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Sample records for betel

  1. Betel: consumption and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S A

    1998-01-01

    Betel is a compound of natural substances chewed for its psychostimulating effects. Betel is composed of the nut of the areca palm (Areca catechu), the leaf of the betel pepper (Piper betle), and lime (calcium hydroxide). Approximately 200 million persons chew betel regularly throughout the western Pacific basin and south Asia. Only three drugs (nicotine, ethanol, and caffeine) are consumed more widely than betel. When betel is chewed, it produces mild psychoactive and cholinergic effects. There is copious production of a blood-red saliva that can stain oral structures. After years of chewing, the teeth may become red-brown to nearly black. Betel use is associated with oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, and squamous cell carcinoma. Use of betel is discouraged in Western countries because of its alleged carcinogenic and perceived dysesthetic properties; nevertheless, betel is widely available in the West.

  2. Pilot study of the pharmacokinetics of betel nut and betel quid biomarkers in saliva, urine, and hair of betel consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Adrian A.; Li, Xingnan; Lai, Jennifer F.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 600 million people worldwide practise the carcinogenic habit of betel nut/quid chewing. Carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds have been identified in saliva or urine of betel chewers and the betel alkaloid arecoline in hair from habitual betel quid chewers. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of these compounds have been little explored. Assessment of betel use by biomarkers is urgently needed to evaluate the effectiveness of cessation programmes aimed at reducing betel consumpti...

  3. Epidemiology of betel quid usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P C; Ray, C S

    2004-07-01

    Betel quid chewing is an ancient practice common in many countries of Asia and among migrated communities in Africa, Europe and North America. It enjoys complete social acceptance in many societies and is also popular among women. In its most basic form, betel quid consists of betel leaf (Piper betel), areca nut, the main psychoactive ingredient, and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide). Areca nut is said to be the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. There are a great variety of ingredients and ways of preparing betel quid in different countries. In some, particularly in India, tobacco is added to the quid. In recent years, commercially-manufactured non-perishable forms of betel quid (pan masala or betel quid mixtures and gutka), not containing betel leaf, have been marketed. Within a short period of about 2 decades, this industry has risen in value to several hundred US million dollars. Use of areca nut in any form is not safe for oral health; the use of commercially manufactured forms seems even riskier.

  4. Pilot study of the pharmacokinetics of betel nut and betel quid biomarkers in saliva, urine, and hair of betel consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Li, Xingnan; Lai, Jennifer F

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 600 million people worldwide practise the carcinogenic habit of betel nut/quid chewing. Carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds have been identified in saliva or urine of betel chewers and the betel alkaloid arecoline in hair from habitual betel quid chewers. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of these compounds have been little explored. Assessment of betel use by biomarkers is urgently needed to evaluate the effectiveness of cessation programmes aimed at reducing betel consumption to decrease the burden of cancers in regions of high betel consumption. In the search for biomarkers of betel consumption, we measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) the appearance and disappearance of betel alkaloids (characteristic for betel nuts), N-nitroso compounds, and chavibetol (characteristic for Piper Betle leaves) in saliva (n=4), hair (n=2), and urine (n=1) of occasional betel nut/quid chewers. The betel alkaloids arecoline, guvacoline, guvacine, and arecaidine were detected in saliva of all four participants and peaked within the first 2 h post-chewing before returning to baseline levels after 8 h. Salivary chavibetol was detected in participants consuming Piper Betle leaves in their quid and peaked ~1 h post-chewing. Urinary arecoline, guvacoline, and arecaidine excretion paralleled saliva almost exactly while chavibetol glucuronide excretion paralleled salivary chavibetol. No betel nut related compounds were detected in the tested hair samples using various extraction methods. From these preliminary results, we conclude that betel exposure can only be followed on a short-term basis (≤8 h post-chewing) using the applied biomarkers from urine and saliva while the feasibility of using hair has yet to be validated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Betel leaf in stoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Tahmina; Talukder, Rupom; Chowdhury, Tanvir Kabir; Hoque, Mozammel

    2007-07-01

    Construction of a stoma is a common procedure in pediatric surgical practice. For care of these stomas, commercially available devices such as ostomy bag, either disposable or of longer duration are usually used. These are expensive, particularly in countries like Bangladesh, and proper-sized ones are not always available. We have found an alternative for stoma care, betel leaf, which is suitable for Bangladeshis. We report the outcome of its use. After construction of stoma, at first zinc oxide paste was applied on the peristomal skin. A betel leaf with shiny, smooth surface outwards and rough surface inwards was put over the stoma with a hole made in the center according to the size of stoma. Another intact leaf covers the stomal opening. When bowel movement occurs, the overlying intact leaf was removed and the fecal matter was washed away from both. The leaves were reused after cleaning. Leaves were changed every 2 to 3 days. From June 1998 to December 2005, in the department of pediatric surgery, Chittagong Medical College and Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh, a total of 623 patients had exteriorization of bowel. Of this total, 495 stomas were cared for with betel leaves and 128 with ostomy bags. Of 623 children, 287 had sigmoid colostomy, 211 had transverse colostomy, 105 had ileostomy, and 20 had jejunostomy. Of the 495 children under betel leaf stoma care, 13 patients (2.6%) developed skin excoriation. There were no allergic reactions. Of the 128 patients using ostomy bag, 52 (40.65%) had skin excoriation. Twenty-four (18.75%) children developed some allergic reactions to adhesive. Monthly costs for betel leaves were 15 cents (10 BDT), whereas ostomy bags cost about US$24. In the care of stoma, betel leaves are cheap, easy to handle, nonirritant, and nonallergic.

  6. BETEL-NUTS AS CONTAMINATED WITH A CANCER PRODUCING FUNGUS

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Betel nuts prematurely harvested and allowed to dry in heaps contain moisture which permits Aspergillus flavous to enter and spread over the central portions. Such betel – nuts consumed with betel leaves can cause cancer of the mouth since A. flavus is a carcinogen. Samples collected showed that the most betel – nuts were contaminated.

  7. Betel quid-induced oral lichen planus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopler, Eric T; Parisi, Ernesta; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2003-04-01

    The social use of betel nut is relatively common in certain geographic areas, especially India and Southeast Asia. The term betel nut does not truly describe the product that is chewed; rather, the term quid is more accurate because it refers to a substance or mixture of substances, including the areca nut, that are chewed and remain in contact with the mucosa. Betel quid is a type of quid that contains betel leaf. Chewer's mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis are clinical entities that have been associated with betel quid use. We report a case of oral lichen planus induced by betel quid use in a 79-year-old Cambodian woman.

