as something necessary and more, essential. Beyond this declaration of intent, it is necessary to admit that consulting together does not stand out. It is not enough to convene many stake-olders around a table to bring in a real debate, a real confrontation of different points of view and knowledge, and a least produce agreement. Through the implementation of a participatory approach to managing biodiversity used in the European Habitats directive, especially in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region, we shall examine difficulties and obstacles to implement this kind of collective action.

  8. Chemical and isotopic tracing of underground water in relation with leaching of mine spoils, Nord-Pas-de-Calais Coal Basin (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denimal, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Meilliez, F.; Barbecot, F.; Dever, L.

    2001-01-01

    Coal mining activity in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France) has generated many mine spoils. The oxidation of the pyrite content of such coal shales and their leaching can be a source of sulfate pollution for the underlying chalk aquifer, i.e. the main drinking water resource of the region. Two sites of study have been retained: one in the free water table zone and the other in the confined water table zone. Samples from both mine spoils have been analyzed with respect to their carbon and sulfur content and a superficial leaching of these elements has been evidenced. Water has been sampled in piezometers and boreholes close to the mine spoils and also along natural flux lines. The use of sulfur isotopes as markers of the different sulfate sources has confirmed the spoils source but has permitted to identify another source in the second site which is the Tertiary gypsum-bearing Ostricourt sands. This study has shown also that in the confined water table zone, part of the exported sulfates is reduced. This bacterial reduction of sulfates is due to a joint leaching of both carbon and sulfur in the mine spoils. A self-purification phenomenon occurs when the chalk aquifer is confined beneath the Cenozoic cover. (J.S.)

  9. Energies of the future in Nord-Pas de Calais. Which solutions to climate disruption - Global Report version 1.0, january 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at identifying means to be implemented in the Nord-Pas de Calais region to divide by four regional emissions of CO 2 , and to do it without the renewal of nuclear reactors located in Gravelines. A first part presents the methods used for this study, the hypotheses selected to elaborate scenarios, the presentation, results and comparison of various scenarios, and an assessment of energy imports. The second part addresses the different renewable energy resources of the region and their potential to reach the expected results. The third part reports the study of the evolution of transport organisation by 2050: pollutions related to transports, regional costs of these pollutions, dysfunctions and possible actions in the competition between transports modes (road, rail, river, sea, air). A chapter then addresses the issue of the relationship between urban planning and mobility. The next chapter discusses the possibilities of action in the building sector (housing and office building, policies to be implemented to comply with the chosen scenario). The possibilities of solar energy are then discussed

  10. [Benefits of a healthcare network in the management of cardiovascular disease: HTA Vasc, an innovation in the Nord Pas de Calais region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Vehier, C; Bocquet, P; Marboeuf, P; Rosey, G; Noël, A; Gorre, L-M

    2007-11-01

    Created in 2004, the HTA vasc healthcare network intensified detection, multi-disciplinary management and follow up of atheromatous cardiovascular disease and complicated hypertension in the Nord Pas de Calais region. The participating doctors gave their patients a Patient Dossier, as a function of predefined inclusion criteria (patients at elevated cardiovascular risk, as defined by the Haute Autorité de Santé (Higher Authority of Health) stratification. The dossier was presented in the form of a file containing all the information needed to optimise multi-disciplinary management, while at the same time reinforcing therapeutic compliance by patients. Therapeutic education workshops were organised, in order to complement the existing service. In parallel, HTA vasc set up a pilot medical education programme for vascular rehabilitation in six hospitals in the region. HTA vasc also established partnerships with other healthcare networks in the region. A patients' association 'Notre Coeur, Nos Artères', (Our Hearts, Our Arteries) was created in September 2006. About 250 healthcare professionals had joined the network by the end of January 2006, an increase of almost 40% over the year. More than two thirds were independent doctors, and they included cardiologists, neurologists, nephrologists, diabetologists, general practitioners, radiologists, cardiovascular surgeons, rehabilitation doctors, paramedics and pharmacists. More than 260 patients received a follow up dossier. The results of a survey carried out in May 2006 showed a high level of satisfaction: 82% of patients considered the Patient Dossier to be useful and appropriate; 78% of the healthcare professionals stated that the network was of help in the management of patients. HTA vasc received the scientific support of the Sociétés Françaises de Médecine Vasculaire, d' Hypertension Artérielle (French Societies of Vascular Medicine and Hypertension), and the Vascular Group of the Société Française de

  11. LOGEMENT DES PERSONNES ÂGÉES DANS LE PAS-DE-CALAIS. APPROCHE DU RISQUE ET DE SES REPRÉSENTATIONS: L'EXEMPLE DES BÉGUINAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Coupleux-Vanmeirhaeghe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de la vivienda de los mayores se confirma por numerosas razones entre las preocupaciones de los elegidos y los arrendadores sociales. Una de las soluciones al envejecimiento de inquilinos del sector social, en Pas-de-Calais, es el «Béguinage», pequeno barrio «cerrado» para personas mayores. Los primeros resultados de dos encuestas llevadas cerca de diferentes actores y presentados en esta contribución permiten acercar los efectos del cierre sobre el sentimiento de seguridad y la vida de los inquilinos, particularmente por el estudio de las representaciones del riesgo de los seniores.

  12. Chemical and isotopic tracing of underground water in relation with leaching of mine spoils, Nord-Pas-de-Calais Coal Basin (France); Tracage chimique et isotopique des eaux souterraines en relation avec les eaux de lixiviation de terrils, bassin minier du Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denimal, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Meilliez, F. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geodynamique, UMR 8577, 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Barbecot, F.; Dever, L. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie Isotopique, UMR 8616, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Coal mining activity in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France) has generated many mine spoils. The oxidation of the pyrite content of such coal shales and their leaching can be a source of sulfate pollution for the underlying chalk aquifer, i.e. the main drinking water resource of the region. Two sites of study have been retained: one in the free water table zone and the other in the confined water table zone. Samples from both mine spoils have been analyzed with respect to their carbon and sulfur content and a superficial leaching of these elements has been evidenced. Water has been sampled in piezometers and boreholes close to the mine spoils and also along natural flux lines. The use of sulfur isotopes as markers of the different sulfate sources has confirmed the spoils source but has permitted to identify another source in the second site which is the Tertiary gypsum-bearing Ostricourt sands. This study has shown also that in the confined water table zone, part of the exported sulfates is reduced. This bacterial reduction of sulfates is due to a joint leaching of both carbon and sulfur in the mine spoils. A self-purification phenomenon occurs when the chalk aquifer is confined beneath the Cenozoic cover. (J.S.)

  13. Recenser et étudier le patrimoine religieux du XXe siècle : l’exemple de l’inventaire des églises du Nord-Pas-de-Calais (1945-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Frémaux

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La seconde moitié du XXe siècle fut une période de mutation accélérée de l’architecture religieuse en France. L’inventaire des églises paroissiales reconstruites et construites dans la région Nord-Pas-de-Calais entre 1945 et 2000 en reflète les divers aspects. Le corpus de 183 églises servant de base à une thèse de doctorat révèle l’effort d’adaptation de l’Église aux mutations historiques, économiques et sociales de cette périodeThe second half of the 20th century was a time of tumultuous changes in French religious architecture. The survey of parish churches built in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region between 1945 and 2000 reflects all these changes. The corpus of 183 churches, on which a thesis has been based, reveals the church’s ability as an institution to adapt to the historical, economic and social changes of its time.

  14. Regional prospective and strategy for energy. A comparison of scenarios for the Pays-de-la-Loire, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, and Provence-Cote-d'Azur regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike

    2014-01-01

    A report proposes an overview of prospective studies in France. It discusses the criteria which distinguish various prospective scenarios, comments the emergence of a shared and common vocabulary for prospective studies, proposes a historical overview of prospective studies on energy in France, and a qualitative comparison of ten prospective regional studies in France. In a second part, it reports a data-based and qualitative analysis of scenarios for three regions (Pays de la Loire, Nord Pas de Calais, and Provence-Alps-Cote d'Azur): methodology, context of elaboration of prospective studies and comparison of scenarios in the three regions, data for years of reference, used variables, compliance with national commitments, application to different sectors (industry, agriculture, building, transports), analysis of energy supply. A first version of this report is provided

  15. Forêt et conservation des dunes littorales : le cas exemplaire de la Réserve biologique domaniale de la Côte d'Opale (Pas-de-Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Petit-Berghem

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La Réserve biologique domaniale de la Côte d’Opale représente en France l’un des rares systèmes dunaires marqués par la libre expression des processus dynamiques. La mobilité du site garantit le renouvellement et la diversité des biotopes et donc des habitats et des espèces qui leur sont associées. Comme toute réserve, il s’agit d’un espace réglementé où les actions de gestion sont orientées dans un sens conservatoire et strictement contrôlées. La difficulté des gestionnaires est aujourd’hui de définir un objectif à plus long terme de cette réserve. Quelles sont les structures partenaires à privilégier ? Quel degré d’ouverture au public ? Quelles sont les pistes de recherche à développer ? Comment concilier une politique de conservation écologique avec un développement durable du territoire ? Ces différents questionnements appellent une réflexion entre nature et société et renvoient à la gouvernance des territoires et à la place de l’homme dans son environnement.The coastal dunes of the Pas-de-Calais area (dunes of Berck-Merlimont with the « Réserve biologique domaniale de la Côte d’Opale », northwest France is one of the few dune systems in France characterized by the free expression of dynamic processes. The mobility of the site ensures the renewal and diversity of dune environments and thus habitats and species associated with them. Like any reserve, it is a regulated area where management actions are oriented in one direction (conservation management and strictly controlled. The challenge for managers today is to define a longer-term objective of this reserve. What are the working partners for which it would be possible to collaborate? What degree of openness to the public? What are the research topics to develop? How to reconcile a policy of environmental conservation with sustainable territorial development? These questions require a discussion between nature and society and

  16. Which place for nuclear power? The cost of power supplies security. The tariffs of power networks use. Towards a new regime of natural gas transportation in France. The mastery of raw materials supplies. The behaviour of the estate park of the collieries of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattatia, St.; Bonnet, J.Ph.; Singly, B. de; Philippe, R.; Thouvenin, V.; Clain, Y.; Dalnoky, M.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' quarterly newsletter comprises 6 articles dealing with: the share of nuclear power in the future world and French energy status (environmental and economical aspects, service life of nuclear power plants and coming up renewal, uncertainties); the cost of the security of power supplies (the improvement of power networks after the 1999 storms, the burial of power lines); how to charge for the uncatchable: the tariffs of use of power networks (the uncatchable notion of electricity transport, the first proposals of the French commission of electric power regulation (CRE), the general principles of tariffing and their practical implementation); towards a new regime of natural gas transportation in France (a legal regime that became singular inside the European Union, a careful financial evaluation of concessions, the new regime of transport permission); the mastery of raw materials supplies: a giant world scale 'Go' game (the Chinese control of the tungsten file, the titanium market, the policy of security of supplies for the sensible raw materials); the behaviour of the estate park of the old collieries of Nord-Pas de Calais region (northern France) belonging to the national group 'Charbonnages de France' (context and implementation of the transfer). The status of the evolution of the French energy consumption and bill since January 2000 is presented in a series of graphics at the end of this issue. (J.S.)

  17. Pression halieutique sur le Marais de Saint-Omer (Pas-de-Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEAUDELLE P.

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Deux enquêtes ayant porté chacune sur un échantillon de plus de 200 pêcheurs ont eu pour but de déterminer « l'effort de pêche » sur les 140 km de fossés-wateringues et sur les 20 km de rivières et canaux du Domaine public, dans le Marais de Saint-Omer. Elles ont montré que la pêche à Saint-Omer est un loisir populaire partagé en priorité par des ouvriers et des retraités de tous âges avec toutefois deux pics principaux : de 25 à 30 ans et de 50 à 55 ans. Les pêcheurs sont essentiellement régionaux, exerçant leur sport en fin de semaine, pratiquant le camping-caravaning très densément en été. La pêche statique, « au coup » s'applique aux petits cyprinidés. La pêche itinérante « au lancer », hivernale, est moins pratiquée. Les deux enquêtes, hivernale et estivale, ont montré une certaine constance dans l'effort de pêche, avec un pic estival très net. Les prélèvements annuels des 10 000 pêcheurs fréquentant le Marais de Saint-Omer sont évalués à 50 tonnes de Cyprinidés et Percidés, 10 tonnes d'anguilles et 6 tonnes de brochets. Les doléances des pêcheurs portent, dans l'ordre, sur la pollution des eaux, les troubles causés par la navigation et le mauvais entretien des plans d'eau.

  18. [The military odyssey of Norman Bethune].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C A

    2000-04-01

    While visiting the People's Republic of China in 1982, I became aware of the work of the Canadian, Norman Bethune, as a military surgeon. Bethune first served as a stretcher - bearer in an ambulance unit and later as a medical officer with the Allies during the First World War. He also participated in the Spanish Civil War as a military physician. He died in China while serving with Mao Tsetung's Eighth Route Army, fighting the Japanese invaders in Yen'an. Bethune pioneered the use of whole blood transfusions in combat areas, first in Spain and then in China. In the annals of Chinese military history, he has been given an honored place as a military surgeon and a martyr. He is also credited in China, with improving the practice of battlefield medicine, as an organizer, teacher and innovator. Bethune's fame in China is now spreading to Canada.

  19. Dr. Norman Bethune as a surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, I B

    1996-02-01

    Dr. Norman Bethune's recognition as a Canadian of renown resulted from his devoted work in China during the late 1930s. He had received a general surgical training, but his personal illness with tuberculosis led him to specialize in thoracic surgery. A surgical program at McGill University under Dr. Edward Archibald, a pioneer thoracic surgeon, was initially successful, but by the mid-1930s Bethune was rejected by McGill and Dr. Archibald. He became chief of thoracic surgery at the Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur outside Montreal. H developed thoracic surgical instruments and wrote numerous scientific papers. The outbreak of civil war in Spain in 1937 attracted Bethune to oppose what he viewed as fascist aggression. He went to Spain, where he established the value of mobile blood banking. On his return to Canada in 1937 he became aware of the escalating war between China and Japan. He joined the Chinese communist forces in northern China and spent 18 months doing Herculean mobile war surgery, while improving the state of medical services in primitive, depressing conditions. He died in 1939 at the age of 49 years of septicemia as a result of accidental laceration of his finger during surgery. The Chinese have venerated Norman Bethune and stimulated his memorialization in Canada. His surgical record can be viewed as mixed in quality, but overall his performance remains impressive for its achievement.

  20. Le Pas de Calais, un détroit cénozoïque à ouvertures multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliet-Lanoë, Brigitte Van; Mansy, Jean-Louis; Margerel, Jean-Pierre; Vidier, Jean-Pierre; Lamarche, Juliette; Everaerts, Michel

    1998-05-01

    The Dover Strait is open during the Paleogene, closed from the Upper Eocene and reopens from the middle Quaternary; but Pliocene foramifers assemblages are identical on both sides of the strait. The re-analysis of the Messinian shore line of the Monts de Flandres (Diestian at the Noires Mottes) in the prolongation of the Landrethun Flexural zone, of the Slack Formation, and the discovery of a new formation (Wimille Formation, inside the Boulonnais), all scealled by a goethitic pan, attest of an opening of the Dover Strait, controlled by the Messinian tectonical crisis and by the evolution of the Western Channel and its paleovalley system. Tectonical, geomorphological and climatic implications of this opening are discussed within the Western European context.

  1. Norman Bethune, Canadian surgeon: his Chinese connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, G V

    1983-07-01

    Norman Bethune, a Canadian thoracic surgeon who dabbled in painting, poetry, criticism, teaching and invention, was a member of the Communist Party of Canada. He became involved in two civil wars on opposite sides of the world and amassed both criticism and respect from colleagues and national leaders. The author describes Bethune's time in China, during which he developed front line field hospitals for Mao Tse-tung and his guerrillas in their struggle against the Japanese during 1938 and 1939. His efforts in China on behalf of the wounded brought him into contact with the primitive military medicine of the country and the poverty of its people; it earned for him a local reputation as saviour and benefactor and gave him an honoured place in Chinese military history.

  2. The medical life of Henry Norman Bethune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Jean; Goulet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Henry Norman Bethune is one of the most exciting and incredible surgeons that Canada has ever produced. Indeed, he is often characterized as one of the world’s best-known surgeons. He was an innovator and his scientific contributions have stood the test of time. In Canada, he will forever be remembered as a social activist committed to the welfare of the poor and to the reform of the health care system. In the People’s Republic of China, he is idolized and remains the only foreigner to ever become a national hero. OBJECTIVE: To detail the numerous and significant achievements of Henry Norman Bethune in the field of thoracic surgery and as a social activist and describe his heroic war-time actions on the battlefields of both Spain and China. METHOD: Information was gathered through the reading of the numerous publications written about the life and work of Bethune, interviews with knowledgeable people from Canadian and Chinese universities, analysis of Bethune’s own publications, and extensive experience of one of the authors in China. RESULTS: In the social sense, Henry Norman Bethune had a difficult personality, but he was deeply caring about the plight of his patients, especially the poor. As a thoracic surgeon, he could be ingenious, thoughtful and effective but he could also be abrasive, restless and temperamental. His scientific contributions were sound and, at the time, gained worldwide attention. As an activist, he led a crusade to reform the Canadian health care system, demanding free health care for all. His outstanding work during the Spanish Civil War, where he organized the first ever mobile blood transfusion unit, and during the Sino-Japanese war, where he was totally committed to the welfare of both soldiers and civilian population, were deliberate acts of resistance against Fascist onslaught and enthusiasm for the Communist cause. CONCLUSIONS: Henry Norman Bethune was unconventional and a revolutionary, but he was brilliant. He will

  3. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-10-29

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

  4. The ancestors of Norman Bethune (1890-1939) traced back to the Bethunes of Skye, leading members of the MacBeth/Beaton medical dynasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, A; Macintyre, I M C

    2013-01-01

    Norman Bethune became famous through his work in the Spanish Civil War, his advocacy of socialised medicine in North America and his association with Mao Zedong's revolutionary movement in China. It has been suggested that he may have been descended from the Bethune or Beaton medical dynasty, who for generations served as physicians to kings of Scotland, the Lords of the Isles and to some of the larger Scottish clans. This paper traces his lineage back to the Isle of Skye. In the absence of old parish records as aids to tracing genealogy, other available evidence has confirmed that Bethune was indeed in the direct line of descent from the Bethunes or Beatons of Husabost, in Skye, one of the largest branches of this medical kindred, who were physicians to the MacLeods of Dunvegan.

  5. New York-Tidewater Chapters' History of Military Medicine Award. The military odyssey of Norman Bethune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C A

    1999-04-01

    While visiting the Peoples Republic of China in 1982, I became aware of the work of the Canadian, Norman Bethune, as a military surgeon. Bethune first served as a stretcher-bearer in an ambulance unit and later as a medical officer with the Allies during the First World War. He also participated in the Spanish Civil War as a military physician. He died in China while serving with Mao Tse-tung's 8th Route Army, fighting the Japanese invaders in Yenan. Bethune pioneered the use of whole blood transfusions in combat areas, first in Spain and then in China. In the annals of Chinese military history, he has been given an honored place as a military surgeon and a martyr. He is also credited in China with improving the practice of battlefield medicine, as an organizer, teacher, and innovator. Bethune's fame in China is now spreading to Canada.

  6. Realisation, experience, and purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Often Buddhist mantra practises are portrayed as making and maintaining meditation experiences. Jigten Sumgön explains in his dGongs gcig (5.19) that such a 'making and maintaining' is only a mental fabrication and needs to be purified. Realisation does not arise from experience, but from...

  7. What happens after realisation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In this article the questions is raised whether spiritual accomplishment has consequences for ethicals. In particular it is investigated whether the realisation of the illusionary nature of all phenomena may lead in certain forms of Tibetan Buddhism to a neglect of ethical conduct....

  8. Eight-Year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterobacter Cloacae Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Man; Wang, Ailin; Xu, Jiancheng; Yuan, Ye

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacter cloacae isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 683 strains of Enterobacter cloacae were collected from sputum 410 (60.0%), secretions and pus 105 (15.4%), urine 69 (10.1%) during the past 8 years. No Enterobacter cloacae was resistant to imipenem and meropenem in the First Bethune Hospital. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacter cloacae had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from b eing transmitted.

  9. Realisering af en boligpolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnby, F.(red.)

    Meddelelsen bringer indlæggene på en konference afholdt i anledning af Bygge-boligåret '88 og Køge bys 700 års jubilæum om realisering af Køge kommunes boligpolitik med blandede, tæt lave bebyggelser. Indlæggene illustreres med tegninger og fotos fra de bebyggelser, der blev besøgt.......Meddelelsen bringer indlæggene på en konference afholdt i anledning af Bygge-boligåret '88 og Køge bys 700 års jubilæum om realisering af Køge kommunes boligpolitik med blandede, tæt lave bebyggelser. Indlæggene illustreres med tegninger og fotos fra de bebyggelser, der blev besøgt....

  10. Multivariate realised kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    We propose a multivariate realised kernel to estimate the ex-post covariation of log-prices. We show this new consistent estimator is guaranteed to be positive semi-definite and is robust to measurement noise of certain types and can also handle non-synchronous trading. It is the first estimator...... returns measured over 5 or 10 minutes intervals. We show the new estimator is substantially more precise....

  11. Multivariate realised kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2011-01-01

    We propose a multivariate realised kernel to estimate the ex-post covariation of log-prices. We show this new consistent estimator is guaranteed to be positive semi-definite and is robust to measurement error of certain types and can also handle non-synchronous trading. It is the first estimator...... returns measured over 5 or 10 min intervals. We show that the new estimator is substantially more precise....

  12. The development of blood transfusion: the contributions of Norman Bethune in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Cortes, J; Alvarez, J; Diz, J C

    1996-10-01

    Although the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) has been the focus of many papers in many countries, there are few references concerning medicine during this war, and many of the related events and medical progress are not well known. Some of these events came to influence civilian and military medicine. Among these were advances in blood transfusion, in which the Canadian surgeon, Norman Bethune, played an important role, particularly in advocating transfusion of blood to soldiers at the front rather than at medical centres behind the lines. While much of Bethune's work, especially in Canada and China, is well known, 1-3 certain aspects of Bethune's work and his stay in Spain are worth reviewing.

  13. Realisering af Vision 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    Repræsentanter for byggesektoren har på 11 dialogmøder drøftet Erhvervs- og Byggestyrelsens "Vision 2020 - Byggeri med mening". Drøftelserne førte til formulering af en lang række initiativforslag til realisering af visionen. Den mest centrale udfordring bliver at reducere fejl og mangler i...... byggeriet. Branchen lægger også vægt på, at styringen af Vision 2020s reaisering sker i byggesektoren. Initiativforslagene er i rapporten samlet under 3 hovedområder. Det første hovedområde lægger vægt på bygningerne, brugerbehov og det globale samfund. Det andet omhandler processen og leverancesystemet...

  14. [Norman Bethune (1890-1939), an involved doctor, icon of the blood transfusion history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, M E

    2016-05-01

    Norman Bethune was born in 1890, in Gravenhurst (Ontario, Canada). Thereafter a strong surgical training, he implied in thoracic surgery and fight against tuberculosis. His political opinions led him to join the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. He played an important part in the development of blood transfusion on the battlefield. Then he joined China with communist troops and therein developed surgical units and accelerated training for health personal. He died of septicemia in 1939. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Eight-year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococcus Spp. Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1446 strains of Enterococcus spp. were collected from urine 640 (44.3%), sputum 315 (21.8%), secretions and pus 265 (18.3%) during the past 8 years. The rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were 57.4%∼75.9% and 69.0%∼93.8% during the past 8 years, respectively. No Enterococcus spp. was resistant to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  16. Changes of Antimicrobial Resistance among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated in 8 Consecutive Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Yan, Chaoying; Wang, Liqiang; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 2484 strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were collected from blood 925 (37.2%), secretions 652 (26.2%) and urine 323 (13.0%) during the past 8 years. The rates of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were between 79.4% and 81.5% during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococci had increased. Monitoring the antimicrobial resistance to coagulase-negatives Staphylococci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  17. Changes of Antimicrobial Resistance among Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated in 8 Consecutive Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Chunguang; Yao, Hanxin; Xu, Jiancheng

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1469 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from sputum 705 (18.0%), secretions 206 (14.0%), pus 177 (12.0%) during the past 8 years. The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were between 50.8% and 83.3% during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus had increased. Monitoring the antimicrobial resistance to Staphylococcus aureus should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  18. Benefits realisation in maternity information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, H J; Gunn-Russell, R

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the compilation of a monograph on benefits realisation of maternity information systems from maternity services around England and Wales. It was compiled to compliment a monograph produced in June 1995 on Nursing Information Systems. The paper summarises the structure of the monograph and outlines the concept of benefits realisation. The examples featured in the monograph are not "true" benefits realisation studies and many of the accounts are anecdotal in nature. However, the paper suggests that midwives do benefit from using a maternity information system particularly in the areas of auditing practice, effortless retrieval of statistics, less duplication of data entry, summaries of care and research purposes. Managers also benefit from some of these functions and those relating to estimating workload and allocation of resources. It is suggested that any benefits for staff and management should also benefit clients and improve the provision of the maternity services.

  19. Norman Bethune, eccentric, man of principle, man of action, surgeon, and his contribution to blood transfusion in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Peter H

    2007-07-01

    Norman Bethune was a Canadian surgeon born of a family with wide interests and varied and influential careers. He himself had wide interests in medicine, politics, and the arts. One phase of his career, lasting about 6 months, involved the rapid development and exploitation of a (then) unique mobile blood transfusion service delivering citrated stored blood to hospitals and casualty clearing stations in support of the Republican ("anti-fascist") forces in the Spanish Civil War in 1936 to 1937. He was among the first to recognize the importance of prompt transfusion in the severely injured. His contributions to transfusion medicine were not immediately acknowledged by his contemporaries interested in transfusion, perhaps a consequence of his failure to publish his experience in the relevant medical literature, although other factors probably also played a part. In the past 30 years or so, as part of a wider appreciation of his career (particularly his work in China in 1938-1939), details of his endeavors in transfusion in Spain have come to light.

  20. Realise : reconstruction of reality from image sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leymarie, F.; de la Fortelle, A.; Koenderink, Jan J.; Kappers, A. M L; Stavridi, M.; van Ginneken, B.; Muller, S.; Krake, S.; Faugeras, O.; Robert, L.; Gauclin, C.; Laveau, S.; Zeller, C.; Anon,

    1996-01-01

    REALISE has for principal goals to extract from sequences of images, acquired with a moving camera, information necessary for determining the 3D (CAD-like) structure of a real-life scene together with information about the radiometric signatures of surfaces bounding the extracted 3D objects (e.g.

  1. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): how to reduce hyper-realisations to realisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Puncher, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two important aspects in which the MWDS-2013 output (absorbed dose to organs calculated in each calendar year) differs from previous data bases (MWDS-2008 and DOSES-2005) are that they have been designed to (a) deal explicitly with uncertainties in model parameters, and (b) differentiate parameters that are considered to be shared (unknown, but having the same value for all workers) and unshared (unknown, but having different values between workers). A multiple-realisation approach is used to preserve information on the effects of shared and unshared parameters both for internal and external doses. Previously, a single realisation (a set of organ doses: one for each worker in the cohort) was calculated using the best estimates of parameter values only. In MWDS-2013, a set of 1000 realisations is produced, to reflect the uncertainty in assumed model parameters: each realisation using a different set of parameter values. Within each realisation, shared parameter values are fixed throughout the cohort, while unshared parameters are allowed to vary between workers. One problem is that because the calculation of organ dose is Bayesian, the estimate for each organ dose is not just a single value, but is itself a distribution (hyper-dose). Technically, it is the probability density of dose given the sampled set of parameter values and given the data for that worker. Thus, in our case, the realisations consist not of single doses, but distributions of doses. The term hyper-realisation is used to differentiate this from the more conventional realisation. Although the multiple hyper-realisation in principle contains all of the necessary information on parameter uncertainty, including shared and unshared parameters, in order to make preliminary epidemiological analyses tractable, and also for consistency with the external doses, it was required to convert the hyper-realisations to realisations. The aim of this paper is to discuss the different approaches that were considered

  2. Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther

    – a formal methods tool that supports the Vienna Development Method. The development of the code generation infrastructure has involved the re-design of the software architecture of Overture. The new architecture brings forth the reuse and extensibility features of Overture to take into account the needs......Software for mission-critical systems is sometimes analysed using formal specification to increase the chances of the system behaving as intended. When sufficient insights into the system have been obtained from the formal analysis, the formal specification is realised in the form of a software...... implementation. One way to realise the system’s software is by automatically generating it from the formal specification – a technique referred to as code generation. However, in general it is difficult to make guarantees about the correctness of the generated code – especially while requiring automation...

  3. Legislative and other measures taken by government to realise the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    provide the framework in which parents can facilitate the realisation of their children's rights.7. The state can fulfil this obligation by taking reasonable legislative and other measures within its available resources to realise everyone's right of access to adequate housing progressively. Therefore, the measures taken to realise ...

  4. Towards Self-Realisation: Exploring the Ecological Self for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the concepts of self-realisation and the ecological self in Arne Naess's ecosophy, which considers the manner in which human inherent potentialities are realised in educational practices. This article first elucidates the meaning of the concepts of self-realisation and the ecological self according to Naess's work. Second, the…

  5. Study and realisation of chaining operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohd Solaiman

    1970-01-01

    Within the frame of researches in the field of binary analysis performed in the nuclear instrumentation department of the Saclay Nuclear Centre, this research thesis belongs to the field of applications of binary analysis theories, and more particularly to the development and study of a chaining operator (chaining operators are used to develop complex automatic systems with a clear separation between information processing and program-based management of this processing). The author first recalls some notions of binary analysis: algebraic binary sets, products and their specific properties, and practical realisation of binary functions by means of logical circuits. He recalls methods for the general study of sequential systems; generalities, base functions, elementary reflex functions, graphical study of sequential systems, search for and removal of commutation variations. He discusses the present organisation of electronic computers: software, hardware, synchronous and asynchronous control. He presents chaining operators: generalities, computation of a chaining operator, static aspect of chaining operators. He reports and comments the practical realisation of chaining operators: components, measurements performed on elaborated chaining operators, simulation experimental set-up [fr

  6. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  7. Realisations of a single high tone in Northern Sotho | Zerbian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The segmental make-up of the tone-bearing syllable leads to systematic surface variation in tone realisation. By collecting controlled acoustic data on tone realisation, this study provides a ground for cross-dialectal comparison of Southern Bantu tone. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2009, 27(4): ...

  8. A feasible central limit theory for realised volatility under leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, Neil

    In this note we show that the feasible central limit theory for realised volatility and realised covariation recently developed by Barndor-Nielsen and Shephard applies under arbitrary diusion based leverage eects. Results from a simulation experiment suggest that the feasible version of the limit...

  9. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  10. [Self-discovery and self-realisation in occupational life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stresemann, Ernst

    2012-03-01

    Self-discovery as a maturation process begins early in infancy and is part of juvenile socialisation. In this early phase in life the drive of self-realisation may rise and continue to motivate the adolescent and further the grown-up in his working life. The impulse of self-realisation tends to vary along the course of life. While a successful carreer will strengthen the drive for self-realisation, lessened stimulation through continuous and dull work may result in its fading, as might inevitably be the case in the long-term unemployed. In occupational life, loss of motivation for self-realisation can induce lack of interest in accomplishment of the work task, thus diminishing the individual's productivity at the work place.

  11. Tone realisation in a Yoruba speech recognition corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the acoustic realisation of tone in short continuous utterances in Yoruba. Fundamental frequency contours are extracted for automatically aligned syllables from a speech corpus of 33 speakers collected for speech recognition...

  12. Nuclear knowledge management: The GRS realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraha, D.; Westerheide, P.

    2004-01-01

    management', the embedding of these means for support and realisation of projects will be shown. Also the developments in the area of meta knowledge and knowledge representation by means of formal methods and supporting tools will be investigated. Basic and advanced training is of fundamental significance to the retention of competence and transfer of knowledge. The basic training concept developed for newly appointed staff will be discussed. It is modular in construction and provides the possibility of setting individual priorities. GRS also disposes advanced training courses in an attractive range on specific subjects for in-house use and for other organisations. The last point covers an outlook on future steps to be made for the practical use of knowledge management activities in house, for example the human resources management, as well as on the efforts to be made for the integration of knowledge management beyond the GRS scope for a wider use between companies and other institutions in the international and world wide context. (author)

  13. Barriers for realisation of energy savings in buildings; Barrierer for realisering af energibesparelser i bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.

    2004-07-01

    Many years' efforts within the energy labelling area have shown large saving potentials in heating and use of electricity in buildings. At the same time it has been proved that these saving potentials, even when economically advantageous, only are cashed to a limited extent. The reason to this is ascribed to barriers that meet the individual building owner who wants to start saving energy. Most barriers are known and a lot of these have been sought overcome for some time. The questions are how many barriers still exist, have new barriers arisen and the character of these barriers. On this background the objective of this survey has been to concretize and study the barriers, which are blocking reasonable energy savings. Focus has especially been on barriers for realisation of heating savings, but through a general evaluation of energy savings of barriers other forms of energy saving methods have been taken into consideration. Special interest has been directed towards houses, typically one family houses, which are affected by the Energy Labelling Scheme. The concept barriers include all kinds of barriers, also barriers that not are acknowledged as barriers by the individual house owner, or that on closer inspection turn out to be something else than actual barriers. This note suggests an alternative inertia model, in order to create an idea of the inertness characteristic of the many house owners who understand the message but fail to act on it. (BA)

  14. Linearly-realised Worldsheet Supersymmetry in pp-wave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetic, M.; Lu, H.; Pope, C. N.; Stelle, K. S.

    2002-01-01

    We study the linearly-realised worldsheet supersymmetries in the ``massive'' type II light-cone actions for pp-wave backgrounds. The pp-waves have have 16+N_sup Killing spinors, comprising 16 ``standard'' Killing spinors that occur in any wave background, plus N_sup ``supernumerary'' Killing spinors (0\\le N_sup \\le 16) that occur only for special backgrounds. We show that only the supernumerary Killing spinors give rise to linearly-realised worldsheet supersymmetries after light-cone gauge fi...

  15. Systematic realisation of control flow analyses for CML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasser, K.L.S.; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1997-01-01

    for terminating w well as non-terminating programs. The analysis is defined coinductively and it is shown that all programs have a least analysis result (that is indeed the best one). To realise the analysis we massage the specification in three stages: (i) to explicitly record reachability of subexpressions, (ii...

  16. A realised volatility measurement using quadratic variation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2001a, 2001b), Barndorff-Nielsen and Shepard (2001, 2002a, 2002b,. 2002c) and Comte and Renault (1998), a model-free (non-parametric) volatility measure- ment is specified and studied. This measurement, termed realised volatility, satisfies the criteria of a good measurement. Given this measurement, volatility may be ...

  17. Realisation of two adjacent high tones: Acoustic evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present findings of a multi-speaker production study that was undertaken to investigate the realisation of two adjacent high tones within the verb word in Northern Sotho, a Southern Bantu language. Experimental tokens are selected to ensure that the high tones originate from different combinations of morphosyntactic ...

  18. A cross-cultural investigation of apology realisation patterns in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the main challenges facing speech act research is the strong need to widen the scope of languages studied on the cross-cultural level, so as to make valid and universal claims of the politeness theory. This article reports on an investigation into speakers' realisation, in Luganda, Luganda English, and English first ...

  19. Iõhviskaja volost nalazhivajet sotrudnitshestvo s Severnõm regionom Frantsii / Arno Rudis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rudis, Arno

    2007-01-01

    Jõhvi vallavalitsuse delegatsioon viibis Prantsusmaal Nord Pas de Calais regioonis. Jõhvi valla asevallavanem Kristi Klaamann kohtumisest linnapeaga, toimunud arutelust tulevase koostöö üle kultuuri ja hariduse vallas

  20. Priroda na vsehh odna / Olga Tarassova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarassova, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Põhja-Prantsusmaa Nord-Pas-de-Calais delegatsioon viibis Eestis eesmärgiga tutvuda kaevandusmaade rekultiveerimisega, visiidi lõpus peeti ka samasisuline konverents. Koostööst INTERREG-programmi raames

  1. Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975. Series 6, Volume 7 (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    peasants off their holdings and into seasonal migrant work." The French established monopolies on certain staple or widely used items, such as salt...in June 1944 was to convince the Germans that the actu- allandings were a feint, and that the real landing was to be at Pas De Calais . The massive...German armored forces of the 15th Panzer Army stationed in northern France and Belgium were facing the expected main attack at Pas de Calais . They

  2. Reverse engineering of obsolete components for realisation using additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    McAlister, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing as it also known, is a technique used for the direct manufacture of parts, one which is becoming more accessible to not just engineers in industry, but also non-technical users with minimal technical knowledge or experience. The aim of the research was the investigation of the possibilities that AM presents for realising the manufacture of obsolete parts from older systems. Consideration of multiple AM techniques and their individual benefits and dr...

  3. Investigating benefits realisation process for enterprise resource planning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badewi, Amgad

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the benefit realisation process for ERP systems so as to develop a benefit realization road map whereby organisations can realize the maximum potential of their ERP systems. This research covers two areas: mechanism of implementation and the destination to change (i.e. road map). It has been found that project management and benefits management approaches are necessary for recouping benefits from investing in Information Technologies (IT) pr...

  4. Manipulation of entanglement and its realisation using trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonathan, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Entanglement is a fundamental physical resource at the heart of quantum information theory. This Thesis contributes to its study by approaching it from two separate directions: the laws governing its manipulation, and its creation within a concrete physical setting. I begin by studying the manipulation of entangled pure states of two quantum systems when (i) only a single copy of each system is available and (ii) only a restricted class of physical operations are allowed to be performed on them. One physically reasonable class, denoted LQCC, is the set of all possible quantum operations realised on each system by local agents, who are allowed to communicate with each other only by classical means. Given these conditions, I find a minimal set of entropic-like state functions that completely determine which manipulations can be realised. Applications to useful protocols such as entanglement concentration are discussed. Further elaboration allows also the determination of the most faithful approximation to a given target state that can be attained under LQCC, and the most faithful teleportation protocol achievable when only partial entanglement is available. The study of a more general class of transformations demonstrates that entanglement can also be a re-usable resource. Specifically, I show that the mere presence of further entanglement allows the realisation of transformations which are impossible under LQCC alone. The extra entanglement is not consumed in any way, acting as a 'catalyst'. Applications of this counter-intuitive effect are discussed. In the second part of the Thesis, I turn to the concrete creation and manipulation of entanglement within the system of laser-cooled, trapped ions. After a brief survey of known schemes, I propose a new method for realising two-qubit quantum logic gates within this system. The scheme is based on the AC Stark shift (lightshift) induced by laser light resonant with the ionic transition frequency. At specific laser

  5. Restrictions in the realisation of multipass unstable resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhov, S Yu

    2009-01-01

    Main restrictions in the realisation of multipass unstable resonators caused by intracavity losses and large-scale aberrations are considered. The influence of intracavity losses on the laser radiation power and divergence is analysed based on the numerical simulation of an unstable resonator. The efficiency criterion for the unstable multipass resonator is proposed, which is proportional to the radiation brightness and takes into account the influence of the misalignment, thermal deformation and the main parameters of the active medium and resonator on the parameters of laser radiation. (resonators)

  6. Systematic realisation of control flow analyses for CML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasser, K.L.S.; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1997-01-01

    We present a methodology for the systematic realisation of control flow analyses and illustrate it for Concurrent ML. We start with an abstract specification of the analysis that is next proved semantically sound with respect to a traditional small-step operational semantics; this result holds......) to be defined in a syntax-directed manner, and (iii) to generate a set of constraints that subsequently can be solved by standard techniques. We prove equivalence results between the different versions of the analysis; in particular it follows that the least solution to the constraints generated...

  7. Realising the European network of bio-dosimetry (RENEB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulka, U.; Ainsbury, L.; Atkinson, M.; Barquinero, J. F.; Barrios, L.; Beinke, C.; Bognar, G.; Cucu, A.; Darroudi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Gil, O.; Gregoire, E.; Hadjidekova, V.; Haghdoost, S.; Herranz, R.; Jaworska, A.; Lindholm, C.; Mkacher, R.; Moertl, S.; Montoro, A.; Moquet, J.; Moreno, M.; Ogbazghi, A.; Oestreicher, U.; Palitti, F.; Pantelias, G.; Popescu, I.; Prieto, M. J.; Romm, H.; Rothkamm, K.; Sabatier, L.; Sommer, S.; Terzoudi, G.; Testa, A.; Thierens, H.; Trompier, F.; Turai, I.; Vandersickel, V.; Vaz, P.; Voisin, P.; Vral, A.; Ugletveit, F.; Woda, C.; Wojcik, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, a network for biological dosimetry has been created to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response capabilities in case of a large-scale nuclear accident or radiological emergency. Through the RENEB (Realising the European Network of bio-dosimetry) project, 23 experienced laboratories from 16 European countries will establish a sustainable network for rapid, comprehensive and standardised bio-dosimetry provision that would be urgently required in an emergency situation on European ground. The foundation of the network is formed by five main pillars: (1) the ad hoc operational basis, (2) a basis of future developments, (3) an effective quality-management system, (4) arrangements to guarantee long-term sustainability and (5) awareness of the existence of RENEB. RENEB will thus provide a mechanism for quick, efficient and reliable support within the European radiation emergency management. The scientific basis of RENEB will concurrently contribute to increased safety in the field of radiation protection. (authors)

  8. Public choice economics and space policy: realising space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patrick

    2001-03-01

    Government space agencies have the statutory responsibility to suport the commercialisation of space activities. NASA's 1998 report "General Public Space Travel and Tourism" concluded that passenger space travel can start using already existing technology, and is likely to grow into the largest commercial activity in space: it is therefore greatly in taxpayers' economic interest that passenger space travel and accommodation industries should be developed. However, space agencies are doing nothing to help realise this — indeed, they are actively delaying it. This behaviour is predicted by 'public choice' economics, pioneered by Professors George Stigler and James Buchanan who received the 1982 and 1986 Nobel prizes for Economics, which views government organisations as primarily self-interested. The paper uses this viewpoint to discuss public and private roles in the coming development of a space tourism industry.

  9. A realised volatility measurement using quadratic variation and dealing with microstructure effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C du Toit

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A volatility measurement that overcomes the respective problems encountered when implementing the realised and Discrete Sine Transform volatility measurements is defined and discussed in this paper. First the shortcomings of these measurements are briefly discussed. Then a modified realised volatility measurement is defined and relevant theoretical results are derived. Finally simulation results are used to evaluate these three volatility measurements.

  10. Realising a socially sustainable South African society through cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K LG Teise

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Education conceptualised in terms of the broader project of socially sustainable development (SSD makes cooperative learning (CL valuable in realising the former. Cooperative learning emphasises cooperation as integral to learner success, and because of this CL strategies have been found to be successful in fostering positive intergroup attitudes in classrooms, multicultural and otherwise. Social sustainable development concerns those aspects of human life and human relations which are necessary for the survival of society. Apart from it being particularly instrumental in improving learners’ academic performance, CL is equally valuable in promoting positive social relations amongst group members. Such relations are important for achieving social sustainable development. Therefore, CL could particularly be valuable to develop in learners, and the broader society, the social dispositions required for a socially sustainable South African society. My argument centres on the potential of CL as a practical strategy towards the development of a social sustainable South African society. In an attempt to demonstrate that CL holds the potential to contribute towards a social sustainable South African society, I’ll be focusing on the core tenets of SSD. These tenets are explored in relation to the principles and social outcomes of CL in order to establish the extent the latter could be instrumental in promoting SSD.

  11. Legal framework for e-research : realising the potential

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Legal Framework for e-Research: Realising the Potential provides an overview of key legal issues facing e-Research. Part One of this book considers the broader prospect and context of what e-Research will allow. Part Two looks more closely at the role law will play in the e-Research environment. Part Three focuses on the key issues of data exchange and data management highlighting important legal issues. Part Four reflects on the changing nature of Scholarly Communications while Part Five looks at the fundamental role of agreements for collaborative endeavour (contracts) in structuring collaboration and calls for greater consideration of way we can streamline the process. Part Six examines the role and operation of privacy law in an e-Research world while Part Seven posits a new approach to commercialisation that embraces the paradigm of open innovation. Part Eight looks at the international legal implications for e-Research and Part Nine considers the national survey we undertook on e-Research, collaborative...

  12. A Semantic Representation Of Adult Learners' Developing Conceptions Of Self Realisation Through Learning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Learning is the reflective activity that enables the learner to draw upon her/his previous experiences and background knowledge to conceptualise, realise, understand and evaluate the present, so as to shape her/his future actions and to construct and develop new knowledge for her(him)self. Learning...... of learners’ developing conceptions of learning. Some categories like 'Meaning Construction', 'Reality Interpretation' and 'Self Awareness (Self Realisation)' could be known as the most excellent and the most transcendental conceptions used by learners. Consequently, I will employ the highlighted concepts...... strongly depends on meetings of awarenesses (or self realisations) which we see as achieved through the experiences that mentors and learners undertake jointly. Self realisation is a type of self organisation process and always organises itself. In fact, self realisation is always going to be continued...

  13. How precise is the finite sample approximation of the asymptotic distribution of realised variation measures in the presence of jumps?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut

    and present a new estimator for the asymptotic ‘variance’ of the centered realised variance in the presence of jumps. Next, we compare the finite sample performance of the various estimators by means of detailed Monte Carlo studies where we study the impact of the jump activity, the jump size of the jumps......This paper studies the impact of jumps on volatility estimation and inference based on various realised variation measures such as realised variance, realised multipower variation and truncated realised multipower variation. We review the asymptotic theory of those realised variation measures...... in the price and the presence of additional independent or dependent jumps in the volatility on the finite sample performance of the various estimators. We find that the finite sample performance of realised variance, and in particular of the log–transformed realised variance, is generally good, whereas...

  14. Study and realisation of a miniature optical parametric oscillator; Etude et realisation d`un oscillateur parametrique optique miniature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulop, L.

    1998-10-09

    We used micro-chip lasers developed in LETI to pump a miniature Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO). The micro-chip lasers can be fabricated at very low cost, using collective fabrication processes. The micro-chip lasers we used are Nd:YAG lasers, passively Q-switched by a Cr{sup 4+}:YAG saturable absorber. They are pumped with 1 W standard laser diodes and emit pulses which characteristics are a few {mu}J energies and several kHz repetition rates. The main problem in pumping an OPO with such a micro-chip laser is to reach its oscillation threshold. We are calculated this threshold and showed that it will be impossible to pump an extra-cavity OPO with a micro-chip laser. We first worked with an extra-cavity OPO based on the non-critical-phase-matching conversion 1.064 {mu}m{yields}1.572 {mu}m + 3.293 {mu}m in a KTP crystal, pumped with a mJ energy laser. In spite of good results (low thresholds of 200 {mu}J) and as we have calculated, it was not be possible to pump such an OPO with our micro-chip lasers (10{mu}J maximum energies). We developed an intracavity micro-chip OPO (with the OPO inside the laser cavity). In this configuration, the OPO benefits from the intracavity laser intensity to reach the oscillation threshold. The micro-chip OPO emits about 10 ns pulses at 1.572 {mu}m with a few {mu}J energy at several kHz repetition rate. To our knowledge, we realised the first micro-chip-OPO using a 1 W standard diode pumped, passively Q-switched micro-chip laser. In order to improve the performances of the intracavity micro-chip-OPO, we developed a software for numerical modelling its operation. (author) 80 refs.

  15. GGSP: Realisation and maintenance of the Galileo Terrestrial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ggsp Prototype Team; Gendt, G.; Altamimi, Z.; Dach, R.; Söhne, W.; Springer, T.; GGSP Prototype Team

    2011-01-01

    The realisation and maintenance of a Galileo Terrestrial Reference Frame (GTRF) is the main function of the Galileo Geodetic Service Provider (GGSP). The GTRF shall be compatible with the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) within a precision level of 3 cm (2 sigma). The connection to the ITRF is realized and validated by stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and by geodetic local ties to stations equipped with other geodetic techniques. It is demonstrated that this GTRF can be maintained by including the Galileo Signal-in-Space data, once Galileo reaches its operational stage.The GGSP will also provide additional products, such as Earth Rotation Parameters, satellites orbits, clock corrections for satellites and stations, which will be offered to the Galileo user community to have most precise access to the GTRF and will be used to monitor the accuracy of the corresponding Galileo Mission Segment.The GGSP was built up in time, and for a final demonstration the full system was operated for an interval of 6 months. During that time also microwave data from the two active GIOVE satellites were used.The GGSP Consortium followed the most up to date IGS standards of weekly processing during seven monthly campaigns (November 2006 to June 2008) and a continuous processing from September 2008 to February 2009 delivering several versions of the GTRF. The latest GTRF solution (GTRF09v01) has an RMS position difference with respect to the ITRF2005 computed over the 71 common stations of 1.1 and 2.9 mm in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. The RMS velocity differences are 0.3 and 0.6 mm/y, respectively. The GGSP GPS satellite orbits and clock corrections agree with the IGS Final products at a level of 5-11 mm and 0.02-0.03 ns, respectively.The quality of the GIOVE orbits is at a level of 20-30 cm. The Hydrogen-Maser on board of GIOVE-B is nearly one order of magnitude better than the GPS satellite clocks.

  16. Public-private Partnership in the Context of Realisation of the State Financial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Victoriia M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the result of the study the article analyses modern tendencies of development of economy of Ukraine. It marks out problems connected with realisation of the state financial policy. It considers the essence of the state financial policy, its directions (such as budget-tax and monetary-credit, structural components and tasks. It emphasises the place of the public-private partnership as an instrument of realisation of the financial policy. It justifies tasks in the process of realisation of goals of the modern financial policy, which could be carried out with the help of the public-private partnership. The prospect of further studies in this direction is formation of practical recommendations on the use of the public-private partnership in the process of realisation of the state financial policy. Further improvement of the public-private partnership is connected with development of efficient mechanisms of its introduction and optimisation of its financial structure.

  17. Evaluation of realisation of management efficiency on the basis of an agricultural enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this compilation an evaluation of realisation of standard management functions in an enterprise has been made. The system used for measurement and evaluation of such functions as: planning, organising, motivating and controlling, is based on a praxeological measurement system. Economic indicators and evaluation marks used in the compilation allowed, in an objective way, to determine the realisation of certain functions and to evaluate the efficiency of managing an enterprise in a yearly span.

  18. Autoethnographic Realisation of Legitimacy of Voice: A Poetic Trail of Forming Researcher Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirusha Naidu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During my research with home-based care volunteers in South Africa I used autoethnography and poetic reflection to document the parallel realisation of my changing identity as a researcher and the home-based care volunteers' realisation of their identity as significant contributors to the HIV/AIDS care and support networks in their community. I explored how the concepts of space and witnessing were operative in the realisation of a legitimate identity for the participants and me. Physical space or distance from familiar environments, experiences and ideas promoted alternative perspectives and stimulated the development of an understanding of personal identity. Dialogical space created through engagement with others encouraged identity development in both different and similar ways for me as a researcher and the participants. In this article, I recount my role as a witness to the participants’ realisation of identity whilst concurrently being witnessed by others in the process of developing my identity as a researcher. Witnessing is recognised as acknowledgement and affirmation in the process of identity development. A series of poems written during and after the primary data collection illustrate aspects of the discussion. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401212

  19. Realisation of complex precast concrete structures through the integration of algorithmic design and novel fabrication techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Martin; Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Pigram, Dave

    2012-01-01

    . This involves consideration of the relations between geometry and technique, as well as the use of form-finding and simulation algorithms for shaping and optimising the shape of the structure. Custom-made scripts embedded in 3D-modeling tools were used for producing the information necessary for realising...

  20. 'Lived Islam' in India and Bangladesh : negotiating religion to realise reproductive aspirations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Hutter, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how Muslim women interpret and negotiate religion in order to realise their reproductive aspirations. A close reading of lived experiences of 32 Muslim women from a varied educational background yields a wider perspective of the different interpretations of

  1. Crossing the Rubicon: Is the Use of a Realisation Company Still a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Supreme Court of Appeal in all three cases applied the so-called “crossing the Rubicon” metaphor to determine the point when the realisation of a capital asset transforms into a scheme of profit-making and thus becomes taxable. The decisions in these three cases, if closely analysed, confirm that the courts have ...

  2. The Politics Underpinning the Non-realisation of the Right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to development stands out as one of the controversial rights ever since its articulation in the 1970s. The adoption of the 1986 United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development underlines the importance of international cooperation for it to be realised. I argue that the emphasis on 'development aid' rather ...

  3. Legislative and other measures taken by government to realise the right of children to shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Mc Murray

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa , 1996 entrenches numerous socio-economic rights. One of these socio-economic rights is contained in section 26 that grants everyone the right to have access to adequate housing and section 28 that grants every child the additional right to basic shelter among others. This article aims to examine the legislative and other measures taken by the state to realise the right to shelter of children. Firstly, the legislative measures taken specifically for the realisation of children's right to basic shelter as envisaged by section 28(1(c will be discussed. Thereafter attention will be drawn to those measures taken to ensure the progressive realisation of section 26. Section 26 provides everyone, including children, the right of access to adequate housing. Therefore, every measure taken to realise section 26 is indirectly applicable to the realisation of section 28(1(c and children's right to basic shelter.The conclusion may be drawn that most of the discussed legislative and other measures are aimed at realising everyone's right of access to adequate housing, this includes children. However, most of these measures make little mention of the specific right of children to basic shelter. It is regarded as inclusive in the overall application of the legislation. Once again, it must be stressed that these legislative and other measures, in order to comply with the standard of reasonableness, must regard the interest of children to be paramount. If such legislation does not provide for the interest of children as a vulnerable group, it can be argued that the relevant legislative measure is not constitutionally valid.It is submitted that national government must recognise the importance of the role of local government, and local government should increasingly assume policy-making and implementation powers in their area. This will go a long way to building local capacity to function as effective development

  4. Most of the Long-Term Genetic Gains from Optimum-Contribution Selection can be Realised with Restrictions Imposed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Ostersen, Tage; Ask, Birgitte

    Text: We reasoned that optimum-contribution selection (OCS) with restrictions imposed during optimisation will realise most of the long-term genetic gains realised by OCS without restrictions. We used stochastic simulation to estimate long-term rates of genetic gain realised by breeding schemes...... using OCS without and with restrictions imposed during optimisation. In all but a few exceptions, the long-term rates of genetic gain realised by OCS with restrictions was 95-100% of the rates realised by OCS without restrictions. It was only when the restrictions became overly strict that we began...... to lose gain. We also present evidence from the Danish pig-breeding scheme for Duroc that practical implementation of OCS with restrictions increases genetic gains and decreases rates of inbreeding. OCS has gone from a selection method that was difficult to apply in practice, to one that is readily...

