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Sample records for betel

  1. Betel: consumption and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S A

    1998-01-01

    Betel is a compound of natural substances chewed for its psychostimulating effects. Betel is composed of the nut of the areca palm (Areca catechu), the leaf of the betel pepper (Piper betle), and lime (calcium hydroxide). Approximately 200 million persons chew betel regularly throughout the western Pacific basin and south Asia. Only three drugs (nicotine, ethanol, and caffeine) are consumed more widely than betel. When betel is chewed, it produces mild psychoactive and cholinergic effects. There is copious production of a blood-red saliva that can stain oral structures. After years of chewing, the teeth may become red-brown to nearly black. Betel use is associated with oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, and squamous cell carcinoma. Use of betel is discouraged in Western countries because of its alleged carcinogenic and perceived dysesthetic properties; nevertheless, betel is widely available in the West. PMID:9448210

  2. Epidemiology of betel quid usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P C; Ray, C S

    2004-07-01

    Betel quid chewing is an ancient practice common in many countries of Asia and among migrated communities in Africa, Europe and North America. It enjoys complete social acceptance in many societies and is also popular among women. In its most basic form, betel quid consists of betel leaf (Piper betel), areca nut, the main psychoactive ingredient, and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). Areca nut is said to be the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. There are a great variety of ingredients and ways of preparing betel quid in different countries. In some, particularly in India, tobacco is added to the quid. In recent years, commercially-manufactured non-perishable forms of betel quid (pan masala or betel quid mixtures and gutka), not containing betel leaf, have been marketed. Within a short period of about 2 decades, this industry has risen in value to several hundred US million dollars. Use of areca nut in any form is not safe for oral health; the use of commercially manufactured forms seems even riskier. PMID:15389304

  3. Developmental Strategies of Betel nut Industry in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun; Han, Xuan; Liu, Li-Yun; Feng, Mei-li; Li, Zhuan; Qin, Hai-tang

    2010-01-01

    The developmental status of the betel nut industry is introduced, including cultivation situation, processing and development situation, and consumer market situation. The result shows that the cultivation of betel nut in Hainan Province develops rapidly and the primary processing of betel nut has formed certain scale, but the deep processing of betel nut is backward. Except for the minority of the betel nuts consumed by Hainan Island, a large majority of the betel nuts are processed into dry...

  4. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in betel chewers and non betel chewers with and without oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarasingha Indranee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel chewing has been shown to predispose to periodontal disease and oral cancer. Studies show that people with gum disease are more likely to test positive for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. It is not known if the lesions produced by betel quid and the resulting, chemical changes predispose to colonization by H. pylori. Further the role of this organism in oral cancer is not known. Our objective was to determine the presence of H. pylori in oral lesions of thirty oral cancer patients and to determine the presence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in oral cancer patients who are betel chewers and non betel chewers, healthy betel chewers and healthy non-betel chewers and to compare the presence of H. pylori in these four groups. This case control study was conducted at the Cancer Institute Maharagama and the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Methods One hundred and seventy three subjects, of whom fifty three were patients presenting with oral cancer to the Cancer Institute Maharagama, sixty healthy betel chewers and sixty healthy non-betel chewers from the Religious and Welfare Service Centre Maharagama were tested for H. pylori by serology. Thirty oral biopsies from oral cancer patients were cultured under microaerophilic condition to isolate H. pylori. The statistic used was Chi-square test. Results Of the fifty-three oral cancer patients, forty-four were betel chewers. Among the 53 oral cancer patients examined, ten of forty-four (10/44 = 22.7% patients who are betel chewers and four of nine (4/9 = 44.4% patients who are non-betel chewers were detected positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. In the healthy group (betel chewers and non betel chewers ten (16.7% of the healthy betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori by serology. None of the healthy non-betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori Fourteen [26.4%] of oral cancer patients tested positive for H

  5. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Adrian A.; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F.; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut (‘BN’), nut + Piper betle leaf (‘BL’), and betel quid (‘BQ’) consisting of nut+lime+tobacco+Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis invo...

  6. Betel quid-induced oral lichen planus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopler, Eric T; Parisi, Ernesta; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2003-04-01

    The social use of betel nut is relatively common in certain geographic areas, especially India and Southeast Asia. The term betel nut does not truly describe the product that is chewed; rather, the term quid is more accurate because it refers to a substance or mixture of substances, including the areca nut, that are chewed and remain in contact with the mucosa. Betel quid is a type of quid that contains betel leaf. Chewer's mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis are clinical entities that have been associated with betel quid use. We report a case of oral lichen planus induced by betel quid use in a 79-year-old Cambodian woman. PMID:12729096

  7. Developmental Strategies of Betel Nut Industry in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The developmental status of the betel nut industry is introduced, including cultivation situation, processing and development situation, and consumer market situation. The result shows that the cultivation of betel nut in Hainan Province develops rapidly and the primary processing of betel nut has formed certain scale, but the deep processing of betel nut is backward. Except for the mino amount of the betel nuts consumed by Hainan Island, a large majority of the betel nuts are processed into dry fruit to sell to Hunan Province to reprocess. The problems exist in the development of betel nut industry in Hainan Province are analyzed, covering blind cultivation, extensive management, backward processing, lagged new product development and the single and concentrated consumer market. The strategic choice of developing the betel nut industry of Hainan Province is analyzed as well. Hainan Province should carry out the green, sustainable, diversified, cooperative and export-oriented industrial developmental strategy.

  8. [Tooth wear in Hindu betel nut chewers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    Literature data describe the impact of certain factors on oral health. Very well known is habitual chewing of different plant products, including tobacco, which depending on the geographical area and the substances used, have various names. It has been estimated that approximately 200 million residents of the West Pacific Rim and South-East Asia indulge in betel chewing. Betel is composed of a leaf of the betel pepper, lime, tobacco and the nut of the areca palm. This study aimed to assess the degree of abrasive changes in residents of the Korunalaya Leprosy Care Center. The examinations were carried out on 85 patients (45 females and 40 males), aged 35-95 years, at the local dental surgery. Patients had their teeth assessed and they were further interviewed as to the duration of their habit with regard to their sex and age (35-44; 45-64 and > or = 65 years). The abrasive changes were evaluated using Gerasimov's 7-degree scale. Interview data indicate that 71.76% of the patients were habitual betel chewers. Among female patients, third-degree abrasion was the most frequent change while among males--fifth degree (53.3% and 45.0%, respectively). The abrasive changes, increasing with age, can be attributed to the duration of betel chewing. It is worth noticing that a vegetarian diet can be a contributing factor to abrasion as most of the food consumed by Hindus are plants. PMID:17288176

  9. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheng-Sheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun

    2008-04-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. Betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the Areca catechu), slake lime, and Piper betel leaf/or Piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in Asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. It has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. We describe a case of CG induced by betel quid chewing. PMID:18353040

  10. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  11. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  12. High α - radioactivity level in betel leaf (Piper Betel) and chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on alpha emitting radionuclides in tobacco samples is of significant importance as the interaction of alpha particles with cells chromosomes in different organs of tobacco eaters causes to carcinogenic changes in those organs. Apart from smoking, the tobacco products that are smokeless, like ghutka, chewing tobacco, etc., that are directly consumed through orally also contribute to carcinogenic health hazards. They can increase the internal radiation dose and thereby enhance the case of cancer in human population. Another important sample is betel leaf which is largely consumed by people. Since betel leaf is cultivated in lands using fertilizers having high alpha activity. Regular use of betel leaf may cause health hazards if alpha radioactivity is present in harmful quantities. In view of this the present work betel leafs and different type of tobacco products have been collected from the local market in and around Kolkata and alpha activity of those samples have been measured using CR-39 (SSNTD) detectors and dose has been estimated. (author)

  13. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans. PMID:25159859

  14. Availability and characteristics of betel products in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/ sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the availability and characteristics of these products outside of this region. Thus, a representative sample of betel products and additives was purchased in the Richmond, Virginia area. Five venues were visited between March and May, 2006. Products successfully purchased were those containing betel alone (seven), betel/tobacco (three), tobacco alone (four), and additives (four). Most betel products listed ingredients on the packaging, though some did not explicitly distinguish between those with versus without tobacco. Importantly, seven of seven betel alone and one of three betel/tobacco products omitted any health-related warnings. All products were inexpensive and relatively obtainable in the groceries visited. More research is warranted in order to accurately estimate product emergence into the U.S. and other world markets, and the consequent impact on public health. PMID:19004423

  15. Effects of Betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    2001-01-01

    Betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. Betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of Areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic constituent. However, betel chewing may produce complex reactions and interactions. In the presence of lime, arecoline and guvacoline in Areca nut are hydrolyzed into arecaidine and guvacine, respectively, which are strong inhibitors of GABA uptake. Piper betle flower or leaf contains aromatic phenolic compounds which have been found to stimulate the release of catecholamines in vitro. Thus, betel chewing may affect parasympathetic, GABAnergic and sympathetic functions. Betel chewing produces an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and body temperature. In addition, EEG shows widespread cortical desynchronization indicating a state of arousal. In autonomic function tests, both the sympathetic skin response and RR interval variation are affected. Betel chewing also increases plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These results suggest that betel chewing mainly affects the central and autonomic nervous systems. Future studies should investigate both the acute and chronic effects of betel chewing. Such studies may further elucidate the psychoactive mechanisms responsible for the undiminished popularity of betel chewing since antiquity. PMID:11385294

  16. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, W. M. N.; I. A. Razak; Yang, Y. H.; Talib, N. A.; Ikeda, N; Axell, T.; P C Gupta; Handa, Y.; N Abdullah; Zain, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults. Method....

  17. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Handa Yujiro; Gupta Prakash C; Axell Tony; Ikeda Noriaki; Talib Norain A; Yang Yi-Hsin; Razak Ishak A; Ghani Wan MN; Abdullah Norlida; Zain Rosnah B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults....

  18. AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BETEL PRODUCTS IN THE U.S.†

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the avail...

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF INGREDIENTS OF BETEL QUID ON ORAL AND ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj A Ghanwate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial and synergistic activity of ingredients of betel quid i.e. kattha, lime, betel leaf, betel nut, cardamom, clove and fennel seeds was tested against microbial population of oral cavity and four enteric pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri. For this purpose two methods were used. Pour plate method was used for calculating the reduction in microbial population in oral cavity and disk diffusion method was used for detecting the effect of ingredients of betel quid on enteric pathogens. In the first method, microbial population of saliva before and after chewing above ingredients individually and in different combinations was compared. It was found that the each ingredient of betel quid separately and in different combination shows reduction in microbial population by different percentage. The highest percentage of reduction in microbial population was shown by the combination of betel leaf, lime and kattha (Blk followed by betel leaf, cardamom etc. In the second experiment it was found that the bacteria investigated showed most susceptibility against kattha followed by clove and then combination of betel leaf, lime and kattha. From the study it was concluded that chewing of betel quid after every meal reduces the population of oral micro flora which may be responsible for dental carries and bad breath. It was also seen that enteric pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri could be inhibited by ingredients of beetle quid.

  20. Genomic alterations in breast cancer patients in betel quid and non betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Mishi; Mishra, Ashwani K; Sharma, Jagannath; Zomawia, Eric; Kataki, Amal; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    Betel Quid (BQ) chewing independently contributes to oral, hepatic and esophageal carcinomas. Strong association of breast cancer risk with BQ chewing in Northeast Indian population has been reported where this habit is prodigal. We investigated genomic alterations in breast cancer patients with and without BQ chewing exposure. Twenty six BQ chewers (BQC) and 17 non BQ chewer (NBQC) breast cancer patients from Northeast India were analyzed for genomic alterations and pathway networks using SNP array and IPA. BQC tumors showed significantly (PETS2 etc in BQC and two networks "Molecular Transport, Nucleic Acid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry" and "Cellular Development, Embryonic Development, Organismal Development" including genes RPN2, EMR3, VAV1, NNAT and MUC16 etc were seen in NBQC. Common alterations (>30%) were seen in 27 regions. Three networks were significant in common regions with key roles of PTK2, RPN2, EMR3, VAV1, NNAT, MUC16, MYC and YWHAZ genes. These data show that breast cancer arising by environmental carcinogens exemplifies genetic alterations differing from those observed in the non exposed ones. A number of genetic changes are shared in both tumor groups considered as crucial in breast cancer progression. PMID:22937096

  1. EXPLORATION OF BETEL LEAF WASTE FOR ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKANTA K. SEN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to reuse agrowaste, betel leaf stalk extract was found as potent antimicrobial agent. The principalcompound showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The MIC determinedbetween 25µg/mL to 250µg/mL and was supported by time kill experiment. The potentiality of the active principalwas measured against ciprofloxacin as a standard. The active compound tentatively identified as phenolic.

  2. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Sazwi, Nordin; Nalina, Thurairajah; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods Five ...

  3. Betel quid chewing in rural Bangladesh: prevalence, predictors and relationship to blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Heck, Julia E.; Marcotte, Erin L; Argos, Maria; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Sarwar, Golam; HASAN, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background Betel quid is chewed by 600 million people worldwide and it has been linked to obesity and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of betel quid chewing in a rural area of Bangladesh, and determine its effects on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure.

  4. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

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    Dr.T.Jayasree

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim of the study was to evaluate the local anesthetic activity of betel leaf extract after autoclaving the extract of betel leaf. Materials and methods: Extract of plain betel leaf, was tested for surface anesthetic activity using rabbits. Aqueous extraction of Piper betel leaf (AEPBL done by Soxhelts apparatus .Twenty male Rabbit’s were taken and divided in to four groups each group contain 5 animals, Group I - Standard (2% xylocaine, Group II - Test 0.3% (AEPBL, Group III - Test 0.6 % (AEPBL,Group IV - Test 12 % (AEPBL was instilled in conjunctival sac of right eyes. Standard protocol was followed to elicit light reflex, corneal reflex and to measure pupillary size after instilling the test drugs in the eye. There was dose dependent increase in onset and duration of local anesthetic activity with 6% and 12% doses of alcoholic extract of Piper betel leaf. Results: Betel leaf showed significant surface anesthetic activity comparable to that of Xylocaine. Conclusion: As a surface anesthetic, the onset was as quick as xylocaine and the duration was shorter than xylocaine

  5. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg-1) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg-1) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg-1), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg-1 (SD 0.02 mg kg-1). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg-1) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg-1), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  6. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  7. Developing a Betel Quid Cessation Program on the Island of Guam

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, John; Kawamoto, Crissy; Pokhrel, Pallav; Paulino, Yvette; Herzog, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is a psychoactive drug preparation typically made up of a combination of areca quid, slaked lime, piper betel leaf and tobacco. It is the fourth most commonly consumed drug in the world with global use concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region (Boucher and Mannan, 2002; Warnakulasuriya and Peters, 2002). The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified betel quid as a Group 1 carcinogen (IARC, 2004; Lin et al., 2006), and its use has been associated with oral and oropha...

  8. Prevalence of betel quid chewing habit in Taiwan and related sociodemographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y C; Chiang, T A; Chang, S J; Hsieh, S F

    1992-07-01

    The prevalence of betel quid chewing habit in Taiwan was surveyed in a group of Chinese people from Kaohsiung city and in a second group from the aboriginal inhabitants of South Taiwan. In all 1299 participants constituted Group 1 (85.2% response rate) and 827 Group 2 (70.1% response rate). People were interviewed in their homes in house-to-house survey, according to a structured questionnaire developed and evaluated by the authors. Of the Kaohsiung inhabitants covering all ages and both sexes, 6% was a current betel chewer and 4% was an ex-chewer, whereas 42% of the aborigines aged over 15 yr was a current chewer and 1% an ex-chewer. Lifetime prevalence was 10%. Betel chewing enjoys islandwide popularity among the 20 million inhabitants of Taiwan; the number of current and ex-users was estimated at 2.0 million (95% CI 1.6-2.4 million). The betel quid was prepared in two different ways. In one, used mainly by aborigines, fresh areca nut was simply wrapped with betel leaf and in another, popular mainly among Chinese, a lengthwise piece of betel fruit and lime paste was sandwiched between two halves of an areca nut. A high proportion of chewers was also a smoker and drinker, but tobacco was not found to be chewed together with betel quid. Consumption varied between 14 to 23 portions per day, with individual frequencies ranging widely from 1 to over 200 portions a day. A statistical analysis of sociodemographic factors showed that lesser educated older men, blue collar workers, smokers and drinkers were the likeliest betel chewers. PMID:1501158

  9. Khmer dental and medical students' knowledge about the betel quid chewing habit in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A; Schmidtberg, W; Scheifele, C

    1997-08-01

    95 of 144 questionnaires submitted by volunteer Khmer medical and dental students on the betel quid chewing habit in Cambodia were evaluated (58 medical, 37 dental). Questions related to the composition of the betel quid, the physiological and oral effects as well as traditional and sociological aspects. Statistical tests showed that there were differences between dental and medical students, particularly relating to the knowledge about oral effects. While 81.1% of dental students knew that betel quid chewing causes oral cancer, only 31.0% of the medical students were adequately informed. Similarly, 51.4% of the dental students knew about the relation between betel quid chewing and submucous fibrosis compared to 8.6% of the medical students (P chewing strengthens the gum, while 56.9% of the medical students believed that betel quid chewing would have this effect (P chewing habit was also indicated by the fact that while 5.3% of students had parents chewing betel quid, in contrast 40% of students reported grandparents with this habit. There are deficiencies of knowledge about the most important effects of betel quid chewing, particularly in medical students. Since both medical and dental students will in their future professional life have an enormous impact on health and health education, it seems justified that the dental and medical curricula should focus on these traditional habits. Proper health education starting in the dental and medical school is warranted in Cambodia and probably also in other South and Southeast Asian countries where the betel quid chewing habit is prevalent so as ultimately to improve public knowledge on the oral and other effects of this habit. PMID:9567917

  10. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption ...

  11. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  12. Inhibitory effect of betel quid on the volatility of methyl mercaptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Chen, S L; Wu, M G

    2001-04-01

    Betel quid, a popular natural masticatory in Taiwan, is mainly composed of fresh areca fruit, Piper betle (leaf or inflorescence), and slaked lime paste. People say that halitosis disappears during betel quid chewing. In this study, the removal of mouth odor during betel quid chewing was discussed by using a model system which measured its inhibition on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Results showed that crude extracts of betel quid (the mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle, and slaked lime paste) and extracts of the mixture of areca fruit and slaked lime paste exhibited marked effects on the volatility of methyl mercaptan, and the inhibition function increased when increasing amounts of slaked lime paste were added. The same condition (increased inhibition) was also found by replacing the slaked lime paste with alkaline salts (calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide). Areca fruit, the major ingredient of betel quid, contained abundant phenolics. However, the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit did not show any inhibitory activity on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Great inhibitory activity occurred only when the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit was treated with alkali. Further studies by using gel filtration determined that the effect probably came from the oxidative polymerization of phenolics of areca fruit after alkaline treatment. PMID:11308356

  13. Changes in plasma steroids and cytokines levels in betel chewing patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sindy; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Kuo, Song-Bor; Chen, Yifen; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Betel nut is the second largest economic food product in Taiwan. In Southeast Asia, the habit of chewing betel nut seems to be highly correlated with oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of oral submucous collagen fibers and limitation of mouth opening. Although the mechanism responsible for tissue damage is still unknown, prolonged irritation caused by betel nut and tobacco is considered to be a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. The effect of betel nut chewing on immune system remains unknown. Present study aims to investigate the change of plasma hormones including cortisol, testosterone, and inflammatory cytokine concentrations in male chewing betel nut compared with normal subjects. Heparinized blood was obtained from control group (normal young+mid-aged individuals), betel nut-chewing, and oral cancer male subjects. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital. Written informed consent was granted by the patients. Plasma cortisol and testosterone concentrations were detected by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-15, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were analyzed by ELISA with commercial monoclonal capture antibodies and polyclonal detection antibodies. The median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α were 3.14pg/ml, 3.14pg/ml, and 6.85pg/ml, respectively, in patients with oral cancer, compared with median plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α concentration of 2.64pg/ml, 5.86pg/ml, and 5.38pg/ml, respectively, in patients with betel nut-chewing habit. In contrast, the median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α in mid-aged males (aged 30-50) were 7.00pg/ml, 10.64pg/ml, and 31.73pg/ml, respectively, compared with median plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α of 4.48pg/ml, 33.36pg

  14. Hypolipidemic activity ofPiper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect ofPiper betel(P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat.Methods:The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally.Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results:In groupII animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein(LDL) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(VLDL) were significantly enhanced when compared to that of normal rat.Conclusion:It could be said that the methanolic leaf extract ofP. betel exhibited a significant hypolipidemic effect.

  15. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handa Yujiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults. Method This study is part of a nationwide survey on oral mucosal lesions carried out among 11,697 adults in all fourteen states in Malaysia. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information and details on betel quid chewing habit such as duration, type and frequency. The Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated and plotted to compare the rates for the commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios for factors related to commencement or cessation of this habit. Results Of the total subjects, 8.2% were found to be betel quid chewers. This habit was more prevalent among females and, in terms of ethnicity, among the Indians and the Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak. Cessation of this habit was more commonly seen among males and the Chinese. Females were found to be significantly more likely to start (p Conclusion Factors that influence the development and cessation of this behaviour are gender, age, ethnicity, and also history of smoking habit while frequency and type of quid chewed are important factors for cessation of this habit.

  16. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-11-14

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  17. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

  18. Plasma fibrinogen degradation products in betel nut chewers - with and without oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF has a multifactorial etiology. Recent studies have shown that there is an increased level of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP in plasma of OSMF patients suggesting its possible role in etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Aims: To detect the presence of FDP in the plasma of betel nut chewers with and without OSMF and in normal subjects without any habits, to correlate these levels with respect to the clinical and histological grading of OSMF and whether it can be used as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in detection of suspected OSMF cases. Materials and Methods: Study comprised of 35 cases of betel nut chewers with OSMF, 10 patients with betel nut chewing habit but having apparently normal oral mucosa, and 10 normal patients without any habits. The patients were evaluated for plasma FDP levels. Results: All the betel nut chewers with OSMF showed the presence of plasma FDP. However, controls and subjects with habit, but without OSMF did not show FDP in the plasma. Spearman′s rank correlation was used to find the association between the clinical and histological grades and it was not statistically significant (P = 0.910 and the correlation being 0.020. Conclusion: Since only those patients with OSMF have showed the presence of FDP in plasma, we suggest that our test can be utilized as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in suspected OSMF patients.

  19. Financial viability and conservation role of betel leaf based agroforestry: an indigenous hill farming system of Khasia community in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mizanur Rahman; Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman; Mahmuda Islam

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the cultural and financial management techniques of betel leaf based agroforestry system practiced in or near homegardens of Khasia community in Jaintapur Upazila in the district of Sylhet, Bangladesh. The Khasia is an educated community where 100% of Khasia people were literate, a stunning fact for this ethnic community in Bangladesh. The average family size in the study area was 7.68, with a ration of male and females of 141:100. The homegardens of the Khasia are rich in species composition, which 15 timber species, 22 horticultural species, six medicinal species, 13 annual crops including leafy vegetables, seven species of spices and five species of bamboo were identified along with betel leaf. The Khasia is an economically prosperous community with the minimum family incomes of Tk 4000 per month (Tk. 70=1 US Dollar). Betel leaf based agroforestry is very common being a prevalent source of income. About 95.45% of the households are involved in betel leaf husbandry. The mean annual income from one hectare of betel leaf plantation was estimated to be Tk. 80979. This practice was proven to be a profitable business where the benefit cost ratio was calculated to be 4.47. Moreover, the species composition in the betel leaf plantation area (the forest area once utilized by Khasia for shifting cultivation) was found to be very promising to play the significant role in conservation of biological diversity making the practice a sustainable agroforestry system.

  20. Betel leaf toothpastes inhibit dental plaque formation on fixed orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizka Amelia Mayasari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brackets, archwires, ligatures, and other fixed orthodontic appliance components complicate the use of conventional oral-hygiene measures. This often results in significant plaque accumulation around the bracket bases. The addition of betel leaf extract in toothpaste is expected to inhibit the growth of dental plaque. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of betel leaf toothpaste in inhibiting plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Methods: This study was done on dental student of Airlangga University aged 18–24 years, have been wearing fixed orthodontic appliances for 1–2 years, have no systemic diseases. The samples were divided into two groups, consisting of 20 samples. First group of samples brushed their teeth with betel group of samples brushed their teeth with betel brushed their teeth with betel leaf toothpaste and the second using placebo. The subjects were instructed to brush their teeth using Scrub method until reaching zero (0 scor of orthodontic plaque index (OPI. Plaque scores were taken again 4 hours after brushing. The statistical analysis was done by using paired t test. Results: The average of accumulated plaque on group that use betel leaf toothpaste was 25.54 and placebo was 41.09. The result showed that there was significant difference in plaque accumulation between the group with betel leaf toothpaste and placebo 4 hours after brushing (p = 0.001. Conclusion: In conclusion, betel leaf toothpaste is effective in inhibiting the dental plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Latar belakang: Bracket, kawat busur, kawat ligatur dan komponen peranti ortodonti cekat yang lain mempersulit pembersihan gigi secara konvensional. Hal ini sering menyebabkan terjadinya akumulasi plak di sekitar dasar braket. Penambahan ekstrak daun sirih yang mempunyai efek bakterisid pada pasta gigi diharapkan dapat menghambat pertumbuhan plak. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk

  1. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term. PMID:16534642

  2. Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid and Oral Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-An Liu; Fun-Jou Chen; Shang-Heng Wu; Rong-San Jiang; Wen-Jiun Lin

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between smoking, alcoholic consumption, and betel quid chewing with oral cancer in a prospective manner. All male patients age ≥18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosa inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 10,657 participants were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings we...

  3. Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J F

    1992-01-01

    Tannins are increasingly recognized as dietary carcinogens and as antinutrients interfering with the system's full use of protein. Nevertheless, certain tannin-rich beverages, masticatories, and folk remedies, long utilized in African, Asiatic, Pacific, and Latin American countries, are now appearing in North American sundry shops and grocery stores. These include guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK.) from Brazil, kola nut (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. and C. acuminata Schott & Endl.) from West Africa, and betel nut (Areca catechu L.) from Malaya. The betel nut, or arecanut, has long been associated with oral and esophageal cancer because of its tannin content and the tannin contributed by the highly astringent cutch from Acacia catechu L. and Uncaria gambir Roxb. and the aromatic, astringent 'pan' (leaves of Piper betel L.) chewed with it. In addition to the constant recreational/social ingestion of these plant materials, they are much consumed as aphrodisiacs and medications. Guarana and kola nut enjoy great popularity in their native lands because they are also rich in caffeine, which serves as a stimulant. Research and popular education on the deleterious effects of excessive tannin intake could do much to reduce the heavy burden of early mortality and health care, especially in developing countries. PMID:1417698

  4. Antimicrobial Property of Piper betel Leaf against Clinical Isolates of Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arani Datta,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Piper betel (locally known as Paan have long been in use in the Indian local system of medicine for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In the present work, the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Piper betel leaves was evaluated against human pathogenic bacteria (both gram-positive and gram-negative. The leaf powder was subjected to phytochemical screening and was found to contain carbohydrate, protein,polyphenolic compounds, flavonoid, alkaloids and total antioxidant. The ethanol extract showed strong free radical scavenging activity as seen by DPPH model. The extract confirmed significant antimicrobial activity against all bacterial strains tested. The effect of the extract was almost proportional to the concentration of the extract tested. The MIC for the bacterial strains was in the range of 25 μg to 40 μg. Concurring with the disc diffusion results, the MIC of the Proteus vulgaris was found to be least 25 μg while for Staphylococcus aureus it was approximately 40 μg. Time-kill kinetics of the ethanol extract treated bacterial strains demonstrated similar results, showing decline in the growth curve after six hour in most of the strains. Crude ethanol extract of Piper betel showed strong antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic bacterial strains. The results also indicate that scientific studies carried out commonly use herbs having traditional claims of effectiveness might warrant fruitful results.

  5. Forest-based betel leaf and betel nut farming of the Khasia indigenous People in Bangladesh:approach to biodiversity conservation in Lawachara National Park (LNP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Jahirul Islam; Tapan Kumar Nath

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory survey was conducted among the Khasia living in Lawachara National Parkt (LNP) to investigate their depend-ency on the protected area (PA) for livelihoods, betel leaf hill farming, traditional forest conservation and perceptions of the PA. Field data were collected by interviewing 48 household heads from two villages (punjis) located inside the LNP and visiting their farms. The economy of the Khasia was forest-based. They were largely dependent on betel leaf hill farming in LNP and nearly 71% of their mean annual income was de-rived from this irrespective of farmer category. On average, about 14%of the incomes of the poorer farmers came from forest produce followed by 10%and 6%for medium and rich farmers respectively. Hills and forests were the foundations of their lives and livelihoods, and LNP was the life-blood of Khasia survival. As a sustainable production system, this farming practice plays a vital role in conserving biodiversity in LNP and might be replicated elsewhere.