  8. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in betel chewers and non betel chewers with and without oral cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Neluka; Jayakumar, Gnanapragasam; Perera, Naomal; Amarasingha, Indranee; Meedin, Fahra; Holton, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Betel chewing has been shown to predispose to periodontal disease and oral cancer. Studies show that people with gum disease are more likely to test positive for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). It is not known if the lesions produced by betel quid and the resulting, chemical changes predispose to colonization by H. pylori. Further the role of this organism in oral cancer is not known. Our objective was to determine the presence of H. pylori in oral lesions of thirty oral cancer patients and to determine the presence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in oral cancer patients who are betel chewers and non betel chewers, healthy betel chewers and healthy non-betel chewers and to compare the presence of H. pylori in these four groups. This case control study was conducted at the Cancer Institute Maharagama and the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Methods One hundred and seventy three subjects, of whom fifty three were patients presenting with oral cancer to the Cancer Institute Maharagama, sixty healthy betel chewers and sixty healthy non-betel chewers from the Religious and Welfare Service Centre Maharagama were tested for H. pylori by serology. Thirty oral biopsies from oral cancer patients were cultured under microaerophilic condition to isolate H. pylori. The statistic used was Chi-square test. Results Of the fifty-three oral cancer patients, forty-four were betel chewers. Among the 53 oral cancer patients examined, ten of forty-four (10/44 = 22.7%) patients who are betel chewers and four of nine (4/9 = 44.4%) patients who are non-betel chewers were detected positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. In the healthy group (betel chewers and non betel chewers) ten (16.7%) of the healthy betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori by serology. None of the healthy non-betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori Fourteen [26.4%] of oral cancer patients tested positive for H. pylori by serology, of

  9. Symptoms with betel nut and betel nut with tobacco among Micronesian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K; Gallen, Marcelle; Mancl, Lloyd; Spillane, Nichea; Chi, Donald L; Ramsay, Douglas S

    2016-02-01

    Betel nut has been stated to be addictive, but evidence is lacking. This study describes dependence symptoms among adolescents using betel alone or with tobacco. In the first study, participants were 151 9th graders in Saipan. In the second study, participants were 269 9th graders in Pohnpei and Yap. Participants completed a confidential questionnaire adapted from the U.S. National Survey of Drug Use and Health, which measured dependence symptoms. The 15 items were summed to form a scale, with a range of 0-15, where higher scores indicated greater endorsement of dependence symptoms. In the first study, 39.1% had used betel. More than two-thirds of all users (69.5%) used betel in the previous month: 87.8% also used tobacco with the betel. The mean (SD) dependence symptoms scale score among tobacco users was 8.2±4.0 versus 3.4±2.9 among those who used betel alone [t(7)=3.3, p=0.015]. In the second study, 38% from Pohnpei and 85% from Yap had used betel and most of the current users used it in the previous month (67% from Pohnpei, 91% from Yap). Among those who had used betel in the previous month, 90% from Pohnpei and 64% from Yap were using betel with tobacco. The dependence score was positively associated with frequency of tobacco use (e.g., mean (SD)=11.3 (±2.4) among most frequent users versus a mean (SD)=4.8 (±3.5) among the never users [F(3109)=28.8, pBetel nut users who also use tobacco may benefit from tobacco cessation strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intention to quit betel quid: a comparison of betel quid chewers and cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Suguitan, Gil S; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-01

    Despite the global significance of betel quid chewing and the associated health risks, there have been no studies assessing chewers' intention to quit. Given the difficulties associated with quitting betel quid and the serious health consequences of chewing, it is important for researchers to develop interventions aimed at helping chewers quit. Betel quid chewers experience similar patterns of dependence and withdrawal symptoms as tobacco smokers, and the use of both substances causes serious adverse health effects. Therefore, it is possible that intention to quit betel quid and tobacco would also be similar. If similarities were found, researchers could look to existing tobacco cessation interventions to inform the development of betel quid cessation interventions. In the current study we sought to understand chewers' intention to quit and how it compares to smokers' intention to quit cigarettes. A total of 351 adult betel quid chewers from Guam were compared against 1,555 adult tobacco users from Hawaii. These comparisons were made possible because of the deliberate use of identical questionnaire items (mutatis mutandis) for betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking. Smokers reported higher levels of wanting to quit, intending to quit, and wishing they have never started in the first place compared to chewers (p'sbetel quid cessation interventions.

  11. [Tooth wear in Hindu betel nut chewers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerreth, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    Literature data describe the impact of certain factors on oral health. Very well known is habitual chewing of different plant products, including tobacco, which depending on the geographical area and the substances used, have various names. It has been estimated that approximately 200 million residents of the West Pacific Rim and South-East Asia indulge in betel chewing. Betel is composed of a leaf of the betel pepper, lime, tobacco and the nut of the areca palm. This study aimed to assess the degree of abrasive changes in residents of the Korunalaya Leprosy Care Center. The examinations were carried out on 85 patients (45 females and 40 males), aged 35-95 years, at the local dental surgery. Patients had their teeth assessed and they were further interviewed as to the duration of their habit with regard to their sex and age (35-44; 45-64 and > or = 65 years). The abrasive changes were evaluated using Gerasimov's 7-degree scale. Interview data indicate that 71.76% of the patients were habitual betel chewers. Among female patients, third-degree abrasion was the most frequent change while among males--fifth degree (53.3% and 45.0%, respectively). The abrasive changes, increasing with age, can be attributed to the duration of betel chewing. It is worth noticing that a vegetarian diet can be a contributing factor to abrasion as most of the food consumed by Hindus are plants.

  12. Modes of betel leaf consumption in early India

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse some food practices surrounding betel in early Indian history. Betel consumption was not prescribed for everyone in Brahmanical society. Hence I examine texts referring to betel from the late pre-modern to early modern era (roughly 300–1800 ce) in order to explain proscriptions of betel in the legal discourse that discusses religious practice. The literature I consider in my analysis of betel consumption ranges from the kāmaśāstra genre, influential works of tantra,...

  13. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheng-Sheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun

    2008-04-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. Betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the Areca catechu), slake lime, and Piper betel leaf/or Piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in Asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. It has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. We describe a case of CG induced by betel quid chewing.