  5. Evaluation of realised energy savings with simulation models. A new policy tool for the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    This report describes a new analysis tool for the evaluation of realised energy savings, and effects of savings policy, in the Netherlands. It aims to meet the information needs of policymakers, both at national and EU level, using the monitoring results of the NL Agency. The system builds on the Protocol Monitoring Energy Savings to calculate realised savings. The innovation consists of the option to adjust energy models per sector, as already used for scenario analysis, to simulate past developments. The simulations can estimate total savings and assess the contribution of policy measures. The detailed simulation approach also enables the decomposition of energy trends into volume-effects due to growth, structural effects such as fuel substitution and import/exports, and various saving effects. As the modeling system is already used for the analysis of future trends, it enables a good comparison between ex-ante (expected) savings and ex-post (realised) savings. Finally, the system enables a faster delivery of calculation results than presently is the case.

  6. Economic Integration of Ukraine in the Context of Bipolar Concept Realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenda Sergiy V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possibility and necessity of realisation of the bipolar concept of formation of the trade and economic mode of Ukraine at the level of free trade zones both with EU and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU / CIS. The concept of simultaneous functioning of the extended zone of free trade (Association Agreement of Ukraine with EU and free trade agreement with CU / CIS countries could be realised on the a la carte principle based on fundamental agreements of WTO and international practices. The goal of the article lies in consideration of institutional specific features of the bipolar concept of economic integration of Ukraine with EU and CU / CIS, relying on modern scientific views on development of economic integration under conditions of the so-called Euro-pause. The article draws a conclusion that negative integration has a high potential of realisation for Ukraine and Russia. It proves falseness of the opinion about dissension of simultaneous existence of the free trade zone of Ukraine with EU and CU / CIS from institutional positions.

  7. Realisation of functions of planning and organisation in the system of management of transaction expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krush Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in building a functional model of management of transaction expenses of an enterprise with specification of stages of realisation of planning functions in an organisation. In the result of the study the article marks out functions of management of transaction expenses, which ensure transformation of incoming (financial resources into outgoing ones (optimised transaction expenses. The article identifies stages of realisation of “Planning transaction expenses” and “Organisation of management of transaction expenses” functions. It characterises in detail responsibilities of enterprise subdivisions that deal with management of transaction expenses. It establishes that the original element of the planning function is the budget of transaction expenses for a planning period and organisation – job descriptions of employees with detailed description of their duties and authorities, rights and obligations. The prospect of further scientific developments is study of stages of realisation of such management functions as “Motivation of personnel on rational use of funds and management of transaction expenses”, “Control over the state of management of transaction expenses” and “Regulation of the process of management of transaction expenses” of enterprises.

  8. How precise is the finite sample approximation of the asymptotic distribution of realised variation measures in the presence of jumps?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut

    2011-01-01

    and present a new estimator for the asymptotic "variance" of the centered realised variance in the presence of jumps. Next, we compare the finite sample performance of the various estimators by means of detailed Monte Carlo studies. Here we study the impact of the jump activity, of the jump size of the jumps......This paper studies the impact of jumps on volatility estimation and inference based on various realised variation measures such as realised variance, realised multipower variation and truncated realised multipower variation. We review the asymptotic theory of those realised variation measures...... in the price and of the presence of additional independent or dependent jumps in the volatility. We find that the finite sample performance of realised variance and, in particular, of log--transformed realised variance is generally good, whereas the jump--robust statistics tend to struggle in the presence...

  9. Realising local government visions for developing district heating: Experiences from a learning country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, Ruth E.; Bale, Catherine S.E.; Taylor, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    District heating (DH) has an important role to play in enabling cities to transition to low-carbon heating. Although schemes are commonplace in some countries, in ‘learning countries’ where building-level technologies make up the majority of heating systems there are numerous barriers to introducing DH. Local governments are seen as key actors in helping to create a ‘shared vision’ for DH amongst stakeholders. This study uses interviews with stakeholders from a range of sectors in the UK (an example of a learning country) to examine the visions of local actors for developing DH and the types of national policy that would support local implementation of these visions. The analysis shows that in engaging with DH development local governments seek multiple types of value. Realising this value will most likely happen by taking a long-term, planned approach to development. In contrast, national government policy is geared towards techno-economic criteria and may lead to only a minority of potential sites being developed, without realisation of wider social or environmental benefits aligned to local visions. The work highlights the importance of local strategic planning, enabled by aligned national policy, in realising the full economic, environmental and social benefits of DH. - Highlights: • Local governments are key to the development of district heating (DH). • Local government-led visions of DH seek to deliver complex value. • In the UK development is led by funding and commercial factors and is not strategic. • To enable DH, national policy must align with the vision of local actors. • Social and environmental criteria must be incorporated in decision-making.

  10. An Indoor Positioning Realisation for GSM using Fingerprinting and kNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anastasijević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Positioning in public land mobile networks has become increasingly popular over the past years with the development of more sophisticated mobile equipment and standards. New services which rely on location information have been developed, such as emergency call localization, navigation, location sensitive commercials/ billing, etc. This paper investigates one practical realisation of an indoor positioning model for GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications networks, based on the received signal strength (RSS and fingerprinting method. The achieved results are well within international localization accuracy requirements for emergency services, confirming great potential of the approach.

  11. Time for a new language for asthma control: results from REALISE Asia

    OpenAIRE

    David-Wang, Aileen; Price,David B; Cho,Sang-Heon; Ho,James Chung-Man; Jeong,Jae-Won; Liam,Chong-Kin; Lin,Jiangtao; Muttalif,Abdul Razak; Diahn-Warng,Perng; Tan,Tze-Lee; Neira,Glenn; Yunus,Faisal

    2015-01-01

    David Price,1,2 Aileen David-Wang,3 Sang-Heon Cho,4 James Chung-Man Ho,5 Jae-Won Jeong,6 Chong-Kin Liam,7 Jiangtao Lin,8 Abdul Razak Muttalif,9 Diahn-Warng Perng,10,11 Tze-Lee Tan,12 Faisal Yunus,13 Glenn Neira14 On behalf of the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) Asia Working Group 1Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Research in Real Life, Singapore; 3University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippine...

  12. Realising the SPECT capability of a rotating gamma camera: an alternative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, P.B.; Sloboda, R.S.; Malik, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates that the SPECT capability of the GE 400T and DEC Gamma-11 combination can be realised without any additional hardware. It is shown that projection data can be collected using acquisition software which already exists as an integral part of the Gamma-11 system. A description of the software which was developed to perform the image reconstruction is also given. The results of two phantom studies verify the validity of the method, which is currently being used regularly in non-routine clinical investigations of the brain and liver. (author)

  13. Predicting utterance pitch targets in Yoruba for tone realisation in speech synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available well studied African tone language of which the linguistic details of the tone system have been thoroughly described. Three level tones, labelled High (H), Mid (M) and Low (L) are associated with syllables and have a high functional load (Courtenay... (see Figure 1). Distinct intra-syllable patterns occurring in Yoru`ba´ are falling and rising pitch contours when L and H tones are realised after H and L tones respectively. downstep downstep H L Figure 1: A simplified illustration of terracing...

  14. Study and realisation of cabled interfaces for the control and command of the Saturne cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devailly, Jean

    1975-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the assessment of needs, design and realisation of some hardware used by the Saturne cyclotron to solve problems of command and control while using connections developed for the Saturne's computer. After some generalities (description of Saturne, requirements and constraints, general statements about acquisitions and commands, selection of the acquisition and command system, codes), the author presents the different hardware for analog acquisitions, digital acquisitions, analog commands, digital commands, all-or-none control, simulators, amplifiers and memories. He reports some examples: magnetic measurements, control of ejection currents, programs. He finally presents the developed hardware

  15. Concerning improvement and reform towards a more effective and realisable nuclear liability legal system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, H.

    2006-01-01

    Japan is the only country in the world that has ever experienced being attacked by atomic bombs. Japanese people have a special feeling towards nuclear power. Japan has opted for an unlimited liability system, which is regarded as a hospitable one to victims in Japan. Under the existing unlimited liability system in Japan, however, there is a problem that nuclear operators cannot necessarily foresee the probable limit of their risks to owe. In this paper, I want to present problems of the nuclear liability legal system, and proposals for improvement and reform towards more effective and realisable system in Japan. (author)

  16. Barriers and opportunities in realising sustainable energy concepts--an analysis of two Swiss case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Christian; Gisler, Priska

    2003-01-01

    What assists and what hinders sustainable energy use in being put into effect? Two case studies of sustainable energy concepts--the Zurich Solarstromboerse, where electricity can be purchased that is produced by solar panels, and the Swiss CO 2 -law, a consensus oriented implementation of the Kyoto-protocol--were analysed in order to investigate this question. In both case studies the unfolding of the sustainable energy concepts is reconstructed as a process starting with an abstract idea moving to a concrete realisation. This process passes through a series of different social worlds and is, in turn, affected by them. These social worlds are e.g. those of the concerned scientists, the professional investors, energy suppliers or governmental agencies. The case studies reveal three neuralgic challenges that have to be met when a concept advances from idea to realisation through the social worlds: Firstly, the translation between social worlds changes the content of the idea. Secondly, the way each social world looks at things (socially) constructs best solutions to problems and hides others. Thirdly, the actual dynamics of the social world within which it is finally implemented must be adopted by the idea. In order to integrate these neuralgic points, scientists as well as other inventors have to retain responsibility for their sustainable energy ideas and are requested to follow them through the social worlds in order to critically survey and eventually influence their 'content in flux'

  17. 3D Information System of Historical Site – Proposal and Realisation of a Functional Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hodač

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for 3D data acquisition, together with progress in information technologies raises the question of creating and using 3D models and 3D information systems (IS of historical sites and buildings. This paper presents the current state of the “Live Theatre” project. The theme of the project is the proposal and realisation of a 3D IS of the baroque theatre at Eeský Krumlov castle (UNESCO site.The project is divided into three main stages – creation of a 3D model, proposal of a conception for a 3D IS, and realisation of a functional prototype. 3D data was acquired by means of photogrammetric and surveying methods. An accurate 3D model (photo-realistic, textured was built up with MicroStation CAD system. The proposal of a conception of a 3D IS was the main outcome of the author’s dissertation. The essential feature of the proposed conception is the creation of subsystems targeted on three spheres – management, research and presentation of the site. The functionality of each subsystem is connected with its related sphere; however, each subsystem uses the same database. The present stage of the project involves making a functional prototype (with sample data. During this stage we are working on several basic technological topics. At present we are concerned with 3D data, its formats, format conversions (e.g. DGN _ VRML and its connection to other types of data. After that, we will be seeking a convenient technical solution based on network technologies (Internet and an appropriate layout for the data (database. The project is being carried out in close co-operation with the administration of the castle and some other partners. This stage of the project will be completed in December 2005.A functional prototype and the information acquired by testing it will form the basis for the final proposal of a complex IS of a historical site. The final proposal and appropriate technology will be the outcome of the project. The

  18. Predictions of realised fecundity and spawning time in Norwegian spring-spawning herring ( Clupea harengus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óskarsson, G. J.; Kjesbu, O. S.; Slotte, A.

    2002-08-01

    Maturing Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring, Clupea harengus, were collected for reproductive analyses along the Norwegian coast prior to the spawning seasons of 1997-2000. Over this time period there was a marked change in weight (W) at length (TL) with 1998 showing extremely low values and 2000 high values in a historical perspective. Potential fecundity, amounting to about 20 000-100 000 developing (vitellogenic) oocytes per fish and positively related to fish size, increased significantly with fish condition. Relative somatic potential fecundity (RF P, number of oocytes per g ovary-free body weight) in NSS herring was found to vary by 35-55% between years. Unexpectedly, females in 2000 showed low RF P-values, possibly due to negative feedback from previous reproductive investments at low condition. A clear threshold value for Fulton's condition factor, K (K=100×W/TL 3), of 0.65-0.70 existed below which there was considerable atresia (resorption of vitellogenic oocytes). Thus, these components of the spawning stock, amounting to 1-46% in the period 1980-1999, obviously contributed relatively little to the total egg production. This was confirmed by low ovary weights and examples of delayed oocyte development in these individuals. An up-to-date atresia model is presented. The established oocyte growth curve, and to a lesser degree the assumed atretic oocytic turnover rate, was critical for the estimation of realised fecundity (number of eggs spawned). Modelled realised fecundity was significantly below observed potential fecundity. Females that had migrated the shortest distance from the over-wintering area, Vestfjorden, northern Norway, were in the poorest condition, had the least developed oocytes and the lowest potential and realised fecundities. In agreement with previously published studies on temporal and spatial changes in gonad weights, those females reaching the main spawning grounds in the south-western part of the coast (Møre) were the most

  19. A string realisation of Ω-deformed Abelian N =2* theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelantonj, Carlo; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Samsonyan, Marine

    2017-10-01

    The N =2* supersymmetric gauge theory is a massive deformation of N = 4, in which the adjoint hypermultiplet gets a mass. We present a D-brane realisation of the (non-)Abelian N =2* theory, and compute suitable topological amplitudes, which are expressed as a double series expansion. The coefficients determine couplings of higher-dimensional operators in the effective supergravity action that involve powers of the anti-self-dual N = 2 chiral Weyl superfield and of self-dual gauge field strengths superpartners of the D5-brane coupling modulus. In the field theory limit, the result reproduces the Nekrasov partition function in the two-parameter Ω-background, in agreement with a recent proposal.

  20. Micro Injection Moulding Challenges Connected to the Realisation of Process Chains for Micro Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2004-01-01

    is based on a systematic approach including manufacturing processes and production system capabilities. The process chain associated with micro and nano injection moulding usually comprises silicon or photoresist mastering, electroforming and polymer processing. However, other tooling technologies......The incorporation of micro and nano technology into the products of the future is an area of increasing interest. The ideas for new products based on this technology often take their starting point in specific scientific fields whereas the subsequent design and product development not necessarily...... such as micro milling can be used for certain geometries. The paper describes the challenges connected with realisation of two different process chains for micro injection moulding based on two specific cases....

  1. How Large-Scale Civil Engineering Projects Realise the Potential of a City (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In this series of three special lectures, leading experts from AECOM would explore the impact of a trio of major projects on a single city. In common with every metropolis, London has run-down districts and infrastructure in need of upgrading. The lectures propose to cover three of the biggest challenges: regenerating run-down areas; reducing congestion and transporting people more efficiently; and improving water and wastewater systems. Each project contributes to a collective public aim - to realise the potential of a growing city, and ensure its healthy, sustainable and competitive future. Lecture 1: Into the lecture series and The London 2012 Olympic Games Most cities share a group of common complex challenges – growing populations, ageing infrastructure, and mitigating the effects of climate change. These require similar responses to find the most appropriate solutions to make sure that all urban dwellers can have the basics of food, warmth, clean water and shelter. In addition, they must have the ...

  2. Model of Cloud Computing Realisation on the Base of Infrastructure IaaS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peniak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of cloud computing applied for industrial applicationson the ground of practical experiences in certain manufacturing corporation. The main part of paperis orientated to proposal of the numerical model on the base of infrastructure as a service (IaaS and its mathematical description. In addition the model has been extended to include the requirements of mission critical systems with real time behaviour and fail-safe features. The models were realised via virtualisation software Hypervisor which creates a group of available virtual resources through physical infrastructure, which can be offered to customers. Proposal solution enables to create a proper sizeof cloud infrastructure for hardware provisioning according to customer requirements.

  3. A string realisation of Ω-deformed Abelian N=2⁎ theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Angelantonj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The N=2⁎ supersymmetric gauge theory is a massive deformation of N=4, in which the adjoint hypermultiplet gets a mass. We present a D-brane realisation of the (non-Abelian N=2⁎ theory, and compute suitable topological amplitudes, which are expressed as a double series expansion. The coefficients determine couplings of higher-dimensional operators in the effective supergravity action that involve powers of the anti-self-dual N=2 chiral Weyl superfield and of self-dual gauge field strengths superpartners of the D5-brane coupling modulus. In the field theory limit, the result reproduces the Nekrasov partition function in the two-parameter Ω-background, in agreement with a recent proposal.

  4. Realisation and characterization of a temperature controller for a laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meknessi, Asma; Hafdhi, Hajer

    2010-01-01

    Our final project study focuses on the characterization and realisation of a temperature conroller for a laser diode using the proportional integral derivative (PID) servo technique. In this order, w developed and carried out two electronic cards. The first is dedicated to the PID servo. Th electronics of this card allows measurement of temperature, comparison with a user fixed temperature, the measurement of the error and finally the correction of temperature by heating or cooling the laser diode using a Peltier element. The second board is designed in order to supply the Peltier element by about 6V/3A. the first part of our work is a bibliographical research on lasers, laser diodes and their applications in the biomedical field.

  5. Brownfields to green fields: Realising wider benefits from practical contaminant phytomanagement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, A B; Bardos, R P; Puschenreiter, M; Mench, M; Bert, V; Friesl-Hanl, W; Müller, I; Li, X N; Weyens, N; Witters, N; Vangronsveld, J

    2016-12-15

    Gentle remediation options (GROs) are risk management strategies or technologies involving plant (phyto-), fungi (myco-), and/or bacteria-based methods that result in a net gain (or at least no gross reduction) in soil function as well as effective risk management. GRO strategies can be customised along contaminant linkages, and can generate a range of wider economic, environmental and societal benefits in contaminated land management (and in brownfields management more widely). The application of GROs as practical on-site remedial solutions is still limited however, particularly in Europe and at trace element (typically metal and metalloid) contaminated sites. This paper discusses challenges to the practical adoption of GROs in contaminated land management, and outlines the decision support tools and best practice guidance developed in the European Commission FP7-funded GREENLAND project aimed at overcoming these challenges. The GREENLAND guidance promotes a refocus from phytoremediation to wider GROs- or phyto-management based approaches which place realisation of wider benefits at the core of site design, and where gentle remediation technologies can be applied as part of integrated, mixed, site risk management solutions or as part of "holding strategies" for vacant sites. The combination of GROs with renewables, both in terms of biomass generation but also with green technologies such as wind and solar power, can provide a range of economic and other benefits and can potentially support the return of low-level contaminated sites to productive usage, while combining GROs with urban design and landscape architecture, and integrating GRO strategies with sustainable urban drainage systems and community gardens/parkland (particularly for health and leisure benefits), has large potential for triggering GRO application and in realising wider benefits in urban and suburban systems. Quantifying these wider benefits and value (above standard economic returns) will be

  6. Realising the dream of becoming a nurse: Underrepresented BSc nursing students experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brid; Graham, Margaret M; O'Sullivan, Deirdre

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the experiences of underrepresented BSc nursing students in realising the dream of becoming a nurse in one university. In the past ten years, pre-registration nurse education has become established within higher education in Ireland. This development includes promoting access and inclusion of students from traditionally underrepresented groups in higher education. A third of nursing students currently access places on programmes through routes specifically designed for underrepresented groups. A qualitative descriptive study design provided an opportunity for student voices to be heard. Ethical approval was sought and granted. Eleven students were interviewed nearing completion of a four year BSc Nursing programme. Data analysis followed a thematic approach, in generating themes. Three themes emerged from the data: taking the first steps; finding a way and getting through. Findings highlight participants' challenges in balancing study, clinical practice and family life in achieving and realising their dream of becoming a nurse. This study illustrates the nature and complexities of participants' experiences throughout the BSc Nursing programmes towards becoming university graduates, eligible for registration as a nurse. Students from underrepresented groups bring rich and diverse life experiences in preparation for and becoming caring practitioners. It highlights the individuality within participants' experiences and draws attention to the value of personalised support for students. An opportunity to encourage the development of emotional intelligence needs to be fostered within nurse education programmes. Creating positive learning environments is critical to supporting student understanding of compassionate patient centred care. Findings have relevance for global curriculum design and structures to support individual student centred engagement. Further research is required to consider how best to support students from underrepresented groups

  7. Most of the long-term genetic gain from optimum-contribution selection can be realised with restrictions imposed during optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Ostersen, Tage; Ask, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that optimum-contribution selection (OCS) with restrictions imposed during optimisation realises most of the long-term genetic gain realised by OCS without restrictions. Methods We used stochastic simulation to estimate long-term rates of genetic gain realised...... restrictions, OCS with restrictions provides a useful alternative. Not only does it realise most of the long-term genetic gain, OCS with restrictions enables OCS to be tailored to individual breeding schemes.......% of the additional gain realised by OCS without restrictions, where additional gain was the difference in the long-term rates of genetic gain realised by OCS without restrictions and our reference point with truncation selection. The only exceptions were those restrictions that removed all solutions near the optimum...

  8. The Impact of a Values Education Programme for Adolescent Romanies in Spain on Their Feelings of Self-Realisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Encarnacion; Franco, Clemente; Sleeter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the effects a values education programme can have on the feelings of self-realisation, self-concept and self-esteem of Romany adolescents in southern Spain. To do this, an experimental group received a values education intervention but a control group did not. The intervention programme was adapted to the Romany culture. The…

  9. Students’ Self-Realisation as Their Need for Self-Actualization, Mechanical-Technical Abilities, and Adaptation to Educational Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Savova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with different aspects of self-realisation – related to the health status, to the self-actualization, to some skills and abilities (especially mechanical and technical ones, to the self-determinism, and to the students’ adaptation and professional self-realisation. Three studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Bulgaria. 73 students were studied about their need for self-actualization by means of a modified scale from Gercheva-Nestorova’s questionnaire for needs based on Maslow’s theory. More than a half of them strived for self-actualization in a medium and high degree. 55 students were studied by means of MTA – a computerized method for measuring mechanical and technical abilities that is a part of Vienna Test System. The low and medium results prevailed. 42 students were studied about their adaptation to the educational process. 1/3 of the students’ responses indicated their maladaptation in the educational process concerning their professional self-realisation (undesired subject, problems with the exams and with the lecturers, lack of desire for study. The satisfied students who studied a desired subject were better adapted. More than a half of the students in this sample strived for professional self-realisation through the specialty they studied in, independent on their initial professional orientation.

  10. Realisation of Strategic Leadership in Leadership Teams' Work as Experienced by the Leadership Team Members of Basic Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtero, Tapio Juhani; Kuusilehto-Awale, Lea

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a quantitative research into how the leadership team members of 49 basic education schools in the city of Vantaa, Finland, experienced the realisation of strategic leadership in their leadership teams' work. The data were collected by a survey of 24 statements, rated on a five-point Likert scale, and analysed with the…

  11. FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION FOR THE REALISATION OF THE RIGHT TO HAVE ACCESS TO SUFFICIENT FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anél Terblanche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various South African government reports list food security as a development priority. Despite this prioritisation and despite the fact that South Africa is currently food self-sufficient, ongoing food shortages remain a daily reality for approximately 35 percent of the South African population. The government's commitment to food security to date of writing this contribution manifests in related policies, strategies, programmes and sectoral legislation with the focus on food production, distribution, safety and assistance. A paradigm shift in the international food security debate was encouraged during 2009, namely to base food security initiatives on the right to sufficient food. During a 2011 visit to South Africa, the Special Rapporteur for the Right to Food of the United Nations, accordingly confirmed that a human rights-based approach to food security is necessary in the South African legal and policy framework in order to address the huge disparities in terms of food security (especially concerning geography, gender and race. A human rights-based approach to food security will add dimensions of dignity, transparency, accountability, participation and empowerment to food security initiatives. The achievement of food security is further seen as the realisation of existing rights, notably the right of access to sufficient food. The right of access to sufficient food, as entrenched in section 27(1(b of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 will accordingly play a central role within a human rights-based approach to food security. Section 27(2 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 qualifies section 27(1(b by requiring the state to take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of each of the section 27(1 rights. The South African government's commitment to food security, as already mentioned, currently manifests in related policies

  12. Understanding the futility of countries' obligations for health rights: realising justice for the global poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barugahare, John; Lie, Reidar K

    2016-06-03

    Although health is a right of all individuals without any distinction, the realisation of this right has remained very difficult for the marginalised populations of poor countries. Inequitable distribution of health opportunities globally is a major factor in explaining why this is the case. Whereas the Protection, Promotion and Fulfilment of the health rights of poor country citizens are a joint responsibility of both domestic and external governments, most governments flout their obligations. So far disproportionate effort has been dedicated to reaffirming and interpreting these obligations as opposed to investigating the fundamental question regarding why these obligations have nevertheless remained largely unfulfilled. Further the normative question regarding what ought to be done about the shortcomings of current obligations has been largely ignored. We conduct a critical content analysis of existing literature on efforts towards the realisation of the health rights of marginalised populations in our attempt to ascertain their capacity to guarantee basic health opportunities to marginalised populations. In our analysis we treat issues of 'health rights' and 'justice in global health' as having unity of purpose - guaranteeing basic health opportunities to the marginalised populations. We identify two sets of reasons for the failure of present obligations for global distributive justice in general: a set of 'superficial reasons' and a set of 'fundamental reasons' which account for the superficial reasons. In order to overcome these reasons we propose a strategy which consists in specifying a number of minimum and less-demanding obligations for both external and domestic governments to guarantee to all individuals a certain threshold of health goods and services. We argue that these minimum obligations can be freely accepted and fully complied with or enforced with "a thin system of enforcement" without significant threat to national sovereignty and autonomy. The

  13. Small Countries’ EU Council Presidency and the Realisation of their National Interests: The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetličič Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the article is to establish how a small country, Slovenia, promoted its national interests when it held the Presidency of the Council of the EU, how this experience fits into the theory of small states and what lessons can be drawn for other small states. Based on a questionnaire administered to key Slovenian actors in the presidency, the analysis confirmed some of the theoretical expectations and revealed certain disparities. Our analysis confirms theoretical predictions that a member state can push through its national interests more easily during its presidency because it possesses certain powers that enable it to set the agenda, which is the most effective way of realising national interests. Especially true in the case of small state presidencies, advocating national interests can also be facilitated by a smaller range of priorities and a greater level of coincidence with the interests of other key actors. We revealed that, besides the country’s size, other factors also limited its ability to fulfil its national interests. In addition to a weak ability for coalition building and lobbying, the two main factors of constraint were the lack of soft knowledge among Slovenian officials and weak coordination among policy agents.

  14. Formation of the mechanism of realisation of the logistics strategy of river ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshchuk Olena M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the role of river ports in the logistical chain of supplies of the transportation system of Ukraine. It envisages to use the developed logistics strategy for creation of river logistics centres on the basis of river ports with a high level of logistical attractiveness, which would become organisers of cargo delivery at a certain stage of movement of goods and a connecting logistical link at the junction of transport elements of the system (systems of managing the process of transportation, information support, selection of optimal technological schemes of cargo treatment in the port and optimal interaction of adjacent types of transport, methods of management (organisational, economic, technical and technological, and legal, logistical principles and technologies, which would allow achievement of effective realisation of the logistics strategy of a river port. The article offers to create a separate commercial structure – information logistics centre, which would ensure information support of the logistical movement of goods and optimal managerial decision making.

  15. Realisation and optical engineering of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarno; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2017-06-08

    We present the first realisation of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-LVBPFs) photonic crystal structures. NAA gradient-index filters (NAA-GIFs) are produced by sinusoidal pulse anodisation and used as photonic crystal platforms to generate NAA-LVBPFs. The anodisation period of NAA-GIFs is modified from 650 to 850 s to systematically tune the characteristic photonic stopband of these photonic crystals across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. Then, the nanoporous structure of NAA-GIFs is gradually widened along the surface under controlled conditions by wet chemical etching using a dip coating approach aiming to create NAA-LVBPFs with finely engineered optical properties. We demonstrate that the characteristic photonic stopband and the iridescent interferometric colour displayed by these photonic crystals can be tuned with precision across the surface of NAA-LVBPFs by adjusting the fabrication and etching conditions. Here, we envisage for the first time the combination of the anodisation period and etching conditions as a cost-competitive, facile, and versatile nanofabrication approach that enables the generation of a broad range of unique LVBPFs covering the spectral regions. These photonic crystal structures open new opportunities for multiple applications, including adaptive optics, hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence diagnostics, spectroscopy, and sensing.

  16. Realisation et Applications D'un Laser a Fibre a L'erbium Monofrequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Robert

    L'incorporation d'ions de terres rares a l'interieur de la matrice de verre d'une fibre optique a permis l'emergence de composants amplificateurs tout-fibre. Le but de cette these consiste d'une part a analyser et a modeliser un tel dispositif et d'autre part, a fabriquer puis a caracteriser un amplificateur et un oscillateur a fibre. A l'aide d'une fibre fortement dopee a l'erbium fabriquee sur demande, on realise un laser a fibre syntonisable qui fonctionne en regime multimodes longitudinaux avec une largeur de raie de 1.5 GHz et egalement comme source monofrequencielle de largeur de raie de 70 kHz. Le laser sert ensuite a caracteriser un reseau de Bragg ecrit par photosensibilite dans une fibre optique. La technique de syntonisation permet aussi l'asservissement au fond d'une resonance de l'acetylene. Le laser garde alors la position centrale de la raie avec une erreur de moins de 1 MHz corrigeant ainsi les derives mecaniques de la cavite.

  17. 'Lived Islam' in India and Bangladesh: negotiating religion to realise reproductive aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Hutter, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how Muslim women interpret and negotiate religion in order to realise their reproductive aspirations. A close reading of lived experiences of 32 Muslim women from a varied educational background yields a wider perspective of the different interpretations of reproductive norms employed by adherents of the same religion (Islam), situated in two countries (India/Bangladesh) and group (majority/minority) contexts. Further, this comparative study yields a deeper understanding of agency that is employed by Muslim participants in each country. Muslim women - both in India and Bangladesh - are not passive followers of religious norms, but have agency to bring change in their own life and take an active role in planning their family, thereby transgressing religious norms in reproductive matters. Muslim women in India exercise their agency by adopting sterilisation - a method proscribed by Islam - without the knowledge of their significant others. Muslim women in Bangladesh use their agency by making a flexible interpretation of Islam in reproductive matters. A lesson learned from this comparative study is the need to remove barriers that prevent the adoption of contraceptives by Muslim minorities in India and to design family planning programmes that takes into account their religious needs.

  18. The effect of spatial barriers on realised accessibility to heath services after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Jayden; Kingham, Simon; Griffin, Ed

    2015-09-01

    The closure of the Manawatu Gorge in New Zealand in August 2011 caused a change in the travel time for patients living in the east of the MidCentral Health District to their health services located in Palmerston North. This presented an opportunity to study the effect a change in spatial access had on a population before and after such an event. We used a retrospective cohort design with routinely collected data from general practice and hospital services. Realised accessibility was calculated for 101,456 patients over 3.5 years. General practice utilization appeared to be the only service affected negatively during the gorge closure (rate ratio 1.106). Outpatient attendances had an increase in use by those with increased travel time (rate ratio 0.922). There was evidence of other unidentified factors that impacted the use of services across both intervention and control groups between the gorge open and closed periods. These results were more conservative than those produced by a traditional uncontrolled travel time category analysis which suggested a correlation in non-urgent ED attendance and general practice and boundary effects in all ED attendances and hospital admissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards Realising Secure and Efficient Image and Video Processing Applications on Quantum Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Iliyasu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the promise of security and efficiency that quantum computing offers, the basic foundations leading to commercial applications for quantum image processing are proposed. Two mathematical frameworks and algorithms to accomplish the watermarking of quantum images, authentication of ownership of already watermarked images and recovery of their unmarked versions on quantum computers are proposed. Encoding the images as 2n-sized normalised Flexible Representation of Quantum Images (FRQI states, with n-qubits and 1-qubit dedicated to capturing the respective information about the colour and position of every pixel in the image respectively, the proposed algorithms utilise the flexibility inherent to the FRQI representation, in order to confine the transformations on an image to any predetermined chromatic or spatial (or a combination of both content of the image as dictated by the watermark embedding, authentication or recovery circuits. Furthermore, by adopting an apt generalisation of the criteria required to realise physical quantum computing hardware, three standalone components that make up the framework to prepare, manipulate and recover the various contents required to represent and produce movies on quantum computers are also proposed. Each of the algorithms and the mathematical foundations for their execution were simulated using classical (i.e., conventional or non-quantum computing resources, and their results were analysed alongside other longstanding classical computing equivalents. The work presented here, combined together with the extensions suggested, provide the basic foundations towards effectuating secure and efficient classical-like image and video processing applications on the quantum-computing framework.

  20. Realising the rights of disabled people in Africa: an introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mji, Gubela; Maclachlan, Malcolm; Melling-Williams, Natalie; Gcaza, Siphokazi

    2009-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) has now entered into international law. It requires that all governments take cognisance and action to ensure that the human rights of people with disabilities are realised. This will be particularly challenging in some of the poorest countries; a fact recognised by the Convention's requirement that all international aid-giving countries address disability as part of their programmes. This Special Issue of Disability and Rehabilitation arises from the first conference of a new network - the African Network for Evidence to Action on Disability (AfriNEAD) - which was established to address, on a regional basis, the 'know-do' gap, in the field of disability. Papers in this special issue address a broad range of themes including the measurement of disability; the involvement of persons with disability in the design, conduct and analysis of research on disability; the role of Community Based Facilitators; the impact of HIV/AIDS on people with disabilities, and the challenges of mainstream schooling for children with disabilities. Promoting the human rights of persons with disabilities places an obligation on us all to ensure that the value of research goes beyond publication, to influence policy and practice. One important way of promoting efforts to collectively achieve this is through networks of disabled people's organisations, practitioners, policy makers and researchers working together.

  1. Beyond Litigation: The Need for Creativity in Working to Realise Environmental Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Chamberlain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental harm is one of the biggest challenges facing communities living in poverty across the world. Unfortunately, in developing strategies to combat environmental harm, the lawyers that support such communities often tend to focus purely on litigation. Yet there are many reasons why litigation is not ideally suited to the environmental context. These reasons include the need for speed in order to avert irreversible harm quickly, the difficulty in quantifying and proving environmental harm using conventional legal tests, the very technical subject matter with which judges are often unfamiliar and the challenge of securing scientific experts. Fortunately litigation is not the only option, and a wealth of alternative strategies to realise environmental rights exist. Using the campaign to protect the Mapungubwe World Heritage Site in South Africa as a case study, this article will examine three such alternatives: namely the linkages between advocacy campaigns and company share price, community learning exchanges and an interesting model for collaboratively monitoring compliance by mining companies.

  2. The Development of Reference Realisation and Narrative in an Australian Contact Language, Wumpurrarni English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha eDisbray

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of narrative skill has been investigated extensively in a wide range of languages, cross-linguistically and in multilingual settings (Berman & Slobin, 1994b; Hickmann, 2004; Severing & Verhoeven 2001, Strömqvist & Verhoeven, 2004. The present study investigates the development of reference realisation in narrative among Indigenous children in a remote urban township in Central Australia. The children, aged between 5 and 14 years, are speakers of a contact language, Wumpurrarni English. Language development is rarely investigated among speakers of minority languages, whose language development is often appraised in the majority language, with little attention to language performance in the speaker’s home variety. The present study addresses this gap through a fine-grained qualitative analysis of the development of reference in narrative, drawing on a complex stimulus and a model of discourse strategy. The results show a a developmental trajectory similar to that found in other languages, with children aged eight and under producing simpler and less globally organised narratives than older speaker groups, and b vulnerability to the changing demands of the stimulus among these younger speakers. In addition, a subset of narrations were produced in ‘school variety’, a style more like Standard Australian English, and the results for this set showed that the narrative content and global organisation of the productions by ten- and twelve–year-olds was more similar to the productions of younger children, than like-aged speakers narrating in their home variety. Analysis of speaker responses to two factors of complexity, the stimulus and code choice, illuminated mechanisms for discourse production and development, and suggest that constructing discourse requires co-ordination of an underlying schema and on-line construction of a particular story through the deployment of linguistic devices in a particular narrative context, and

  3. Realising the technological promise of smartphones in addiction research and treatment: An ethical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Hannah; Hall, Wayne; Fry, Craig; Carter, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Smartphone technologies and mHealth applications (or apps) promise unprecedented scope for data collection, treatment intervention, and relapse prevention when used in the field of substance abuse and addiction. This potential also raises new ethical challenges that researchers, clinicians, and software developers must address. This paper aims to identify ethical issues in the current uses of smartphones in addiction research and treatment. A search of three databases (PubMed, Web of Science and PsycInfo) identified 33 studies involving smartphones or mHealth applications for use in the research and treatment of substance abuse and addiction. A content analysis was conducted to identify how smartphones are being used in these fields and to highlight the ethical issues raised by these studies. Smartphones are being used to collect large amounts of sensitive information, including personal information, geo-location, physiological activity, self-reports of mood and cravings, and the consumption of illicit drugs, alcohol and nicotine. Given that detailed information is being collected about potentially illegal behaviour, we identified the following ethical considerations: protecting user privacy, maximising equity in access, ensuring informed consent, providing participants with adequate clinical resources, communicating clinically relevant results to individuals, and the urgent need to demonstrate evidence of safety and efficacy of the technologies. mHealth technology offers the possibility to collect large amounts of valuable personal information that may enhance research and treatment of substance abuse and addiction. To realise this potential researchers, clinicians and app-developers must address these ethical concerns to maximise the benefits and minimise risks of harm to users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Realising new health technologies: problems of regulating human stem cells in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell technology holds the promise of radically changing medicine through the provision of better disease models; the creation of tissue, cells, and organs for therapeutic uses; and the increased personalisation of healthcare. However, the degree to which any of these developments can be realised in the USA rests upon how effective the regulatory environment is in nurturing the technology to market. This article assesses the regulation in terms of its ability to minimise factors which erode the public interest in developing medical innovations (abuse) and promoting them to the market. This requires an overarching review of patent law (and how it fits with anti-trust and contract law); as well as the general regulation of innovation through ethical review, clinical trials, market authorisation, post-market oversight; government lead regulation of stem cells; and finally incorporating the impact of self-regulation by industry. From this assessment, it becomes possible to appreciate that the optimal system of regulation is reliant upon the gentle tweaking of many factors, rather than the wholesale revision of only a few. It also becomes possible to identify that individual tools of regulation have varying impacts. For example, the patent system may be the most open to abuse by individual companies, but as a regulatory framework it has the most mechanisms for dealing with such abuses. However, the biggest impact upon curtailing abuse derives from the self-regulation of the industry. Conversely, government led regulation is open to abuse from political agendas, but it has the greatest capacity to nurture innovation productively.

  5. Designing realised kernels to measure the ex-post variation of equity prices in the presence of noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    This paper shows how to use realised kernels to carry out efficient feasible inference on the ex-post variation of underlying equity prices in the presence of simple models of market frictions. The issue is subtle with only estimators which have symmetric weights delivering consistent estimators...... with mixed Gaussian limit theorems. The weights can be chosen to achieve the best possible rate of convergence and to have an asymptotic variance which is close to that of the maximum likelihood estimator in the parametric version of this problem. Realised kernels can also be selected to (i) be analysed...... using endogenously spaced data such as that in databases on transactions, (ii) allow for market frictions which are endogenous, (iii) allow for temporally dependent noise. The finite sample performance of our estimators is studied using simulation, while empirical work illustrates their use in practice....

  6. Regional scheme for the connection to the grid of renewable energies: for the Hauts-de-France region, for the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, for the Picardy region, the Alsace region, the Aquitaine region, the Auvergne region, the Lower-Normandy region, the Burgundy region, the Brittany region, the Centre-Val-de-Loire region, the Champagne-Ardennes region, the Franche-Comte region, the Upper Normandy region, the Ile-de-France region, the Languedoc-Roussillon region, the Lorraine region, the Midi-Pyrenees region, the Provence-Alps-Cote d'Azur region, the Pays-de-la-Loire region, the Poitou-Charentes region, the Rhone-Alps region. Technical and financial status of the scheme implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document gathers reports related to all French regions. Each one addresses the elaboration of the concerned regional scheme of connection of renewable energies to the distribution network (French acronym: S3REnR) which aims at anticipating and planning evolutions of electrical networks which are necessary for the integration of renewable energies. Illustrated by maps, tables and graphs, these reports propose indications of energy production locations, an identification of planned works, a presentation of the concerned region, of its existing grid and projects, an overview of the scheme content (initial status, results of consultations, adopted strategies, planned works), and an overview of the scheme implementation status

  7. A chaotic jerk system with non-hyperbolic equilibrium: Dynamics, effect of time delay and circuit realisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Tahir, Fadhil Rahma; Akgul, Akif; Abdolmohammadi, Hamid Reza; Jafari, Sajad

    2018-04-01

    The literature on chaos has highlighted several chaotic systems with special features. In this work, a novel chaotic jerk system with non-hyperbolic equilibrium is proposed. The dynamics of this new system is revealed through equilibrium analysis, phase portrait, bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov exponents. In addition, we investigate the time-delay effects on the proposed system. Realisation of such a system is presented to verify its feasibility.

  8. THE REGULARITY OF INFLUENCE OF TRAFFIC PARAMETERS ON THE PROBABILITY OF REALISATION OF PLANNED PASSENGER TRANSFER AT TRANSFER NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Samchuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of traffic parameters that ensure the minimum value of the transfer waiting time for passengers. On the basis of experimental studies results, a regression equation to determine the probability of realisation of the planned transfer between a pair of vehicles was proposed. Using the identified regression equation, the transfer waiting time can be assessed for any headway exceeding 7,5 min.

  9. Time for a new language for asthma control: results from REALISE Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price D

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available David Price,1,2 Aileen David-Wang,3 Sang-Heon Cho,4 James Chung-Man Ho,5 Jae-Won Jeong,6 Chong-Kin Liam,7 Jiangtao Lin,8 Abdul Razak Muttalif,9 Diahn-Warng Perng,10,11 Tze-Lee Tan,12 Faisal Yunus,13 Glenn Neira14 On behalf of the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE Asia Working Group 1Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Research in Real Life, Singapore; 3University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines; 4College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 5Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China; 6College of Medicine, Inje University, Goyang, Republic of Korea; 7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 8China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 9Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 10School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 11Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 12National University Hospital, Singapore; 13Persahabatan Hospital, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia; 14Medical Affairs Department, Mundipharma Pte Ltd, Singapore Purpose: Asthma is a global health problem, and asthma prevalence in Asia is increasing. The REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience Asia study assessed patients' perception of asthma control and attitudes toward treatment in an accessible, real-life adult Asian population. Patients and methods: An online survey of 2,467 patients with asthma from eight Asian countries/regions, aged 18–50 years, showed greater than or equal to two prescriptions in previous 2 years and access to social media. Patients were asked about their asthma symptoms, exacerbations and treatment type, views and perceptions of asthma control, attitudes toward asthma management, and

  10. REALISATION TRAJECTORY CONTROL IN A HORIZONTAL WITH ADAPTIVE ALGORITHM OF MANAGEMENT OF THWART MOTION OF THE PLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vereshikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article results of researches are presented according to efficiency of application of adaptive algorithm of management by the maneuverable plane realised in a cross-section control path, on the basis of identification of some aerodynamic characteristics of the plane and the indignations caused by formation by an asymmetrical configuration of placing of external suspension. By modelling of movement of the plane during performance S - figurative maneuvers with use of a programmno-modelling complex and the flight stand substantial improvement of characteristics of controllability of the asymmetrical plane and, thus, increase of efficiency of its application is shown.

  11. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: How Large-Scale Civil Engineering Projects Realise the Potential of a City

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    How Large-Scale Civil Engineering Projects Realise the Potential of a City (1/3), by Bill Hanway (Excecutive Director of Operations, AECOM Europe).   Wednesday, June 6, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 80-1-001 - Globe 1st Floor ) In this series of three special lectures, leading experts from AECOM would explore the impact of a trio of major projects on a single city. In common with every metropolis, London has run-down districts and infrastructure in need of upgrading. The lectures propose to cover three of the biggest challenges: regenerating run-down areas; reducing congestion and transporting people more efficiently; and improving water and wastewater systems. Each project contributes to a collective public aim - to realise the potential of a growing city, and ensure its healthy, sustainable and competitive future. Lecture 1: Into the lecture series and The London 2012 Olympic Games Most cities share a group of common complex challenges – growing populations, agei...

  12. Mommy is only happy! Dutch mothers' realisation of speech sounds in infant-directed speech expresses emotion, not didactic intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benders, Titia

    2013-12-01

    Exaggeration of the vowel space in infant-directed speech (IDS) is well documented for English, but not consistently replicated in other languages or for other speech-sound contrasts. A second attested, but less discussed, pattern of change in IDS is an overall rise of the formant frequencies, which may reflect an affective speaking style. The present study investigates longitudinally how Dutch mothers change their corner vowels, voiceless fricatives, and pitch when speaking to their infant at 11 and 15 months of age. In comparison to adult-directed speech (ADS), Dutch IDS has a smaller vowel space, higher second and third formant frequencies in the vowels, and a higher spectral frequency in the fricatives. The formants of the vowels and spectral frequency of the fricatives are raised more strongly for infants at 11 than at 15 months, while the pitch is more extreme in IDS to 15-month olds. These results show that enhanced positive affect is the main factor influencing Dutch mothers' realisation of speech sounds in IDS, especially to younger infants. This study provides evidence that mothers' expression of emotion in IDS can influence the realisation of speech sounds, and that the loss or gain of speech clarity may be secondary effects of affect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A History of the Waterways Experiment Station 1929-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    beaches running eastward to the Pas de Calais were made to help in planning Allied landings and invasions; and later in the War, models were...provided an all-weather, nonskid surface. The nickname "Hessian" came from 43 the fact that Hessian migrants at Dundee, Scotland, over a century... Calais , Charle:. C. Collins, Robert P. Daniel, James M. Caldwell , Matthew E. Coltharp, David R. Daniels, Donnie S. Calhoun, Charles C., J r. Connor

  14. The Public Protector as a Mechanism of Political Accountability: The Extent of its Contribution to the Realisation of the Right to Access Adequate Housing in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Joel Tchawouo Mbiada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is premised on the concept of political accountability which aims to hold accountable government for its action and or omission. Political accountability encompasses a number of mechanisms such as the judiciary and the ombudsman. Courts have been instrumental in enforcing the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing in South Africa. This paper argues, however, that the judiciary is not the only enforcing avenue because other mechanisms of political accountability may also contribute to the realisation of the right to housing. The paper, therefore, explores the extent of the Public Protector's contribution to the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing. The paper then argues that it is through its functions that the Public Protector exercises its accounting role in the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing. The paper, however, cautions that the Public Protector is not an alternative dispute resolution institution parallel to courts. But that the Public Protector complements the role played by courts by offering another medium through which such right may be realised.

  15. Primary School Teachers' Inspection in Turkey: Primary School Teachers' Expectations about Inspectors' Guidance Roles and the Realisation Level of These Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Soner; Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to point out primary school teachers' expectations about inspectors' guidance roles and the realisation level of these expectations. The data used in this research that will be done in descriptive scanning model is collected from the views of primary school teachers selected randomly from Balikesir, Batman and Hatay.…

  16. Educational Family Background and the Realisation of Educational Career Intentions: Participation of German Upper Secondary Graduates in Higher Education over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Felix; Steininger, Hanna-Marei

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate the impact of social origin on the realisation of educational intentions at the time of becoming eligible for higher education in Germany. In general, we find high persistence of intentions and actual attendance of higher education. However, effects of parental education on the changes of educational intentions…

  17. The Current State of the System of Mechanisms of Realisation and Protection of the Rights of the Child: Conceptual and Legal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdova, Alexandra Michailowna; Gulakova, Violetta Yurevna; Ivanchenko, Elena Anatolevna; Lesnichenko, Inna Pavlovna; Tereshchenko, Elena Anatolevna

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analytical understanding of the problems in the field of realisation and protection of the rights of children in Russia to identify and highlight existing problems in order to try to remove shortcomings and embark on further development and improvement of the legal and social mechanisms for the protection of…

  18. Study and realisation of a multiwire chamber with flat cathodes and partitions for the RICH barrel of DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husson, D.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of a Cherenkov detector (RICH) for the DELPHI spectrometer of the LEP electron-positron collider is described. The Cherenkov effect is used in a double system of liquid and gas radiators to identify charged particles in jets. The imaging technique requires 3D localisation of individual electrons, so the RICH detectors are fine grain multiwire chambers, with anode and cathode readout. The chamber geometry includes flat cathodes, optical insulation of each anode (to avoid secondary emission phenomena) realised by a system of aluminium partitions. Chamber design was based on electrostatic simulations to establish absolute collection efficiency in a magnetic field in the presence of these dielectric partitions, and to study the best conditions for blocking the chamber. A prototype was tested in UV light, then in a pion beam: it enabled the Cherenkov rings from a gas radiator to be reconstructed, with good performance as to the resolution of the Cherenkov angle, the efficiency of the cathode, and the figure of merit of the detector [fr

  19. Realising the right to sexual and reproductive health: access to essential medicines for medical abortion as a core obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Berro Pizzarossa, Lucía; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2018-02-01

    WHO has a pivotal role to play as the leading international agency promoting good practices in health and human rights. In 2005, mifepristone and misoprostol were added to WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines for combined use to terminate unwanted pregnancies. However, these drugs were considered 'complementary' and qualified for use when in line with national legislation and where 'culturally acceptable'. This article argues that these qualifications, while perhaps appropriate at the time, must now be removed. First, compelling medical evidence justifies their reclassification as a 'core' essential medicine. Second, continuing to subjugate essential medicines for medical abortion to domestic law and cultural practices is incoherent with today's human rights standards in which universal access to these medicines is an inextricable part of the right to sexual and reproductive health, which should be supported and realised through domestic legislation. This article shows that removing such limitations will align WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines with the mounting scientific evidence, human rights standards, and its own more recently developed policy guidance. This measure will send a strong normative message to governments that these medicines should be readily available in a functioning and human-rights-abiding health system.

  20. From bench to application: current practices in tissue engineering and its realisation at maxillofacial units in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Ralf; El-Moawen, Ahmed; Jung, Ole; Hanken, Henning; Hartjen, Philip; Heiland, Max; Kansy, Katinka; Kloss, Frank; Kolk, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Over the last 20 years, the highly interdisciplinary field of tissue engineering (TE) has become an established subspecialty in research facilities all over the world. Numerous methods and protocols are available for various research intentions and aims, but there are no data indicating which of these methods and resources are generally used. This study is an overview of the resources and methods that are commonly applied in TE research in general, and in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The DÖSAK collaborative group for TE developed a detailed questionnaire and collected information from participating university hospitals in these three countries. We evaluated the availability of research facilities, in vitro realisation and in vivo designs for animal studies in these departments. 11 units who replied, out of 35 we contacted, conducted research on bone regeneration in interdisciplinary research facilities. 10 departments used xenogeneic and alloplastic scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo applications. In this case, the most commonly utilised trademarks were Bio-Oss(®) and CERASORB(®). 9 units used osteoblasts (73%) and 10 proliferation assays in vitro, whereas rats served as the standard animal model for histology/immunohistochemistry in 6. All research units were interested in establishing a platform for research exchange and communication. This study shows that tissue engineering is well established and highly accepted in most participating university hospitals and research facilities. The presented data, together with data published in a foregoing paper will help arrange more readily available standardised procedures for further investigations. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Public Protector as a Mechanism of Political Accountability: The Extent of its Contribution to the Realisation of the Right to Access Adequate Housing in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Joel Tchawouo Mbiada

    2017-01-01

    This paper is premised on the concept of political accountability which aims to hold accountable government for its action and or omission. Political accountability encompasses a number of mechanisms such as the judiciary and the ombudsman. Courts have been instrumental in enforcing the realisation of the right to access to adequate housing in South Africa. This paper argues, however, that the judiciary is not the only enforcing avenue because other mechanisms of political accountability may ...

  2. The role of biotic interactions in shaping distributions and realised assemblages of species: implications for species distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisz, Mary Susanne; Pottier, Julien; Kissling, W Daniel; Pellissier, Loïc; Lenoir, Jonathan; Damgaard, Christian F; Dormann, Carsten F; Forchhammer, Mads C; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Guisan, Antoine; Heikkinen, Risto K; Høye, Toke T; Kühn, Ingolf; Luoto, Miska; Maiorano, Luigi; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Normand, Signe; Öckinger, Erik; Schmidt, Niels M; Termansen, Mette; Timmermann, Allan; Wardle, David A; Aastrup, Peter; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Predicting which species will occur together in the future, and where, remains one of the greatest challenges in ecology, and requires a sound understanding of how the abiotic and biotic environments interact with dispersal processes and history across scales. Biotic interactions and their dynamics influence species' relationships to climate, and this also has important implications for predicting future distributions of species. It is already well accepted that biotic interactions shape species' spatial distributions at local spatial extents, but the role of these interactions beyond local extents (e.g. 10 km2 to global extents) are usually dismissed as unimportant. In this review we consolidate evidence for how biotic interactions shape species distributions beyond local extents and review methods for integrating biotic interactions into species distribution modelling tools. Drawing upon evidence from contemporary and palaeoecological studies of individual species ranges, functional groups, and species richness patterns, we show that biotic interactions have clearly left their mark on species distributions and realised assemblages of species across all spatial extents. We demonstrate this with examples from within and across trophic groups. A range of species distribution modelling tools is available to quantify species environmental relationships and predict species occurrence, such as: (i) integrating pairwise dependencies, (ii) using integrative predictors, and (iii) hybridising species distribution models (SDMs) with dynamic models. These methods have typically only been applied to interacting pairs of species at a single time, require a priori ecological knowledge about which species interact, and due to data paucity must assume that biotic interactions are constant in space and time. To better inform the future development of these models across spatial scales, we call for accelerated collection of spatially and temporally explicit species data. Ideally

  3. Study and achievement of a digital-analog-divider; Etude et realisation d'un diviseur-analogique-numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    theorie du systeme, les paragraphes suivants presentent la recherche d'un schema synoptique, l'etude des circuits et la realisation. (auteur)

  4. Realisation of a {beta} spectrometer solenoidal and a double {beta} spectrometer at coincidence; Realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} solenoidal et d'un double spectrometre {beta} a coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The two spectrometers have been achieved to tackle numerous problems of nuclear spectrometry. They possess different fields of application that complete themselves. The solenoidal spectrometer permits the determination of the energy limits of {beta} spectra and of their shape; it also permits the determination of the coefficients of internal conversion and reports {alpha}{sub K} / {alpha}{sub L} and it is especially efficient for the accurate energy levels of the {gamma} rays by photoelectric effect. The double coincidence spectrometer has been conceived to get a good efficiency in coincidence: indeed, the sum of the solid angles used for the {beta} and {gamma} emission is rather little lower to 4{pi} steradians. To get this efficiency, one should have sacrificed a little the resolution that is lower to the one obtained with the solenoidal spectrometer for a same brightness. Each of the elements of the double spectrometer can also be adapted to the study of angular correlations {beta}{gamma} and e{sup -}{gamma}. In this use, it is superior to the thin magnetic lens used up to here. The double spectrometer also permits the survey of the coincidences e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta} of a equivalent way to a double lens; it can also be consider some adaptation for the survey of the angular correlations e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta}. Finally, we applied the methods by simple spectrometry and by coincidence spectrometry, to the study of the radiances of the following radioelements: {sup 76}As (26 h), {sup 122}Sb (2,8 j), {sup 124}Sb (60 j), {sup 125}Sb (2,7 years). (M.B.) [French] Les deux spectrometres qui ont ete realises permettent d'aborder un grand nombre de problemes de spectrometrie nucleaire. Ils possedent des champs d'application tres differents qui se completent. Le spectrometre solenoidal permet la determination des energies limites des spectres {beta} et de leur forme; il permet aussi la determination des coefficients de conversion interne et

  5. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray adaptative monochromator: study and realization of a prototype; Monochromateur adaptatif pour rayonnement X synchrotron: etude et realisation d`un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezoret, D.