  6. The Effects of Chewing Betel Nut with Tobacco and Pre-pregnancy Obesity on Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Palauan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katherine E; Masterson, James; Mascardo, Joy; Grapa, Jayvee; Appanaitis, Inger; Temengil, Everlynn; Watson, Berry Moon; Cash, Haley L

    2016-08-01

    The small Pacific Island nation of Palau has alarmingly high rates of betel nut with tobacco use and obesity among the entire population including pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the effects of betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity on adverse birth outcomes. This study used retrospective cohort data on 1171 Palauan women who gave birth in Belau National Hospital in Meyuns, Republic of Palau between 2007 and 2013. The exposures of interest were pre-pregnancy obesity and reported betel nut with tobacco use during pregnancy. The primary outcomes measured were preterm birth and low birth weight among full-term infants. A significantly increased risk for low birth weight among full-term infants was demonstrated among those women who chewed betel nut with tobacco during pregnancy when other known risk factors were controlled for. Additionally, pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk for preterm birth when other known risk factors were controlled for. Both betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity were associated with higher risks for adverse birth outcomes. These findings should be used to drive public health efforts in Palau, as well as in other Pacific Island nations where these studies are currently lacking. PMID:26994610

  7. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health. PMID:19550099

  8. THE USE OF TOBACCO AND BETEL LEAF AND ITS EFFECT ON THE NORMAL MICROBIAL FLORA OF ORAL CAVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Saini S; Saini SR; Katiyar R; Bhalerao DS; Munde A

    2009-01-01

    The use of tobacco, betel nut, betel leaf (pan) and chillies cause certain changes in the oral cavity because of different chemicals they contain. A total of twenty five patients were examined, both male and females,ranging between 10-70 years. Oral examination was carried out and most of them presented with, submucus fibrosis or blanched mucosa. Samples from oral cavity were collected with sterile swabs, swabbing it all round in the oral cavity and carried to the laboratory for both aerobic ...

  9. The effective concentration of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion as root canal irrigant solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Pangabdian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smear layer is a debris consisting of organic and inorganic particles of calcified tissue, necrotic tissue, pulp tissue, and dentinoblast and microorganism processes that can close the entrance to the dentin tubuli. Smear layer, will not only inhibit the penetration of disinfection materials and sealers to the dentin tubuli, but will also reduce the attachment of root canal filling material so that root canal irrigation solution is needed to dissolve the smear layer. Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion, on the other hand, contains saponin characterized as “surfactants” which can dissolve smear layer. Nevertheless, the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion has still not been known clearly. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion for cleaning root canal walls from smear layer. Methods: Fiveteen extracted human teeth with straight single roots were randomized into 5 groups (n=3. The specimens were then shaped by using rotary instruments up to a size of 25/.07. During instrumentation, each canal was irrigated with 10, 20, 30 and, 40% red betel leaf infusion for treatment groups, while another was irrigated with aquadest for the control group. Root canal cleanliness was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results: There were significant differences among treatment groups (p<0.05, except in the treatment groups irrigated with red betel leaf infusion with concentrations of 30% and 40% (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that red betel leaf infusion with a concentration of 30% is effective for cleaning the root canal walls from the smear layer.Latar belakang: Smear layer adalah suatu debris yang mengandung partikel organik dan anorganik dari jaringan terkalsifikasi, jaringan nekrotik, proses dentinoblas, jaringan pulpa dan mikroorganisme yang dapat menutup jalan masuk ke tubuli dentin. Smear layer akan menghalangi penetrasi dari bahan

  10. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

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    Al Asmaul Husna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  11. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

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    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  12. The mutagenicities of alkaloids and N-nitrosoguvacoline from betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Peng, C H

    1996-08-01

    In Taiwan, betel quid is a natural masticatory, which is composed of fresh green areca fruit, Piper betle and slaked lime paste. Areca fruit contains some alkaloids, of which arecoline is the major one. N-Nitrosoguvacoline (NG), one of the N-nitrosation products of arecoline, is the only one N-nitrosamine found in Taiwanese betel quid chewing saliva. The mutagenic studies in Ames Salmonella microsome test showed that crude alkaloid extracts of areca fruit and arecoline were active in Salmonella typhimurium TA100, and NG was weakly active in TA98 and TA100. The activities in both arecoline and NG decreased further in the presence of rat liver S9 mix. Nitrite was significantly consumed during the N-nitrosation of arecoline and sodium nitrite at acidic condition (pH 3), whereas the formation of NG was favored at neutral condition (pH 7). Crude phenolic extracts of leaf and inflorescence of Piper betle inhibited the formation of NG by blocking the nitrite. However, a high amount of crude phenolic extracts of areca fruit enhanced the formation of NG. PMID:8692215

  13. Lack of Correlation of Betel Nut Chewing, Tobacco Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Telomerase Activity and the Severity of Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Ling Hsieh; Hung-Ming Wang; Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang; I-How Chen; Chun-Ta Liao; Ann-Joy Cheng

    2003-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the most frequent cancers. A strong association hasbeen found between oral cancer incidence and the use of betel nut, alcohol,and tobacco. Telomerase activity (TA) has also been shown to play a role incarcinogenesis. We therefore surveyed the consumption habits of betel nutchewing, alcohol drinking, and tobacco smoking in oral cancer patients andevaluated the association of these habits with TA level and clinical stage.Methods: In total, 154 oral cancer patie...

  14. Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Barh

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

  15. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Yamin; A. Sudarman; D. Evvyernie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM) addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity be...

  16. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Urmila; Bartsch, Helmut; Nair, Jagadeesan

    2004-07-01

    In south-east Asia, Taiwan and Papua New Guinea, smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco or areca nut with or without tobacco are the predominant causes of oral cancer. In most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime, catechu and several condiments according to taste, wrapped in a betel leaf. Almost all habitual chewers use tobacco with or without the betel quid. In the last few decades, small, attractive and inexpensive sachets of betel quid substitutes have become widely available. Aggressively advertised and marketed, often claimed to be safer products, they are consumed by the very young and old alike, particularly in India, but also among migrant populations from these areas world wide. The product is basically a flavoured and sweetened dry mixture of areca nut, catechu and slaked lime with tobacco (gutkha) or without tobacco (pan masala). These products have been strongly implicated in the recent increase in the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis, especially in the very young, even after a short period of use. This precancerous lesion, which has a high rate of malignant transformation, is extremely debilitating and has no known cure. The use of tobacco with lime, betel quid with tobacco, betel quid without tobacco and areca nut have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As gutkha and pan masala are mixtures of several of these ingredients, their carcinogenic affect can be surmised. We review evidence that strongly supports causative mechanisms for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of these substitute products. Although some recent curbs have been put on the manufacture and sale of these products, urgent action is needed to permanently ban gutkha and pan masala, together with the other established oral cancer-causing tobacco products. Further, education to reduce or eliminate home-made preparations needs to be accelerated. PMID:15215323

  17. 我国嚼食槟榔地区居民槟榔使用问题及对策探讨的研究现况%The problems of betel quid usage and coping strategies among residents from popular region of betel quid chewing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启文; 符永健; 许开宁; 杨庆雄; 黄胜

    2013-01-01

    对我国嚼食槟榔流行地区居民的槟榔使用现状、与嚼食槟榔相关健康问题以及对策探讨的研究现况进行综述.%The paper analyzed the state of betel quid usage among residents from popular region of chewing betel in China, further , analyzed the main problems, and on this basis, we suggested three coping strategies.

  18. Ortho- and meta-tyrosine formation from phenylalanine in human saliva as a marker of hydroxyl radical generation during betel quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U J; Nair, J; Friesen, M D; Bartsch, H; Ohshima, H

    1995-05-01

    The habit of betel quid chewing, common in South-East Asia and the South Pacific islands, is causally associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. Reactive oxygen species formed from polyphenolic betel quid ingredients and lime at alkaline pH have been implicated as the agents responsible for DNA and tissue damage. To determine whether hydroxyl radical (HO.) is generated in the human oral cavity during chewing of betel quid, the formation of o- and m-tyrosine from L-phenylalanine was measured. Both o- and m-tyrosine were formed in vitro in the presence of extracts of areca nut and/or catechu, transition metal ions such as Cu2+ and Fe2+ and lime or sodium carbonate (alkaline pH). Omission of any of these ingredients from the reaction mixture significantly reduced the yield of tyrosines. Hydroxyl radical scavengers such as ethanol, D-mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide inhibited the phenylalanine oxidation in a dose-dependent fashion. Five volunteers chewed betel quid consisting of betel leaf, areca nut, catechu and slaked lime (without tobacco). Their saliva, collected after chewing betel quid, contained high concentrations of p-tyrosine, but no appreciable amounts of o- or m-tyrosine. Saliva samples from the same subjects after chewing betel quid to which 20 mg phenylalanine had been added contained o- and m-tyrosine at concentrations ranging from 1010 to 3000 nM and from 1110 to 3140 nM respectively. These levels were significantly higher (P < 0.005) than those of subjects who kept phenylalanine in the oral cavity without betel quid, which ranged from 14 to 70 nM for o-tyrosine and from 10 to 35 nM for m-tyrosine. These studies clearly demonstrate that the HO. radical is formed in the human oral cavity during betel quid chewing and is probably implicated in the genetic damage that has been observed in oral epithelial cells of chewers. PMID:7767985

  19. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, R B; Ikeda, N; Gupta, P C; Warnakulasuriya, S; van Wyk, C W; Shrestha, P; Axéll, T

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that "quid" be defined as "a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or both of the two basic ingredients, tobacco and/or areca nut, in raw or any manufactured or processed form." Clear delineations on contents of the quid (areca nut quid, tobacco quid, and tobacco and areca nut quid) are recommended as absolute criteria with finer subdivisions to be added if necessary. The betel quid refers to any quid wrapped in betel leaf and is therefore a specific variety of quid. The workshop proposed that quid-related lesions should be categorized conceptually into two categories: first, those that are diffusely outlined and second, those localized at the site where a quid is regularly placed. Additional or expanded criteria and guidelines were proposed to define, describe or identify lesions such as chewer's mucosa, areca nut chewer's lesion, oral submucous fibrosis and other quid-related lesions. A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to describe an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid habit. PMID:9890449

  20. Areca nut and betel quid chewing among South Asian immigrants to Western countries and its implications for oral cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Auluck, A; Hislop, G; Poh, C; Zhang, L.; Rosin, MP

    2009-01-01

    The South Asian community is the largest and one of the fastest growing minority groups in Canada, according to the 2006 census. These immigrants bring to Canada talents and skills that can promote Canada’s economy and cultural diversity, but they also bring lifestyle habits that may lead to serious health issues. Chewing areca nut and betel quid (paan, with and without tobacco) is a known risk factor for oral cancer. This habit is common in the Indo-Canadian population, as evidenced by its s...

  1. A review of the systemic adverse effects of areca nut or betel nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut is widely consumed by all ages groups in many parts of the world, especially south-east Asia. The objective of this review is to systematically review and collate all the published data that are related to the systemic effects of areca nut. The literature search was performed by an electronic search of the Pubmed and Cochrane databases using keywords and included articles published till October 2012. We selected studies that covered the effect of areca nut on metabolism, and a total of 62 studies met the criteria. There is substantial evidence for carcinogenicity of areca nut in cancers of the mouth and esophagus. Areca nut affects almost all organs of the human body, including the brain, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and reproductive organs. It causes or aggravates pre-existing conditions such as neuronal injury, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, hepatotoxicity, asthma, central obesity, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, etc. Areca nut affects the endocrine system, leading to hypothyroidism, prostate hyperplasia and infertility. It affects the immune system leading to suppression of T-cell activity and decreased release of cytokines. It has harmful effects on the fetus when used during pregnancy. Thus, areca nut is not a harmless substance as often perceived and proclaimed by the manufacturers of areca nut products such as Pan Masala, Supari Mix, Betel quid, etc. There is an urgent need to recognize areca nut as a harmful food substance by the policy makers and prohibit its glamorization as a mouth freshener. Strict laws are necessary to regulate the production of commercial preparations of areca nut.

  2. Conserved host-pathogen PPIs. Globally conserved inter-species bacterial PPIs based conserved host-pathogen interactome derived novel target in C. pseudotuberculosis, C. diphtheriae, M. tuberculosis, C. ulcerans, Y. pestis, and E. coli targeted by Piper betel compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Debmalya; Gupta, Krishnakant; Jain, Neha;

    2013-01-01

    were predicted to inhibit Ack activity. One of these Piper betel compounds found to inhibit E. coli O157:H7 growth similar to penicillin. The target specificity of these betel compounds, their effects on other studied pathogens, and other in silico results are currently being validated and the results...... generate a conserved host-pathogen interaction (HP-PPI) network considering human, goat, sheep, bovine, and horse as hosts. The HP-PPI network was validated, and acetate kinase (Ack) was identified as a novel broad spectrum target. Ceftiofur, penicillin, and two natural compounds derived from Piper betel...

  3. P53 and bak mutations as a predictive factor for radiotherapy of oral cancer associated with betel quid chewing in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betel quid chewing is very common in India and Southeast Asian countries, where oral cancer comprises up to 40% of the total malignancies. Radiotherapy is usually adopted for oral cancer, but the prognosis is very poor. Therefore, identifying predictive parameters for radiotherapy is utmost important

  4. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship. PMID:26243908

  5. Effects of arecoline on adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake of adipocytes-A possible role of betel-quid chewing in metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible involvement of betel-quid chewing in adipocyte dysfunction, we determined the effects of arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, on adipogenic differentiation (adipogenesis), lipolysis, and glucose uptake by fat cells. Using mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we showed that arecoline inhibited adipogenesis as determined by oil droplet formation and adipogenic marker gene expression. The effects of arecoline on lipolysis of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by the glycerol release assay, indicating that arecoline induced lipolysis in an adenylyl cyclase-dependent manner. The diabetogenic effects of arecoline on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated by the glucose uptake assay, revealing that ≥ 300 μM arecoline significantly attenuated insulin-induced glucose uptake; however, no marked effect on basal glucose uptake was detected. Moreover, using 94 subjects that were randomly selected from a health check-up, we determined the association of betel-quid chewing with hyperlipidemia and its related risk factors. Hyperlipidemia frequency and serum triglyceride levels of betel-quid chewers were significantly higher than those of non-betel-quid chewers. In this study, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibits adipogenic differentiation, induces adenylyl cyclase-dependent lipolysis, and interferes with insulin-induced glucose uptake. Arecoline-induced fat cell dysfunction may lead to hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia/insulin-resistance. These findings provide the first in vitro evidence of betel-quid chewing modulation of adipose cell metabolism that could contribute to the explanation of the association of this habit with metabolic syndrome disorders.

  6. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Mukkavilli, Rao [Advinus Therapeutics, Karnataka (India); Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Reid, Michelle D. [Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Aneja, Ritu, E-mail: raneja@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to

  7. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Gupta

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.Studies (case control and/or cohort were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias.Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls and four cohort studies (15,342 which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, P<0.001, (adjusted main-effect summary for cohort studies RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 2.56-11.71, P<0.001. Furthermore, meta-analysis of fifteen case control studies (4,648 cases; 7,847 controls has shown betel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, P<0.001. This is presumably due to the carcinogenicity of areca nut. There was no significant publication bias.There is convincing evidence that smokeless (aka chewing tobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco

  8. Betel quid chewing and the risk of oral and oropharyngeal cancers: a meta-analysis with implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt

    2014-09-15

    We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of 50 publications assessing the relationship between oral/oropharyngeal cancer and chewing betel quid, with (BQ+T) or without added tobacco (BQ-T), a common practice in many parts of Asia and globally among Asian immigrants. Exposure-response, by daily amount and years of BQ chewed, was assessed using spline models. Attributable fractions (PAF%) were calculated to estimate the public health impact if BQ were no longer chewed. The meta-relative risk (mRR) for oral/oropharyngeal cancer in the Indian subcontinent was 2.56 (95%CI, 2.00-3.28; 15 studies) for BQ-T and 7.74 (95%CI, 5.38-11.13; 31 studies) for BQ+T; in Taiwan, China, the mRR for BQ-T was 10.98 (95%CI, 4.86-24.84; 13 studies). Restricting to studies that adjusted for tobacco and alcohol use had only a small effect on the risk estimates. For BQ+T in the Indian subcontinent, the mRR was much higher in women (mRR, 14.56; 95%CI, 7.63-27.76) than in men. Exposure-response analyses showed that the risk of oral/oropharyngeal cancer increased with increasing daily amount and duration (years) of chewing BQ in India and Taiwan, China. Roughly half of oral cancers in these countries could be prevented if BQ were no longer chewed (PAF%=53.7% for BQ-T in Taiwan, China; PAF%=49.5% for BQ+T in India). We demonstrate that betel quid chewing, with or without added tobacco, increases the risk of oral/oropharyngeal cancer in an exposure-dependent manner, independently of tobacco and alcohol use. Further work is needed to explain the higher risks associated with chewing BQ-T in Taiwan, China. PMID:24302487

  9. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Zhong-Yan; Yang, Guo-Shuai; Pan, Meng-Jie; Li, Chang-Qing; Pan, Su-Yue; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested by the first voxel-based morphometry investigation that betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals are presented with brain structural changes in previous reports, and there may be a neurobiological basis for BQD individuals related to an increased risk of executive dysfunction and disinhibition, subjected to the reward system, cognitive system, and emotion system. However, the effects of BQD on neural activity remain largely unknown. Individuals with impaired cognitive control of behavior often reveal altered spontaneous cerebral activity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and those changes are usually earlier than structural alteration.Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control participants (n = 32) in an resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe brain function alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were both evaluated to stand for spontaneous cerebral activity. Gray matter volumes of these participants were also calculated for covariate.In comparison with healthy controls, BQD individuals demonstrated dramatically decreased ALFF and ReHo values in the prefrontal gurus along with left fusiform, and increased ALFF and ReHo values in the primary motor cortex area, temporal lobe as well as some regions of occipital lobe. The betel quid dependence scores (BQDS) were negatively related to decreased activity in the right anterior cingulate.The abnormal spontaneous cerebral activity revealed by ALFF and ReHo calculation excluding the structural differences in patients with BQD may help us probe into the neurological pathophysiology underlying BQD-related executive dysfunction and disinhibition. Diminished spontaneous brain activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex may, therefore, represent a biomarker of BQD individuals. PMID:26844480

  10. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai–Myanmar border

    OpenAIRE

    Chue, Amy L; Verena I. Carrara; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Sue J Lee; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai–Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse...

  11. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: Consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.; Ikeda, N.; P C Gupta; Warnakulasuriya, S; C. DE W. van Wyk; Shrestha, P.; Axéll, T.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that 'quid' be defined as 'a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or bot...

  12. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Association of Smokeless Tobacco and of Betel Quid without Tobacco with Incidence of Oral Cancer in South Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    Aim This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Methods Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewi...

  13. The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ and areca nut (AN (major BQ ingredient are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

  14. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yamin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity before and after fermentation. After four hours fermentation, supernatant of each samples were analyzed for VFA, NH3, number of bacteria and protozoa. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were analyzed after 48 h fermentation. The results showed that before fermentation, 8% BLM addition caused the bigest (P<0.05 inhibition diameter of Staphylococcus spp. growth compared to other lower levels. However after fermentation there were no significant differences among the addition levels of BLM. Two per cent of BLM addition produced higher VFA (P<0.05 than the other addition levels. Ammonia concentration, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were not different among the treatments. Addition of BLM significantly (P<0.01 decreased protozoa number, but did not affect bacterial count. It is concluded that the addition of 2% BLM in concentrate feed can be used effectively to inhibit the growth of mastitis causing bacteria (Staphylococcus spp. and does not disturb rumen fermentation condition.

  15. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Road Hung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM).METHODS: Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested.RESULTS: An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcerogenic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats.CONCLUSION: (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats.

  16. Expression of a Splice Variant of CYP26B1 in Betel Quid-Related Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is a psychostimulant, an addictive substance, and a group 1 carcinogen that exhibits the potential to induce adverse health effects. Approximately, 600 million users chew a variety of BQ. Areca nut (AN is a necessary ingredient in BQ products. Arecoline is the primary alkaloid in the AN and can be metabolized through the cytochrome P450 (CYP superfamily by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Full-length CYP26B1 is related to the development of oral pharyngeal cancers. We investigated whether a splice variant of CYP26B1 is associated with the occurrence of ROS related oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cytotoxicity assays were used to measure the effects of arecoline on cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant. The CYP26B1 splice variant exhibited lower expression than did full-length CYP26B1 in the human gingival fibroblast-1 and Ca9-22 cell models. Increased expression of the CYP26B1 splice variant was observed in human oral cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue, and increased expression was observed in patients at a late tumor stage. Our results suggested that the CYP26B1 splice variant is associated with the occurrence of BQ-related oral cancer.

  17. Isolation and structural characterization of antioxidant activity compounds from betel nut seed%槟榔籽中抗氧化活性物质的分离与结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩林; 王兆丹; 张海德; 罗仕数

    2012-01-01

    为了研究槟榔籽中的抗氧化活性物质,通过柱色谱法分离纯化槟榔籽乙醇提取物,结合抗氧化活性筛选,分离得到槟榔籽中主要的抗氧化活性物质Fr-4。利用高效液相色谱分析其纯度,经波谱分析确定该物质为表儿茶素。%In order to research the antioxidant activity compounds of the betel nut seed,the ethanol extract of betel nut seed was isolated and purified by column chromatography.Combined with antioxidant activity screening,Fr-4 was isolated as the main antioxidant activity compounds of betel nut seed.HPLC was used to analyze its purity and epicatechin was identified by spectrum analysis.

  18. Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chen, Shiao-Yun; Liao, Chang-Hui; Tung, Yuan-Yii; Lin, Bor-Ru; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2002-05-01

    There are 2 to 6 billion betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. Areca nut (AN), a BQ component, modulates arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, which is crucial for platelet function. AN extract (1 and 2 mg/ml) stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation, with induction of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production. Contrastingly, Piper betle leaf (PBL) extract inhibited AA-, collagen-, and U46619-induced platelet aggregation, and TXB2 and prostaglandin-D2 (PGD2) production. PBL extract also inhibited platelet TXB2 and PGD2 production triggered by thrombin, platelet activating factor (PAF), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), whereas little effect on platelet aggregation was noted. Moreover, PBL is a scavenger of O2(*-) and *OH, and inhibits xanthine oxidase activity and the (*)OH-induced PUC18 DNA breaks. Deferoxamine, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and neomycin prevented AN-induced platelet aggregation and TXB2 production. Indomethacin, genistein, and PBL extract inhibited only TXB2 production, but not platelet aggregation. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed little effect on AN-induced platelet aggregation, whereas catalase and DMT inhibited the AN-induced TXB2 production. These results suggest that AN-induced platelet aggregation is associated with iron-mediated reactive oxygen species production, calcium mobilization, phospholipase C activation, and TXB2 production. PBL inhibited platelet aggregation via both its antioxidative effects and effects on TXB2 and PGD2 production. Effects of AN and PBL on platelet aggregation and AA metabolism is crucial for platelet activation in the oral mucosa and cardiovascular system in BQ chewers. PMID:11978487

  19. Effects of aqueous extracts of "Betel quid" and its constituents on testosterone production by dispersed mouse interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Kaphle, Krishna; Wang, Pei-Hwa; Jong, De-Shien; Wu, Leang-Shin; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a favorite chewing item among many communities in different parts of Asia where it is popular by different names. BQ is a unique combination of nut or fruit from the Areca catechu Linn. (AN) tree, leaf from the Piper betle Linn. (BL) vine, slaked lime, paste of bark from the Acacia catechu tree and other spices. AN has been used successfully in various traditional medicines by different civilizations over several ages. Initially condemned by the medical communities for its health hazards, identification and application of potent pharmacologically bioactive compounds from different constituents of BQ have rekindled growing interest in related investigations. Curious about the stimulating role of BQ, we investigated the potential steroidogenic activity of hot water extract from BQ and its constituents and arecoline on testosterone producing ability in an in vitro experiment. Enzyme dissociated interstitial cells from adult mouse testes (ICR strain) were cultured with/without different doses of the extracts and the level of testosterone produced was assayed by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique. It was found that at lower doses of arecoline, AN and BL extracts had significantly stimulated testosterone production over the basal level (p < 0.05). BQ extract, on the other hand, did not show any significant effect on testosterone production. Combinations of arecoline at low doses with 10 ng/ml ovine leutinizing hormone (oLH) showed increases in testosterone produced, while cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) co-culture showed dose-related inhibition. Our current finding hints at the possible dose-dependent dualistic role of AN and BL extracts and arecoline for testosterone production employing possible non-cAMP-dependent pathway of steroidogenesis. However, the identity of the active compounds besides arecoline and the exact mechanism involved remains to be further investigated. PMID:15633806

  20. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amy L; Carrara, Verena I; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-09-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai-Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse effects of areca nut use routinely recorded on enrolment. Of 7685 women, 2284 (29.7%) never used areca or smoked (cheroots), 2484 (32.3%) only used areca, 438 (5.7%) only smoked cheroots and 2479 (32.3%) used both areca and cheroots. Pieces of ripe areca nut in a leaf with lime, without tobacco, were used particularly among older multigravid women. Adverse pregnancy effects were not observed in areca nut users compared with non-users. Smoking, but not areca nut use, had a dose-related effect on miscarriage. Areca nut use in conjunction with smoking reduced the adverse effects of smoking on birth weight, further supporting a lack of effect of areca nut. Areca (betel) nut-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were not observed in this population, whereas smoking was clearly harmful. Differences from previous reports may result from the amount or types of areca nut, or quid content, consumed between countries. Smoking, but not areca nut, reduction is likely to improve pregnancy outcomes on the Thai-Myanmar border. PMID:24029401

  1. Acute Toxicity Test of Betel Nut Seed on KM Mice%槟榔仁对KM小鼠的急性毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书伟; 王燕; 胡劲召; 赵牧秋; 史云峰

    2015-01-01

    The acute oxicity was tested in mice in order to study the oral toxicity of the juice of betel nut seeds.According to preliminary experiments to determine the range of the official test administered dose,KM mice were selected and administered drug by intragastric infusion at single dose,the toxic effect and death condition of the mice were observed for 7 days after being administered, and the method of korbor was used to determine LD50 and 95% confidence level.The results showed that the high dose of betel nut juice to mice appeared toxic reactions and death, and the main reason was gastrointestinal and lung disease after autopsy;low dose group was no pathological change in viscera in mice.The LD50 of betel nut juice in mice was 12.425 g/kg and its 95% confidence level was 10.610~14.551 g/kg,which indicated that the betel nut juice was actual non-toxic substances.The LD50 of dry matter of betel nut juice was 1.349 g/kg and its 95% confidence level was 1.152~1.580 g/kg and it was considered the drug of low toxicity.%为研究口服槟榔(Areca catechu Linnaeus)仁汁液的毒性,进行了小鼠的经口急性毒性试验. 根据预试验确定正式试验给药剂量的范围,选用KM小鼠经口灌胃,一次给药,给药后连续观察7 d,记录小白鼠的中毒反应及死亡情况,采用寇氏法计算 LD50及LD50的95%可信限.结果表明,高剂量给药组小白鼠出现中毒反应并死亡,解剖后检查发现主要原因是胃肠和肺部的病变,测得槟榔仁汁液的LD50及LD50的95%可信限分别为12.425 g/(kg.bw)﹑10.610~14.551 g/(kg.bw), 表明槟榔仁汁液可以被认为是实际无毒物质. 槟榔仁原液干物质的LD50及LD50的95%可信限分别为1.349 g/(kg.bw)﹑1.152~1.580 g/(kg.bw),属于低毒物质.