  14. Modes of betel leaf consumption in early India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyse some food practices surrounding betel in early Indian history. Betel consumption was not prescribed for everyone in Brahmanical society. Hence I examine texts referring to betel from the late pre-modern to early modern era (roughly 300–1800 ce in order to explain proscriptions of betel in the legal discourse that discusses religious practice. The literature I consider in my analysis of betel consumption ranges from the kāmaśāstra genre, influential works of tantra, texts detailing worship, and ascetic and renunciant guides. Material cultural studies aid my exploration of betel as a socio-religious identity marker and my development of three modes of betel consumption and one mode of non-consumption.

  15. Attentional bias to betel quid cues: An eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Chiu, Meng-Chun; Li, Shuo-Heng; Huang, Guo-Joe; Liu, Ling-Jun; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization regards betel quid as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with heavy use. This study, conducted in central Taiwan, investigated whether betel quid chewers can exhibit overt orienting to selectively respond to the betel quid cues. Twenty-four male chewers' and 23 male nonchewers' eye movements to betel-quid-related pictures and matched pictures were assessed during a visual probe task. The eye movement index showed that betel quid chewers were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, t(23) = 3.70, p betel quid chewers' attentional bias. The results demonstrated that the betel quid chewers (but not the nonchewers) were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, and spent more time and were more fixated on them. These findings suggested that when attention is directly measured through the eye tracking technique, this methodology may be more sensitive to detecting attentional biases in betel quid chewers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Chromosome-damaging effect of betel leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, G; Rani, G; Kumari, C K

    1978-05-01

    The chewing of betel leaf with other ingredients is a widespread addiction in India. The chromosome damaging effect was studied in human leukocyte cultures. There was an increase in the frequency of chromatid aberrations when the leaf extract was added to cultures.

  17. Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shwu-Huey Wang; Hsiu-Yuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimp...

  18. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Li, Ren-Hau; Tang, Tze-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Betel nut (or areca) is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for ob...

  19. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  20. Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

    2014-01-01

    The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.

  1. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A.; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F.; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut (‘BN’), nut + Piper betle leaf (‘BL’), and betel quid (‘BQ’) consisting of nut+lime+tobacco+Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p<0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ) and significant differences between all groups for total areca- specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  2. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p < 0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ), and significant differences between all groups for total areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Palauans who chew betel nut: social impact of oral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn Griffin, M T; Mott, M; Burrell, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2014-03-01

    Chewing betel nut is a tradition extending from Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Globally, betel nut is the fourth main psychotropic substance containing a stimulant, arecoline, that has a similar effect to nicotine. In Palau, there is broad acceptance of betel nut chewing. One of the largest immigrant groups in Hawaii is the Palauans. Chewing betel nut has significant social implications that make it difficult for those who engage in this practice to separate potential oral disease from the social importance. However, little is known about the social impact of oral disease from chewing betel nut on Palauans in Hawaii. The study aimed to describe the perceptions of betel-chewing Palauans in Hawaii regarding betel nut and to determine the social impact of oral disease among these individuals. Descriptive study conducted on the island of Oahu, Hawaii with 30 adult Palauans. Data were collected using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to measure perceptions of social impact of oral disease on well-being. Demographic and general health information was collected. Participants perceived little negative social impact of oral disease on well-being. Families, peers and society exert a strong influence on the decision to chew betel nut, a known carcinogen. Participants in this study showed little concern on the impact of betel nut chewing on their oral health. They continue the habit in spite of the awareness of potential for oral disease. Nurses face challenges in educating Palauans about the negative aspects of betel nut, particularly those related to oral health especially when they do not perceive problems. Nurses must be involved in the development of health policies to design and implement strategies to promote behavioural change, and to ensure clinical services that are culturally sensitive to betel nut chewers. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  4. Betel quid use and mortality in Bangladesh: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Argos, Maria; Levy, Diane; Sarwar, Golam; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of betel quid chewing on mortality. (A quid consists of betel nut, wrapped in betel leaves; tobacco is added to the quid by some users). Prospective data were available on 20 033 individuals aged 18-75 years, living in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Demographic and exposure data were collected at baseline using a standardized questionnaire. Cause of death was defined by verbal autopsy questionnaires administered to next of kin. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between betel use and mortality from all causes and from specific causes, using Cox proportional hazards models. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, educational attainment and tobacco smoking history. There were 1072 deaths during an average of 10 years of follow-up. Participants who had ever used betel were significantly more likely to die from all causes (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.44) and cancer (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.09-2.22); but not cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.93-1.43). These findings were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. There was a dose-response relationship between mortality from all causes and both the duration and the intensity of betel use. The population attributable fraction for betel use was 14.1% for deaths from all causes and 24.2% for cancer. Betel quid use was associated with mortality from all causes and from cancer in this cohort.

  5. [Betel - the fourth most popular substance in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Kosowski, Wojciech; Królikowska, Natalia; Stebnicki, Marek; Stebnicki, Michał R

    2015-09-01

    Betel is a kind of substance for chewing, that is made from piper betle, areca nuts and other, additional constituents. It is the fourth most popular psychoactive substance in the world, right after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. It is particularly famous in Asia. Betel chewing induces euphoria and it is addictive. Similarly like in other substances such as nicotine or alcohol, betel also has detrimental effects. It causes e.g. oral cancer and cancer of the oesophagus, it contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome, liver cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease. There are also positive effects of chewing betel, because is has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antyparasitic and antiseptic properties. The aim of this paper was to expand knowledge about betel and its both: positive and negative influence on human health. In this article original and review papers associated with the topic were used. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  6. Resident Rounds: Part III - Case Report: Betel Quid Induced Irritant Contact Dermatitis of the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Regine J; Cheraghi, Nikoo; Russo, Marian A

    2016-06-01

    Betel quid is a drug used in Far East Asia, India, and the South Pacific. The habit of betel quid chewing is widely reported to cause oral cancer and tooth and gum disease. However, skin disease due to betel quid use is underreported. We report a case of irritant contact dermatitis to betel quid components in a 35-year-old male betel quid user who presented for evaluation of a persistent rash on his fingertips.