    1995-12-12

    This work presents a study of a prototype of a synchrotron X-ray monochromator. The spectral qualities of this optic are sensitive to the heat loads which are particularly important on third synchrotron generation like ESRF. Indeed, powers generated by synchrotron beams can reach few kilowatts and power densities about a few tens watts per square millimeters. The mechanical deformations of the optical elements of the beamlines issue issue of the heat load can damage their spectral efficiencies. In order to compensate the deformations, wa have been studying the transposition of the adaptive astronomical optics technology to the x-ray field. First, we have considered the modifications of the spectral characteristics of a crystal induced by x-rays. We have established the specifications required to a technological realisation. Then, thermomechanical and technological studies have been required to transpose the astronomical technology to an x-ray technology. After these studies, we have begun the realisation of a prototype. This monochromator is composed by a crystal of silicon (111) bonded on a piezo-electric structure. The mechanical control is a loop system composed by a infrared light, a Shack-Hartmann CDD and wave front analyser. This system has to compensate the deformations of the crystal in the 5 kcV to 60 kcV energy range with a power density of 1 watt per square millimeters. (authors).

  7. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 1 - Design and realisation of Ground Penetrating Radar equipment for civil engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Ferrara, Vincenzo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Persico, Raffaele; Tosti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    provided by the Italian company IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi; in cooperation with the Spanish company Euroconsult, an instrumented lorry equipped with a curviameter was used in the same road sections. Curviameter and GPR results were compared, with very good agreement. 3. A reconfigurable stepped-frequency GPR prototype was improved and widely tested. The original version of this prototype was designed and realised in Italy, in 2008. In June 2014, with the support of the Action TU1208 (and in particular by exploiting the Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM) networking tool), this prototype was brought to Norway: tests were carried out in laboratory, on roads and archaelogical sites; results were compared with those obtained by using a commercial system manufactured by the Norwegian manufacturer 3d-radar. As a result of this work, it was possible to understand how to improve the Italian prototype. Changes to the hardware were implemented in cooperation with the company Florence Engineering. In the improved version of the prototype, a more advanced technique is used for the reconfiguration of the integration times. In July 2015, by exploiting again the STSM tool, the prototype was brought to Malta: tests were carried out in buildings, churches, archaeological and geological sites; results were compared with those obtained by using a commercial pulsed system manufactured by IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi. It is worth pointing out that this was the first time GPR measurements were carried out in Malta, where no GPR systems are available. Finally, in January 2016 the improved prototype was again brought to Malta in order to be used during the experimental sessions of a TU1208 Training School. This is an excellent example of a successful scientific activity where STSM and TS COST networking tools were effectively exploited, the cooperation with industry was of central importance, and a less research-intensive Country was deliberately chosen, to test the improved system. 4. A cheap

  8. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 3; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 3 concerns the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Champagne-Ardenne, Bourgogne, Alsace, Lorraine, Franche-Comte regions. (J.S.)

  9. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 3 concerns the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Champagne-Ardenne, Bourgogne, Alsace, Lorraine, Franche-Comte regions. (J.S.)

  10. Climate change - the impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reysset, Bertrand; Billes-Garabedian, Laurent; Henique, Julien; Pascal, Mathilde; Pirard, Philippe; Motreff, Yvon; Barbault, Robert; Weber, Jacques; Gate, Philippe; Salagnac, Jean-Luc; Desplat, Julien; Kounkou-Arnaud, Raphaelle

    2012-01-01

    This special dossier about the impacts of climate change is made of 6 contributions dealing with: the mitigation of climate effects and how to deal with them (Bertrand Reysset); how to dare and transmit (Laurent Billes-Garabedian); littoral risks, the Pas-de-Calais example (Julien Henique); extreme meteorological events and health impacts (Mathilde Pascal, Philippe Pirard, Yvon Motreff); Biodiversity and climate: the janus of global change (Robert Barbault, Jacques Weber); adapting agriculture to dryness and temperatures (Philippe Gate); Paris and the future heats of the year 2100 (Jean-Luc Salagnac, Julien Desplat, Raphaelle Kounkou-Arnaud)

  11. 15 local climate-energy plans: regions and districts, local leaders of the struggle against climate change; 15 plans climat - energie territoriaux regions et departements, animateurs territoriaux de la lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report presents some general information, the sectors addressed by the Climate - Energy Plan, the approaches adopted, the plan elaboration process (organisation, participation and governance, diagnosis and challenges identification, communication actions), the actions and their follow-up, the success factors and the improvement opportunities of the Climate-energy Plans elaborated and adopted by different French regions (Alsace, Aquitaine, Basse-Normandie, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Poitou-Charentes) and districts (Alpes Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Eure, Seine-Maritime)

  12. 15 local climate-energy plans: regions and districts, local leaders of the struggle against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents some general information, the sectors addressed by the Climate - Energy Plan, the approaches adopted, the plan elaboration process (organisation, participation and governance, diagnosis and challenges identification, communication actions), the actions and their follow-up, the success factors and the improvement opportunities of the Climate-energy Plans elaborated and adopted by different French regions (Alsace, Aquitaine, Basse-Normandie, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Poitou-Charentes) and districts (Alpes Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Eure, Seine-Maritime)

  13. Community health workers in rural India: analysing the opportunities and challenges Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) face in realising their multiple roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saprii, Lipekho; Richards, Esther; Kokho, Puni; Theobald, Sally

    2015-12-09

    Globally, there is increasing interest in community health worker's (CHW) performance; however, there are gaps in the evidence with respect to CHWs' role in community participation and empowerment. Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), whose roles include social activism, are the key cadre in India's CHW programme which is designed to improve maternal and child health. In a diverse country like India, there is a need to understand how the ASHA programme operates in different underserved Indian contexts, such as rural Manipur. We undertook qualitative research to explore stakeholders' perceptions and experiences of the ASHA scheme in strengthening maternal health and uncover the opportunities and challenges ASHAs face in realising their multiple roles in rural Manipur, India. Data was collected through in-depth interviews (n = 18) and focus group discussions (n = 3 FGDs, 18 participants). Participants included ASHAs, key stakeholders and community members. They were purposively sampled based on remoteness of villages and primary health centres to capture diverse and relevant constituencies, as we believed experiences of ASHAs can be shaped by remoteness. Data were analysed using the thematic framework approach. Findings suggested that ASHAs are mostly understood as link workers. ASHA's ability to address the immediate needs of rural and marginalised communities meant that they were valued as service providers. The programme is perceived to be beneficial as it improves awareness and behaviour change towards maternal care. However, there are a number of challenges; the selection of ASHAs is influenced by power structures and poor community sensitisation of the ASHA programme presents a major risk to success and sustainability. The primary health centres which ASHAs link to are ill-equipped. Thus, ASHAs experience adverse consequences in their ability to inspire trust and credibility in the community. Small and irregular monetary incentives demotivate

  14. The development of a very high stability electrostatic generator (1962); Etude et realisation d'un generateur electrostatique a tres haute stabilite (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonckheere, R.E.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This thesis deals with the study of an electrostatic high voltage generator having a voltage stability of the order of 10{sup -6} per minute. This equipment should be very useful in electron microscopy. The electrostatic generator is studied as a control system element: transfer function, parasitic signals and noise are determined and a mathematical model is proposed. A theoretical study of the open loop transfer function, stability, transient response, voltage stabilization of five different control systems shows which one should be able to fulfill the requirements There follows a detailed study of drift, a description of the actual system and performance data. (author) [French] Cette etude concerne un generateur electrostatique capable de fournir une tres haute tension continue dont la stabilite relative est de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} pendant une minute. Une telle performance rend cet appareillage tres utile en microscopie electronique. La generatrice electrostatique est etudiee en tant qu'element d'un systeme asservi: on determine successivement la fonction de transfert, les perturbations, le bruit de fond et le modele mathematique. L'etude de cinq differents circuits de regulation en ce qui concerne leur fonction de transfert, stabilite, reponse en regime transitoire, attenuation des perturbations, permettra de choisir le systeme qui semble le mieux repondre aux exigences. Viennent ensuite une etude detaillee de la derive, la description de la realisation pratique et les resultats de mesure. (auteur)

  15. Soft-X-ray ARPES facility at the ADRESS beamline of the SLS: concepts, technical realisation and scientific applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strocov, V N; Wang, X; Shi, M; Kobayashi, M; Krempasky, J; Hess, C; Schmitt, T; Patthey, L

    2014-01-01

    Soft-X-ray angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) with photon energies around 1 keV combines the momentum space resolution with increasing probing depth. The concepts and technical realisation of the new soft-X-ray ARPES endstation at the ADRESS beamline of SLS are described. The experimental geometry of the endstation is characterized by grazing X-ray incidence on the sample to increase the photoyield and vertical orientation of the measurement plane. The vacuum chambers adopt a radial layout allowing most efficient sample transfer. High accuracy of the angular resolution is ensured by alignment strategies focused on precise matching of the X-ray beam and optical axis of the analyzer. The high photon flux of up to 10(13) photons s(-1) (0.01% bandwidth)(-1) delivered by the beamline combined with the optimized experimental geometry break through the dramatic loss of the valence band photoexcitation cross section at soft-X-ray energies. ARPES images with energy resolution up to a few tens of meV are typically acquired on the time scale of minutes. A few application examples illustrate the power of our advanced soft-X-ray ARPES instrumentation to explore the electronic structure of bulk crystals with resolution in three-dimensional momentum, access buried heterostructures and study elemental composition of the valence states using resonant excitation.

  16. Use of antithrombotics in atrial fibrillation in Africa, Europe, Asia and South America: insights from the International RealiseAF Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamra, Habib; Murin, Jan; Chiang, Chern-En; Naditch-Brûlé, Lisa; Brette, Sandrine; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-02-01

    The implementation of international guidelines for antithrombotic use in atrial fibrillation (AF) in routine practice is not well known, particularly, in some parts of the world, such as the Middle East and Africa. To describe and analyse the use of antithrombotics in patients with AF in routine practice. The RealiseAF international cross-sectional survey enrolled 10,523 patients (with at least one documented AF episode in the preceding 12 months) from 831 sites. Participating physicians were randomly selected from physician list forms. Mean age was 66.6 ± 12.2 years. In 47.4% of the patients with a CHADS2 score ≥ 2, oral anticoagulants were not prescribed. Patients who had a CHADS2 score ≥ 2, permanent or persistent AF, valvular heart disease, a stroke leading to hospitalization in the previous year or treatment by a cardiologist (rather than an internist) were most likely to receive oral anticoagulants. Patients aged ≥ 75 years and those with coronary heart disease; major bleeding leading to hospitalization in the previous year or a rhythm control strategy was least likely to receive oral anticoagulants. Appropriate antithrombotic treatment was prescribed in 66.7% of the patients with a CHADS2 score ≥ 2 in the Middle East/Africa, 55.3% in Europe, 43.9% in Latin America and 31.7% in Asia. There is substantial deviation from international guidelines in antithrombotic use for AF in routine clinical practice, with overuse and underuse of antithrombotics in about 50% of the cases and important geographical differences. These findings emphasize the need for improved medical education worldwide and a better understanding of geographical disparities in the implementation of guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Realising the transformative potential of healthcare partnerships: insights from divergent literatures and contrasting cases in high- and low-income country contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Martin, Graham

    2013-09-01

    Partnership is a prominent approach to delivering healthcare globally, with advocates arguing that partnership has distinctive advantages over alternatives such as hierarchies or markets. There is much debate as to whether partnerships represent a distinctive mode of coordination in practice, however. Furthermore, despite evidence from diverse settings of the challenges of putting partnerships into practice, there has been little cross-pollination between literature from different fields. We bring together existing literature and two partnership case studies in the contrasting contexts of the UK National Health Service and an internationally-funded health intervention in Cambodia. The case studies were conducted between 2005 and 2008. Based on our synthesis of the literature, we propose an analytical distinction between instrumental and transformative partnerships, arguing that it is transformative partnerships that can deliver the unique advantages set out in theory. Comparative analysis of the cases illustrates that although both were able to achieve some valuable successes, they fell short of realising their transformative potential. We identify five common issues that impeded or facilitated transformative partnership-working, at micro, meso- and macro-levels: starting conditions; programme set-up; funding asymmetries and interdependence; accountability mechanisms; and relationships and distance from the field. Through systematic comparison we offer a more nuanced understanding of how programmes themselves create particular architectures for partnership, how underlying globalised institutional logics of managerialism promote instrumental partnerships, and how local-level, interpersonal relationships may help to overcome barriers to partnership's transformative potential. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Conception and fabrication of a real time automatic correlator (multi-correlator); Etude et realisation d'un correlateur automatique (multicorrelateur) fonctionnant en temps reel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthier, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to elaborate a specific computer able to display the real.time correlation function of two variables represented by two electrical signals. The various functions to be done are dealt with the best suited technology: delays from numerical method, hybrid multiplication, analog integration. This method proved very versatile so that it has been possible to modify the circuits with more performing components without changing the general conception of the whole system. In particular, the bandwidth, which was originally 125 kHz (1966) is now 1 MHz and will be 5 MHz, January 1968. Many results are obtained from the correlator such as: - determination of pulse responses of linear systems (1. and 2. order filters, oscillating circuits); - extraction of signals from noise; - measurement of time and space correlation in a turbulent plasma; - treatment of electro-biological signals. (author) [French] Nous nous sommes proposes de concevoir un calculateur specialise pour l'estimation en temps reel de la fonction de correlation de deux phenomenes representes par deux tensions electriques. Il a ete retenu les procedes de calcul s'adaptant le mieux aux diverses fonctions a realiser: retard par une technique numerique, multiplication hybride, integration analogique. Cette methode s'est revelee tres souple d'emploi: en effet les circuits ont pu etre modifies, sans changer la conception de l'appareil, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des performances des composants electroniques. Ainsi la bande passante de l'appareil qui initialement etait de 125 KHz (1966) est actuellement de 1 MHz et sera 5 MHz en janvier 1968. De nombreux resultats ont ete obtenus avec l'appareil: - determination de reponses impulsionnelles de systemes lineaires (filtres 1er ordre, 2eme ordre, circuit oscillant, etc... ); - detection de signaux dans le bruit; - mesure de correlation spatiale et temporelle dans le plasma - traitement de signaux

  19. Extrusion and drawing of zircaloy 2. Production of pressure tubes for EL-4; Filage et etirage du zircaloy 2. Realisation des tubes de force pour EL-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Buffet, J. [Cefilac (France)

    1964-07-01

    successivement: - les difficultes rencontrees du fait de cet alliage: - protection contre l'atmosphere - calage sur les outillages - mauvaise conductibilite thermique - economie de metal (prix) - les facteurs influencant la qualite des produits files - filage sous gaine cuivre et sous verre lubrifiant - structure a grains fins - homogeneite de temperature - temperature de travail Le cycle de transformation 'lingot de 550 kg - ebauches pour etirage des tubes EL-4 (112 x 120 L 12 m)' est decrit en detail (filage ou forgeage du lingot de {phi} 340 en billettes de {phi} 220, tronconnage puis percage a chaud a {phi} 125, mise sous gaine cuivre et filage en ebauche). Etirage: Les principales difficultes proviennent du grippage sur les outils et de la necessite de proteger l'alliage contre l'atmosphere pendant les recuits. L'etirage sur mandrin court, sur mandrin long, le laminage sur machine a reduire et l'execution des recuits sont decrits succintement ainsi que la fabrication par etirage sur mandrins longs de tubes EL-4 ({phi} = 107 x 113 L 4,30 m) a partir d'ebauche 112 x 120. Conclusions: On peut realiser par filage et etirage des tubes de zircaloy 2 semblables a ce qu'on obtiendrait couramment avec de l'inox. (auteurs)

  20. Capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2}. Innovation, industrial stakes and realizations; Captage et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}. Innovation, enjeux industriels et realisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavergne, R.; Podkanski, J.; Rohner, H.; Otter, N.; Swift, J.; Dance, T.; Vesseron, Ph.; Reich, J.P.; Reynen, B.; Wright, L.; Marliave, L. de; Stromberg, L.; Aimard, N.; Wendel, H.; Erdol, E.; Dino, R.; Renzenbrink, W.; Birat, J.P.; Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Paelinck, Ph.; David, M.; Pappalardo, M.; Moisan, F.; Marston, Ph.; Law, M.; Zakkour, P.; Singer, St.; Philippe, Th.; Philippe, Th

    2007-07-01

    The awareness of the international community and the convergence of scientific data about the global warming confirm the urgency of implementing greenhouse gases abatement technologies at the world scale. The growth of world energy demand will not allow to rapidly get rid of the use of fossil fuels which are the main sources of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} is a promising way to conciliate the use of fossil fuels and the abatement of pollutants responsible for the global warming. The economical and industrial stakes of this technique are enormous. In front of the success of a first international colloquium on this topic held in Paris in 2005, the IFP, the BRGM and the Ademe have jointly organized a second colloquium in October 2007, in particular to present the first experience feedbacks of several pilot experiments all over the world. This document gathers the transparencies of 27 presentations given at this colloquium and dealing with: the 4. IPCC report on the stakes of CO{sub 2} capture and storage; the factor 4: how to organize the French economy transition from now to 2050; the technology perspectives, scenarios and strategies up to 2050; the European technological platform on 'zero-emission thermal plants'; the CO{sub 2} capture and storage road-map in the USA; research, development and implementation of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in Australia; the Canadian experience; ten years of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in Norway; the In Salah operations (Algeria); CO{sub 2} capture and storage: from vision to realisation; the oxi-combustion and storage pilot unit of Lacq (France); the Altmark gas field (Germany): analysis of CO{sub 2} capture and storage potentialities in the framework of a gas assisted recovery project; oil assisted recovery and CO{sub 2} related storage activities in Brazil: the Buracica and Miranga fields experience; carbon capture and storage, an option for coal power generation; steel

  1. Poverty, Socio-Political Factors and Degradation of the Environment in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need For a Holistic Approach to the Protection of the Environment and Realisation of the Right to Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The right to environment is a recognised human right in Africa. However, despite the legal and institutional frameworks designed to respect, promote, protect and fulfil the right, its enjoyment is still a mirage to majority of African citizens as a result of environmental degradation. This article aims to proffer a holistic or integrated approach to tackling the problem of environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa in order to enhance the protection of the environment and the realisation of this right in the region. It recognises that the problem of environmental degradation in the region is not due to lack of regulatory frameworks, but rather due to other factors that are mainly socio-economic and political in nature. It argues that to enhance the protection of the environment and realisation of this right in sub-Saharan Africa, African governments must adopt a holistic approach towards the protection of the environment, and proposes the promotion of good governance and socio-economic reform in the region as an integral core of such approach.

  2. Investigations for the mechanical and nuclear realisation of a pressure-vessel built-up of cast-steel-segments for a high-temperature reactor with a power of 3000 MWsub(th)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebe, H.W.

    1978-06-01

    Presently for gas-cooled reactors prestressed concrete vessels made of prestressed concrete are inserted. An alternative to the prestressed concrete vessel is the prestressed cast-steel vessel, whose mechanical and nuclear realisation is investigated in this report. On the basis of defined interpretation criteria the dimensioning calculations for the necessary cast-steel and prestressed steel-segments are performed as well as voltage gradients and deformation status for different load situations are determined and practically represented, whereby a reactor with ring core is comparative confronted to a reactor with cylindrical core. In the nuclear part it is tested how far the prestressed cast-steel-vessel suffices as a biological shielding or how far problems are to be expected concerning neutron activation and integrated neutron radiation. Weak points are shown and solution proposals are made. (orig.) [de

  3. Mapping end-stage renal disease (ESRD: spatial variations on small area level in northern France, and association with deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Occelli

    Full Text Available Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors.The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR and credible intervals (CI were estimated for each quintile.Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00-1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11-1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14-1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32-1.74] for Q5.For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably independent of the patients' financial

  4. Development of a 'chronotron' for time of flight fast neutron spectrometer; Realisation d'un chronotron pour spectrometre a neutrons rapides par temps de vol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclos, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-10-15

    A chronotron using storage circuits of a 100 channels amplitude analyser has been developed in order to measure the time of flight of fast neutrons. A time dilatation is obtained by a distribution of 20 6BN6 tubes. The width at half maximum of prompt coincidences curve is 1,6.10{sup -9} s for {beta}-{gamma} coincidences from An{sup 198} and 2.10{sup -9} s for n-{alpha} coincidences from (d, t) reaction. (author) [French] En vue de realiser un spectrometre a neutrons rapides par temps de vol, un chronotron utilisant les circuits d'enregistrement d'un selecteur d'amplitude de 100 canaux a ete construit. Une dilatation du temps est obtenue a l'aide d'une distribution de 20 lampes 6BN6. La largeur a mi-hauteur de la courbe de resolution est 1,6.10{sup -9} s pour les coincidences {beta}-{gamma} de Au{sup 198} et 2.10{sup -9} s pour les coincidences n-{alpha} de la reaction (d, t). (auteur)

  5. Towards the development of a regional electricity market in Central Africa: Issues and Challenges; Vers la realisation d'un marche regional de l'electricite en Afrique Centrale: Enjeux et defies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veilleux, Rheaume; Mbadinga, David; Kitoko Senghi, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    This article gives a short description of the African continent. It then describes the 5 energy pools covering 54 countries: COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. More specifically, the article looks at the main strategies and methods to be put in place in order to implement the electricity market, in particular the regional market of Central Africa. The current interconnecting projects and studies between different African countries, made by RSW international in collaboration with different partners, are presented, and in a more comprehensive way, the one related to the Interconnexion of the electrical networks of the member countries of the ECCAS. [French] Cet article presente une courte description du continent africain. Par la suite, on decrit les 5 pools energetiques couvrant les 54 pays : COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. Plus specifiquement, on aborde les principales strategies et moyens a mettre en place pour implanter et developper le marche de l'electricite, plus particulierement le marche regional de l'Afrique centrale. Les projets ou etudes d'interconnexion en cours entre differents pays de l'Afrique, realises par RSW International de concert avec differents partenaires, sont presentes et, de facon plus exhaustive, celle relative au projet de l'Interconnexion des Reseaux Electriques des Pays Membres de la CEEAC.

  6. Development of an analogue multiplexed regulation for periodic 1. order delayed processes; Etude et realisation d'une regulation analogique multiplexee pour processus aperiodiques du 1. ordre avec retard pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amblard, J.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-15

    The present note deals with the study regulations of the sampled type, for 1. order process with simple delay. In order to obtain a good stability in such regulations, together with acceptable performances, it is interesting to use polynomial type correctors acting directly on the sampled error signals. The active elements of these correctors can be shared by all the channels to be controlled. Furthermore, the determination of the correction parameters results from an optimal study of the system. In the second part is described the construction of a multiplexed regulation for diffusion ovens. (author) [French] La presente note concerne l'etude des regulations de type echantillonne, pour processus du 1. ordre avec retard pur. Pour obtenir une bonne stabilite de telles regulations, ainsi que des performances correcte il est interessant d'utiliser des correcteurs de type polynomial, agissant directement sur les signaux d'erreur echantillonnes. Les elements actifs de ces correcteurs peuvent etre pris communs a toutes les voies a controler. D'autre part, la determination des parametres de correction decoula d'une etude optimale du systeme. Dans une seconde partie on decrit la realisation d'une regulation multiplexee de fours a diffusion. (auteur)

  7. Les réseaux de la villégiature en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Toulier

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La création des stations de villégiature, balnéaires, thermales, climatiques ou des bords de ville s’inscrit à la fois dans le mouvement de l’avènement des loisirs et de la médicalisation de la société française du XIXe siècle, le développement des moyens de transport et l’accroissement exponentiel du tourisme.Figure 1Calais (Pas-de-Calais. Affiche, s.d. [fin XIXe siècle ?]. Coll. part. Extrait de Villes d’eaux, 2002. Paris : Imprimerie nationale Editions/Dexia, p. 30.Les réseaux de la villé...

  8. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J.; Mansy, J.L.; Piwakowski, B.

    2005-01-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  9. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J. [Polytech' Lille, Dept. Genie Civil, UMR CNRS 8107 (LML), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Mansy, J.L. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et de Geodynamique, UMR CNRS 8110 (PBDS), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piwakowski, B. [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Groupe Electronique Acoustique IEMN-DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  10. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne; Colonna, Marc; Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette; Lacour, Brigitte; Schvartz, Claire; Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc; Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia; Belot, Aurelien; Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie; Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2011-04-01

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  11. Santé et travail à la mine

    OpenAIRE

    Bluma, Lars; Fontaine, Marion; Geerkens, Eric; Hecht, Gabrielle; Huang, Irène; McIvor, Arthur; Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; Rainhorn, Judith; Rosental, Paul-André; Thomann, Bernard; Turner, Angela; Vergara, Angela

    2016-01-01

    L'inscription du Bassin minier du Nord-Pas-de-Calais au patrimoine mondial de l'humanité en 2011 a fait de la mine un lieu de mémoire universel et des gueules noires les héros et martyrs d’un monde disparu. Pourtant, l’activité minière, quasiment révolue dans la Vieille Europe et les pays de la première industrialisation, est aujourd’hui en pleine expansion dans la plupart des pays émergents, au point de constituer l’une des activités économiques essentielles de la Chine, du Brésil, de l’Afri...

  12. Le siècle de Liouville (1809-1882)

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Situation de la presse mathématique en France pendant la vie de Joseph Liouville : Année Liouville La presse mathématique La situation en France 1804 Le Sacre de Napoléon 1809 (24 mars) Naissance de Liouville à Saint-Omer (Pas de Calais) où son père est capitaine d’artillerie 1814-1815 La Première Restauration  avec Louis XVIII, les Cent-Jours & la Seconde Restauration 1823-1824 Lancement du Bulletin de Férussac 1824 Arrivée à Paris du jeune Liouville pour préparer le concours d’entrée de l’É...

  13. Evolution of thyroid cancer occurrence in metropolitan France. Assessment over 25 years; evolution de l'incidence du cancer de la thyroide en France metropolitaine. Bilan sur 25 ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel, Agnes; Caserio-Schonemann, Celine; Cherie-Challine, Laurence; Rudant, Jeremie; Bloch, Juliette; Thuret, Anne [Unite cancer, Departement des maladies chroniques et traumatismes - DMCT, Institut de veille sanitaire - InVS (France); Colonna, Marc [Registre des cancers de l' Isere, Reseau francais des registres de cancer (Francim) (France); Uhry, Zoe; Kudjawu, Yao; Danzon, Arlette [Unite cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Lacour, Brigitte [Registre national des tumeurs solides de l' enfant, Francim (France); Schvartz, Claire [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim (France); Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc [Cellule interregionale d' epidemiologie - Cire Sud (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise; Sassolas, Genevieve; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia [Registre des cancers thyroidiens de la region Rhone-Alpes (France); Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Guenel, Pascal; Vathaire, Florent de; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Clero, Enora; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Bedouche, Lallia [Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale (Inserm) U1018 (France); Belot, Aurelien [Unite Cancer, DMCT, InVS (France); Hospices civils de Lyon - HCL (France); Fieffe, Sandrine; Dalac, Audrey; Goncalves, Katia; Kaplan, Martine; Pochart, Jean-Marie [Registre des cancers de la thyroide Marne-Ardennes, Francim, Centre de luttre contre le cancer de Reims (France); Desenclos, Jean-Claude [Direction scientifique, InVS (France)

    2011-04-15

    After a presentation of the epidemiological context of thyroid cancer in France, this report, based on cancer record data, analyzes the occurrence of thyroid cancers between 1982 and 2006. It discusses the contribution and limits of medical-administrative data for the epidemiological monitoring of thyroid cancer occurrence between 1997 and 2009. It proposes a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancers in two districts (Marne and Ardennes) between 1975 and 2008, and a descriptive analysis of thyroid cancer for children under 14 between 2000 and 2008. It proposes an estimation of thyroid cancer occurrence in Corsica between 1998 and 2006. It reports and discusses a pilot study performed in two regions (Ile de France and Nord Pas-de-Calais), based on a multi-source system of cancer monitoring (SMSC), and comments studies on risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancers in France

  14. Y-chromosomal DNA analysis in French male lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Luis, E; Blanco-Verea, A; Brión, M; Van Huffel, V; Sánchez-Diz, P; Carracedo, A

    2014-03-01

    French population, despite of its crucial geographic location for repopulation movements of Europe across time, it has been insufficiently characterized at the genetic level, especially for Y-chromosomal DNA variation. In order to make a genetic structure characterization, we have analyzed the Y-chromosome diversity of 558 male individuals, scattered along 7 different French regions: Alsace (Strasbourg), Auvergne (Clermont-Ferrand), Bretagne (Rennes), Île-de-France (Paris), Midi-Pyrénées (Toulouse), Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Lille) and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Marseille). A total of 17 Y-chromosome STRs and 27 Y-chromosome SNPs were genotyped for each individual. Even though we find that most of the individual populations in France were not differentiated from each other, Bretagne population shows population substructure, an important fact to be considered when establishing general population databases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DELOS Joseph-Thomas

    OpenAIRE

    Monnet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Né le 7 août 1891 à Ham-en-Artois (Pas-de-Calais), mort le 10 janvier 1974 à Paris (Seine).Professeur de droit et de sociologie à l’Université catholique de Lille (1924-1940), à la faculté de sciences sociales de l’Université Laval (Québec) et à la New School for Social Research de New York (États-Unis) (1941-1945) ; présent à Alger, lors de la constitution du gouvernement provisoire de la République française (1er avril-29 septembre 1944) ; docteur honoris causa de l’Université Laval (1953),...

  16. 'Sobrietes' (2010-2013): An Interdisciplinary Research Program on the Institutionalisation of Local Energy Sobriety Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semal, Luc; Szuba, Mathilde; Villalba, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The 'Sobrietes' program (2010-2013) initiated an interdisciplinary research work focusing on the potential institutionalisation of local energy 'sobriety' policies in Nord-Pas-de-Calais (northern France). It contributed to structuring a network of regional actors - from scientific, NGO's and institutional fields - all involved in a process of integrating the global peak oil hypothesis into their discourses and practices. This process has led to reconsider regional energy policies under a new light, in particular the energy demand reduction programmes and the search for an equitable sharing of energy resources. The energy 'sobriety' approach, understood as a voluntary and equitable reduction mechanism for energy consumption, brings forward innovative responses to social and ecological issues

  17. Nuclear knowledge management: The GRS realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraha, D.; Heigl, T.; Puhr-Westerheide, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the set-up of a knowledge management system at GRS. A knowledge model has been used as a guideline through the stages of knowledge-related activities, including specification of the knowledge goals, knowledge identification, acquisition, development, use, dissemination, preservation and assessment of the knowledge management system. The activities related to these stages are described. In addition, process-oriented knowledge management as a means to integrate knowledge-related activities into everyday work, and semantic technologies for modelling knowledge domains and for improving search for relevant documents are presented. (author)

  18. Nuclear knowledge management: The GRS realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraha, D.; Heigl, T.; Westerheide, P.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the setup of a knowledge management system at GRS. A knowledge model has been used as a guideline through the stages of knowledge related activities, including specification of the knowledge goals, knowledge identification, acquisition, development, use, dissemination, preservation, and assessment of the knowledge management system. The activities related to these stages are described. In addition, process-oriented knowledge management as a means to integrate knowledge related activities into everyday work, and semantic technologies for modelling knowledge domains and for improving search for relevant documents are presented. (author)

  19. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  20. Democratic discourse? Realising alternatives in Zimbabwe political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zambezia: The Journal of Humanities of the University of Zimbabwe. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Evaluating a nurse scholarship programme: realising potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Jennie; Taylor, Clare

    2017-12-14

    Evaluation is an integral component of any nurse education programme and ideally requires a multi-method approach. This article describes both the formative and summative evaluation of the St Mark's Burdett nurse scholarship from the perspective of the health professionals involved. During the nursing scholar's specialty placements, their achievements were recorded alongside a more detailed insight into their ongoing development during weekly supervision sessions. The summative evaluation comprised recording their attendance at taught study days, progress in academic modules and one-to-one interviews. A survey was also conducted to gather feedback about the scholarship. The evaluation indicated that this programme helped the nursing scholars gain exposure to a broad range of gastrointestinal nursing clinical environments, provided them with the resources needed to continue to develop academically and professionally, and helped them to achieve career progression in specialist nursing.

  2. Recognising and Realising Teachers' Professional Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This reflection on the eight papers in this special issue examines the theoretical stances and methodological resources to be found in them. It offers a definition of agency which emphasises commitment, responsibility, strong judgements, self-evaluation, connection to the common good and attention to what people do. Having examined how the papers…

  3. Nuclear knowledge management: The GRS realisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraha, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Wissensmanagement in der Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungsgelaende, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: David.Beraha@grs.de; Heigl, T.; Puhr-Westerheide, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Wissensmanagement in der Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungsgelaende, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the set-up of a knowledge management system at GRS. A knowledge model has been used as a guideline through the stages of knowledge-related activities, including specification of the knowledge goals, knowledge identification, acquisition, development, use, dissemination, preservation and assessment of the knowledge management system. The activities related to these stages are described. In addition, process-oriented knowledge management as a means to integrate knowledge-related activities into everyday work, and semantic technologies for modelling knowledge domains and for improving search for relevant documents are presented. (author)

  4. Internet privacy options for adequate realisation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A thorough multidisciplinary analysis of various perspectives on internet privacy was published as the first volume of a study, revealing the results of the achatech project "Internet Privacy - A Culture of Privacy and Trust on the Internet." The second publication from this project presents integrated, interdisciplinary options for improving privacy on the Internet utilising a normative, value-oriented approach. The ways in which privacy promotes and preconditions fundamental societal values and how privacy violations endanger the flourishing of said values are exemplified. The conditions which must be fulfilled in order to achieve a culture of privacy and trust on the internet are illuminated. This volume presents options for policy-makers, educators, businesses and technology experts how to facilitate solutions for more privacy on the Internet and identifies further research requirements in this area.

  5. Stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. Application to the construction of a stabilizer; Stabilisation des spectres fournis par un spectrometre a rayons gamma. Application a la realisation d'un stabilisateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detourne, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    This research is concerned with the stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. It is required to hold the calibration straight line of the spectrometer in a position which is fixed initially to better than 5x10{sup -5} channel. A prototype numerical stabilizer has been constructed : the SPECTROSTAB; it is made up of two independent control loops; one of these makes the spectrometer gain depend on the derivatives of a reference peak at high energies; the other makes the origin of the energy scale depend on the derivatives of a second reference peak at low energies A theoretical study of the behaviour of a control loop shows that a direct action stabilizer gives the most accurate stabilization; the loss in resolving power on the theoretical peaks of the spectra attains about 1 % with a scintillation detector, and 10 % with a semi-conductor detector. Various tests show that the expected results are obtained and that the displacement of the spectral peaks produced by the derivatives are hidden by errors in the calculation of the peak abscissae. (author) [French] Cette etude a pour objet la stabilisation des spectres fournis par un spectrometre a rayons gamma. On veut maintenir la droite d'etalonnage du spectrometre dans une position fixee initialement a mieux de 6.10{sup -5} canal pres. On realise un prototype de stabilisateur numerique, le SPECTROSTAB; il comprend deux boucles d'asservissement independantes; l'une d'elles asservit le gain du spectrometre aux derives d'un pic de reference aux hautes energies; l'autre asservit l'origine de l'echelle des energies aux derives d'un second pic de reference aux basses energies. Une etude theorique du comportement d'une boucle d'asservissement montre qu'un stabilisateur a action directe permet la stabilisation la plus precise; la perte en resolution sur les pics theoriques des spectres atteint environ 1 % avec un detecteur a scintillateur et 10

  6. Myrrha, Technology Development for the Realisation of ADS in Eu:. Current Status & Prospects for Realisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R.; Abderrahim, H. Aït; Baeten, P.; de Bruyn, D.; Maes, D.; Mazouzi, A. Al; Ariën, B.; Malambu, E.; Schuurmans, P.; Schyns, M.; Sobolev, V.; van den Eynde, G.; Vandeplassche, D.

    2010-06-01

    The coupling between an accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core has been studied for the first time at SCK•CEN in collaboration with Ion Beam Applications (IBA, Louvain-la-Neuve) in the frame of the ADONIS project (1995-1997). ADONIS was a small irradiation facility, based on the ADS concept, having a dedicated objective to produce radioisotopes for medical purposes and more particularly 99Mo as a fission product from highly enriched 235U (HEU) fissile targets. The ad-hoc scientific advisory committee recommended extending the purpose of the ADONIS machine to become a Material Testing Reactor (MTR) for material and fuel research, to study the feasibility of transmutation of the minor actinides and to demonstrate at a reasonable power scale the principle of the ADS. The project, since 1998 named MYRRHA, has then evolved to a larger installation. MYRRHA is now conceived as a flexible irradiation facility, able to work as an Accelerator Driven (subcritical mode) and in critical mode. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV systems, material developments for fusion reactors, radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications and industrial applications, such as Si-doping. MYRRHA will also demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and subcritical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator and allow the study of efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. Since MYRRHA is based on the heavy liquid metal technology, the eutectic lead-bismuth, it will be able to significantly contribute to the development of Lead Fast Reactor Technology. Since MYRRHA will also be operated in critical mode, MYRRHA can even better play the role of European Technology Pilot Plant in the roadmap for LFR.

  7. Realisation of a small-scale hydro-power plant between two drinking water reservoirs in the municipality of Vira Gambarogno - Feasibility study; Realizzazione di una microcentrale idroelettrica sulla condotta di adduzione tra il serbatoio Monti di Fosano e il serbatoio Fosano. Programma piccole centrali idrauliche. Studio di fattibilita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2009-02-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the drinking water supply in the municipality of Vira Gambarogno, southern Switzerland. The old conduit connecting two drinking water reservoirs has to be replaced. The elevation difference of 260 m is favorable to the installation of a turbine near the lower reservoir. The report presents details on the hydrological data and the dimensioning of the installation. Several variants are considered, which also include the possible reconstruction of the lower reservoir and/or an increased water flow rate from the springs. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  8. Village electrification with solar energy. A report from realised photovoltaic installations in the Chinese ''Brightness Programmme''; Elektrifizierung von Doerfern mit Solarenergie. Bericht von realisierten Photovoltaikanlagen aus dem chinesischen ''Brightness Programme''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabler, H. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Bopp, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Between 60 and 70 million people in China still do not have access to large electricity distribution grids. The Chinese government therefore decided on an ambitious electrification programme with decentralised utilisation of wind and solar energies. 'It is planned, that 23 million people in remote areas shall be electrified by wind and (solar) PV-technologies till 2010'. (Plan of the first phase of Brightness Programme of China, JKD, July 1999.) The authors of the paper recently had the opportunity to visit a number of village systems realised in the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia, China, in earlier stages of the programme. Villages with typically 30 to 50 households and more than 50 km from the electricity lines are equipped with a Solar/Wind/Battery-Hybrid system, households are connected via 200 V single phase overhead lines. In future projects, more effort should be given to energy saving, to loss reduction in the inverters and to battery management. (orig.)

  9. Recuperación económica de cuencas mineras y arqueología industrial. El caso de Sabero, León/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celemín, M.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available For 1992-1993, the Diputación Provincial de León (León Provincial Government participated in Ouverture Programme (European Union for economical and environmental recuperation of former mining regions. In this paper, industrial heritage is seen like one of the activities to be accomplished in order to get the aforementioned recuperation of mining regions, particularly, those of coal. Then, treatment given to the industrial heritage into the coal mining regions of Wales, Limburg and Nord Pas-de-Calais will be described. Finally: the case of the valley of Sabero will be presented -this valley immersed in an economic recovering process after coal mining close down dating from 1993-; some of the most important elements of its industrial heritage will be shown, and also, explained the adequacy and opportunities of preserving at least in a documentary and graphic way, most of the industrial heritage belonging to the valley of Sabero.

    Durante 1992-1993, la Diputación Provincial de León participó en el programa Ouverture de la Unión Europea para la recuperación económica y medioambiental de cuencas mineras. En este artículo se hablará, en primer lugar, de la arqueología industrial en el contexto de las actuaciones realizadas en la recuperación de cuencas mineras del carbón. Se describirá después el tratamiento dado al patrimonio industrial minero en las cuencas de carbón de Gales, Limburg y Nord Pas-de-Calais. Por último, se presentará el caso del valle de Sabero -inmerso en un proceso de recuperación económica desde el cierre de las minas en 1993- y se mostrarán algunos de los elementos más importantes del patrimonio industrial minero de dicho valle, señalándose, para finalizar, la conveniencia y oportunidad de conservar documentalmente pruebas de la existencia de la mayor parte de los elementos que constituyen dicho patrimonio.

  10. Study and realisation of a gateway between a MIL1553 network and an Ethernet network. Implementation of the OS9NET homogeneous network and of the TCP/IP heterogeneous network on the OS-9/68000 real time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot-Censier, Pascal

    1989-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the design of a homogeneous network for machines acquiring data in real time, and the interconnection by a heterogeneous network of this group with three groups of mini-computers, workstations, and personal computers. Thus, this work involved hardware as well as software designs and developments. After a recall of main notions related to networks, and a presentation of the OS9 real time core, the author reports the design and development of the Ethernet controller card. He reports the design and realisation of a gateway between Ethernet and MIL1553 which is notably based on the previously mentioned controller card. An Ethernet driver is then designed for the OS9 operating system. As the connection with other machines which do not support OS9, requires the development of applications using TCP/IP protocols, the author describes how software designed for PCs have been adapted for a use in real time and for the OS9 operating system. He presents an additional software layer to TCP/IP for an inter-process communication through a heterogeneous network. This layer allows the development of applications distributed among systems which possess different processors and operating systems. Finally, the author presents a test protocol which ensures the fast transfer of memory blocks between OS9 machines [fr

  11. Development of a diffuse element matrix in 'planar' technology. A particular application: logical gate with coupled emitter; Etude et realisation d'une matrice d'elements diffuses selon la technologie 'planar'. Application particuliere: porte logique a emetteurs couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-01

    In a first part, after a brief recall concerning 'planar' technology we discuss the various parasitic elements associated with integrated circuits components. Mathematical formulae of these elements are derived. In a second part, we present a matrix of 22 transistors and 12 resistors which has been realized. This matrix enables the integration of the major part of nuclear circuits. Some of the obtained circuits are shown, particularly an emitter coupled logic gate which presents good electrical behaviour. (author) [French] Dans uns premiere partie, apres un bref rappel de la technologie 'planar' nous etudions les divers elements parasites associes a tout composant d'un circuit integre. Un developpement sommaire des expressions mathematiques de ces elements est propose. Dans une seconde partie nous presentons la matrice de 22 transistors et 12 resistances que nous avons realisee. Cette matrice repond aux principaux besoins de l'electronique nucleaire. Nous proposons ensuite quelques exemples de circuits realises a partir de cette matrice dont notamment une porte logique a emetteurs couples de performances tres interessantes. (auteur)

  12. Multi-Level Security Cannot Realise NEC Objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, H.A.; Hartog, T.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-Level Security (MLS) is often viewed as the holy grail of information security, especially in those environments where information of different classifications is being processed. In this paper we argue that MLS cannot facilitate the right balance between need-to-protect and duty-to-share as

  13. Realisation of a vacuum system of an EUV Exposure System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molkenboer, F.T.

    2017-01-01

    EBL2 is not a setup for producing semiconductor devices. The experiments for which EBL2 is intended are: accelerated lifetime tests for EUV Mirrors; EUV Reticles and pellicles; and Materials used in EUV lithography. This kind of research is needed due to the harsh EUV environment, and EUV

  14. realisation d'un programme de simulation du comportement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D'autre part, un programme informatique a été élaboré et peut être utilisé pour calculer les variations de la température intérieure des bâtiments tout au long de la journée et pour les différentes saisons. Ce programme pourra aider les concepteurs à optimiser les températures intérieures avant la construction d'un bâtiment ...

  15. Realising the right to family reunification of refugees in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costello, Cathryn; Groenendijk, Kees; Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    . The Commissioner for Human Rights calls on all Council of Europe member states to uphold their human rights obligations and ensure the practical e ectiveness of the right to family reunification for refugees and other international protection bene ciaries. To do so, states should (re)examine their laws, policies......The issue paper examines family reuni cation for refugees as a pressing human rights issue. Without it, refugees are denied their right to respect for family life, have vastly diminished integration prospects and endure great additional unnecessary suffering, as do their family members...... and practices relating to family reunification for refugees. The issue paper contains 36 recommendations to that end...

  16. Realising the promise of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Lund, Jens Friis; Keane, Aidan

    2017-01-01

    Tanzania’s Community Wildlife Management Areas (CWMAs) – originally called Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) – were intended to benefit both people and wildlife. However, for their first two decades, CWMAs have been characterised by land conflict, wildlife damage to people and crops, lack of touri...

  17. The tragicomic realisation of life and destiny of Kocic's characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleša Biljana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the collective identity of the characters of Kocic's prose. It examines the archetypal traits, oddify, originality and impressiveness of these unique characters in Serbian literature as well as the presence of collective memory, the awareness of one self and the others, historical, social and economic circumstances that surround Kocic's heroes. Looking back at the elements of the creative process, the artist's motivation and the presence of the tragical and the comical can be singled out. The characters of Simeun Djak, David Strbac, Mracajski prota, Relja Knezevic have been analyzed, and a short review of the female characters is given. Revealing the extent to which the creativity of Petar Kocic coincides with the elements of history, psychology, sociology and anthropogeography, a literary-scientific thought on his work gets completed and the versality to approach to the reading is allowed.

  18. SCRAN, Archaeology and Education: Realising the potential of digital resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mowat

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The many digitisation initiatives over the last ten years have made available thousands of new resources for learning and teaching. Students of archaeology now have unprecedented access to detailed views of delicate artefacts, remote landscapes and rare maps, as well as virtual reality reconstructions, interactive panoramas, and all kinds of online archives, databases and tutorials. But does this increased access to information automatically lead to improved learning? Some of the emerging problems of this new learning landscape include information overload, poorly understood and badly implemented technologies and a lack of time and skills among educators to explore properly what's newly available. On the other hand, one of the most interesting outcomes of the introduction of the new educational technologies has been a renewed and lively debate as to what learning involves and how exactly it takes place. This article will discuss the potential of digital resources to add value to learning. It will consider current ideas about learning in order to identify some of the key ingredients of a good learning experience. It will then identify the different ways in which a digital resource base can contribute to such an experience. Specifically, it will discuss how the resources contained within SCRAN, an online multimedia resource base for education, can be used in the context of learning and teaching in archaeology. There is evidence that electronic resources are not yet being fully exploited by the current generation of educators and students. By grounding this discussion of their potential within a sound pedagogic rationale, this paper aims to promote informed use and properly placed enthusiasm for these resources.

  19. Realising the child's best interests: lessons from the Child Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the contexts of school discipline and child justice differ considerably there are a number of contact points and points that overlap. Since the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 came into operation in 1996, the Constitutional Court has made several pronouncements on the best-interests-of-the-child concept which ...

  20. The South African companies act and the realisation of corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The Companies Act 71 of 2008 (the Companies Act) was promulgated in April 2009 and came into effect on 1 April. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote compliance with the Bill of Rights as provided for in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (the Constitution), in the application ...

  1. Agents bacteriens isoles lors de coprocultures realises de 2001 à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au sein des coprocultures positives, les prévalences des germes entéropathogènes étaient respectivement Vibrio cholerae (63%), Salmonella spp (26%), Escherichia coli (16%) et Shigella (15%).Les 34 souches de Vibrio cholerae isolées étaient du sérogroupe O1 dont 18 V.cholerae El Tor et 1 souche du sérotype Ogawa ...

  2. The Practical Realisation of Zinc-Iron CMA Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    1998-01-01

    compositions is possible with nanometre layering attainable using single or double bath methods. Furthermore, by the use of a high concentration of ammonium chloride ostensibly as "conductivity" salt, the mechanism of deposition may be modified through control of a thin cathode oxide/hydroxide film....

  3. a Stochastic Realisation Algorithm with Application to Modal Parameter Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardiès, Joseph

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents procedures that allow us to estimate the frequencies and damping coefficients of a vibrating system in time domain, from multioutput data only. The system is excited by a random force and a stochastic state space model is considered. Two algorithms are used to determine the transition matrix of the system which contains all modal information. The first algorithm uses a forward-innovation representation, and the transition matrix is connected to the controllability matrix of the system. The second algorithm uses a backward-innovation representation and the transition matrix is used to the observability matrix of the system. A numerical example is treated and compare these algorithms.

  4. High hopes: can molecular electronics realise its potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ali; Spruell, Jason M; Barin, Gokhan; Dichtel, William R; Flood, Amar H; Botros, Youssry Y; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-07-21

    Manipulating and controlling the self-organisation of small collections of molecules, as an alternative to investigating individual molecules, has motivated researchers bent on processing and storing information in molecular electronic devices (MEDs). Although numerous ingenious examples of single-molecule devices have provided fundamental insights into their molecular electronic properties, MEDs incorporating hundreds to thousands of molecules trapped between wires in two-dimensional arrays within crossbar architectures offer a glimmer of hope for molecular memory applications. In this critical review, we focus attention on the collective behaviour of switchable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs)--specifically, bistable rotaxanes and catenanes--which exhibit reset lifetimes between their ON and OFF states ranging from seconds in solution to hours in crossbar devices. When these switchable MIMs are introduced into high viscosity polymer matrices, or self-assembled as monolayers onto metal surfaces, both in the form of nanoparticles and flat electrodes, or organised as tightly packed islands of hundreds and thousands of molecules sandwiched between two electrodes, the thermodynamics which characterise their switching remain approximately constant while the kinetics associated with their reset follow an intuitively predictable trend--that is, fast when they are free in solution and sluggish when they are constrained within closely packed monolayers. The importance of seamless interactions and constant feedback between the makers, the measurers and the modellers in establishing the structure-property relationships in these integrated functioning systems cannot be stressed enough as rationalising the many different factors that impact device performance becomes more and more demanding. The choice of electrodes, as well as the self-organised superstructures of the monolayers of switchable MIMs employed in the molecular switch tunnel junctions (MSTJs) associated with the crossbars of these MEDs, have a profound influence on device operation and performance. It is now clear, after much investigation, that a distinction should be drawn between two types of switching that can be elicited from MSTJs. One affords small ON/OFF ratios and is a direct consequence of the switching in bistable MIMs that leads to a relatively small remnant molecular signature--an activated chemical process. The other leads to a very much larger signature and ON/OFF ratios resulting from physical or chemical changes in the electrodes themselves. Control experiments with various compounds, including degenerate catenanes and free dumbbells, which cannot and do not switch, are crucial in establishing the authenticity of the small ON/OFF ratios and remnant molecular signatures produced by bistable MIMs. Moreover, experiments conducted on monolayers in MSTJs of molecules designed to switch and molecules designed not to switch have been probed directly by spectroscopic and other means in support of MEDs that store information through switching collections of bistable MIMs contained in arrays of MSTJs. In the quest for the next generation of MEDs, it is likely that monolayers of bistable MIMs will be replaced by robust crystalline extended structures wherein the switchable components, derived from bistable MIMs, are organised precisely in a periodic manner.

  5. Realising the value of information collected by community health workers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alberts, Ronell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available . To address this, community health workers (CHWs) have been utilised in the South African health system to provide basic health services in communities such as home visits, health education, maternal and child health support, communicable disease control...

  6. Legislative and other measures taken by government to realise the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa , 1996 entrenches numerous socio-economic rights. One of these socio-economic rights is contained in section 26 that grants everyone the right to have access to adequate housing and section 28 that grants every child the additional right to basic shelter among others.

  7. Realisering af Smart City/Smart House i Nordjylland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    beskriver tankerne, visionerne og perspektiverne i forhold til at realisere Smart House-konceptet i Region Nordjylland. Smart House-tankerne er baseret på at bygge smarte huse og smarte byggekomponenter til fremtidens brugere, hvor den nyeste teknologi indenfor byggematerialer kombineres med nye værdier....... Formålet med Smart House Nordjylland er at flytte byggeindustriens og forskernes fokus fra en indbyrdes konkurrence lokalt til et udviklende innovationssamarbejde, som sigter mod det globale marked. På denne måde kan regionen skabe et udstillingsvindue indenfor fremtidens byggeri gennem en interaktion...

  8. Order reduction of the chemical master equation via balanced realisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Caamal

    Full Text Available We consider a Markov process in continuous time with a finite number of discrete states. The time-dependent probabilities of being in any state of the Markov chain are governed by a set of ordinary differential equations, whose dimension might be large even for trivial systems. Here, we derive a reduced ODE set that accurately approximates the probabilities of subspaces of interest with a known error bound. Our methodology is based on model reduction by balanced truncation and can be considerably more computationally efficient than solving the chemical master equation directly. We show the applicability of our method by analysing stochastic chemical reactions. First, we obtain a reduced order model for the infinitesimal generator of a Markov chain that models a reversible, monomolecular reaction. Later, we obtain a reduced order model for a catalytic conversion of substrate to a product (a so-called Michaelis-Menten mechanism, and compare its dynamics with a rapid equilibrium approximation method. For this example, we highlight the savings on the computational load obtained by means of the reduced-order model. Furthermore, we revisit the substrate catalytic conversion by obtaining a lower-order model that approximates the probability of having predefined ranges of product molecules. In such an example, we obtain an approximation of the output of a model with 5151 states by a reduced model with 16 states. Finally, we obtain a reduced-order model of the Brusselator.

  9. Realising the potential of shared space in facilities management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkø, Rikke

    individuals or groups from different organisational contexts, and this PhD investigates the intricate processes con-cerning shared space in a facilities management context. The overall aim is divided in a theoretical and a practical part, with the theoretical focused on contributing with new knowledge...... of shared space, building towards a new method for efficient and sustainable facilities management operation of buildings and properties. The practical part is focused on connecting this new knowledge to practical applications and developing tools that can be used to work with shared spaces in a practice....... Grounded in literature from a variety of fields stretching from facilities management to urban planning and development, this PhD adopts a qualitative approach to the study of the intricate processes in-volved in working in, and with, shared space. The study employs case studies as the method of choice...

  10. the politics underpinning the non- realisation of the right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    MIZAN LAW REVIEW. Vol. 5 No.2, December 2011. At least two messages can be discerned from the perceived concerns on resource transfer and the caveats against the reincarnation of the New International. Economic Order through the right to development. One of these messages is a fact and the other is a ...