  2. Healing property of the Piper betel phenol, allylpyrocatechol against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration and mechanism of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Bhattacharya; D Banerjee; AK Bauri; S Chattopadhyau; SK Bandyopadhyay

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective activity of allylpyrocatechol (APC), the major antioxidant constituent of Piper betel,against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in the rat model and correlates with its antioxidative and mucin protecting properties.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Normal control rats (group Ⅰ ) were given the vehicle oral dose of gum acacia in distilled water (1 mL per rat); ulcerated control and treated rats (groups Ⅱ-Ⅴ) were given a single dose of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body wt.); group Ⅱ rats were sacrificed 4 h after indomethacin administration; groups Ⅲ-Ⅴ rats were given the vehicle (1 mL per rat) or APC (2 mg/kg body wt.) or misoprostol (1.43 μg/kg body wt.) once daily by oral intubation for 7 d starting from 4 h after the indomethacin administration. After 7 d, the stomach tissues were excised for histological examination and biochemical analysis.RESULTS: Treatment with APC (2 mg/kg body wt per day) and misoprostol (1.43 μg/kg body wt per day) for 7 d could effectively heal the stomach ulceration as revealed from the ulcer index and histopathological studies. Compared to the zero day ulcerated group,treatment with APC and misoprostol reduced the ulcer index by 93.4% and 85.4% respectively (P<0.05). Both APC and misoprostol accelerated ulcer healing observed in natural recovery (P<0.05), their respective healing capacities not being significantly different. The healing capacities of APC and misoprostol could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to enhance the mucin content of the gastric tissues. Compared to the ulcerated untreated rats, those treated with APC and misoprostol showed near normal MDA levels, while the protein levels were 86% and 78% of the normal value respectively (P<0.05). Likewise, both APC and misoprostol increased the SOD, catalase, and mucin levels significantly (P<0.05), the effect of APC being better.CONCLUSION: APC can protect

  3. 食用槟榔及其与口腔癌间的关系%Betel-quid chewing and its relationship with oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小钧; 席庆

    2015-01-01

    Betel-quid chewing is common in South Asia, South-east Asia, and the Pacific Islands, especially in our country. Betel-quid contains various ingredients, including areca-nut, tobacco, betel leaf, betel vine, inflorescence, slaked lime, and some special flavored substances. The composition and processing of betel-quid vary in different countries. However, areca-nut and tobacco are consistent main components. Areca-nut contains betel alkaloid, tannin betel nut, betel nut-specific nitrosamines, and reactive oxygen, which exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogen effects. Previous studies showed that betel-quid chewing is a significant factor contributing to oral submucous fibrosis and is related to the incidence of oral cancer, leukoplakia, lichen planus, and so on. This paper presents the prevalence of areca-nut consumption, ingredients, and carcinogenic mechanism to provide a scientific basis for oral cancer prevention and awareness.%食用槟榔在南亚和东南亚以及环太平洋地区的岛屿非常普遍,在中国亦有蔓延扩大的趋势。槟榔咀嚼块一般由槟榔、烟草、槟榔叶、蒌叶、花序和熟石灰以及一些特殊的调味剂组成,不同国家和地区的槟榔咀嚼块的组成及加工方法不一,但槟榔和烟草等是槟榔咀嚼块中最主要的组成部分。食用槟榔是导致口腔黏膜下纤维化的最主要原因,可增加口腔癌发病率且与口腔白斑和口腔扁平苔藓等癌前病变密切相关。食用槟榔之所以会导致口腔癌,是因为槟榔中的多种活性成分和代谢产物有细胞毒性、遗传毒性甚至直接致癌性,这些物质包括槟榔生物碱、槟榔鞣质、槟榔特异性亚硝胺和活性氧等。本文

  4. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Caves, Dayna; Haddad, Pierre S; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Johns, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. We investigated the dietary habits of Kalo residents from coastal Central Province who are avid BQ chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of DM2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent Wanigelans who abstain from BQ yet have an unusually high incidence of DM2. In Kalo, guava bud (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) were consumed much more frequently than in Wanigela, whereas the inverse was observed for mangrove bean (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L) Lam.). These plants, along with BQ and its component ingredients areca nut (Areca catechu L) and Piper betle L inflorescence, were assessed for their ability to mediate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A dose-dependent inhibition of glucose uptake from methanolic extracts of BQ, areca nut and P. betle inflorescence supports previous reports of prodiabetic activity. Conversely, guava bud extract displayed significant insulin-mimetic and potentiating activity. Noni fruit, noni leaf, commercial noni juice and mangrove bean all displayed insulin-like activity but had little or no effect on insulin action. Habitual intake of guava and noni is proposed to offer better protection against DM2 development and/or betel quid diabetogenicity than cooked mangrove bean. These findings provide empirical support that DM2 risk reduction can be accomplished using traditional foods and medicines. PMID:19114402

  5. The Effectiveness of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) As Compatibilizer on the Preparation of Betel Nut Fiber (BNF) and Polypropylene (PP) /Polystyrene (PS) Wood Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as compatibilizing agent in producing wood composites of betel nut fiber/ polypropylene (BNF/ PP) and betel nut fiber/ polystyrene (BNF/ PS). Wood composite was prepared by blending 40 % of matrix polymer and 60 % of treated and untreated BNF using internal mixer Brabender Plasticoder at 170 degree Celsius with 50 rpm rotor speed for 13 minutes. The treatment was done prior to blending the materials by immersing the BNF in PDMS and HMDSO solutions with 1 %, 3 % and 5 % of concentrations for 24 hours. The effects of 1 % HMDSO treatment on BNF/ PP composite contributed to high flexure strength and impact strength which are 19.2 MPa and 7.9 kJ/M2 respectively while the percentage of water absorption showed the minimum value of 6.7%. The impact strength of BNF/ PS composite treated with 3% HMDSO showed maximum value that is 4.7 kJ/ M2 and minimum percentage of water absorption, 6.8 %. However, the flexure strength of untreated BNF/ PS composite is higher than treated BNF/ PS composite with value of 4.7 MPa. The morphology of treated BNF/ PP composites from SEM micrographs showed better interface interaction between fibers and matrices. FTIR spectra showed the presence of siloxane groups such as Si-O, Si-CH3, Si-(CH3) and Si(CH3) as a result of HMDSO and PDMS treatment. Based on the characterization analysis, HMDSO treated composite of BNF/ PP showed more effective interfacial interaction between BNF and matrices. (author)

  6. MicroRNA-17-5p post-transcriptionally regulates p21 expression in irradiated betel quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; HungKuang Univ., Taichung (China). Dept. of Biotechnology; Lin, K.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Chiou, J.F. [Taipei Medical Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hospice and Palliative Center; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Cancer Center; Jeng, S.C. [Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Cheng, W.H.; Chang, C.I. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hemato-Ongology; Lin, W.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Thoracic Surgery; Wu, L.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Lee, H.L. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Chen, R.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital and National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. OC3 is an oral carcinoma cell line that was established from cells collected from a long-term betel nut chewer who does not smoke. After we found that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is induced in OC3 cells, we used this cell line to examine the biological role(s) of this microRNA in response to exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A combined SYBR green-based real-time PCR and oligonucleotide ligation assay was used to examine the expression of the miR-17 polycistron in irradiated OC3 cells. The roles of miR-17-5p and p21 were evaluated with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) that were designed and used to inhibit their expression. Expression of the p21 protein was evaluated by Western blotting. The clonogenic assay and annexin V staining were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Cells in which miR-17-5p was stably knocked down were used to create ectopic xenografts to evaluate in vivo the role of miR-17-5p. Results: A radiation dose of 5 Gy significantly increased miR-17-5p expression in irradiated OC3 cells. Inhibition of miR-17-5p expression enhanced the radiosensitivity of the OC3 cells. We found that miR-17-5p downregulates radiation-induced p21 expression in OC3 cells and, by using a tumor xenograft model, it was found that p21 plays a critical role in increasing the radiosensitivity of OC3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: miR-17-5p is induced in irradiated OC3 cells and it downregulates p21 protein expression, contributing to the radioresistance of OC3 cells. (orig.)

  7. MicroRNA-17-5p post-transcriptionally regulates p21 expression in irradiated betel quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. OC3 is an oral carcinoma cell line that was established from cells collected from a long-term betel nut chewer who does not smoke. After we found that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is induced in OC3 cells, we used this cell line to examine the biological role(s) of this microRNA in response to exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A combined SYBR green-based real-time PCR and oligonucleotide ligation assay was used to examine the expression of the miR-17 polycistron in irradiated OC3 cells. The roles of miR-17-5p and p21 were evaluated with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) that were designed and used to inhibit their expression. Expression of the p21 protein was evaluated by Western blotting. The clonogenic assay and annexin V staining were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Cells in which miR-17-5p was stably knocked down were used to create ectopic xenografts to evaluate in vivo the role of miR-17-5p. Results: A radiation dose of 5 Gy significantly increased miR-17-5p expression in irradiated OC3 cells. Inhibition of miR-17-5p expression enhanced the radiosensitivity of the OC3 cells. We found that miR-17-5p downregulates radiation-induced p21 expression in OC3 cells and, by using a tumor xenograft model, it was found that p21 plays a critical role in increasing the radiosensitivity of OC3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: miR-17-5p is induced in irradiated OC3 cells and it downregulates p21 protein expression, contributing to the radioresistance of OC3 cells. (orig.)

  8. Cytochrome P450 Metabolism of Betel Quid-Derived Compounds: Implications for the Development of Prevention Strategies for Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Yi Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ products, with or without tobacco, have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC as group I human carcinogens that are associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. There are estimated 600 million BQ users worldwide. In Taiwan alone there are 2 million habitual users (approximately 10% of the population. Oral and pharyngeal cancers result from interactions between genes and environmental factors (BQ exposure. Cytochrome p450 (CYP families are implicated in the metabolic activation of BQ- and areca nut-specific nitrosamines. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge base regarding CYP genetic variants and related oral disorders. In clinical applications, we focus on cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and OPMDs associated with CYP gene polymorphisms, including CYP1A1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, and CYP26B1. Our discussion of CYP polymorphisms provides insight into the importance of screening tests in OPMDs patients for the prevention of oral and pharyngeal cancers. Future studies will establish a strong foundation for the development of chemoprevention strategies, polymorphism-based clinical diagnostic tools (e.g., specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP “barcodes”, and effective treatments for BQ-related oral disorders.

  9. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

  10. Radionuclides detected in lime samples that consumed with tobacco and betel nuts by people of Northeast India where head and neck squamous cells cancer (HNSCC) is prevalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is a very predominant type of cancer amongst the population of northeastern states of India than the rest of the world. Epidemiological and other data suggest consumption of betel nuts with/without tobacco and lime or tobacco alone with lime is a probable cause of high cancer incidence. The fundamental question arises that why this particular cancer is induced more in this region while people follow the similar habits elsewhere. Here we report the results on analysis of lime samples, collected from 12 different locations spectrophotometrically by high-purity germanium detector. The calculated activity of radionuclides showed to an average of 2.68, 0.10 and 0.83 Bq/gm for 238U, 235U and 232Th series respectively for ten samples which are about 8 times higher than the normal background level of 0.37, 0.02 and 0.02 Bq/gm for 238U, 235U and 232Th series found in control samples, collected from outside of northeast. The results conclusively showed for the first time that the lime samples almost throughout the northeastern India contain high proportion of radionuclides of uranium, thorium and actinides series. Further, annual effective dose of gamma radiation calculations from these results of earth's crust in northeast showed that gamma rays emitted at an average dose of up to 2.5 mSv/year/consumer approximately. This dose calculation in the oral cavity is underestimated as short range radiations by decay of alpha, beta and electron-capture etc are not considered in the present study. Continuous exposure of such low dose radiations emitting from different radionuclides to the sensitive squamous cells of the oral cavity for a long twenty years or more amounting to a total minimum dose of at least 50 mSv evidently contributes towards excessive HNSCC to the people of northeast than other parts of India.

  11. Characterization of different tissue changes in normal, betel chewers, potentially malignant lesions, conditions and oral squamous cell carcinoma using reflectance confocal microscopy: correlation with routine histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Sherlin, Herald J; Anuja, N; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Chandrasekar, T

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the features of normal mucosa, mucosa in betel chewers and smokers, potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa using reflectance confocal microscopy. Oral cavity biopsies were acquired from 25 patients from College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University who underwent screening for suspected lesions of Oral precancer and Oral cancer along with normal patients who underwent impaction. Biopsies were acquired from the clinically suspicious area and immediately placed in Dulbecco modified eagles growth medium (DMEM). Reflectance confocal images were obtained at multiple image plane depths from biopsies within 6h of excision. After imaging, biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted for routine histopathological examination by an experienced oral and maxillofacial pathologist. Reflectance confocal images were compared with histological images from the same sample to determine the tissue features which contribute to early cellular changes, image contrast and early diagnosis. The confocal images were obtained to a depth of up to 150 microns on intact biopsy specimens and subsequent 3-dimensional images, keratin thickness measurements, cell measurements, cell density analysis and graphical representations were performed using Leica image analysis software. In normal mucosa keratin deposition were seen as alternating dark and bright stacks and in different cell layers the nuclei were seen as disks of varying intensities. In pre-cancerous lesions the keratin thickness and cell nuclear density were found to be increased when compared to normal controls. In OSMF cases confocal images of fibrosis show scattering from individual fibres as hyperdense areas. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cases demonstrated extensive variations in cell size, nuclear size and nuclear morphology. At cellular level, dysplastic features like increased nuclear density, increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear and cellular

  12. Modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-12-23

    The current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (Piper betle L. var. Tamluk Mitha) essential oil (BLEO) and modelling its effect on growth of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of BLEO revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. Among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), β-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and caryophyllene (11.3%) were found to be the major compounds of BLEO. A disc diffusion and disc volatilization method were used to evaluate antifungal activity of the oil against a selected food spoilage mould. The logistic model was used to study the kinetics of spore germination. Prediction and validation of antifungal effect of BLEO was performed on semi-synthetic medium (apple juice agar) using predictive microbiological tools. The Baranyi and Roberts model was used to estimate maximum growth rate (μmax in mm/day) and apparent lag time (λ in days) of the mould. Secondary modelling was performed using a re-parameterized Monod-type equation based on cardinal values to study the effect of different BLEO concentration on estimated growth parameters. Emax (minimum concentration of oil at which mould growth was inhibited) and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration of BLEO at which lag time is infinite) value of BLEO against P. expansum was estimated to be 0.56 and 0.74 μl/ml, respectively, which was found to be similar on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as apple juice agar (AJA) medium. The correlation between estimated growth parameters of the mould on both the media was obtained with satisfactory statistical indices (R(2) and RMSE). This study revealed inhibitory efficacy of BLEO on spore germination, mycelial growth and apparent lag time of P. expansum in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, BLEO has potential to be used as a natural food preservative. PMID:26439423

  13. Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the Pacific region (e.g., Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand). 1,2,3,5 ... Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 ...

  14. The magnitude of tobacco smoking-betel quid chewing-alcohol drinking interaction effect on oral cancer in South-East Asia. A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Petti

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol drinking are oral cancer risk factors. Observational studies unanimously report that oral cancer risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects is exceptionally high. However, none of them assessed the fractions of this risk attributable to the three individual risk factors and to the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction. The present study sought to assess the magnitude of the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect on oral cancer. A meta-analysis of observational South-East Asian studies which reported oral cancer odds ratios (ORs stratified for smoking-drinking-chewing exposures was performed. The pooled ORs were estimated and controlled for quality, heterogeneity, publication bias and inclusion criteria. The smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect was estimated through the pooled Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI, excess risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed individuals with respect to the risk expected from the addition of the three individual risks of smoking, drinking and chewing. Fourteen studies were included with low between-study heterogeneity. The pooled ORs for smoking, drinking, chewing, smoking-drinking-chewing, respectively were 3.6 (95% confidence interval -95% CI, 1.9-7.0, 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6-3.0, 7.9 (95% CI, 6.7-9.3, 40.1 (95% CI, 35.1-45.8. The pooled RERI was 28.4 (95% CI, 22.9-33.7. Among smoking-drinking-chewing subjects, the individual effects accounted for 6.7% (smoking, 3.1% (drinking, 17.7% (chewing of the risk, while the interaction effect accounted for the remaining 72.6%. These data suggest that 44,200 oral cancer cases in South-East Asia annually occur among smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects and 40,400 of these are exclusively associated with the interaction effect. Effective oral cancer control policies must consider concurrent tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing usages as a unique unhealthy lifestyle.

  15. Study on the Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Betel Nut Seed and Evaluation of Their Activities%槟榔籽中抗氧化成分的提取及活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩林; 黄玉林; 张海德; 万婧; 戴萍

    2009-01-01

    为了研究槟榔籽的抗氧化活性,采用不同的溶剂(乙酸乙酯、体积分数70%乙醇和水)对槟榔籽进行提取,利用DPPH法、铁氰化钾还原法和ABTS法对提取物进行抗氧化实验.结果表明:3种提取物中,体积分数70%乙醇提取物的还原力、清除DPPH自由基及ABTS自由基能力最强,水提取物次之,而乙酸乙酯提取物相对较弱,并且随着各提取物浓度的增加,其抗氧化活性也相应增强.各提取物的抗氧化活性与其总酚组成及含量有关.%In order to research the antioxidant activity compounds of the Betel nut seed ( BNS),ethyl acetate,70% ethanol and water were used as extraction solvents,three extracts were performed from BNS. Antioxidant activities of different extracts were evaluated by three different methods,such as DPPH radical scavenging assay,potassium ferricyanide reduction method and ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results showed that the reducing power,DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activity of 70% ethanol extract were stronger than those of water extract and ethyl acetate extract. The antioxidant activity of each extract which was correlated with the composition and contents of phenolic compounds,became stronger with the increasing of concentration.

  16. 槟榔十三味丸(高尤-13)对慢性应激抑郁大鼠行为学及海马神经元凋亡的影响%Effects of Mongolian Pharmaceutical Betel Shisanwei Ingredients Pill on Behavior and APoPtosis of HiPPocamPal Cells in DePressive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌吉斯古冷; 佟海英; 斯日古楞; 白亮凤; 包伍叶; 胡日乐巴根; 李婧; 张月

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of Mongolian Pharmaceutical Betel Shisanwei Ingredients Pill on behavior and apoptosis of hipp-ocampal cells in depressive rats and from the cell level to discuss antidepressant mechanism. Methods:48 male Wistar rats were random-ly divided into six groups according to the sugar consumption test and body weight(8 rats in each group):normal control group,model group,Fluoxetine group(3. 3 mg·kg - 1 )and high,medium and low dose group(0. 25,0. 5,1. 0 g·kg - 1 )of Betel Shisanwei ingredi-ents Pill. Except the normal control,the other groups were treated with the chronic unpredictable mild stress stimulation combined with lonely raising. Intragastric administration,once daily,continuously for 28 days. Behavior changes of rats were detected through open?field test,and sugar consumption test were also measured by AnnexinV - FITC/ PI double labeling. Flow Cytometer was used to detect the apoptotic rats in the hippocampus. Results:Compared with normal control group,the scores of horizontal activity and vertical activi-ty,weight and sugar consumption group decreased significantly(P < 0. 01);Compared with model group,Fluoxetine group and Betel Shisanwei Ingredients Pill medium,high dose group got significantly higher scores of horizontal activity and vertical activity,weight and sugar consumption(P < 0. 05). Flow Cytometer results show that compared with normal control group,model group rats hippocampal ap-optosis rate was significantly higher(P < 0. 05);Compared with model group,fluoxetine group,Betel Shisanwei ingredients pills medi-um,high dose group of rat hippocampal apoptosis rate is reduced,with decreased significantly(P < 0. 01). Conclusion:Chronic stress depression model rats exists abnormal behavior and hippocampus apoptosis phenomenon,Betel Shisanwei Ingredients pill can improve depression model rats abnormal behavior and inhibit apoptosis of rat hippocampal caused by chronic stress and play a role of antidepres-sant.%目的:观

  17. Effects of Mongolian Pharmaceutical Betel Shisanwei Ingredient Pills on the Behavior and Different Cerebral Region Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Rat Models with Depressive Chronic Stress%蒙药槟榔十三味丸(高尤-13)对抑郁模型大鼠行为学及不同脑区单胺类神经递质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟海英; 王旭; 乌吉斯古冷; 白亮凤; 包伍叶; 胡日乐巴根; 李婧; 张月

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察槟榔十三味丸对慢性应激抑郁模型大鼠行为学和脑前额叶皮质、海马单胺类神经递质及其代谢产物的影响,探讨其抗抑郁作用机制。方法:将 Wistar 雄性大鼠,根据蔗糖水消耗量及体质量随机分为正常对照组、模型组、氟西汀组、槟榔十三味丸低、中、高剂量组,每组10只。除正常对照组外,其余大鼠均采用慢性轻度不可预见性应激结合孤养方法制备抑郁模型,造模同时灌胃给药,每日1次,连续给药21天。以敞箱实验、蔗糖水消耗实验进行行为学评价,并用高效液相-电化学法测定脑前额叶皮质、海马去甲肾上腺素(NE)、5-羟色胺(5-HT)、多巴胺(DA)及其代谢产物含量。结果:与正常对照组比较,模型组大鼠敞箱实验水平运动和垂直运动得分、蔗糖水消耗量显著降低(P <0.01或P <0.05);与模型组比较,槟榔十三味丸中、高剂量组和氟西汀组大鼠敞箱实验水平运动和垂直运动得分、蔗糖水消耗量均显著增加(P <0.05或 P <0.01);高效液相-电化学法测定结果显示,模型大鼠脑前额叶皮质 NE、5-HT、DA、DOPAC,海马5-HT、5-HIAA、DA 含量较正常对照组显著下降(P <0.05或 P <0.01),槟榔十三味丸可升高模型大鼠脑前额叶皮质 NE、5-HT、DA、DOPAC 和海马5-HT、5-HIAA、DA 含量,尤其中、高剂量组作用显著(P <0.05或 P <0.01)。结论:槟榔十三味丸能改善抑郁模型大鼠行为学异常,提高大鼠脑内神经递质 NE、5-HT、DA 及其代谢产物含量,这可能是槟榔十三味丸抗抑郁作用的重要机制之一。%Objective:To study the effects on the behaviors and prefrontal cortex and hippocampus monoamine neurotrans -mitters and their metabolites in the chronic depressed rat models to probe the anti -depression mechanism of Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel Shisanwei

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Piper betel LEAVES FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    GOPALGHARE DIPALI; PALSHIKAR GAUTAM

    2015-01-01

    Plants can be extracted and used for research work and are known to produce and store many Biochemical products. Different types of Herbal extract are commercially available in market. Become a medical use the potency of these extracts should be compatible & as per the standards prescribed in Pharmacopeia. Our aim is to evaluate the marketed extract sample and to check its authenticity and purity as per the standard parameter. The present study deals with preliminary phytochemical analysis & ...

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Piper betel LEAVES FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOPALGHARE DIPALI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can be extracted and used for research work and are known to produce and store many Biochemical products. Different types of Herbal extract are commercially available in market. Become a medical use the potency of these extracts should be compatible & as per the standards prescribed in Pharmacopeia. Our aim is to evaluate the marketed extract sample and to check its authenticity and purity as per the standard parameter. The present study deals with preliminary phytochemical analysis & antibactertial activity of leaf with aqueous extract.

  20. Association Study between Novel CYP26 Polymorphisms and the Risk of Betel Quid-Related Malignant Oral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Jong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BQ chewing may produce significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS, resulting in oral mucosa damage, and ROS may be metabolized by CYP26 families. Because the CYP26 polymorphisms associated with malignant oral disorders are not well known, we conducted an association study on the associations between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of CYP26 families and the risks of malignant oral disorders. BQ chewers with the CYP26A1 rs4411227 C/C+C/G genotype and C allele showed an increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.30 and 1.93, respectively. The CYP26B1 rs3768647 G allele may be associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer (aOR = 3.12 and OPMDs (aOR = 2.23. Subjects with the rs9309462 CT genotype and C allele had an increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer (aOR = 9.24 and 8.86, respectively and OPMDs (aOR = 8.17 and 7.87, respectively. The analysis of joint effects between the CYP26A1 rs4411227 and CYP26B1 rs3768647/rs9309462 polymorphisms revealed statistical significance (aOR = 29.91 and 10.03, respectively. Additionally, we observed a significant mRNA expression of CY26A1 and CYP26B1 in cancerous tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Our findings suggest that novel CYP26 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of malignant oral disorders, particularly among BQ chewers.

  1. To Study the Prevalence of Premalignancies in Teenagers having Betel, Gutkha, Khaini, Tobacco Chewing, Beedi and Ganja Smoking Habit and Their Association with Social Class and Education Status

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Srivastava, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Premalignant oral lesions are usually associated with noxious oral addiction habits. These habits are common in both, high as well as low socioeconomic status but education status of parent and patients significantly affects the development of noxious oral addictions. A total of 872 patients (cases and controls) were included in the study. Social class was determined as per modified Prasad’s classification (1970) with price index correction of 2004. Prevalence of lichen planus, to be...

  2. Research on Tobacco in India (including the Betel Quid and Areca Nut) : An Annotated Bibliography of Research on Use, Health Effects, Economics, and Control Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Ray, Cecily; Gupta, Prakash; de Beyer, Joy

    2003-01-01

    This report is a compilation of references and abstracts of all research on tobacco in India from 1985 to 2003. Studies are organized by subject matter, and within each sub-topic, are arranged by year of publication with most recent studies listed first, and for studies published in the same year, alphabetically by author's last name. The studies include tobacco use surveys, studies on tob...

  3. Storage of Fresh Betel Nuts Treated with Extracts of Chinese Medicinal Plants%几种中草药提取物保鲜槟榔的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小朋; 史载锋; 祁晓伟; 王天山; 邓鹏飞

    2009-01-01

    选用生姜和大蒜的水溶物,海南血桐、猪肚木、海南椴、青梅等中草药的提取物,以及水溶性壳聚糖浸果,通过测定槟榔好果率、失重率、pH值及Vc含量、总糖含量变化,研究中草药提取液对槟榔果实的保鲜效果.结果表明,血桐提取物对槟榔有显著的保鲜效果,在同等条件相同存放时间下,用血桐提取液涂膜并密封存放的槟榔好果率最高,各测定值随存放时间的变化最小.

  4. Green Antibiotic Daun Sirih (Piper betle l. Sebagai Pengganti Antibiotik Komersial untuk Penanganan Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabby Lutviandhitarani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Green antibiotic betel leaf (Piper betle l. as a substitute  for commercial antibiotic in mastitis treatment  ABSTRACT. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible antibacterial activity of betel leaf on the amount and microscopic appearance of mastitis-causing bacteria. The randomized block design with 5 treatment groups were : K group (mastitis milk only as negative control, Ab group (mastitis milk + antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin as positive control,  S1 group (mastitis milk + 1,25 ml betel leaf water extract, S2 group (mastitis milk+ 2,5 ml betel leaf water extract, and S3 group (mastitis milk + 5 ml betel leaf water extract. The result showed that the amount of bacteria in the betel leaves groups (S1, S2, and S3 groups were lower (P 0,05. Moreover, this research showed that betel leaf water extract had the same effectiveness with commercial antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin to inhibit the growth of bacteria as indicated by the same amount of bacteria (P>0,05 among the betel leaf groups (S1, S2, and S3 groups and the Ab group. Gram-positive and negative bacteria were seen in the K group. However, only Gram-negative bacteria were visible in the betel leaf groups (S1, S2, and S3 groups and in the Ab groups, indicating that betel leaf had the same effectiveness as penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria.

  5. Kebiasaan Menyirih dan Kesehatan Rongga Mulut Lansia di Desa Hilibadalu Kabupaten Nias

    OpenAIRE

    Lombu, Elvis Sofyan

    2015-01-01

    Betel chewing is part of tradition that completes the structure of culture and usually closely related to habits in the community in certain areas in Indonesia. This habit is a tradition made hereditary in the majority of the rural population which was originally closely related to local customs. But this habit can lead to health problems in the oral cavity. This research aims to find out how betel chewing betel and oral health by using a descriptive research design. The population in this re...

  6. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya Kadashetti; Minal Chaudhary; Swati Patil; Madhuri Gawande; K M Shivakumar; Snehal Patil; R C Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use of tobacco/betel quid can alone lead to death. India is the fourth largest consumer of tobacco/betel quid in the world and the third-largest producer of tobacco/betel quid after China and Brazil. Aims: A case-control study was carried out to assess the prevalence and various risk factors among potentially malignant disorders (PMD) and oral cancer patients of central India. Settings and Design: A total of 100 clinically and histopathologically diagnosed PMD and oral can...

  7. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Kadashetti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Chewing tobacco/betel quid is a strong risk factor in the development of PMD and oral cancer. Also age, gender, SES, education, and occupation influence the development of PMD and oral cancer.

  8. Green Antibiotic Daun Sirih (Piper betle l.) Sebagai Pengganti Antibiotik Komersial untuk Penanganan Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabby Lutviandhitarani; Dian Wahyu Harjanti; Fajar Wahyono

    2015-01-01

    (Green antibiotic betel leaf (Piper betle l.) as a substitute  for commercial antibiotic in mastitis treatment)  ABSTRACT. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible antibacterial activity of betel leaf on the amount and microscopic appearance of mastitis-causing bacteria. The randomized block design with 5 treatment groups were : K group (mastitis milk only as negative control), Ab group (mastitis milk + antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin as positive control),  ...

  9. Faktor Risiko Kanker Rongga Mulut di Divisi Bedah Onkologi RSUP Haji Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrunnisa’, Mutia Fri

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing trend in oral cancer incidence each year. This cancer is caused by many factors. One main factor is the habit of chewing betel in Batak society which is still exists today. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors, such as smoking, chewing tobacco, chewing betel, and alcohol consumption in patients with oral cancer in RSUP H. Adam Malik Medan. This study was descriptive with cross-sectional approach. The samples were taken by total sampling met...

  10. Incidence of oral cancer in relation to nickel and arsenic concentrations in farm soils of patients' residential areas in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu Yun-Ying; Chung Jian-An; Chiang Chi-Ting; Chang Tsun-Kuo; Lin Yo-Yu; Su Che-Chun; Lian Ie-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To explore if exposures to specific heavy metals in the environment is a new risk factor of oral cancer, one of the fastest growing malignancies in Taiwan, in addition to the two established risk factors, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing. Methods This is an observational study utilized the age-standardized incidence rates of oral cancer in the 316 townships and precincts of Taiwan, local prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, demographic fact...

  11. Effect of plant extracts formulated in different ointment bases on MDR strains

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar Pallavi; Nabar Bela

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of Aloe vera whole plant, Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Ficus infectoria bark, Ficus religiosa bark and Piper betel leaves were studied for antibacterial activity on resistant and sensitive strains, isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. A combination of hot alcoholic extracts of Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa and Piper betel were found to be more effective against all the isolates. The combined extract was formulated in different ointment bases such as polyethylene glycol, ...