  7. High α - radioactivity level in betel leaf (Piper Betel) and chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Maiti, Sunil; Harh, Sadananda

    2011-01-01

    Studies on alpha emitting radionuclides in tobacco samples is of significant importance as the interaction of alpha particles with cells chromosomes in different organs of tobacco eaters causes to carcinogenic changes in those organs. Apart from smoking, the tobacco products that are smokeless, like ghutka, chewing tobacco, etc., that are directly consumed through orally also contribute to carcinogenic health hazards. They can increase the internal radiation dose and thereby enhance the case of cancer in human population. Another important sample is betel leaf which is largely consumed by people. Since betel leaf is cultivated in lands using fertilizers having high alpha activity. Regular use of betel leaf may cause health hazards if alpha radioactivity is present in harmful quantities. In view of this the present work betel leafs and different type of tobacco products have been collected from the local market in and around Kolkata and alpha activity of those samples have been measured using CR-39 (SSNTD) detectors and dose has been estimated. (author)

  8. The ethics of betel nut consumption in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Joseph; Sem, Geoffrey; Sit, Eugene; Tai, Michael Cheng-Tek

    2017-11-01

    The ethics of betel nut use in Taiwan are examined in this article. It first presents scientific facts about the betel quid, its consumption and negative health consequences and then analyses the cultural background and economic factors contributing to its popularity in Asia. Governmental and institutional attempts to curb betel nut cultivation, distribution and sales are also described. Finally, the bioethical implications of this often ignored subject are considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Validation of drying models and rehydration characteristics of betel (Piper betel L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Sharma, R; Gupta, R K; Patil, R T

    2011-12-01

    Effect of temperature on drying behaviour of betel leaves at drying air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C was investigated in tunnel as well as cabinet dryer. The L* and b* values increased whereas, a* values decreased, as the drying air temperature increased from 50 to 70°C in both the dryers, but the colour values remained higher for cabinet dryer than tunnel dryer in all cases. Eleven different drying models were compared according to their coefficients of determination (R(2)), root mean square error (RMSE) and chi square (χ (2)) to estimate drying curves. The results indicated that, logarithmic model and modified Page model could satisfactorily describe the drying curve of betel leaves for tunnel drying and cabinet dryer, respectively. In terms of colour quality, drying of betel leaves at 60°C in tunnel dryer and at 50°C in cabinet dryer was found optimum whereas, rehydration at 40°C produced the best acceptable product.

  11. Risks of musculoskeletal disorders among betel quid preparers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jer-Hao; Wu, Jyun-De; Chen, Chih-Yong; Sumd, Shih-Bin; Yin, Hsin-I; Hsu, Der-Jen

    2014-04-01

    Betel quid chewing is common in Taiwan. The work of betel quid preparers is characterized by long hours of static work, awkward working posture and highly repetitive hand/wrist motion. However, the musculoskeletal health of betel quid preparers receives very little attention. The Chinese version of the Standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was administered, and electrogoniometers and electromyography were used in this cross-sectional study to characterize the hand/wrist motion of the subjects. Physical examinations on the thumbs and wrists of the subjects were conducted by means of Phalen's test and Finkelstein's test, respectively. Among the 225 participants, more than 95% attributed their musculoskeletal complaints to their work, and shoulder, neck, hand/wrist, and lower back discomfort were most frequently reported. More than 70% of the preparers did not seek medical treatment for their musculoskeletal problems. Based on the physical examination, 24% of the participants had suspected symptom of either carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) or DeQuervain's tenosynovitis. The instrumental measurements indicated that betel quid preparation is characterized by extreme angle ranges and moderate repetition of wrist motion as well as low forceful exertion. This study concludes that betel quid preparers are a high risk group of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Future studies by electrogoniometers and detailed physical examination on betel quid preparers are needed to determine the predisposing factors for CTS. Some intervention measures to prevent MSDs and to lessen psychological stress for this group of workers are strongly suggested. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Health risk perception and betel chewing behavior--the evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we provided an empirical examination of the interaction between people's health risk perception and betel chewing. We hypothesized that a better knowledge of possible health risks would reduce both the number of individuals who currently chew betel and the likelihood of those who do not yet chew betel to begin the habit. We constructed a simultaneous equation model with Bayesian two-stage approach to control the endogeneity between betel chewing and risk perception. Using a national survey of 26,684 observations in Taiwan, our study results indicated that better health knowledge reduced the possibility that people would become betel chewers. We also found that, in general, betel chewers have a poorer health risk perception than other population. Overall, the empirical evidence suggested that health authorities could reduce the odds of people becoming betel chewers by improving their knowledge of betel-chewing's harmful effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Surface anesthetic action of Aqueous Extract of Piper Betel leaf On Rabbit Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.T.Jayasree; Dr.Shaikh Ubedulla; Dr.Harini K; Dr.Shankar.J

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Piper betel Linn. (Piperaceae) commonly known as betel leaf and the habit of betel chewing is widely prevalent in most parts of India. It is claimed to have aphrodisiac, laxative, antimicrobial, mucolytic, antiinflammatory and euphoric properties and proven antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic effect. It is commonly observed that chewing of betel leaf produces numbness in the mouth, suggesting a possible local anesthetic effect. This observation prompted us to take this study . The aim...

  14. Nonmutagenicity of betel leaf and its antimutagenic action against environmental mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushan, M; Amonkar, A J; D'Souza, A V; Bhide, S V

    1987-01-01

    Betel leaf (Piper betel) water and acetone extract are nonmutagenic in S. typhimurium strains with and without S9 mix. Both the extracts suppress the mutagenicity of betel quid mutagens in a dose dependent manner. Moreover both the extracts of betel leaf reduce the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene and dimethylbenzanthracene. Acetone extract is more potent than water extract in inhibiting mutagenicity of environmental mutagens.

  15. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  17. Validation of drying models and rehydration characteristics of betel (Piper betel L.) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, S.; Sharma, R.; Gupta, R. K.; Patil, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    Effect of temperature on drying behaviour of betel leaves at drying air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C was investigated in tunnel as well as cabinet dryer. The L* and b* values increased whereas, a* values decreased, as the drying air temperature increased from 50 to 70°C in both the dryers, but the colour values remained higher for cabinet dryer than tunnel dryer in all cases. Eleven different drying models were compared according to their coefficients of determination (R2), root mean squar...