  11. Realisation of an anode supported planar SOFC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchkremer, H.P.; Stoever, D. [Institut fuer Werkstoffe der Energietechnik, Juelich (Germany); Diekmann, U. [Zentralabteilung Technologie, Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Lowering the operating temperature of S0FCs to below 800{degrees}C potentially lowers production costs of a SOFC system because of a less expensive periphery and is able to guarantee sufficient life time of the stack. One way of achieving lower operating temperatures is the development of new high conductive electrolyte materials. The other way, still based on state-of-the-art material, i.e. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, is the development of a thin film electrolyte concept. In the Forschungszentrum Julich a program was started to produce a supported planar SOFC with an YSZ electrolyte thickness between 10 to 20 put. One of the electrodes, i.e. the anode, was used as support, in order not to increase the number of components in the SOFC. The high electronic conductivity of the anode-cermet allows the use of relatively thick layers without increasing the cell resistance. An additional advantage of the supported planar concept is the possibility to produce single cells larger than 10 x 10 cm x cm, that is with an effective electrode cross area of several hundred cm{sup 2}.

  12. Realising the promise of Tanzania’s wildlife management areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Lund, Jens Friis; Keane, Aidan

    2017-01-01

    Tanzania’s Community Wildlife Management Areas (CWMAs) – originally called Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) – were intended to benefit both people and wildlife. However, for their first two decades, CWMAs have been characterised by land conflict, wildlife damage to people and crops, lack of tourism...

  13. realising equality in access to hiv treatment for vulnerable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UOVS

    Almost thirty years into the HIV/AIDS pandemic its negative effects (including loss of health, income and a source of living) have continued to threaten lives in most parts of the world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. Although recent figures tend to show that the spread of the epidemic is declining or stabilising in many ...

  14. Realisation of microstrip junction circulator using LTCC technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, V; Kjærgaard, Claus

    2011-01-01

    An integrated circulator based on low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) tapes and LTCC compatible ferrite tapes has been developed for the first time and its performance has been verified experimentally. The insertion loss is less than 2 dB and the isolation is better than 25 dB with a centre...... frequency of 7.45 GHz. These results are in good agreement with simulations and offer a route towards integrated LTCC microwave circulators....

  15. TORNADO concept and realisation of a rotor for small VAWTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia DUMITRESCU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a three-tier configuration for a vertical axis rotor was successfully developed into a experimental model. The rotor assembly is divided into three tiers with three straight blades in each tier. The three-tiers are shifted by an angle of 400 generating a full helical flow field inside the rotor. Thereby the new configuration has some different mechanism of torque generation as other Darrieus rotors. The three-tier configuration facilitates the operation by enabling the turbine to self-start at wind velocity as low as 2 m/s with good performance and a smoother driving torque. At the same time the design couples an esthetic appearance with low noise level.

  16. Multiprocessor realisation of a PCM channel unit for SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacs, E.; Uhereczky, L.

    The selection of the proper architecture for the PCM channel unit of the Single Channel Per Channel system is discussed. The transmit, receive, and voice detector functions of the PCM channel unit are examined. The performance of wired logic, bit-slice, and MOS microprocessor units is evaluated based on power consumption, development requirements, flexibility, components, packaging density, maintenance, and cost. The MOS microprocessor was selected as the speech detector unit for the Intelsat/Intersputnik. The design of the speech detector unit which consists of two receive and two transmit microprocessors is described.

  17. Design and Realisation of a Parabolic Solar Cooker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouannene, M; Chaouachi, B; Gabsi, S

    2009-01-01

    The sun s energy is really powerful. Solar energy is renewable and it s free. We can use it to make electricity, to heat buildings and to cook. The field of cooking consumes many fossil fuels such as gas and wood. Million people cannot find enough gas and/or wood to cook, so using solar cookers is a good idea. During this work, we designed, built and studied a parabolic solar cooker. The characteristic equations and the experimental results are given

  18. Realising sustainable urban water management: can social theory help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, J J; Brown, R R

    2013-01-01

    It has been acknowledged, in Australia and beyond, that existing urban water systems and management lead to unsustainable outcomes. Therefore, our current socio-technical systems, consisting of institutions, structures and rules, which guide traditional urban water practices, need to change. If a change towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM) practices is to occur, a transformation of our established social-technical configuration that shapes the behaviour and decision making of actors is needed. While some constructive innovations that support this transformation have occurred, most innovations remain of a technical nature. These innovative projects do not manage to achieve the widespread social and institutional change needed for further diffusion and uptake of SUWM practices. Social theory, and its research, is increasingly being recognised as important in responding to the challenges associated with evolving to a more sustainable form of urban water management. This paper integrates three areas of social theories around change in order to provide a conceptual framework that can assist with socio-technical system change. This framework can be utilised by urban water practitioners in the design of interventions to stimulate transitions towards SUWM.

  19. Realisation of Bologna Declaration at the Slovak medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergendi, L; Bernadic, M; Kralova, E; Kukurova, E

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of Bologna Declaration should result in development and facilitating of the education system. Following tasks need to be done: (1) Establish committees of expert, at the level of institutes, schools and universities, which would compare and harmonize syllabus and credits of individual courses with the aim to maximally support students' and teachers' mobility. (2) It is necessary to re-evaluate the transformation of medical education in Slovakia in the near future, so as key identical courses within Slovak schools of medicine have similar syllabus, number of hours and number of given credits. Then medical study at the School of Medicine Comenius University Bratislava will be comparable to study at Slovak, Czech and other European schools of medicine. (3) Harmonize academic titles within European Union. (4) Finish all syllabi of new study programs according the programs of European Union. (5) Evaluate the prerequisites and consider the variability of some study programs. (6) Maintain flexibility of theory and practice in relation 1:2 in theoretical and practical study. (7) Determine possible forms of thesis, their content and forms, technical equipment considering experience in student's research activity. (8) Develop conditions for an adequate teachers input. (9) Objectively validate and evaluate students' gained knowledge regarding their use in practice. (10) Solve transparent conditions of support and economic guarantee of higher education for universities, teachers and students by Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic (Ref. 18). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  20. REALISING THE AFRICA MINING VISION: THE ROLE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    transfer, infrastructure expansion and above all linkages”.8 It identifies “critical constraints and success .... the organisation of education and training programmes on core issues relevant to mining development .... for community members and government representatives in Portovelo, Ecuador, on business opportunities and ...

  1. Realising dignity in care home practice: an action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Curtis, Katherine; Dunn, Michael; Baillie, Lesley

    2017-06-01

    More than 400,000 older people reside in over 18,000 care homes in England. A recent social care survey found up to 50% of older people in care homes felt their dignity was undermined. Upholding the dignity of older people in care homes has implications for residents' experiences and the role of Registered Nurses. The study aimed to explore how best to translate the concept of dignity into care home practice, and how to support this translation process by enabling Registered Nurses to provide ethical leadership within the care home setting. Action research with groups of staff (Registered Nurses and non-registered caregivers) and groups of residents and relatives in four care homes in the south of England to contribute to the development of the dignity toolkit. Action research groups were facilitated by 4 researchers (2 in each care home) to discuss dignity principles and experiences within care homes. These groups reviewed and developed a dignity toolkit over six cycles of activity (once a month for 6 months). The Registered Nurses were individually interviewed before and after the activity. Hard copy and online versions of a dignity toolkit, with tailored versions for participating care homes, were developed. Registered Nurses and caregivers identified positive impact of making time for discussion about dignity-related issues. Registered Nurses identified ongoing opportunities for using their toolkit to support all staff. Nurses and caregivers expressed feelings of empowerment by the process of action research. The collaborative development of a dignity toolkit within each care home has the potential to enable ethical leadership by Registered Nurses that would support and sustain dignity in care homes. Action research methods empower staff to maintain dignity for older people within the care home setting through the development of practically useful toolkits to support everyday care practice. Providing opportunities for caregivers to be involved in such initiatives may promote their dignity and sense of being valued. The potential of bottom-up collaborative approaches to promote dignity in care therefore requires further research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, up to 70% of children of school-going age with disabilities are out of school. Of those who do attend, most are still in separate, “special” schools for learners with disabilities. This situation prevails despite the push for the educational inclusion of learners with disabilities over twelve years ago by the South ...

  3. Realised genetic gains and estimated genetic parameters of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventionally, Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla (GU) hybrid material is first tested as seedlings in progeny trials for at least four years before ortets are selected and ramets of the selected ortets are propagated to test in clonal trials. The primary constraint with this 'conventional hybrid breeding strategy' (CHBS) is the time ...

  4. Realising Equality in Access to HIV Treatment for Vulnerable and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the relevance of the concept of equality in improving access to HIV treatment for vulnerable and marginalised groups in Africa. The article argues that though modest achievements have been made in expanding access to HIV treatment for those in need in Africa, this expansion has concentrated on the ...

  5. Gauss decomposition, Wakimoto realisation and gauged WZNW models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfaei, H.; Mohammedi, N.

    1993-10-01

    The implications of gauging the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) model using the Gauss decomposition of the group elements are explored. We show that, contrary to standard gauging of WZNW models, this gauging is carried out by minimally coupling the gauge fields. We find that this gauging, in the case of gauging an abelian vector subgroup, differs from the standard one by terms proportional to the field strength of the gauge fields. We prove that gauging an abelian vector subgroup does not have a nonlinear sigma model interpretation. This is because the target-space metric resulting from the integration over the gauge fields is degenerate. We demonstrate, however, that this kind of gauging has a natural interpretation in terms of Wakimoto variables. (orig.)

  6. Realising the benefit of research in eucalypt plantation management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of these technologies have all contributed to measured gains. The continued development and application of appropriate forest technology will be critical to a sustainable future for the industry in South Africa. Issues pertaining to this are discussed. Keywords: eucalypt plantations; technology transfer; yield improvement

  7. Acrea wigginsi occidentalis (Bethune-Baker, 1926), a new butterfly for Nigeria, with remarks on its habitat and known distribution (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Jansta, P.; Leština, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 161 (2013), s. 163-165 ISSN 0300-5267 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) GA JU 144/2010/P; National Geographic Society(US) W163-11 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Acraeini Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.304, year: 2013

  8. Scenarios of energy sobriety and societal transformations. When lifestyle and society changes mean energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    By using prospective energy scenarios, the objective of this study performed in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region is to quantify energy savings induced by possible public policies or by lifestyle changes, and then to use the obtained results as tools of support to public decision, and means to make people aware of the end of an abundant and cheap oil, of the potential of solar energy, and of the benefits of energy sobriety. Four scenarios are thus defined. The first one concerns food habits, and corresponds to a more biological production, seasonal and less transformed foodstuffs, more vegetal plates, and reduced distances between producers and consumers. The second one concerns material goods: evolution towards more mutualization, re-use, and durability of products, and a reduced usage of equipment. The third one concerns buildings: the end of individual equipment and of always increasing surfaces, a modulated comfort depending on the room, and more collective organisations. The last scenario concerns displacements: less frequent displacements, shorter distances, use of soft modes, smaller vehicles, and energy saving in the use of vehicles

  9. CENTENARY OF THE BATTLE OF VIMY (FRANCE, 1917: PRESERVING THE MEMORY OF THE GREAT WAR THROUGH 3D RECORDING OF THE MAISON BLANCHE SOUTERRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murtiyoso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military engagement between the Canadian Corps and the German Empire during the Great War (1914-1918. In this battle, Canadian troops fought as a single unit and won the day. It marked an important point in Canadian history as a nation. The year 2017 marks the centenary of this battle. In commemoration of this event, the Pas-de-Calais Departmental Council financed a 3D recording mission for one of the underground tunnels (souterraines used as refuge by the Canadian soldiers several weeks prior to the battle. A combination of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and close-range photogrammetry techniques was employed in order to document not only the souterraine, but also the various carvings and graffitis created by the soldiers on its walls. The resulting point clouds were registered to the French national geodetic system, and then meshed and textured in order to create a precise 3D model of the souterraine. In this paper, the workflow taken during the project as well as several results will be discussed. In the end, the resulting 3D model was used to create derivative products such as maps, section profiles, and also virtual visit videos. The latter helps the dissemination of the 3D information and thus aids in the preservation of the memory of the Great War for Canada.

  10. Impact of acute geriatric care in elderly patients according to the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment criteria in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frély, Anne; Chazard, Emmanuel; Pansu, Aymeric; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François

    2016-02-01

    In France, over 20% of hospitalizations of elderly people are a result of adverse drug events, of which 50% are considered preventable. Tools have been developed to detect inappropriate prescriptions. The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria are innovative and adapted to French prescriptions. This is one of the first French prospective studies to evaluate the impact of acute geriatric care on prescriptions at discharge in elderly patients using the STOPP/START criteria. The evaluation of prescriptions according to STOPP/START was carried out on admission and at discharge of patients in acute geriatric units at three hospitals in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, France. A total of 202 elderly hospitalized patients were included during the 4.5 months of the study (1.5 months per center). The mean number of drugs was seven on admission and at discharge. Over half of the prescriptions at admission contained at least one potentially inappropriate medication or one potential prescription omission. The prescriptions at discharge contained significantly fewer potentially inappropriate medications than prescriptions on admission (P France improves prescriptions in terms of potentially inappropriate medication, but has no impact on potential prescription omissions. Further studies must be carried out to see if STOPP/START could be used as a tool in French prescription. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Torsion - Rotation - Vibration Effects in the Ground and First Excited States of Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, Olena; Motiyenko, R. A.; Aviles Moreno, Juan-Ramon; Huet, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    Methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone are the two major oxidation products of isoprene emitted in the troposphere. New spectroscopic information is provided with the aim to allow unambiguous identification of these molecules, characterized by a large amplitude motion associated with the methyl top. State-of-the-art millimeter-wave spectroscopy experiments coupled to quantum chemical calculations have been performed. Comprehensive sets of molecular parameters have been obtained. The torsion-rotation-vibration effects will be discussed in detail. From the atmospheric application point of view the results provide precise ground state molecular constants essential as a foundation (by using the Ground State Combination Differences method) for the analysis of high resolution spectrum, recorded from 600 to 1600 wn. The infrared range can be then refitted using appropriate Hamiltonian parameters. The present work is funded by the French ANR through the PIA under contract ANR-11-LABX-0005-01 (Labex CaPPA), by the Regional Council Nord-Pas de Calais and by the European Funds for Regional Economic Development (FEDER).

  12. An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Sam; Darras, Laurent; Clément, Gaël; Blieck, Alain; Friedman, Matt

    2015-10-07

    Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse living osteichthyan (bony vertebrate) group, with a rich fossil record. However, details of their earliest history during the middle Palaeozoic (Devonian) 'Age of Fishes' remains sketchy. This stems from an uneven understanding of anatomy in early actinopterygians, with a few well-known species dominating perceptions of primitive conditions. Here we present an exceptionally preserved ray-finned fish from the Late Devonian (Middle Frasnian, ca 373 Ma) of Pas-de-Calais, northern France. This new genus is represented by a single, three-dimensionally preserved skull. CT scanning reveals the presence of an almost complete braincase along with near-fully articulated mandibular, hyoid and gill arches. The neurocranium differs from the coeval Mimipiscis in displaying a short aortic canal with a distinct posterior notch, long grooves for the lateral dorsal aortae, large vestibular fontanelles and a broad postorbital process. Identification of similar but previously unrecognized features in other Devonian actinopterygians suggests that aspects of braincase anatomy in Mimipiscis are apomorphic, questioning its ubiquity as stand-in for generalized actinopterygian conditions. However, the gill skeleton of the new form broadly corresponds to that of Mimipiscis, and adds to an emerging picture of primitive branchial architecture in crown gnathostomes. The new genus is recovered in a polytomy with Mimiidae and a subset of Devonian and stratigraphically younger actinopterygians, with no support found for a monophyletic grouping of Moythomasia with Mimiidae. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Centenary of the Battle of Vimy (france, 1917): Preserving the Memory of the Great War Through 3d Recording of the Maison Blanche Souterraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Guillemin, S.; Prilaux, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military engagement between the Canadian Corps and the German Empire during the Great War (1914-1918). In this battle, Canadian troops fought as a single unit and won the day. It marked an important point in Canadian history as a nation. The year 2017 marks the centenary of this battle. In commemoration of this event, the Pas-de-Calais Departmental Council financed a 3D recording mission for one of the underground tunnels (souterraines) used as refuge by the Canadian soldiers several weeks prior to the battle. A combination of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and close-range photogrammetry techniques was employed in order to document not only the souterraine, but also the various carvings and graffitis created by the soldiers on its walls. The resulting point clouds were registered to the French national geodetic system, and then meshed and textured in order to create a precise 3D model of the souterraine. In this paper, the workflow taken during the project as well as several results will be discussed. In the end, the resulting 3D model was used to create derivative products such as maps, section profiles, and also virtual visit videos. The latter helps the dissemination of the 3D information and thus aids in the preservation of the memory of the Great War for Canada.

  14. [ A registry of ischaemic cardiopathies among active workers at Electricité de France-Gaz de France. Program development and first results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, A; Zins, M; Godard, C; Morin, J; Jourdain, V; François, F; Lambrozo, J; Goldberg, M; Ducimetière, P

    2001-02-01

    The social security department of the French national electric and gas company has established an ischemic heart disease register among a population of about 140 000 employees based on sick leaves as well as deaths recorded with their medical cause. History of the illness, medical tests and treatments were known retrospectively from the consulting physicians of the company. Acute coronary events recorded were: inaugural angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden coronary death and fortuitous discovery of coronary disease. A first study conducted on employees during the 1993-1995 period showed infarction incidence age rates similar to those estimated from the French MONICA registers for France as a whole. Regional discrepancies were observed for myocardial infarction rates: Nord-Pas de Calais, Champagne-Ardennes, Lorraine, Franche-Comté and Limousin were at the most elevated risk (SIR=131, 155, 169, 125 and 178 resp). Large variations according to socio-economic status were observed. This register will permit studies on the links between socio-economic status at different professional career points and the occurrence of ischemic heart disease and the evaluation of the impact of psychosocial factors such as previous depressive disorders.

  15. Radioactivity in the environment and its effects on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Monique; Schuler, Matthieu; Couvez, Celine; Rollinger, Francois; Bruno, Valerie; Renaud, Philippe; Laurier, Dominique; Gariel, Jean-Christophe; Estevao, Mathieu; Le Berre, David; Quere, Emmanuel; Josset, Mylene; Bernollin, Antoine; Saut, Catherine; Mailliat, Alain; Dryjanski, Claudie; Varin, Jean-Christophe; Villers, Anita; Gazal, Suzanne; Gerber, Mariette; Reynal, Nathalie; Vicaud, Alain; Renaud, Philippe; Roussel-Debet, S.; Leprieur, F.; Pourcelot, L.; Saey, L.; Tournieux, D.; Caldeira-Ideias, P.; Manificat, G.; Grammont, Vincent; Behar, Abraham; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-11-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations. After a presentation of the new public portal of the French national network of measurements of radioactivity in the environment, a first session addressed the control of the environment by the different actors present on a territory (associations like CLI or ACRO or ATMO, operators like Areva). The addressed issues have been: the control performed by a CLI (Paluel-Penly) with the support of a departmental laboratory, the radiological monitoring of the environment about the Brennilis site, the study of an environmental marker (tritium in hive products), the specific study of the Durance region, the control of ambient radioactivity on the Nord-Pas-de-Calais coast, and the monitoring of the environment by the operator around La Hague site. The second session addressed the building up of reference radiological assessments: lessons learned from radiological assessments implemented by the IRSN, a citizen mapping of radioactivity in France, and improvement orientations for the monitoring of the environment by different actors. The third session addressed issues spanning from the environment to health: assessment of doses based on the control of the environment, global health impact for a set of nuclear power plants, assessment of the health impact of releases, knowledge status on the effects of low doses, and possible improvements of knowledge on the effects of radioactivity on health

  16. Post-mining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This plentifully illustrated book aims at showing how new equilibria are building up during the transition between mining activity and post-mining, and at stressing on the necessity to keep up the cultural elements, the competencies and knowledge of mining works. The first chapter - mine and men - shows the importance of mineral substances in the objects of the everyday life, illustrates the importance of the mining tradition in France and describes the technical and administrative organisation of the end of the mining activity (works, rehabilitation, regulation, monitoring..). Chapter two - exploitation methods - presents the surface and underground facilities and their impact on the environment (extraction machines, workshops, ore processing plants, decantation ponds..). The third chapter deals with the rehabilitation and monitoring aspects: impact of mining activity stoppage on underground and surface waters, land stability, soils cleansing.. The last chapter summarizes the history of French mining region by region: Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lorraine-Alsace, Massif central, Bretagne-Normandie, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Pyrenees

  17. Effect of cobalt-60 {gamma} radiation and of thermal neutrons on high resistance P and N silicon. Possibility of obtaining a nuclear compensation for P type silicon; Effects du rayonnement {gamma} du cobalt 60 et de neutrons thermiques sur du silicium P et N de haute resistivite. Possibilite de realiser une compensation nucleaire d'un silicium du type P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-11-01

    materiau a 10 {mu}s environ. Des detecteurs de particules de 2 a 5 mm d'epaisseur ont ete realises par ce procede et donnent, particulierement a basse temperature, de bons resultats. Par ailleurs, on a etudie le nombre et la nature des defauts du reseau produits par les neutrons thermiques dans des cristaux de haute resistivite de types N et P. On les a compares a ceux produits par les rayons {gamma} du {sup 60}Co. On a discute la validite du modele de Wertheim relatif a une recombinaison tres importante a basse temperature (77 deg. K - 300 deg. K) des paires lacune-interstitiel primaires. On a etudie la nature des defauts introduisant des niveaux d'energie dans la moitie inferieure de la bande interdite. (auteur)

  18. L’Affaire Charles Lainé (1818, ou comment la police fabriquait un faux-monnayeur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Hofmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Charles Lainé, modeste serrurier exerçant à Givenchy-le-Noble dans le Pas-de-Calais est condamné à mort en été 1818 pour crime de fausse monnaie. Il avait fabriqué douze pièces en argent, très grossières, qu'il s'apprêtait à détruire quand il fut arrêté. Ce fait divers serait demeuré inconnu, sans la démarche spontanée d'un magistrat qui s'empressa de dénoncer auprès des rédacteurs de La Minerve française, principale feuille d'opposition libérale, la pratique scandaleuse d'un espion de la gendarmerie, lequel avait poussé Lainé au crime. Benjamin Constant, qui sortait à peine de l'affaire Wilfrid Regnault (un condamné à mort pour crime qu'il n'avait pas commis, publia un article et une petite brochure en faveur de Lainé, admettant son délit, mais accusant la police et le pouvoir de s'adonner à des mesures aussi condamnables qu'inutiles, puisque le serrurier n'avait jamais été faussaire, qu'il n'appartenait à aucune organisation de malfaiteurs et qu'il ne représentait aucun danger potentiel. Ses efforts, combinés avec ceux de l'avocat Odilon Barrot et du directeur des affaires criminelles et des grâces Legraverend, aboutirent à une commutation de peine en dix ans d'emprisonnement.Charles Lainé, a locksmith of modest means working at Givenchy-le-Noble in the Pas-de-Calais, was condemned to death in the summer of 1818 for forgery. He had made twelve very crude silver coins which he was preparing destroy when he was arrested. This item of news would have remained unknown if a magistrate had not spontaneously denounced the scandalous behaviour of a police spy who had encouraged Lainé to commit the crime. The magistrate informed the editors of La Minerve française, chief newspaper of the liberal opposition in France. Benjamin Constant, who had only recently been involved in the Wilfrid Regnault case (that of a man condemned to death for a crime he had not committed, published an article and a pamphlet in

  19. Study and realisation of a double integration charge encoder at VXI standard; Etude et realisation d`un codeur de charge double integration au standard VXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leconte, A.

    1994-07-01

    The 16 channels charge encoder herein described equips the Phoswich scintillators which, associated with photomultiplier tubes, constitutes the first ring of the INDRA Multidetector. This 4 {pi} Multidetector, located at GANIL at Caen, is first presented. In this encoder, two integrations are made, offering a distinction between the fast component of the signal from the detector and the slow one (decreasing times: 2,4 ns and 320ns respectively). This measurement is performed by the integration of each component within an adjustable time-gate. Apart from the two integrations, the encoder realizes the detection of the impulsion with a constant fraction discriminator, the generation of the two gates and a test function. The use of surface mounted components together with the choice of the VXI interconnection standard, also presented in this report, allowed highly integrated electronics. The encoder uses the sliding scale principle. It also includes the electronics for some programmable adjustments, the remote visualisation of important signals and the logic for the conversion. (author). 22 refs.

  20. Recommendations to realise and interpret the scintigraphy of myocardium perfusion; Recommandations pour la realisation et l'interpretation de la tomoscintigraphie de perfusion myocardique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A.; Marie, P.Y

    2003-06-15

    The purpose of these recommendations is to help the physicians in the realization and the interpretation of the tomo-scintigraphies of myocardium perfusion, when this examination is made at the patients having a known or suspected coronary incapacity. These recommendations aim to encourage the practitioners (of nuclear medicine) to reflect and to discuss the procedures applied in their services. These procedures must be also adapted, in every service, to the peculiarities of the environment and to the experiment of each one. (N.C.)

  1. Bioinformatics: The philosophical and ethical issues at stake in a new modality of research practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouvet, Armelle; Deschamps, Claude; Boitte, Pierre; Boury, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the integration of ethical reflection into the research practices of the project at the Lille Nord-Pas-de-Calais genopole: "Multifactorial genetic pathologies and therapeutic innovations". The general hypothesis of this text is that changes in research practices in biology (mainly through the use of bioinformatics) imply changes in medical practices, which require critical reflection. This hypothesis could be broken down into three sub-hypotheses: (1) Research in biology is undergoing a complete transformation; (2) Research in biology is a cultural practice, which cannot be reduced to a simple cognitive action; (3) Research in biology is a techno-scientific practice. As for the method, the aim of our research at the Medical Ethics Centre is to elucidate the philosophical and ethical range of biomedical practices. This work entails a double task for reflection. On the one hand, from the revelation of ethical tensions present in these practices, we have to think about what is at stake in these practices, and more broadly in society. On the other hand, we have to analyse the conditions enabling the actors to assume the significance of ethical reflection in their practices. The method set up to undertake this double task could be qualified as "narrative hermeneutics", as its aim is to attempt to interpret the stakes in practices from proximity with these practices and from what their actors have to say about them. The text then goes on to analyse more specifically the emergence and place of bioinformatics in present-day biomedical research.

  2. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudeville, Julien; Bonnard, Roseline; Boudet, Céline; Denys, Sébastien; Govaert, Gérard; Cicolella, André

    2012-08-15

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: - identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and - reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km(2) regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model to assess population exposure at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudeville, Julien; Bonnard, Roseline; Boudet, Céline; Denys, Sébastien; Govaert, Gérard; Cicolella, André

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the relationship between the environment and health has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the national action plans for health and the environment. These plans have identified the following two priorities: -identify and manage geographic areas where hotspot exposures are a potential risk to human health; and -reduce exposure inequalities. The aim of this study is to develop a spatial stochastic multimedia exposure model for detecting vulnerable populations and analyzing exposure determinants at a fine resolution and regional scale. A multimedia exposure model was developed by INERIS to assess the transfer of substances from the environment to humans through inhalation and ingestion pathways. The RESPIR project adds a spatial dimension by linking GIS (Geographic Information System) to the model. Tools are developed using modeling, spatial analysis and geostatistic methods to build and discretize interesting variables and indicators from different supports and resolutions on a 1-km 2 regular grid. We applied this model to the risk assessment of exposure to metals (cadmium, lead and nickel) using data from a region in France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). The considered exposure pathways include the atmospheric contaminant inhalation and ingestion of soil, vegetation, meat, egg, milk, fish and drinking water. Exposure scenarios are defined for different reference groups (age, dietary properties, and the fraction of food produced locally). The two largest risks correspond to an ancient industrial site (Metaleurop) and the Lille agglomeration. In these areas, cadmium, vegetation ingestion and soil contamination are the principal determinants of the computed risk. -- Highlights: ► We present a multimedia exposure model for mapping environmental disparities. ► We perform a risk assessment on a region of France at a fine scale for three metals. ► We examine exposure determinants and detect vulnerable population. ► The largest

  4. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  5. Regulation of redox reactions of chemical species (arsenic and chromium) in sediment of Marque river. From experimentation to modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorny, Josselin

    2015-01-01

    The French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra) and the Nord-Pas de Calais (NPDC) Region aim to better understand the fate of the redox sensitive trace elements in soils and river sediments to ameliorate the management of polluted sediments and of the storage of radioactive wastes. To address this problematic, some river sediments were selected as proxies, as strong redox gradients can be observed. Two methods have been developed to study the speciation of As and Cr: (i) HPIC-ICP-MS (High Performance Ionic Performance - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) coupling in order to separate and quantify As [As(III), As(V), DMMA V and MMAA V ] and Cr species [Cr(III) and Cr(VI)], and (ii) DGT probes (Diffusive Gradient in Thin Film) containing specific chelating binding gels to quantify As species [As(III) and total As]. These methods have been implemented to monitor the low contaminated pore waters of the Marque river during 9 months. The results demonstrated that chromium is present only under its reduced form Cr(III), which makes difficult to assess the parameters that force redox interconversions between Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Arsenic is present only under its inorganic forms: As(III), As(V), and thio-arsenical species. Seasonal changes of As speciation in the dissolved phase depends mainly of S(-II) production by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which makes the amount of dissolved S(- II) an important parameter to follow through time since the As reduction increases its mobility and toxicity. (author) [fr

  6. A new reliable index to measure individual deprivation: the EPICES score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Emilie; Blanquet, Marie; Gerbaud, Laurent; Poirier, Gilles; Sass, Catherine; Vendittelli, Françoise; Moulin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Deprivation is associated with inequalities in health care and higher morbidity and mortality. To assess the reliability of a new individual deprivation score, the EPICES score and to analyse the association between the Townsend index, the Carstairs index and the EPICES score and causes of death in one French administrative region. Eligible patients were 16 years old or more who had come for consultation in Health Examination Centres of the French administrative region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. An ecological study was performed between 2002 and 2007 in the 392 districts of this administrative region. The EPICES score was compared with the Townsend and the Carstairs indices. These three measurements of deprivation were compared with social characteristics, indicators of morbidity, health-care use and mortality and specific causes of death. The Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the reliability of the EPICES score. The association between deprivation and mortality was assessed by comparison of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) between the most and least deprived districts. The EPICES score was strongly correlated with the Townsend and Carstairs indices and with the health indicators measured. SMR increased with deprivation and the higher the deprivation the higher the SMR for all-cause mortality, premature and avoidable deaths and for most specific causes of death. The individual deprivation EPICES score is reliable. Deprivation was related to excess death rate, which clearly indicates that deprivation is a determinant factor that should be considered systematically by health policy makers and health-care providers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Study and realisation of plane optical waveguides in amorphous silica by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutonnet, Danielle

    1974-01-01

    Within the framework of the replacement of radio-electric waves by light waves as support of information transmission in telecommunications, this research thesis addresses the use of ion implantation for the development of small waveguides with low losses. The author first describes how such waveguides can be characterised by studying the propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a plane waveguide, and the different ways to introduce energy in these waveguides. Then, she discusses how the obtained results can be used to determine the main parameters of an optical waveguide, or more generally of a thin transparent layer for a chosen wavelength. In the second part, the author reports the application of this general method to the case of guides obtained by ion implantation. She notably identifies the possibilities of ion implantation as technological tool to develop waveguides, and discusses how the performed experiments allow a better understanding of physical mechanisms occurring during implantation. In this second part, she recalls generally admitted theories about ion implantation, describes experiment principles (implantation of oxygen or nitrogen ions into amorphous silica followed by annealing) and discusses the obtained results (increase of the refraction index, i.e. of the guiding effect, stronger for oxygen than for nitrogen) [fr

  8. Realising Requirements in Product - Line Development Using O-O Frameworks (Invited Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Froehlich

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available An existing, rapidly evolving strategy for realizing requirements in product line development is described. The position taken and the proposed new directions are based on our substantial experience in building and using O-O frameworks. Important new directions include the use of hooks to encapsulate product-line requirements and the management of requirements using a hook evolution model and experience base construction. It is also proposed that requirements traceability can be supported in an obvious manner by following prescribed processes for product development that are based on enacting hooks.

  9. Dynamique de la côte apres la realisation des epis, ouvrages de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that an average of 8.50 m/year before the completion of the headlands, the advancing sea has been a brake after implantation, causing significant accretion. This feeder is not always observed linearly each year. Downstream of the headland 7, the evaluation of the erosion rate of the coast line shows ...

  10. The role and importance of nuclear energy in the realisation of energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.

    1976-01-01

    The competitiveness of nuclear energy in relation to fuel oil is now fully established for electricity generation, not merely for base production but also for much lower load factors. Likewise, in the field of steam generation nuclear energy has a high competitivity margin in comparison with fuel oil. At the outlet of the boiler the cost of the nuclear steam B.T.U. is much lower than the cost of the nuclear electricity B.T.U., but this advantage could be evened out, partially or totally, by the ease of transportation and the flexibility of utilization of electricity. The availability of high temperatures may in the future open new markets (hydrogen production, industrial processes ..). Thus, through its various vectors, nuclear energy may occupy an important place in the energy balance of a country. An evaluation has been made, on certain assumptions, until the year 2030, of the place that nuclear energy will take. The evaluation shows clearly that uranium supply will be next to impossible if nuclear energy is supplied by light water reactors, associated or not with other thermal reactors. It will be necessary to resort urgently to fast breeder reactors. The acceleration of the fast breeder reactors breakthrough resulting from the insertion of natural uranium converters does not fundamentally change the supply problem, nor does the insertion of HTRs intended to break into the high temperature market. On the other hand, improvement of the performance of fast breeder reactors, particularly an increase in the breeding ratio and a shortening of the cycle, might have a decisive effect and might ensure the definite mastering of the uranium needs. (author)

  11. Magnetic separation of general solid particles realised by a permanent magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisayoshi, K.; Uyeda, C.; Terada, K.

    2016-12-01

    Most existing solids are categorised as diamagnetic or weak paramagnetic materials. The possibility of magnetic motion has not been intensively considered for these materials. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ensembles of heterogeneous particles (diamagnetic bismuth, diamond and graphite particles, as well as two paramagnetic olivines) can be dynamically separated into five fractions by the low field produced by neodymium (NdFeB) magnets during short-duration microgravity (μg). This result is in contrast to the generally accepted notion that ordinary solid materials are magnetically inert. The materials of the separated particles are identified by their magnetic susceptibility (χ), which is determined from the translating velocity. The potential of this approach as an analytical technique is comparable to that of chromatography separation because the extraction of new solid phases from a heterogeneous grain ensemble will lead to important discoveries about inorganic materials. The method is applicable for the separation of the precious samples such as lunar soils and/or the Hayabusa particles recovered from the asteroids, because even micron-order grains can be thoroughly separated without sample-loss.

  12. Project Planning and Control in a Developing Economy: Implementation and Realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdul-Rahman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive and uncertain environment of the construction industry, the ability to deliver end products with the required quality, schedule and budget is vital to the survival of any construction-related firm. Before embarking on any project, realistic planning and, consequently, a control procedure must be in place to enable the parties to manage the project with sufficient degree of authority and certainty. This paper addresses issues associated with the implementation of project planning and control, identificati on of impacts in the implementation of project planning and the critical success factors of project planning. A questionnaire survey was conducted on construction professionals and contractors involved in the running of construction projects. The survey results showed that common problems associated with the project planning and control are the lack of experienced staff and poor coordination by the contractor. During site operation, a delay in decision making aggravates the effect of poor planning and control and much of the effect of project planning rests on the pro-activeness of experienced staff. The positive impact associated with proper planning and control is the high probability of finishing the project on time while the negative impact is that it is a time-consuming and costly process. The critical success factors identified from the survey are Excellent Teamwork and Experienced Team.

  13. Realisation and instrumentation of high current power station for superconducting cables testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnaud, S.

    2000-05-01

    This report deals with the designing of a high current station able to test electric properties of superconductors. This test station will be used for testing the superconducting wires of large hadron collider detectors in CERN. The high current test station will have to generate high intensity continuous current in a magnetic field of 0 to 5 tesla and in temperature conditions of 4.2 K. The length of wire samples submitted to the uniform magnetic field is 300 mm and the installation is fitted with equipment able to measure the magnetic field perpendicular to either faces of the wire. The peculiarity of this station is to use a superconducting transformer in order to generate the high current. The first part of this work recalls important notions concerning superconductivity. The second part presents the high current station by describing the superconducting transformer and the sample-holder. We have studied the designing of a transformer able to yield a secondary current whose intensity reaches 100 kA, such intensity generates powerful electromagnetic forces (566 kN/m) in case of defect, so the sample-holder has to be carefully design to bear them. The third part presents the cryogenic component of the station, the instrumentation of the sample-holder and the method used to measure secondary currents. In the last part we present the performance of a prototype transformer, this prototype is able to deliver a 22 kA secondary current for a 160 A primary current, the uncertainty on the measured value of the secondary current is about 3%

  14. The Superbus is taking shape : Manufacturing and assembly processes for the realisation of this new vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzi, A.; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Superbus was introduced as one of the option for the Zuiderzeelijn : a fast connection between Amsterdam and Groningen and resulted to be the best option, the others being three different types of high speed train and the magnetic levitation train. In order evaluate the feasibility of its

  15. NDE for Realising Better Quality of Life in the Context of INDIA - An Emerging Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev

    2003-01-01

    Science and technology is an essential ingredient of the progress in modern society. Measurements enable action and actions enable results. Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) - the science and technology of measurements without affecting the Properties and performance of the test object is an interdisciplinary domain area of high significance far ensuring quality, productivity and safety thus enabling better qualify of lift to the inhabitants on this planet. The test object can be material, component, plant, earth, environment etc. Total qualify management, total productivity management, concurrent engineering and many other essential ingredients of success in plant engineering and manufacturing industry are dependent on NDE far success and good returns on investments

  16. Author: C CHÜRR REALISATION OF A CHILD'S RIGHT TO A BASIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-03-15

    Mar 15, 1995 ... the lack of quality education in a safe environment, insufficient funds for the provision of basic ...... into "different" schools according to their academic performance and the wishes of their families.92 These ..... this sphere is based mainly on the quality, excellence, creativity, skill and dexterity of its labour ...

  17. Giving Psychology Away: How George Miller's Vision Is Being Realised by Psychological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Philip; Hulme, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    In George Miller's famous address to the American Psychological Association in 1969 he explored the aims and future direction of psychology. Psychology could develop as a professional elite that develops specialised knowledge that experts can hold on to or it could aim to "give psychology away" and to allow the general public access to…

  18. Smart and Sustainable Offices (SSO: Showcasing a holistic approach to realise the next generation offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cobaleda Cordero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Sustainable Offices project (SSO is a product of years of research with large sets of data collected from more than 30 office buildings in Switzerland, Sweden, and Spain. Based on scientific evidence, the concept of SSO, initially conceived as a research plan to address the interdependencies between office users and their working environment in a European context, is now used as a qualitative and quantitative mixed method approach for office diagnosis and ideation. At the current stage, the SSO methodology aims to implement a new paradigm of user-oriented, lower carbon footprint and resilient office design solutions. The main strategy is articulated around the “office DNA” of every organisation, decoded as a compound of work patterns, operational and individual needs, and their potential to define design criteria. The practical application of SSO and its tentative findings exemplified through three pilot test office-demonstrators are described in this paper.

  19. Abolishing inequity, a necessity for poverty reduction and the realisation of child mortality targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Målqvist, Mats

    2015-02-01

    The first Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) due in 2015 concerns poverty reduction. It has been claimed to be fulfilled on a global level, but still more than 1 billion people are living in abject poverty. There is a strong link between the economy and child survival, and only a minority of countries will have reached the MDG target for child mortality reduction by 2015. This paper discusses the relationship between poverty and child survival. It argues that a focus on equity is necessary to further reduce child mortality, through poverty reduction in absolute terms and also through targeting interventions for increased child survival to disadvantaged populations. The political will to actually achieve real change for those in greatest need is crucial but not to be taken for granted, and the distribution rather than the generation of wealth needs to be made a priority in the post-MDG era. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Composing and Realising a Game-like Performance for Disklavier and Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria; Greenhalgh, Chris; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    “Climb!” is a musical composition that combines the ideas of a classical virtuoso piece and a computer game. We present a case study of the composition process and realization of “Climb!”, written for Disklavier and a digital interactive engine, which was co-developed together with the musical...... score. Specifically, the engine combines a system for recognising and responding to musical trigger phrases along with a dynamic digital score renderer. This tool chain allows for the composer’s original scoring to include notational elements such as trigger phrases to be automatically extracted to auto......-configure the engine for live performance. We reflect holistically on the development process to date and highlight the emerging challenges and opportunities. For example, this includes the potential for further developing the workflow around the scoring process and the ways in which support for musical triggers has...

  1. Time for a new language for asthma control: results from REALISE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David; David-Wang, Aileen; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ho, James Chung-Man; Jeong, Jae-Won; Liam, Chong-Kin; Lin, Jiangtao; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Tan, Tze-Lee; Yunus, Faisal; Neira, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Asthma is a global health problem, and asthma prevalence in Asia is increasing. The REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience Asia study assessed patients’ perception of asthma control and attitudes toward treatment in an accessible, real-life adult Asian population. Patients and methods An online survey of 2,467 patients with asthma from eight Asian countries/regions, aged 18–50 years, showed greater than or equal to two prescriptions in previous 2 years and access to social media. Patients were asked about their asthma symptoms, exacerbations and treatment type, views and perceptions of asthma control, attitudes toward asthma management, and sources of asthma information. Results Patients had a mean age of 34.2 (±7.4) years and were diagnosed with asthma for 12.5 (±9.7) years. Half had the Global Initiative for Asthma-defined uncontrolled asthma. During the previous year, 38% of patients visited the emergency department, 33% were hospitalized, and 73% had greater than or equal to one course of oral corticosteroids. About 90% of patients felt that their asthma was under control, 82% considered their condition as not serious, and 59% were concerned about their condition. In all, 66% of patients viewed asthma control as managing attacks and 24% saw it as an absence of or minimal symptoms. About 14% of patients who correctly identified their controller inhalers had controlled asthma compared to 6% who could not. Conclusion Patients consistently overestimated their level of asthma control contrary to what their symptoms suggest. They perceived control as management of exacerbations, reflective of a crisis-oriented mind-set. Interventions can leverage on patients’ trust in health care providers and desire for self-management via a new language to generate a paradigm shift toward symptom control and preventive care. PMID:26445555

  2. Realisation of a joint consumer engagement strategy in the Nepean Blue Mountains region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignault, Ilse; Aspinall, Diana; Reay, Lizz; Hyman, Kay

    2017-02-15

    Ensuring consumer engagement at different levels of the health system - direct care, organisational design and governance and policy - has become a strategic priority. This case study explored, through interviews with six purposively selected 'insiders' and document review, how one Medicare Local (now a Primary Health Network, PHN) and Local Health District worked together with consumers, to establish a common consumer engagement structure and mechanisms to support locally responsive, integrated and consumer-centred services. The two healthcare organisations worked as partners across the health system, sharing ownership and responsibility. Critical success factors included a consumer champion working with other highly motivated consumers concerned with improving the health system, a budget, and ongoing commitment from the Medicare Local or PHN and the Local Health District at executive and board level. Shared boundaries were an enormous advantage. Activities were jointly planned and executed, with consumer participation paramount. Training and mentoring enhanced consumer capacity and confidence. Bringing everyone on board and building on existing structures required time, effort and resources. The initiative produced immediate and lasting benefits, with consumer engagement now embedded in organisational governance and practice.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPIRITUAL AND MORAL SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND SELF-REALISATION IN ADULTHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B Kudinova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to studying and analyzing the features of the interrelations between the self-realization and spiritual and moral consciousness of the personality. The relevance of the raised problem is caused by the global socially-economical and political changes happening in the modern world, influencing both the society as a whole and the personality separately. “The judgment test of personality self-realization” by S.I. Kudinov which allows to diagnose a variety of styles of self-expression manifestation of the subject, different levels and types of self-realization, as well as the methodology of a research of spiritual and moral self-consciousness of the personality by I.V. Ezhov were used in the experimental work. The statistical analysis of data is presented by the correlation and factorial analysis. The sample included 100 people at the age ranging from 25 to 45 years, representatives of various professions and social backgrounds. The correlation analysis made it possible to disclose the diverse interrelations between the components of self-realization and the components of spiritual and moral consciousness. The factorial analysis allowed to single out and to qualitatively describe the variants of self-realization of the personality, depending on the inclusiveness of the components of spiritual and moral consciousness - “Spiritual and moral self-realization of the personality”, “Transcendental self-realization of the personality”, “Formal self-realization of the personality”, “Superficial self-realization of the personality”, “Assertive self-realization of the personality”, “Ego-pragmatic self-realization of the personality”, “Destructive self-realization of the personality”.

  4. "Bush Law 101": Realising Place Conscious Pedagogy in the Law Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amanda; Mundy, Trish; Nielsen, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, a team of academics from six universities worked on an OLT-funded project, "Rethinking Law Curriculum: developing strategies to prepare law graduates for practice in rural and regional Australia." The project was motivated by the declining proportion of lawyers being attracted to and remaining in practice in rural and regional…

  5. Methodologies nouvelles pour la realisation d'essais dans la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Salinas, Manuel

    Le present memoire en genie de la production automatisee vise a decrire le travail effectue dans la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis du laboratoire LARCASE pour trouver les methodologies experimentales et les procedures de tests, qui seront utilisees avec les modeles d'ailes actuellement au laboratoire. Les methodologies et procedures presentees ici vont permettre de preparer les tests en soufflerie du projet MDO-505 Architectures et technologies deformables pour l'amelioration des performances des ailes, qui se derouleront durant l'annee 2015. D'abord, un bref historique des souffleries subsoniques sera fait. Les differentes sections de la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis seront decrites en mettant l'emphase sur leur influence dans la qualite de l'ecoulement qui se retrouve dans la chambre d'essai. Ensuite, une introduction a la pression, a sa mesure lors de tests en soufflerie et les instruments utilises pour les tests en soufflerie au laboratoire LARCASE sera presente, en particulier le capteur piezoelectrique XCQ-062. Une attention particuliere sera portee au mode de fonctionnement, a son installation, a la mesure et a la detection des frequences et aux sources d'erreurs lorsqu'on utilise des capteurs de haute precision comme la serie XCQ-062 du fournisseur Kulite. Finalement, les procedures et les methodologies elaborees pour les tests dans la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis seront utilisees sur quatre types d'ailes differentes. L'article New methodology for wind tunnel calibration using neural networks - EGD approch portant sur une nouvelle facon de predire les caracteristiques de l'ecoulement a l'interieur de la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis se trouve dans l'annexe 2 de ce document. Cet article porte sur la creation d'un reseau de neurones multicouche et sur l'entrainement des neurones, Ensuite, une comparaison des resultats du reseau de neurones a ete fait avec des valeurs simules avec le logiciel Fluent.

  6. Attempts at a numerical realisation of stochastic differential equations containing Preisach operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, S.; Rachinskii, D.

    2011-01-01

    We describe two Euler type numerical schemes obtained by discretisation of a stochastic differential equation which contains the Preisach memory operator. Equations of this type are of interest in areas such as macroeconomics and terrestrial hydrology where deterministic models containing the Preisach operator have been developed but do not fully encapsulate stochastic aspects of the area. A simple price dynamics model is presented as one motivating example for our studies. Some numerical evidence is given that the two numerical schemes converge to the same limit as the time step decreases. We show that the Preisach term introduces a damping effect which increases on the parts of the trajectory demonstrating a stronger upwards or downwards trend. The results are preliminary to a broader programme of research of stochastic differential equations with the Preisach hysteresis operator.

  7. Realisation of a novel crystal bender for a fast double crystal monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Zaeper, R; Wollmann, R; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D; Frahm, R

    2001-01-01

    A novel crystal bender for an X-ray undulator beamline as part of a fast double crystal monochromator development for full EXAFS energy range was characterized. Rocking curves of the monochromator crystal system were recorded under different heat loads and bending forces of the indirectly cooled first Si(1 1 1) crystal. The monochromator development implements new piezo-driven tilt tables with wide angular range to adjust the crystals' Bragg angles and a high pressure actuated bender mechanism for the first crystal.

  8. Study and realisation of a double integration charge encoder at VXI standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, A.

    1994-07-01

    The 16 channels charge encoder herein described equips the Phoswich scintillators which, associated with photomultiplier tubes, constitutes the first ring of the INDRA Multidetector. This 4 π Multidetector, located at GANIL at Caen, is first presented. In this encoder, two integrations are made, offering a distinction between the fast component of the signal from the detector and the slow one (decreasing times: 2,4 ns and 320ns respectively). This measurement is performed by the integration of each component within an adjustable time-gate. Apart from the two integrations, the encoder realizes the detection of the impulsion with a constant fraction discriminator, the generation of the two gates and a test function. The use of surface mounted components together with the choice of the VXI interconnection standard, also presented in this report, allowed highly integrated electronics. The encoder uses the sliding scale principle. It also includes the electronics for some programmable adjustments, the remote visualisation of important signals and the logic for the conversion. (author). 22 refs

  9. Genesis and realisation of the idea of the new international financial architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusław Pietrzak

    2001-01-01

    In the recent period the reaction to these crisis consequences of globalization which formed the danger of deforming the structures and mechanisms of the international financial system being created during a long period and with great effort became among others the conceptions defined as an attempt to reform the world financial system or as an idea of the new international financial architecture. Judging by the essence of the origin and also by the character of the actions deciding about the ...

  10. Realisation and Optimization the System of Ridge Waveguide Polarizer by Genetic Algorithms for Telecommunication Satellite Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    BOUSALAH, FAYZA; BOUKLI HACENE, NOUR EDDINE

    2012-01-01

    The ridged waveguide polarizer is considered as the better way to get right-hand and left-hand circular polarization in the antennas of telecommunications satellites. In fact, it is a system of three ports used to feed a square waveguide antenna in order to achieve high purity in the right-hand and left-hand circular polarization. Obtaining a great purity of polarization results by the addition from screw from adaptation and blades from correction. A solution with ...

  11. Animal culture impacts species' capacity to realise climate-driven range shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keith, Sally A.; Bull, Joseph William

    2017-01-01

    about their external environment, potentially mediated by information transmitted through social learning (i.e. culture). Vertical transmission of culture (between generations) might encourage conservative behaviour, constraining the ability of a species to respond, whilst horizontal transmission...... (within generations) can encourage innovation and so facilitate dynamic responses to a changing environment. We believe that the time is right to unite recent advances in ecological modelling and behavioural understanding to explicitly incorporate the influence of animal culture into future predictions......Ecological predictions of how species will shift their geographical distributions under climate change generally consider individuals as machines that respond optimally to changing environmental conditions. However, animals frequently make active behavioural decisions based on imperfect information...

  12. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  13. Realisation of a child's right to a basic education in the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education has, since the beginning of time, been regarded as the formal process by which society conveys its accumulated knowledge, skills, customs and values from one generation to another. Today, education is a human right, and the right to education and specifically the right to (a) basic education is acknowledged ...

  14. Contribution to the study of epitaxial silicon film on sapphire, and active devices realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Michel

    1974-01-01

    The problem is treated considering three aspects: - physical analysis of the silicon epitaxial film. We notice the presence of high aluminium concentration (10 19 at.cm -3 ) near the silicon, sapphire interface, and near free silicon surface. Resistivity measurements imply that these impurities are in an inactive form, we suggest that a Al x O y complex is present. - Technological aspect. We propose a technological process to fabricate T M.O.S., N or P channel, on silicon on sapphire films. The Si-SiO 2 interface quality is seen to be as good on S.O.S. as on bulk wafers. The mobility in the channel of T M.O.S. are similar on S.O.S. and on bulk silicon. - Electrical analysis of the silicon film: the measurement of minority carriers recombination rate at Si-sapphire interface on N type silicon show that leakage currents of P + /N diodes are due to recombination at this interface. Diffusion length of minority carriers in N type Si film were measured. Values as high as 6-7 μ were found. (author) [fr

  15. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education: Has Entitlement and Accessibility Been Realised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…

  16. Realising Potential: Helping Homeless and Disenchanted Young People Back into Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, Peter

    This guide shows how "Foyers" (safe residences for working/learning youth) and other organizations provide routes back into learning for young people. Chapter 1, "Young People and the Current Learning Agenda," provides a summary of encouraging developments from government, ushering in new learning opportunities for young people. Chapter 2,…

  17. Challenges facing local communities in Tanzania in realising locally-managed marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katikiro, R.E.; Macusi, E.D.; Ashoka Deepananda, K.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how the history and process of establishing a marine protected area (MPA) under the control of the state has led to limited interest in community-based management amongst local stakeholders. The study contributes to the understanding of historical events that have discouraged

  18. Design and realisation of an APL interpreter for the CIT-MITRA 15 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoucovit, Alain

    1973-01-01

    APL is a high level language characterised by a very simple syntax (no priority between operators, no declaration of data structures). In this research thesis, the author proposes solutions to problems faced when using this language on a small size computer with a small memory size. For instance, interpretation had to be rationalised with respect to some theoretical considerations on APL which allowed some of its properties to be found out. Management mechanisms had also to be rationalised. The author addresses the following issues: transition of external APL into internal APL, interpretation of internal APL, and description of some basic operators

  19. Combinatorial electrochemistry using metal nanoparticles: from proof-of-concept to practical realisation for bromide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljukić, Biljana; Baron, Ronan; Salter, Chris; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

    2007-05-02

    Principles and practical application of combinatorial electrochemistry in search for new electroactive materials in electroanalysis have been explored. Nanoparticles of three different metals: silver, gold and palladium have been independently synthesized on the glassy carbon spherical powder surface by electroless deposition process and characterized using both spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. These three materials were then combined together onto basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode surface and the application of the combinatorial approach to find the electrode material for bromide detection as model target analyte was demonstrated. The component electroactive for bromide detection was next identified and it was found that silver nanoparticles were the active ones. A composite electrode based on silver nanoparticle modified glassy carbon powder and epoxy resin was then fabricated and it was found to allow accurate determination of bromide. The electroactivity for the bromide determination of the composite electrode was compared with that of a bulk silver electrode and it was shown that the composite electrode is very efficient with a comparable electroactivity with only a portion of precious metals being used for its construction.