  12. Karakterisasi Simplisia Dan Isolasi Serta Analisis Komponen Minyak Atsiri Daun Sirih Hutan (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) Yang Segar Dan Simplisia Secara Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lovena, Tri Nova

    2015-01-01

    Volatile oils contain different chemical compositions depending on the producing sources. The forest betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) of the family Piperaceae is one species that contains volatile oil that is widely used by local inhabitant. The objective of this study is to determine the content of volatile oil from fresh and simplex of forest betel leaves and analysis of their components. This research includes simplex characteritation, isolation of volatile oil by water distillation an...

  13. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, C. C.; Mohapatra, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oi...

  14. Constituents of areca chewing related to esophageal cancer risk in Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M-T; Wu, D-C; Hsu, H-K; Kao, E-L; Lee, J-M

    2004-01-01

    Two most common types of areca chewing are noted in Taiwan: raw betel fruit with Piper betle inflorescence or folded in betel leaf. Piper betle inflorescence contains carcinogens, whereas betel leaf includes anticarcinogenic agents. One hundred and twenty-six esophageal squamous-cell-carcinoma patients and 279 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Areca chewers were 4.4 times (95% CI, 2.2-8.8) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than non-chewers. Sixty-five of the patients were areca chewers, of which, 61 (93.9%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, none chewed it with betel leaf and four (6.1%) chewed both. Of the 24 controls who were chewers, 10 (41.7%), three (12.5%) and 11 (45.8%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, betel leaf, and both, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects who chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence were 24.4 times (95% CI 3.9-154.4) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than those who chewed areca with betel leaf or with both leaf and inflorescence. Our epidemiologic findings suggest parts of the same Piper plant contains carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic substances. PMID:15361101

  15. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Shyam B Verma,2 Fareedi Mukram Ali,3 Kishor Patil4 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Nirvana Skin Clinic, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; 3Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India; 4Departments of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. Keywords: betel nut, betel quid, oral disease, squamous cell carcinoma, tobacco, fibrosis

  16. Peningkatan Konsentrasi Testosteron pada Tikus Akibat Paparan Ekstrak Air Biji Pinang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Akmal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Areca catechu which is known in Indonesia as pinang, contains alkaloids such as arecoline, arecaine,arecaidine, arecolidine, guvacine, guvacoline, and isoguvasine. Arecoline has an ability to change gonadmorfofunction, including shape abnormality of sperm. The aim of this research was to find out the prospectof extract betel nut of A.catechu as male anti fertility agents based on its activity to increase the testosteroneconcentration. Animal models used consisted of 5 groups of 2-3 months male rats (Rattus norvegicus,Wistar strain and induced for 1 week by water extract of betel nut at the dose of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 gram/200gram body weight. Testosterone concentration was determined by ELISA technique. The result showedthat extract betel nut of A. catechu is potential source of natural and beneficial male anti fertility agentsas it can increase the testosterone concentration.

  17. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.R Arambewela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

  18. Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Rachana V.; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

    2014-01-01

    Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against hali...

  19. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Phenolic Compounds of Areca Nut(Areca catechu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing; WU Jiao; HAN Zhuang; MEI Wen-li; DAI Hao-fu

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Areca catechu L.(Palmae),commonly known as an important economical seed crop,is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas,including India,Southeast Asia,East Africa and New Guinea.Areca nut(frequently known as betel nut) is the ripe fruit of the tree A.catechu.Areca nut can be chewed and it is a common masticatory in tropical and subtropical countries.It was estimated in the early 1990s that 10% to 20% of the world's population chewed betel quid daily.

  20. Foreign Body in Left Main Bronchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadke, Shubhangi V; Chaudhari, Amit L; Deshpande, Neelima S; Dhadke, Vithal N; Sangle, Shashikala A

    2015-07-01

    Tracheobronchial foreign body (TFB) aspiration is rare in adults, although incidence rates increases with advancing age. We report a case of foreign body in left main bronchus in an adult female who had no risk factor. She was successfully treated with removal of betel nuts by bronchoscopy. Unusual presentation and high index of suspicion can help in proper management. PMID:26731835

  1. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O

    2014-12-01

    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed. PMID:25526245

  2. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  3. Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Rachana V; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

    2014-12-01

    Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against halitosis. It is also used for its deworming property. Along with these beneficial effects of areca nut one of its most harmful effects on the human body in general and oral cavity in particular is the development of potentially malignant disorder called Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The present paper discusses in detail the effects of the components of areca nut on pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Key words:Areca nut, oral submucous fibrosis, potentially malignant disorder, supari. PMID:25674328

  4. Effect of plant extracts formulated in different ointment bases on MDR strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Aloe vera whole plant, Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Ficus infectoria bark, Ficus religiosa bark and Piper betel leaves were studied for antibacterial activity on resistant and sensitive strains, isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. A combination of hot alcoholic extracts of Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa and Piper betel were found to be more effective against all the isolates. The combined extract was formulated in different ointment bases such as polyethylene glycol, gelatin, sodium alginate, carbopol, cream base and honey. These were then evaluated to find a suitable base for preparation of an ointment. In vitro study of the release of antimicrobials and kill-time studies of the herbal ointments was carried out against multi-drug resistant isolate of Pseudomonas. The ointment showed bactericidal activity within 2 h against the resistant strain of Pseudomonas spp.

  5. Effect of Plant Extracts Formulated in Different Ointment Bases on MDR Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pallavi L; Nabar, Bela M

    2010-05-01

    Extracts of Aloe vera whole plant, Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Ficus infectoria bark, Ficus religiosa bark and Piper betel leaves were studied for antibacterial activity on resistant and sensitive strains, isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. A combination of hot alcoholic extracts of Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa and Piper betel were found to be more effective against all the isolates. The combined extract was formulated in different ointment bases such as polyethylene glycol, gelatin, sodium alginate, carbopol, cream base and honey. These were then evaluated to find a suitable base for preparation of an ointment. In vitro study of the release of antimicrobials and kill-time studies of the herbal ointments was carried out against multi-drug resistant isolate of Pseudomonas. The ointment showed bactericidal activity within 2 h against the resistant strain of Pseudomonas spp. PMID:21188057

  6. Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle), Daun Pepaya (Carica papaya) dan Bawang Putih (Allium sativum) terhadap Penyerangan Ektoparasit pada Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Desita Sari Br

    2014-01-01

    The aimed of this research is to know effectiveness of use extract from garlic (Allium sativum ), betel leaf (Piper betle), and leaves pepaya (Carica papaya) against infection ectoparasite on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to know immunity from some ectoparasite against each treatment. Parameters water quality observed are temperature and degrees acidity ( ph ). Research is done in the 45 day. Analysis of variance calculations used to determine the effect of ectoparasites plants against ...

  7. Estimation of uranium in some edible and commercial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace contents of uranium have been estimated in some edible and commercial plants by PTA (particle track analysis) method. The groups of food plants studied are cereals, pulses, underground vegetables, leafy vegetables, and fruit vegetables. The commercial plants and ingredients taken are betel leaves, tobacco leaves, areca nuts, and lime. Among the different samples studied, the average uranium content, in general, is found to vary from 0.25 to 2.67 ppm. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Domestication, Conservation, and Livelihoods: A Case Study of Piper peepuloides Roxb.—An Important Nontimber Forest Product in South Meghalaya, Northeast India

    OpenAIRE

    H. Tynsong; M. Dkhar; Tiwari, B K

    2013-01-01

    Wild pepper (Piper peepuloides Roxb., family: Piperaceae) is an evergreen climber which grows wild in tropical evergreen forests and subtropical evergreen forests of northeast India. This plant grows luxuriantly in the areas with high rainfall at lower elevations ranging from 100 to 800 m above mean sea level. In Meghalaya, to meet the market demand, farmers have domesticated it in arecanut agroforests and betel leaf agroforests. We found that the mean density of wild pepper in arecanut agrof...

  9. Polymorphisms and Plasma Levels of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3: Impact on Genetic Susceptibility and Clinical Outcome of Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Wen; Huang, Yi-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Su, Shih-Chi; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer, the fourth most common cancer among men in Taiwan, is associated with environmental carcinogens. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3), a member of the TIMP family, is the only protein that binds to the extracellular matrix for suppressing cancer cell growth, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. The association of TIMP3 polymorphism with oral cancer susceptibility, however, has not yet been reported. In this study, 1947 participants-1200 healthy male controls and 747 male patients with oral cancer-were recruited. Allelic discrimination of TIMP3 -1296 T > C (rs9619311), TIMP3 C > T (rs9862), and TIMP3 C > T (rs11547635) polymorphisms were assessed through real-time polymerase chain reaction. The authors discovered that individuals carrying the polymorphic rs9862 allele are more susceptible to oral cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-1.9; adjusted OR (AOR), 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1] after adjustment for betel quid chewing, alcohol, and tobacco consumption. Among 601 betel quid chewers, the TIMP3 polymorphism rs9862 T/T carriers had a 32.2-fold (95% CI, 20.2-51.3) increased oral cancer risk compared with those carrying C/C and not chewing betel quid. In addition, the authors observed a significant association between rs9862 variants and large tumors (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3) development. Moreover, TIMP3 plasma levels significantly increased in oral cancer patients who have large tumor or carry T allele rs9862 polymorphism. In conclusion, these results suggest that gene-environment interactions between the TIMP3 rs9862 polymorphisms and betel quid may alter oral cancer susceptibility and tumor growth in Taiwanese men. PMID:26579821

  10. Precipitants of oral cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjith Raveendran; Nath, Sameera G

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancers are malignant neoplasms that affect the mouth. Oral cancer remains a major personal tragedy and public health problem. There is a very high incidence of oral cancer in Southern Asia. In India, the oral cavity is the most common site for cancer. The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas are related to tobacco, areca nut / betel quid chewing, alcoholism. Control of oral potentially malignant diseases will only be achieved by effective and comprehensive primary and secondary pre...

  11. Estimation and correlative study of salivary nitrate and nitrite in tobacco related oral squamous carcinoma and submucous fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishali Shende; A T Biviji; N Akarte

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the ten leading cancers of the world. In India, it is one of the common cancers and is an important public health problem. Tobacco plays significant role in etiology of oral squamous carcinoma. Tobacco which is chewed or smoked contains many alkaloids which are known carcinogens. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a disease of the Indian subcontinent, which through immigration has a worldwide distribution. Betel nut chewing plays significant role in etiology of OSMF. The ...

  12. Arecanut as an emerging etiology of oral cancers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gunjan Shah; Pankaj Chaturvedi; Sagar Vaishampayan

    2012-01-01

    Arecanut (AN) usage is widespread in Asian countries, especially India and Taiwan. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing day by day, but there is no exponential increase with tobacco usage. Especially in the country like Taiwan where betel quid mostly do not contain tobacco, AN can be correlated with the increased incidence of cancer. There are different studies in the literature about AN and oral cancer but none of them have concluded with the definite pathway for carcinogenesis. The pr...

  13. Cultural and dietary risk factors of oral cancer and precancer - A brief overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    This is an update on cultural and dietary risk factors for oral precancer and cancer. It is an overview on ethnic differences (where possible) and socio-cultural risk factors (tobacco/areca nut/betel quid, alcohol use and dietary factors) in relation to oral precancer and cancer. While studies were from Western countries, India and China, this update also attempts to include and highlight some studies conducted in the Asia-Pacific region.

  14. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; OUYANG, ZILAN; GAO, ZHI; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as...

  15. Estimation of Uranium in Some Edible and Commercial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choudhury

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The trace contents of uranium have been estimated in some edible and commercial plants by PTA method. The groups of food plants studied are cereals, pulses, underground vegetables, leafy vegetables, and fruit vegetables. The commercial plants and ingredients taken are betel leaves, tobacco leaves, areca nuts, and lime. Among the different samples studied, the average uranium content, in general, is found to vary from 0.25 to 2.67 ppm

  16. Genin oral kanser için bir tedavisi var mı? Genetik diş hekimliği

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshman, Anusha Rangare; Suresh, Deepak Rangare; Suresh, Karthick Rangare; Lakshman, Shruthi Rangare; Lakshman, Amithash Rangare; Swamy Rao, Ashwini Gujjar; Rao, Anushree Mohan; Hanchate, Lalith

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, oral carcinoma is one of the most prevalent cancers and it is the sixth most common cancer globally. Oral cancer is associated with genetic mutations which occur due to the exposure to tobacco, alcohol, betel quid. Advances over recent decades in the surgical, radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic treatment of oral cancer patients did not produced a significant improvement in patient survival. Recent advances like immunotherapy, gene therapy, and targeted therapy are showing promis...

  17. Clinical pathological evaluation and risk factors of oral cancer cases of east coast of peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Farini, M. S.; Azlina, A.; Rushdan, I.; Manoharan, M; Zain, R. B.; Samsudin, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Oral cancer is one of the common cancers m Malaysia. Tile population of east coast of Peninsular Malaysia has a different hfestyle and Malay is the predominant race. Oral cancer research in this area started since the Malaysian National Oral Cancer group was established. The am: of this study is to evaluate the clinical pathological findings and to investigate the role of tobacco smoking, alcohol consurnption and betel quid chewing as tile risk factors among oral cancer cases m ...

  18. Perbandingan Aktivitas Antijamur Antara Ekstrak Etanol Dari Serbuk Dan Serbuk Nano Daun Sirih Merah (Piper Crocatum Ruiz & Pav.) Terhadap Jamur Candida Albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Delviana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most of infected fungi on human, which is known as Candidiasis. The Red betel (Piper crocatum) is one of the medicinal plants used for antiseptic, antioxidant, and antifungal. Ethanol extract of P.crocatum leaves has a antifungal activity against C.albicans. Nano technology can improve the solubility of the active compounds, reducing treatment dose and increasing herbal medicine absorption. Objective: This study aimed to compare the antifungal activit...

  19. Combinations of FUT2 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors are associated with oral cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Jung; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Su, Shih-Chi; Yu, Yung-Luen; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-05-01

    In humans, fucosyltransferase-2 (FUT2) plays an important role in α1,2- linkage of fucose and participates in complex cellular processes such as fertilization, embryogenesis, and immune responses. However, little information is available concerning the FUT2 expression in tumorigenesis. The aim of this work was to investigate the combined effect of FUT2 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinic pathological characteristics of oral cancer. Four SNPs of the FUT2 gene (rs281377, rs1047781, rs601338, and rs602662) from 1200 non-cancer controls and 700 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples were further analyzed to clarify the associations between these gene polymorphisms and the risk of OSCC, and the impact of these SNPs on the susceptibility and clinic pathological characteristics of OSCC. After adjusting for other covariant, we observed that betel quid chewing among 1255 smokers who carrying at least one C genotype (TC and CC) at rs281377 and least one T genotype (TA and TT) at rs1047781 were exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and cigarette use) on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Taken together, our results support gene-environment interactions of FUT2 polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid chewing habits possibly altering oral cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first study of association between FUT2 gene variants and OSCC risk. PMID:26646561

  20. Interactions between environmental factors and melatonin receptor type 1A polymorphism in relation to oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yan Lin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effect of melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of oral cancer.Three polymorphisms of the MTNR1A gene from 618 patients with oral cancer and 560 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The CTA haplotype of the studied MTNR1A polymorphisms (rs2119882, rs13140012, rs6553010 was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, MTNR1A gene polymorphisms exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and tobacco use on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Finally, oral-cancer patients with betel quid-chewing habit who had T/T allele of MTNR1A rs13140012 were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis.These results support gene-environment interactions of MTNR1A polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid-chewing habits possibly altering oral-cancer susceptibility and metastasis.

  1. Molecular screening of lysyl oxidase G473A polymorphism in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Thorawat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the presence of lysyl oxidase (LOX G473A polymorphism in group 1 {Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients}, group 2 (betel quid chewers without OSMF and group 3 (healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were taken for the study, which included 20 OSMF patients (group 1, 20 betel quid chewers without OSMF (group 2 and 20 healthy individuals without OSMF and betel quid chewing habit (group 3. DNA was isolated using Qiagen kit. The isolated DNA was quantified using spectroscopic methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out at annealing temperature of 67 o C. PCR amplification was checked on 2% agarose gel. Further, the amplified PCR products were subjected to automated DNA sequencer, to assess LOX G473A polymorphism. Results: The gene sequence data generated from the automated DNA sequencer was received as colored electropherograms. These gene-sequencing results did not show LOX G473A polymorphism in any of the 3 groups. Conclusion: In our study, gene-sequencing results did not show LOX G473A polymorphism in OSMF patients. Since only one study in the literature has shown the association of LOX gene polymorphism and OSMF patients, we conclude that further studies are required to unveil the role of LOX gene polymorphism in OSMF.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA copy number and risk of oral cancer: a report from Northeast India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosy Mondal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the sixth most common cancer globally. Tobacco consumption and HPV infection, both are the major risk factor for the development of oral cancer and causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes modify the effect of environmental exposures, thereby playing a significant role in gene-environment interactions and hence contributing to the individual susceptibility to cancer. Here, we have investigated the association of tobacco - betel quid chewing, HPV infection, GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes, and tumour stages with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content variation in oral cancer patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study comprised of 124 cases of OSCC and 140 control subjects to PCR based detection was done for high-risk HPV using a consensus primer and multiplex PCR was done for detection of GSTM1-GSTT1 polymorphism. A comparative ΔCt method was used for determination of mtDNA content. The risk of OSCC increased with the ceased mtDNA copy number (Ptrend  = 0.003. The association between mtDNA copy number and OSCC risk was evident among tobacco - betel quid chewers rather than tobacco - betel quid non chewers; the interaction between mtDNA copy number and tobacco - betel quid was significant (P = 0.0005. Significant difference was observed between GSTM1 - GSTT1 null genotypes (P = 0.04, P = 0.001 respectively and HPV infection (P<0.001 with mtDNA content variation in cases and controls. Positive correlation was found with decrease in mtDNA content with the increase in tumour stages (P<0.001. We are reporting for the first time the association of HPV infection and GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes with mtDNA content in OSCC. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the mtDNA content in tumour tissues changes with tumour stage and tobacco-betel quid chewing habits while low levels of mtDNA content suggests invasive thereby serving as a biomarker in

  3. Arecoline induced disruption of expression and localization of the tight junctional protein ZO-1 is dependent on the HER 2 expression in human endometrial Ishikawa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Shyam N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 600 million people chew Betel nut, making this practice the fourth most popular oral habit in the world. Arecoline, the major alkaloid present in betel nut is one of the causative agents for precancerous lesions and several cancers of mouth among those who chew betel nut. Arecoline can be detected in the human embryonic tissue and is correlated to low birth weight of newborns whose mothers chew betel nut during pregnancy, suggesting that arecoline can induce many systemic effects. However, few reports exist as to the effects of arecoline in human tissues other than oral cancer cell lines. Furthermore, in any system, virtually nothing is known about the cellular effects of arecoline treatment on membrane associated signaling components of human cancer cells. Results Using the human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line, we investigated the effects of arecoline on expression, localization and functional connections between the ZO-1 tight junction protein and the HER2 EGF receptor family member. Treatment of Ishikawa cells with arecoline coordinately down-regulated expression of both ZO-1 and HER2 protein and transcripts in a dose dependent manner. Biochemical fractionation of cells as well as indirect immunofluorescence revealed that arecoline disrupted the localization of ZO-1 to the junctional complex at the cell periphery. Compared to control transfected cells, ectopic expression of exogenous HER2 prevented the arecoline mediated down-regulation of ZO-1 expression and restored the localization of ZO-1 to the cell periphery. Furthermore, treatment with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid reported to up-regulate expression of HER2 in Ishikawa cells, precluded arecoline from down-regulating ZO-1 expression and disrupting ZO-1 localization. Conclusion Arecoline is known to induce precancerous lesions and cancer in the oral cavity of betel nut users. The arecoline down-regulation of ZO-1 expression and

  4. Developmental response of Spodoptera litura Fab. to treatments of crude volatile oil from Piper betle L. and evaluation of toxicity to earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sakthi-Bhagavathy, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Evaluations of biological effects of (Pb-CVO) the crude volatile oil of Piper betle leaves on the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura were conducted. Pb-CVO was subjected to GC-MS analysis and twenty vital compounds were isolated from the betel leaf oil. Pb-CVO was tested at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) against S. litura. The treated insects exhibited dose depended mortality. The mortality rate was significantly higher at the 1.0 and 1.5% Pb-CVO. The LC50 (Lethal concentration) were observed at 0.48% Pb-CVO. Larval and pupal durations increased in all treatment concentrations (0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) whereas, pupal weight decreased compared to control. Adult longevity of S. litura was reduced in all treatments but predominantly in the 0.4 and 0.5% Pb-CVO. Correspondingly, mean fecundity rate was reduced at all concentrations compared to control. Histological studies of larvae mid-gut profiles of S. litura were severely damaged in 1.0 and 1.5% and showed abnormalities in mid-gut cells with 0.25 and 0.5% Pb-CVO treatments. Earthworm toxicity illustrated that 0.1% of chemical insecticides (monocrotophos and cypermethrin) varied widely in their contact toxicities compared to 0.5 and 1.0% Pb-CVO and control in both contact filter paper and artificial soil test. These findings suggest that twenty essential compounds of betel leaf oil were significant inhibitors of the development and caused behavioral changes of S. litura. Treatment with betel leaf oil at these concentrations had no adverse effect on earthworm populations. PMID:27135695

  5. Areca Nut Components Affect COX-2, Cyclin B1/cdc25C and Keratin Expression, PGE2 Production in Keratinocyte Is Related to Reactive Oxygen Species, CYP1A1, Src, EGFR and Ras Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chi Chang; Yi-Jane Chen; Hsiao-Hua Chang; Chiu-Po Chan; Chien-Yang Yeh; Yin-Lin Wang; Ru-Hsiu Cheng; Liang-Jiunn Hahn; Jiiang-Huei Jeng

    2014-01-01

    Aims Chewing of betel quid (BQ) increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), possibly by BQ-induced toxicity and induction of inflammatory response in oral mucosa. Methods Primary gingival keratinocytes (GK cells) were exposed to areca nut (AN) components with/without inhibitors. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl- thiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. mRNA and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain r...

  6. Enhancement of radiomodulatory effect through liposome encapsulated radio-modifier on cancer bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficacy of a radioprotective drug, 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), in its free form and after its encapsulation into liposomes have been studied in normal and cancer bearing mice. Cancer was induced in micy by oral administration of aqueous extract of betel nut (AEBN) for 3 months. Radioprotection afforded by free MPG and liposome encapsulated MPG (LEM) in normal and cancerous tissue were evaluated by monitoring levels of glutathione (GSH) and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) enzyme and state of structural organization of chromatin. The results of our studies reveal that in cancerous tissues LEM afforded better radioprotection than the free form of MPG. (orig.)

  7. Alimentos contra el cáncer oral

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ros Lluch; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo; López López, José

    2009-01-01

    El cáncer oral representa el 5% de todas las neoplasias y el 30% de los cánceres de cabeza y cuello. El porcentaje de supervivencia a los 5 años es de tan sólo el 25%, por lo que el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces pueden salvar muchas vidas. La mayoría de los cánceres se relacionan con factores externos al organismo (tabaco, alcohol, betel, dieta y radiaciones solares, principalmente), que pueden modificarse o evitarse, es decir, prevenibles. Alrededor del 35% de los casos de cáncer están ...

  8. Alimentos contra el cáncer oral Foods against the oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ros Lluch; E Chimenos Küstner; J. López López

    2009-01-01

    El cáncer oral representa el 5% de todas las neoplasias y el 30% de los cánceres de cabeza y cuello. El porcentaje de supervivencia a los 5 años es de tan sólo el 25%, por lo que el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces pueden salvar muchas vidas. La mayoría de los cánceres se relacionan con factores externos al organismo (tabaco, alcohol, betel, dieta y radiaciones solares, principalmente), que pueden modificarse o evitarse, es decir, prevenibles. Alrededor del 35% de los casos de cáncer están ...

  9. Potential topical natural repellent against Ae. aegypti, Culex sp. and Anopheles sp. mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Hodijah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Minyak atsiri daun sirih diketahui mempunyai daya proteksi. Dibuatkan losion berdasarkan pengantar sediaan farmasi yang ditambahkan minyak atsiri daun nilam. Sediaan losion dipilih agar dapat menempel lebih lama di permukaan kulit. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membandingkan daya proteksi antara losion dengan penambahan minyak nilam dan losion tanpa penambahan minyak nilam dibandingkan daya proteksi dengan DEET. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratorium. Semua nyamuk uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Konsentrasi minyak atsiri daun sirih dalam losion adalah 4%; konsentrasi minyak nilam sebagai zat pengikat adalah 0,4%. Formula yang digunakan yaitu formula dasar yang ada pada pengantar sediaan farmasi. Uji repelensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metoda yang direkomendasikan oleh Komisi pestisida.Hasil: Dihasilkan formulasi losion yang stabil dan masih memenuhi standar formulasi sediaan. Berdasarkan hasil, diperoleh data bahwa DEET dan losion hasil modifikasi memiliki rata-rata daya proteksi di atas 90% selama 6 jam terhadap nyamuk Ae.aegypti dan Culex sp. Kesimpulan: Penambahan minyak nilam pada losion sirih dapat meningkatkan daya proteksi terhadap hinggapan nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Culex sp. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:44-8Kata kunci:repelen alamiah, minyak atsiri, daun sirih, daun nilam, Ae. aegypti, Culex sp.AbstractBackground: Betel leaf essential oil lotion has been known to have insect repellent properties. A lotion was made based on a pharmaceutical formula from a monograph where patchouli leaf essential oil was added. A lotion preparation was intended to enhance adherence of the formula on the surface of the skin. The purpose of this study was to compare protection percentage of lotion with patchouli oil and without patchouli oil lotion compared to DEET.Methods: This study is an experimental laboratory-based research. All mosquitoes

  10. Precipitants of oral cancer in India

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    Ranjith Raveendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancers are malignant neoplasms that affect the mouth. Oral cancer remains a major personal tragedy and public health problem. There is a very high incidence of oral cancer in Southern Asia. In India, the oral cavity is the most common site for cancer. The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas are related to tobacco, areca nut / betel quid chewing, alcoholism. Control of oral potentially malignant diseases will only be achieved by effective and comprehensive primary and secondary prevention by recognizing that the risk factors are common to most other diseases.

  11. Running away experience and psychoactive substance use among adolescents in Taiwan: multi-city street outreach survey

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    Lew-Ting Chih-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine: 1 the relationship between being a runaway and the time since the first absconding event and adolescent substance use; 2 whether different kinds of psychoactive substances have a different temporal relationship to the first absconding event; and 3 whether the various reasons for the first absconding event are associated with different risks of substance use. Methods Participants were drawn from the 2004-2006 nationwide outreach programs across 26 cities/towns in Taiwan. A total of 17,133 participants, age 12-18 years, who completed an anonymous questionnaire on their experience of running away and substances use and who were now living with their families, were included in the analysis. Results The lifetime risk of tobacco, alcohol, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use increased steadily from adolescents who had experienced a trial runaway episode (one time lasting ≤ 1 day, to those with extended runaway experience (≥ 2 times or lasting > 1 day, when compared to those who had never ran away. Adolescents who had their first running away experience > 6 months previously had a greater risk of betel nut or illegal drug/inhalant use over the past 6-months than those with a similar experience within the last 6 months. Both alcohol and tobacco use were most frequently initiated before the first running away, whereas both betel nut and illegal drug/inhalant use were most frequently initiated after this event. When adolescents who were fleeing an unsatisfactory home life were compared to those who ran away for excitement, the risk of alcohol use was similar but the former tended to have a higher risk of tobacco, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use. Conclusions More significant running away and a longer time since the first absconding experience were associated with more advanced substance involvement among adolescents now living in a family setting. Once adolescents had left home, they

  12. Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.