  18. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  19. Elemental composition of betel nut and associated chewing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, C.; Akanle, O.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Betel nut chewing (Area catechu), Whether plain or wrapped inside a betel leaf 'quid' together with other substances including tobacco, has been reported as a cause of the high incidence of oral and oesophageal cancers in Asian communities worldwide. Chewing of such substances results in the formation of nitrosamines, some of which may be diabetogenic to man. The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent amongst Asian immigrants living in the UK and as part of a larger study we have analysed a number of popular betel nut based chewing materials to determine their elemental composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for determination of elemental concentrations of short-lived radionuclides. Ag, Al. Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Dy, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti, and V were detected, some of which are implicated in diabetes. Concentrations of these, expect for Ag, Dy and Ti, are reported and compared with values found in betel-nut and chewing materials from Taiwan. It is indicated that for certain elements the amount ingested by betel-nut chewers may be a significant fraction of their daily dietary intake. (author)

  20. Effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing. On a different day, 10 fresh chewers masticated chewing gum as control. Fresh chewers exhibited significantly decreased response rates of oVEMP (53%) and cVEMP (71%) after dosing compared with those from the predosing period. These abnormal VEMPs returned to normal 20min after dosing. In contrast, 100% response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were observed before and after masticating chewing gum. In habitual chewers, the response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were 32% and 29%, respectively, 20min after dosing. Chewing betel nuts induced a transient loss of the otolithic reflexes in fresh chewers but may cause permanent loss in habitual chewers. Chewing betel nuts can cause a loss of otholitic reflex function. This creates a risk for disturbed balance and malfunction, for instance, during driving. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Betel quid chewing without tobacco: a meta-analysis of carcinogenic and precarcinogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Wan, Yi; Xu, Yong-Yong

    2015-03-01

    Betel quid without tobacco is an important factor influencing the incidences of oral cancer and precancer. This study systematically evaluated the associations between betel quid containing no tobacco and oral cancer and precancer, with implications for the prevention of oral cancer. We searched MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and EMBASE (to April 2011) and retrieved studies that investigated the relationship between chewing betel quid and oral cancer (or precancer). We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the published data and describe the prevalence of betel quid use with regard to cancerous diseases. In all, 19 eligible studies that reported odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for oral cancer with respect to betel quid were included. The analysis identified an association suggesting that betel quid might be an important risk factor for oral cancer and precancer. The results of this review suggest that betel-chewing-cessation programs should be developed to help prevent oral diseases. © 2013 APJPH.

  2. Betel nut usage is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-12-27

    The objective of our study was to assess betel nut usage as one of the major risk factors associated with coronary artery disease. This case control study consisted of 300 controls and 300 cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants to assess consumption of betel nut and confounding variables. A respondent was considered a regular consumer of betel nut if he/she consumed one or more pieces of betel nut every day for a period of greater than 6 months. About 8 in 10 betel nut chewers developed coronary artery disease. After adjusting for diabetes and hypertension, the odds ratio analysis depicted 7.72 times greater likelihood for coronary artery disease in patients who chewed betel nut for more than 10 years. Our study concludes that betel nut chewing is a significant risk factor leading to the development of coronary artery disease.

  3. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans.

  4. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING BETEL NUT CHEWING AMONG ADULTS IN WEST INSEIN TOWNSHIP, YANGON, MYANMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Su Kyaw; Narksawat, Kulaya; Sillabutra, Jutatip

    2016-09-01

    Betel nut chewing can cause precancerous oral lesions and is common in Myanmar. We conducted a cross sectional study aimed to estimate prevalence and factors influencing betel nut chewing among 420 subjects aged ≥18 years in West Insein Township, Yangon, Myanmar in order to inform preventive health programs. The mean age of the study subjects was 45(±15) years. The overall prevalence of current betel nut chewing among study subjects was 55.2%. The mean age starting betel nut chewing was 29(±13) years, and the mean duration of chewing was 15(±13) years. The reasons given by study subjects for chewing betel nut included the addictive effect to betel nut, to release tension, to get rid of boredom and to stop smoking. Sixty-two point three percent of current betel nut chewers also chewed tobacco and 24.2% also smoked cigarettes. Factors significantly associated with betel nut chewing were male gender, current alcohol consumer, having no education or finishing primary or secondary school, having a low score regarding their attitude about the health effects of betel nut chewing, and having high score on interpersonal factors by family and peer pressure. Our results show a need to better educate the public about the health effects of betel nut chewing among the study population.

  5. [Epidemiological investigation of chewing fresh or dried betel nut and oral mucosal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongxiu, Du; Dongye, Sun; Xinchun, Jian; Qiuhua, Mao; Yanan, Cheng; Pu, Xu

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chewing fresh or dried betel nut on the inci-dence and canceration of oral mucosa disease in Haikou City in Hainan Province. Through a survey questionnaire, clinical examination, and regular follow-up, we collected clinical data from 1 722 cases and divided them into two groups, among which 704 of the afflicted people chew dried betel nut, whereas the other 1 018 chew fresh betel nut. The data were 
statistically analyzed using different variables which included age, number, time of onset of the disease, and the cancerous condition associated with common oral mucosa disease, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral leukoplakia (OLK), and oral Lichen planus (OLP). 1) The study found no significant difference in the prevalence of oral mucosa diseases between the dried betel nut group (n=704) and fresh betel nut group (n=1 018) among the 1 722 cases (P>0.05), but the peak age of oral mucosal disease was more advanced in the dried betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut is more pathogenic and carcinogenic than chewing fresh betel nut. The extremely harmful components of the dried betel nut synergistically play a vital role in the occurrence and carcinogenesis of oral mucosal diseases.

  6. The Betel Quid Dependence Scale: replication and extension in a Guamanian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thaddeus A; Murphy, Kelle L; Little, Melissa A; Suguitan, Gil S; Pokhrel, Pallav; Kawamoto, Crissy T

    2014-05-01

    Betel quid is the fourth most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in the world. The Betel Quid Dependence Scale (BQDS) is the first instrument designed specifically to measure betel quid dependence. The three factor structure of the BQDS consists of "physical and psychological urgent need," "increasing dose," and "maladaptive use." The BQDS initially was validated in a sample of male prisoner ex-chewers in Taiwan. To replicate and extend the original validation research on the BQDS in a sample of male and female current betel quid chewers in Guam. A survey containing the BQDS was administered to 300 current betel quid chewers in Guam. Participants were compensated for their time with a gift card worth $25. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed an adequate fit with the hypothesized three-factor measurement model. ANOVAs and structural equations modeling revealed that betel quid dependence is associated with the inclusion of tobacco in the quid, number of chews per day, years of chewing, and education. The BQDS is valid for current English-speaking male and female chewers in Guam. Overall levels of betel quid dependence were high, and most chewers included tobacco in their betel quid. The results suggest that levels of dependence for betel quid are similar to those observed for nicotine dependence. Future research should explore other important psychological and behavioral aspects of betel quid chewing such as health risk perceptions and motivation to quit chewing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Availability and characteristics of betel products in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/ sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the availability and characteristics of these products outside of this region. Thus, a representative sample of betel products and additives was purchased in the Richmond, Virginia area. Five venues were visited between March and May, 2006. Products successfully purchased were those containing betel alone (seven), betel/tobacco (three), tobacco alone (four), and additives (four). Most betel products listed ingredients on the packaging, though some did not explicitly distinguish between those with versus without tobacco. Importantly, seven of seven betel alone and one of three betel/tobacco products omitted any health-related warnings. All products were inexpensive and relatively obtainable in the groceries visited. More research is warranted in order to accurately estimate product emergence into the U.S. and other world markets, and the consequent impact on public health.