  20. Realisation of all 16 Boolean logic functions in a single magnetoresistance memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Yang, Guang; Cui, Bin; Wang, Shouguo; Zeng, Fei; Song, Cheng; Pan, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Stateful logic circuits based on next-generation nonvolatile memories, such as magnetoresistance random access memory (MRAM), promise to break the long-standing von Neumann bottleneck in state-of-the-art data processing devices. For the successful commercialisation of stateful logic circuits, a critical step is realizing the best use of a single memory cell to perform logic functions. In this work, we propose a method for implementing all 16 Boolean logic functions in a single MRAM cell, namely a magnetoresistance (MR) unit. Based on our experimental results, we conclude that this method is applicable to any MR unit with a double-hump-like hysteresis loop, especially pseudo-spin-valve magnetic tunnel junctions with a high MR ratio. Moreover, after simply reversing the correspondence between voltage signals and output logic values, this method could also be applicable to any MR unit with a double-pit-like hysteresis loop. These results may provide a helpful solution for the final commercialisation of MRAM-based stateful logic circuits in the near future.Stateful logic circuits based on next-generation nonvolatile memories, such as magnetoresistance random access memory (MRAM), promise to break the long-standing von Neumann bottleneck in state-of-the-art data processing devices. For the successful commercialisation of stateful logic circuits, a critical step is realizing the best use of a single memory cell to perform logic functions. In this work, we propose a method for implementing all 16 Boolean logic functions in a single MRAM cell, namely a magnetoresistance (MR) unit. Based on our experimental results, we conclude that this method is applicable to any MR unit with a double-hump-like hysteresis loop, especially pseudo-spin-valve magnetic tunnel junctions with a high MR ratio. Moreover, after simply reversing the correspondence between voltage signals and output logic values, this method could also be applicable to any MR unit with a double-pit-like hysteresis loop. These results may provide a helpful solution for the final commercialisation of MRAM-based stateful logic circuits in the near future. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03169b

  1. Representation of the deduction with tetravalent logic: realisation of fast inference motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, F.

    1987-05-01

    Building automats for surveillance, control or diagnosis, can be done by artificial intelligence. They function according to the formalism of O ordre propositional logic. Deduction modes can then easily be represented in a trivalent logic with both efficiency and concision. One can obtain workable codes with low storage of high speed (env. 5000 rules per second). This leads us to develop and entry langage with extremely simple statement rules which can be learnt by experts in practically no time. Finally in order to generalize this principle and draw rules with multi-choice conclusions, (if... then the motor stops or the pressure goes down), rewriting these processes enable to return to an equivalent system without multi-choice conclusions, providing the same amount of informations with the possibility of deciding. This study has been used on 2 different cases: first it served as a tool to analyse reliability, (OLAF), second to help diagnosis breakdown of pressurized water-reactors [fr

  2. Study, realisation and experimental test of an hyper frequency gun triggered by a subpicosecond laser (CANDELA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travier, C.

    1995-12-01

    The photo-injector technique is the only one capable of generating very short ( picosecond range) electron pulses. A photocathode illuminated by short pulses of laser radiation (sapphire laser) is placed in a high frequency cavity resonator. The generated electrons can reach relativistic speeds in a few centimeters length, if an accelerating field of several MV / m (here 600 MV / m) is applied to extract them. CANDELA, designed thanks to Parmela code, is the only photo-injector triggered by a sub-picosecond laser. The first experimental results are in agreement with the design and prove that the gun is working properly. A maximum photo-emitted charge of two nano coulombs was obtained from a dispenser photocathode, with a quantum efficiency of one per mil, and a lifetime of a dozen hours. More detailed measurements have to check it works in complete agreement with computerized simulations. (D.L.). 657 refs., 123 figs., 20 tabs

  3. Avoiding Pitfalls and Realising Opportunities: Reflecting on Issues of Sampling and Recruitment for Online Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Nicola; Fergie, Gillian; McDaid, Lisa; Hilton, Shona

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prominence of the Internet in everyday life has prompted methodological innovations in qualitative research, particularly the adaptation of established methods of data collection for use online. The alternative online context brings with it both opportunities and challenges. To date the literature on online focus groups has focused mainly on the suitability of the method for qualitative data collection, and the development of approaches to facilitation that maximise interaction. By reflecting on our experiences of designing and attempting to recruit participants to online focus groups for two exploratory research projects, we aim to contribute some novel reflections around the less articulated issues of sampling and recruitment for online focus groups. In particular, we highlight potentially problematic issues around offline recruitment for an online method of data collection; the potential of using social media for recruitment; and the uncertainties around offering incentives in online recruitment, issues which have received little attention in the growing literature around online focus groups. More broadly, we recommend continued examination of online social practices and the social media environment to develop appropriate and timely online recruitment strategies and suggest further areas for future research and innovation. PMID:28127272

  4. Study and realisation of an ion source obtained by electronic bombardment - experimentation with phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Philippe

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study and development of an ion source by electronic bombardment. In order to solve some practical difficulties (cathode destruction, source instability, and so on), the design of each component has been very careful, notably for the electron gun. The author first briefly discusses the exiting ionisation processes, gives a list of ion which can be produced, with a focus on phosphorus for which the ionisation cross section is defined and assessed. After an assessment of different ionisation processes, and an indication of performance of the best existing sources, the author explains the choice for a totally different process. In the second part, he describes the experimental device, and particularly the electron gun as its design has been an important part of this research work. The source operation is described and its characteristics and performance are studied. Finally, the author outlines that some improvements are still possible to obtain a totally exploitable source [fr

  5. The nuclear fusion reactor. How close are we to its realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    2001-01-01

    A fusion power plant would rely on practically unlimited supplies of primary materials, and possess very favourable environmental and safety properties. Exploiting the nuclear fusion reaction for continuous power production requires, however, the solution of some of the most demanding physics and technology issues. At the same time the final proof of principle of a self-sustaining fusion reaction can only be delivered in a device with a thermal power rating in the 1 GW range, as the power production by fusion reactions increases much stronger with volume than the energy losses from a hot plasma. A range of well conceived tokamak devices have generated during the last couple of decades the experimental basis and the physics understanding for proceeding now to the construction of such a demonstration device: ITER. This device will also incorporate, partly in the form of test modules, nearly all the critical technologies required for the operation of a commercial power plant. A notable exception to this are materials, where the much lower neutron fluence of ITER allows to work with readily available, conventional steels, whereas power plants will have to use radiation resistant, low-activation materials now under development. The presentation summarizes briefly the development path that has led to the ITER design, and the physics criteria determining its layout. Seven technologies were identified by the international design team (constituted by engineers and scientists from Japan, the European Union, the Russian Federation, and the USA) as critical, and made subject to seven large R and D projects, successfully carried out with an investment of about 400 Million $. The roadmap for the development beyond ITER foresees as subsequent step a power plant (DEMO) that will already be largely identical to the first generation of commercial installations. The physics of this device will be completely verified by the beginning of its planning by the operating experience of ITER. Two, material related issues are, however, also on the critical path: development of heat and plasma particle flux resistant materials for contact with the plasma, and neutron fluence tolerant materials for structural functions and the breeding blanket. The further development of the former will proceed on ITER itself, as their performance tests require a plasma environment. ITER will, however, not have sufficient fluence to carry out conclusive nuclear tests, which require the availability of a dedicated test facility with a suitable neutron energy spectrum ( IFMIF). Based on these scenarios we should have the critical physics and technology information for a fusion power plant fully available in 2020

  6. Eco-Schools and the Quality of Education in South Africa: Realising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eco-Schools South Africa is increasingly being used by external partners as a framework for supporting environmental education in schools. This paper shares the findings of a recent evaluation of the programme in relation to the quality of education in South African schools. Do Eco-Schools activities help to improve.

  7. Design and realisation of an efficient content based music playlist generation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, Jan Wietse

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is on the subject of content based music playlist generation systems. The primary aim is to develop algorithms for content based music playlist generation that are faster than the current state of technology while keeping the quality of the playlists at a level that is at least

  8. Realisation and study of poly-phthalocyanine thin films grafted on solid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop thin films of phthalocyanines covalently grafted to solid substrates. These thin films are formed of successive monomolecular layers of macrocycles, deposited on the substrate by a 'Merrifield' sequential method. These phthalocyanines have in their centre a metallic ion (such as ruthenium) which ensures the bonding of phthalocyanines on the substrate and the assembling of monolayers consecutive together. The deposition of these monolayers is provided by a succession of two spontaneous exchange ligands reactions between the labile groups L initially bound to ruthenium and to those present on the substrate (preliminary functionalized). The repetition of these two steps allows to consider the controlled formation of phthalocyanines multilayers by self-assembling. The main substrates used are the silicon oxide and the gold. Their different characteristics have imposed the development of separate functionalization and characterization methods. The results obtained with these two substrates are separately described. A second method of construction of successive monolayers of phthalocyanines is described involving a chemical coupling between an amine function carried out by the substrate and an aldehyde function present on the ligands bound on ruthenium. (author) [fr

  9. Unlocking the Grid: Language-in-Education Policy Realisation in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plüddemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the state of educational language policy two decades into a post-Apartheid South Africa caught between official multilingualism and English. The focus is on the national language-in-education policy (LiEP) that advocates additive bi/multilingualism, and a provincial counterpart, the language transformation plan (LTP). Using…

  10. Point of View: Manner of Realising The Matter in Adichie's Half of A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manner' to create meaning or matter. The best form of art is the blending of form and content; means and end; manner and matter. Therefore, the uniqueness of any novelist's product is contingent upon how well or otherwise their peculiar ...

  11. The exact realisation of the Lanczos method for a quantum many-body system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Lanczos process has been analytically and exactly carried out for the spin 1/2 isotropic XY chain in the thermodynamic limit, yielding a form for the Lanczos coefficient β 2 (s). This coefficient has a monotonic variation for real positive s and confirms a general theorem on the ground state properties of extensive Many-body Systems. The Taylor expansion of the coefficient about s = 0 has a finite radius of convergence, and ground state estimates based on a finite truncation of this are shown to be asymptotic

  12. Grandmothers migrating, working and caring: Latvian women between survival and self-realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Russell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the circumstances surrounding the migration of older Latvian women and their multi-dimensional lives as economic migrants and as distant carers and supporters of diverse family members who remain in Latvia. In post-Soviet Latvia, especially since the 2008 financial crisis and the austerity measures which took away hope for a decent old-age pension, older women migrate abroad in order to salvage their economic wellbeing and support their multi-generation families, which can run to four generations – their children and grandchildren plus, often, their elderly parents. Migration enables these women to maintain multidirectional flows of care and also to achieve economic and psychosocial independence. Therefore, care practices that reach four generations put the figure of the grandmother at the core of transnational care relations. Research evidence for this paper comprises 50 in-depth interviews with older Latvian migrant women aged from their mid-40s to their late 60s in the UK and elsewhere. The paper demonstrates the complexity and richness of these women’s working lives, built around enhanced economic wellbeing, multiple and transnational caring responsibilities, and a new sense of self-worth and empowerment.

  13. Practical guide. Realisation of dosimetric studies for workplaces exhibiting a ionizing radiation exposure risk (version 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This guide proposes a methodological approach to help carry out dosimetric workplace studies complying with the French regulation, and necessary to identify risks of radiological exposure, optimize radiation protection and classify the workers into different categories. Additional information is provided relating the main objectives of a workplace study, the French regulatory context, main sources and pathways of exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation protection and operational quantities are reminded. Recommendations about the selection and use of detectors and about the implementation of calculation methods are also provided. The general methodological approach is applied and developed into 'workplace sheets', each one devoted to a particular type of workplace. Up to now only sheets related to medical field have been developed. By extension, advices for classify the workplaces into different areas are also supplied. (authors)

  14. List of realizations of French and Quebec towns; Repertoires de realisations de villes francaises et quebecoises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The aims of this list is to offer to the local governments information on realizations concerning the energy efficiency, in order to allow the identification of operators and technical solutions and methodologies, in relation with the sites where they are implemented. It increases also the knowledge on experiments and allows the comparative evaluation between French and Quebec realizations. (A.L.B.)

  15. Multi-methodical realisation of the new Austrian climate maps for 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, I.; Böhm, R.; Hiebl, J.; Reisenhofer, S.; Schöner, W.

    2010-09-01

    Constantly changing climate, the further development of geostatistical interpolation methods and the availability of a higher resolved digital elevation model gave reason for updating the most frequently demanded climate maps out of the Austrian digital climate atlas (ÖKLIM) from 1961-1990 to 1971-2000. The resulting 19 grids concern 30-year-means of air temperature (annual, January, July means) and derived indices (ice days, frost days, freeze-thaw days, summer days, hot days, heating degree days), precipitation (annual, winter half-year, summer half-year sums) and derived indices (days with precipitation, percentage of solid precipitation), snow (sum of fresh-fallen snow, snow cover duration, maximum snow depth) and sunshine (January, July absolute sunshine duration) parameters. For application in all branches of geosciences (e.g. climate variability and modelling, hydrology, biogeography, natural hazards) as well as for planning in all kinds of contexts (e.g. agriculture, tourism, generation of renewable energy, climate change adaption) such digital grids of standard climate information are greatly demanded and likely to gain even more importance in the near future. Data preparation was carried out with large effort. In order to avoid adverse border effects and to guarantee an equal state of quality across all parts of the country, the study region was extended beyond the national borders and stations from all neighbouring countries were requested. The final data collection includes between 319 (percentage of solid precipitation) and 1,399 (annual precipitation sum) records from eleven national and foreign institutes. To achieve a station density as high as possible, data gaps of up to five or ten years were filled considering the same parameter at reference stations or a related parameter station-wise. According to the climate parameter, different geostatistical interpolation methods were applied. Multiple regressions against elevation, longitude, latitude and distance from the coast in several horizontal regions and vertical layers were used for temperature interpolation. This approach allows for a strong elevation dependency besides the consideration of additional macroclimatic variables and captures temperature modifications in cold air pools. In contrast, precipitation sums and snow parameters were gridded by geographically weighted regressions, a method, which is also elevation dependent but offers a higher spatial variability. The spatial distributions of indices derived from air temperature or precipitation were explained due to the correlation to their underlying parameter by fitting techniques. By doing so, the higher spatial information from observations of air temperature or precipitation could be utilised. In addition, adjustments regarding features of mesoscale climatology were applied on the temperature and precipitation maps. The new Austrian climate maps account for the recent development of interpolation methods and demonstrate the quality improvement in the ÖKLIM product line. The finished digital grids can freely be obtained for scientific and planning purposes by e-mail. Map images can be requested via the ZAMG-website.Constantly changing climate, the further development of geostatistical interpolation methods and the availability of a higher resolved digital elevation model gave reason for updating the most frequently demanded climate maps out of the Austrian digital climate atlas (ÖKLIM) from 1961-1990 to 1971-2000. The resulting 19 grids concern 30-year-means of air temperature (annual, January, July means) and derived indices (ice days, frost days, freeze-thaw days, summer days, hot days, heating degree days), precipitation (annual, winter half-year, summer half-year sums) and derived indices (days with precipitation, percentage of solid precipitation), snow (sum of fresh-fallen snow, snow cover duration, maximum snow depth) and sunshine (January, July absolute sunshine duration) parameters. For application in all branches of geosciences (e.g. climate variability and modelling, hydrology, biogeography, natural hazards) as well as for planning in all kinds of contexts (e.g. agriculture, tourism, generation of renewable energy, climate change adaption) such digital grids of standard climate information are greatly demanded and likely to gain even more importance in the near future. Data preparation was carried out with large effort. In order to avoid adverse border effects and to guarantee an equal state of quality across all parts of the country, the study region was extended beyond the national borders and stations from all neighbouring countries were requested. The final data collection includes between 319 (percentage of solid precipitation) and 1,399 (annual precipitation sum) records from eleven national and foreign institutes. To achieve a station density as high as possible, data gaps of up to five or ten years were filled considering the same parameter at reference stations or a related parameter station-wise. According to the climate parameter, different geostatistical interpolation methods were applied. Multiple regressions against elevation, longitude, latitude and distance from the coast in several horizontal regions and vertical layers were used for temperature interpolation. This approach allows for a strong elevation dependency besides the consideration of additional macroclimatic variables and captures temperature modifications in cold air pools. In contrast, precipitation sums and snow parameters were gridded by geographically weighted regressions, a method, which is also elevation dependent but offers a higher spatial variability. The spatial distributions of indices derived from air temperature or precipitation were explained due to the correlation to their underlying parameter by fitting techniques. By doing so, the higher spatial information from observations of air temperature or precipitation could be utilised. In addition, adjustments regarding features of mesoscale climatology were applied on the temperature and precipitation maps. The new Austrian climate maps account for the recent development of interpolation methods and demonstrate the quality improvement in the ÖKLIM product line. The finished digital grids can freely be obtained for scientific and planning purposes by e-mail. Map images can be requested via the ZAMG-website.

  16. The realisation of legal protection requirements with the aid of models of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildberg, D.W.; Herrmann, H.J.

    1978-08-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the model-based planning, construction and operation of nuclear facilities is still in its initial stages. Based on a few examples, the authors show that with the atomic energy legislature and with the laws in the conventional sector, the legislator had enacted requirements at a relatively early stage for the protection of the individual person in the facility and for the population at large in the vicinity of the facility. However, in the realization of these protection requirements, there are still problems, and these are often very basic in nature. The best solution here seems to be to tackle the problems with the help of models. This would permit subjects like serviceability, testability, use of external personnel, spatial distribution of redundancies, rescue of injured persons, fire protection measures, physical protection and the dismantling of facilities, which are multifarious in nature and have overlapping requirements, to be presented and discussed in greater depth and detail. The positive aspects of the use of models are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of models are discussed in detail. Finally, the variety of models, which can ben used during the different phases of a nuclear facility, are discussed, and some remarks are made regarding the costs of models. One section of the report deals with examples of the practical use of models: Models have proved themselves in the past in the construction of refineries and chemical plants, and have successfully demonstrated their suitability in the field of nuclear technology. The examples of these need not be limited to those in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  17. An Econometric Analysis of Modulated Realised Covariance, Regression and Correlation in Noisy Diffusion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnebrock, Silja; Podolskij, Mark

    This paper introduces a new estimator to measure the ex-post covariation between high-frequency financial time series under market microstructure noise. We provide an asymptotic limit theory (including feasible central limit theorems) for standard methods such as regression, correlation analysis...... and covariance, for which we obtain the optimal rate of convergence. We demonstrate some positive semidefinite estimators of the covariation and construct a positive semidefinite estimator of the conditional covariance matrix in the central limit theorem. Furthermore, we indicate how the assumptions on the noise...... process can be relaxed and how our method can be applied to non-synchronous observations. We also present an empirical study of how high-frequency correlations, regressions and covariances change through time....

  18. Recognition of Prior Learning, Self-Realisation and Identity within Axel Honneth's Theory of Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Fredrik; Kubiak, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues for the significance of Axel Honneth's theory of recognition for understanding recognition of prior learning (RPL). Case studies of the experiences of RPL by paraprofessional workers in health and social care in the UK and Sweden are used to explicate this significance. The results maintain that there are varying conditions of…

  19. A Terrestrial Reference Frame realised on the observation level using a GPS-LEO satellite constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Applying a one-step integrated process, i.e. by simultaneously processing all data and determining all satellite orbits involved, a Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) consisting of a geometric as well as a dynamic part has been determined at the observation level using the EPOS-OC software of Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum. The satellite systems involved comprise the Global Positioning System (GPS) as well as the twin GRACE spacecrafts. Applying a novel approach, the inherent datum defect has been overcome empirically. In order not to rely on theoretical assumptions this is done by carrying out the TRF estimation based on simulated observations and using the associated satellite orbits as background truth. The datum defect is identified here as the total of all three translations as well as the rotation about the z-axis of the ground station network leading to a rank-deficient estimation problem. To rectify this singularity, datum constraints comprising no-net translation (NNT) conditions in x, y, and z as well as a no-net rotation (NNR) condition about the z-axis are imposed. Thus minimally constrained, the TRF solution covers a time span of roughly a year with daily resolution. For the geometric part the focus is put on Helmert transformations between the a priori and the estimated sets of ground station positions, and the dynamic part is represented by gravity field coefficients of degree one and two. The results of a reference solution reveal the TRF parameters to be estimated reliably with high precision. Moreover, carrying out a comparable two-step approach using the same data and models leads to parameters and observational residuals of worse quality. A validation w.r.t. external sources shows the dynamic origin to coincide at a level of 5 mm or better in x and y, and mostly better than 15 mm in z. Comparing the derived GPS orbits to IGS final orbits as well as analysing the SLR residuals for the GRACE satellites reveals an orbit quality on the few cm level. Additional TRF test solutions demonstrate that K-Band Range-Rate observations between both GRACE spacecrafts are crucial for accurately estimating the dynamic frame's orientation, and reveal the importance of the NNT- and NNR-conditions imposed for estimating the components of the dynamic geocenter.

  20. Magnetic separation of general solid particles realised by a permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisayoshi, K; Uyeda, C; Terada, K

    2016-12-08

    Most existing solids are categorised as diamagnetic or weak paramagnetic materials. The possibility of magnetic motion has not been intensively considered for these materials. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ensembles of heterogeneous particles (diamagnetic bismuth, diamond and graphite particles, as well as two paramagnetic olivines) can be dynamically separated into five fractions by the low field produced by neodymium (NdFeB) magnets during short-duration microgravity (μg). This result is in contrast to the generally accepted notion that ordinary solid materials are magnetically inert. The materials of the separated particles are identified by their magnetic susceptibility (χ), which is determined from the translating velocity. The potential of this approach as an analytical technique is comparable to that of chromatography separation because the extraction of new solid phases from a heterogeneous grain ensemble will lead to important discoveries about inorganic materials. The method is applicable for the separation of the precious samples such as lunar soils and/or the Hayabusa particles recovered from the asteroids, because even micron-order grains can be thoroughly separated without sample-loss.

  1. A Look at how Students in the University of Ghana Realise Final ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sound influences the selection of final stop or not. The study was undertaken because it is apparent that some English words have assumed a distinct mode of pronunciation in Ghana. But, for example, is often heard as [ba] or [ba?]. That a final consonant sound can be elided in Ghana is not unusual, after all, as was noted ...

  2. Polymer photovoltaic cells; Etude et realisation de cellules photovoltaiques en polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicot, L.

    1999-09-29

    We study organic photovoltaic cells based on a semiconducting polymer. The first photovoltaic cells we realize are Schottky cells. Their structure are ITO/Polymeric film/Au. Metallic electrode is made of aluminium or gold. The organic layer is made of pure poly(3-butyl-thiophene) or of a blend of the polymer and a dye, the 1,3-bis(di-cyano-methylidene)-2-(4-dibutyl-amino-benzylidene)indane. We study the influence of the nature of the electrode on the conversion efficiency. We also study the variations of the photovoltaic parameters as functions of the thickness of the polymeric film and of the doping ratio of the dye. The performances of this kind of cells depends on the interface between the organic layer and the ITO. Its morphology, particularly its rugosity, and its electrical properties are not easy to control. By depositing a layer of a derivative of perylene on the ITO, we move the photo-generation zone to the interface between the two organic films. The efficiency of this p-n cell is higher than the one measured with the Schottky cell. Nevertheless, we have observed a decrease of the performances of our cells due to the degradation of the dye and the polymer when they are illuminated at high intensity of light during a long time. (author)

  3. Towards Realising FollowMe User Profiles for Macro-Intelligent Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Whittington

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the concept of a Large-Scale Intelligent Environment (LSIE and provide an introduction to the use of bigraphs as a formal method for description and modelling. We then propose our MacroIE model as a solution to the LSIE problem and describe how that model may be implemented to achieve a continuity-of-experience to end users as they travel from place-to-place (a technology we call FollowMe. Our initial experiments with these implementations are presented, providing some valuable insights and promise for future refinement towards real-world deployment.

  4. Realising the right of access to water: Pipe dream or watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  5. "A Constant Transit of Finding": Fantasy as Realisation in "Pan's Labyrinth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger; McDonald, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This article considers Guillermo Del Toro's "Pan's Labyrinth" as a text which utilises key codes and conventions of children's literature as a means of encountering the trauma of Fascism. The article begins by placing "Pan's Labyrinth" at a contextual crossroads involving fairy tale and a Spanish cinematic tradition and…

  6. Realising Rights: Poverty and Adult Literacy in a Globalising Arab Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Aisha

    2004-01-01

    A consideration of the Arab world illustrates the fact that there can be riches and "growth" with slow or stagnating human development and with significant levels of poverty, and that growth might "perhaps" be an engine of human development if there is "good governance." Good governance refers to the existence of…

  7. 'People like that': realising the social model in mental capacity jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, B

    2015-01-01

    Through critical analysis of the law's traditional response to mental disorders in mental health and mental capacity law, it will be argued that a medicalised model of disability has been predominant, and still permeates jurisprudence in this area. It will be suggested that insights from the social model and relational understandings of rights can highlight the ways in which wider contextual and structural relations can impact upon the lived experience of mental impairment. Moreover, an understanding of the various dimensions of mental illness can help elucidate how the law can respond effectively to structural, institutional, and contextual factors in order to facilitate the enjoyment of purported rights and values. In light of this, it will further be argued that the lingering precedence given to a narrow, medical view of cognitive impairment is outmoded given the more richly textured understanding of cognitive impairments which has recently emerged. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) has harnessed the insights from the social model of disability and the capabilities approach to justice, and will be presented as the legal articulation of such understandings. This article seeks to build upon these understandings of disability and social justice and argue for the need for a more responsive state and judiciary in addressing the concerns highlighted by the UNCRPD and embedding these into judicial discourse. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. 3D Neuro-electronic interface devices for neuromuscular control: Design studies and realisation steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Wim; Frieswijk, Theo A.; Frieswijk, T.A.; Smit, J.P.A.; Rozijn, T.H.; Rozijn, Tom H.; Meier, J.H.; Meier, Jan H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to design the shape and dimensions of new 3D multi-microelectrode information transducers properly, i. e. adapted to the scale of information delivery to and from peripheral nerve fibres, a number of studies were, and still are, being performed on modelling and simulation of electrical

  9. A Look at how Students in the University of Ghana Realise Final ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some students in the University of Ghana appear to elide the final stop in monosyllabic words or replace it with a glottal stop. A survey of 20 male and 20 female students of the University of Ghana under the age of 25 was undertaken to elicit how final stops were realized in monosyllabic words.

  10. Study and realisation of a digital TDC in the framework of the GANIL trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujrad, Abderrahman

    2001-01-01

    In nuclear physics, the interaction between the ion beam and the target produces a large amount of events. Some of these events have no interest for the studied physical phenomenon; the useful events are sorted using a trigger. We have studied and realized a new trigger suitable for the GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) experiments. After an overview of the triggers used up to now at GANIL, we give the main features of the new trigger (GANIL Master Trigger, GMT) such as modularity, universality and versatility. After a description of the trigger operating modes, we depict the trigger realization steps. The trigger informs about fired detectors in a beam to target collision but gives no information about timing, nevertheless the timing is a very important piece of information if the trigger analysis duration is several times greater than the beam period. We suggest a timing measurement structure (Time to Digital Converter, TDC) able to eliminate this imprecision. The dead time, the low level integration and the consumption constraints lead us to prefer a digital architecture based on a digital counter associated with delay lines. Simple equations are given in order to define the operating area of the TDC. This area depends on the clock duty cycle and on the delay line taps. Measures of Differential Non Linearity (DNL) for different time resolutions (1, 2, 5 and 10 ns) allow us to establish the limits of this System and to underline some solutions to improve these features. (author) [fr

  11. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, T.; Marchand, R.; Fragnaud, P.; Schleich, D.M. [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O. [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  12. Realising the Vision: The Discursive and Insti tu tional Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    canberry

    collective self-description by non-Europeans as 'Black' was a distinct legacy of the Black Consciousness ... obviously, not the intention of the Vision Statement, and it is far from my under standing of Africanity and .... funda men tally trans forming the teaching and practice of the disci pline. What emerged was the Ibadan ...

  13. Degenerate representation from tensorial identities and quantum realisations of YBZF algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosifescu, M.; Scutaru, H.

    1987-06-01

    The second- degree irreducible tensors in the enveloping algebra of the classical semisimple Lie algebras are determined and the irreducible representations on which these tensors vanish are derived.(authors)

  14. Realising new organisational forms. Integrating design and development in the change process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limburg, D.O.; Jackson, P.; Suomi, R.

    2002-01-01

    As the growth in teleworking, 'virtual teams', and 'virtual enterprises' has shown, the economic landscape is increasingly characterised by an ability to work across spatial and organisational boundaries. Only with this redesign of working methods and business processes can the promise of the

  15. Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.K.; McKane, A.T.; Ploutakhina, M.; Monga, P.; Gielen, D.; Bazilian, M.; Nussbaumer, P.; Howells, M.; Rogner, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The industrial sector is responsible for a significant share of global energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Energy efficiency is commonly seen as the most cost-effective, least-polluting, and most readily-accessible industrial energy saving option available in the industrial sector worldwide. Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 parts per million stabilisation scenario, over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector by 2050, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated by IEA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent, depending upon the sector. There is significant potential to reduce, at low or no cost, the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities. Many policies and programmes - at a national level - have already demonstrated significant improvements in industrial energy efficiency. The associate reduction in energy needs often also improves economic competitiveness as well as mitigates GHG emissions. However, at an international level, approaches such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are not yet delivering the expected energy efficiency improvements. Existing and effective industrial energy efficiency policies and measures could be replicated at a global level. Key elements of those policies and measures include increasing facility management attention to the issue of energy efficiency; promoting the dissemination of information, practice, and tools; increasing the auditing and implementation capacity; and developing the market for industrial energy efficiency investment. Better energy efficiency can produce substantial benefits both for global economic growth and poverty reduction as well as for mitigating climate change. The paper details examples of effective industrial energy efficiency policies and programmes. It provides a list of recommended actions to accelerate the adoption of industrial energy efficiency technologies and practices. Many policies and programmes have elements which seem likely to be readily deployable, replicable and transferable. A successful post-Kyoto architecture, regardless of its specifics, should therefore enable these elements see the light of reality

  16. Design and realisation of reduced-size impedance transforming uniplanar MMIC branchline coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, M.; Robertson, I. D.; Joshi, J. S.

    1992-07-01

    Analytical consideration is given to the development of an impedance-transforming branchline coupler of minimal size, and results are presented for a GaAs MMIC coupler. The design equations are examined within the context of the fabrication and performance of a prototype GaAs MMIC coupler which uses coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines. A single characteristic impedance Z0 is used for all lines of the coupler, and shunt capacitors are positioned at each port with constant impedance lines of different lengths. The coupler is shown to have good performance in terms of coupling imbalance, return losses, and isolation, and the device is less than 25 percent of the size of standard branchline couplers. Reduced-size couplers with impedance-transforming capabilities are of use in small MMICs to combine/divide signals for devices with lower input/output impedances.

  17. French Nuclear Power Generation Program: The Industrial Achievements; Le Programme Electronucleaire Francais: Realisations industrielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupraz, B. [Societe Francaise d' Energie Nucleaire (SFEN), 75 - Paris (France); Lacoste, A.C. [Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires (DSIN), 75 - Paris (France); Merle, P. [Bureau de Controle des Chaudieres Nucleaires (BCCN), 75 - Paris (France); Scherrer, J. [Commission Centrale des Appareils a Pression (CCAP), 75 - Paris (France); Stricker, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Div. Production Nucleaire; Joint-Lambert, V. [FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France); Montalembert, A. de [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Flament, T.A.; Hubert, X. [Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), Richland-Washington (United States); Zaccai, H. [SGN Reseau Eurisys, 78 - Saint Quentin (France); Ouzounian, G. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Nucleaires (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Voin, R. [Groupe Intersyndical de l' Industrie Nucleaire (GIIN), 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-09-01

    The 're-opening' issue (no 4) of RGN is devoted, each year, to the situation of the French nuclear power generation program under several aspects (achievements, operation, safety, maintenance, fuel cycle, waste management, etc.). This issue is very similar, but more particularly dedicated to the industrial aspects of the program. Thus, in parallel with scientific and technical topics, the issue deals with several subjects (nuclear competitiveness, plutonium management, cleanup of nuclear sites, etc.) from the economic and industrial standpoint, and with the situation of medium- and small-size French nuclear companies. (author)

  18. ScaMo: Realisation of an OO-functional DSL for cross platform mobile applications development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macos, Dragan; Solymosi, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The software market is dynamically changing: the Internet is going mobile, the software applications are shifting from the desktop hardware onto the mobile devices. The largest markets are the mobile applications for iOS, Android and Windows Phone and for the purpose the typical programming languages include Objective-C, Java and C ♯. The realization of the native applications implies the integration of the developed software into the environments of mentioned mobile operating systems to enable the access to different hardware components of the devices: GPS module, display, GSM module, etc. This paper deals with the definition and possible implementation of an environment for the automatic application generation for multiple mobile platforms. It is based on a DSL for mobile application development, which includes the programming language Scala and a DSL defined in Scala. As part of a multi-stage cross-compiling algorithm, this language is translated into the language of the affected mobile platform. The advantage of our method lies in the expressiveness of the defined language and the transparent source code translation between different languages, which implies, for example, the advantages of debugging and development of the generated code.

  19. Realisable scenarios for a future electricity supply based 100% on renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czisch, G.; Giebel, G.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the resource and climate problems, it seems obvious that we must transform our energy system into one using only renewable energies. But questions arise how such a system should be structured, which techniques should be used and, of course, how costly it might be. These questions were the focus of a study which investigated the cost optimum of a future renewable electricity supply for Europe and its closer Asian and African neighbourhood. The resulting scenarios are based on a broad data basis of the electricity consumption and for renewable energies. A linear optimisation determines the best system configuration and temporal dispatch of all components. The outcome of the scenarios can be considered as being a scientific breakthrough since it proves that a totally renewable electricity supply is possible even with current technology and at the same time is affordable for our national economies. In the conservative base case scenario, wind power would dominate the production spread over the better wind areas within the whole supply area, connected with the demand centres via HVDC transmission. The transmission system, furthermore, powerfully integrates the existing storage hydropower to provide for backup co-equally assisted by biomass power and supported by solar thermal electricity. The main results of the different scenarios can be summarized as follows: 1) A totally renewable electricity supply for Europe and its neighbourhood is possible and affordable. 2) Electricity import from non-European neighbour countries can be a very valuable and substantial component of a future supply. 3) Smoothing effects by the use of sources at locations in different climate zones improve the security of the supply and reduce the costs. 4) A large-scale co-operation of many different countries opens up for the possibility to combine the goals of development policy and climate politics in a multilateral win-win strategy. To aid implementation, an international extension of the ideas of the German energy feed law (or similar other schemes around the world) is proposed for the follow-up treaty to the Kyoto climate accord. (au)

  20. Efficiency of activity of local self-governance bodies in realisation of social policy Эффективность деятельности органов местного самоуправления в реализации социальной политики

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievsieieva Olga A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates theoretical approaches to formation of social policy of Ukraine and increase of efficiency of activity of municipal formations in its realisation. It reveals specific features of vesting local self-governance bodies with state authorities. It shows the functions of local self-governance bodies in realisation of social policy. It gives results of analysis of social programmes of local self-governance bodies and their realisation. It offers measures on improvement of activity of local self-governance bodies on social protection of population. It proves that, in order for the social state to function in reality, it is necessary to realise adequate practical mechanisms of its development, activate social policy of all its subjects at the national, regional and municipal levels and accentuate it on the priorities, which would allow optimisation of resource potential.В статье обоснованы теоретические подходы к формированию социальной политики Украины и повышению эффективности деятельности муниципальных образований в ее осуществлении. Выявлены особенности наделения органов местного самоуправления отдельными государственными полномочиями. Раскрыты функции органов местного самоуправления в реализации социальной политики. Представлены результаты анализа социальных программ органов местного самоуправления, их реализации. Предложены меры по совершенствованию деятельности органов местного самоуправления по социальной защите

  1. Essence and Principles of Realisation of Integrated Marketing Communications Суть и принципы реализации интегрированных маркетинговых коммуникаций

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukhovskaya Raisa B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that due to changes of marketing strategies of companies, the issues of application of integrated marketing communications, directed at provision of succession of messages and use of additional mass media means, are not yet properly described in educational and professional literature. All these confirm urgency of the topic, which justified selection of the direction of the study. The article considers and schematically presents a process of integrated marketing communications (IMC. It specifies main factors that influence the process of introduction of the IMC concept and also main factors that are solved in the process of their use. It is established that the synergy plays an important role in realisation of the strategy of integrated marketing communications. Its essence is in common application of several marketing communication measures. It is established that the main infological principles of IMC are integration of choice, integration of positioning and integration of schedule. The article analyses their essence and provides a schematic model. It offers improvement of some elements of integrated marketing communications by means of complex use of organisational and economic, advertisement and information, and interpersonal and communicative measures.В связи с изменениями маркетинговых стратегий предприятий, вопросы применения интегрированных маркетинговых коммуникаций, направленных на обеспечение последовательности сообщений и использования дополнительных средств массовой информации, в настоящее время еще недостаточно описаны в образовательной и профессиональной литературе. Все это подтверждает ак

  2. The world's best-known surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, A J

    1983-10-01

    Henry Norman Bethune was born in Ontario in 1890 and was to become the best-known physician in the world. Bethune, a thoracic surgeon, spent his professional life in Detroit and Montreal, with these periods separated by a year spent as a patient in a tuberculosis sanatorium. This was where his interest in pulmonary disease was stimulated. Pioneer thoracic surgeon, councillor to the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, artist, poet, polemist, conservative-turned-communist, iconoclast, and soldier, Bethune was a highly complex individual. Diverting his energies from surgery to social issues during the depression, Bethune participated in the Spanish Civil War, at which time he designed the world's first mobile blood transfusion unit. Eight months later, Bethune joined Mao Tse-tung's Eight Route Army in China. In 1939 he died of septicemia acquired from a sliver of infected bone while he was operating on a wounded Chinese patient. Bethune's fame today derives principally from the popularization of his accomplishments by Mao, whom he met once and who subsequently decreed that all in China should learn about him. Bethune's posthumous influence played an important role in the reopening of relations between China and the West.

  3. Evolution of iron minerals in a 100years-old Technosol. Consequences on Zn mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coussy, Samuel; Grangeon, Sylvain; Bataillard, Philippe; Khodja, Hicham; Maubec, Nicolas; Faure, Pierre; Schwartz, Christophe; Dagois, Robin (BRGM- France); (CNRS-UMR)

    2017-03-01

    The prediction of the long term trace element mobility in anthropogenic soils would be a way to anticipate land management and should help in reusing slightly contaminated materials. In the present study, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status evolution was investigated in a 100-year old Technosol. The site of investigation is an old brownfield located in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) which has not been reshaped since the beginning of the last century. The whole soil profile was sampled as a function of depth, and trace elements mobility at each depth was determined by batch leaching test. A specific focus on Fe and Zn status was carried out by bulk analyses, such as selective dissolution, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Fe and Zn status in the profile samples was also studied using laterally resolved techniques such as μ-particle induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and μ-Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (μ-RBS). The results indicate that (i) Fe is mainly under Fe(III) form, except a minor contribution of Fe(II) in the deeper samples, (ii) some Fe species inherited from the past have been weathered and secondary minerals are constituted of metal-bearing sulphates and Fe (hydr)oxides, (iii) ferrihydrite is formed during pedogenesis (iv) 20 to 30% more Fe (hydr)oxides are present in the surface than in depth and (v) Zn has tetrahedral coordination and is sorbed to phases of increasing crystallinity when depth increases. Zn-bearing phases identified in the present study are: complex Fe, Mn, Zn sulphides, sulphates, organic matter, and ferrihydrite. Soil formation on such material does not induce a dramatic increase of Zn solubility since efficient scavengers are concomitantly formed in the system. However, Technosols are highly heterogeneous and widely differ from one place to another. The behavior examined in this study is not generic and will depend on the type of Technosol and on the secondary minerals formed as well as on

  4. [Pharmacovigilance center --internal medicine interactions: A useful diagnostic tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochoy, M; Gautier, S; Bordet, R; Caron, J; Launay, D; Hachulla, E; Hatron, P-Y; Lambert, M

    2015-08-01

    Patients hospitalized in internal medicine often have unexplained clinical symptoms for which a drug origin can be considered. The prevalence of patients hospitalized for iatrogenic is estimated between 4-22%. We wanted to evaluate the diagnostic value of the regional center of pharmacovigilance to identify or confirm an iatrogenic disease in the department of internal medicine of Lille and characterize factors associated with drug-related side effect. This is a single-center prospective diagnostic study. We included all subsequent requests from the department of internal medicine with the Nord-Pas-de-Calais regional pharmacovigilance center between 2010 and 2012. The opinion of the regional pharmacovigilance centre was held on the record of the adverse drug reaction in the national pharmacovigilance database and analyzed according to the conclusion of iatrogenic used by clinicians in internal medicine (reference diagnosis) with a follow-up to June 2013. The variables relating to the patient, medication and adverse events were analyzed by binary logistic regression. We analyzed 160 contacts: 118 concordant cases, 38 false-positives (drug-related side effect retained by the regional pharmacovigilance center only), 4 false negatives. Registration in the national pharmacovigilance database had a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI [0.92 to 0.99]), a specificity of 46% (95% CI [0.38 to 0.53]), a value positive predictive of 69% (95% CI [0.62 to 0.76]), a negative predictive value of 89% (95% CI [0.84 to 0.94]) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.1. False-positive had chronological and semiological accountabilities questionable (adjusted RR=2.1, 95% CI [1.2 to 2.8]). In our study, the regional pharmacovigilance center confirms the clinician's suspicion of drug-related side effects and helps to exclude drug-induced with a high negative predictive value. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Contamination of human milk with aerobic flora: Evaluation of losses for a human milk bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, C; Courdent, P; Charlet, C; Dumoulin, D; Courcol, R; Pierrat, V

    2015-05-01

    In France, human milk banks pasteurize milk for the mother's own hospitalized baby (personalized milk) and for donation. There is specific legislation regulating the activity of human milk banks with bacterial screening of donor milk before and after pasteurization. Milk should be tested for Staphylococcus aureus and total aerobic flora. Any sample of milk positive for aerobic flora and/or S. aureus before and/or after pasteurization should be discarded. The real pathogenicity of the total aerobic flora is actually debated as well as the usefulness of systematic postpasteurization screening. The aim of this study was to quantify milk losses related to prepasteurization contamination by total aerobic flora in a regional milk bank, to identify losses due to contamination with S. aureus or aerobic flora, and to analyze differences between centers. This was a prospective observational study conducted in the regional human milk bank of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area in France. Data were collected from six major centers providing 80% of the milk collected between June 2011 and June 2012. Variables were the volumes of personalized milk collected by each center, volumes of contaminated milk, and the type of bacteria identified. During the study period, the regional human milk bank treated 4715 L (liters) of personalized milk and 508 L (10.8%) were discarded due to bacteriological screening. Among these 508 L, 43% were discarded because of a prepasteurization contamination with aerobic flora, 55% because of a prepasteurization contamination with S. aureus, and 2% because of other pathogenic bacteria. Postpasteurization tests were positive in 25 samples (0.5%). Only five of these 25 samples were positive before pasteurization and in all cases with S. aureus. A total of 218 L were destroyed because of prepasteurization contamination with total aerobic flora, while the postpasteurization culture was sterile. There was a great difference between centers in the percentage of

  6. Energy report 2003; L'energie electrique en France en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Provisional results of power flows on the French power system in 2003: net generation; national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries (total of instantaneous exchange balances measured by metering on each interconnection lines); adjusted consumption (values adjusted for climatic contingencies and leap years); electrical energy balance in France in 2003; noteworthy data for the year 2003 (these values reflect all of the flows on the RTE network, as well as generation auto-consumed by the industrial consumers connected to this network); electricity market: contractual exchanges with foreign countries, base load blocks exchanged between balance responsible entities; power facilities (situation on 2003/12/31); generating facilities connected to the RTE network during the year: connection to the RTE network of two cogeneration units in Haute Normandie region, and of three household waste incineration plants in Picardie, Haute Normandie and Languedoc-Roussillon regions representing a total capacity of 285.5 MW, increase in capacity of the two units of the Chooz B nuclear power plant in the Ardennes (total increase of 90 MW), to be noted that the total France includes in particular the connection of wind farms on distribution networks for a total capacity of 80 MW; main RTE facilities commissioned during the year: 22 new substations connected to the RTE network, 4 of them at 225 kV (Amfard, Bouscat, Braek, Volvon), 6 of them at 90 kV and 12 of them at 63 kV; at 400 kV, 130 km of new or replaced circuits (together with the removal of 30 km of network lines), of which: circuit 4 and 5 of Tavel-Tricastin line in order to increase the transit capacity between the Rhone-Alpes region and the Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur regions; Chevalet-Gavrelle line, after the modification of the previous line to a dual circuit, in order to cover quality and security of supply requirements for the Somme and Pas-de-Calais departments, at 225 kV, 200

  7. Editor’s note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leroy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue contains papers written by participants to the conference "Noncommutative rings and their Applications" that was held in Lens (France at the Science faculty of the Universit\\'e d'Artois. The meeting gave the experts from different domains the opportunity to exchange their views, share their research, and learn from one another new results and problems in a friendly atmosphere. They were 55 researchers, graduate and postdoctoral students from USA, Canada, Poland, Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, Germany, Portugal, Egypt, Senegal, New Zeland, South Africa, Algeria, Turkey, Mexico, Brazil, Uruguay, Indonesia...and France! The interplay between ring and coding theory was emphasized by the very nice and interesting course "Linear codes from the axiomatic point of view" given by Jay Wood. The four invited speakers: Fr\\'ed\\'erique Oggier, Christophe Reutenauer, Angel del Rio and Irfan Siap contributed greatly to the success of this conference. The topics of the Jay Wood's course and the 39 talks presented at the conference are well represented by this special issue of Jacodesmath. They cover pure ring theory such as nil *-clean rings, radical classes or algebras such as Grassman algebras and Steenrod algebras and many papers relating these subjects with coding theory such as MacWilliams extension theorem, dual codes, Lee and Hamming weight. So this volume will be particularly useful for mathematicians at the confluent of these two branches. This meeting was supported by the Laboratoire de Math\\'ematiques de Lens (LML, by different bodies from the Universit\\'e d'Artois (RI, BQR, as well as by a regional organization (the Fédération des Laboratoires de Math´ematiques du Nord pas de Calais. We would like to thank all the participants for their efforts and enthusiasm. A very warm thanks to the colleagues who kindly agreed to referee the papers. Their expertise, promptitude, and professionalism improved the quality of the articles in

  8. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  9. Etude Climat no. 36 'Regional Climate - Air - Energy Plans: a tool for guiding the energy and climate transition in French regions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Charentenay, Jeremie; Leseur, Alexia; Bordier, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: The Regional Climate-Air-Energy Plan (SRCAE - Schema Regional Climat-Air-Energie) was introduced by the Grenelle II legislation. The Plans are co-authored by the State through its decentralised services and the 'Conseil Regionaux' (regional councils) with the objective to guide climate and energy policy in the 26 French regions through to 2020 and 2050. Starting from an assessment of regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the SRCAE establishes energy transition scenarios based on the sectoral and structural guidelines that constitute the principal framework of the regional strategy. This report offers a detailed analysis of the strategies chosen by the various Regions for a successful transition to low-carbon energy sources, via the study of eleven SRCAEs that were opened to public consultation before the end of July 2012 (Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Bourgogne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Ile-de-France, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas de Calais, Picardie and Rhone-Alpes regions). The wide range of methodologies used by the Regions, both to draw up their inventories of GHG emissions and for their scenarios, means that a quantitative comparison between regions or against the national objectives is not possible. Nevertheless, the report establishes a typology of regions and identifies policies that are common to all regions and those chosen in response to local characteristics. Certain guidelines could be applied by other regions of the same type, or could feed into discussions at national level. The report also indicates that the SRCAEs go beyond the competencies of the Regions, highlighting the role of local, national and European decision-making in the success of a regional energy transition. Particular attention was paid to the building and transport sectors, often identified as having the largest potential for reducing

  10. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; Phospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; Plong-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had significantly less risk of long-term hospitalization than those of large cities. We found no influence of material and social deprivation in the long-term hospitalizations. Long-term hospitalization in psychiatry only concerns a minority of patients but represents the fifth of the total number of days of

  11. Recirculation, stagnation and ventilation: The 2014 legionella episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Gouveia, Célia M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2017-04-01

    Legionella transmission through the atmosphere is unusual, but not unprecedented. A scientific paper published in 2006 reports a surge in Pas-de-Calais, France, in which 86 people have been infected by bacteria released by a cooling tower more than 6 km away [3]. Similarly, in Norway, in 2005, there was another case where contamination spread beyond 10 km, although more concentrated within a radius of 1 km from an industrial unit [2]. An unprecedented large Legionella outbreak occurred in November 2014 nearby Lisbon, Portugal. As of 7 November 2014, 375 individuals become hill and 12 died infected by the Legionella pneumophila bacteria, contracted by inhalation of steam droplets of contaminated water (aerosols). These droplets are so small that can carry the bacteria directly to the lungs, depositing it in the alveoli. One way of studying the propagation of legionella episodes is through the use of aerosol dispersion models. However, such approaches often require detailed 3D high resolution wind data over the region, which isn't often available for long periods. The likely impact of wind on legionella transmission can also be understood based on the analysis of special types of flow conditions such as stagnation, recirculation and ventilation [1, 4]. The Allwine and Whiteman (AW) approach constitutes a straightforward method to assess the assimilative and dispersal capacities of different airsheds [1,4], as it only requires hourly wind components. Thus, it has the advantage of not needing surface and upper air meteorological observations and a previous knowledge of the atmospheric transport and dispersion conditions. The objective of this study is to analyze if the legionella outbreak event which took place in November 2014 had extreme potential recirculation and/or stagnation characteristics. In order to accomplish the proposed objective, the AW approach was applied for a hindcast time-series covering the affected area (1989-2007) and then for an independent

  12. Measurement of pollutant species in automotive exhaust: application of a 3D Eulerian model about the photochemical oxidant formation in the troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplain, I.

    2005-05-01

    Automotive pollution has become a more and more worrying problem. Pollution regulations are more severe today but even if some pollutants have to fulfill strict emission standards, other compounds like volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds, are less controlled but remain toxic for human beings in a direct way (primary pollution) or in an indirect way (secondary pollution). This work deals with the experimental measurements of exhaust pollution, the inventory of pollutant emissions from transports, and the modeling of air quality. The experimental measurements are performed in the framework of the European project Artemis (assessment and reliability of transport emission models and inventory systems) under the coordination of INRETS, on a set of 30 gasoline and diesel vehicles of recent technology. These vehicles are submitted to various road tests in order to improve the emissions database for private vehicles. The main pollutants measured are the light VOCs (C2 to C6), the heavy VOCs (C7 to C15) and the carbonyl compounds. About a hundred of compounds are thus measured. The emissions factor of each pollutant has been determined for each vehicle and has been used for the elaboration of an emission map of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. These pollutant data have been used as input data for a physicochemical simulation model of troposphere (UAM: urban air-shed model). A previous study about the introduction of the detailed molecular speciation of VOCs and the use of the CBIV mechanism did not lead to concluding results about the speciation impact on ozone formation. The introduction of a new mechanism would allow to take into account the overall compounds and to see their eventual contribution to the ozone formation. This would require a modification of the model and in particular the addition of a flexible chemical mechanism (FCM) interface for the introduction of a new chemical mechanism (SAPRC 99 instead of CBIV) in the model. The overall input

  13. The largest Swiss diffusion storage system - Geology, petrophysics, hydro-geology and experience gained from the realisation of heat probes; Groesster saisonaler Diffusionsspeicher der Schweiz D4 in Root (LU): Geologie, Petrophysik, Hydrogeologie und Erfahrungen mit der Realisation des Sondenfeldes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, B.

    2007-07-15

    This article takes a look at a large heat-diffusion storage system that is to be implemented in stages at a business and innovation centre in Root, near Lucerne in Switzerland. The aim is to meet 50 percent of energy needs using renewable energy. Apart from conventional oil and gas-fired systems, a combined heat and power (CHP) unit, heat and cold storage, a solar roof and photovoltaics, a seasonal underground diffusion storage system is used. This storage system is 'filled' with heat in summer from the roof and waste heat. It then functions in winter as a heat source. The system features two fields of 49, 160 metre-long heat probes that use a volume of 376,000 cubic metres of rock. The dimensioning of the rock-storage system was simulated using the PILESIM program and the first field was implemented in 2001. A geological overview is presented and the physical properties of the rock structures used are discussed. The temperature profile measured is presented and the precautions taken as a result of the possibility of meeting pockets of natural gas are discussed. Know-how gained from the implementation of the first probe field is discussed.

  14. Realisation of EU-NO2 limit value in The Netherlands. Implementation of the first European Union daughter guideline; Realisering EU-NO2-normen in Nederland. Implementatie 1e EU-dochterrichtlijn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkert, R.J.M.; Eerens, H.C.; Odijk, M.; Van Breugel, P.B.; Van Bree, L.

    2001-07-01

    The yearly mean EU-NO2 limit value will, according to the EC scenario of the CPB (Dutch Central Planning Bureau), still be exceeded in 2010 under average meteorological conditions. Exceedance will mainly take place along motorways in urban areas. To meet the limit values a few billions of Euros will possibly have to be spent for local measures (tearing down houses, tunnels, plates). Even by executing the National Environmental Action plan 4 (NMP4) en the BOR traffic policy the limit value will still be exceeded in 2010. The number of exceedances at houses does decrease drastically (factor 15). To meet the limit values cost for possible local measures reduce then from a few billions to a few million euros. Just by carrying out European wide maximum emission reduction and traffic policy, after implementing NMP4 in 2010, the limit values by houses will be met in 2015 for average meteorological conditions. [Dutch] De jaargemiddelde EU-NO2-norm zal, volgens het EC scenario van het CPB, nog overschreden worden in 2010 bij gemiddelde meteorologie. Overschrijding vindt voornamelijk plaats bij woningen langs snelwegen in stedelijk gebied. Om te voldoen aan de grenswaarde zal mogelijk lokaal voor miljarden euro aan maatregelen (sloop huizen, tunnels, luifels) genomen moeten worden. Ook bij uitvoering van NMP4 en het BOR (Bereikbaarheids Offensief Randstad) verkeersbeleid wordt de norm nog overschreden in 2010. Wel daalt het aantal overschrijdingen fors (factor 15). Om aan de grenswaarde te voldoen dalen de kosten van mogelijke lokale maatregelen van enkele miljarden euro tot enkele tientallen miljoenen euro. Pas als er na de uitvoering van NMP4 in 2010 in Europees verband maximaal emissiereductie- en verkeersbeleid wordt ingezet dan vindt er in en na 2015 geen overschrijding bij woningen meer plaats onder gemiddelde meteorologische omstandigheden.

  15. Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

  16. Software of automatic calculation of efficient dose for the CT scanning examinations realised for children;Logiciel de calcul automatique de la dose efficace pour les examens scanographiques realises chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guegan, C.; Nadour, A.; Alison, M.; Sebag, G.

    2009-10-15

    Objective: to know the efficient dose that will allow to compare the induced irradiation to natural irradiation. To know this magnitude in order to sensitize the medical profession and the patient. To know a software allowing to calculate the efficient dose in function of the organ explored by a multislice scanner. Messages to remember: This software is easy to use and allows to get easily an equivalent dose (in natural irradiation) for a pediatric CT scanning examination (Phillips, Brillance 64). (N.C.)