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    Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

    2014-06-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

  13. Oral submucous fibrosis: a review article on etiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, J; Gupta, N; Bali, R

    2014-01-01

    Areca quid chewing related oral mucosal lesions are potential hazard to a large population worldwide. Commercially freeze dried products such as pan masala, guthka and mawa have high concentration of areca nut per chew and appear to cause OSMF more rapidly than by self prepared conventional betel quid that contain smaller amounts of areca nut. The basic constituent of areca nut is either raw or dried or boiled or baked. Diverse agents including lime, tobacco, catechu, cloves, saffron and leaf of piper betel leaves may form a part of formulation. Many of the undesirable aspects of areca nut have been attributed to arecoline. These chemical appear to interfere with the molecular processes of deposition and or degradation of extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen, causing imbalance in the normal process. The most likely events that take place with regards to the above imbalance may be reduced phagocytosis of collagen by fibroblasts, up or down regulation of copper dependent enzyme lysyl oxidase, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases . It has been postulated that areca nut may also induce the development of the disease by increased levels of cytokines in the lamina propria. Current evidence implicates collagen related genes in susceptibility and pathogenesis of OSMF. The individual mechanisms operating at various stages of the disease--initial, intermediate and advanced--need further study in order to propose appropriate therapeutic interventions. PMID:25552225

  14. Oral mucosal lesions associated with use of quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avon, Sylvie Louise

    2004-04-01

    Quid is a mixture of substances that is placed in the mouth or actively chewed over an extended period, thus remaining in contact with the mucosa. It usually contains one or both of 2 basic ingredients, tobacco and areca nut. Betel quid or paan is a mixture of areca nut and slaked lime, to which tobacco can be added, all wrapped in a betel leaf. The specific components of this product vary between communities and individuals. The quid habit has a major social and cultural role in communities throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and locations in the western Pacific. Following migration from these countries to North America, predominantly to inner city areas, the habit has remained prevalent among its practitioners. Many dentists are unaware of the prevalence of the quid or paan habit in the Asian patient population. The recognition of the role of such products in the development of oral precancer and cancer is of great importance to the dental practitioner. A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions have been reported in association with quid and tobacco use, and the association of these conditions with the development of oral cancer emphasizes the importance of education to limit the use of quid. In most cases, cessation of the habit produces improvement in mucosal lesions as well as in clinical symptoms. PMID:15120019

  15. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients

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    Shirin Jahan Mumu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years, diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%, exercise (25%, routine blood glucose testing (32%, foot care (70%, smoking (6% and betel quid chewing habit (25%. Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013, rural area (P = 0.013 and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043 showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014, older age (P = 0.037 are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045 than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037 and business occupation group (P = 0.039 showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.

  16. Anti-microbial principles of selected remedial plants from Southern India

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    Tirupathi Rao G; Suresh Babu K; Ujwal Kumar J; Sujana P; A Veerabhadr Raoa; Sreedhar AS

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the anti-bacterial activity of leaf extracts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Piper betel L. (Piperaceae), and seed extracts of Bombax ceiba L. (Borabacaceae). Methods:We have partially purified plant extracts by solvent extraction method, and evaluated the effect of individual fractions on bacterial growth using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacterial strains. Results: Compared withMorus and Bombax fractions, Piper fractions showed significant growth inhibition on all the three types of bacteria studied. The EtOAc-hexane fractions of Piper leaves exhibited significant anti-bacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 μg/mL culture against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The EtOAc-fractions I, II, and IV inhibited bacterial colony formation on soft agar in addition to growth inhibition. A combination treatment of piper fractions with ampicillin resulted in significant growth inhibition in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and combination with anticancer drug geldanamycin (2μg/mL) showed selective growthinhibition against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Three major compounds, i.e., eugenol, 3-hexene-ol and stigmasterol, were primarily identified from Piper betel leaf extractions. Among the individual compounds, eugenol treatment showed improved growth inhibition compared with stigmasterol and 3-hexene-ol. Conclusions: We are reporting potential anti-bacterial compounds from Piperbetel against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria either alone or in combination with drug treatment.

  17. Smokeless tobacco: A major public health problem in the SEA region: A review

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    Prakash C Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand′s successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.

  18. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, C C; Mohapatra, S

    2015-02-01

    In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii), Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi), and Betel leaf (Piper betel) were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour) and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal). PMID:25657164

  19. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

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    C C Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa, Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii, Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi, and Betel leaf (Piper betel were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal.

  20. Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16-Specific IgG and IgM Antibodies in Patient Sera: A Potential Indicator of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerishnan, Jesinda P.; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Kai, Sia Bik; Tang, Thean-Hock; Ng, Helen Lee-Ching; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Hashim, Uda; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, nested PCR analysis using comprehensive consensus primers (PGMY09/11 and GP5+/6+) was used to confirm the presence of HPV. Furthermore, we have evaluated the association of various additional causal factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel quid chewing) in HPV-infected OSCC patients. Statistical analysis of the Malaysian population indicated that OSCC was more prevalent in female Indian patients that practices betel quid chewing. ELISA revealed that HPV16 IgG, which demonstrates past exposure, could be detected in 197 (95.6%) OSCC patients and HPV16-specific IgM was found in a total of 42 (20.4%) OSCC patients, indicating current exposure. Taken together, our study suggest that HPV infection may play a significant role in OSCC (OR: 13.6; 95% CI: 3.89-47.51) and HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies could represent a significant indicator of risk factors in OSCC patients. PMID:27279791

  1. Prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders in workers of Udupi taluk

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    Yeturu Sravan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD among industrial workers of Udupi taluk, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of industrial workers aged >18 years from randomly selected industries in Udupi Taluk. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants to assess sociodemographic factors and abusive habits (Tobacco, Alcohol, and Betel quid followed by clinical oral examination by single trained and calibrated examiner. Results: A total of 396 completed all steps of the survey and were included for analysis. A total of 14, 11.4, and 14.4% were tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid users, respectively. A total of 8.6% (n = 34 have at least one PMD. A significantly higher number of participants with single (11.4% or combined habits (60.4% had oral lesions while none of the participants without habits reported any oral lesions (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Prevalence of abusive habits and oral premalignant lesions or conditions was substantial among the workers. The cause and effect relationship and dose-response were also shown to be significantly associated. Prevention and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major cornerstones for the control of oral cancer.

  2. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  3. A new matrix for analyzing low molecular mass compounds and its application for determination of carcinogenic areca alkaloids by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chia-Hsien; Lu, Chi-Yu

    2009-09-01

    Arecoline is the main alkaloid present in the areca nut (or betel nut) and it has central nervous system effects. Its pharmacological activities induce the constriction of the bronchial smooth muscles, and stimulation of the lacrimal and intestinal glands. Chewing areca nut is harmful to health because this habit may increase the risk of the development of oral cancer. In this study, a fast method was provided for the determination of areca alkaloids by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometer with a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer. Traditionally the MALDI-TOF method was not suitable for the analysis of small molecular weight (m/zplate. This new matrix was also used to test the MALDI imaging experiment. Application of this MALDI-TOF method for trace analysis of arecoline by this new matrix in human plasma at sub microM level proved workable. PMID:19699399

  4. Purification of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Piper betle leaf and its characterization in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Lee, Miau-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to purify protein(s) from Piper betle leaf for identification and further characterization. A functionally unknown protein was purified to apparent homogeneity with a molecular mass of 15.7 kDa and identified as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purified SOD appeared to be monomeric and converted to its dimeric form with increased enzymatic activity in betel nut oral extract. This irreversible conversion was mainly induced by slaked lime, resulting from the increase in pH of the oral cavity. Oral extract from chewing areca nut alone also induced SOD dimerization due to the presence of arginine. The enhanced activity of the SOD dimer was responsible for the continuous production of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity. Thus, SOD may contribute to oral carcinogenesis through the continuous formation of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity, in spite of its protective role against cancer in vivo. PMID:25650283

  5. Search for β-Secretase Inhibitors from Natural Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shinichi; Murata, Kazuya; Yoshioka, Yuri; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The growing number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients prompted us to seek effective natural resources for the prevention of AD. We focused on the inhibition of β-secretase, which is known to catalyze the production of senile plaque. Sixteen spices used in Asian countries were selected for the screening. Among the extracts tested, hexane extracts obtained from turmeric, cardamom, long pepper, cinnamon, Sichuan pepper, betel, white turmeric and aromatic ginger showed potent inhibitory activities. Their active principles were identified as sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, fatty acid derivatives and phenylpropanoids using GC-MS analyses. The chemical structures and IC50 values of the compounds are disclosed. The results suggest that long-term consumption'of aromatic compounds from spices could be effective in the prevention of AD. PMID:27396206

  6. Estimation and correlative study of salivary nitrate and nitrite in tobacco related oral squamous carcinoma and submucous fibrosis

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    Vaishali Shende

    2013-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a disease of the Indian subcontinent, which through immigration has a worldwide distribution. Betel nut chewing plays significant role in etiology of OSMF. The nut alkaloids have been shown experimentally to result in stimulation of collagen synthesis by fibroblasts in vitro, which can induce precancerous conditions. Materials and Methods: The present study was undertaken to detect nitrate and nitrite factor in saliva of cases with oral carcinoma, OSMF and normal individuals without any habits and to determine whether increased salivary nitrate and nitrite level is significant in oral carcinoma and submucous fibrosis using biochemical parameters. Conclusion: We conclude that the major inducer of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is exposure to tobacco. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxidative and nitrosative stress contributes to the development of oral carcinogenesis through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA damage. Salivary composition of OSCC patients is substantially altered with respect to free radical-involved mechanisms.

  7. Human-Rhesus Monkey conflict at Rampur Village under Monohardi Upazila in Narsingdi District of Bangladesh

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    M.F. Ahsan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-Rhesus monkey conflicts were recorded at Rampur Village under Khidirpur Union Parishad of Monohardi upazila under Narsingdi District in Bangladesh from April to September 2012. There were three groups of Rhesus monkeys living in the area. The focal study group comprised 26 individuals (4 adult males, 6 adult females, 10 juveniles and 6 infants. The monkeys consumed parts of 10 plant species. From the questionnaire survey, it was found that the greatest damage caused by monkeys was on betel leaf vines and the least damage on vegetables. Eighty percent respondents opted to conserve the monkeys and 20% opined status quo. Some restricted areas (especially khas lands may be identified and planted with some fruit trees for survival of monkeys and for reducing conflicts with humans.

  8. The alternative choices of masticatory customs by local people in Wasur National Park, Merauke, Papua

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    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The flora diversity and the interesting customs in East Indonesia, particularly in Papua, have not been explored intensively. This study encountered the relationship between traditional customs and usage of plant species by the local people in Wasur National Park Area, Merauke sub-district, Merauke district. One of them was masticatory. It has been well known by Indonesians in most parts of Indonesia, including societies in Wasur National Park. The major societies live in Wasur National Park are Kanum, Morori and Marind. Besides gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxburgh and sirih (Piper betle L., the young fruit of betel nut (Areca catechu L. is usually consumed it as masticatory materials, by man and women. Several plant species, usually used alternative choices by Kanum, Morori and Marind were openg (Exocarpus latifolius R.Br.; Santalaceae, tawal (Celastraceae, sambiwal (Erythroxylum ecarinatum Burck; Erythroxylaceae, ntuo (Cryptocaria nitida R.A.Philippi; Lauraceae and agya (Endiandra montana C.T. White; Lauraceae.

  9. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

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    István Ujváry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural products are also mentioned.

  10. Investigation of poly-herbal aqueous extract for potential anti-ulcer activity

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    Deepak S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous polyherbal extract of betel, clove, fennel and black catechu was evaluated for gastro-protective (antiulcer activity in rats using the aspirin and ethanol induced ulcer models. Efficacy was assessed by determination of ulcer index and percentage of ulcer protection.  Antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging procedure. Oral administration of the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg and (500 mg/kg showed dose dependent antiulcer activity and protected gastric lesions by about 65 to 75% respectively compared to standard drug Omeprazole (98%. The findings suggest that the polyherbal extract have significant gastro-protective activity.                                                                   

  11. Culture-bound addictions among low income workers of Karachi, Pakistan

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    Sara Salman

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Addiction to culture bound substances is prevalent among 50% of the low income workers of Karachi, Pakistan. The common culture bound addiction substances the workers were found to be using were tobacco, ghutka and betel nut. The findings of the present study can and not;not be generalized due to the limited sample. Still, the study provides evidence of this unhealthy behavior among workers that not only affects their productivity but plays a vicious role in poverty and poor health cycle. Future research should direct attention toward workers health and working conditions to formulate effective public health interventions to reduce the risky behavior among low income workers. Moreover, there is a need to develop health education programs to create awareness and empowerment among low-income workers to prevent substance use. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2770-2774

  12. A critical review of arsenic exposures for Bangladeshi adults.

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    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    Groundwater, the most important source of water for drinking, cooking, and irrigation in Bangladesh, is a significant contributor to the daily human intake of arsenic. Other arsenic intake pathways, established as relevant for Bangladeshi adults through this review, include consumption of contaminated edible plant parts and animal-origin food, inhalation of contaminated air, soil ingestion, betel quid chewing, and tobacco smoking. This review qualifies and quantifies these arsenic intake pathways through analysis of the range of arsenic levels observed in different food types, water, soil, and air in Bangladesh, and highlights the contributions of dietary intake variation and cooking method in influencing arsenic exposures. This study also highlights the potential of desirable dietary patterns and intakes in increasing arsenic exposure which is relevant to Bangladesh where nutritional deficiencies and lower-than-desirable dietary intakes continue to be a major concern. PMID:26004539

  13. Golden Heart of the Nature: Piper betle L.

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    Dr. K. A. Suri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The heart shaped betel leaves are found in ancient Sanskrit texts, including Charaka, Sushruta Samhita and Astanga Hradayam. Piper betle L. have been used in chinese, Indian folk medicine for centuries. In this review, different research works related to Ayurvedic consequence, geographical distribution and cultivation, morphoanatomy, phytochemistry, biological activities, along with tradomedicinal uses which signify the tremendous potential of “Piper betle L.” to come out as Green medicine. The objective of it is to revels the potential effect of this plant in the development of therapeutically active herbal drugs against different microbial infections especially for oral cavity, which also gives the opportunity to pharmaceutical companies interested in formulation and production of natural product based drugs targeted towards specific aliments.

  14. [Medical exchanges between China and Vietnam during the Song, Jin and Yuan Periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Xia; Dai, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There were many medical exchanges between China and Vietnam during the Song, Jin and Yuan Periods. For example, in the Li Period, Vietnam established the Imperial Medical Department according to medical administration in China and to the Chen Period, the name was changed to Imperial Academy of Medicine. Through tribute and trade, many medicines circulated between the two countries. Many medicines from Vietnam, especially the spices and perfumes, could be found in prescriptions in China during those periods. Except for herb exchange, Chinese doctors also brought TCM theory to Vietnam and they offered medical attention for people and the Emperor. At the same time, Vietnamese doctors also had treated disease for a Chinese Empress in the Song Dynasty. In the area of the Sino-Vietnam border, people are used to chewing betel, which has been recorded in Chinese medical books. PMID:22613476

  15. A case-control study of lung cancer in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Bhurgri, Y.; Decullier, E.; Bhurgri, A.; Sheikh Nassar; Ahmed Usman; Brennan, P.; Boffetta, P. [Karachi Cancer Registry, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the causes of lung cancer in Pakistan. 320 patients (282 men and 38 women) with lung cancer treated at the Liaquat National Post Graduate Medical Centre, the Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center and the Civil Hospital, all in Karachi, and 640 controls (561 men and 79 women) were enrolled. A total of 275 patients and 222 controls reported having a history of smoking (57% of men and 14% of women). An increased risk of developing lung cancer was observed among individuals with a history of smoking (odds ratio (OR) 22.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-37.3) and among current smokers (OR 30.2; 95% CI 17.8-51.3). The risk decreased with the number of years since quitting (most apparent 10 years after smoking cessation). Chewing betel quid (containing betel leaf, lime, areca nut and tobacco) was only marginally associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, heavy exposure to this habit resulted in a significantly elevated odds ratio (OR2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). The OR for snuff use was significantly increased (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.7), with a significant trend with years of exposure and average level of consumption. Having ever lived in a flat with a heating system (coal, wood, electricity and kerosene) was associated with an OR of 3.6 (95% CI 2.5-5.3). Using gas, electricity or kerosene for cooking was associated with a reduced OR compared with the use of wood, whereas the OR for the use of coal was 2.7 (95& CI 0.9-8.7). The primary role of tobacco smoking as the cause of lung cancer in Pakistan was confirmed. 13 refs.

  16. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

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    L C Somatunga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  17. Immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and depression of antioxidant status by arecoline in albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There are about 600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Betal quid chewing is one of the major risk factors of hepatocarcinoma, oropharyngeal and esophagus cancers. Arecoline, the main Areca alkaloid of the betel nut is reported to have cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects in various cells. It shows strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucosal fibrosis, leukoplakia and oral cancer, and has also been found to impose toxic manifestations in immune, hepatic and other defense systems of the recipient. Aim: The precise molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of arecoline deserve investigation. To clarify the action of arecoline on defense systems, immune, hepatic and detoxification system were studied in mice. Method: Cell count and cell cycle of the splenocytes were studied for evaluating cell immunity. Liver function test (LFT) was followed by assaying different enzyme systems from serum (SGPT, SGOT and ALP) and liver (GST for detoxication enzyme, SOD and catalase for antioxidant enzymes and GSH for non-enzymatic antioxidant) and by ultrastructural studies of hepatocytes. Results: Here we report that arecoline arrested splenic lymphocyte cell cycle at lower concentration with induced apoptosis at higher concentration thereby causing immunosuppression in arecoline recipients. Besides, it resulted in hepatotoxicity in arecoline recipient mice by disrupting the hepatocyte ultrastructure, as judged by liver ultrastructural studies that showed decreased nuclear size, RER with profusely inflated cysternae and abundance of lipid droplets, and by up regulating hepatotoxic marker enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) in serum. Arecoline also caused depression of antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) that are known to neutralize reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: All these above-mentioned results led us to conclude that arecoline attacks multiple targets to finally

  18. Impacts of CA9 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on oral-cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics in Taiwan.

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    Ming-Hsien Chien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, oral cancer has causally been associated with environmental carcinogens. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9 is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas and is generally considered a marker of malignancy. The current study explored the combined effect of CA9 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CA9 gene from 462 patients with oral cancer and 519 non-cancer controls were analyzed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. While the studied SNPs (CA9 rs2071676, rs3829078, rs1048638 and +376 Del were not associated with susceptibility to oral cancer, the GAA haplotype of 3 CA9 SNPs (rs2071676, rs3829078, and rs1048638 was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, the four CA9 SNPs combined with betel quid chewing and/or tobacco consumption could robustly elevate susceptibility to oral cancer. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had at least one G allele of CA9 rs2071676 were at higher risk for developing lymph-node metastasis (p = 0.022, compared to those patients homozygous for AA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the haplotype of rs2071676, rs3829078, and rs1048638 combined has potential predictive significance in oral carcinogenesis. Gene-environment interactions of CA9 polymorphisms, smoking, and betel-quid chewing might alter oral cancer susceptibility and metastasis.

  19. Precocious anaphase and expression of Securin and p53 genes as candidate biomarkers for the early detection in areca nut-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkalang, Sillarine; Banerjee, Atanu; Dkhar, Hughbert; Nongrum, Henry B; Ganguly, Buddha; Islam, Mohammad; Rangad, Gordon M; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2015-05-01

    Research over the years has generated enough evidence to implicate areca nut, as a carcinogen in humans. Besides oral, significant rise in the incidence of cancers of the oesophagus, liver and stomach was seen among areca nut chewers. Early diagnosis seems key to understand the initial processes of carcinogenesis which is highly curable. In North-East India, betel quid contains raw areca nut (RAN), lime and small portion of betel leaf without any other constituents. This study was not intended to isolate any active ingredients from the RAN and to look its action. The present objective is to validate the screening of precocious anaphase and analysis of expression of Securin and p53 in non-target cells like human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) as early indicative parameters of RAN + lime-induced cancers. A total of 35 mice were examined at different time points for following ad libitum administration of RAN extract in drinking water with lime. Peripheral blood was collected from 32 human donors of which, 24 were RAN + lime heavy chewers. Expression of genes was assessed by immunoblotting and/or by immunohistochemistry. Histological preparation of stomach tissue of mice revealed that RAN + lime induced stomach cancer. A gradual increase in the frequency of precocious anaphases and aneuploid cells was observed in both RAN + lime-treated mouse BMC and human PBL of RAN heavy chewers. Levels of p53 and Securin were increased in these cells during early days of RAN + lime exposure. The level of Securin was significantly higher in human tumour samples than their adjacent normal counterpart. The expression of Securin was increased significantly in RAN + lime-administered mice as well as in stomach tumour. Present study revealed that precocious anaphase and expression of p53 and Securin in non-target cells are significantly associated with an increased risk of RAN-induced cancer and thus these parameters can be of early diagnostic value

  20. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

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    Saleh Farzana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of knowledge about diabetes mellitus (DM among newly diagnosed diabetics in Bangladesh are unknown. This study assessed the relationship between knowledge and practices among newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients. Methods Newly diagnosed adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 508 were selected from 19 healthcare centers. Patients’ knowledge and self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using a cross-sectional design. Knowledge questions were divided into basic and technical sections. Knowledge scores were categorized as poor (mean + 1 SD. Chi square testing and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine the relationship between diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices. Results Approximately 16%, 66%, and 18% of respondents had good, average, and poor (GAP basic knowledge respectively and 10%, 78%, and 12% of respondents had GAP technical knowledge, about DM. About 90% of respondents from both basic and technical GAP did not test their blood glucose regularly; a significant relationship existed between basic knowledge and glucose monitoring. Technical knowledge and foot care were significantly related, though 81% with good technical knowledge and about 70% from average and poor groups did not take care of their feet. Approximately 85%, 71%, and 52% of the GAP technical knowledge groups, consumed betel nuts; a significant relationship existed between technical knowledge and consumption of betel nuts. Around 88%, 92%, and 98% of GAP technical knowledge groups failed to follow dietary advice from a diabetes educator. About 26%, 42%, and 51% of GAP basic and technical sometimes ate meals at a fixed time (p Conclusions Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics had similar levels of basic and technical knowledge of DM. Health education and motivation should create positive changes in diabetes-control-related self-care practices.

  1. 热泵干燥槟榔中试工艺参数优化%Technologic parameter optimization in pilot-scale process of heat pump drying ofAreca catechuL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张容鹄; 高元能; 冯建成; 谢辉; 邓浩; 庄光辉; 窦志浩

    2016-01-01

    Areca catechu L. belongs to perennial aiphyllium of palmae. It has very high medicinal value and is regarded as the first one of 4 kinds of the south medicines in China.Areca catechu L. abounds in Hainan, 10% for fresh food, more than 90% dried for further processing,Areca catechu L. drying has become the important processing industry in Hainan, the annual output of dried betel nut is about 200 000 t, and the annual output value is more than 10 billion yuan. For theAreca catechu L. drying, there are hot air drying and vacuum freeze drying, which have not been applied in production because of the limitation of experimental conditions and equipments, and the traditional furnace drying, steam drying and heat pump drying are used in production. The traditional furnace drying is a kind of small workshop processing, and its characteristics of small scale, large labor intensity and serious pollution are difficult to adapt to the modern agriculture development, so it has been gradually eliminated. For the steam drying whose heat source is from the burning coal, the characteristic of large scale and high mechanical strength adapts to the intensive agricultural product processing development, however it is limited because of a lot of greenhouse gases emitted from burning coal. Only the energy-conservation and environment-protection drying method is suitable for theAreca catechu L. drying industry’s sustainable and healthy development. The betel nut drying was studied using the heat pump drying equipment in this paper. The influences of boiling time on betel nut hardness, and drying temperature and loading capacity on moisture content of dried fruit were analyzed via the single factor experiment. The technology parameters of heat pump drying were optimized by the orthogonal experiment, and the quality of the dried betel nut was evaluated using the weighted score method. After 30-day storage, the physical, chemical and microbiological indicators of the dried fruits were

  2. Determination of Polyphenols Ingredients Present in Areca Husk and Its Antioxidant Activity%槟榔壳多酚组分及抗氧化活性的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李专; 祁静; 赵松林

    2012-01-01

    This paper was developed for the simultaneous determination of betel nut shell in a variety of phenolic compounds by high performance capillary electrophoresis method,analyzed the separation effect of different concentrations and pH values of buffer on 10 analytes,finally determined the best electrolytic buffer was 0.1 mol/L,pH 9.0 borate buffer,UV detection wavelength 280 nm,separation voltage 20 kV.The method is simple and fast,within 20 min 10 kinds of phenolic materials can be completely separated,the detection limit is 0.5~4.5 mg/L.In addition,this article further determines of the betel nut shell polyphenol antioxidant activity,by using three evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of index,namely:the DPPH free radical scavenging ability,reduction ability as well as ABTS free radical scavenging ability.%建立测定槟榔壳中多种酚类物质的高效毛细管电泳方法,分析不同浓度和不同pH值硼酸缓冲液对10种标准品的分离效果,最后确定最佳缓冲液为0.1 mol/L,pH 9.0的硼酸缓冲液,紫外检测波长为280 nm,分离电压为20 kV.方法简便快速,能在20 min之内将10种酚类物质完全分离开,检测限为0.5~4.5 mg/L.此外,进一步测定了槟榔壳多酚的抗氧化活性,选用3个评价抗氧化能力的指标,即:对DPPH自由基的清除能力、对还原能力以及对ABTS自由基的清除能力.

  3. Biomarkers of oral premalignant epithelial lesions for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rajakishore

    2012-07-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common form of cancer worldwide, and the majority of cases occur in India and Southeast Asia. Its major risk factors in the western world include smoking and drinking alcohol, whereas in Asia, it is primarily caused by tobacco/areca nut/betel leaf chewing and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Little is known about this type of cancer despite recent advances in cancer biology. The generally asymptomatic nature of the early oral lesions causes them to remain undetected in many cases. Thus, the disease progresses substantially before the patients seek treatment and is a major contributing factor to the severity of this disease. Therefore, there is a great need to create awareness for its prevention and early diagnosis. The application of advanced molecular biological and biochemical methodologies to elucidate its biomarkers may aid in early detection; however, much more work must be done for this information to be effectively applied in the clinical setting. This review focuses on the need for systematic diagnoses in the early detection of oral cancer using molecular and biochemical approaches, thereby reducing the number of advanced cases in the chewing tobacco-dominated oral cancer population. PMID:22342569

  4. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, A; Husain, S S; Hosain, M; Fikree, F F; Pitiphat, W; Siddiqui, A R; Hayder, S J; Haider, S M; Ikram, M; Chuang, S K; Saeed, S A

    2000-04-01

    Oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men in Pakistan. Tobacco is smoked and chewed extensively in Pakistan. Paan is a quid of piper betel leaf that contains areca nut, lime, condiment, sweeteners, and sometimes tobacco, which is also used extensively. We did this study to clarify the independent association of paan and oral cancer. Between July 1996 and March 1998, we recruited biopsy-proven, primary cases of oral squamous-cell carcinoma, from 3 tertiary teaching centers in Karachi, Pakistan, and controls pair-matched for age, gender, hospital and time of occurrence, excluding persons with a past or present history of any malignancy. There were 79 cases and 149 controls. Approximately 68% of the cases were men, 49 years old on average, the youngest being 22 years old and the eldest 80. People with oral submucous fibrosis were 19.1 times more likely to develop oral cancer than those without it, after adjusting for other risk factors. People using paan without tobacco were 9.9 times, those using paan with tobacco 8.4 times, more likely to develop oral cancer as compared with non-users, after adjustment for other covariates. This study identifies an independent effect of paan without tobacco in the causation of oral cancer. Its findings may be of significance in South Asian communities where paan is used, and among health-care providers who treat persons from South Asia. PMID:10728606

  5. Factors associated with tobacco smoking among 6-10 grade school students in an urban taluka of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the factors related to tobacco smoking among students of grade 6-10 in an urban setting in Sindh, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in public and private schools of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, from January 2008 to June 2009. Methodology: A sample of 501 students from grade 6-10 were selected through simple random sampling and probability proportional to size. Students answered to a pre-tested questionnaire on socio demography and tobacco use. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequency distribution. Results: About 9% of the students were smoking some form of tobacco. Ten percent had tried cigarette smoking and about 80% and 61% were chewing Areca nuts and 'Paan' (concoction of Areca nuts, tobacco, hydrated lime, herbs and spices wrapped in betel leaf. Being old, male gender, peer influence, personal attitude toward future smoking, chewing 'Gutka' (concoction of tobacco, Areca nuts and hydrated lime) and having a more educated mother was associated with greater frequency of smoking any form of tobacco. Conclusion: High frequency of tobacco smoking, the attitude toward tobacco consumption and a very high consumption of Areca nuts and other chewable tobacco products by the children warrants urgent action in order to control the tobacco epidemic in Pakistan. (author)

  6. Oral proliferative verrucous leucoplakia: are there particular features for such an ambiguous entity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentenero, M; Meleti, M; Vescovi, P; Gandolfo, S

    2014-05-01

    Proliferative verrucous leucoplakia (PVL) is a distinct, particularly aggressive form of oral leucoplakia. Given the low prevalence of PVL, data are sparse and are mostly from case reports, case series and only a few case-control studies, meaning that the literature is able to provide only weak evidence. The present systematic literature review aims to collate the available evidence on the following issues: patient demographics, aetiology, lesion location(s), malignant potential, location and histopathological features of transformed lesions, disease-specific survival rates and treatment response. Electronic databases were searched for studies in the English language reporting original data from at least 10 patients with PVL on the target issues of the present review. The retrieved data were merged and a descriptive analysis performed. The 20 studies selected indicated that PVL does not seem to be correlated with the major risk factors for oral carcinoma (tobacco, alcohol and/or areca nut/betel leaf chewing). The disorder affects mainly adult/elderly women and has a very high malignant transformation rate, particular site distribution and particular location and histopathological features of transformed lesions. The present results may be limited by some articles being unintentionally excluded as they were not found during the electronic search, a lack of worldwide accepted diagnostic criteria for PVL, and overlapping data from multiple studies performed in a limited number of centres. Despite these potential drawbacks, the present results demonstrate that PVL does have particular features. PMID:24471527

  7. THE CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 75 CASES OF ORAL PREMALIGNANT LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Salman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is of significant public health importance to India. Oral cancer will remain a major health problem and efforts towards early detection , and prevention will reduce this burden. A premalignant lesion is a disease , syndrome , or finding that , if left untreated , may lead to cancer. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence , clinical and morphological profile of oral premalignant lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Clinical material for present study comp rises 75 cases with oral premalignant lesions. The parame ters studied were types of oral premalignant lesions , age distribution , sex distribution , the local habits of addiction and the sites of involvement. RESULTS : Maximum number of cases was between 21 - 3 0 years of age. The sex incidence was more in males with the ratio of 9:1. Out of total 75 cases , 64% cases were of oral submucous fibrosis , 17.3% cases were of leukoplakia , 8% cases of erythroplakia , 6.6% cases of traumatic dental ulcer and 4% cases of li chen planus. In cases of oral submucous fibrosis , betel nut chewing was the commonest habit (89.5%. In cases of Lichen planus no addictions were found. Buccal mucosa was the commonest site involved in premalignant lesions. CONCLUSION: Premalignant lesions are seen mainly in early adulthood. The number of cases is increased due to adverse oral habits. Its prevalence can be reduced if awareness is created among such patients. This study mandates close cooperation between dentist and ENT surgeons.