  8. Effects of Betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    2001-01-01

    Betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. Betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of Areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic constituent. However, betel chewing may produce complex reactions and interactions. In the presence of lime, arecoline and guvacoline in Areca nut are hydrolyzed into arecaidine and guvacine, respectively, which are strong inhibitors of GABA uptake. Piper betle flower or leaf contains aromatic phenolic compounds which have been found to stimulate the release of catecholamines in vitro. Thus, betel chewing may affect parasympathetic, GABAnergic and sympathetic functions. Betel chewing produces an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and body temperature. In addition, EEG shows widespread cortical desynchronization indicating a state of arousal. In autonomic function tests, both the sympathetic skin response and RR interval variation are affected. Betel chewing also increases plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These results suggest that betel chewing mainly affects the central and autonomic nervous systems. Future studies should investigate both the acute and chronic effects of betel chewing. Such studies may further elucidate the psychoactive mechanisms responsible for the undiminished popularity of betel chewing since antiquity. Copyright 2001 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BETEL PRODUCTS IN THE U.S.†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the availability and characteristics of these products outside of this region. Thus, a representative sample of betel products and additives was purchased in the Richmond, Virginia area. Five venues were visited between March and May, 2006. Products successfully purchased were those containing betel alone (seven), betel/tobacco (three), tobacco alone (four), and additives (four). Most betel products listed ingredients on the packaging, though some did not explicitly distinguish between those with versus without tobacco. Importantly, seven of seven betel alone and one of three betel/tobacco products omitted any health-related warnings. All products were inexpensive and relatively obtainable in the groceries visited. More research is warranted in order to accurately estimate product emergence into the U.S. and other world markets, and the consequent impact on public health. PMID:19004423

  10. The Health Effects of Kava/Sakau and Betel Nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harvey

    For generations Pacific Islanders have used kava root and betel nut for a variety of cultural, medicinal, and ceremonial purposes: to overcome social barriers and lubricate social interactions; to cure bodily afflictions; and to accompany traditional and religious rituals. Kava, also known as ava, sakau, and yaqona has a long tradition as a…

  11. Factors associated with quitting areca (betel) quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Shiun; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yang, Yi-Hsin Connie; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Tsai, Chi-Cheng

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide useful data for a future abstinence project by identifying the factors related to quitting areca (betel) quid chewing. The study was cross-sectional. Data on demographic variables, psychological factors and substance-use behaviors were collected via questionnaires from 326 participants. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the areca/betel quid chewers who were less educated (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.98) were least likely to try to give up. Among the chewers who tried to quit, those employed as full-time drivers (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.14-4.39), who had drinking habits (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.24-4.66), and who preferred to chew only betel quid wrapped with leaf (OR = 4.44, 95% CI = 1.99-9.90) were more likely to fail. Chewers who successfully quit had a higher internal health locus of control compared with those who failed to quit (one-point increments, OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90-0.98). The results suggest that health educators and researchers can better influence people's chewing behavior if the importance of chewers' education level, job type, substance use (i.e. drinking habits, type of betel quid), and level of health locus of control are all taken into consideration when devising interventions.

  12. Population burden of betel quid abuse and its relation to oral premalignant disorders in South, Southeast, and East Asia: an Asian Betel-quid Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%-99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%-99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%-89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms.

  13. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C.; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Design Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18–60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Results Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). Conclusion The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. Implication If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success. PMID:25678943

  14. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2011-03-01

    To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18-60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success.

  15. A review of the use of Piper betel in oxidative stress disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Y; Nurul Zaidah, A S; Nur Amalina, G; Muhammad Azree, Ema; Das, S; Zar, C T

    2014-01-01

    Increase in prevalence of disease related oxidative stress disorders have been on the rise in the entire world since the past decades. Significant positive effects with few antioxidant properties in the modern drugs pave for the alternative medicines in managing the disease. Piper betel (P. betel), a herb, is known to possess high anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-cancer and neuroprotective property. This review focused on the effect of P. betel on diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. P. betel proved to show positive effects with specific outcomes towards these diseases. Moreover, the promising effect of P. betel in vitro studies was also highlighted in the present review. It is believed that the findings obtained in this review will draw the attention of the medical professionals and general public towards P. betel and it will open the door for further detailed research.

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF INGREDIENTS OF BETEL QUID ON ORAL AND ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Niraj A Ghanwate; Prashant Thakare

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antimicrobial and synergistic activity of ingredients of betel quid i.e. kattha, lime, betel leaf, betel nut, cardamom, clove and fennel seeds was tested against microbial population of oral cavity and four enteric pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri. For this purpose two methods were used. Pour plate method was used for calculating the reduction in microbial population in oral cavity and disk diffusion method was u...

  17. QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF SUBGINGIVAL MICROFLORA AFTER THE CHEWING OF BETEL LEAF

    OpenAIRE

    K Vani; Jose Maji; Rao Srinivasa

    2011-01-01

    Betel a branching vine, scientifically called as Piper betel, is used in a number of traditional remedies and known to have immune boosting as well as antibacterial properties. This study was conducted to assess the qualitative changes in the sub-gingival micro flora, after the chewing of betel leaves, in order to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of this medicinal plant on oral pathogens.Forty volunteers were made to chew betel leaves daily for 5-10 minutes for a period of two weeks and the ...

  18. AVAILABILITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BETEL PRODUCTS IN THE U.S.†

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Melissa; Deshpande, Laxmikant; Balster, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (Areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (Piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. Additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. Betel use is most common in Asia and East India; however, little is known about the avail...