  17. Supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric Seiberg-like dualities for gauged Wess–Zumino–Witten theories, realised on branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ireson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we extend the results of previous derivations of Seiberg-like dualities (level-rank duality between gauged Wess–Zumino–Witten theories. The arguments in use to identify a potential dual for the supersymmetric WZW theory based on the coset U(N+MkU(Nk can be extended to be applied to a wider variety of gauge groups, notably USp(2N+2M2kUSp(2N2k and SO(2N+2M2kSO(2N2k, which will be dealt with briefly. Most interestingly, non-supersymmetric versions of the latter theories can also be shown to have duals in a similar fashion. These results are supported by several pieces of evidence, string phenomenological interpretations of Seiberg duality, even in non-supersymmetric backgrounds, are helpful to justify the formulation, then, from field theory, quantities such as central charges or Witten indices are shown to match exactly. The stability of these non-supersymmetric models is also discussed and shown to be consistent.

  18. "Before I Realised They Were All Women… I Expected It to Be More about Materials": Art, Gender and Tacit Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses a critical discourse analysis research activity undertaken with a group of undergraduate primary trainees with an art specialism. The research activity involved the use of two contrasting texts discussing the work of Karla Black, Becky Beasley and Claire Barclay. The article explores how the positioning of the two texts…

  19. Contribution to the study of 'Pseudo-spark' discharges applied to the realisation of latch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauville, Gerard

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study discharges growing from a hollow geometry of electrodes for pressures on the left side of the Paschen minimum. The study characterises the main conduction phase by experimentally determining the discharge voltage and current. Based on a numerical analysis, the author deduces some macroscopic characteristics such as voltage mean value, dissipated energy, with respect to the variation of various parameters such as gas pressure and nature, discharge duration, and electrode cavity geometries. After a first part on switches (technological applications, switches, pseudo-spark breakers), the author addresses the discharges (presentation of a 'pseudo-spark'-type discharge, involved physical mechanisms, methods of initiation of pseudo-spark discharges, triggering by a magnetic field pulse). The next part describes the test bench in a detailed way (electrodes, triggering system, electric configurations), and the last part reports the experimental study. It addresses the following issues: distribution of magnetic field lines, voltage drop, conjunction phase, discharge footprints on the surfaces, propagation rate, disjunction [fr

  20. Application of a Backfilling Method in Coal Mining to Realise an Ecologically Sensitive “Black Gold” Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Feng; Nong Zhang; Lianyuan Gong; Fei Xue; Xigui Zheng

    2015-01-01

    China, as the largest coal-producing and -consuming country in the world, is highly dependent on its coal industry, or “Black Gold” industry, for the national energy and economy. The consequent environmental crises, however, have persisted for decades, and the most serious effect is surface subsidence induced by underground mining. Underground coal excavation in China has ignored this problem for thousands of years, even though it causes conspicuous damage to the surface ecosystem and constru...

  1. Comparison of deterministically predicted genetic gains with those realised in a South African Eucalyptus grandis breeding program

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verryn, SD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available . These assumptions include those of the Hardy-Weinberg population (Hardy 1908; Weinberg 1908), i.e.: • Applies to a large population • Absence of selection • Random mating, i.e. no inbreeding/ selfing The CSIR E.grandis F3 breeding population was in part... al. 2000). It was assumed that the coefficient of relationship was 0.3, on the basis of a study (Verryn 1993) that estimated that there is approximately 20% inbreeding in the open pollinated population (see also Griffin et al. 1987; Griffin...

  2. Design and realisation of integrated circuits for the readout of pixel sensors in high-energy physics and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peric, I.

    2004-08-01

    Radiation tolerant pixel-readout chip for the ATLAS pixel detector has been designed, implemented in a deep-submicron CMOS technology and successfully tested. The chip contains readout-channels with complex analog and digital circuits. Chip for steering of the DEPFET active-pixel matrix has been implemented in a high-voltage CMOS technology. The chip contains channels which generate fast sequences of high-voltage signals. Detector containing this chip has been successfully tested. Pixel-readout test chip for an X-ray imaging pixel sensor has been designed, implemented in a CMOS technology and tested. Pixel-readout channels are able to simultaneously count the signals generated by passage of individual photons and to sum the total charge generated during exposure time. (orig.)

  3. Realisation and Optimization the System of Ridge WaveguidePolarizer by Genetic Algorithms for Telecommunication Satellite Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    BOUSALAH1, FAYZA; NOUR EDDINE2; BOUKLI HACENE

    2013-01-01

    The ridged waveguide polarizer is considered as the better way to get right-hand and left-hand circular polarization in the antennas of telecommunications satellites. In fact, it is a system of three ports used to feed a square waveguide antenna in order to achieve high purity in the right-hand and left-hand circular polarization. Obtaining a great purity of polarization results by the addition from screw from adaptation and blades from correction. A solution with this pr...

  4. In vitro haematic proteins adsorption and cytocompatibility study on acrylic copolymer to realise coatings for drug-eluting stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, Mariacristina

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, a preliminary in vitro analysis of biocompatibility of newly-synthesised acrylic copolymers is reported. In particular, with the aim to obtain coatings for drug-eluting stents, blood protein absorption and cytocompatibility were studied. For protein absorption tests, bovine serum albumin and bovine plasma fibrinogen were considered. Cytocompatibility was tested using C2C12 cell line as model, analysing the behaviour of polymeric matrices and of drug-eluting systems, obtained loading polymeric matrices with paclitaxel, an anti-mitotic drug, in order to evaluate the efficacy of a pharmacological treatment locally administered from these materials. Results showed that the amount of albumin absorbed was greater than the amount of fibrinogen (comprised in the range of 70%–85% and 10%–22% respectively) and it is a good behaviour in terms of haemocompatibility. Cell culture tests showed good adhesion properties and a relative poor proliferation. In addition, a strong effect related to drug elution and a correlation with the macromolecular composition were detected. In this preliminary analysis, tested materials showed good characteristics and can be considered possible candidates to obtain coatings for drug-eluting stents. Highlights: ► Preliminary evaluation of haemo- and cytocompatibility of newly-synthesised acrylic copolymers ► Materials adsorb higher amounts of albumin and with a faster rate than fibrinogen. ► Protein adsorption depended on the macromolecular composition and surface properties. ► Cell viability on pure samples and efficacy of paclitaxel release were verified in C2C12 cultures.

  5. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation after lumbar disc surgery (REALISE): design of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, T.; van Tulder, M.W.; Peul, W.C.; Bosmans, J.E.; Vleggeert-Lankamp, C.L.A.; Smakman, L.; Arts, M.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients who undergo lumbar disc surgery for herniated discs, are advocated two different postoperative management strategies: a watchful waiting policy, or referral for rehabilitation immediately after discharge from the hospital. A direct comparison of the effectiveness and

  6. Clinical characteristics, management, and control of permanent vs. nonpermanent atrial fibrillation: insights from the RealiseAF survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation can be categorized into nonpermanent and permanent atrial fibrillation. There is less information on permanent than on nonpermanent atrial fibrillation patients. This analysis aimed to describe the characteristics and current management, including the proportion of patients with successful atrial fibrillation control, of these atrial fibrillation subsets in a large, geographically diverse contemporary sample.

  7. Technical realisation of the VISA-II project, phase I, part IV, IZ-165-o268-1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1962-12-01

    Project VISA-II is described in IX chapters as follows: introduction, definition of experiments and possibilities of performance; VISA-II channel, new experimental space in the RA reactor; hydraulic tests in the VISA-II channel; measurement of fast neutron and gamma flux in VISA-II channels; measurement of water flow through different VISA-2 irradiation capsules; fabrication of VISA-II capsules; corrosion and heavy water purity problems; safety problems of experiment VISA-2; experimental operation of VISA-II. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-II project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device [sr

  8. Realising the rhetoric: refreshing public health providers' efforts to honour Te Tiriti o Waitangi in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, H A; McCreanor, T; Doole, C; Simpson, T

    2017-04-01

    New Zealand has a unique tool, Te Tiriti o Waitangi, the Treaty of Waitangi, for addressing health disparities. Indigenous Māori have compromised health status compared to other groups. This paper investigates ways in which public health units (PHUs) and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) use Te Tiriti o Waitangi in service delivery to Māori. A nationwide telephone survey of primary health providers (n=162) was conducted in 2014-15. Participants were asked about effectiveness and monitoring of their service delivery to Māori. PHUs reported actively working with Māori, and Te Tiriti o Waitangi to reduce health disparities. Direct Māori engagement with development and delivery of programmes was viewed as essential. Strategies included designated PHU staff in positions of responsibility, formal partnerships with Māori, and providing operational and strategic guidance. Some PHUs supported development of cultural competencies. NGO responsiveness to Māori was variable. Some NGOs described prioritising service delivery and programmes for Māori. Others reported the focus of their service was European or other non-Māori ethnicities. Lack of resources or past difficulties engaging with Māori were barriers. Public health has an ethical commitment to reduce health disparities. Advancing Te Tiriti obligations in everyday practice has the potential to address inequalities.

  9. Study and realisation of a femtosecond dye laser operating at different wavelengths. Ultrashort pulses compression and amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    We present the study and the realization of a passively mode-locked dye laser producing pulses shorter than 100 femto-seconds (10 -13 s). In a ring cavity with an amplifier medium (Rhodamine 60) and a saturable absorber (DODCI), a sequence of four prisms controls the group velocity dispersion and allows the generation of very short pulses. Then we have studied the production of femtosecond pulses at other wavelengths directly from the femtosecond dye laser. For the first rime, 60 fs pulses at 685 nm and pulses shorter than 50 fs between 775 nm and 800 nm have been produced by passive mode locking. These near infrared pulses have been used to study the absorption saturation kinetics in semiconductors multiple quantum wells GaAs/GaAlAs. We have observed a singular behavior of the laser operating at 685 nm and analyzed the produced pulses in terms of optical solitons. To perform time resolved spectroscopy with shortest pulses, we have studied a pulse compressor and a multipass amplifier to increase the pulses energy. Pulses of 20 fs and 10 micro-joules (peak power: 0.5 GW) have been obtained at low repetition rate (10 Hz) and pulses of 16 fs and 0.6 micro-joules pulses have been generated at high repetition rate (11 kHz) using a copper vapor laser. These pulses have been used to study the absorption saturation kinetics of an organic dye (the Malachite Green). (author) [fr

  10. Aligning nanotoxicology with the 3Rs: What is needed to realise the short, medium and long-term opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Natalie; Aschberger, Karin; Chaudhry, Qasim; Clift, Martin J D; Fowler, Paul; Johnston, Helinor; Landsiedel, Robert; Rowland, Joanna; Stone, Vicki; Doak, Shareen H

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterials convey numerous advantages, and the past decade has seen a considerable rise in their development and production for an expanse of applications. While the potential advantages of nanomaterials are clear, concerns over the impact of human and environmental exposure exist. Concerted, science-led efforts are required to understand the effects of nanomaterial exposure and ensure that protection goals are met. There is much on-going discussion regarding how best to assess nanomaterial risk, particularly considering the large number of tests that may be required. A plethora of forms may need to be tested for each nanomaterial, and risk assessed throughout the life cycle, meaning numerous acute and chronic toxicity studies could be required, which is neither practical nor utilises the current evidence-base. Hence, there are scientific, business, ethical and legislative drivers to re-consider the use of animal toxicity tests. An expert Working Group of regulators, academics and industry scientists were gathered by the UK's NC3Rs to discuss: i) opportunities being offered in the short, medium and long-terms to advance nanosafety, ii) how to align these advances with the application of the 3Rs in nanomaterial safety testing, and iii) shifting the focus of risk assessment from current hazard-based approaches towards exposure-driven approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A realisation of q-deformed of U(1)-Kac Moody and Virasoro algebras through the a-bar∞ algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassouni, A.; Zakkari, M.

    1995-11-01

    A representation of one parameter deformation of U(1)-Kac Moody and Virasoro algebras is obtained through the infinite matrix algebra a-bar ∞ . Their central extensions are also investigated. (author). 19 refs

  12. The Art of Balancing: Enabling the Realisation of Multiple and Shared Values through a New Generation of Business Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.; O’Riordan, L.; Marsh, N.; O’Riordan, L.; Zmuda, P.; Heinemann, S.

    2015-01-01

    As the public perception of the role of business in society continues to change, managers face new-fangled challenges when attempting to secure an optimal strategy for the long-term survival of their firms. The increasing awareness that business operates as part of (and not in isolation from)

  13. MODELISATION ET REALISATION D’UN CAPTEUR-STOCKEUR SOLAIRE A CUVE CYLINDRIQUE AVEC CONCENTRATEUR PARABOLIQUE COMPOSE.

    OpenAIRE

    HADJIAT, Mohammed Moundji

    2014-01-01

    Le but de ce travail est l’étude théorique et expérimentale d’un chauffe-eau solaire de type capteur stockeur. Ce dispositif est composé d’une cuve de stockage cylindrique disposée sur la ligne focale d’un réflecteur solaire en forme de concentrateur parabolique composé « CPC ». Cette cuve peinte en noir mat joue en même temps le rôle d’absorbeur et de stockeur d’eau chaude. Pour cela nous avons d’abord construit un modèle mathématique qui permet de calculer la température moye...

  14. Design and realisation of a microwave three-dimensional imaging system with application to breast-cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, T.; Krozer, V.

    2010-01-01

    D inverse electromagnetic scattering problem is then solved in order to reconstruct the distribution of the complex permittivity in the imaging domain. The dedicated hardware is based on an array architecture allowing for a short acquisition time while maintaining a high sensitivity, which...

  15. Using paleoclimate proxy-data to select an optimal realisation in an ensemble of simulations of the past millennium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosse, H.; Renssen, H.; Timmermann, A.; Bradley, R.S.; Mann, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We present and describe in detail the advantages and limitations of a technique that combines in an optimal way model results and proxy-data time series in order to obtain states of the climate system consistent with model physics, reconstruction of past radiative forcing and proxy records. To

  16. Alloys at low Ni-realise. Pd-Ni coatings on copper; Depositi galvanici decorativi a basso rilascio di nichel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, G.; Gambirasi, A.; Stangherlin, F. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica; Capobianco, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica; Gajo, M. [ELSY Research, Treviso (Italy)

    1999-06-01

    The paper shows the results of the following analysis: samples coated with an alloy of Palladium and Nickel were electrochemically tested in an alkaline solution. The coated samples were also tested in an artificial seawater solution, using the European 1811 test method. The electrochemical tests and artificial sweat tests confirmed the good behaviour of the coating. It is possible to affirm that the Pd-Ni coating is in accordance with the law proposed by the European Committee for the Standardization (CEN) given that the nickel release was lower than 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2}/week. [Italian] In questo articolo vengono riportati i risultati della verifica del comportamento a corrosione di depositi galvanici di una lega Pd-Ni (90-100) in una soluzione standard alcalina e in sudore sintetico. I depositi sottili sono stati effettuati su rame ramato elettroliticamente a due spessori. Il test del sudore sintetico ha dimostrato che gli strati esaminati, anche quelli molto sottili, sono a bassissimo rilascio di Ni, inferiore di circa un ordine di grandezza rispetto a quello indicato dalle normative vigenti.

  17. De Service Care Chain: De invloed van service en HRM op de realisering van vraaggerichte dienstverlening door zorgorganisaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P. van Wijk (Kees)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHealthcare for people with a physical, mental or psychological handicap has been developing momentum over the last few years. A series of changes in legislations and management decisions have brought about to enormous changes and not always without good reason. The structure and

  18. Food security, food sovereignty and the special rapporteur: Shaping food policy discourse through realising the right to food

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, the United Nations special rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier De Schutter, has vigorously defended the case for small-scale and sustainable farming and has helped to establish the political legitimacy of food sovereignty in high-level expert fora. This commentary offers brief reflections on De Schutter’s contribution focusing on the welcome shift of emphasis from food to nutritional security as well as his strong support for agroecology. It argues that he has offe...

  19. Roadmap for import of sustainable biomass. Elaboration of transition path 2. Realisation of the Biomass Import Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective of the activities described in this document is to formulate a transition path for realizing sustainable biomass import chains. The following elements are crucial in this process: definition of required activities (research, demonstration, technology development), as well as a description of main uncertainties and barriers; setting up a time path and assessing costs (government investments and market investments); and engaging the main actors in the Netherlands, making an inventory of the current positions and motivation to contribute to the realization of sustainable biomass import chains. This document sketches a road map for the development of sustainable biomass import capacity in time, especially from a national point of view. [mk] [nl

  20. Curriculum as Colour and Curves: A Synthesis of Black Theory, Design and Creativity Realised as Critical Curriculum Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Lucinda

    2018-01-01

    This article looks to three inspirational Black women, bell hooks, Stacey McBride-Irby and Patricia Williams, in the pursuit of radical curriculum. While today curriculum is critiqued as racialised, gendered, sexualised and classed, the formats of curriculum documents such as text books, units of work and lesson plans have changed little. These…

  1. Realising the right to sexual and reproductive health : access to essential medicines for medical abortion as a core obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Berro Pizzarossa, Lucía; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: WHO has a pivotal role to play as the leading international agency promoting good practices in health and human rights. In 2005, mifepristone and misoprostol were added to WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines for combined use to terminate unwanted pregnancies. However, these drugs

  2. Realising the potential for an Olympic legacy; teaching medical students about sport and exercise medicine and exercise prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul R; Brooks, John H M; Wylie, Ann

    2013-11-01

    Physicians are increasingly being called upon to promote physical activity (PA) among patients. However, a paucity of exercise medicine teaching in the UK undergraduate medical curricula prevents students from acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills to do so. To address this issue, King's College London School of Medicine introduced an exercise medicine strand of teaching. This study evaluated the acceptability of exercise promotion behaviour change lectures and explored the knowledge and attitudes of the students who received it. Students were invited to complete a 6-item online questionnaire prior to and after exercise medicine lectures. The questionnaire assessed beliefs regarding the importance of PA in disease prevention and management, in addition to their confidence in advising patients on PA recommendations. A focus group (n=7) explored students' attitudes towards and knowledge of PA promotion and exercise prescribing. In total, 121 (15%) first-year and second-year MBBS students completed the questionnaire. Students' beliefs regarding the importance of PA in managing disease and their confidence in PA promotion among patients increased after the teaching (pexercise medicine teaching, strongly supportive of its continued inclusion in the curriculum and advocated its importance for patients and themselves as future doctors. Behaviour change teaching successfully improved students' knowledge of and confidence regarding PA promotion. These improvements are a step forward and may increase the rates and success of physician PA counselling in the future.

  3. On the possibility of realising a low intensity interference experiment with a determination of the particle trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzini, A.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses the feasibility of performing a proposed single photon interference experiment in a two-arm interferometer so as to determine along which arm the particle has passed and to ascertain whether the interference persists under such conditions. To this end it has been suggested that one could use a Laser Gain Tube, that is to say a system that emits a pair of identical photons from a single incident photon, by means of stimulated emission. One of the photons is used to indicate the path chosen by the photon, and the other for the interference. (Auth.)

  4. Prosody and paralanguage in speech and the social media: The vocal and graphic realisation of affective meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan James

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of prosody and paralanguage is in the first place concerned – unsurprisingly – with the phonetic and linguistic effects of non-segmental vocal variation expressed as values of the feature systems of pitch, volume and duration, but also of rhythm and tempo and further of voice qualities, etc. However, in more recent times the emergence of digitally mediated written communication (in the ‘new’ social media has led attention to the role of prosody and paralanguage in defining the characteristic informal interpersonal style of this new ‘typed conversation.’ The present article reviews the formal and functional essence of prosody and paralanguage and, drawing on data from recent corpora of text messaging and microblogging, analyses the extents to which prosodic and paralinguistic features may be reflected in such discourse, in particular the ways in which affective meaning is expressed in the graphic modality of this medium.

  5. Realising the right to sexual and reproductive health: Access to essential medicines for medical abortion as a core obligation

    OpenAIRE

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: WHO has a pivotal role to play as the leading international agency promoting good practices in health and human rights. In 2005, mifepristone and misoprostol were added to WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines for combined use to terminate unwanted pregnancies. However, these drugs were considered 'complementary' and qualified for use when in line with national legislation and where 'culturally acceptable'. DISCUSSION: This article argues that these qualifications, while perhaps...

  6. Realising the right to sexual and reproductive health : access to essential medicines for medical abortion as a core obligation

    OpenAIRE

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Pizzarossa, Lucia Berro; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    Background: WHO has a pivotal role to play as the leading international agency promoting good practices in health and human rights. In 2005, mifepristone and misoprostol were added to WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines for combined use to terminate unwanted pregnancies. However, these drugs were considered 'complementary' and qualified for use when in line with national legislation and where 'culturally acceptable'. Discussion: This article argues that these qualifications, while per...

  7. Realising the right to sexual and reproductive health : Access to essential medicines for medical abortion as a core obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: WHO has a pivotal role to play as the leading international agency promoting good practices in health and human rights. In 2005, mifepristone and misoprostol were added to WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines for combined use to terminate unwanted pregnancies. However, these drugs

  8. Realising the right to sexual and reproductive health: access to essential medicines for medical abortion as a core obligation

    OpenAIRE

    Perehudoff, Katrina; Berro Pizzarossa, Lucía; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    Background WHO has a pivotal role to play as the leading international agency promoting good practices in health and human rights. In 2005, mifepristone and misoprostol were added to WHO’s Model List of Essential Medicines for combined use to terminate unwanted pregnancies. However, these drugs were considered ‘complementary’ and qualified for use when in line with national legislation and where ‘culturally acceptable’. Discussion This article argues that these qualifications, while perhaps a...

  9. Introducing Joint Research Project «Quantum Ampere» for the realisation of the new SI ampere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The metrology community lately has adopted the long-term aim of basing the SI unit system on fundamental constants of nature. The base electrical unit, the ampere, will then be re-defined in terms of a fixed value of the elementary charge e. The most direct realization of the new ampere definition requires controlling the number of electrons which flow in a unit time interval, and of counting the errors occurring in this process of clocking single electrons. State of the art nanofabrication technology allows the fabrication of single-electron transport devices - known as single-electron pumps - which generate electric current by moving electrons one at a time. These devices are capable of delivering currents of about 100 pA with an accuracy at the 1 part per million level. Also, ultrasensitive single-electron detectors have been explored that allow electric charge detection on a resolution level below e. The European Joint Research Project presented here, undertaken by a consortium of several research institutes, aims at further developing the best existing concepts of single-electron pumps and to combine them with single-electron detectors for creating highly accurate quantum current sources, to be used as future current standards. Furthermore, necessary current measurement instrumentation will be developed. The paper comprises the project aims and the main results achieved so far.

  10. ENTHALPY EU PROJECT: ENABLING THE DRYING PROCESS TO SAVE ENERGY AND WATER, REALISING PROCESS EFFICIENCY IN THE DAIRY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta ALVAREZ PENEDO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The EU funded ENTHALPY project aims to significantly reduce the consumption of water and energy in milk powder production to increase efficiency in the dairy production chain. Using a systematic approach, ENTHALPY project focusses on innovations within the post-harvest chain representing the highest energy and water consumption such as RF heating, solar thermal energy, mono-disperse atomising, dryer modelling, inline monitoring, enzymatic cleaning and membrane technology,

  11. A bit-rate flexible and power efficient all-optical demultiplexer realised by monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaa, Michael; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm

    1996-01-01

    A novel bit-rate flexible and very power efficient all-optical demultiplexer using differential optical control of a monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer with MQW SOAs is demonstrated at 40 to 10 Gbit/s. Gain switched DFB lasers provide ultra stable data and control signals....

  12. Realisation of a calibration chamber for radon in the air and establishment of a system for measuring radon in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassi, Nedra

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas that is naturally produced from the decay of radium. The main source of radon found in the earth's crust caused by the presence of a series of uranium (222 isotope of radon) and a series of thorium (220 isotope of radon) therein. We have optimized a new radon calibration chamber by developing an electronic system controlled by a PIC 16F877 microcontroller type to manage the various functions of the room. Several electronic circuits were developed to manage multiple functions such as pressure, temperature and controls motors and solenoids. This system can also be interfaced with a computer through programs such as LabView or Matlab.

  13. Fashion supply chain optimization: Realisation of make-to-orders purchasing using interlinked B2B e-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Mikkelsen, Ole Egebjerg

    2015-01-01

    In global, short-life-cycle supply chains, the Make-to-Order (MTO) principle of purchasing is dominant in securing the match between customers’ commitment and ordered goods. Risk can be addressed by linking knowledge on inbound logistics to the market by use of e-business solutions. This chapter ...

  14. Realising whānau ora through community action: the role of Māori community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, A F; Gifford, H H; Potaka-Osborne, M

    2009-08-01

    In New Zealand, the government's key strategy to improve the health of the indigenous population is advanced through a policy where families are supported to achieve their maximum health and well-being: "whānau ora" (for a glossary of Māori words and phrases, see appendix). This paper outlines the role Māori community health workers (CHWs) play in the delivery of whānau ora services and explores the tensions and challenges faced by these workers in carrying out their role. Recent literature, existing qualitative research data and local level verification from a practising community health worker with 12 years experience. Roles were complex, varied and generally executed in high need communities. Differing expectations between the contractual requirements, the community and the CHW's own expectations meant CHWs continually managed competing demands. CHWs describe training opportunities as being short-term and ad hoc, specific to a particular health provider's needs and offering only limited options for career advancement. CHWs form an integral part of the New Zealand health workforce acting as the interface between the health sector and Māori communities. By working in a culturally distinctive manner, they help give effect to Māori health development aspirations. Increasingly this work is carried out in complex and demanding environments. Key challenges that need to be resolved to further advance the position of CHWs in New Zealand include greater recognition of the unique role they play in the delivery of public health and primary healthcare services, linking this recognition to appropriate remuneration and ensuring ongoing role development is met within a Māori worldview.

  15. Realisation of an all solid state lithium battery using solid high temperature plastic crystal electrolytes exhibiting liquid like conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekibi, Youssof; Rüther, Thomas; Huang, Junhua; Hollenkamp, Anthony F

    2012-04-07

    Replacement of volatile and combustible electrolytes in conventional lithium batteries is desirable for two reasons: safety concerns and increase in specific energy. In this work we consider the use of an ionic organic plastic crystal material (IOPC), N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate, [C2mpyr][BF(4)], as a solid-state electrolyte for lithium battery applications. The effect of inclusion of 1 to 33 mol% lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF(4), into [C2mpyr][BF(4)] has been investigated over a wide temperature range by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and cycling of full Li|LiFePO(4) batteries. The increases in ionic conductivity by orders of magnitude observed at higher temperature are most likely associated with an increase in Li ion mobility in the highest plastic phase. At concentrations >5 mol% LiBF(4) the ionic conductivity of these solid-state composites is comparable to the ionic conductivity of room temperature ionic liquids. Galvanostatic cycling of Li|Li symmetrical cells showed that the reversibility of the lithium metal redox reaction at the interface of this plastic crystal electrolyte is sufficient for lithium battery applications. For the first time we demonstrate an all solid state lithium battery incorporating solid electrolytes based on IOPC as opposed to conventional flammable organic solvents.

  16. Regulatory Provision of Realisation of the Economic Mechanism of Nature Management Нормативно-правовое обеспечение реализации экономического механизма природопользования

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyahina Tetyana V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the structure of the modern legal mechanism of environmental protection, systemises sources of the domestic ecological law, provides their brief characteristics, studies priority goals and tasks of public organisations in the sphere of nature management, identifies connection between the national and international legal mechanisms of nature management. The result of the study is improvement of scientific and methodical approach to ensuring of a common principle of developing norms in the sphere of environmental protection on the basis of systematisation of original principles of functioning of the international ecological and legal mechanism (prevention principle, causality principle, “polluter pays” principle, permeability principle, principle of economic effectiveness in the process of development and realisation of ecological policy of the state, social fairness principle and subsidiarity principle for optimisation of the national legal mechanism of ecological and economic relations.В статье раскрыта структура современного правового механизма охраны окружающей природной среды; систематизированы источники отечественного экологического права, представлена их краткая характеристика; исследованы приоритетные цели и задачи общественных организаций в сфере природопользования; определена связь национального и международного правового механизма природопользования. Результатом исследования является совершенствование научно-методического подхода к обеспечению единого принципа нормопроек

  17. Les pollutions atmosphériques urbaines de proximité à l’heure du Développement Durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Blanchet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Les pollutions atmosphériques de proximité liées au tissu urbain dense sont l’objet de nuisances ressenties et dénoncées par les citadins. Historiquement, l’histoire des odeurs délétères en ville est associée aux activités industrielles. Or les politiques municipales, très attentives au moment de l’hygiènisme à l’encadrement des pollutions industrielles, se sont détournées de la question de la pollution atmosphérique urbaine confiée, pour être mesurée et surveillée, à des réseaux de surveillance. La mesure de ces pollutions invisibles et nocives est restée largement cantonnée dans la sphère technique jusqu’à ces dernières années où, progressivement, la pollution atmosphérique est devenue un objet politique. Malgré la récurrence dans le temps du phénomène de pollution urbaine de proximité, et l’importance croissante des plaintes des habitants que cela génère, les réponses institutionnelles n’ont pas encore été complètement formalisées jusqu’à présent pour définir un mode de traitement et des réponses à apporter. Un suivi des plaintes, réalisé à Paris et dans la région Nord-Pas-de-Calais, sur le territoire de l’Artois, le montre bien. La prise en compte et le traitement des nuisances dues aux pollutions urbaines de proximité sont encore difficiles et nécessitent du temps pour être reconnues, comme le montre l’exemple de la commune de Drocourt. En outre, ces nuisances sont encore difficilement évaluables et quantifiables et les réponses qui s’esquissent répondent peu au principe de Développement Durable et s’appuient davantage sur une logique de remédiation, bien plus que de précaution. La question des nuisances environnementales et les plaintes qu’elles génèrent ont un caractère ambigu : entre santé et qualité de vie, entre industrie et urbanité, entre nuisance et toxicité, entre gêne et pollution de proximité. Leur ambiguïté permet d’interroger la

  18. Small suburban cities of Lille Metropolis for the well-being of metropolitan? / Les petites villes periurbaines de la metropole lilloise au service du bien-etre des metropolitains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurène Wiesztort

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cities, main biotope of the Man in the World, glean more and more agricultural lands and natural spaces beyond the distant peripheries. Historic processes such as the mass urbanization or the industrialization based on the exploitation of subsoil resources, have taken over many natural spaces that were destroyed or erased or exploited for economic purposes. The region Nord Pas-de-Calais (France has a rate of arti cialisation of the very high ground, it’s fragmented territory and upset by two world con icts and a intense mining period. So, today, meadows of three quarter of peoples of the region consider that there isn’t enough nature in the heart of their city. Within the framework of the métropolisation, this feeling is accentuated due to urban sprawl, which is more and more important. Since the 1990s, we speak about sustainable development as about a new philosophy that would lead us to a more balanced world between will economic, social, cultural and environmental policies. The region is very invested in the domain, because of the speci cities of its territory. The objective of this investigation was to account for forms that can take the environmental territorial policies and / or whose issues the welfare of citizens through new recreational spaces in nature. Are small towns “used” to ll the void nature of large cities ?. Methodologically, I have chosen to address this issue by studying the case of Lille Metropolis, relying on both eldwork four years during my thesis as well as on two inquiries which I led on the regional territory in 2006 and 2011. This research has helped to highlight the medium-sized cities, small towns and rural municipalities play a major role in territorial policies such as green and blue weft. They are the key to meet the demand of urban natural spaces. Taking this into consideration, the region will thinking about the nature of hearts with many vocations: ecological (biodiversity reserves, social (parks and

  19. Justification and Selection of Directions of Realisation of Marketing of Company’s Personnel Обоснование и выбор направлений реализации маркетинга персонала предприятия

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryvoruchko Oksana N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the process of selection of directions of personnel marketing. The process is based on the 8-stage scheme of managerial decision making and envisages: formation and specification of goals of the personnel marketing, identification of criteria of goals achievement, planning alternative variants of decisions, their assessment and selection of the best variant, and planning and conducting measures. The article forms methodical tools on realisation of the offered process, which envisages the use of results of assessment of attractiveness of a company as an employer, identification and formation of the common strategy of the personnel marketing, search for and selection of a maximally satisfactory variant of achievement of the personnel marketing goals. Application of such methodological approaches as the factor-and-goal and morphology analysis allowed building the goal tree and identify measures that would facilitate achievement of the set goals. In the basis of the goals-measures tree there are elements of the personnel marketing complex (working place, compensation package, system of communication with target audiences, employer branding, people, organisation of the personnel marketing process and physical environment and goals of its two types: internal and external.Обоснован процесс выбора направлений маркетинга персонала. Процесс основывается на 8-этапной схеме принятия управленческих решений и предусматривает: формирование и уточнение целей маркетинга персонала, определение критериев достижения целей, проектирование альтернативных вариантов решений, их оценку и выбор наилучшего варианта, планирование и внедрение ме

  20. Main Tasks of Realisation of the Programme of Informatisation of a Higher Educational Establishment Основные задачи реализации программы информатизации высшего учебного заведения

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsohla Svitlana Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies factors of competitiveness of an educational establishment: demand on specialties, their popularity and cost of education. The conducted analysis showed that these factors are directly connected with the qualified personnel potential of a higher educational establishment, level of educational and methodical and computer and technical provision, availability of a proper library and a manifold infrastructure. It identifies basic principles and priorities of development of a higher educational establishment in the field of introduction of information and network technologies and forms a long-term programme of informatisation. It specifies its main tasks: development and improvement of educational and scientific information and communication environment of a higher educational establishment, provision of effective and high quality training of specialists and integration of a higher educational establishment into the national and world system of education. The study of quantitative and qualitative indicators of realisation of a complex programme of informatisation testifies to importance of the innovation component in activity of a higher educational establishment. The further study of the information and educational environment of a higher educational establishment is directed at establishment of a connection with the quality of educational process, effectiveness of scientific studies? managerial and innovation activity.В статье исследованы факторы конкурентоспособности образовательного учреждения: востребованность специальностей, их популярность и стоимость обучения. Проведенный анализ показал, что эти факторы напрямую связаны с квалифицированным кадровым потенциалом вуза, уровнем учебно-ме

  1. Conditions of Efficient Realisation and Management of Intellectual Capital on the Basis of Employment Indicators Условия эффективной реализации и управлен��я интеллектуальным капиталом на основе показателей сферы занятости

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova Irina O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers general conditions of realisation of intellectual capital. It reveals indicators of the sphere of employment, that influence efficient use of intellectual capital, compared to education indicators. Realisation of intellectual capital could be increased only under conditions of the growth of the level of employment of graduates of educational establishments, expansion of possibilities of employment by specialty, which is ensured by interaction at different levels with the employment sphere. The article identifies mechanisms that mediate governing impacts on intellectual capital. Such mechanisms in the sphere of employment are: interaction of the sphere of education and employment when training specialists, forms of organisation of labour, conditions of labour, mobility of labour and flexibility of the labour market, traditions and type of corporate culture, qualitative composition of employees and the state of the social sphere. The sphere of employment is responsible for bringing the intellectual capital into action and transformation of the nominal intellectual capital into the real one. Search fir forms of employment, most adequate to the higher education and nature of intellectual labour, serves as a prospect of further research for Ukraine.Рассмотрены общие условия реализации интеллектуального капитала. Раскрыты показатели сферы занятости, влияющие на эффективное использование интеллектуального капитала, по сравнению с показателями образования. Реализация интеллектуального капитала может повыситься только при условии роста уровня трудоустройства выпускников учебных заведений, расширения возможностей

  2. The effects of a local moderate tsunami in the Dover Strait on the French and English main harbors of the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Cécile; Gailler, Audrey; Heinrich, Philippe; Hélène, Hébert; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2017-04-01

    our resonance parameters. The method set up for studying the harbor resonance can be applied to the others site as soon as more detailed bathymetry will be available. Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the French national research agency (ANR) programme TANDEM in the frame of "Investissements d'Avenir", under the grant ANR-11-RSNR-00023-01 Bibliography: Neilson et al 1984, The London earthquake of 1580, April 6, Eng Geol, 20, 113-141 Melville et al. 1996, Historical seismicity of the Strait of Dover-Pas de Calais, Terra Nova, 8, 626-647 Garcia-Moreno et al. 2014, Fault activity in the epicentral area of the 1580 Dover Strait earthquake (northwestern Europe), Geophys J Int, 201, 528-542 Everaerts and Mansy 2001, Le filtrage des anomalies gravimétriques; une clé pour la compréhension des structures tectoniques du Boulonnais et de l'Artois (France), Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 172, 267-274 Roger and Gunnell 2011, Vulnerability of the Dover Strait to coseismic tsunami hazards: insights from numerical modelling, Geophys J Int, 188, 680-686

  3. Guidebook for territories' support in the analysis of their socio-economical vulnerability to climate change; Guide d'accompagnement des territoires pour l'analyse de leur vulnerabilite socio-economique au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    - Pas-de-Calais region; GPD cites maritimes in the Languedoc-Roussillon region; and Scot ouest in the Alpes-Maritimes region. The purpose of this test phase was to provide a real-world example of implementation of an analysis and mobilization process. It provided a practical illustration of an approach to using the guide as a support for vulnerability analysis as well as allowing identification of users' questions about application of the guidelines. Throughout implementation of the approach proposed by the guidelines, attention must be paid to several methodological points, especially the following: - as for all of the inter-ministerial group's work, scenario known as 'constant economy' is assumed; - the socio-economic importance given to activities in a given territory does not necessarily reflect the ranking that local players would give; - the vulnerability considered here does not include environmental issues such as biodiversity; - the vulnerability indices proposed are general in nature: demographics, sectoral interactions, etc.; numerous factors can alter the matrix locally and collection of local data should, therefore, help to construct a 'territorialised' matrix for potential impacts and corresponding vulnerability

  4. Les pôles d’excellence comme facteur de compétitivité et d’attractivité des territoires : l’exemple de la métropole lilloise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine Malaterre-Vaille

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la fin des années 1970, la région Nord-Pas-de-Calais a dû affronter une crise sans précédent qui a remis en cause son modèle de développement basé sur les très grandes industries, telles que l’industrie textile ou minière. Pour amorcer ce tournant, la région, à l’instar de ce qui se passe en France, a compris le rôle prégnant que pouvaient jouer la recherche et l’innovation dans son développement territorial. Ainsi, depuis la fin des années 1990, la multiplication des « pôles » liés à la recherche et à l’innovation sur le territoire régional, issus des politiques publiques nationales, régionales et locales soulève de multiples questionnements, notamment sur l’articulation de ces politiques au sein du territoire et sur les retombées de telles formes d’agglomération. Pour tenter d’y répondre, nous avons choisi d’étudier plus précisément les pôles d’excellence de la métropole lilloise, en nous basant notamment sur une enquête réalisée auprès des entreprises de l’un de ces pôles. Cette enquête nous montre que l’exigence de rentabilité foncière s’est faite parfois au détriment des ambitions affichées au départ.Since the late 1970s, the Lille region has had to face an unprecedented crisis which called its development model into question. The model was based on very large industries, such as the textile or mining industry. A drastic change was needed, and the Lille region, like other French regions, recognized the major role played by research and innovation in territorial development. As a consequence, research and innovation clusters have sprung up at the regional level since the late 1990s, fostered by local, regional and national public policies. This recent phenomenon raises many questions, especially regarding the articulation of these policies within the regional territory and the impact of such clustering patterns. To try to answer these questions, this study will

  5. Guidebook for territories' support in the analysis of their socio-economical vulnerability to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The work of the inter-ministerial group 'Impacts of Climate Change, Adaptation and Associated Costs for France', which met between March 2007 and October 2009, led to a sector-based assessment of all climate change related impacts and of associated adaptation measures. The aim was to obtain quantified elements that could underpin public policy decision-making and especially development of the National Adaptation Plan. While the sectoral analyses focused on quantifying the costs of adaptation, the approach of the 'Territories' group, co-steered by the Datar (regional development delegation) and Ademe (agency for energy management and environment), addressed the subject of interactions between players and activities, both spatial (sharing of resources between different uses, etc.) and temporal (transition from one situation to another, etc.) and the corresponding means for adjustment. It was in this context that the SOeS proposed a methodology for diagnosis of the socio-economic vulnerability of a given sub-national territory in the face of climate change. This document provides a broad-brush outline of the accompanying guidelines developed by Sogreah Consultants SAS for use by local players. A three step approach is followed to draw up the vulnerability profile of a territory: 1 - characterising the territory by the identification of the priority activities and physical features; 2 - using the analysis tools to produce a matrix of indices of vulnerability to climate change per hazard; 3 - drawing up an initial vulnerability profile by bringing together the information from the matrix and that from feedback, either by activity or group of activities, or by environment, depending on aims. The profile leads to identification of the important issues as well as allowing identification of potential impacts to be studied in more depth. Guidelines were tested in three pilot territories facing different climate change issues: Wateringues, in the Nord - Pas-de-Calais region

  6. Negative UV-NIL (NUV-NIL) - A mix-and-match NIL and UV strategy for realisation of nano- and micrometre structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, L. H. D.; Teixidor, G. T.; Emneus, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy for aligning patterns created with nano-imprint lithography (NIL) and UV lithography, similar to a mix-and-match process, which allows for the fabrication of large and small features in a single layer of resist. The resin used to demonstrate this new imprintin...... scheme is SU-8, a very widely used negative photoresist. Rapid stamp manufacturing using ma-N 2405 photoresist is also demonstrated. The processing scheme is a promising candidate for patterning of sensors featuring nanometre sized electrodes....

  7. Subject description of non-fiction literature for adults: expert-theoretical basis for the realisation of the »Hidden Treasure« research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pogorelec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Library users searching through non-fiction library material by subject in online OPACs, expect to be able to search fiction by subject as well. The research project Skriti zaklad (Hidden Treasure was launched in 2002 and was aimed at improving the current subject description of non-juvenile literary works in Slovenian libraries. An overview of the current practice of fiction subject description in Slovenian libraries revealed that Universal Decimal Classification class numbers are usually assigned, while subject headings or abstracts are scarce. The article presents a model designed for subject description of fiction, with special emphasis on subject headings, for the Bežigrad High School Library and the Bežigrad Public Library (both in Ljubljana.

  8. Morphologic and Chemical Properties of PMMA/ATH Layers with Enhanced Abrasion Resistance Realised by Cold Plasma Spraying at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wallenhorst

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the morphologic and chemical properties of coatings based on PMMA/ATH powder and deposited by cold plasma spraying on wood and glass. Since the deposition of pure PMMA/ATH powder with air as process gas yielded coatings with insufficient abrasion resistance, two modifications of the basic process were investigated. Previous studies showed that replacing air as process gas with forming gas did not enhance the abrasion resistance, but the addition of a phenol-formaldehyde resin (PF succeeded in stabilising the particle coatings. In this work, results from morphologic and chemical analysis suggested an encasement of the PMMA/ATH particles by plasma-modified PF and thus a fusion of individual particles, explaining the enhanced bonding. Moreover, adhesion tests confirmed an outstanding bonding between the coating and wood as well as glass, which is assumed to result from interactions between the PF’s hydroxyl groups and functional groups on the substrates’ surfaces. Studies on the wettability revealed a hydrophobic character of such coatings, therefore generally indicating a possible application, for example, to reduce water uptake by wooden materials.

  9. Realization of a scanning ion beam monitor; Realisation d'un dispositif de controle et d'imagerie de faisceaux balayes d'ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautard, C

    2008-07-15

    During this thesis, a scanning ion beam monitor has been developed in order to measure on-line fluence spatial distributions. This monitor is composed of an ionization chamber, Hall Effect sensors and a scintillator. The ionization chamber set between the beam exit and the experiment measures the ion rate. The beam spot is localized thanks to the Hall Effect sensors set near the beam sweeping magnets. The scintillator is used with a photomultiplier tube to calibrate the ionization chamber and with an imaging device to calibrate the Hall Effect sensors. This monitor was developed to control the beam lines of a radiobiology dedicated experimentation room at GANIL. These experiments are held in the context of the research in hadron-therapy. As a matter of fact, this new cancer treatment technique is based on ion irradiations and therefore demands accurate knowledge about the relation between the dose deposit in biological samples and the induced effects. To be effective, these studies require an on-line control of the fluence. The monitor has been tested with different beams at GANIL. Fluence can be measured with a relative precision of {+-}4% for a dose rate ranging between 1 mGy/s and 2 Gy/s. Once permanently set on the beam lines dedicated to radiobiology at GANIL, this monitor will enable users to control the fluence spatial distribution for each irradiation. The scintillator and the imaging device are also used to control the position, the spot shape and the energy of different beams such as those used for hadron-therapy. (author)

  10. Realising consilience: How better communication between archaeologists, historians and natural scientists can transform the study of past climate change in the Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izdebski, A.; Holmgren, K.; Weiberg, E.; Stocker, S. R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Florenzano, A.; Gogou, A.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Luterbacher, J.; Martrat, B.; Masi, A.; Mercuri, A. M.; Montagna, P.; Sadori, L.; Schneider, A.; Sicre, M. A.; Triantaphyllou, M.; Xoplaki, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 136, SI (2016), s. 5-22 ISSN 0277-3791 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : environmental history * land-use * cultural landscape * eastern anatolia * plant landscape * soil-erosion * human impact * collapse * holocene * roman * Archaeology * Climate change * Consilience * History * Interdisciplinary collaboration * Mediterranean * Natural sciences * Palaeoecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.797, year: 2016

  11. Deep disposal of spent fuel in Sweden is becoming a reality; Le stockage profond du combustible use en Suede est en vue de se realiser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laarouchi Engstrom, S. [SKB, organisme en charge de la gestion des dechets radioactifs, Departement evaluation de l' impact environnemental et des affaires publiques, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    Toward the end of the seventies, the first steps were taken in a process which has now, thirty years later, resulted in a comprehensive proposal regarding final disposal solutions for Sweden's used nuclear fuel. In March next year, Svensk Karnbranslehantering, SKB, will submit an official application for a permit to build Sweden's nuclear fuel repository in Forsmark, north of Stockholm. The road to defining the nuclear waste programme has been long and much can be learned from Sweden's experience. The design of the container will allow the nuclear fuel to be isolated from the geological surrounding for at least 100.000 years. Over the years, there has been a great deal of debate regarding the technological, geological and long-term safety aspects. Nonetheless, the process has also demonstrated that gaining the confidence of local communities is equally important in order to achieve results. (author)

  12. Local scale water-food nexus: Use of borehole-garden permaculture to realise the full potential of rural water supplies in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Halcrow, Alistair W; Schmalfuss, Janine; Stark, John A; Truslove, Jonathan P; Kumwenda, Steve; Harawa, Kettie A; Nhlema, Muthi; Songola, Chrispine; Wanangwa, Gift J; Miller, Alexandra V M; Kalin, Robert M

    2018-03-01

    Local-scale opportunities to address challenges of the water-food nexus in the developing world need to be embraced. Borehole-garden permaculture is advocated as one such opportunity that involves the sustainable use of groundwater spilt at hand-pump operated borehole supplies that is otherwise wasted. Spilt water may also pose health risks when accumulating as a stagnant pond. Rural village community use of this grey-water in permaculture projects to irrigate borehole gardens is proposed to primarily provide economic benefit whereby garden-produce revenue helps fund borehole water-point maintenance. Water-supply sustainability, increased food/nutrition security, health protection from malaria, and business opportunity benefits may also arise. Our goal has been to develop an, experience-based, framework for delivery of sustainable borehole-garden permaculture and associated benefits. This is based upon data collection and permaculture implementation across the rural Chikwawa District of Malawi during 2009-17. We use, stakeholder interviews to identify issues influencing uptake, gathering of stagnant pond occurrence data to estimate amelioration opportunity, quantification of permaculture profitability to validate economic potential, and critical assessment of recent permaculture uptake to identify continuing problems. Permaculture was implemented at 123 sites representing 6% of District water points, rising to 26% local area coverage. Most implementations were at, or near, newly drilled community-supply boreholes; hence, amelioration of prevalent stagnant ponds elsewhere remains a concern. The envisaged benefits of permaculture were manifest and early data affirm projected garden profitability and spin-off benefits of water-point banking and community micro-loan access. However, a diversity of technical, economic, social and governance issues were found to influence uptake and performance. Example issues include greater need for improved bespoke garden design input, on-going project performance assessment, and coordinated involvement of multi-sector governmental-development bodies to underpin the integrated natural-resource management required. The developed framework aims to manage the identified issues and requires the concerted action of all stakeholders. Based on the probable ubiquity of underlying issues, the framework is expected to be generalizable to the wider developing world. However, this particular application of permaculture represents a fraction of its greater potential opportunity for rural communities that should be explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beams of mass-selected clusters: realization and first experiments; Faisceau d'agregats charges selectionnes en taille: realisation et premieres experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalou, O

    2007-04-15

    The main objective of this work concerns the production of beams of mass-selected clusters of metallic and semiconductor materials. Clusters are produced in magnetron sputtering source combined with a gas aggregation chamber, cooled by liquid nitrogen circulation. Downstream of the cluster source, a Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight setup allows to select a given cluster size or a narrow size range. The pulsed mass-selected cluster ion beam is separated from the continuous neutral one by an electrostatic 90-quadrupole deflector. After the deflector, the density of the pulsed beam amounts to about 10{sup 3} particles/cm{sup 3}. Preliminary deposition experiments of mass-selected copper clusters with a deposition energy of about 0.5 eV/atom have ben performed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates, indicating that copper clusters are evidently mobile on the HOPG-surface until they reach cleavage steps, dislocation lines or other surface defects. In order to lower the cluster mobility on the HOPG-surface, we have first irradiated HOPG samples with slow highly charged ions (high dose) in order to create superficial defects. In a second step we have deposited mass-selected copper clusters on these pre-irradiated samples. The first analysis by AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) techniques showed that the copper clusters are trapped on the defects produced by the highly charged ions. (author)

  14. Complementing or Conflicting Human Rights Conventions? Realising an Inclusive Approach to Families with a Young Person with a Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Kristy; Goldblatt, Beth

    2011-01-01

    United Nation's conventions exist to help facilitate and protect vulnerable people's human rights: including people with disabilities (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006) and children (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989). However, for some families where a family member has a disability, there may be inherent…

  15. The implementation of the NO2 emission regulation of the European Union; Realisering EU-norm voor stikstofdioxide nog niet in zicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkert, R. [Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau, RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    New national emission and traffic policy has a key role in solving local bottlenecks for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Realization of such policy in 2010 appears to be difficult and adjusting the infrastructure is expensive. The Netherlands pleads for postponement of the implementation date of 2010 to 2015. [Dutch] Nieuw nationaal emissie- en verkeersbeleid heeft een sleutelrol in het oplossen van lokale knelpunten voor NOx. Realisatie van dit beleid in 2010 lijkt moeilijk en aanpassingen aan de infrastructuur zijn als oplossing duur. Nederland bepleit uitstel van de invoeringsdatum van 2010 naar 2015.

  16. Carrying out of the ''carbon status'' of DGEMP; Realisation du ''bilan carbone'' de la DGEMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The French direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the Ministry of economy, finances and industry, wished to estimate its own direct and indirect emissions of greenhouse gases in order to evaluate: the time required for this kind of investigation, the different solutions and their relative difficulties of implementation, and the feeling of the personnel with respect to some possible measures of abatement of these emissions. The method used has been developed by Manicore for the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe). This document describes the approach retained and the estimation of the emissions of greenhouse gases directly and indirectly generated by the DGEMP activities: internal energy consumption (electricity, space heating, air-conditioning), energy consumed by sub-contractors, emissions from transportation systems (personnel home-work trips, other trips for work purposes, visitors, fret), incoming materials (paper, toner cartridges..), end of life of direct wastes and DGEMP publications, waste waters, amortization (building, vehicles, office materials and equipments, computer equipment), services. It suggests also some actions for the abatement of greenhouse gases emissions: space heating (insulation, solar systems), electricity (lighting systems, hot water..), air conditioning, trips (limitation, favouring train trips), paper (reduction of the number of photocopies etc..). The details relative to the method used are given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  17. Realisation d'un Centre de Fonderie dans l'Etat de Minas Gerais, Bresil. Resultats du projet et recommandations en decoulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Development Programme, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The document reports the findings and suggestions produced by a study of the needs for on-the-job training of foundry workers and for management development in foundries in Brazil. The researchers propose the creation of working foundries to serve as vocational training centers and laboratories, where experienced workers could upgrade their…

  18. Quickscan of substances for which the set reduction of emissions has not been realised; Quickscan van stoffen met niet gerealiseerde emissiereducties uit het Doelgroepbeleid Milieu en Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J.

    2011-11-15

    In a Quickscan study the RIVM has examined how much the Dutch industry contributes to the release of 14 substances to air or water. Furthermore the RIVM has investigated to what extent the measured concentrations of these substances in the environment exceed the environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The Quickscan was requested because the government and industry sectors had agreed by contract to reduce the release of priority substances to air and water in 2010. The industry sectors have not yet been able to achieve the agreed reduction levels for the 14 substances. Four out of the fourteen substances do not meet the maximum permissible concentration level or the limit value for air quality on the regional or national level. It concerns fine particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic compounds and copper. The Dutch industry contributes approximately about 20 percent to the national emission to air of fine particulate matter as well as polycyclic aromatic compounds. For both nitrogen oxides (air) and copper (water) the share in the national emission is less than ten percent. For four substances, namely sulphur dioxide, arsenic, benzene and carbon monoxide, the target value is exceeded. The other six substances do not cause difficulties in terms of air or water because they hardly exceed the environmental quality standards, if at all [Dutch] Het RIVM heeft in een Quickscan onderzocht wat de Nederlandse industrie bijdraagt aan de emissie van 14 stoffen naar lucht of water. Daarnaast is onderzocht in welke mate de gemeten concentraties van deze stoffen in het milieu de geldende milieukwaliteitsnormen overschrijden. De Quickscan is uitgevoerd omdat tussen de overheid en bedrijfstakken in het Doelgroepbeleid Milieu en Industrie (DMI) afspraken zijn gemaakt om de uitstoot van stoffen naar zowel lucht als water in 2010 te verminderen. De bedrijfstakken zijn er voor de 14 onderzochte stoffen nog niet in zijn geslaagd de gestelde reductie te behalen. Voor vier van de veertien stoffen (fijn stof, stikstofoxiden, polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen en koper) wordt op landelijk of regionaal (stedelijke agglomeraties) niveau een overschrijding van de grenswaarde voor de luchtkwaliteit of het maximaal toelaatbaar risiconiveau geconstateerd. De industrie blijkt ongeveer 20 procent bij te dragen aan de nationale emissie van zowel fijn stof als polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen. Voor stikstofoxiden en koper is de bijdrage van de industrie aan de nationale emissie minder dan 10 procent. Voor vier stoffen, te weten zwaveldioxide, arseen, benzeen en koolmonoxide, wordt de streefwaarde overschreden. Voor de overige zes stoffen worden de milieukwaliteitsnormen niet of nauwelijks overschreden.