  8. Domestication, Conservation, and Livelihoods: A Case Study of Piper peepuloides Roxb.—An Important Nontimber Forest Product in South Meghalaya, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tynsong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild pepper (Piper peepuloides Roxb., family: Piperaceae is an evergreen climber which grows wild in tropical evergreen forests and subtropical evergreen forests of northeast India. This plant grows luxuriantly in the areas with high rainfall at lower elevations ranging from 100 to 800 m above mean sea level. In Meghalaya, to meet the market demand, farmers have domesticated it in arecanut agroforests and betel leaf agroforests. We found that the mean density of wild pepper in arecanut agroforest is 585 stem/ha and only 85 stem/ha in natural forest. In India, wild pepper is used in a variety of Ayurvedic medicines. Local people of Meghalaya uses powdered dry seeds mixed with honey and egg yolk for the treatment of severe cough. The study reveals that the average gross annual production of wild pepper is 7 quintals/ha, and final market price fetches Rs. 336,000/ha, out of which 42% of the money goes to the grower, 16% to local trader, 23% to dealer, 17% to retailer, 1.2% to wages of labourers, and 0.6% to transport.

  9. Life-course predictors of ultrasonic heel measurement in a cross-sectional study of immigrant women from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, D S; Salant, T; Han, K L; Tran, P L

    2001-03-15

    Few studies address chronic disease risk for Southeast Asians in the United States. In 1999, the authors conducted a cross-sectional study of bone mineral density (BMD) estimated from ultrasonic calcaneal measurements in women born in Southeast Asia who then lived in Chicago, Illinois. The study addressed three questions: Do Southeast-Asian women have relatively low BMD? What factors before and after immigration are associated with BMD? Are factors that reflect the childhood/adolescent environment equally associated with BMD for postmenopausal and premenopausal women? An interviewer-administered bilingual questionnaire collected immigration, reproductive, and lifestyle data from 213 women (aged 20--80 years) born in Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos. The authors found that the estimated mean BMD of postmenopausal Southeast-Asian women was lower than the reference values for White women. Four summary indicators of childhood/adolescent environment were predictive of higher BMD: more years of education, earlier age at menarche, lower height, and coastal birth; these indicators were more strongly associated with BMD for premenopausal (multiple-partial R(2) = 0.21) than postmenopausal (R(2) = 0.06) women. Young-adult exposures (e.g., early first pregnancy and age at immigration) and proximal lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity, vegetarian diet, and betel nut use) were also assessed as potential predictors of BMD. PMID:11257066

  10. Prevalence based epigrammatic study of oral cancer and other mucosal disorders in elderly patients visiting dental institution of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj T Bhagawati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This report provides the descriptive information about the oral health among the elderly population. The objective is to assess the association of age, medical status, recent use of dental services, habits and dentures with that of oral cancer, and other mucosal disorders. Materials and Methods: Data from the interviews and clinical examination of 285 persons aged above 60 years were obtained. Patients were divided into three groups of 75 patients each with age group of 60-65 years, 66-70 years, and 71 years above, respectively. Patients were examined and questioned regarding the oral health complaints and the presence of cancer and other mucosal disorders. Results: There are no statistically significant differentiates between the three groups in terms of oral health complaint, medical status. The patients in all the three groups gave the history of consumption of betel quid/alcohol/smoking. About 22.1% patients in Group A, 18.9% in Group B, and 37.9% in Group C had associated mucosal lesion like oral cancer, growth, pigmentation, red lesion, ulcer, and white lesions. Association between deleterious habits and oral mucosal lesions was seen in 12, 15, and 16 patients in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusion: The oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions were associated with oral habits and the use of faulty dentures. Age had minimal influence but coexistence of multiple conditions might further complicate the oral health.

  11. 强胃消食丸的质量标准研究%Study on quality standard of strong stomach Xiaoshi pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯振来; 任丽莉; 王云龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to establish the quality standard of strong stomach Xiaoshi pills. Methods: the microscopic identification method for identification of Radix Aucklandiae, liquorice, Rhizoma alismatis, betel nut, Poria, Atractylodes, hawthorn, radish seed, Rhizoma typhonii flagelliformis, Magnolia officinalis;TLC method was used to each other in Angelica oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the tlc. Results:the microscopic identification of specific;TLC qualitative identification and separating degree, strong specificity. Conclusion:the method is simple, reproducible, quality standards can be strong stomach Xiaoshi pills for.%目的:建立了强胃消食丸的质量标准。方法:采用显微鉴别法鉴别木香、甘草、泽泻、槟榔、茯苓、白术、山楂、莱菔子、水半夏、厚朴;采用TLC法对方中当归中熊果酸进行了薄层定性鉴别。结果:显微鉴别专属性强;TLC定性鉴别分离度好,专属性强。结论:本方法简便易行、重现性好,可用于强胃消食丸的质量标准。

  12. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  13. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  14. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  15. Inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by phenolic compounds extracted of Piper betle L.

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    Darab Yazdani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination by aflatoxins is an important food safety concern for agricultural products. In order to identify and develop novel antifungal agents, several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been evaluated for their bioactivities. Anti-infectious activity of Piper betle used in traditional medicine of Malaysia has been reported previously.Crude methanol extract from P. betel powdered leaves was partitioned between chloroform and water. The fractions were tested against A. flavus UPMC 89, a strong aflatoxin producing strain. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis were tested by disk diffusion and macrodillution techniques, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques using AFB1 standard. The chloroform soluble compounds were identified using HPLC-Tandem mass spectrometry technique.The results, evaluated by measuring the mycelial growth and quantification of aflatoxin B1(AFLB1 production in broth medium revealed that chloroform soluble compounds extract from P. betle dried leaves was able to block the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway at concentration of 500μg/ml without a significant effect on mycelium growth. In analyzing of this effective fractions using HPLC-MS(2 with ESI ionization technique, 11 phenolic compounds were identified.The results showed that the certain phenolic compounds are able to decline the aflatoxin production in A. flavus with no significant effect on the fungus mycelia growth. The result also suggested P. betle could be used as potential antitoxin product.

  16. Tobacco habit in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Pandey, Upendra; Bala, Nidhi; Tewar, Varsha; Oanh, Khuat Thi Hai

    2006-01-01

    To study tobacco consumption practices in north-Indian population, a community-based, stratified sampling survey using validated interview schedule was performed in rural/urban areas of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. There were 432 tobacco users (385 men, 47 women; 276 urban, 156 rural) taken as subjects. Tobacco use practices ie, chewing/smoking/rubbing/snuffing, frequency, starting age, supply, place/context of use, quid habit, affect, facilitating conditions/barriers, tobacco users' opinion on control measures were all taken into consideration. Single mode of tobacco use was reported by 277 subjects (64.1%) and the rest had a plethora of tobacco practices. Chewing was prevalent in 322(74.5%), smoking in 256(59.3%), rubbing in 32(7.4%) and snuffing in 4 subjects (0.9%). Of the 10 preparations in the questionnaire, the "top 5" preferences ranked as tobacco-betel, gutka, cigarette, bidi and khaini that remained unchanged between sexes, rural/urban people and age groups. Women significantly (palcohol was consumed by 82(19%) and with opium by 33 subjects (7.6%). Social barrier to tobacco use was perceived by 231 subjects (53.5%), especially by smokers. Majority users (355; 82.2%) did not have negative feelings or embarrassment in using tobacco. Most users (351; 81.4%) said they would welcome legislative control on tobacco use. PMID:16850862

  17. The genomics of oral cancer and wound healing

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    Aswini Y

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common malignancy in India, where it is epidemiologically linked to the chewing of betel quid and other carcinogens. But various point mutations were detectable in the p53 and p15 genes. Hence, this review was conducted with the aim to find out genetic risks as well as markers for oral cancers and wound healing. Tobacco-related cancers are associated with polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes in terms of genotype frequencies and cigarette smoking dose. Expression of E6/E7 were also found in tumors, most of which were derived from the oropharynx. Presence of homozygous arginine at codon 72 renders p53 about seven times more susceptible to E6-mediated proteolytic degradation. Erythropoietin, vascular permeability factor (VPF, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF, and PDGF has been implicated as one of the principal mitogens involved in cutaneous wound healing. Activation of NF-kB is associated with enhanced cell survival. Human papilloma virus status is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in tonsilar cancer and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer.

  18. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  19. Health behavior after a multiprofessional intervention and training for ongoing volunteer-based community health programme intervention in the North-East of Thailand: what changed and what not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Senarak, Wiporn; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Kamsa-Ard, Supot; Wongphuthorn, Prasert; Moore, Malcolm Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research within the project entitled "Multiprofessional Intervention and training for Ongoing Volunteer-based Community Health Programs in the Northeast of Thailand (MITV-NET) " was aimed at explaining changes of health behavior of community people in the Northeast after the intervention. The participants comprised 15 community volunteers and 27 villagers. Data were collected by indepth interview, focus group discussion, participation and non-participation observation, and note taking. Analyses were conducted in parallel with data collection, through content and comparative analysis. It was found that the health behavior fell into 2 categories: easy-to-change and difficult-to-change. The former involved fun activities joined by community people that improved their health or made them recover from illnesses after a short period without becoming addicted. These activities could be done by themselves, for example, exercising and cooking. The difficult-to- change health behavior is habitual, for example, chewing betel nuts or eating uncooked food. The following factors were found affecting behavioral changes: 1) underlying disease; 2) enjoyment in doing activities; 3) habitual behaviour; 4) improved health in a short period; 5) ability of community leaders and volunteers; and 6) community health-supporting resources. It is suggested that improving people's health requires cooperation of community people through fun activities and some initial external support. People who persist in bad habits should be encouraged to stop by showing them health deteriorating effects. PMID:23167423

  20. Salivary estimation of copper, iron, zinc and manganese in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case-control study

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    Akshata Raghavendra Okade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trace elements (TEs are required for physiological functioning and alterations are noted in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer. These TEs are used in early diagnosis, treatment and also as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis. Aims: To estimate the TEs such as copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and Cu/Zn ratio in the saliva of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF patients and controls. Settings and Design: The hospital-based study was conducted to estimate salivary TEs using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 60 individuals. Methods and Material: 5 ml saliva was collected from OSF cases (n=30 and controls (n=30 and was centrifuged and prepared by using the Wet Ashing method. The TEs were estimated in parts per million (ppm by using AAS. Statistical Analysis Used: The data obtained was statistically analyzed using non parametric tests such as Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Significant difference in the mean salivary Zn, Mn and Fe levels in OSF when compared to that of controls. Mean salivary Cu levels were increased and Cu/ Zn ratio was decreased in OSF when compared to the controls. Conclusions: To conclude TEs play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of OSF. Betel quid and areca nut chewing habits are frequently associated with OSF and alters the salivary TE levels. Concerted efforts would, therefore, help in early detection, management and monitoring the efficacy of treatment.

  1. Diversity and utilization of tree species in Meitei homegardens of Barak Valley, Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, N Linthoingambi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-03-01

    An inventory of tree diversity in traditional homegardens of Meitei community was conducted in a Bontarapur village in Cachar district of Barak Valley, Assam. Meitei homegarden locally called Ingkhol exhibits a wide diversity in size, shape, location and composition. Seventy one tree species were enumerated from 50 homegardens belonging to 60 genus and 35 families. Among the families encountered, Rutaceae was the dominant family (4 genus and 7 species) followed by Meliaceae (5 genus and 5 species), Arecaceae (4 genus and 4 species) and Moraceae (3 genus and 5 species). Total 7946 tree individuals were recorded, with the density of 831 No ha(-1) of and total basal area of 9.54 m2 ha(-1). Areco catechu was the dominant species with the maximum number of individuals. Other dominant trees include Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Citrus grandis, Parkia timoriana, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava. Being a cash crop, the intensification of betel nut has been preferred in many homegardens. Homegardens form an important component of land use of Meitei community which fulfills the socio-cultural and economic needs of the family and helps in conserving plant diversity through utilization. PMID:24620581

  2. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India

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    Mathew Anuna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2% of the population. Fordyce′s condition was observed most frequently (6.55% followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%, fissured tongue (5.71%, leukoedema (3.78%, smoker′s palate (2.77%, recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%, oral malignancies (1.76%, leukoplakia (1.59%, median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%, candidiasis (1.3%, lichen planus (1.20%, varices (1.17%, traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%, denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer′s mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%, herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%, and mucocele (0.16%. Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker′s palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.

  3. Enhancement of the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene by arecoline through suppression of DNA repair in HEp-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J L; Lu, H H; Lu, Y N; Hung, P S; Lin, Y J; Lin, C C; Yang, C C; Wong, T Y; Lu, S Y; Lin, C S

    2016-06-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer lists the principal component of betel quid (BQ), the areca nut, and that of cigarette smoke, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as Group 1 carcinogens. Epidemiological studies have shown that coexposure of BQ and cigarette smoke markedly increases the risk of cancer. We previously demonstrated that arecoline, the most abundant alkaloid in the areca nut, inhibits nucleotide excision repair through the repression of p53 activity. To investigate the combined potency of arecoline and BaP in carcinogenesis, we treated human epithelial HEp-2 cells with subcytotoxic doses of arecoline and BaP, alone or in combination, and examined the effects on DNA damage and repair. When exposed for 24h, BaP enhanced DNA repair and p53 transactivation activity. However, these enhancements were suppressed through concurrent treatment of the cells with arecoline. Using a Comet assay, we found that extended exposure to arecoline and BaP caused moderate-to-severe DNA damage in 60% of the cells. Expression of the XPD helicase was transcriptionally suppressed by 1week of treatment with BaP. Our studies have revealed potential targets in the DNA repair pathway that are affected by BQ and tobacco components, as well as the effect of these components on carcinogenesis. PMID:26891812

  4. In Silico Approach for SAR Analysis of the Predicted Model of DEPDC1B: A Novel Target for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Palak; Singh, Kailash

    2016-01-01

    With the incidence rate of oral carcinogenesis increasing in the Southeast-Asian countries, due to increase in the consumption of tobacco and betel quid as well as infection from human papillomavirus, specifically type 16, it becomes crucial to predict the transition of premalignant lesion to cancerous tissue at an initial stage in order to control the process of oncogenesis. DEPDC1B, downregulated in the presence of E2 protein, was recently found to be overexpressed in oral cancer, which can possibly be explained by the disruption of the E2 open reading frame upon the integration of viral genome into the host genome. DEPDC1B mediates its effect by directly interacting with Rac1 protein, which is known to regulate important cell signaling pathways. Therefore, DEPDC1B can be a potential biomarker as well as a therapeutic target for diagnosing and curing the disease. However, the lack of 3D model of the structure makes the utilization of DEPDC1B as a therapeutic target difficult. The present study focuses on the prediction of a suitable 3D model of the protein as well as the analysis of protein-protein interaction between DEPDC1B and Rac1 protein using PatchDock web server along with the identification of allosteric or regulatory sites of DEPDC1B. PMID:27034663

  5. In Silico Approach for SAR Analysis of the Predicted Model of DEPDC1B: A Novel Target for Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palak Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the incidence rate of oral carcinogenesis increasing in the Southeast-Asian countries, due to increase in the consumption of tobacco and betel quid as well as infection from human papillomavirus, specifically type 16, it becomes crucial to predict the transition of premalignant lesion to cancerous tissue at an initial stage in order to control the process of oncogenesis. DEPDC1B, downregulated in the presence of E2 protein, was recently found to be overexpressed in oral cancer, which can possibly be explained by the disruption of the E2 open reading frame upon the integration of viral genome into the host genome. DEPDC1B mediates its effect by directly interacting with Rac1 protein, which is known to regulate important cell signaling pathways. Therefore, DEPDC1B can be a potential biomarker as well as a therapeutic target for diagnosing and curing the disease. However, the lack of 3D model of the structure makes the utilization of DEPDC1B as a therapeutic target difficult. The present study focuses on the prediction of a suitable 3D model of the protein as well as the analysis of protein-protein interaction between DEPDC1B and Rac1 protein using PatchDock web server along with the identification of allosteric or regulatory sites of DEPDC1B.

  6. Influence of diet, vitamin, tea, trace elements and exogenous antioxidants on arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Liu, Su; Li, Mei; Wu, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Health risk of arsenic (As) has received increasing attention. Acute and chronic exposure to As could cause several detrimental effects on human health. As toxicity is closely related to its bioaccessibility and metabolism. In real environment, many factors, such as diet and nutrition, can influence As bioaccessibility, metabolism and toxicity. This paper mainly reviews the influences of diets and elements on As bioaccessibility, metabolism and toxicity and their underlying mechanisms to provide suggestions for future investigations. Vitamins, jaggery, fruit, tea, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine and zinc could reduce the As-induced toxicity by increasing antioxidative enzymes to antagonize oxidative stress caused by As and/or increasing As methylation. However, bean and betel nut could increase risk of skin lesions caused by As. Interestingly, high-fat diet, selenium and iron have incompatible effects on As bioaccessibility, metabolism and toxicity in different experimental conditions. Based on current literatures, the As methylation and As-induced oxidative damage might be two main ways that the diets and elements influence As toxicity. Combined application of in vitro human cell lines and gastrointestinal models might be useful tools to simultaneously characterize the changes in As bioaccessibility and toxicity in the future research. PMID:26169729

  7. Tooth element levels indicating exposure profiles in diabetic and hypertensive subjects from Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, G; Sukumar, A; Nandlal, B; Vellaichamy, S; Thanasekaran, K; Ramanathan, A L

    2009-12-01

    Element contents of teeth elucidate exposure nature, but less is known about association of tooth element concentrations of diabetics and hypertensives with exposure profile. Present study aims to estimate copper, chromium, iron, zinc, nickel, and lead concentrations in the permanent teeth of control, diabetic, and hypertensive subjects from Mysore. The results show that lead levels of teeth (Pb-T) are higher in the hypertensives and diabetics, whereas copper levels of teeth (Cu-T) are lower in the hypertensives and users of stainless steel utensils than that of controls and users of mixed utensils. The elevated Cu-T levels found in the users of mixed utensils that being made of several metals are ascribed to leaching effect of sour and spicy food of Indian cuisine. The element levels were influenced by diet (Zn-T), place of living, sex and income (Pb-T) of the subjects, but not by age, drinking water from different sources, and certain habits viz., smoking, alcohol consumption, chewing betel, and nut. Thus, it is evident that high Pb-T and low Cu-T levels may be related with diabetes and hypertension and high Pb-T and Cu-T levels, respectively, in the urbanites, and the users of mixed utensils may show different exposure profiles from environment and utensils. PMID:19352596

  8. Temperament of Juvenile Delinquents with History of Substance Abuse

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    Hsueh-Ling Chang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatricmorbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated.Cloninger’s Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported topredict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, weaimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquencyand substance abuse.Methods: Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history ofsubstance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwesternTaiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjectswere assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatricdisorders on an individual base.Results: The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficitand hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were significantly younger, consumedless betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse.Conclusion: Consistent with the results of Cloninger’s studies, novelty seeking positivelycorrelated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inverselycorrelated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substanceabuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.

  9. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  10. The association between problematic cellular phone use and risky behaviors and low self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents

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    Ko Chih-Hung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular phone use (CPU is an important part of life for many adolescents. However, problematic CPU may complicate physiological and psychological problems. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A total of 11,111 adolescent students in Southern Taiwan were randomly selected into this study. We used the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire to identify the adolescents with problematic CPU. Meanwhile, a series of risky behaviors and self-esteem were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the associations between problematic CPU and risky behaviors and low self-esteem regarding gender and age. Results The results indicated that positive associations were found between problematic CPU and aggression, insomnia, smoking cigarettes, suicidal tendencies, and low self-esteem in all groups with different sexes and ages. However, gender and age differences existed in the associations between problematic CPU and suspension from school, criminal records, tattooing, short nocturnal sleep duration, unprotected sex, illicit drugs use, drinking alcohol and chewing betel nuts. Conclusions There were positive associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. It is worthy for parents and mental health professionals to pay attention to adolescents' problematic CPU.

  11. Effect of habitual arecanut chewing on resting whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH

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    Rooban T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resting whole mouth salivary flow rate (SFR and pH play a significant role in pathogenesis of various oral diseases and conditions. AIM: To observe the effect of habitual use of arecanut and various arecanut containing products (AN on SFR and pH. DESIGN: Cross sectional. SETTING: Outpatient Department of Dental College. PARTICIPANTS: AN chewers and non-chewers attending Dental college. MEASUREMENTS: SFR and pH. VARIABLES: Type, frequency, duration and exposure time of AN, Smoking and Alcohol habit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects study was divided into chewers (n=110 and non- chewers (n=50. The SFR (expressed in mL/10min and pH measured. RESULTS: The difference between the mean SFR for chewers and non-chewers was not statistically significant. The difference between mean pH of chewers and non-chewers was statistically significant. (P=0.02. Difference in pH was statistically significant among the different types of AN chewers (P=0.024. With chewing raw AN, an increase in frequency and exposure time increased SFR and pH respectively. In processed AN chewers, increase in duration and frequency of consumption increased SFR and decreased pH respectively. For chewers with betel quid with tobacco, increase in duration was significantly associated with decrease in salivary pH. CONCLUSION: SFR and pH are altered in AN chewers, rendering the oral mucosa vulnerable to the toxic effects of AN.

  12. Oral submucous fibrosis: A clinico-histopathological study in Chennai

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    Kiran Kumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a precancerous condition associated with the use of areca nut in various forms. There are very few reports to correlate the clinical stage to histopathological grading in OSF. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted on 75 OSF cases who visited our hospital in Chennai from 2000-2003. A detailed history of each patient was recorded along with a clinical examination. Biopsy was performed for histopathological correlation. Clinical stage of the disease in terms of the ability to open one′s mouth was correlated with histopathological grading. Results: The male to female ratio of OSF cases was 6:1. All forms of areca nut products were associated with OSF. Chewing of paanmasala was associated with early presentation of OSF as compared to chewing of the betel nut. Out of 57 cases, which were in clinical stage II, 91.2% had histological grading of I and II in equal proportions and 8.8% had histological grade III. Out of 13 cases that showed a clinical stage of III, 52% showed a histological grade of II, 40% grade III and 8% grade I. Conclusion: In the present study, there was no direct correlation between clinical stages and histopathological grading. The possibility of difference in the severity and extent of fibrosis in different regions of the oral mucosa and involved muscles were considered as contributory factors for this variation.

  13. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

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    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  14. Genetic determinants in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and their influence on global personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michmerhuizen, Nicole L; Birkeland, Andrew C; Bradford, Carol R; Brenner, J Chad

    2016-05-01

    While sequencing studies have provided an improved understanding of the genetic landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), there remains a significant lack of genetic data derived from non-Caucasian cohorts. Additionally, there is wide variation in HNSCC incidence and mortality worldwide both between and within various geographic regions. These epidemiologic differences are in part accounted for by varying exposure to environmental risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol, high risk human papilloma viruses and betel quid. However, inherent genetic factors may also play an important role in this variability. As limited sequencing data is available for many populations, the involvement of unique genetic factors in HNSCC pathogenesis from epidemiologically diverse groups is unknown. Here, we review current knowledge about the epidemiologic, environmental, and genetic variation in HNSCC cohorts globally and discuss future studies necessary to further our understanding of these differences. Long-term, a more complete understanding of the genetic drivers found in diverse HNSCC cohorts may help the development of personalized medicine protocols for patients with rare or complex genetic events. PMID:27551333

  15. Retrospective analysis on 34 patients with oral submucous fibrosis coexisted with oral lichen planus%OSF并存OLP34例回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继佳; 彭解英; 吴颖芳; 孟庆玉; 谢迪; 李敏; 肖璇

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical feature of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) coexisted with oral lichen planus(OLP) ,to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Method: The clinical data of 34 patients with OSF coexisted with OLP were retrospectively reviewed. Result: All 34 patients with OSF coexisted with OLP were mainly young and middle-aged male patients, and had the habit of eating spicy foods and betel quid chewing. Among that 29 patients (85.29 %) had the smoking habit, 27 patients (79.41 %) had the alcohol drinking habit. On OSF pathologic staging 28 patients (82.35 %) were in the early stage and 6 patients (17.65 %) were in the middle stage. OSF coexisted with OLP was mainly seen on the buccal and lingual mucosa.no patient had the erosive type of lesion and trismus. Although pain could be relieved after therapy, white striations or macules did not regressed and the disappeared filiform and fungiform papillas did not recovered. Conclusion: OSF coexisted with OLP is not a simple combination of them, but have the special characteristics. While diagnosising if possible, take two biopsies from two typical locations. During tretment and after it, patient has to give up smoking and betel quid chewing habit.%目的:总结口腔黏膜下纤维性变(OSF)并存口腔扁平苔藓(OLP)的临床特征,提高对该病的诊断和治疗水平.方法:对34例OSF并存OLP患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:34例OSF并存OLP患者表现为青壮年男性居多,均有进食刺激性食物和咀嚼槟榔史,29例(85.29%)有吸烟史,27例(79.41%)有饮酒史,28例(82.35 %)OSF的病理分期为早期,6例(17.65%)为中期,发病部位以颊部和舌部为主,所有患者均无糜烂和张口受限,治疗后疼痛症状缓解,但白色条纹或斑点始终未消退,己消失的丝状乳头、菌状乳头亦未见恢复.结论:OSF并存OLP并非两种疾病的简单叠加,而是具有其特异性的表现,必要时可行两个典型部位活检进行诊

  16. Identification of Potential Plants Producing Tannin-protein Complex for a-amylase as Botanical Pesticide

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    Asriyah Firdausi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research  on  the  development  of  botanical  pesticides  should  be developed  through  new  methods,  such  as  by  inhibiting the  activity  of  digestive enzymes  by  secondary  metabolites.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  identify some  of  potential  plants  as  a  source  of  tannin-protein  complexes  to  inhibitthe  activity  of  - amylase.  The  study  of  identification  of  potential  plants producing  the  active  ingredient  tannin-protein  complex  was  divided  into  three stages,  1  identification  of  potential  plants  producing  tannin,  2  isolation  of tannin-protein  complexes,  and  3  in  vitro  test  of  tannin-protein  complexes effect  of  the  -amylase activity.  Some  of  the observed  plants  were  sidaguri  leaf (Sida rhombifolia, melinjo leaf (Gnetum gnemon, gamal leaf (Gliricidia sepium,lamtoro  leaf  (Leucaena  leucocephala ,  betel  nut  (Areca  catechu ,  and  crude gambier  (Uncaria  gambir a s  a  source of  tannins  and  melinjo  seed was  used  asprotein  source.  Betel  nut  and  melinjo  seed  were  the  best  source  of  tannin-protein  complex,  tannin  content  1.77  mg  TAE/mL  with  antioxidant  activity  of  90%,the  ability  to  inhibit  the  activity  of  -amylase by  95%  with  IC 50  values  of 10 mg/mL.Key words: Tannin, protein, -amylase, botanical pesticides,Areca catechu, Gnetum gnemon.