  19. [A Symbol of Connectedness Between the Self and the Tribal Home: Betel Quid in the Lives of Indigenous Taiwanese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Chia-Ing; Gritz, Ellen R; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Lam, Cho; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2017-06-01

    Betel quid chewing plays a significant role in the development of oral cancer, yet the high prevalence of betel quid use remains a serious health problem in Taiwan, especially among indigenous Taiwanese. The present study aimed to understand the reasons behind betel-quid chewing among indigenous Taiwanese people by examining the larger context of their culture and traditions. This descriptive, qualitative study recruited ten regular betel quid indigenous chewers using purposive and snowball sampling. Four of the participants were interviewed individually and the remaining six comprised a focus group. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with semi-structured guidelines and analyzed using qualitative content analysis following the process of open coding, identifying codes, giving meaningful names to codes, putting similar codes in categories, and grouping categories into themes. Most of the participants associated betel quid with significant aspects of life, with betel quid symbolizing social belonging. In indigenous cultures, betel nut embodies the enduring companionship of lifelong friends. For the study participants, chewing betel quid was associated with symbolic meanings associated with the following five themes: betel quid chewing helps reinforce self-identity and sense of belonging; betel quid is considered a traditional symbol of love and marriage; betel quid reflects the celebration of simple abundance in indigenous life; betel quid represents an attitude toward life that accentuates the importance of learning to live in everlasting harmony with the environment and nature; and betel quid chewing is used to cure physical ailments and mitigate dental problems. Beliefs related to chewing betel quid deeply impact the attitudes of indigenous people toward this behavior. Because chewing betel quid is an essential part of Taiwanese indigenous community life, the cultural and symbolic meanings of this practice must be taken into consideration when drafting

  20. Piper betel Linn (betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Palatty, Princy L; Rao, Prathima; Rao, Suresh; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved.

  1. Betel-quid dependence and oral potentially malignant disorders in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chu, Koung-Shing; Gao, Yi-Jun; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Sunarjo; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Patrick, Walter K; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-11-01

    Despite gradual understanding of the multidimensional health consequences of betel-quid chewing, information on the effects of dependent use is scant. To investigate the 12-month prevalence patterns of betel-quid dependence in six Asian populations and the impact of this dependence on oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). A multistage random sample of 8922 participants was recruited from Taiwan, mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Participants were evaluated for betel-quid dependency using DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria and assessed clinically for oral mucosal lesions. The 12-month prevalence of dependence was 2.8-39.2% across the six Asian samples, and 20.9-99.6% of those who chewed betel-quid were betel-quid dependent. Men dominated the prevalence among the east Asian samples and women dominated the prevalence in south-east Asian samples. 'Time spent chewing' and 'craving' were the central dependence domains endorsed by the Chinese and southern/south-east Asian samples respectively, whereas the Nepalese samples endorsed 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal'. Dependency was linked to age, gender, schooling years, drinking, smoking, tobacco-added betel-quid use and environmental accessibility of betel-quid. Compared with non-users, those with betel-quid dependency had higher pre-neoplastic risks (adjusted odds ratios 8.0-51.3) than people with non-dependent betel-quid use (adjusted odds ratio 4.5-5.9) in the six Asian populations. By elucidating differences in domain-level symptoms of betel-quid dependency and individual and environmental factors, this study draws attention to the population-level psychiatric problems of betel-quid chewing that undermine health consequences for OPMD in six Asian communities.

  2. Betel quid chewing in rural Bangladesh: prevalence, predictors and relationship to blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Marcotte, Erin L; Argos, Maria; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Sarwar, Golam; Hasan, Rabiul; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2012-04-01

    Betel quid is chewed by 600 million people worldwide and it has been linked to obesity and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of our study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of betel quid chewing in a rural area of Bangladesh, and determine its effects on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. In this population-based prospective study, we analysed data on 19 934 Bangladeshi adults. Linear and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the socio-demographic predictors of betel quid chewing and the effect of betel quid on change in BMI and on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, arterial pressure, overweight or obesity, and hypertension. At baseline, betel quid was chewed by 33.2% of the cohort (35.5% of men, 31.6% of women). In a subsample in which we collected methods of use, 17.5% chewed it without tobacco and 82.5% chewed it with tobacco. In multivariate analysis, betel quid chewing was associated with female sex, older age, tobacco smoking and lower socio-economic status, as measured by fewer years of formal education and not owning land. Betel quid was chewed more times per day among women and older persons. At follow-up, persons who chewed betel quid without tobacco had higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and arterial pressure in comparison with never users. After controlling for other explanatory variables, chewing betel quid without tobacco was associated with general hypertension [odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.10] and systolic hypertension (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.01-2.37). We did not observe associations of betel quid chewing with BMI or overweight. Betel quid chewing is likely contributing to high blood pressure in Bangladesh, particularly among women.

  3. Altered Gray-Matter Volumes Associated With Betel Quid Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Fulai Yuan; Lingyu Kong; Xueling Zhu; Xueling Zhu; Canhua Jiang; Changyun Fang; Weihua Liao

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances. It has been suggested to be associated with various health issues, especially oral cancer. Evidence also points to possible decreased cognitive functions after long-term BQ chewing, such as attention and inhibition control. The present study aims to investigate the brain structure basis of BQ chewing in Hunan province of China. Twenty-five BQ chewers and 25 controls were recruited to participate in this study. Voxel...

  4. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Pu, Weidan; Liu, Haihong; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M; Xue, Zhimin; Liu, Zhening

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD) male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to determine components that represent the brain's functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t -tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups. Seventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t -tests, p  betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal ( r  = 0.39, p  = 0.03) while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks ( r  = -0.35, p  = 0.02). Our findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  5. Betel Nut Chewing Behavior among Adolescents in Eastern Taiwan: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Ying; Waigandt, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of betel nut chewing among junior high school students is highest in the eastern region of Taiwan (Lin, 1990). Although there is some research on the prevalence rate, little effort has been paid to developing a classification of betel nut chewing behavior applicable to adolescents. Eight-hundred and forty-three students, including…

  6. The reasons for betel-quid chewing scale: assessment of factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Suguitan, Gil S; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-03

    Despite the fact that betel-quid is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances worldwide and a major risk-factor for head-and-neck cancer incidence and mortality globally, currently no standardized instrument is available to assess the reasons why individuals chew betel-quid. A measure to assess reasons for chewing betel-quid could help researchers and clinicians develop prevention and treatment strategies. In the current study, we sought to develop and evaluate a self-report instrument for assessing the reasons for chewing betel quid which contributes toward the goal of developing effective interventions to reduce betel quid chewing in vulnerable populations. The current study assessed the factor structure, reliability and convergent validity of the Reasons for Betel-quid Chewing Scale (RBCS), a newly developed 10 item measure adapted from several existing "reasons for smoking" scales. The measure was administered to 351 adult betel-quid chewers in Guam. Confirmatory factor analysis of this measure revealed a three factor structure: reinforcement, social/cultural, and stimulation. Further tests revealed strong support for the internal consistency and convergent validity of this three factor measure. The goal of designing an intervention to reduce betel-quid chewing necessitates an understanding of why chewers chew; the current study makes considerable contributions towards that objective.