  19. Realisation of a test facility for the ITER ICRH antenna plug-in by means of a mock-up with salted water load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P.; Koch, R.; Lamalle, P.; Louche, F.; Martini, J.L.; Vervier, M.

    2005-01-01

    By the use of a mock-up operated at higher frequency it is possible to measure with good accuracy the rf characteristics of an ICRH antenna, the plasma loading being simulated by a water tank in front of it. This concept has motivated the construction of the mock-up of the antenna array foreseen for ITER

  20. Volume reduction and conditioning campaigns, upon low level solid waste drums, realised in ENEA centres of Trisaia (ITREC plant) and Saluggia (EUTREX plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1995-09-01

    The volume reduction and conditioning campaigns, upon low level solid waste drums, realized between 1989 and 1993 in the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Trisaia (ITREC plant) and Saluggia (EUREX plant), by the mean of supercompactation, and cement immobilization inside over packs, are hereby described. The operational techniques and the equipments used, the whole volume reduction factors obtained and some final considerations over this solid rad wastes treatment procedure are shown. This method, where correctly operated and coupled to an accurate radiological characterization, permits to save space for the waste storage in the short period and to obtain final manufacts, certified suitable for shallow burial disposal, according to italian technical guide n. 26

  1. Modelling, characterization, and development of new photovoltaic devices on thin silicon substrates; Modelisation, caracterisation et realisation de nouvelles structures photovoltaiques sur substrat de silicium mince

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veschetti, Y.

    2005-10-15

    Thermal barrier coatings are used to protect parts from heat. They are generally composed of two layers, one metallic layer providing heat corrosion and oxidation resistance, and one thermally insulating ceramic layer. Two different techniques are industrially used. Plasma spray results in a lamellar structure granting a low thermal conductivity, but with a low thermal expansion compliance. Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition generates a columnar structure allowing a better accommodation of the thermal expansion stresses, entailing a improved lifetime of the coating, but with a higher thermal conductivity. The aim of this work is the generation of macro-cracked plasma sprayed coatings made in one thick pass, in order to improve part lifetime. These coatings result from an important through the coating thermal gradient during deposition, entailing such a stress level that macro-cracks are generated. The control of the crack density is possible by adjusting the spray parameters. The coatings exhibit a three-zone structure: lamellae neighbouring the bond coat, a columnar central part resulting from the zirconia liquid bath solidification, and a mixed lamellar columnar zone coming from the piling up of the droplets travelling in the periphery of the particle jet. (author)

  2. Study and designing of the ''caliprax'' measurement bench; Etude et realisation du banc ''caliprax''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, J.Ch

    2001-09-01

    Probing the matter in order to check its elementary constituents, that is the goal of the particle physic. In this field, the experiments consist in colliding highly energetic particle beams and observing the new born particles. These observations are based on big particle detectors whose running is dependant on the precise knowledge of their geometry (position of the detection chambers). To achieve this, the detectors are equipped with alignment sensors, which have to be calibrated before. This document describes the study and the making of a calibration bench for the 'Praxial' (PRoximity AXIAL) type sensors, and other works related to these sensors. In a first part, we determine and apply a method to set the tools used to fix the sensor stands on the detection chambers. These settings are made with the use of a tridimensional measuring machine. Then, we study the stands themselves. These investigations concern mechanics: positioning quality of the sensors in their stands, bending of the supports due to the tightening. In this part too, the studies are in the field of dimensional metrology. After this, the works are reoriented toward the bench, with the choice of the displacement sensors among two different technologies: optical, with the Rasnik system, and mechanical, with linear probes as LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). Following the discovery of an ambiguity on the Rasnik system, we go on the tests to understand its behaviour. We introduce the theory of the alignment sensors calibration, which is based on a minimization calculation. The computer programs are explained in a chapter, and in an other, the implementation of the quality assurance procedures. An other part describes the mechanical studies and the problems they cause. Because of a delay onset of the project, we make a model of the bench. This dummy allows us to test every single function of the final bench. With this device, we record manually the first calibration data and use them as input of the minimization program. (author)

  3. Realisation of a ultra-high vacuum system and technique development of microscopical emitters preparation in silicium. First measurements of field emission current and field photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Manouni, A.

    1990-12-01

    The development of research in the domain of photocathode (electron sources) illuminated by laser light to produce intense multiple bunches of electrons in short time is needed by many applications as linear collider e + e - , free electron laser, lasertron, etc... In this way, after a study of field emission, of photoemission and of photofield emission, we prepared microscopical emitters in silicium heavy and weakly doped a boron using a technique of microlithography. Then, we realized a system of ultra-high vacuum of studying property of emission from photocathodes realized. The experiment results obtained in field emission and photofield emission have shown that a behaviour unexpected for P-silicium tips array compared to P + -silicon tips array. With P-type silicon, a quantum yield of 21 percent has been measured for laser power of 140 mW and for applied field of 1.125 x 10 7 V/m and an instantaneous response to laser light beam has been observed. It has been noted that presence of oxyde at the surface of photocathode limits extensively the emission current. The fluctuations of emission current are due to quality of vacuum [fr

  4. Elaboration by epitaxy in liquid phase and monocrystalline layers of doped Yag. Realisation of wave guides lasers neodymium and ytterbium at low thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelenc, D.

    1993-10-01

    This thesis reports on the prototype development of a new laser waveguide fabrication technique, Liquid Phase Epitaxy, as part of the research on diode-pumped compact laser devices. This technique has been applied to the growth of single crystal thin layers of neodymium and ytterbium doped YAG on pure YAG substrates. In order to obtain good quality waveguides, we have defined the growth conditions, and demonstrated the advantage of the growth of an undoped YAG cladding layer. Two extra dopings have been studied: gallium, in order to control the refractive index of the layer, and lutetium, in order to control their lattice mismatch. The determination of the segregation coefficient of these four dopants has required the development of a model that takes into account the evolution of the melt with time. We have measured the refractive index increase for each dopant and proposed a mechanism that explains this increase. The spectroscopic characterisation of the layers has shown that the neodymium and ytterbium ions have the same properties as in the bulk material of the same composition. The laser characterisation has shown very low propagation losses (around 0.1 dB/cm), comparable to those of bulk. For the neodymium laser transition at 1064 nm, we have demonstrated the laser effect for an absorbed power threshold of 700μW and measured a slope efficiency of 40% for a threshold of 14 mW in diode pumping. For quasi 3 level transitions, a significant reduction in threshold with respect to unguided lasers has been obtained: at 946 nm in a neodymium doped waveguide, at 1029 nm in an ytterbium doped waveguide, with a 1W diode bar pump. A slope efficiency of 80% has also been measured in an ytterbium doped waveguided emitting at 1048nm

  5. Study of a new hybrid process combining slurry infiltration and Reactive Chemical Vapour Infiltration for the realisation of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledain, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites were originally developed for aerospace,military aeronautics or energy applications thanks to their good properties at high temperature. They are generally made by Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI). A new short hybrid process combining fiber preform slurry impregnation of ceramic powders with an innovative Reactive CVI (RCVI) route is proposed to reduce the production time. This route is based on the combination of Reactive Chemical Vapour Deposition (RCVD), which is often used to deposit coatings on fibres, with the Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI).In RCVD, the absence of one element of the deposited carbide in the initial gas phase involves the consumption/conversion of the solid substrate. In this work, the RCVD growth and the associated consumption were studied with different parameters in the Ti-H-Cl-C chemical system. The study has been completed with the chemical products analysis, combining XRD, XPS and FTIR. Then, the partial conversion of sub-micrometer carbon powders into titanium carbide and the consolidation of green bodies by RCVI from H 2 /TiCl 4 gaseous infiltration were studied. The residual porosity and the final TiC content were measured in the bulk of the infiltrated powders by image analysis from scanning electron microscopy. Depending on temperature, few hundred micrometers-depth infiltrations are obtained.Finally, the results have been transposed to the RCVI into CMC-type pre-forms. Despite a minimal TiC content of 25% in the overall preform, the results shown a bad homogeneity of the infiltration and a poor cohesion of fibres with RCVI consolidated powder of their environment. (author) [fr

  6. Conception and realisation of an automatic bibliographic metadata update handler based on patch extraction and merging for the CERN document repository environment.

    CERN Document Server

    Vesper, Martin; Ziolek, Wojciech

    Scientific literature and its corresponding bibliographic metadata information is typically available through online digital repositories: • INSPIRE, the High Energy Physics (HEP) information system is the source of information about the whole HEP literature. • TheCERNDocumentServer(CDS) is the CERN Institutional Library containing all documents produced at CERN; • arXiv is a pre-print server hosting pre-print versions of several scientific fields. • SCOAP3 is an initiative to convert key journals in the HEP field to open access and comes with its own digital repository. Across these 4 entities, there is a big overlap in terms of content, and maintaining consistency between the corresponding bibliographic metadata is an open challenge. The proposed thesis tries to model and implement a possible solution to automate the propagation of updates in order to reduce the necessary manual data manipulation to a minimum.

  7. Fabrication of silicon micro heat pipes for cooling electronics; Realisation de microcaloducs en silicium pour le refroidissement de l'electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launay, St.; Sartre, V.; Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Centre Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), 69 - Lyon (France); Le Berre, M.; Barbier, D. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Lab. de Physique de la Matiere, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Morfouli, P.; Boussey, J. [Institut National Polytechnique, Lab. de Microelectronique, Electromagnetisme et Photonique (UMR 5130) 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2003-07-01

    In this study, micro heat pipe arrays etched into silicon wafers were investigated, for electronic cooling purposes. Micro heat pipes of triangular cross-section (230 {mu}m width) and with liquid arteries were fabricated by wet anisotropic etching in a KOH solution. The microchannels were closed by molecular bonding of a plain wafer with the grooved one. Two test benches were developed for the micro heat pipe filling and thermal characterisation. The temperature profile at the silicon surface was deduced from experimental measurements and a 3D numerical simulation. The results have shown that with the artery micro heat pipe array, the effective thermal conductivity of the silicon wafer was improved by 330 %. (authors)

  8. Contribution to the design and realisation of a specific circuit to code the information coming from the calorimeter of the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambert-Hermel, V.

    1996-01-01

    LHC (Large Hadron Collider) signals required a sampling system with excess of 16 bit dynamic range and 8 hit precision. The sampling frequency is 40 MHz. The use of a floating point format which fits the precision of the calorimeter is proposed. The dynamic range is divided into 8 positive sub-ranges and 5 negative ones and so a conversion into 8 plus 1 (sign) bits mantissa and 4 bits exponent is proposed. The design is built around three main blocks: a range converter which computes the three exponent bits and the sign, a set of amplifiers controlled by the range converter and a classical 8 bit ADC for the mantissa. The main effort was concentrated on the range converter as this is the most sensitive part o the architecture which sees the whole dynamic range. To minimize the problems of perturbations on the signal and reference lines, we have chosen a fully differential sample and hold, differential latched comparators and the coding logic using the AMS BICMOS 1..2 micron technology. We present the floating point format we use, the converter architecture, the elementary circuits steps of conception, the simulation results, the layout and tests results on prototypes. (author)

  9. "I Made Her Realise that I Could Be There for Her, that I Could Support Her": Child Protection Practices with Women in Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Simon; Cote, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that investigated child protection policies and practices, and focuses on data gathered in a child protection agency located in Quebec, Canada. This research project draws upon a qualitative case-study methodology, involving a documentary analysis of both national and local child protection policies, as…

  10. Capital formation and productivity growth in South Korea and Taiwan : realising the catch-up potential in a world diminishing returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel; Ark, Bart van

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we reconstruct the non-residential capital stock of South Korea and Taiwan based on long-term series of investment in non-residential buildings and machinery and equipment. Secondly, we looked at the impact of capital input measures, using a stock as a well a flow measure of capital,

  11. Inequities and Lack of Professionalisation of Early Childhood Development Practice Hinder Opportunities for Mathematics Stimulation and Realisation of South African Policy on Quality Education for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feza, Nosisi

    2014-01-01

    White Paper 5's aim is to provide South Africa's children with a solid foundation for lifelong learning and development. Children need to be nurtured and developed holistically for them to participate efficiently in their democratic society. However, South African students continue to perform poorly in Trends in International Mathematics and…

  12. Millenium Development Goals/UN and Sustainable Development Goals/UN as Instruments for Realising Sustainable Development Concept in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of analysis and evaluation of the main effects of the implementation of the eight UN Millennium Development Goals, in force until 2015, and to demonstrate differences between and prospects for implementation of the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, covering 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs established by the international community for the next 15 years. The article also presents the contribution of the European Union as a key global donor of development aid for developing countries, especially for the least developed countries (LDCs, as well as plans for Poland’s implementation of the Post-2015 Agenda SDGs.

  13. Analysis of geological aspects and visual impact rising from the realisation of a wind power station in an Italian mountain area (Central Appennines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, L.; Mizzoni, G.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates some aspects of the environmental impacts arising from the wind power station in the Central Appennines of Italy, particularly with reference to the geological and geotechnical conditions of the site and the visual impact on the landscape. Starting from a large-scale analysis that takes into account the Appennines orogeny and their geodynamic process, it is possible to define the geological characteristics of the considered area. It is possible to analyse structural and morphological aspects, in this way it is possible to identify the most suitable location of power generators in the area and to optimise the road network. The geo-stratigraphical study aids decisions about foundations, excavations and works of containments. Considerations on earth traspiration and on rill identify the necessity of controlling surface waters, evolutionary phenomena and the soil stability of the considered areas. Particular attention has been given to analyse effects on the landscape. (author)

  14. The implementation of industrial training in tertiary education in Malaysia: Objectives, realisations and outputs in the case of foreign language students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machart, Régis

    2017-02-01

    The large range of jobs that Malaysian undergraduates of foreign languages are often employed in after completion of their studies (education, tourism, banking, business, management, etc.) is not necessarily related to their major field of study. This situation often makes it difficult for lecturers to develop a comprehensive professional training for their benefit. In the early 2010s, unemployment rates of Malaysian undergraduates were increasing, although the job market was quite flexible. In order to improve students' employability, Malaysian universities decided to restructure their curricula. Industrial training, or Latihan Industri (LI), became a new mandatory requirement for all future undergraduates of the new programmes from 2011. LI aims to match students' academic training with the needs of the private sector. However, most companies were not prepared to accept the first influx of trainees from all types of programmes (sciences, social sciences or the humanities) in 2014. Consequently, many students could not find an appropriate LI position in the field they were studying, and were placed in positions for which they were poorly prepared. At the end of their LI, students had to submit a logbook of their activities as well as provide a final report in which they were asked to evaluate their experiences. A content analysis of these reports from four foreign language students who did their LI in different sectors (finance, education, industry and retail) provides interesting insights into the different skills required by Malaysian employers, irrespective of their sector of activity. The analysis of the reports raises the question of the adequacy of the academic training of foreign language students for the Malaysian job market, and the transferability of their acquired language skills to their new work environment.

  15. The Croatian Government and Programmes Regarding the Return of War Migrants: between Plans and Realisations – the Experience of The Brod-Posavina County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Croatian government’s programme documents regarding the return and caring for of war migrants. Its aim is to analyse and explain documents, formulated on the national level, as well as those on various local levels in the Brod-Posavina county, and to evaluate their implementation. Return flows began in 1992, after war operations settled down in Croatia. The first returnees were persons whose settlements had not been occupied and who could move into their dwellings straightforwardly. The return of war migrants, as a state strategy, came to the forefront after conclusion of the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and after the signing of the agreement on peaceful reintegration of the Croatian Danubian lands into the Republic of Croatia’s state and legislative system. Croatia recognises the right of all war migrants to return to their homes. Return of dispersed persons and refugees involves various aspects, ranging from state-security problems to pension, economic, social and psychological aspects. The question of return, apart from issues pertaining to the renewal of material structures, includes also the (reconstruction of local communities, which will probably be the most difficult problem to resolve during the process of return. The chances of co-existence of various war migrant groups, especially Croats and Serbs, remain the most important and also the most difficult problem arising in this context. Documents dealing with return are numerous, yet they have been, for the most part, formulated on the national level; much more rarely on the level of local units and return destinations, which is also the main difficulty in regard to the institutional regulation of return flows. Local units mostly act only as intermediaries between international organisations that finance return and individual returnees receiving financial aid or credit. The return of war migrants is mainly financed out of the Republic of Croatia’s budget and to a lesser extent by international organisations.

  16. Transformative Education through International Service-­Learning: Realising an Ethical Ecology of Learning. Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative learning is a compelling approach to learning that is becoming increasingly popular in a diverse range of educational settings and encounters. This book reconceptualises transformative learning through an investigation of the learning process and outcomes of International Service-Learning (ISL), a pedagogical approach that blends…

  17. Is the learning value of workplace-based assessment being realised? A qualitative study of trainer and trainee perceptions and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Aileen; Galvin, Rose; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Teunissen, Pim W; O'Shaughnessy, Ann; Horgan, Mary

    2017-03-01

    Workplace-based assessments (WBAs) were originally intended to inform learning and development by structuring effective observation-based feedback. The success of this innovation has not yet been established due in part to the widely varied tools, implementation strategies and research approaches. Using a conceptual framework of experience, trajectories and reifications in workplace learning, we aimed to explore trainer and trainee experiences and perceptions of the learning value of WBAs. Trainers and trainees who had used at least one WBA in the previous year were invited to participate in semistructured interviews for this phenomenological study. We used a template analysis method to explore and compare the experiences of the two groups, using the emergent themes to develop an understanding of the impact of these experiences on perceptions of learning value. Nine trainers and eight trainees participated in the study. Common themes emerged among the two groups around issues of responsibility and engagement along with (mis)understandings of the purpose of the individual tools. Trainer-specific themes emerged related to the concurrent implementation of a new e-portfolio and perceptions of increased workload. Trainees associated WBA with a training structure support value but could not translate experiences into learning values. WBAs provide trainees with a justified reason to approach trainers for feedback. WBAs, however, are not being reified as the formative assessments originally intended. A culture change may be required to change the focus of WBA research and reconceptualise this set of tools and methods as a workplace learning practice . Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Design and development of third generation distance learning materials: From an industrial second generation approach towards realising third generation distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Valcke, M.A.; Sluijsmans, D.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Distance education is going through a paradigm shift from the second to the third generation. In the first generation (correspondence education) teachers were craftsmen who coupled traditional learning materials to self-made personalised lessons that they mailed to their students at a distance. In

  19. Study and building of a detection array for delayed neutrons: TONNERRE; Etude et realisation d`un ensemble de detection pour neutrons retardes: TONNERRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Thierry [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 - Caen (France)

    1998-11-09

    This work has been undertaken within a French-Romanian collaboration in order to build a high efficiency detector array for delayed neutrons: barrel-shaped TONNERRE. Some neutron-rich nuclei decay through 1, 2 or 3 neutron emission after {beta}{sup -} decay. More exotic nuclei will be produced by SPIRAL at GANIL. An array with high efficiency and good resolution is then required. Thirty two BC400 plastic scintillators (160 x 20 x 4 cm{sup 3}) allow us to get the time of flight neutron spectra. They are bent for uniform flight path and viewed by a photomultiplier tube at both ends. Simulations have allowed to establish scintillator size and to minimize light attenuation. Intrinsic efficiency and crosstalk have been measured with {sup 252}Cf and compared to GEANT. 1 to 5 MeV neutrons are detected with good timing and position properties. Other counters will be built for neutrons from 300 keV to 1 MeV. Planned to run at several particle accelerators (GANIL, CERN, and others), TONNERRE is modular and many geometries are possible. (author) 48 refs., 78 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Development and Realisation of the Concept House ‘Delft’ Prototype : An Example of a Collaborative Concept Development for Energy Positive Apartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, A.J.C.M.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Delft Prototype is a single apartment from a not yet realized Concept House Urban Villa, which consists of 16 apartments on 4 floors. Both the urban villa and the prototype demonstrate the characteristics of high level industrial production with an extremely low ecological footprint, as well as

  1. The Realisation of the descriptive and iconographic plains in the „Viva!” biweekly [Realizacja warstwy deskryptywnej i ikonograficznej w dwutygodniku „Viva!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola SZYBALSKA-TARASZKIEWICZ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of the family presented in the „Viva!” biweekly. Due to the character of the magazine, the families of Polish and international celebrities from the worlds of culture, media, and politics are the main focus of attention. The internal and public lives of these families are presented, along with their values and their internalisation through action.

  2. The Implementation of Industrial Training in Tertiary Education in Malaysia: Objectives, Realisations and Outputs in the Case of Foreign Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machart, Régis

    2017-01-01

    The large range of jobs that Malaysian undergraduates of foreign languages are often employed in after completion of their studies (education, tourism, banking, business, management, etc.) is not necessarily related to their major field of study. This situation often makes it difficult for lecturers to develop a comprehensive professional training…

  3. Optical trigger: a Cherenkov effect discriminator for high energy physics. Realisation and characterisation of thin films whose refractive index allow discrimination over a wide spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbart, A.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this thesis sets the physical principles, and properties of actual Optical Triggers. For each of them, the cupel is sapphire made, and the external medium is liquid because of refractive index. The theory of Cherenkov emitted light cone explain how sapphire birefringence affects discrimination conditions.The second parts of the thesis (the main one) is focussed on study and realization of thin films for Optical Trigger. A layer characterization method has been developed by spectrophotometry, based on Perkin-Elmer laboratory device. Computerized simulation helped us to determine characteristics and limits of the studied device. (D.L.)

  4. Realisation of power systems and European nature conservation. The actual jurisdiction of the Federal Administrative Court; Realisierung von Energieanlagen und europaeischer Naturschutz. Die aktuelle Rechtsprechung des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Christoph [avocado rechtsanwaelte, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    For a long time, the right of nature conservation and landscape conservation showed a shadowy existence in the approval of projects. Some actual decisions of the Supreme Court show that in the last years the nature conservation law developed to a central area of conflict in the licensing procedure. The contribution under consideration reports on the legal material using three selected problem areas from the law on the protection of area and law on the protection of species. On the one hand, the Federal Administrative Court (Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany) always upgrades the requirements. However, on the other hand the Federal Administrative Court attaches great importance to practicability. The Federal Administrative Court often points to a way, how projects can be realized with a careful nature conservation related attendance also at difficult environmental conditions.

  5. Towards personal health care with model-guided medicine: long-term PPPM-related strategies and realisation opportunities within 'Horizon 2020'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Heinz U; Golubnitschaja, Olga

    2014-01-01

    At the international EPMA Summit carried out in the EU Parliament (September 2013), the main challenges in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine have been discussed and strategies outlined in order to implement scientific and technological innovation in medicine and healthcare utilising new strategic programmes such as 'Horizon 2020'. The joint EPMA (European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine) / IFCARS (International Foundation for Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery) paper emphasises the consolidate position of the leading experts who are aware of the great responsibility of being on a forefront of predictive, preventive and personalised medicine. Both societies consider long-term international partnerships and multidisciplinary projects to create PPPM relevant innovation in science, technological tools and practical implementation in healthcare. Personalisation in healthcare urgently needs innovation in design of PPPM-related medical services, new products, research, education, didactic materials, propagation of targeted prevention in the society and treatments tailored to the person. For the paradigm shift from delayed reactive to predictive, preventive and personalised medicine, a new culture should be created in communication between individual professional domains, between doctor and patient, as well as in communication with individual social (sub)groups and patient cohorts. This is a long-term mission in personalised healthcare with the whole spectrum of instruments available and to be created in the field.

  6. Assumptions of Decision-Making Capacity: The Role Supporter Attitudes Play in the Realisation of Article 12 for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD was the first legally binding instrument explicitly focused on how human rights apply to people with disability. Amongst their obligations, consistent with the social model of disability, the Convention requires signatory nations to recognise that “…persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life” and mandates signatory nations to develop “…appropriate measures to provide access by persons with disability to the support they may require in exercising their legal capacity”. The Convention promotes supported decision-making as one such measure. Although Australia ratified the UNCRPD in 2008, it retains an interpretative declaration in relation to Article 12 (2, 3, 4, allowing for the use of substituted decision-making in situations where a person is assessed as having no or limited decision-making capacity. Such an outcome is common for people with severe or profound intellectual disability because the assessments they are subjected to are focused on their cognition and generally fail to take into account the interdependent nature of human decision-making. This paper argues that Australia’s interpretative declaration is not in the spirit of the Convention nor the social model of disability on which it is based. It starts from the premise that the intention of Article 12 is to be inclusive of all signatory nations’ citizens, including those with severe or profound cognitive disability. From this premise, arises a practical need to understand how supported decision-making can be used with this group. Drawing from evidence from an empirical study with five people with severe or profound intellectual disability, this paper provides a rare glimpse on what supported decision-making can look like for people with severe or profound intellectual disability. Additionally, it describes the importance of supporters having positive assumptions of decision-making capacity as a factor affecting supported decision-making. This commentary aims to give a focus for practice and policy efforts for ensuring people with severe or profound cognitive disability receive appropriate support in decision-making, a clear obligation of signatory nations of the UNCRPD. A focus on changing supporter attitudes rather than placing the onus of change on people with disability is consistent with the social model of disability, a key driver of the UNCRPD.

  7. Assumptions of Decision-Making Capacity: The Role Supporter Attitudes Play in the Realisation of Article 12 for People with Severe or Profound Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne Watson

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) was the first legally binding instrument explicitly focused on how human rights apply to people with disability. Amongst their obligations, consistent with the social model of disability, the Convention requires signatory nations to recognise that “…persons with disabilities enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life” and mandates signatory nations to develop “…appropriate measures...

  8. The African Network for Evidence-to-Action on Disability: A role player in the realisation of the UNCRPD in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Kachaje

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This African Journal of Disability supplement focuses on papers presented at the third AfriNEAD Symposium in 2011. In this closing editorial, we want to give an overview of the rationale and major modes of operation of the African Network for Evidence-to-Action on Disability (AfriNEAD with special focus on recommendations made at the 2011 AfriNEAD Symposium. AfriNEAD is guided and informed by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD for its research themes. The issues that emerged from AfriNEAD 2011 ranged from children and youth with disabilities; education across the lifespan; economic empowerment; the development process in Africa; health, HIV and AIDS and community-based rehabilitation; holistic wellness; to research evidence and utilisation. Disability-related stigma, the value of emancipatory research and the need to recognise a broader scope of valid methodologies were also highlighted.

  9. Realising pre-school mathematical education – a development-oriented math programme with special consideration of phonological language processing aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Langhorst

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical development processes begin long before school starts and the importance of previous mathematical knowledge for later school achievements is beyond dispute. For a suitable pre-school education, the focus of interest must be to find out which early learning processes prepare children best. In this article, the acquisition of the key concepts of numeracy is presented in a developmental model, which served as framework for a supportive programme for 4-8 year-old children. The research into this intervention shows how development-oriented support of key arithmetic concepts can be constructed and taught systematically. The immediate and sustainable effect of the programme Mina and the Mole on the mathematical competencies of children has already been demonstrated in an evaluation study of 248 children aged 5-7. Considering the strong language-orientation of the programme, the present study focused on aspects of phonological awareness and of phonological working memory. It was evident that these phonological language processing aspects correlated with mathematic skills. Furthermore, it was found that the dominant linguistic focus of the training did not constitute a disadvantage – even linguistically weak children significantly improved their mathematical skills. Moreover, children with poor or average phonological performance could profit from the supportive programme also regarding their phonological language processing.

  10. Study and realisation of a vertical chain-saw for working in shielded cell and controlled from Argonne M8 remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, E.; Aublin, R.

    1962-01-01

    The authors present a machine aimed at sawing nuclear fuel elements, irradiated materials or experimental assemblies coming from the EL3 reactor, and requiring a transport by using specific hoods. They indicate the various assembly types to be machined, and then present the machine itself with its fixed part, its mobile part, its control, its materials (and their coating), the cutting oil circuit. They also describe the different machining possibilities, and then address decontamination issues (in-cell partial dismounting and pre-decontamination, final decontamination). Then, they outline the presence of some original devices on this machine. Drawings and plans are provided

  11. Justification of Selection of Organisational Form of State and Corporate Partnership when Realising Integration Projects of Regional Infrastructure Development Обоснование выбора организационной формы государственно-корпоративного парт��ерства при реализации интеграционных проектов регионального инфраструктурного развития

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Aleksandr Ye.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article generalises main approaches to regional management of infrastructure development of the territory. It justifies expediency of use of the territorial and economic approach with respect to development and realisation of projects of regional development. It proves a necessity of establishment of effective co-operation of participants of the process of regional development under conditions of realisation of large-scale infrastructure projects. It characterises essence and principles of state and corporate partnership at the regional level. It offers a methodical approach and tools of justification of selection of organisational form of the state and corporate partnership while realising integration projects of regional infrastructure development. It develops a system of indicators of assessment of parameters of relations of participants of the state and corporate partnership while realising integration projects of inter-regional development.Обобщены основные подходы к региональному управлению инфраструктурным развитием территории. Обоснована целесообразность использования территориально-хозяйственного подхода относительно разработки и реализации проектов регионального развития. Доказана необходимость налаживания эффективного сотрудничества участников процесса регионального развития при условии реализации масштабных инфраструктурных проектов. Дана характеристика сущности и принципов государственно-корпоративного партнерства на региональном уровне. Предложен ме

  12. Academic Learning Time in the District of Columbia Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Research Information Center.

    Papers generated for a symposium entitled "Effectiveness of Stallings' Use of Time Training for Teachers in Washington, D.C." are presented. The intitial presentation, "Academic Learning Time: The Current Status of the Stallings Training" (Geraldine Williams Bethune), reviews the Stallings research and describes the Academic…

  13. Street-Smart Second-Graders Navigate the Political Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovitch-Haynes, Syma

    1996-01-01

    Describes a class project where New York City second graders worked with the community board of transportation to rename a street for an African American woman. The students succeeded in renaming 134th Street in honor of Mary McLeod Bethune, an African American educator. (MJP)

  14. Optical trigger: a Cherenkov effect discriminator for high energy physics. Realisation and characterisation of thin films whose refractive index allow discrimination over a wide spectral range.; Le Trigger Optique: un discriminateur a effet Cherenkov pour la physique des particules. Realisation et caracterisation de couches minces dont l`indice de refraction autorise la discrimination sur un large domaine spectral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbart, A.

    1996-06-19

    The first part of this thesis sets the physical principles, and properties of actual Optical Triggers. For each of them, the cupel is sapphire made, and the external medium is liquid because of refractive index. The theory of Cherenkov emitted light cone explain how sapphire birefringence affects discrimination conditions.The second parts of the thesis (the main one) is focussed on study and realization of thin films for Optical Trigger. A layer characterization method has been developed by spectrophotometry, based on Perkin-Elmer laboratory device. Computerized simulation helped us to determine characteristics and limits of the studied device. (D.L.). Refs.

  15. Contribution to the design and realisation of a specific circuit to code the information coming from the calorimeter of the LHC; Contribution a la conception et a la realisation d`un circuit specifique de codage des informations issues du calorimetre d`une experience aupres du LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambert-Hermel, V

    1996-09-19

    LHC (Large Hadron Collider) signals required a sampling system with excess of 16 bit dynamic range and 8 hit precision. The sampling frequency is 40 MHz. The use of a floating point format which fits the precision of the calorimeter is proposed. The dynamic range is divided into 8 positive sub-ranges and 5 negative ones and so a conversion into 8 plus 1 (sign) bits mantissa and 4 bits exponent is proposed. The design is built around three main blocks: a range converter which computes the three exponent bits and the sign, a set of amplifiers controlled by the range converter and a classical 8 bit ADC for the mantissa. The main effort was concentrated on the range converter as this is the most sensitive part o the architecture which sees the whole dynamic range. To minimize the problems of perturbations on the signal and reference lines, we have chosen a fully differential sample and hold, differential latched comparators and the coding logic using the AMS BICMOS 1..2 micron technology. We present the floating point format we use, the converter architecture, the elementary circuits steps of conception, the simulation results, the layout and tests results on prototypes. (author) 17 refs.

  16. Scientific and Methodical Foundations of Building up a System of Dynamic Analysis of Uncertainties and Risks of the Gas-and-Petroleum Producing Projects and Support of Making Decisions on their Realisation Научно-методические основы построения системы динамического анализа неопределенностей и рисков нефтегазодобывающих проектов и поддержки принятия решений по их реализации

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafich Oleg I.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main principles of building up an information system of support of making decisions on the process of exploring and development of petroleum and natural gas deposits. It offers a system that is based on an inter-disciplinary analysis of data and operative assessment of new information that is received in the course of projects realisation from the point of view of its impact on the range of changes of uncertainties of the gas-and-petroleum producing projects and existing levels of risk. Specific feature of the proposed system lies in application of methods of stochastic modelling of uncertainties of parameters of a project and project-connected risks and their quality assessment. Probabilistic modelling and dynamic analysis of uncertainties allow optimisation of managerial decisions with consideration of interconnection of possible risks and technical and economic parameters of projects. The article offers algorithms of identification and analysis of risks, development and making the decisions based on the dynamic analysis of data, probabilistic modelling of uncertainties and risks connected with them. It considers main tasks of scientific studies on improvement of the proposed dynamic system of support of decision making in geological survey and gas-and-petroleum producing branches of production and also methods of their realisation.Рассматриваются основные принципы построения информационной системы поддержки принятия решений (СППР процесса разведки и разработки месторождений нефти и газа. Предлагается система, которая базируется на междисциплинарном анализе данных и оперативной оценке новой информации, поступающей в ходе реализации проектов с

  17. Generation of dual-wavelength, synchronized, tunable, high energy, femtosecond laser pulses with nearly perfect gaussian spatial profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-K.; Siegal, Y.; Lü, C.; Mazur, E.

    1992-07-01

    We use self-phase modulation in a single-mode fiber to produce broadband femtosecond laser pulses. Subsequent amplification through two Bethune cells yields high-energy, tunable, pulses synchronized with the output of an amplified colliding-pulse-modelocked (CPM) laser. We routinely obtain tunable 200 μJ pulses of 42 fs (fwhm) duration with a nearly perfect gaussian spatial profile. Although self-phase modulation in a single-mode fiber is widely used in femtosecond laser systems, amplification of a fiber-generated supercontinuum in a Bethune cell amplifier is a new feature which maintains the high-quality spatial profile while providing high gain. This laser system is particularly well suited for high energy dual-wavelength pump=probe experiments and time-resolved four-wave mixing spectroscopy.

  18. Effect of reduced x-ray tube voltage, low iodine concentration contrast medium, and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction on image quality and radiation dose at coronary CT angiography: results of the prospective multicenter REALISE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei-Hua; Lu, Bin; Gao, Jian-Bo; Li, Pei-Ling; Sun, Kai; Wu, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Zheng, Min-Wen; McQuiston, Andrew D; Meinel, Felix G; Schoepf, Uwe Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Both low tube voltage and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques hold promise to decrease radiation dose at coronary CT angiography (CCTA). The increased iodine contrast at low tube voltage allows for minimizing iodine load. To assess the effect of reduced x-ray tube voltage, low iodine concentration contrast medium and IR on image quality and radiation dose at CCTA. Two hundred thirty-one consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease were enrolled in this prospective, multicenter trial and randomized to 1 of 2 dual-source CCTA protocols: 120-kVp with 370 mgI/mL iopromide or iopamidol (n = 116; 44 women; 55.3 ± 9.8 years) or 100 kVp with 270 mgI/mL iodixanol (n = 115; 48 women; 54.2 ± 10.4 years). Reconstruction was performed with filtered back projection and IR. Attenuation, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio were measured and image quality scored. Size-specific dose estimates and effective doses were calculated. There were no significant differences in mean arterial attenuation (406.6 ± 76.7 vs 409.7 ± 65.2 Hounsfield units; P = .739), image noise (18.7 ± 3.8 vs 17.9 ± 3.4 Hounsfield units; P = .138), signal-to-noise ratio (22.5 ± 5.4 vs 23.7 ± 6.1; P = .126), contrast-to-noise ratio (17.5 ± 5.5 vs 18.3 ± 6.1; P = .286), or image quality scores (4.1 ± 0.9 vs 4.0 ± 0.9; P > .05) between 120-kVp filtered back projection-reconstructed and 100-kVp IR-reconstructed series. Mean iodine dose was 26.5% lower (18.3 ± 0.5 vs 24.9 ± 0.9 g; P x-ray tube voltage and IR allows for decreasing the iodine load and effective radiation dose at CCTA while maintaining image quality. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assistance for design and realization of real-time safety critical applications according to Oasis; Aide a la conception et a la realisation d'applications temps-reel critiques selon OASIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aussagues, Ch.; Cordonnier, Ch.; Quetueil, I.; David, V

    1998-07-01

    Assistance for design and realization is all the more essential when safety-critical, real-time and complex applications are considered. When developing such applications, real-time and dependability features should be managed as soon as possible. Then, since the design phase, programmers have to strive even more than with common applications. In the context of the OASIS approach, assistance for design and realization is based on some intrinsic properties of the model, i.e. determinism, behavior independence and timeliness. The assistance, that may be furnished in the OASIS approach, has three complementary components that constitute the focus of this article. (authors)

  20. Planning and realisation of modular transportable unity for the analysis of the asbestos on site; Progettazione e realizzazione di unita' modulari trasportabili per l'analisi dell'amianto in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Stefano, L.; De Luca, F. [ENEL Produzione Spa, Ricerca, Brindisi (Italy)

    2001-01-01

    The control of the asbestos pollution in the environment is due to the existence on the national territory of unauthorized landfills, industrial contaminated sites, ophiolites mines that determine situations sometimes critic and, however, must be kept under control. In this work is presented the realization, with the contribution of European Union, of a mobile laboratory for the onsite analysis of the asbestos containing materials and of the airborne fibers. The way of realization and its equipment make it usable in red zone and satisfy the analytical load requested from the control operations. [Italian] Il controllo dell'inquinamento da amianto nell'ambiente e' legato all'esistenza sul territorio nazionale di discariche abusive, siti industriali dismessi contaminati, miniere di ofioliti che determinano situazioni talvolta critiche e comunque da tenere sotto controllo. In questo lavoro viene presentata la realizzazione, con il contributo della UE (Unione Europea), di un laboratorio mobile per l'analisi in situ dei materiali contenenti amianto e delle fibre aerodisperse. Le modalita' di realizzazione e le attrezzature di cui e' dotato lo rendono impiegabile in zona rossa e soddisfare il carico analitico richiesto dalle operazioni di controllo.

  1. Mobilisation and realisation concepts for increased local activities in the fields of energy conservation and climate protection. Final report about the second subsidy period; Mobilisierungs- und Umsetzungskonzepte fuer verstaerkte kommunale Energiespar- und Klimaschutzaktivitaeten. Endbericht zur zweiten Foerderperiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boede, U.; Frahm, T.; Gruber, E. [and others

    1999-02-02

    The aim: The described project is concerned with the question of how mobilization and realization processes in the energy conservation and climate protection sector can be conducted successfully at the municipal level. The scientific approach was player- and process-oriented and inter-disciplinary. The central aim was the development of scientifically founded, practice-relevant strategies for players in the municipal arena. Such activities at the municpal level were chosen as object of the study because there exist at that level considerable and up to now insufficiently exploited potentials for carbon dioxide abatement and for cutting down greenhouse gas emissions, alongside with favourable implementation conditions. The basic premise: The test object 'climate protection' is viewed as a social learning process. The starting point for climate protection measures is the motivation phase (willingness to become active). This is followed by planning and, after one of the options has been decided on, its implementation. Eventually the results are evaluated. This can mean the initiation of a new implementation cycle. The methods: The project applies the action research approach to the problem field 'opportunities for change in climate protection'. First of all this means that not only the conditions and effects of various forms of social action are studied with the most diverse methods but that the researchers themselves participate as interaction partners in concrete social action processes. Secondly, there is close cooperation with players on site (in part also in participation processes). For the empirical studies different methods of surveying, process observation, activation or intervention and evaluation were made use of. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel: Das vorgestellte Projekt beschaeftigt sich mit der Frage, wie sich Mobilisierungs- und Umsetzungsprozesse im Energiespar- und Klimaschutzbereich auf kommunaler Ebene erfolgreich gestalten lassen. Der Forschungsansatz war akteurs- sowie prozessorientiert und interdisziplinaer. Zentrales Ziel war die Entwicklung wissenschaftlich fundierter, praxisrelevanter Strategien fuer Akteure auf kommunaler Ebene. Energiespar- und Klimaschutzaktivitaeten auf kommunaler Ebene wurden als Untersuchungsgegenstand ausgewaehlt, da dort erhebliche bisher nur unzureichend ausgeschoepfte Potentiale zur Minderung von CO{sub 2}- und anderen Treibhausgasemissionen bestehen und gute Umsetzungsbedingungen vorliegen. Das Grundverstaendnis: Der Untersuchungsgegenstand 'Klimaschutz' wird als sozialer Lernprozess verstanden. Ausgangspunkt fuer Klimaschutzmassnahmen ist die Motivationsphase (Handlungsbereitschaft). Darauf folgt die Planung und nach der Entscheidung fuer eine der Optionen die Umsetzung. Endpunkt ist die Auswertung der Ergebnisse, die gleichzeitig auch einen Einstieg in eine neuen Umsetzungszyklus sein kann. Die Methoden: Im Projekt wird der Aktions- und Handlungsforschungsansatz auf das Problemfeld 'Veraenderungsmoeglichkeiten im Klimaschutz' aufgewandt. Das bedeutet erstens, dass nicht nur mit unterschiedlichsten Methoden die Bedingungen und Wirkungen verschiedener Formen sozialen Handelns untersucht werden, sondern die Forschenden als Interaktionspartner/innen auch in konkrete soziale Handlungsprozesse eingebunden sind. Zweitens wird eng mit den Akteuren vor Ort zusammengearbeitet (z.T. auch in Partizipationsprozessen). Fuer die empirischen Untersuchungen wurden verschiedene Methoden zur Erhebung, Prozessbeobachtung, Aktivierung bzw. Intervention und Evaluation herangezogen. (orig.)

  2. Realisation of a small hydro power plant in the water supply of the Gudo municipality; Realizzazione di una microcentrale idroelettrica sulla condotta di adduzione tra le sorgenti Valle del Cugnolo e il serbatoio Sasso Grande - Studio di fattibilita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2008-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the feasibility study for the renewal of the drinking-water supply of the Gudo Municipality, Switzerland, including a new micro-scale power plant at the entrance of the main water reservoir. The water quantities available are listed. The investment cost is evaluated. The major cost arises from the replacement of the main pipe connecting the remote spring to the water reservoir by a penstock following a new lie. The project is technically feasible, but economically not. However, considering the age and actual status of the water supply, the authorities will anyway soon have to take adequate measures.

  3. National inventory of uranium mine sites. Version 2 - September 2007. Realised in the framework of the M.I.M.A.U.S.A. program Memory and impact of Uranium Mines: synthesis and archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The M.I.M.A.U.S.A. program allows to end in a compilation and a synthesis of the available data to allow the I.R.S.N., the national and local authorities, but also the public to have a source of quality information about the history of the French uranium mining sites and the possible systems of radiological surveillance set up at the moment; To assure the perpetuity of the knowledge of these sites in spite of the stop of the concerned activities; To establish a working tool for the government services in charge of the definition of the refitting and surveillance programs; And to improve the representativeness of the national network of radiation monitoring in the environment, notably as regards the stations of measure exploited by the I.R.S.N..The M.I.M.A.U.S.A. inventory or the national inventory of the uranium mining sites in France consists of the most exhaustive possible inventory of the sites on which were practised the activities in connection with the exploration (works of recognition of significant scale, the extraction or the treatment of the uranium ore in metropolitan France. The acquired information is synthesized in the form of index cards of sites presented in this document, with in introduction, the manual of the reserved columns and the used terms. The present version follows upon a first version published in 2004. The novelties of the version 2007: a more exhaustive inventory, 30 sites were added, enriched and corrected information, more complete identification of the receiving rivers, more precise and accessible geographical localization, zoom-news on certain mining zones, a paragraph current events. The sources of information are: Areva-Nc, A.N.D.R.A., D.R.I.R.E., and A.S.N.. (N.C.)

  4. Place and achieving a magistral preparation in a service of nuclear medicine: example of the IBZM; Place et realisation d`une preparation magistrale dans un service de medecine nucleaire: exemple de l`IBZM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, L.; Baulieu, J.L.; Bugeon, S.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D. [CHU Tours (France)

    1997-12-31

    The radio-pharmacist is competent and a legal licensee to realizing magistral preparations, defined in the book V of public health Code. We present here the case of a radiopharmaceutical drug prepared extemporary on a medical prescription, the labelling of BZM by iodine 123. The choice of this molecule is made after obtaining the indispensable pre-requisites (lack of noxiousness, teratogenicity, validation by pre-clinic studies, etc). The IBZM allows achieving the etiologic diagnosis of extra-pyramidal syndromes by scintigraphic visualisation of central D2 dopaminergic receptors. The magistral preparation of a radiopharmaceutical implies: (1). Identification of the row materials indispensable in warranting the labelling quality and innocuity of the final injected product. This is done by means of routine chemical reactions, described by France Pharmacopoeia or specifically established. Thus, all the row materials are tested and referenced prior to utilization. (2). The radio-labelling is effected in the day of the examination following a validated procedure: labelling of BZM by sodium iodate in buffer acid medium, extraction of formed IBZM by an organic solvent, purification of IBZM by HPCL, brought in injectable form by chromatographic passage (Sep Pack) and sterilizing filtration. (3). The test of final product is done prior to its injection by measuring the pH and co-elution by HPLC with the cool standard product. The IBZM is delivered providing its radiochemical purity is higher than 90%. A sterility test of preparation is effected a posteriori. The magistral preparation of IBZM allows neurological scintigraphic examinations, still unique in nuclear medicine. Other radiopharmaceuticals with cerebral use will be proposed to clinicians by radio-pharmacists. In all the these cases, the quality of injected labeller will be warranted by the same pharmaceutic approach

  5. The HILW-LL (high- and intermediate-level waste, long-lived) disposal project: working toward building the Cigeo Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal; Le projet HA-MAVL: vers la realisation du centre industriel de stockage geologique Cigeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labalette, Th. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - ANDRA, Dir. des Projets, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2011-02-15

    The French Act of 28 June 2006 identifies reversible disposal in deep geological facilities as the benchmark solution for long-term management of high-level waste (HLW) and for intermediate-level long-lived waste (ILW-LL). The Act tasks ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) with the pursuit of studies and research on the choice of a site and the design of the repository, with a view to examining the licence application in 2015 and, provided that the licence is granted, to make the facility operational by 2025. At the end of 2009, ANDRA submitted to the Government its proposals regarding the site and the design of the Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal, known as CIGEO. With the definition of a possible area for the construction of underground disposal facilities, one of the key stages in the project has been achieved. The choice of a surface site will be validated following the public consultation scheduled for the end of 2012. The project is now on the point of entering the definition stage (preliminary design). CIGEO will be a nuclear facility unlike any other. It will be built and operated for a period of over 100 years. For it to be successful, the project must meet certain requirements related to its integration in the local area, industrial planning, safety and reversibility, while also controlling costs. Reversibility is a very important concept that will be defined by law. It is ANDRA's responsibility to ensure that a reasonable balance is found between these different concerns. (author)

  6. Photoinduced molecular migration process in polymer matrices: application to the realization of optically organized nano-structures; Processus de migration moleculaire photo-induite en milieu polymere: application a la realisation de nanostructures organisees optiquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ch

    2003-06-01

    This work deals with the study of a new all optical structuration process of azo-polymer films. We show that the irradiation with normal incidence of an azo-polymer film by a uniform laser beam which wavelength is in the absorption band of the azo-molecules, can lead to the formation of a quasi hexagonal surface relief grating at the surface of a polymer film. After a brief review of different methods of micro and nano-structuration as well as the properties of azo-polymer films in the case of the surface relief gratings formation, we study in the first part of this manuscript the influence of several experimental parameters on the spontaneous optically controlled formation of these photoinduced structures, among them the light polarization direction and the irradiation power. The different results obtained in our case are then compared with different photo-assisted structuration processes already proposed and whose physical origins are clearly established, in order to determine the key parameters governing the formation of these hexagonal structures as well as their origins. In the second part, a synthesis of the different experiments performed in order to evaluate the validity of effects so called 'optical feedback effect' observed in liquid crystal light valve systems is performed. The interpretation of the photoinduced hexagonal structuration process appears to be difficult: it is not excluded that an optical feedback phenomenon could be at the origin of the structuration process, but at the present, according to the different experiments performed, a new and original phenomenon of structuration adapted to azo-polymers films cannot be excluded in order to fully explain the different results obtained. (author)

  7. Dusts, a pollutant from the past and future. Advancements in diesel particulate removal, and remaining issues; Les poussieres un polluant du passe et d`avenir. L`epuration des particules diesel le progres realise et les problemes a resoudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, M. [Renault S.A. (France)

    1996-12-31

    Major advancements have been realized for the reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines, with better-designed engines, enhancement of injection and combustion, etc., but due to new European pollution regulations, developments of catalytic post-treatments such as the DeNOx catalysis (followed by an oxidation catalysis for the destruction of hydrocarbons necessitated by DeNOx catalysis), particulate filters with additive-assisted combustion, or even electrically assisted particulate combustion, are required. Optimized diesel fuels, such as the Swedish city fuel, could be an other solution

  8. Progress in Military Airlift: The Flight Mechanics Panel Symposium Held in Lisbon, Portugal on 28-31 May 1990 (Les Progres Realises dans le Domaine du Transport Aerien Militaire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    demnl~res ann6es, de grondes 6tapes ont 6t6 franchies en ce qul concerne l’ergonomie et les technologies. qul ont conduit 6 des modifications profondes ...cavity through a hollow suspension webbing attachment bolt. It has a connector/check valve to interface with the standard canteen cap. The external...formed to cover the standard mask over the nose cup. The facepiece is secured at the mask suspension webbing attachment points and held in position

  9. Numerical modelling 2 D and 3 D of circulating fluidized bed: application to the realization of regime diagrams; Modelisation numerique 2D et 3D de lit fluidise circulant: application a la realisation du diagramme des regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begis, J.; Balzer, G.

    1997-02-01

    The numerical modelling of internal CFB boilers flows faced with complex phenomenons due to the flows un-stationariness, the heterogeneousness of the particle size distribution, and interactions between the two phases and the walls. Our study consisted in applying numerical models to the experimental configuration of cold circulating fluidized bed studied at the Cerchar. Special attention was given to the analysis of particles - wall interactions models, stemming from Jenkins (1992) and Louge`s (1994) theories, as well as the influence of the particles on fluid turbulence. In order to realize numerical simulations, we have used Eulerian two-phases flow codes developed at NHL medolif(2D), ESTET-ASTRID(3D). From different tests we have deducted that the most appropriate model for the realization of CFB`s prediction is the model taking in account the influence of particles on fluid turbulence. Then, to evaluate the validity limits of this model, we have built the regime diagram, and we have compared it with the experimental diagram. We have concluded that the simulation allows to describe the different CFB`s working regimes, and especially transitions. We have also noticed the importance of the choice of the mean diameter of the simulated particles. In this way, making a correction of the simulated particles` diameter in comparison with Sauter mean particle diameter, we obtained numerical results in good agreement with experimental data. (authors) 13 refs.

  10. Petroleum Applications: How Do We Realise the Potentia ? Comment réaliser le potentiel d'applications pétrolières de l'intelligence artificielle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an edited transcript of the opening keynote lecture at the European Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Petroleum, Exploration and Production, October 1991. This talk addresses the question : given so much effort has gone into developing expert systems and developing the technology, why are there so few applications? What are the reasons, and more importantly, what can we do about it? In this paper, I will give several examples of working expert systems my company has developed, and what we think we have done right in each situation. I will talk about one or two problems or failures that have occurred along the way. I'll mix examples of real systems with lessons and recommendations, things you must be very careful of if you want to build successful applications. This will include one of the largest real time expert systems in Britain, and probably one of the most widely used expert system applications in the Whole engineering field, which is one that my company has developed with over 450 users just now. Cet article est la retranscription du discours d'ouverture de la conférence EuroCAIPEP. Ce discours traitait des questions suivantes : - Malgré l'importance des efforts ayant été consacrés dans le passé au développement de systèmes experts et de leur technologie, pourquoi y a-t-il si peu d'applications? - Quelles en sont les causes et que pouvons-nous faire pour y remédier? Dans cet article, plusieurs exemples de systèmes experts opérationnels développés par ma société sont présentés ainsi que ce que nous pensons avoir bien traité dans chaque situation. J'expose également un ou deux problèmes et des échecs qui se sont produits. Je combinerai des exemples de systèmes industriels avec des leçons et des recommandations, des points sur lesquels il faut porter toute son attention si l'on veut réussir ses applications. Je parlerai d'un des plus grands systèmes experts en temps réel développé en Grande-Bretagne, ainsi que de ce qui est probablement le système expert le plus largement utilisé dans le domaine de l'ingénierie, un système qui a été développé par ma société et qui a plus de 450 utilisateurs aujourd'hui.

  11. Study and realization of CO{sub 2} potentiometric sensors in open device; Etude et realisation d'un capteur potentiometrique a dioxyde de carbone en configuration ouverte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliteau, S

    2005-09-15

    Sensors based on NASICON functions out of differential between an electrode sensitive to O{sub 2} and another sensitive to CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. The response does not depend any more of the oxygen partial pressure. Each element of the sensor (reference electrode, solid electrolyte and sensing electrode) was separately studied with physical and electrical characterizations to select best materials. Screen-printing method was retained among several electrode deposit to test the influence on the response of the sensors. For the sensing electrode (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/BaCO{sub 3}), the compositions having a barium carbonate rate of 25% or 0% ended in satisfactory results on sensitivity. The influence of the reference electrode composition was studied for different values of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}/Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} ratio. Only the composition 55%-45% in mass gave place to a sensor with thermodynamic behavior, with experimental slopes and standard potentials close to the theoretical values until partial pressures of about 100 Pa. The oxygen has an influence on the response only for the low temperatures. An interference of the water vapor was observed on the standard potential value whatever the temperature, without modification of the sensitivity. The nitric oxide did not change the response of the sensor. A model of response time limited by the gas diffusion in electrode material was proposed. The planar technology led to thermodynamic sensors only for partial pressure above 10{sup -3} bar. (author)

  12. Transforming discriminatory sex roles and gender stereotyping : the implementation of Article 5(a) CEDAW for the realisation of women's right to be free from gender-based violence in Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biholar, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based violence against women is a stubborn problem worldwide. It still affects the everyday lives of many women around the world. This scourge has deep social and cultural roots, which foster a vicious cycle of gender violence. Embedded constructions of femininity and masculinity based on

  13. Conception of spent fuel and radioactive wastes management in Poland based on the results of the previous work performed in the frames of Governmental Strategic Programme realised under patronate of National Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarski, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Slizowski, K.; Frankowski, Z.