  17. Arecoline induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity to human endothelial cells.

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    Tseng, Shuei-Kuen; Chang, Mei-Chi; Su, Cheng-Yao; Chi, Lin-Yang; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Ching; Tseng, Wan-Yu; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Hsu, Ming-Lun; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is a common oral habit in South Asia and Taiwan. BQ consumption may increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), and periodontitis as well as systemic diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc.). However, little is known about the toxic effect of BQ components on endothelial cells that play important roles for angiogenesis, carcinogenesis, tissue fibrosis, and cardiovascular diseases. EAhy 926 (EAHY) endothelial cells were exposed to arecoline, a major BQ alkaloid, for various time periods. Cytotoxicity was estimated by 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The cell cycle distribution of EAHY cells residing in sub-G0/G1, G0/G1, S-, and G2/M phases was analyzed by propidium iodide staining of cellular DNA content and flow cytometry. Some EAHY cells retracted, became round-shaped in appearance, and even detached from the culture plate after exposure to higher concentrations of arecoline (> 0.4 mM). At concentrations of 0.4 and 0.8 mM, arecoline induced significant cytotoxicity to EAHY cells. At similar concentrations, arecoline induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased sub-G0/G1 population, a hallmark of apoptosis. Interestingly, prolonged exposure to arecoline (0.1 mM) for 12 and 21 days significantly suppressed the proliferation of EAHY cells, whereas EAHY cells showed adaptation and survived when exposed to 0.05 mM arecoline. These results suggest that BQ components may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF and BQ chewing-related cardiovascular diseases via toxicity to oral or systemic endothelial cells, leading to impairment of vascular function. During BQ chewing, endothelial damage may be induced by areca nut components and associate with the pathogenesis of OSF, periodontitis, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21847594

  18. Areca nut and tobacco chewing habits in Durban, KwaZulu Natal.

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    Bissessur, S; Naidoo, S

    2009-11-01

    Areca nut/quid chewing is a habit that is commonly practiced in the Indian subcontinent and this age-old social habit is still being practiced by the Indians in South Africa. The areca nut/quid is prepared in a variety of ways. The quid may be prepared with or without tobacco. This habit is said to be associated with the development of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a premalignant lesion, oral leukoplakia and oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of areca nut/quid chewing (with or without tobacco), associated habits (smoking and alcohol consumption) as well as the awareness of the risks. The study was cross-sectional in design and used administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to collect the data. A convenience sample of 101 respondents was interviewed. More than three quarter were born in South Africa and the rest were migrant communities from Pakistan, India and Dubai. All respondents from the migrant community were males. Slightly more females than maleschewed areca nut/quid. Popular ingredients that were chewed included areca nut, betel leaf, lime and paan masala. Enjoyment and special functions were the most important reasons for chewing areca nut. Family influence was a reason for chewing. Nearly 60% did not know whether areca nut chewing is harmful to their health. The majority have not attempted to give up the habit. It is recommended that aggressive awareness programmes on the hazardous effects of areca nut/quid chewing be developed similar to those for smoking cessation. Government health warnings need to be written on paan packaging. Taxes need to be imposed on the areca nut and condiments. Age restrictions need to be imposed on purchasing of the areca nut/quid thus making access difficult for the children. PMID:20306864

  19. Reactive oxygen species are crucial for hydroxychavicol toxicity toward KB epithelial cells.

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    Jeng, J H; Wang, Y J; Chang, W H; Wu, H L; Li, C H; Uang, B J; Kang, J J; Lee, J J; Hahn, L J; Lin, B R; Chang, M C

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing shows a strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), leukoplakia and oral cancer. BQ contains mainly areca nut, lime, Piper betle leaf (PBL) and the inflorescence of P. betle (IPB). Hydroxychavicol (4-allyl-catechol, HC), as a major phenolic compound in PBL and IPB, is shown to induce oxidative stress, glutathione (GSH) depletion and cell cycle deregulation. Using bivariate BrdU/PI flow cytometry, KB cells in DNA synthesis (S phase) are shown to be sensitive to the toxic effect of HC and show cell cycle arrest and apoptosis following exposure to 0.1 and 0.3 mM HC. HC-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are associated with mitochondrial membrane potential (delta Psim) depolarization as revealed by a decrease in rhodamine fluorescence. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (1 mM), superoxide dismutase (100 U/ml) and catalase (1000 U/ml) were effective in prevention of HC-induced GSH depletion (as indicated by chloromethylfluorescein fluorescence), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence), cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, dimethylthiourea (2 mM), neocuproine (1 mM), 1,10-phenanthroline (200 microM) and desferrioxamine (0.5 mM) showed little effect on HC-induced cell changes. HC elevated the cellular and mitochondrial GSH levels at moderate concentrations (0.05-0.1 mM), whereas at a concentration of 0.3 mM, inhibitory effects were noted. These results indicate that HC consumption may be associated with BQ-chewing-related oral mucosal diseases via GSH depletion, ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell cycle disturbance and the induction of apoptosis. These events are related to the production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:14704856

  20. Assessment of risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in Chidambaram, Southern India: a case-control study.

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    Subapriya, Rajamanickam; Thangavelu, Annamalai; Mathavan, Bommayasamy; Ramachandran, Chinnamanoor R; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2007-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma, the fifth most common cancer worldwide, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India. The effect of lifestyle factors, including tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol drinking, diet and dental care, on the risk of oral cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalainagar, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India during the period 1991-2003. The study included 388 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases and an equal number (388) of age and sex-matched controls. All participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that contained data on demographic factors, family history of cancer, tobacco habits, use of alcohol, frequency, duration, cessation of these habits, dietary practices and oral hygiene. The data were analysed using multiple logistic regression model. Among people with chewing habits, those who chewed betel quid with tobacco [odds ratio (OR) 3.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-2.13] and tobacco alone (OR 2.89) showed a greater risk than controls. Bidi smoking (OR 4.63) and alcohol drinking (OR 1.65) emerged as significant risk factors for oral cancer. These three habits showed increasing risk with increasing frequency and increase in duration of habits. Addition of alcohol to other habits also enhanced the risk for oral cancer. The combination of chewing and smoking together with alcohol drinking showed very high relative risk (OR 11.34). A positive association was observed between non-vegetarian diet, poor oral hygiene and poor dentition with the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The fact that these risk factors are modifiable emphasizes the need for increasing awareness among the general public and policy makers as a first step in the prevention and control of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:17415096

  1. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

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    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3  7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. PMID:25280920

  2. Determination of trace and heavy metals in some commonly used medicinal herbs in Ayurveda.

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    Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2014-11-01

    Traditionally, the herbal drugs are well established for their therapeutic benefits. Depending upon their geographical sources sometimes the trace and heavy metals' content may differ, which may lead to severe toxicity. So, the toxicological and safety assessment of these herbal drugs are one of the major issues in recent days. Eight different plant species including Aloe vera, Centella asiatica, Calendula officinalis, Cucumis sativus, Camellia sinensis, Clitoria ternatea, Piper betel and Tagetes erecta were selected to determine their heavy and trace metals content and thereby to assure their safer therapeutic application. The trace and heavy metals were detected through atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The selected medicinal plant materials were collected from the local cultivated regions of West Bengal, India, and were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid as specified. Absorbance was measured through atomic absorption spectrometer (AA 303) and the concentration of different trace and heavy metals in the plant samples were calculated. The quantitative determinations were carried out using standard calibration curve obtained by the standard solutions of different metals. The contents of heavy metals were found to be within the prescribed limit. Other trace metals were found to be present in significant amount. Thus, on the basis of experimental outcome, it can be concluded that the plant materials collected from the specific region are safe and may not produce any harmful effect of metal toxicity during their therapeutic application. The investigated medicinal plants contain trace metals such as copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) as well as heavy metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), which were present within the permissible limit. PMID:23222691

  3. Androgenic alopecia is associated with less dietary soy, lower [corrected] blood vanadium and rs1160312 1 polymorphism in Taiwanese communities.

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    Ching-Huang Lai

    Full Text Available Although the genetic basis of androgenic alopecia has been clearly established, little is known about its non-genetic causes, such as environmental and lifestyle factors.This study investigated blood and urine heavy metals concentrations, environmental exposure factors, personal behaviors, dietary intakes and the genotypes of related susceptibility genes in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA.Age, AGA level, residence area, work hours, sleep patterns, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, betel nut usage, hair treatments, eating habits, body heavy metals concentrations and rs1998076, rs913063, rs1160312 and rs201571 SNP genotype data were collected from 354 men. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether any of the factors displayed odds ratios (ORs indicating association with moderate to severe AGA (≥ IV. Subsequently, Hosmer-Lemeshow, Nagelkerke R(2 and accuracy tests were conducted to help establish an optimal model.Moderate to severe AGA was associated with the AA genotype of rs1160312 (22.50, 95% CI 3.99-126.83, blood vanadium concentration (0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.04, and regular consumption of soy bean drinks (0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.85, after adjustment for age. The results were corroborated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.73, Nagelkerke R(2 (0.59, accuracy test (0.816 and area under the curve (AUC; 0.90, 0.847-0.951 analysis.Blood vanadium and frequent soy bean drink consumption may provide protect effects against AGA. Accordingly, blood vanadium concentrations, the AA genotype of rs1160312 and frequent consumption of soy bean drinks are associated with AGA.

  4. Effects of NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to environmental factors and the clinicopathologic development of oral cancer.

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    Chiao-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral cancer, which is the fourth most common cancer in Taiwanese men, is associated with environmental carcinogens. The possibility that genetic predisposition in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB-signaling pathways activation is linked to the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC requires investigation. The current study examines associations between polymorphisms within promoter regions of NFKB1 encoding NF-κB1 and NFKBIA encoding IkappaBalpha (IκBα with both the susceptibility to develop OSCC and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic polymorphisms of NFKB1 and NFKBIA were analyzed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR for 462 patients with oral cancer and 520 non-cancer controls. We found that NFKB1 -94 ATGG1/ATGG2, -94 ATGG2/ATGG2, and the combination of -94 ATGG1/ATGG2 and ATGG2/ATGG2 genotypes NFKBIA -826 T (CT+TT and -881 G (AG+GG allelic carriages, were more prevalent in OSCC patients than in non-cancer participants. Moreover, we found that NFKB1 or NFKBIA gene polymorphisms seem to be related to susceptibility to develop oral cancer linked to betel nut and tobacco consumption. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had at least one -519 T allele of the NFKBIA gene were at higher risk for developing distant metastasis (P<.05, compared with those patients CC homozygotes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that NFKB1 -94 ATTG2, NFKBIA -826 T, and -881 G alleles are associated with oral carcinogenesis. The combination of NFKB1 or NFKBIA gene polymorphisms and environmental carcinogens appears related to an increased risk of oral cancer. More importantly, the genetic polymorphism of NFKBIA -519 might be a predictive factor for the distal metastasis of OSCC in Taiwanese.

  5. Impacts of microRNA gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility of environmental factors leading to carcinogenesis in oral cancer.

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    Yin-Hung Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been regarded as a critical factor in targeting oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in tumorigenesis. The genetic predisposition of miRNAs-signaling pathways related to the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC remains unresolved. This study examined the associations of polymorphisms with four miRNAs with the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of OSCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 895 male subjects, including 425 controls and 470 male oral cancer patients, were selected. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR were used to analyze miRNA146a, miRNA196, miRNA499 and miRNA149 genetic polymorphisms between the control group and the case group. This study determined that a significant association of miRNA499 with CC genotype, as compared to the subjects with TT genotype, had a higher risk (AOR = 4.52, 95% CI = 1.24-16.48 of OSCC. Moreover, an impact of those four miRNAs gene polymorphism on the susceptibility of betel nut and tobacco consumption leading to oral cancer was also revealed. We found a protective effect between clinical stage development (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36-0.94 and the tumor size growth (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.28-0.79 in younger patients (age<60. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic polymorphism of miRNA499 is associated with oral carcinogenesis, and the interaction of the miRNAs genetic polymorphism and environmental carcinogens is also related to an increased risk of oral cancer in Taiwanese.

  6. Role of human papilloma virus in oral leukoplakia

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    Anuja Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controversy surrounds regarding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral precancerous and cancerous lesions in India where smokeless, tobacco consumption is rampant. Aims: The present study was carried out with an aim to investigate the presence and type of HPV infection in oropharyngeal leukoplakia and to determine the association of HPV positivity with various patient and lesion characteristics. Settings and Design: Prospective case series. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty confirmed cases of oral leukoplakia (OL, aged 18–55 years were enrolled in the study. Specimens were obtained from the site of lesion. All the specimens were subjected to histopathological analysis and HPV-16, 18 detection was done using real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: Mean age of patients was 34.00 ± 8.85. Majority were males (62%, from middle social class (78% and were educated up to graduation or above (54%. All the patients had one or more adverse habits (betel, chewing tobacco, smoking and alcohol with mean duration of disease was 3.53 ± 3.05 years. Five patients (10% had diabetes. Burning sensation (86% and trismus (36% were the reported complaints. Maximum were Stage II (50%, sized 2–4 cm2 (60%, homogenous (70%. Floor of mouth and tongue were most commonly involved sites (50%. Majority had mild dysplasia (58%. Acanthosis (66%, hyperplasia (62%, koliocytosis (40%, and keratosis (98% were quite common. HPV (16/18 could not be detected in any specimen. Conclusions: The present study highlighted the fact that association of HPV with oral leukoplakia seems to be overestimated and needs to be reexamined with consensus Human papilloma virus (HPV primers to detect HPV types with more valid empirical relationships.

  7. Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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    Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects. PMID:24568491

  8. Prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits : Cross-sectional study in South India.

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    Saraswathi T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking, drinking and chewing tobacco product, common habits in India have been positively associated with oral lesions. No study has been conducted in this part of Tamilnadu regarding the prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits. METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was carried out at Ragas Dental College, Chennai. Already existing data of two thousand and seventeen consecutive patients from sub-urban areas of Chennai, who attended the outpatient department, at Ragas Dental College, for dental complaints during a period of three months in 2004, who underwent oral examination and interviewer based questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Oral soft tissue lesions were found in 4.1% of the study subjects. The prevalence of leukoplakia, OSF and oral lichen planus was 0.59%, 0.55%, and 0.15% respectively. The prevalence of smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages and chewing was 15.02%, 8.78% and 6.99% respectively. Smoking and chewing were significant predictors of leukoplakia in this population. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of leukoplakia, OSF and oral lichen planus in our study population is similar to those found in other populations. The prevalence of consumption of alcoholic beverages in our study population was higher when compared to the Indian National Sample Survey study. However the prevalence of smoking and chewing was found to be lower. Smokers were more likely to develop smoker′s melanosis compared to other lesions. Among those who consumed alcoholic beverages alone, the prevalence of leukoplakia was higher compared to other lesions. OSF was the most prevalent lesion among those who chewed panmasala or gutkha or betel quid with or without tobacco.

  9. Evaluation of Salivary Nitric Oxide Levels in Smokers, Tobacco Chewers and Patients with Oral Lichenoid Reactions

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    Jose, Joy Idiculla; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Sabarinath, B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, acts as a signalling molecule affecting numerous physiological and pathological processes. Role of nitric oxide as a mediator in tobacco related habits and the resultant oral lichenoid reactions was assessed. Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the salivary nitric oxide levels in normal patients with that of smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study which included 30 healthy patients without any chronic inflammatory lesion and habit as controls (group I), 30 smokers without the habit of tobacco/betel nut chewing and any oral lesion (group II), 30 tobacco chewers without the habit of smoking and any oral lesion (group III) and 30 histologically confirmed cases of oral lichenoid reaction with the habit of tobacco usage (group IV). Saliva from these patients was collected and the nitrite concentration was assessed. Results Our results concluded that there was highly significant increase in the nitric oxide levels in smokers, tobacco chewers and patients with oral lichenoid reactions compared to that of controls. Also, there was a significant increase in nitric oxide levels in patients with smoking associated oral lichenoid reactions in comparison with smokers and in patients with lichenoid reactions associated with tobacco chewing in comparison with tobacco chewers. Conclusion Estimation of salivary nitric oxide levels is a simple, non-invasive procedure and could be analysed to suggest the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of these lesions. The increased activity of the enzyme may indicate that nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in these lesions. PMID:26894179

  10. Alcohol Drinking Obliterates the Inverse Association Between Serum Retinol and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer

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    Chen, Ken-Chung; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Ou, Chun-Yen; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Wei-Ting; Fang, Sheen-Yie; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Lin, Forn-Chia; Yang, Ming-Wei; Chang, Jang-Yang; Liao, Hsiao-Chen; Wu, Shang-Yin; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chen, Yu-Shan; Chang, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This analysis evaluated the association between serum retinol levels and risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) and whether the association is modulated by the use of alcohol, betel quid, or cigarette. In addition, we also examined the association between HNC risk and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms, TTR rs1667255 and RBP4 rs10882272, that have been associated with serum retinol levels. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk among 160 HNC cases and 198 controls. The associations between TTR rs1667255 and RBP4 rs10882272 and serum retinol levels or HNC risk were evaluated by linear regression and unconditional logistic regression, respectively, for 418 HNC cases and 497 controls. The results showed that HNC cases had a lower mean serum retinol level compared with controls (845.3 μg/L vs 914.8 μg/L, P = 0.03). An inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk occurred among never/occasional alcohol drinkers but not among regular drinkers. TTR rs1667255 was associated with serum retinol levels; however, neither TTR rs1667255 nor RBP4 rs10882272 was associated with HNC risk. In summary, this study showed an inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk, specifically among never/occasional alcohol drinkers. More studies are needed to establish the underlying biologic mechanisms for the inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk and the modulation of this relationship by alcohol drinking. PMID:26131827

  11. Profile of non-communicable disease risk factors among adults in the Republic of Palau: findings of a national STEPS survey.

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    Watson, Berry Moon; Chiang, Chifa; Ikerdeu, Edolem; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Honjo, Kaori; Mita, Takashi; Cui, Renzhe; Madraisau, Sherilynn; Ngirmang, Gregorio; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2015-11-01

    Palau, similar to other Pacific island countries, is currently highly burdened with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The WHO STEPS was launched in 2011 to comprehensively survey indicators for NCDs in the country. This paper aims to describe the prevalence of key NCD risk factors assessed by the survey. The WHO instrument, including behavioral, physical and biochemical measurements, was adopted to the nationwide survey for all residents aged 25 to 64 years. A cluster-based sampling method was performed to obtain a national representative data. Valid data from 2,184 individuals were selected for the analyses, of which 75% were Palauans and 19% were Filipinos. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 25% in men and 10% in women. Betel nut chewing with tobacco was prevalent particularly among Palauans (58% in men, 69% in women) compared to the other ethnic groups. In terms of all types of tobacco use, 60% of men and 58% of women were current users. Overweight or obesity was very common among Palauans (84% in men, 86% in women) as well as Filipinos (52% in men, 40% in women). Hypertension was found in 55% of men and 49% of women, with the stage 2 hypertension being 21% and 19%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetic level hyperglycemia was more than 20%. Raised total cholesterol was detected in 16% of men and 20% of women. This survey revealed an alarmingly high prevalence of NCD risk factors, especially tobacco use, obesity, hypertension and raised blood glucose. The data would be useful baseline information to develop effective NCD strategies in Palau. PMID:26663939

  12. Synchronous malignancies in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchronous malignancies in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OCSCC) are occasionally encountered. In the current study we tried to evaluate their frequency, detectability by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies, and prognostic factors. A retrospective analysis of patients with primary OCSCC enrolled for 18F-FDG studies from 2002 to 2008 was performed. The detectability of synchronous second cancers by 18F-FDG studies was defined by the scoring of two interpreters. Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients receiving curative-intent treatment were assessed using the univariate Kaplan-Mayer analysis and the multivariate Cox regression model. Of 764 patients, 40 (5.2%) had synchronous malignancies. 18F-FDG studies detected 22 (48%) of 46 synchronous second cancers. For synchronous cancers at the hypopharynx, esophagus, or liver, the median survival of patients was no longer than 1 year, and the detection rates by 18F-FDG studies were 100, 86, and 25%, respectively. In the 33 patients receiving curative-intent treatment, the site of second cancer, complete surgical resection of all known tumors, and the oral habit of betel quid/areca nut chewing are significant prognostic factors in the univariate analysis, while the site of second cancer is the only significant prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.041). The site of second cancer is the most significant prognostic factor in OCSCC patients with synchronous malignancies receiving curative-intent treatment. 18F-FDG studies detect synchronous malignancies with poor prognosis in OCSCC patients except for hepatic cancers. In OCSCC patients with synchronous malignancies with poor prognosis, prospective studies comparing different treatment options should be further conducted. (orig.)

  13. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltsum, U., E-mail: um-mik@yahoo.co.id [Physics Education Department, IKIP PGRI Semarang (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Siswanta, D., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  14. Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity evaluation of 'khoyer' prepared from boiling the wood of Acacia catechu in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Hossain, Maraz; Mahmud, Arefin; Sultana, Nahida; Rahman, Sheikh Mizanur; Islam, Mohammad Rashedul; Khatoon, Mujiba Salma; Jahan, Sharmin; Islam, Fatema

    2013-01-01

    'Khoyer' is prepared by boiling the wood of Acacia catechu in water and then evaporating the resultant brew. The resultant hard material is powdered and chewed with betel leaves and lime with or without tobacco by a large number of the people of Bangladesh as an addictive psycho-stimulating and euphoria-inducing formulation. There are folk medicinal claims that khoyer helps in the relief of pain and is also useful to diabetic patients to maintain normal sugar levels. Thus far no scientific studies have evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive effects of khoyer. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible glucose tolerance efficacy of methanolic extracts of khoyer using glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice, and antinociceptive effects with acetic acid-induced gastric pain models in mice. In antihyperglycemic activity tests, the extract at different doses was administered one hour prior to glucose administration and blood glucose level was measured after two hours of glucose administration (p.o.) using glucose oxidase method. The statistical data indicated the significant oral hypoglycemic activity on glucose-loaded mice at all doses of the extracts tested. Maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity was shown at 400 mg extract per kg body weight, which was less than that of a standard drug, glibenclamide (10 mg/kg body weight). In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract also demonstrated a dose-dependent significant reduction in the number of writhing induced in mice through intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid. Maximum antinociceptive activity was observed at a dose of 400 mg extract per kg body weight, which was greater than that of a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 400 mg per kg body weight. The results validate the folk medicinal use of the plant for reduction of blood sugar in diabetic patients, as well as the folk medicinal use for alleviation of pain. PMID:24146493

  15. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  16. Treatment results for hypopharyngeal cancer by different treatment strategies and its secondary primary- an experience in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment results in our hypopharyngeal cancer patients. A total of three hundred and ninety five hypopharyngeal cancer patients received radical treatment at our hospital; 96% were male. The majority were habitual smokers (88%), alcohol drinkers (73%) and/or betel quid chewers (51%). All patients received a CT scan or MRI for tumor staging before treatment. The stage distribution was stage I: 2 (0.5%); stage II: 22 (5.6%); stage III: 57 (14.4%) and stage IV: 314 (79.5%). Radical surgery was used first in 81 patients (20.5%), and the remaining patients (79.5%) received organ preservation-intended treatment (OPIT). In the OPIT group, 46 patients received radiotherapy alone, 156 patients received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (CT/RT) and 112 patients received concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT). The five-year overall survival rates for stages I/II, III and IV were 49.5%, 47.4% and 18.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference in overall and disease-specific survival rates between patients who received radical surgery first and those who received OPIT. In the OPIT group, CCRT tended to preserve the larynx better (p = 0.088), with three-year larynx preservation rates of 44.8% for CCRT and 27.2% for CT/RT. Thirty-seven patients developed a second malignancy, with an annual incidence of 4.6%. There was no survival difference between OPIT and radical surgery in hypopharyngeal cancer patients at our hospital. CCRT may offer better laryngeal preservation than RT alone or CT/RT. However, prospective studies are still needed to confirm this finding. Additionally, second primary cancers are another important issue for hypopharyngeal cancer management

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with increased risk for cancer mortality in adult Taiwanese-a 10 years population-based cohort.

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    Fen-Yu Tseng

    Full Text Available The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH and cancer mortality is seldom discussed.A total of 115,746 participants without thyroid disease history, aged 20 and above, were recruited from four nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999. SCH was defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of 5.0-19.96 mIU/L with normal total thyroxine concentrations. Euthyroidism was defined as a serum TSH level of 0.47-4.9 mIU/L. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs of death from cancer for adults with SCH during a 10-year follow-up period.Among 115,746 adults, 1,841 had SCH (1.6% and 113,905 (98.4% had euthyroidism. There were 1,532 cancer deaths during the 1,034,082 person-years follow-up period. Adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol drinking, betel nut chewing, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% confidence interval of cancer deaths among subjects with SCH versus euthyroid subjects were 1.51 (1.06 to 2.15. Cancer site analysis revealed a significant increased risk of bone, skin and breast cancer among SCH subjects (RR 2.79, (1.01, 7.70. The risks of total cancer deaths were more prominent in the aged (RR 1.71, (1.02 to 2.87, in females (RR 1.69 (1.08 to 2.65, and in heavy smokers (RR 2.24, (1.19 to 4.21.Subjects with SCH had a significantly increased risk for cancer mortality among adult Taiwanese. This is the first report to demonstrate the association between SCH and cancer mortality.

  18. The incidence and risk of developing a second primary esophageal cancer in patients with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma: a population-based study in Taiwan over a 25 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of oral and pharyngeal (including oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx) carcinoma increases rapidly in Asia and South Pacific because of betel quid chewing. Thus far, large-scale epidemiological studies are not available yet to stratify these patients by their risks of developing a second primary cancer in the digestive tract including esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum. A population-based study was conducted using the database from the Taiwan National Cancer Registry for the period 1979-2003. We quantified standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and cumulative incidence of second primary cancers among 33,787 patients with initial diagnoses of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma. Among these four digestive tract organs, the esophagus was the only site of second cancer with excess risk in patients with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma. The incidence and risk of developing a second primary esophageal cancer differed by the site of the primary index tumor, most frequently seen in hypopharyngeal cancer (71/4,218 = 1.68%, SIR = 22.76, 95% CI 17.77-28.70), followed by oropharyngeal cancer (30/3,403 = 0.88%, SIR = 14.29, 95% CI 9.64-20.39) and the least in oral cavity cancer (99/26,166 = 0.38%, SIR = 5.57, 95% CI 4.53-6.78). In addition, the risk was extraordinarily high for patients with a follow-up interval ≤ 1 year and those with first primary cancer diagnosed at age ≤50. These patients may justify more close surveillance. The present study represents the first population-based study in Asia attempting to stratify the patients of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma by their risk of developing a second esophageal cancer. It helps identify patients at high risk and tailor the application of intense follow-up surveillance to the estimated risk in each individual case

  19. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  20. Spatio - Temporal Distribution Of Cancer Mortality In Marathwada Region ( M.s., India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokhande T. N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Cancer is one of the most important causes of death in the world and also in India. Excluding a few diseases like AIDS, most of the major killers of the world as well as India are on the decline. Cancer is, however, on the rise. India is now the highest Cancer burden country in the world. The data regarding Cancer has been collected from vital statistics published by government of Maharashtra. The present study attempts to evaluate the Spatio-temporal analysis of cancer mortality in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. The objective of this research paper is to study the distributional pattern both spatially and temporally, The researcher proposes to analyze the available data at various stages is being calculated using various statistical methods. The distributional pattern of Cancer is to be investigated at district level. The data collected for 35 years period has been analyzed by Choropleth methods, Standard Mortality Rate (S. M. R.and simple ranking technique is used for understanding comparison and distributional pattern. A class interval for distribution is decided by percentile method. The study reveals that various physical and cultural factors of the environment associated with the occurrence of the Cancer in the study region. Moreover, various factors such as smoking and chewing of tobacco and betel pan, consumption of alcohol, malnutrition, poor post natal care and poor maternity services, poor genital hygiene, early consummation of marriage, multiple pregnancies, and contact with multiple sexual partners, dietary factors, life styles, occupational exposure, vitamin deficiency, water and air pollution, sunlight, radiation, pesticides and medications. Lack of application of screening techniques, adequate treatment facilities and lack of public awareness about cancer are some of the causes responsible for cancer mortality in the study region.

  1. The impact of betelnut oil by different heating method%不同加热方式对槟榔油品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚; 邓学良; 李忠海; 周文化; 普义鑫

    2012-01-01

    By GC-MS method identified betelnut oil content of ingredients in the main composition is linoleic acid and oleic acid, respectively, 26.84% and 26.91%, more than half of fatty acids. Handled the betel nut oil, coconut oil and lard on routine heating and microwave, discusses the influence of acid value and peroxide value in different heating temperature and time and microwave. The results show that the acid value appear upwards with heating time, and peroxide value appear twists upwards trend. Compared with lard, the acid value, peroxide value change trend is relatively small of the acid value, peroxide value, maybe contain antioxidants itself, prevented the lipid peroxide chain reaction.%用GC-MS方法鉴定出槟榔油中各成分含量,其中主要成分为亚油酸和油酸,相对含量分别为26.84%、26.91%,占总脂肪酸含量的一半以上。并对槟榔油、椰子油、猪油分别进行常规和微波加热处理,探讨不同加热温度和时间及微波对油脂的酸值和过氧化值的影响,结果表明油脂的酸值随着加热时间的延长不断升高,而过氧化值随加热时间呈曲折升高趋势,槟榔油、椰子油在加热条件下与猪油相比其酸值、过氧化值变化趋势相对较小,可能是本身含有的抗氧化物质,阻止了脂质过氧化物的链式反应。

  2. Gene expression profile of esophageal cancer in North East India by cDNA microarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Indranil Chattopadhyay; Sujala Kapur; Joydeep Purkayastha; Rupkumar Phukan; Amal Kataki; Jagadish Mahanta; Sunita Saxena

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To identify alterations in genes and molecular functional pathways in esophageal cancer in a high incidence region of India where there is a widespread use of tobacco and betel quid with fermented areca nuts.METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from tumor and matched normal tissue of 16 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Pooled tumor tissue RNA was labeled with Cy3-dUTP and pooled normal tissue RNA was labeled with Cy5-dUTP by direct labeling method.The labeled probes were hybridized with human 10K cDNA chip and expression profiles were analyzed by Genespring GX V 7.3 (Silicon Genetics).RESULTS: Nine hundred twenty three genes were differentially expressed. Of these, 611 genes were upregulated and 312 genes were downregulated. Using stringent criteria (P ≤ 0.05 and ≥ 1.5 fold change),127 differentially expressed genes (87 upregulated and 40 downregulated) were identified in tumor tissue. On the basis of Gene Ontology, four different molecular functional pathways (MAPK pathway,G-protein coupled receptor family, ion transport activity,and serine or threonine kinase activity) were most significantly upregulated and six different molecular functional pathways (structural constituent of ribosome,endopeptidase inhibitor activity, structural constituent of cytoskeleton, antioxidant activity, acyl group transferase activity, eukaryotic translation elongation factor activity)were most significantly downregulated.CONCLUSION: Several genes that showed alterations in our study have also been reported from a high incidence area of esophageal cancer in China. This indicates that molecular profiles of esophageal cancer in these two different geographic locations are highly consistent.

  3. Areca nut components affect COX-2, cyclin B1/cdc25C and keratin expression, PGE2 production in keratinocyte is related to reactive oxygen species, CYP1A1, Src, EGFR and Ras signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Chewing of betel quid (BQ increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF, possibly by BQ-induced toxicity and induction of inflammatory response in oral mucosa.Primary gingival keratinocytes (GK cells were exposed to areca nut (AN components with/without inhibitors. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl- thiazol- 2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. mRNA and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blotting. PGE2/PGF2α production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.Areca nut extract (ANE stimulated PGE2/PGF2α production, and upregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1, but inhibited expression of keratin 5/14, cyclinB1 and cdc25C in GK cells. ANE also activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, Src and Ras signaling pathways. ANE-induced COX-2, keratin 5, keratin 14 and cdc25C expression as well as PGE2 production were differentially regulated by α-naphthoflavone (a CYP 1A1/1A2 inhibitor, PD153035 (EGFR inhibitor, pp2 (Src inhibitor, and manumycin A (a Ras inhibitor. ANE-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by piper betle leaf (PBL extract and hydroxychavicol (two major BQ components, dicoumarol (aQuinone Oxidoreductase--NQO1 inhibitor and curcumin. ANE-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by catalase and enhanced by dicoumarol, suggesting that AN components may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF and oral cancer via induction of aberrant differentiation, cytotoxicity, COX-2 expression, and PGE2/PGF2α production.CYP4501A1, reactive oxygen species (ROS, EGFR, Src and Ras signaling pathways could all play a role in ANE-induced pathogenesis of oral cancer. Addition of PBL into BQ and curcumin consumption could inhibit the ANE-induced inflammatory response.

  4. Changes in health risk behaviors of elementary school students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003: results from the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution study

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    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that children's behaviors have long-term effects on later life. Hence it is important to monitor the development of health risk behaviors in childhood. This study examined the changes in health risk behaviors in fourth- to sixth-grade students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003. Methods The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution (CABLE study collected data from 1,820 students from 2001 to 2003 (students were 9 or 10 years old in 2001. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the aggregation of health risk behaviors. A linear growth curve model was used to determine whether health risk behaviors changed over time. Results Of the 13 behaviors, staying up late and eating snacks late at night were the most prevalent (82.3% of subjects in 2001, 81.8% in 2002, 88.5% in 2003 and second most prevalent (68.7%, 67.4%, 71.6% behaviors, respectively, from 2001 to 2003. The three least prevalent health risk behaviors were chewing betel nut (1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2%, smoking (1.4%, 1.0%, 0.8%, and drinking alcohol (8.5%, 6.0%, 5.2%. The frequencies of swearing and staying up late showed the greatest significant increases with time. On the other hand, suppressing urination and drinking alcohol decreased over time. Using exploratory factor analysis, we aggregated the health risk behaviors into three categories: unhealthy habits, aggressive behaviors, and substance use. Although students did not display high levels of aggressive behavior or experimentation with substances, the development of these behaviors in a small proportion of students should not be ignored. The results of the linear growth curve model indicated that unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased over time. However, substance use slightly decreased over time. Conclusion We found that some health risk behaviors increased with time while others did not. Unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased, whereas

  5. Arecoline improves vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats via increasing cystathionine-Ylyase expression and activating KATp channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan LING; Guang WANG; Wei ZHANG; Xing LI; Shou-hong ZHOU; Bi HU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of arecoline,a major component of betel nut,on vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats and the potential mechanisms underlying the effect.Methods:Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fructose or control diet for 16 weeks.At the beginning of week 13,the rats were injected ip with low (0.5 mg·kg 1·d-1),medi u m (1.0 mg·kg1·d-1) or high (5.0 mg·kg 1·d 1) doses of arecoline for 4 weeks.At the termination of the treatments,blood was collected,fasting blood glucose (FBG) and serum insulin (FSI) levels were measured,and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was calculated.The thoracic aortas were isolated and aortic rings were prepared for studying ACh-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation (EDVR).The mRNA and protein expression of cystathionine-y-lyase (CSE) in the thoracic aortas was analyzed using RTPCR and Western blot analysis,respectively.Results:In high fructose-fed rats,the levels of FBG and FSI were remarkably increased,whereas the ISI and the mRNA and protein expression of CSE were significantly decreased.ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from high fructose-fed rats was remarkably reduced.These changes were reversed by treatment with high dose arecoline.Pretreatment of the aortic rings rings from high fructose-fed rats with the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine (10 mmol/L) orthe ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blocker glibenclamide (10 mmol/L) abolished the restoration of ACh-induced EDVR by high dose arecoline.On the contrary,treatment with high dose arecoline significantly impaired ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from control rats,and pretreatment with propargylglycine or glibenclamide did not cause further changes.Conclusion:Arecoline treatment improves ACh-induced EDVR in high fructose-fed rats,and the potential mechanism of action might be associated with increase of CSE expression and activation of KATP channels by arecoline.

  6. Clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and early cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and to calculate survival rates (SR) with disease free survival rates (DFSR) and recurrence rates (RR) in different treatment modalities and to compare the results of surgery alone and radiotherapy alone in stage I and stage II disease and to calculate better option of treatment in early tongue cancers. Design: A longitudinal study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad (PIMS) from January 1987 to June 1998. Patients and Methods: Case histories of 67 patients were collected from departmental record. Clinical data included age at diagnosis, gender of patient, location of tumor, presenting symptoms and their duration, biopsy report, predominant histological pattern of tumor, nodal status, stage of tumor, treatment modality employed, tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival rates with disease-free survival rates after 2 years' follow-up. Results: Among 67 patients there were 31 males and 36 females. Mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Sixty seven patients with primary cancer of tongue constituted 38.8% of oral cavity cancers during period of 1987 - 1998 in PIMS. Smoking, poor oro dental hygiene (POOH) and betel nuts chewing were the main risk factors. Odynophagia and painful ulcers on lateral border of tongue were the main clinical symptoms with average duration of 7 months. Regional lymph nodes were palpable in 32.8%, 5.5% was in stage I, 35.8% in stage II, 29.8% in stage III, and 28.3% was in stage IV. No patient was found to have distant metastasis. Histopathology in 94% of cases was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recurrence and survival rates were determined in 49 patients. Average time of recurrence was 12.5 months. Recurrence was 100% loco regional (LR). It was 85.7% in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, 42.1% in patients treated with surgery alone and 31.2% in patients

  7. Gambaran Pengetahuan Remaja Puteri Terhadap Nyeri Haid (Dismenore dan Cara Penanggulangannya

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    Erlina Rustam

    2015-01-01

    . The parameters used are knowledge about menstruation, dysmenorrhea and action taken when having dysmenorrhea. From the research concludet knowledge of the understanding, the time and the cause of menstruation, low knowledge about the cycle and hormones involved in menstruation. Have a good knowledge of the dysmenorrhea like deffenition of dysmenorrhea, the age who often get dysmenorrhea, the degree and cause of dysmenorrhea. The main action taken is non-pharmacological measures (17.86%. In Pharmacology female adolescents using traditional medicine is a betel leaf (67.00%. While choosing a drug is OJ-2 (40.00%. Side effects are felt sleepy (56.52%. The reason is because the choosen drugs can relief pain faster (97.83%. It is suggested that educating people on the proper way to treat dysmenorrhea by Pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic treatment.Keywords: Dysmenorrhea, knowledge,therapy

  8. Metabolic syndrome in non-obese Taiwanese: new definition of metabolically obese, normal-weight individual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TSAI Chung-huang

    2009-01-01

    Background Not only the obese,but also the non-obese adults have the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the upper normal weight.The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in non-obese adult Taiwanese(body mass index(BMI)≤26.9 kg/m~2).Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2007.One thousand six hundred and fifty-nine subjects(aged 47.5±12.4 years),60.8% of which were men,were enrolled.The prevalence and odds ratios of metabolic syndrome,defined by the American Heart Association/National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute(2005),were analyzed in the BMI category according to 2.0 unit increments,in individuals seeking a health examination.Results The higher the BMI categories,the more prevalent the metabolic syndrome was in women and in men(P<0.001).Compared with those women with a BMI≤20.9 kg/m~2,the odds ratios for metabolic syndrome in women were 1.3(95% CI:0.5-3.2)with BMI 21.0-22.9 kg/m~2,3.0(1.3-7.1)with BMI 23.0-24.9 kg/m~2,and 8.6(3.6-20.8)for women with BMI 25.0-26.9 kg/m~2,after controlling for age,smoking status,alcohol consumption,betel nut chewing,blood routine,biochemical data,hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus.The corresponding odds ratios in men were 1.6(0.6-4.2),3.7(1.6-8.8),and 9.9(4.2-23.2).Conclusions Individuals in the upper normal weight and slightly overweight BMI range have relatively high prevalence and increased risk of having metabolic syndrome.Therefore,physicians should screen metabolic syndrome in not only obese but also non-obese individuals for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Tobacco and Kretek: Indonesian Drugs in Historical Change

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    Monika Arnez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The clove cigarettes (kretek industry is the second largest employer in Indonesia, after the Indonesian government. Between 4 and 17 million people are employed in this industry, including areas such as cultivation, trading, transport, advertisement and production of clove cigarettes. The Indonesian government depends on the kretek industry because of its important economic function. This paper contributes to tracing the historical development of kretek, considering economic, social and political aspects. The article raises the question which factors have determined the consumption behaviour of smoking? Why has betel chewing increasingly been replaced by smoking kretek cigarettes? Which steps has the kretek cigarette taken since its invention and what factors have mechanization, political intervention, tobacco control and advertisement played for the development of the kretek industry? What image do kretek cigarettes have today, what are its patterns of consumption and what infl uence do multinational enterprises have on the development of kretek? --- Die Industrie der Nelkenzigaretten (Kretek ist im Laufe ihrer historischen Entwicklung zum zweigrößten Arbeitgeber Indonesiens nach der indonesischen Regierung avanciert. Die Anzahl an Beschäftigten in dieser Branche wird auf zwischen 4 und 17 Millionen Menschen geschätzt und umfasst Bereiche wie Anbau, Handel, Transport, Werbung und Produktion der Nelkenzigaretten. Aufgrund ihrer bedeutenden ökonomischen Funktion ist die indonesische Regierung von der Kretek-Industrie abhängig. Dieser Artikel möchte einen Beitrag dazu leisten, die historische Entwicklung der Kretek unter Berücksichtigung spezifischer ökonomischer, sozialer und politischer Aspekte nachzuzeichnen. Dabei wird insbesondere folgenden Fragen nachgegangen: Welche Faktoren haben dazu beigetragen, dass der Habitus des Betelkauens zunehmend durch das Rauchen von (Kretek-Zigaretten ersetzt wurde? Welche wesentlichen Stationen hat

  10. Strategies for cancer control on an organ-site basis.

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    Moore, Malcolm A; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of research information has been generated regarding cancer incidence rates and underlying risk factors. Since incidence:mortality ratios are generally less than 2:1 and often approach equivalence there clearly is a need for particular emphasis on preventive measures and early detection. Whether the latter should be through screening or education for improved awareness will depend on the socioeconomic conditions and the organ site. The location within the body, physiological factors and the cell type, whether essentially glandular or squamous, and the particular risk and protective factors operating in the particular social context will all impact on what measures can be recommended. Here the focus is on primary and secondary prevention of cancers in the various regions of Asia, taking into account similarities and differences in etiology for organs/tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the urinary system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the thyroid and non-Hogkins lymphomas and leukemias. Globocan 2002 data on incidence and mortality and all of the findings reviewed in the Regional Reviews were taken into account in compiling this overview. The chief recommendations are education in the developing world, to overcome the problem of late presentation at hospital (reflected by high mortality/incidence ratios), betel and tobacco control for the oral cavity and pharynx, reduce salt intake and targeting of Helicobacter pylori for the stomach, reduction in food intake, improvement in the diet and more exercise for the colorectum, kidney, prostate, breast, ovary and endometrium, reduction in smoking and exposure to other fumes for the lung, increase in water intake, particularly for the urinary bladder, and avoidance of parasites for the special cases of the urinary bladder and intrahepatic bile ducts. The cancer registry could be a major resource for development of further research capacity, with selection of suitable

  11. Radium-contaminated water: a risk factor for cancer of the upper digestive tract.

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    Hirunwatthanakul, Phatcha; Sriplung, Hutcha; Geater, Alan

    2006-01-01

    There is a high incidence of oral, pharynx and esophagus cancer among males in Na Mom district in Songkhla Province in Thailand, an area where radium concentration in shallow well water is found to be higher than other areas in this province. A population-based case control study was conducted from June to November 2004 to determine the association of oral exposure to radium-contaminated water and cancer of the upper digestive tract in the district.Thirty-two confirmed cases and 128 sex and five-year birth cohort matched neighborhood controls were selected by multistage sampling from six villages in four sub-districts. All subjects were verified to have been permanent residents in the district for more than 10 years. Thirty cases were dead at the time of the study, thus their relatives were interviewed to determine their amount of water drinking, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel chewing and exposure to other potential risk factors in the past. The other two cases and all controls were directly interviewed. The concentration of radium in shallow well water at the subject's houses was estimated using a contour map of Ra-226 in the water at the location of their residence. The results showed a strong and dose-dependent associationb etween consumption of radium-contaminated shallow well water and cancer of the upper digestive tract. In multivariate analysis controlled for important risk factors of the cancer, the odds ratios for exposure to oral radium consumption 50-100 mBq/day and >100 mBq/day compared with <50 mBq/day were 2.83 (95% CI: 0.50-16.19) and 29.76 (95% CI: 4.39-201.6) respectively. The risk also increased with consumption of fresh water fish which might have been contaminated by dissolved radium in the water. This study offers the first evidence of the association between radium and cancer of the upper digestive tract to the world literature. Further studies with other methods such as area-wide correlation of radium-uranium concentration and the

  12. Role of cytokine gene (interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10) polymorphisms in the risk of oral precancerous lesions in Taiwanese.

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    Hsu, Han-Jen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Chung-Ho; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Yang, Chia-Fu; Ko, Edward Cheng-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma can be preceded by some benign oral lesions with malignant potential, including leukoplakia, erythroplakia, oral lichen planus, and oral submucous fibrosis. There are different degrees of inflammatory cells infiltration in histopathology. Inflammatory cytokines may play a pathogenic role in the development of oral precancerous lesions (OPCLs). Genetic polymorphisms of cytokine-encoding genes are known to predispose to malignant disease. We hypothesized that the risk of OPCLs might be associated with cytokine gene polymorphisms of interferon (IFN)-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10. In the present study, 42 OPCL patients and 128 controls were analyzed for eight polymorphisms in five different cytokine genes [IFN-γ (+874 T/A), TGF-β1 (codons 10 T/C and 25 G/C), TNF-α (-308 G/A), IL-6 (-174 G/C), and IL-10 (-1082 A/G, -819 T/C, and -592 A/C)]. Cytokine genotyping was determined by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer technique using commercial primers. Allele and genotype data were analyzed for significance of differences between cases and controls using the Chi-square (χ(2)) test. Two-sided p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. A series of multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, betel quid chewing, alcohol consumption, and smoking, was constructed in order to access the contribution of homozygous or heterozygous variant genotypes of polymorphisms. The TNF-α (-308) polymorphism was significantly associated with OPCLs. There were significant differences in the distribution of AA, GA, and GG genotypes between OPCL patients and controls (p = 0.0004). Patients with the AA or GA genotype had a 3.63-fold increased risk of OPCLs. The TGF-β1 (codon 10 and 25) polymorphism was also significantly associated with OPCLs (p < 0.001). The IL-6 polymorphism was significantly associated with OPCLs. There are significant

  13. Association of relatives of hemodialysis patients with metabolic syndrome, albuminuria and Framingham Risk Score.

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    Jiun-Chi Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, albuminuria, and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS are significant predictors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the relationship and clinical significance of these CVD predictors in individuals with a family history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD are unclear. We investigated the association of relatives of hemodialysis (HD patients with MetS, albuminuria, and the FRS. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six relatives of HD patients and 374 age- and sex- matched community controls were enrolled. MetS was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III for Asians. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g. CVD risk was evaluated by the FRS. RESULTS: A significantly higher prevalence of MetS (19.9% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.026, albuminuria (12.7% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.002 and high FRS risk ≥ 10% of 10-year risk (15.7% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.013 was found in relatives of HD patients compared to their counterpart controls. In multivariate analysis, being relatives of HD patients (vs. controls was an independent determinant for MetS (odds ratio [OR], 1.785; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.045 to 3.050, albuminuria (OR, 2.891; 95% CI, 1.431 to 5.841, and high FRS risk (OR, 1.863; 95% CI, 1.015 to 3.418. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR, 1.034; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.052 and betel nut chewing (OR, 13.994; 95% CI, 3.384 to 57.871 were independent determinants for having a high FRS risk in relatives of HD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Being relatives of HD patients was independently associated with MetS, albuminuria and high FRS risk, suggesting family members of ESRD patients may have higher CVD risks through the interactions of renal risk factors. Proactive surveillance of these CVD predictors and preventive strategies should be targeted to this high-risk population.

  14. Research on the ratio and contents of N, P, K by arecanut (Areca catechu L.) leaves in different growth conditions%不同生长条件下槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾含量及其比例的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽兰; 甘炳春; 魏建和; 许明会; 王旭东

    2011-01-01

    采用田间调查与实验室分析相结合,探讨海南地区不同产量水平、不同生长年限、正常结果与黄化槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾含量变化规律.结果表明,槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾比例约为1:0.081:0.356.高产组槟榔叶片平均氮含量比中高产组和中产组的分别高10.45%和21.73%;而比低产组槟榔叶片的高了36.86%.正常结果树(低产组槟榔)叶片平均氮含量比黄化组(轻)和黄化组(重)的分别高10.15%和19.49%;黄化组(轻)槟榔叶片平均氮含量比黄化组(重)的高11.61%.高产组槟榔叶片平均磷含量比中高产组和中产组的分别高10.71%和13.64%;而比低产组槟榔叶片的高17.02%.正常结果槟榔(低产组)叶片平均磷含量比黄化组(轻)和黄化组(重)的分别高10.87%和18.48%;黄化组(轻)槟榔叶片平均磷含量比黄化组(重)的高8.5%.高产组槟榔叶片平均钾含量比中高产组和中产组的分别高17.24%和25.00%;而比低产组槟榔叶片的高31.96%.正常结果槟榔(低产组)叶片平均钾含量比黄化组(轻)和黄化组(重)的分别高15.15%和19.42%;黄化组(轻)槟榔叶片平均钾含量比黄化组(重)的高5.03%.不同生长年限槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾含量有所差异,随着树龄增加,高产组槟榔叶片氮、磷、钾含量比较低产组的高.槟榔叶片氮含量最高,钾次之,磷最低.氮磷钾含量对槟榔产量提高有很大影响,槟榔黄化病可能引起叶片中N、P、K含量降低.%Aimed to analyze the content of N, P and K of betel leaves, the normal leave the ones with yellow leaf disease were collected from fruit-bearing arecanut (Areca catechu L.) with different production levels, at different growth years in Hainan.The results showed the ratio of N∶ P∶ K was 1∶0.081∶0.356 in arecanut leaves.The ayerage N contents in high-yield group(HYG) were 10.45%, 21.73% and 36.86% higher than those in middle high-yield (MHYG), middle-yield group(MYG), and low-yield group (LYG

  15. The wisdom of the deep south of Thailand: Case study on utilization of herbal medicine to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors in Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat

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    Poh-etae A.

    2007-03-01

    used; to treat conjunctivitis, chilli (2.3% was used; and to treat broken bones, Alocasia macrorrhizos (2.3% was used.The pharmacopeia herbal medicine used to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors were reported as follows: Blumea balasamifera leaves mixed with bullet wood flower (1.5% was used to treat bloat; mangosteen skin mixed with calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH2 (2.5% was used to treat deep wounds from foot and mouth disease.The most popular herbal medicine used by most traditional doctors in the pharmacopeia to treat diarrhea Tinospora crispa (50.0% was the most popular, followed by curcuma rhizomes (30.0% and Andrographis paniculata (20.0%; to treat bloat, Blumea balasamifera leaves or salt or cattle bone (22.2% was used; to treat worms in intestines, salt (25.0% was used; as an expectorant, Tinospora crispa or curcuma rhizomes (66.7% was used; to treat abscess, lime (100.0% was used to treat deep wounds from foot and mouth disease, curcuma rhizomes (66.7% came first, followed by Zingiber cassumunar or salt (33.3% and to chase away insects, curcuma rhizomes (50.0% came first, followed by vegetable oils or betel nuts or tobacco (33.3%.

  16. FAKTOR DETERMINAN BUDAYA KESEHATAN DALAM PENULARAN PENYAKIT TB PARU

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    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: TB DO TS Strategy policy as the government's efforts in order to decrease TB patients is facilitated through the state budget cost resources, budget, global foreign aid fund, and the WHO. This qualitative study aimed to determinan poeing on cultural efforts in the prevention of pulmonary TB disease. Method of data collection participatory observation, in-depth interviews in patients with pulmonary TB and families, health care workers in the provinces, and districts. FGD on public figures, cross-sector and NGOs. Research sites in the city of Pariaman, West Lombok district and the district Rote Ndao NTT. Results:The results showed cultural determinants of health factors on the prevalence of pulmonary TB disease is a public perception of ilness Roe Ndao district, that of pulmonary TB disease as a hereditary disease, infectious disease and "Hosse". Norma betel nut as a treat for guests, custom home Sel, Sei traditional beliefs of newborns who smoked for 40 days with ground floor houses almost 50% of the population. Norms, stigma society in urban areas Pariaman, pulmonary TB disease as a disease because Tamakan, due to use-for others who are not happy, as evidenced by the habits, behavior of people carelessly throw spit spot. In western Sumatra, the city of Pariaman norms, fear of stigma, shame as people with TB, so there are many people who call it the perception of pain as a disease of old Cough, cough 40 days, dry cough, and asthma. Confidence/belief communities in the western province of NTB Lombok district who think if drinking water used Kiai progenitor Ishmael receive healing. Supervisory personnel selection as taking medication/PMO less in accordance with existing social structures in local communities, tribes sasak NTB, Rote tribe. Recommendalion: is required from a variety of participatory other NGOs, in an integrated cross-sector to perform the preventive, promotive control TB disease of the housing ministry, social

  17. À propos de l' influence de la langue Portugaise

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    Fernando V. Peixoto da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sur les mots castillans d'origine portugaise, le Prof. Rodrigo de Sá Noguiera écrit: "Il y a une série de mots castillans d'origine claire ou probable portugaise, que le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Espagnole dans la plupart des cas ou omet, ou considère comme d'origine différente". Ceux d'origine claire portugaise, ajoute cet étymologiste, sont ceux qui phonétiquement n'auraient pu avoir en espagnol la forme qu'ils revêtent dans cette langue, tandis qu'ils sont d'accord avec les règles de notre phonétique historique, existant, en outre, sous la même forme (p. ex. chato ou sembllable (p. ex. follaje dans la langue portugaise. Les suivants se trouvent dans ce cas: achantarse, achubascarse, afeitar, aldorta, brinco, barroco, canela, caramelo, cariño, chamada, chapa, chato, chaveta, chinela, chocal!o, chocho, chopa, choza, chubasco, chumacera, chus, chusma, cobra, conchabar, cortiña, desvaído, desvergoñadamente, fado, follaje, fuera, macho, malla, mermelada, morriña, nonio, pintada, vaivén, vergoña. Les vocables d'origine probable (et souvent sûre sont les exotiques, lesquels, dans l'opinion de Sá Nogueira, citée plus haut, ont pénétré dans l'espagnol à travers le portugais. Cet auteur en étudie les suivants: abada, albino, almadía, ananás, bambu, banana, bengala, betel, biombo, bonzo, cacatúa, cachimbo, cacimba, cafre, carcunda, carimbo, catinga, cha, coco, cobra, cornaca, fetiche, jangada, junco, macaco, malagueta, mandarín, mandinga, mandioca, manga, marimba, monzón, naire, pagoda et palanquín. Il est certain qu'ils sont beaucoup plus nombreux, ainsi que l'on s'en rend compte par les ouvrages de Monseigneur Sebastião Rodolfo Dalgado et Georg Friederici. Quant au mot chapéu, dit le Prof. Sá Nogueira, il est difficile de garantir si l'espagnol l'a reçu du portugais, ou si le contraire a eu lieu, et c'est également compliqué le problème du mot castillan jeito, à acception differénte de la nôtre, raison pour

  18. 口腔黏膜下纤维化中西医研究进展%Research Progress of Western and Chinese Medicine in Oral Mucosa Fibrosis

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    谭劲; 周小青

    2016-01-01

    submucous fibrosis oral (OSF) is a kind of chronic, occult and malignant oral mucosal disease. Clinical patients with eating food to stimulate the mouth pain, oral mucosa pale and stiff, severe restriction of mouth opening,eating difficulties for the characteristics of. A young male occurrence of the disease, development, life and think that smoking and alcohol habits are closely related. It is estimated that about 800 million people worldwide chewing nut, which has about 25 million OSF patients, so OSF has become one of the public health problems faced by people living in many parts of the world. The pathogenesis of the disease is still not clear, many studies have linked to metabolic disorders, genetic, immune and so on. Because chewing betel nut is the leading cause of OSF is one of the main factors, Chinese medicine believes that: phlegm and blood stasis is the key of the pathogenesis of the disease, doctor of traditional Chinese medicine known as “the long illness will stasis”. In therapeutic means.At present domestic and international isstill a lack of convincing methods, the use of traditional Chinese medicine treatment, clinical efficacy is exact, but the Chinese medicine treatment of OSF efficacy mechanism is not yet clear. This article introduces the research progress of Chinese and Western medicine from the aspects of epidemiology, pathogenic factors, pathogenesis, treatment measures and traditional Chinese medicine.%口腔黏膜下纤维化英文名称 oral submucous fibrosis,简称 OSF。其是一种慢性、隐匿性、具有癌变倾向的口腔黏膜疾病。临床以患者进食刺激性食物时口内疼痛、口腔黏膜苍白僵硬、严重者张口受限、进食困难为特征。近年来该病发生呈年青化趋势,在性别方面男性更为突出,可能与吸烟、酗酒等生活习惯密切相关。据估计,世界范围内约有8亿人咀嚼槟榔,其中约有2500万 OSF 患者,故 OSF 已成为世界许多地域中居

  19. Factores que influyen en la embriogénesis somática in vitro de palmas (Arecaceae

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    María Viñas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Factors affecting in vitro somatic embryogenesis of palms (Arecaceae Resumen La embriogénesis somática (ES es una vía de desarrollo in vitro que presenta una serie de ventajas sobre otras técnicas utilizadas para la regeneración de palmas. Esta técnica tiene gran potencial para superar las limitaciones observadas al tratar de propagar clonalmente estas plantas utilizando yemas basales. A pesar de la conocida recalcitrancia que presentan las palmas al cultivo in vitro, si se utilizan los reguladores de crecimiento apropiados, el tipo y el estado de desarrollo del explante adecuados, así como genotipos con buena respuesta, es muy probable que se obtengan buenos resultados. Esto ha sido demostrado parcialmente en Phoenix dactylifera (palma dátil, Elaeis guineensis (palma aceitera, Bactris gasipaes (pejibaye y Cocos nucifera (coco. También se ha logrado generar protocolos eficientes en otras palmas menos estudiadas, como Geonoma gamiova (una palma ornamental, Euterpe edulis (palmito dulce y Areca catechu (palma de betel. La inducción de ES se ha conseguido principalmente con el uso de auxinas. De ellas, la que se ha utilizado con más frecuencia es el ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, aunque en algunos casos (como en pejibaye y palma aceitera se ha usado picloram y dicamba, también con buenos resultados. Los explantes más utilizados han sido inflorescencias, ápices y segmentos basales de hojas, todos con un estado de desarrollo incipiente. También se ha visto que el tamaño del explante y el medio de cultivo juegan un papel importante en la respuesta. En este trabajo se presenta una recopilación de los trabajos más importantes sobre ES en esta familia de plantas y del efecto de varios factores sobre su establecimiento y desarrollo. Palabras clave: Explante; genotipo; medio de cultivo; regeneración; reguladores de crecimiento