    1999-01-01

    About 300 cubic meters of solid and solidified radioactive wastes of low and medium activity are produced each year in Poland. Such materials, after processing, are stored in the Institute of Atomic Energy at Swierk or in the National Repository for Radioactive Wastes in Rozan. About 6000 spent fuel elements are temporarily stored in water pools at Swierk. Assumptions and strategy of future spent fuel and radioactive wastes management are presented taking into account operation of the first nuclear power plants (after 2010). Then Governmental Strategic Programme (GSP) for the year 1997-1999 concerning such topic is described and some results of the work performed in the frames of the GSP are given

  14. Development of a power-period calculation unit for nuclear reactor Control; Etude et realisation d'un ensemble de calcul puissance periode pour le controle d'un reacteur nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-10-01

    The apparatus studied is a digital calculating assembly which makes it possible to prepare and to present numerically the period and power of a nuclear reactor during operation, from start-up to nominal power. The pulses from a fission chamber are analyzed continuously, using real time. A small number of elements is required because of the systematic use of a calculation technique comprising the determination of a base 2 logarithm by a linear approximation. The accuracy obtained for the period is of the order of 14%; the response time of the order of the calculated period value. An approximate value of the power (30%) is given at each calculation cycle together with the power thresholds required for the control. (author) [French] L'appareil etudie est un ensemble de calcul digital permettant d'elaborer et d'afficher numeriquement la periode et la puissance, d'un reacteur nucleaire lors de son fonctionnement depuis le demarrage jusqu'a la puissance nominale. Il traite en temps reel, de facon continue, les impulsions en provenance d'une chambre de fission. Grace a l'utilisation systematique d'une technique de calcul, la determination d'un logarithme a base 2 par approximation lineaire, un nombre reduit d'elements est utilise. La precision obtenue sur la periode est de l'ordre de 14 pour cent, le temps de reponse de l'ordre de la valeur de la periode calculee. Un ordre de grandeur de la puissance (30 pour cent) est donne a chaque cycle de calcul ainsi que des seuils de puissance necessaires au controle. (auteur)

  15. Boletus edulis y cistus ladanifer : caracterización de sus ectomicorrizas, síntesis in vitro y área ptoencial= Boletus edulis and cistus ladanifer: characterization of its ectomycorrhizae, in vitro synthesis, and realised niche

    OpenAIRE

    Águeda Hernández, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    El grupo Boletus edulis incluye cuatro especies que poseen gran importancia económica por su valor gastronómico: Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, Boletus pinophilus y Boletus reticulatus. Las Cistaceae son plantas características de las primeras etapas sucesionales, ecológicamente importantes por su papel como reservorio de inóculo de hongos ectomicorrícicos ante perturbaciones ecológicas. Los carpóforos del grupo Boletus edulis son recolectados en algunas regiones de la España Central, en z...

  16. Visible cost - invisible profit. The heating, ventilation and sanitary sector and the realization of energy conservation. Among politics, knowledge and practice; Synlig kostnad - skjult gevinst. VVS-bransjen og realisering av ENOEK. Mellom politikk, kunnskap og praksis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubak, Marit

    1998-07-01

    In social research, technology has customarily been considered problem-generating. What is needed to turn new technology into a positive instrument in environmental work? To answer this question one must understand the interaction between politics, knowledge and practice that is important for dealing with the environmental challenges. It is a main objective of this book to contribute to this understanding by analysing how the building industry deals with the energy and environmental challenges that are commonly known as energy conservation. Specifically, the book deals with the heating, ventilation and sanitary sector since this is where most of the companies working with energy conservation are found. The discussion applies to Norway0.

  17. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources; Conception, realisation et metrologie de miroirs multicouches pour l'extreme ultraviolet resistants aux environnements du spatial et des sources EUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecquet, Ch.

    2009-03-15

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  18. Realisation of politically desired projects on the basis of an insufficient development. A consequence of the acceptance discussion on wase incineration; Realisierung politisch erwuenschter Projekte auf Basis unzureichender Entwicklung. Eine Konsequenz der Akzeptanzdiskussion um die Abfallverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J. [vivis Consult GmbH, Nietwerder (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Despite all efforts toward waste avoidance, re-use and material utilization residual wastes remains. These residual wastes have to be treated before the deposition. This regularly is accomplished thermally after a mechanical or biological pretreatment. In Germany, the present refuse disposal exhibits an optimization potential. The well-known procedures for the refuse disposal exhibit lacks regarding its technical performance and environmental compatibility. A further development of these procedures was required. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration describes the procedures for the treatment of residual wastes, and evaluates these procedures critically.

  19. Study and fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells through tape casting and co-sintering; Etude et realisation par coulage en bande et co-frittage de cellules de pile a combustible a oxydes solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, A

    2004-11-15

    This work is dedicated to the devising of a low-cost fabrication process of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Technical requirements impose the shaping method: stripe casting as well as the materials used: Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), nickel and lanthanum manganite doped with strontium (LSM). In order to comply with environmental requirements the developed process uses an aqueous barbotine solvent. We get electrodes and the electrolyte separately, the use of an absorbent drying process has enabled us to join 3 layers to form an elementary cell with great interfacial homogeneity. The resistance of the cell to sintering has been improved through the symmetrization of the deformations of the cell. In order to interpret the low electrical properties of the cell and its quick damaging, transmission microscopy studies have been performed. These studies have shown 2 facts. First, 2 isolating phases appear at the cathode (at the LSM/YSZ interface) because of a too high sintering temperature and secondly, a quick clustering of nickel grains appears during cell operation that leads to a local loss of the nickel grid percolation. This problem has been solved by increasing the size of nickel oxide grains from 0.5 {mu}m to 3 {mu}m) to stabilize the microstructure. The issue of the reactivity at the LSM/YSZ interfaces was tackled in 2 different ways, we have tried to lower the sintering temperature by using a zirconia nano-powder first and then by replacing zirconia in the electrolyte by gadolinium-doped ceria. The use of zirconia nano-powder has failed to decrease sintering temperature while preserving the electrolyte density and the use of ceria has triggered instabilities that have not yet been solved. Despite all these drawbacks, this process allows the fabrication of an excellent anode/electrolyte interface. (A.C.)

  20. Study and making of a quick system used for the localisation of X-rays in gaseous detectors; Etude et realisation d`un systeme rapide pour la localisation des rayons X dans les detecteurs gazeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemloul, M.

    1995-02-01

    The project comprises the design of an X-ray detection and position-sensitive system for diffraction experiments at the ERSF synchrotron. The two detectors constructed are gas-filled multiwire proportional chambers. The readout of the ID detector is performed through a 500 ns delay line. In the 2D detector, the centroid of the first coordinate is determined by a RLC line which is a combination of a delay line and the charge division one. This method is a result of an investigation of a delay balance based method. Besides, a parallel readout of the anode wires provides the second coordinate. The signal processing is performed by a common electronics. However, both methods used here require a fast and high resolution time measurement. Hence, a time-to-digital converter was developed and dedicated to the experiment. The data acquisition system is based on a PC board driven by a software developed under Windows system. (author). 39 refs., 80 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Radiological consequences of floods in december 2003 in small Camargue at the place known as the Claire Farine. Results of the assessment realised at the demand of the C.L.I. of the Gard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle, F.; Duffa, C.; Leprieur, F.; Rolland, B.; Antonelli, C.; Marquet, J.; Saleun, G.; Renaud, Ph.

    2004-05-01

    The levels of activities measured in the market gardening are not significantly different from these ones measured in the similar samples that did not received the floods in december 2003. The results of chemical analysis do not show contamination of soils and market gardening. In conclusion, the results of assessment show that the floods of december 2003 in small Camargue at the place called 'Claire Farine) had no significant radiological and chemical consequences. (N.C.)

  2. Design and realization of a fast digital system for the protection of a linear accelerator; Conception et realisation d'un systeme numerique rapide pour la protection d'un accelerateur lineaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, A

    2004-07-01

    The new generation of light sources based on SASE Free-Electron-Lasers driven by LINACs operate with electron beams with high beam currents and duty cycles. This is especially true for the superconducting machines like TTF 2 and the X-RAY FEL, under construction or planning at DESY. Elaborate fast protections systems are required not only to protect the machine from electron beams hitting and destroying the vacuum chamber, but also to prevent the machine from running at high loss levels, dangerous for components like the FEL undulator. This document presents the different protection systems currently under construction for TTF 2. The very fast systems, based on transmission measurements and distributed loss detection monitors, are described in detail. This description includes the fast electronics to collect and to transmit the different interlock and status signals: analog to digital converters, DSP and FPGA, interfaces, toroid protection system (TPS) card. The implementation and validation (simulation and tests) of the TPS card at DESY is presented.

  3. Study for a simplified LCA methodology adapted to bio-products. Final report; Etude d'une methodologie simplifiee pour la realisation des ACV des bio-produits. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Agricultural resources form a renewable stock of raw materials that can be used for various purposes: food supply, production of energy (including biofuels), bio-products and bio-based construction materials. The use of agricultural resources to produce bio-products is expanding in France and throughout the world, partly due to the presumed advantages of these products towards the environment. In this context, ADEME (the French Environment and Energy Management Agency) commissioned a study for the development of a methodological framework to evaluate the environmental impacts of bio-products. This study was also in charge of the identification of areas of improvement for the 'Bilan Produit', an environmental assessment tool developed by ADEME, in order to allow a future integration of bio-products. The first step of this study consisted of a comparative review of the existing bio-products' LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). This review underlined a deep heterogeneity among the methodologies used, as well as a lack of transparency in the results displayed. In a second step of the project, all the methodological issues in the evaluation of bio-products were studied, and recommendations for the resolution of each one of them have been proposed. These critical analyses are presented in individual fact-sheets, which detail the specific issues of each question, facts from the bibliographic review, the results of the tests conducted on three bio-products, and finally the methodological recommendations to answer the question. This project showed that some methodological recommendations had to be specified depending on the objective of the LCA: eco-design, environmental labeling or comparative LCA. The work conducted also identified some necessary improvements to the Bilan Produit tool, which come under four categories: addition of the missing inventories, integration of metadata regarding the inventories, consideration for the specific end-of-life scenarios of bio-products, and an updating of the characterization methods. The study was carried out by paying attention to its consistency with other methodological frameworks in development in France, such as the ADEME-AFNOR platform or the Biofuels repository, and abroad, with the PAS 2050, for example. Finally, further information should arise from the working groups in ADEME-AFNOR, and from the work performed on water assessment and other indicator issues

  4. Designing and making of a tool used for measurements by X fluorescence using HgI{sub 2} detectors; Conception et realisation d`un instrument de mesure par fluorescence X utilisant des detecteurs HgI{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu-Xu, X.

    1994-10-01

    A new measuring apparatus by X fluorescence based on a HgI{sub 2} detector, operating at room temperature is presented. The principal properties of HgI{sub 2} are outlined. A computer code designed for this apparatus is developed. Some experimental results are given to illustrate the performances of the device. (author). 67 refs., 117 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Reading and comparative quantification of perfusion myocardium tomo-scintigraphy realised by gamma camera and semiconductors camera;Interpretation et quantification comparative de la tomoscintigraphie myocardique de perfusion realisee par gamma camera et camera a semi-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlin, C.; Gauthe, M.; Bertrand, S.; Kelly, A.; Veyre, A.; Mestas, D.; Cachin, F. [CLCC Jean-Perrin, Service de medecine nucleaire, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Motreff, P. [CHRU Gabriel Montpied, Service de Cardiologie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2010-05-15

    By offering high quality images, semiconductor cameras represent an undeniable technological progress. The interpretation of examinations, however, requires a learning phase. The optimization of quantification software should confirm the superiority of the D-SPECT for the measurement of kinetic parameters. (N.C.)

  6. Development and testing of a fast digital electronic system for ion identification and spectroscopy; Etude et realisation d'une chaine d'instrumentation numerique rapide pour l'identification des ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legou, Th

    2002-02-01

    This report deals with a fast digital electronic system developed for ion identification and spectroscopy. The system, called IRIS, has been conceived for the super heavy element research program: FUSION. In order to observe a super heavy element, the energy of the compound nucleus implanted in a silicon detector must be measured, and the alpha decay also registered. The associated electronics must therefore handle a very wide range of energies and also exhibit a small recovery time after the implantation of the compound nucleus. IRIS is connected to the output of a charge preamplifier. It digitizes the signal and then executes two digital signal processes: the first to detect the particle, and the second to determine the energy deposited in the silicon detector. The use of programmed processing allows for the adjustment of the digital processing parameters, as well as a choice of other digital signal processing procedures, depending the application. After having explained why a conventional electronic system cannot be used for the detection of super-heavy ions, IRIS' structure is detailed and a number of digital signal processing procedures are studied and tested. (author)

  7. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890–1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the pre...

  8. National inventory of uranium mine sites. Version 2 - September 2007. Realised in the framework of the M.I.M.A.U.S.A. program Memory and impact of Uranium Mines: synthesis and archives; Inventaire national des sites miniers d'uranium. Version 2 - Septembre 2007. Realise dans le cadre du programme MIMAUSA Memoire et Impact des Mines d'urAniUm: Synthese et Archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The M.I.M.A.U.S.A. program allows to end in a compilation and a synthesis of the available data to allow the I.R.S.N., the national and local authorities, but also the public to have a source of quality information about the history of the French uranium mining sites and the possible systems of radiological surveillance set up at the moment; To assure the perpetuity of the knowledge of these sites in spite of the stop of the concerned activities; To establish a working tool for the government services in charge of the definition of the refitting and surveillance programs; And to improve the representativeness of the national network of radiation monitoring in the environment, notably as regards the stations of measure exploited by the I.R.S.N..The M.I.M.A.U.S.A. inventory or the national inventory of the uranium mining sites in France consists of the most exhaustive possible inventory of the sites on which were practised the activities in connection with the exploration (works of recognition of significant scale, the extraction or the treatment of the uranium ore in metropolitan France. The acquired information is synthesized in the form of index cards of sites presented in this document, with in introduction, the manual of the reserved columns and the used terms. The present version follows upon a first version published in 2004. The novelties of the version 2007: a more exhaustive inventory, 30 sites were added, enriched and corrected information, more complete identification of the receiving rivers, more precise and accessible geographical localization, zoom-news on certain mining zones, a paragraph current events. The sources of information are: Areva-Nc, A.N.D.R.A., D.R.I.R.E., and A.S.N.. (N.C.)

  9. First realisation of a labelling kit of N.T.P. 15-5 ligand by {sup 99m}Tc in view of a clinical application in cartilage functional imaging; Premiere realisation d'une trousse de marquage du ligand NTP 15-5 par le 99mTc en vue d'une application clinique en imagerie fonctionnelle du cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miot-Noirault, E.; Cachin, F.; Vidal, A.; Auzeloux, P.; Chezal, J.M.; Gaumet, V.; Askienazy, S. [Inserm, EA4231, UMR 990, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Guenu, S. [UFR de pharmacie, laboratoire de chimie analytique, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, S. [Laboratoires Cyclopharma, 63 - Saint-Beauzire (France)

    2010-07-01

    We are working on a SPECT tracer for functional imaging of articular cartilage, the {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5. This molecule has its application in degenerative diseases of cartilage (arthrosis, arthritis and chondrosarcoma). Excellent reports of cartilage versus tissues fixing ratios are obtained in different animal models as well as human anatomical parts. For clinical application, we present the development of a labelling kit by the technetium of the ligand NTP 15-5. (N.C.)

  10. The New World economy. Report addressed to Ms Segolene Royal, Minister of Environment, Sustainable Development and Energy, working group led by Corinne Lepage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, Gilles; Courousse, Christophe; Croise, Nathalie; Delanoy, Isabelle; Dupres, Stanislas; Ferrari, Romain; Feireira, Victor; Heron, Antoine; Kloboukoff, Charles; Lahiani, Mathias; Le Tyrant, Catherine; Lepercq, Thierry; Maestroni, Myriam; Massias, Louis; Novel, Anne-Sophie; Orru, Serge; Porcher, Thomas; Rapenne, Jean; Roquette, Marc; Siegel, Francois; Spiroux, Joel; Tenzer, Nicolas; Tincq, Benjamin; Tropper, Helene; Zimmer, Daniel; Damerval, Francois; Krabal, Nicolas; Berger, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    provide assistance and conflict resolution between Old and New World actors. Finally, the creation of a compensation fund - with funds entered into an escrow account for a duration of thirty years, in exchange for a taxation based on the existing forest model - would allow the funding of investments deemed unprofitable over the short-term, but essential for the long term. This is particularly true in the case of adapting to climate change. These creations can to a great extent be the work of civil society. Entrance into the New World is indeed of concern to all: experience shows that citizens, businesses and local authorities are much more active and efficient than the State could be in this metamorphosis. This is the reason why the report proposes an action plan for stakeholders (citizens, businesses, media and local authorities), with particular emphasis on the active role of the regions. The Master Plan which was launched in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region to achieve energy autonomy there should be generalized, as well as should the creation at the regional level of appropriate financial tools and local share-holding; renewed support for very small and small businesses, particularly through clusters, also needs to take place. The State, meanwhile, is at a crossroads. At the very least it could choose - before being forced to by a world in transformation -, to cease to be an obstacle on the path towards the New World. But it could also choose to become the driver by proposing a real strategy for implementing the New World, by changing and adapting the institutions of the Republic, and by changing the rules of the game by using the resources of the State as a shareholder. COP21 offers France a unique and historic opportunity to have a change of heart, and to take up the mantle of a European and World leader in the construction of the New World. In doing so, the State could again allow the French people to dream of new possibilities

  11. TREHALOSE-BASED ADDITIVE IMPROVED INTER-PRIMER BINDING SITE REACTIONS FOR DNA ISOLATED FROM RECALCITRANT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Lancíková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-based (TBT-PAR additive was tested in order to optimize PCR amplification for DNA isolated from recalcitrant plants. Retrotransposon-based inter-primer binding site reactions were significantly improved with TBT-PAR solution using genomic DNA isolated from flax (Linum usitatissimum L., genotypes Kyivskyi, Bethune grown in radio-contaminated and non-radioactive remediated Chernobyl experimental fields. Additionally, similar improvements were observed using 19 recalcitrant genotypes of maize (Zea mays L. and three genotypes of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Poepp. et Endl., genotypes PER05, ECU45, BOL22 grown in standard field conditions.

  12. [REIN Report 2011--summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchoud, C; Lassalle, M; Jacquelinet, C

    2013-09-01

    In 2011, in France, we estimate that 9 400 patients started a treatment by dialysis (incidence of dialysis: 144 per million inhabitants) and 335 patients with a pre-emptive graft without previous dialysis (incidence of pre-emptive graft: 5 per million inhabitants). As in 2010, incidence rate seems to stabilize. Elders provide the majority of new patients (median age at RRT start: 71 years old). New patients present a high rate of disabilities especially diabetes (41% of the new patients) and cardiovascular disabilities (>50% of the new patients) that increase with age. Considering treatment and follow-up, the first treatment remains center's hemodialysis and we do not notice any progression of self-dialysis. RRT started in emergency in 33% of the patients. This finding contrasts with the fact that 56% of patients started hemodialysis on a catheter. This, together with the major inter-region variability, suggests that different strategies of management exist. Finally, the hemoglobin level at RRT start seems to be an interesting indicator of good management and follow-up since 13% of patients presenting an underprovided follow-up have a hemoglobin level under 10g/dl, whereas only 2.5% of patients with an appropriate follow-up presented such a condition. On December 31, 2011, in France, we estimate that 70.700 patients were receiving a renal replacement therapy, 39.600 (56%) on dialysis and 31.100 (44%) living with a functional renal transplant. The overall crude prevalence was 1091 per million inhabitants. It was 1.6 higher in males. Prevalence was subject to regional variations with 5 regions (3 overseas) above the national rate. Renal transplant share varied from 33% in Nord-Pas de Calais to 53% in Pays de Loire, and from 16 to 25% in overseas regions. The study of temporal variations for 18 regions contributing to the registry since 2007 demonstrated a +4% increase in standardized prevalence of ESRD patients with a functional transplant vs. +2% increase for

  13. Separation of nitrogen-krypton by the freeze-dried cellulose acetate membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanioka, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Kinzo; Kakuta, Akio; Ozaki, Osamu; Oono, Masanori.

    1977-01-01

    The utility of freeze-dried cellulose acetate membranes, which consist of a thin skin layer supported upon a more porous matrix substructure, was examined for separation of nitrogen-radioactive krypton 85. The high permeable and separative membranes were prepared by fixed freezed-drying of swollen membrane after evaporation of acetone for 4-6 minutes. The permeation rate of nitrogen was 10 -1 -10 -3 (cc/cm 2 .sec.atm). Knudsen flow was predominant, since the permeation rate was inversely proportional to square root of molecular weight of gases. The influence of viscous flow was also observed by slight dependence on the pressure. The mean pore size was calculated by the equation of gas permeation in porous media. There exist fine pores of 30-40A radii in the skin layer. The separation factor (dilution of Kr) was about 0.7 and the separation efficiency was 60%. The collision between different gas molecules (Present-de Bethunes' effect) and the influence of viscous flow depreciates the efficiency. The separation efficiency which was determined by the experiment coincided with the one predicted according to the Present-de Bethunes' equation, supposing that the pore size in skin layer was 10-25A. (auth.)

  14. Construction of an apparatus for measuring the low-temperature thermal conductivity before and after neutron irradiation. Application to uranium dioxide (1963); Realisation d'un appareil pour la mesure de la conductibilite thermique a basse temperature avant et apres irradiation neutronique. Application au dioxyde d'uranium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethoux, O. [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-09-15

    An apparatus has been studied and built which makes it possible to alternatively irradiate a sample at room temperature in the reactor 'Melusine' at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre, and to measure its thermal conductivity between 20 and 100 deg. K in perfect safety. The results obtained on UO{sub 2} have made it possible on the one hand to check experimentally that the spin-phonon diffusion leads to a thermal resistance independent of temperature above 30 deg. K, and on the other hand to propose a simple theory which takes into count the role played by the damage due to U-235 fission products in the decrease of thermal conductivity after irradiation. (author) [French] Un appareil permettant alternativement d'irradier un echantillon a temperature ambiante dans le reacteur ''Melusine'' du C.E.N.G., et de mesurer sa conductibilite thermique entre 20 et 100 deg. K en toute securite, a ete etudie et construit Les resultats obtenus sur UO{sub 2} ont permis, d'une part, de verifier experimentalement que la diffusion spin-phonon conduit a une resistance thermique independante de la temperature au-dessus de 30 deg. K, et, d'autre part, de proposer une theorie simple tenant compte du role joue par les degats dus aux produits de fission de l'uranium 235, dans la deterioration de la conductibilite thermique apres irradiation. (auteur)

  15. Study and determination of the national dosimetric standards in terms of air kerma for X-rays radiation fields of low and medium-energies; Etude et realisation des references dosimetriques nationales en termes de kerma dans l'air pour les faisceaux de rayons X de basses et moyennes energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksouri, W

    2008-12-15

    Progress in radiation protection and radiotherapy, and the increased needs in terms of accuracy lead national metrology institutes to improve the standard. For ionizing radiation, the standard is defined by an absolute instrument used for air kerma rate measurement. The aim of the thesis is to establish standards, in terms of air kerma for X-rays beams of low and medium-energies. This work enables to complement the standard beam range of the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB). Two free-air chambers have been developed, WK06 for medium-energy and WK07 for low-energy. The air-kerma rate is corrected by several correction factors. Some are determined experimentally; and the others by using Monte Carlo simulations. The uncertainty budget of the air-kerma rate at one standard deviation has been established. These dosimetric standards were compared with those of counterparts' laboratories and are consistent in terms of degree of equivalence. (author)

  16. Development of NbN Josephson junctions with Ta{sub x}N semi-metal barrier; application to RSFQ circuits; Etude et realisation de jonction Josephson en NbN a barriere semi-metallique en Ta{sub x}N; application aux circuits logiques RSFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setzu, R

    2007-11-15

    This thesis research, brought to the development and optimization of SNS (Superconductor / Normal Metal / Superconductor) Josephson junctions with NbN electrodes and a high resistivity Ta{sub x}N barrier. We were able to point out Josephson oscillations for frequencies above 1 THz and operation temperatures up to 10 K, which constituted the original goal of the project. This property makes these junctions unique and well adapted for realizing ultra-fast RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic circuits suitable for spatial telecommunications. We showed a good reproducibility of Ta{sub x}N film properties as a function of the sputtering parameters. The NbN/Ta{sub x}N/NbN tri-layers exhibit high critical temperature (16 K). The junctions showed a clear dependence of the R{sub n}I{sub c} product as a function of the partial nitrogen pressure inside the reactive plasma; the R{sub n}I{sub c} is the product between the junction critical current and its normal resistance, and indicates the upper limit Josephson frequency. We have also obtained some really high R{sub n}I{sub c} products, up to 3.74 mV at 4.2 K for critical current densities of about 15 kA/cm{sup 2}. Junctions show the expected Josephson behaviors, respectively Fraunhofer diffraction and Shapiro steps. up to 14 K. This allows expecting good circuit operations in a relaxed cryogenics environment (with respect to the niobium circuits limited at 4.2 K). The junctions appear to be self-shunted. The SNOP junctions J{sub c}-temperature dependence has been fitted by using the long SNS junction model in the dirty limit, which gives a normal metal coherence length of about 3.8 nm at 4.2 K. We have finally studied a multilayer fabrication process, including a common ground plane and bias resistors, suitable for RSFQ logic basic circuits. To conclude we have been able to show the performance superiority of NbN/Ta{sub x}N/NbN junctions over the actual niobium junctions, as well as their interest for realizing compact RSFQ logic circuits. In fact these junctions do not need external shunt-resistors as the Nb junctions, and can operate at clock frequencies above 150 GHz up to 10 K (against 50 GHz at 4.2 K for the Nb technology). (author)

  17. Computer programme for control and maintenance and object oriented database: application to the realisation of an particle accelerator, the VIVITRON; Logiciel de controle et commande et base de donnees orientee objet: application dans le cadre de la mise en oeuvre d`un accelerateur de particules, le VIVITRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A

    1996-01-11

    The command and control system for the Vivitron, a new generation electrostatic particle accelerator, has been implemented using workstations and front-end computers using VME standards, the whole within an environment of UNIX/VxWorks. This architecture is distributed over an Ethernet network. Measurements and commands of the different sensors and actuators are concentrated in the front-end computers. The development of a second version of the software giving better performance and more functionality is described. X11 based communication has been utilised to transmit all the necessary informations to display parameters within the front-end computers on to the graphic screens. All other communications between processes use the Remote Procedure Call method (RPC). The conception of the system is based largely on the object oriented database O{sub 2} which integrates a full description of equipments and the code necessary to manage it. This code is generated by the database. This innovation permits easy maintenance of the system and bypasses the need of a specialist when adding new equipments. The new version of the command and control system has been progressively installed since August 1995. (author) 38 refs.

  18. Extraosseous radiotracer uptake on bone scan in beta-thalassemia: report of one case; Fixation extraosseuse du radiotraceur lors de la realisation d'une scintigraphie du squelette chez un patient atteint de beta-thalassemie: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezguez, M.; Nouira, M.; Sfar, R.; Chatti, K.; Ben Fradj, M.; Ben Ali, K.; Ajmi, S.; Essabbah, H. [CHU Sahloul, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Sousse (Tunisia); Zrour, S. [EPS F. Bourguiba, Service de Rhumatologie, Monastir (Tunisia)

    2009-10-15

    Red blood cell transfusion, main therapeutic modality of beta-thalassemia, leads to iron overload which may perturb several metabolic ways. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the uptake abnormalities observed on bone scan of thalassaemic patients and to discuss mechanisms of extraosseous accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in this pathology. We report a 16-year-old child suffering from beta-thalassemia major undergoing transfusion therapy. A bone scan was indicated to look for osseous infection. This study revealed a little skeletal uptake and abnormal liver, splenic and renal accumulation. A repeat bone scan, performed three weeks later showed a better skeletal uptake which enabled the discovery of focal abnormalities and made the diagnostic easier. The effect of iron overload on radiopharmaceuticals uptake in bone scan is known since 1975. Dissociation of {sup 99m}Tc from the carrier ligand due to the presence of iron excess seems the most plausible hypothesis. Free {sup 99m}Tc can be bound to other tissular substrates which can explain extraosseous uptake. The normally available pool for bone is reduced and then the skeletal uptake decreased. This report limits considerably the sensitivity of the bone scan. A well-led iron chelation and eventually the use of diuretic drug may guarantee a better quality of bone scan images. (authors)

  19. Realization of a technical and economic referential of units of organic waste processing by methanization with and without biogas valorization. Study report; Realisation d'un referentiel technique et economique d'unites de traitement de dechets organiques par methanisation avec et sans valorisation du biogaz. Rapport d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Based on a literature survey and on the analysis of results obtained in operating installations in different countries (Germany, Denmark, France, Netherlands, and Switzerland), this study concerns the methanization of different substrates: domestic wastes, sludge from sewage processing plants, industrial wastes and effluents, agricultural wastes and effluents. This synthetic report describes the current status of methanization in terms of regulatory framework (for renewable energies, and for waste management, digestion residues and compost valorization in Europe and in the studied countries), and in terms of actual production and variety of base products. It gives an overview of the available technical solutions, of the products they use, and of the associated investment costs. These techniques are: completely stirred tank reactor (SCTR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), internal circulation (IC), 'piston', batch, percolation, contact, fluidized bed, and anaerobic filter. It reports a synthesis of answers given to a questionnaire about technical and economic aspects

  20. Design and test of a scintillation dosimeter for dosimetry measurements of high energy radiotherapy beams; Conception et realisation d'un dosimetre a scintillation adapte a la dosimetrie de faisceaux de rayonnements ionisants en faisceaux de rayonnements ionisants en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontbonne, J.M

    2002-12-01

    This work describes the design and evaluation of the performances of a scintillation dosimeter developed for the dosimetry of radiation beams used in radiotherapy. The dosimeter consists in a small plastic scintillator producing light which is guided by means of a plastic optical fiber towards photodetectors. In addition to scintillation, high energy ionizing radiations produce Cerenkov light both in the scintillator and the optical fiber. Based on a wavelength analysis, we have developed a deconvolution technique to measure the scintillation light in the presence of Cerenkov light. We stress the advantages that are anticipated from plastic scintillator, in particular concerning tissue or water equivalence (mass stopping power, mass attenuation or mass energy absorption coefficients). We show that detectors based on this material have better characteristics than conventional dosimeters such as ionisation chambers or silicon detectors. The deconvolution technique is exposed, as well as the calibration procedure using an ionisation chamber. We have studied the uncertainty of our dosimeter. The electronics noise, the fiber transmission, the deconvolution technique and the calibration errors give an overall combined experimental uncertainty of about 0,5%. The absolute response of the dosimeter is studied by means of depth dose measurements. We show that absolute uncertainty with photons or electrons beams with energies ranging from 4 MeV to 25 MeV is less than {+-} 1 %. Last, at variance with other devices, our scintillation dosimeter does not need dose correction with depth. (author)

  1. Situation of regional plans for air quality. Acknowledgement of sanitary aspects. Situation of realised impact studies of urban air pollution; Bilan des plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires. Bilan des etudes d'impact de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Helf, M.; Cassadou, S

    2005-07-01

    The law on air and use of energy recommended in 1996 the implementation of regional plans for air quality (P.Q.R.A.) that have to rely on an evaluation of air pollution effects on health. 21 P.Q.R.A. have been published and the report gives the situation, their sanitary orientations and their applications. An inquiry lead in the 21 regions, near the different regional actors in the air and health field completes the report. (N.C.)

  2. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head; Conception et realisation d'un spectrometre de masse a temps de vol spatialisable de type 'reflectron' electronique et tete de mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoto, P

    2006-03-15

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  3. Modelization of physical phenomena in research reactors with the help of new developments in transport methods, and methodology validation with experimental data; Modelisation des phenomenes physiques dans les reacteurs de recherche a l'aide de developpements realises dans les methodes de transport et qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauck, St

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a scheme for experimental reactors, based on transport equations. This type of reactors is characterized by a small core, a complex, very heterogeneous geometry and a large leakage. The possible insertion of neutron beams in the reflector and the presence of absorbers in the core increase the difficulty of the 3D-geometrical description and the physical modeling of the component parameters of the reactor. The Orphee reactor has been chosen for our study. Physical models (homogenization, collapsing cross section in few groups, albedo multigroup condition) have been developed in the APOLLO2 and CRONOS2 codes to calculate flux and power maps in a 3D-geometry, with different burnup and through transport equations. Comparisons with experimental measurements have shown the interest of taking into account anisotropy, steep flux gradients by using Sn methods, and on the other hand using a 12-group cross section library. The modeling of neutron beams has been done outside the core modeling through Monte Carlo calculations and with the total geometry, including a large thickness of heavy water. Thanks to this calculations, one can evaluate the neutron beams anti-reactivity and determinate the core cycle. We assure these methods more accurate than usual transport-diffusion calculations will be used for the conception of new research reactors. (author)

  4. Road authority pilot and feasibility study. Evaluation to Realise a common Approach to Self-explaining European Roads ERASER, Deliverable No. 3 and 4, Report No. WP03-03 and WP04-04. Project initiated by “ERA-NET ROAD – Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe”.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L. Pumberger, A. Lawton, B. Charman, S. & Wijnen, W.

    2012-01-01

    This deliverable describes a draft version of a tool that has been developed within ERASER Work Package 3 (Road authorities pilot) to help European road authorities make decisions to improve the safety and ‘self-explainingness’ of their roads. For this tool, the concept of self-explaining roads

  5. "It's Helped Me with My Anger and I'm Realising Where I Go in Life": The Impact of a Scottish Youth Work / Schools Intervention on Young People's Responses to Social Strain and Engagement with Anti-Social Behaviour and Gang Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchar, Ross; Ellis, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Moral panics relating to anti-social youth have accelerated in recent years, and there has been an increasing recognition that preventing problematic behaviour is more effective than sanctions once it occurs. Drawing upon General Strain Theory, this paper explores the social pressures that might stimulate anti-social behaviour and gang culture. It…

  6. Realization of a tool as an help for piloting during accidental situation, conceiving of a procedure of state correction in compliance with safety constraints; Realisation d`un outil d`aide a la conduite en situation incidentelle, conception d`une procedure de retour d`etat respectant les contraintes de securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monribot, A.

    1996-06-07

    The tool we have developed acts as an help for piloting nuclear fuel reprocessing working units. After the localisation of a malfunction, it can generate a series of correcting moves in order to reach a defined level of security, in absolute compliance with all the safety regulations. These operations are created by an iterative algorithm, which determines at each step: the best suited operating parameter for the correction, the range and time of action of this correction. This algorithm is composed of tow modules relying respectively on a certified numerical model to stimulate the process and on the experimental design technique. The first module uses a numerical model to perform a sensibility analysis determining the most accurate correcting parameters. The variable allowing reliability of this analysis is guaranteed, for any current situation of the process, by an exhaustive study of the operating parameters and the use of a mathematical response determining the state of the process. The second module uses the experimental design to reduce the model, then it adjusts the correction range with this reduced model. This module automatically adjusts the total number of experimental designs as a function of the error of the responses. In order to minimise the total number of experiments, thus the global computing time, we have checked different types of experimental designs: DOELHERT`s uniform lattices and second order centered factorial experimental design. These last ones were proved to be more efficient. The correcting solutions proposed by our tool for the major classical malfunctions of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant working units were certified by the specialists of the process. (author). 18 refs.

  7. To build an environmental quality building. Evaluation: the HQE secondary school of Pic Saint Loup realized by the region; Construire un batiment respectueux de l'environnement. Retour d'experience: le Lycee HQE du Pic Saint Loup realise par la Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denicourt, Ch.

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the action realized in Pic Saint Loup secondary school, concerning the program management of an environmental quality building (HQE). The 8 chapters details the realization of the HQE building, the project planing of a HQE building, the Pic Saint Loup project, the operation beginning, the planing implementing, the project feasibility evaluation, the program redaction and the time and cost evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Photovoltaic solar power in building engineering. Experience feedback in France of the European Hip Hip project. Advances and realizations; L'electricite solaire photovoltaique dans le batiment. Retour d'experience en France du Projet Europeen Hip Hip. Avancees et realisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The European demonstration project Hip Hip (house integrated photovoltaic high-tech in public) led the French photovoltaic market to reach a level comparable to those of the other European countries in terms of relevance of implemented solutions and costs. This document presents the best realizations and the experience gained through the Hip Hip project. Its aim is to convince the designers and managers of building projects of the advantages of photovoltaic installations integrated to the structure and connected to the power distribution grid: 1 - presentation of the technology; 2 - status of the Hip Hip demonstration project (goals, results: main innovations and impact on the French market); 3 - different possibilities of integration to the building structure; 4 - examples of projects realized in France in the framework of the Hip Hip project: integration in glass roof, frontage, added elements, fitting on roofs. (J.S.)

  9. Construction of an apparatus for nuclear orientation measurements at low temperatures. Application to neodymium-cobalt alloy; Realisation d'un appareil pour des mesures d'orientation nucleaire a basse temperature. Application a l'alliage neodyme-cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-10-01

    We describe experiments along which has been studied the anisotropy of {gamma} radiations emitted by oriented nuclei. We have used the great hyperfine fields acting on nuclei in ferromagnetic metals so as to produce alignment at low temperature. By irradiation we obtained a few cobalt 60 nuclei in our samples which were then cooled down to 0,01 K. The anisotropic rate of the 1,33 MeV {gamma} radiation was measured in function of the sample temperature, using as thermometer the anisotropy of {gamma} radiation emitted by cobalt 60 nuclei in a cobalt single crystal. Cobalt 60 was lined up in a cobalt nickel alloy (40% Ni). The hyperfine field at the cobalt was measured compared to the effective field in metallic cobalt: Heff(Co Ni)/Heff(Co metal) = 0.71 {+-} 0.12. These results are in good agreement with specific heat measurements made previously. Cobalt 60 has been polarised in a neodymium-cobalt alloy (NdCo{sub 5}). The field at the cobalt in NdCo{sub 5} has been measured compared to the field in metallic cobalt and taking the non-saturation into account we found 165000 oersteds < Heff(NdCo{sub 5}) < 220000 oersteds. (author) [French] Nous decrivons des experiences au cours desquelles nous avons etudie l'anisotropie de rayonnements {gamma} emis par des noyaux orientes. Nous avons utilise les grands champs hyperfins agissant sur las noyaux dans les metaux ferromagnetiques pour produire l'alignement a basse temperature. Par irradiation nous avons obtenu quelques noyaux de cobalt 60 dans nos echantillons qui furent ensuite refroidis a 0,01 K. Le degre d'anisotropie du rayonnement {gamma} de 1,33 MeV fut mesure en fonction de la temperature de l'echantillon en utilisant l'anisotropie du rayonnement {gamma} de noyaux de cobalt 60 dans un monocristal de cobalt metallique utilise comme thermometre. Le cobalt 60 a ete aligne dans un alliage de cobalt-nickel (40% Ni). Le champ hyperfin au niveau du cobalt a ete mesure par rapport au champ effectif dans le cobalt metallique: Heff(Co Ni)/Heff(Co metallique) 0,71 {+-} 0,12. Ces resultats sont en bonne concordance avec les mesures de chaleur specifique effectuees anterieurement. Le cobalt 60 a ete polarise dans un alliage de neodyme et de cobalt (NdCo{sub 5}). Le champ au niveau du cobalt dans NdCo{sub 5}, a ete mesure par rapport au champ dans le cobalt metallique (H = 193000 {+-} 20000 oersteds) et en tenant compte de la non-saturation, nous avons obtenu: 165000 oersteds < Heff(NdCo{sub 5}) < 220000 oersteds.

  10. Study and realization of the electronic power supply of a variable reluctance motor for electric-powered vehicle - motor experimenting; Etude et realisation de l'alimentation electronique d'un moteur a reluctance variable pour vehicule electrique - experimentation du moteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchoux, J.C.

    1994-10-15

    This work deals with the development of a propulsion system comprising a 27 kW double salience variable reluctance motor supplied by a tri-phase inverter with asymmetrical half-bridges capable to switch 400 A under 120 V. Control is ensured by a numerical control system based on a digital signal processor. The control strategy comprises two control modes: a torque trapeze one in order to minimize the undulations at low speed, and a full voltage wave one for high speeds (up to 10000 rpm) in order to use the full motor efficiency. This study presents: the operation principle of the motor and the control laws chosen, the converter design and testing, the elaboration of a single-phase numerical model of the motor, the analysis of the power supply simulation results for each control mode chosen, and the measurements of the control-converter-motor efficiencies. (J.S.)

  11. The study and the realization of radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique; Etude et realisation de detecteurs de rayonnements a base de films de diamant polycristallin elabores par depot chimique en phase vapeur assiste par plasma micro-onde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jany, Ch

    1998-10-29

    The aim of this work was to develop radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique. The influence of surface treatments, contact technology and diamond growth parameters on the diamond detectors characteristics was investigated in order to optimise the detector response to alpha particles. The first part of the study focused on the electrical behaviour of as-deposited diamond surface, showing a p type conduction and its influence on the leakage current of the device. A surface preparation process was established in order to reduce the leakage current of the device by surface dehydrogenation using an oxidising step. Several methods to form and treat electrical contacts were also investigated showing that the collection efficiency of the device decreases after contact annealing. In the second part, we reported the influence of the diamond deposition parameters on the characteristics of the detectors. The increase of the deposition temperature and/or methane concentration was shown to lead {eta} to decrease. In contrast, {eta} was found to increase with the micro-wave power. The evolution of the diamond detector characteristics results from the variation in sp{sup 2} phases incorporation and in the crystallography quality of the films. These defects increase the leakage current and reduce the carrier mobility and lifetime. Measurements carried out on detectors with different thicknesses showed that the physical properties varies along the growth direction, improving with the film thickness. Finally, the addition of nitrogen (> 10 ppm) in the gas mixture during diamond deposition was found to strongly reduce the collection efficiency of the detectors. To conclude the study, we fabricated and characterised diamond devices which were used for thermal neutron detection and for the intensity and shape measurement of VUV and soft X-ray pulses. (author)

  12. Study and realization of a new humid air generator; towards the definition of a dew temperature reference; Etude et realisation d'un nouveau generateur d'air humide; vers la definition d'une reference en temperature de rosee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanquart, B.

    2001-03-01

    The air humidity is an important parameter for several biological and physico-chemical processes. The aim of this thesis is the direct determination of the dew temperature without any link with the gravimetric reference. This document presents the realization and adjusting of a new humid air generator for the -80 deg. C to +15 deg. C range and the uncertainty linked with the dew temperature of the humid air generated. The first chapter recalls the definitions of humid air related data and the principles of the apparatuses used for the measurement of air humidity. The second chapter deals with temperature measurements while chapter 3 describes the new humid air generator built around an 'ideal' cell based on the theoretical definition of the dew temperature. Technical constraints due to temperature measurement and to hygrometers calibration are progressively integrated and introduced and lead to the practical realization of the device. Differences between the ideal cell and the prototype are estimated using a theoretical approach of mass and heat exchanges coupled with experimental results obtained with a previous prototype. Chapter 4 presents a first status of the device uncertainties with some possibilities of reduction of these uncertainties. (J.S.)

  13. Contribution to the realization of a semi-virtual test facility for studies of solar systems. Application to solar cooling by absorption water chillers; Contribution a la realisation d'un laboratoire semi-virtuel pour l'etude de systemes solaires. Application au rafraichissement solaire par machine a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler - Blanc, V.

    2003-12-01

    Due to its ecological contribution, solar cooling by absorption water chiller seems to be a good alternative faced with the growth of the buildings air-conditioning market. The CSTB is strongly implied in this field by carrying out a semi-virtual test facility, in order to study the thermal behaviour of these solar cooling systems in dynamic mode. In this semi-virtual laboratory, solar cooling systems are represented partially by virtual components (simulation of buildings, transmitters, solar collectors, climates, etc), the absorption machine remaining a real component. The use of such a test facility has many advantages: amongst other things, it allows to test systems at lower cost, under various configurations, and to deduce optimum conditions for use of the absorption machine in solar cooling.. Beyond the initial tool for the systems assessment, the semi-virtual laboratory can also be a tool of assistance to design installations of solar cooling by absorption machine. Our work is to carry out tests according to a series of day-types. The numerical models created under Matlab/Simulink communicate with the real absorption machine in real time by a control and data acquisition unit: - they get outlets measurements of flows and temperatures from the three hydraulic circuits of the absorption machine (generator, condenser and evaporator); - they set inlets values of flows and temperatures into the three circuits of the absorption machine, according to the tests sequences programmed or the results of the environment's simulation, managed by the PC. These dynamic tests are preceded by a preliminary phase in order to verify the behaviour of the actual part of the test bench. This phase is used to assess the thermal performances of the machine in steady-state mode (COP as announced by the manufacturer), and to obtain a numerical model of the absorption machine in steady-state mode by identification with experimental measurements picked on the test bench up. The results in dynamic allow us to predict by extrapolation of the day-types tests sequences, the operation of the machine over one year, for configurations of various installations. (author)

  14. Study of low energy thermal constraints for a copper-plated niobium structure carried out by thermal projection; Etude des contraintes thermiques a basse temperature d'une structure en niobium avec un revetement de cuivre realise par projection thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassot, H.; Durante, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Thiebault, A.; Vernay, E. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-06-01

    In the framework of T.T.F. (Tesla Test Facility), the international collaboration on research and development of superconducting cavities, a study of a new method of manufacturing cavities was launched, which consists in deposing a metal (copper) or an alloy by thermal projection on niobium cavities in order to stiffen them. Analytical and numerical calculations showed that when cooled this bi-material cavities behave very differently incomparison with classical pure niobium cavities and strong thermal constraints do occur in niobium as well as in copper. These strong constraints may have important consequences upon the functioning of superconducting cavities. In addition these constraints may induce in time cracks in materials and interfaces. In this paper an experiment for measuring constraints at the temperature of cavity operation, i.e., at the liquid helium temperature, is proposed in order to compare the measured constraints with the calculated constraints. The sample studied has a cylindrical shape, rather representative for the geometrical shape of cavities, but easier to handle than a prototype cavity. The experimental approach consists in carrying out two deformation measurements. The first one, is done on single material sample (niobium and copper) to establish the laws of compensation of the constraint gauges as a function of temperature. The other measurement establishes the global deformations of a bi-metallic tube (Nb-Cu) when the interior surface (niobium) and the external surface (porous copper) of the tube are cooled. From these deformation data the thermal constraints of the bi-metallic tube at low temperature have been derived. The implementation of the entire setup of the methods of measuring the constraints at low temperature constitutes a new development in the field of superconducting cavities. The experiments have also indicated certain further developments which should be achieved if the plastic deformations induced by the freezing regime require a control of the speed of cryostat cooling.

  15. Elaboration of the methodological referential for life cycle analysis of first generation biofuels in the French context; Elaboration d'un referentiel methodologique pour la realisation d'Analyses de Cycle de Vie appliquees aux biocarburants de premiere generation en France. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This study was made under the particular context of a strong growth of biofuels market, and the implication of French and European public authorities, and certain Member States (Germany, Netherlands, UK), for the development of certification schemes for first generation biofuels. The elaboration of such schemes requires a consensus on the methodology to apply when producing Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of biofuels. To answer this demand, the study built up the methodological referential for biofuels LCAs in order to assess the Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions, fossil fuels consumptions and local atmospheric pollutants emissions induced by the different biofuel production pathways. The work consisted in methodological engineering, and was accomplished thanks to the participation of all the members of the Technical Committee of the study. An initial bibliographic review on biofuels LCAs allowed the identification of the main methodological issues (listed below). For each point, the impact of the methodological choices on the biofuels environmental balances was assessed by several sensitivity analyses. The results of these analyses were taken into account for the elaboration of the recommendations: - Consideration of the environmental burdens associated with buildings, equipments and their maintenance - Quantification of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from fields - Impact of the Land Use Change (LUC) - Allocation method for the distribution of the environmental impacts of biofuel production pathways between the different products and coproducts generated. Within the framework of this study, we made no distinction in terms of methodological approach between GHG emissions and local pollutants emissions. This results from the fact that the methodological issues cover all the environmental burdens and do not require specific approaches. This executive summary presents the methodological aspects related to biofuels LCAs. The complete report of the study presents in addition methodological issues specific to fossil fuels pathways. The study was commissioned by the ADEME - Departement Bio-resources, the Minister of Agriculture and Fishing, the ONIGC, the IFP and the Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Land Settlement (DGEMP, D4E, DPPR). A Committee was set up to provide a technical support for the analysis of the methodological issues, in order to reach a consensus for the elaboration of the recommendations presented in this document. This Committee involved representatives of the biofuels and petroleum pathways (PROLEA, BENP, Cristal Union, Lyondell and TOTAL), representatives of Technical Institutes (ARVALIS, CETIOM, ITB, ITERG), representatives of the National Institute for Agronomical Research, representatives of the car industry (PSA, Renault), representatives of a waste-treatment company (VEOLIA), representatives of an association for the protection of environment (Reseau Action Climat) and representatives of a Union of Cooperatives (COOP. IN VIVO)

  16. Optimization of electrical conduction and passivity properties of stainless steels used for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates; Opmisation des proprietes de conduction electrique et de passivite d'aciers inoxydables pour la realisation de plaques bipolaires de pile a combustible de type PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J

    2007-10-15

    Among the new technologies for energy for sustainable development, PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) offer seducing aspects. However, in order to make this technology fit large scale application requirements, it has to comply with stringent cost, performance, and durability criteria. In such a frame, the goal of this work was to optimize electrical conduction properties and passivity of stainless steels for the conception of PEMFC bipolar plates, used instead of graphite, the reference material. This work presents the possible ways of performance loss when using stainless steels and some methods to solve this problem. Passive film properties were studied, as well as their modifications by low cost industrial surface treatments, without deposition. Ex situ characterizations of corrosion resistance and electrical conduction were performed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water analysis, surface analysis by microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy allowed to study the impact of ageing on two alloys in different states, and several conditions representative of an exposure to PEMFC media. Correlations between semi-conductivity properties, composition, and structure of passive layers were considered, but not leading to clear identification of all parameters responsible for electrical conduction and passivity. The plate industrial state is not convenient for direct use in fuel cell to comply with durability and performance requirements. A surface modification studied improves widely electrical conduction at initial state. The performance is degraded with ageing, but maintaining a level higher than the initial industrial state. This treatment increases also corrosion resistance, particularly on the anode side. (author)

  17. Environmental monitoring results from the third periodic evaluation of progress towards the objective of the OSPAR radioactive substances strategy; Resultats de la surveillance de l'environnement - Troisieme evaluation periodique de la progression dans le sens de la realisation de l'objectif de la strategie substances radioactives d'OSPAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynn, J.P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Tromso (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    The general objective of the OSPAR radioactive substances strategy is to prevent pollution of the maritime area from ionising radiation through progressive and substantial reductions of discharges, emissions and losses of radioactive substances, so that concentrations in the environment are close to background for naturally occurring radioactive substances and close to zero for artificial radioactive substances. The third periodic evaluation of progress towards the objective of the OSPAR radioactive substances strategy concludes that, due to issues concerning the availability of reported data, it is not possible to come to firm conclusions as to whether the aims of the OSPAR radioactive substances strategy are currently being delivered. However, in general there is an indication of a reduction in average marine concentrations of selected radionuclides associated with the nuclear industry, while doses arising from these selected radionuclides in the OSPAR maritime area to humans are well within internationally recommended limits and are below the lowest levels at which any effects are likely to occur for marine biota. (author)

  18. Growth of cerium oxide thin layers for the manufacture of dosemeters and/or irradiation detectors by magnetron RF cathodic sputtering; Croissance de couches minces d'oxyde de cerium pour la realisation de dosimetres et/ou de detecteurs d'irradiation par pulverisation cathodique RF magnetron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ta, M.T.; Briand, D.; Guhel, Y.; Bernard, J.; Boudart, B. [Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquees de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50 - Cherbourg (France)

    2007-07-01

    Oxide thin films deposited on silicon substrate are interesting for the manufacture of dosemeters and detectors of gas, humidity, temperature and irradiation. The irradiation dose measurement is required for assessing the risks and advantages of the use of ionizing radiations in fields such as biology, medicine and more generally in all the civil and military nuclear applications. According to literature, cerium oxide seems to be potentially interesting for the manufacture of dosemeters and/or irradiation detectors. The influence of the deposition parameters, such as the inter-electrodes distance, the temperature, the RF power, the work pressure, on the crystalline quality of the CeO{sub 2} layers deposited on a silicon (111) substrate by magnetron RF cathodic sputtering has been studied. All these thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and by Raman spectroscopy. At the present time, studies are carried out on 'flash' annealing in order to improve the crystalline state of the thin layers. The aim is to study the influence of gamma and neutrons irradiations on the electric properties of capacities made of CeO{sub 2} thin films. (O.M.)

  19. Study and development of new CdTe and CdZnTe detection structures for X and {gamma} imagery; Etude et realisation de nouvelles structures de detection a base de CdTe et CdZnTe pour l`imagerie X et {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosaz, M

    1997-10-24

    The aim of this study is to show the interest of applying cadmium telluride (CdTe) for X- and {gamma}- ray imaging applications, with specific technological (via contact nature) and geometric (via Frisch grids) structures suited for each application. This work is divided into three different but complementary parts: the first part describes a simulation model which allows a better understanding of CdTe based {gamma}- ray detectors. The new feature of this model compared to previous ones, is that it is able to take into account the electric field`s non uniform spatial distribution inside the detector s. The results enable us to de-convolute the influence of material and contact parameters on the spectrometric performances (energy resolution and peak/valley ratio) of CdTe based detectors; the second part presents different technological structures deposited upon CdTe, (grown by two different methods, i.e Bridgman and High Pressure Bridgman). These structures were characterised in X- and {gamma}- ray detection; theoretical models are developed which allow a certain insight into the detection properties of each couple (material + contact); the third part deals with new contact geometries which allow a screening effect of the bulk (analogous to the Frisch grid effect in gaseous detectors) resulting in improved energy resolution and peak/valley ratios; encouraging first results on prototypes are presented and discussed. This work has allowed a better understanding of physical behaviour of CdTe based detectors, coupled with advances in technological issues to upgrade the overall performances of these detectors for application in X- and {gamma}- ray imaging. (author) 93 refs.

  20. Report on the french objectives of electricity consumption, produced from renewable energies sources and on the analysis of their realization; Rapport sur les objectifs francais de consommation d'electricite produite a partir de sources d'energie renouvelable et sur l'analyse de leur realisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the french objectives of electricity, from renewable energies sources, internal consumption for the next ten years, as the analysis of their realization taking into account the climatic factors likely to change the realization of these objectives. It also discusses the adequacy of the actions to the national engagement in matter of climatic change. (A.L.B.)