  7. The Effects of Preventive Intervention for Betel Nut Chewing in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…

  8. Trend Analysis of Betel Nut-associated Oral Cancer 
and Health Burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan Jia; Chen, Jie; Zhong, Wai Sheng; Ling, Tian You; Jian, Xin Chun; Lu, Ruo Huang; Tang, Zhan Gui; Tao, Lin

    To forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health based on historical oral cancer patient data in Hunan province, China. Oral cancer patient data in five hospitals in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) were collected for the past 12 years. Three methods were used to analyse the data; Microsoft Excel Forecast Sheet, Excel Trendline, and the Logistic growth model. A combination of these three methods was used to forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health. Betel nut-associated oral cancer cases have been increasing rapidly in the past 12  years in Changsha. As of 2016, betel nuts had caused 8,222 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and close to 25,000 cases in Hunan, resulting in about ¥5 billion in accumulated financial loss. The combined trend analysis predicts that by 2030, betel nuts will cause more than 100,000 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and more than 300,000 cases in Hunan, and more than ¥64 billion in accumulated financial loss in medical expenses. The trend analysis of oral cancer patient data predicts that the growing betel nut industry in Hunan province will cause a humanitarian catastrophe with massive loss of human life and national resources. To prevent this catastrophe, China should ban betel nuts and provide early oral cancer screening for betel nut consumers as soon as possible.

  9. Consumption of Cigarettes but not Betel Quid or Alcohol Increases Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Wu

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicated that consumption of cigarettes but not betel quid or alcohol was a risk factor for male CRC. A large study is necessary to investigate the risk factors for female CRC in Taiwan, and to understand the effect of betel quid exposure on male CRC.

  10. Chewing of betel quid: why do health careproviders in Thimphu, Bhutan, do it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Nidup; Pacheun, Oranut; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of betel quid chewing and related factors including general characteristics, behavioral pattern, perception and social influences among health care providers in Thimphu, Bhutan. A self-administered questionnaire was handed to 478 health care providers working in different units of health care centers in Thimphu during June-July 2010. A total of 391 (81.8%) questionnaires were returned. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. The prevalence of current betel quid chewers among this group was 26.6%. Males chewed betel quid more than females (29.5%, 23.9% respectively). Forty-two percent of current chewers had no specific reasons for chewing betel quid, although 18.2% declared that they were addicted. Both friends and family members were key persons involved in influencing betel quid chewing. Marital status was significantly associated with betel quid chewing, married health care providers being 2 times more likely to chew betel quid (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.02-4.28) than those of single marital status. Similarly, those coming from West Bhutan, were 2 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.32-5.55) than other regions. Health care providers from families with more than half of their members chewing betel quid were 14 times more likely to be currently chewing it (OR = 14.52, 95% CI = 6.02-35.04) than families having none of their members chewing it. Health care smokers were more likely to chew betel quid than non-smoking ones (p-value = 0.012). Also occasional drinkers were 3 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.78-6.96). Those who perceived a high barrier to quit chewing were about 2.6 times more likely to be current chewers of betel quid, than those who perceived less of a barrier to quit (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.21-5.67). The present study revealed betel quid chewing prevalence rate of 26.6%. Of the various factors

  11. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  12. New Lancet Oncology publication - Defining a research and policy agenda for betel quid and areca nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betel quid and areca nut, typically made up of a mixture of areca nut and slaked lime wrapped in a betel leaf with added flavorings, is a known risk factor for many oral and other associated cancers. There are more than 600 million betel quid or areca nut users worldwide (or 10% of the world’s population), making it a critical global cancer control issue. With its use steeped in culture and tradition, the use of betel quid and areca nut is widely unregulated, and poses a significant and understudied health threat to the Asia-Pacific region where prevalence is high. Unlike many forms of smoked tobacco, the two are widely used by women in regions where common. Betel quid and areca use also extends beyond the Asia-Pacific region to diaspora and migrant communities in the U.S., South Africa, and parts of Europe and the Middle East.

  13. Betel quid use in relation to infectious disease outcomes in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N; Natto, Zuhair; Yel, Daravuth; Job, Jayakaran; Knutsen, Synnove

    2012-04-01

    The habitual chewing of betel quid (areca nut, betel leaf, tobacco) is estimated to occur among 600 million persons in Asia and the Asia-Pacific Region. Emerging data from rural Asia indicate that the betel quid is part of traditional medicine practices that promote its use for a wide range of ailments, including infectious disease. In the present study, we examined the association between betel quid, traditional medicine, and infectious disease outcomes. For the purpose of a nationwide, interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of tobacco use (including betel quid), we conducted a stratified three-stage cluster sampling of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces of Cambodia. We found an association between the intensity of betel quid use and HIV/AIDS (odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% CI 1.09-3.89), dengue fever (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.55-2.72), tuberculosis (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.96-2.36), and typhoid (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.95-2.30). These associations were even stronger in women - the primary users of betel quid in Cambodia. Multivariable analyses that controlled for age, gender, income, education, urban versus rural dwelling, receiving care from traditional medicine practitioners, and cigarette smoking did not alter the betel quid-infectious disease association. Our findings raise the possibility of a role of betel quid use in the transmission of infectious disease through pathways such as immunosuppression, oral route of entry for a pathogen (i.e., through injury to the oral mucosa), and contamination (i.e., fecal-oral) of the betel quid ingredients. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Betel Quid Chewing, Personality and Mood: Betel Quid Chewing Associated with Low Extraversion and Negative Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Ping-Ho; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Shiah, Yung-Jong

    2018-02-08

    Betel quid (BQ), chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Little is known about psychological factors in BQ chewers. The present study was the first attempt to explore the relationships between BQ chewing, personality, and mood. A survey was conducted with a purposive sample to assess BQ chewing habits in four subgroups: BQ-only users, BQ users who smoke and/or drink, smokers and/or drinkers only, and substance nonusers. A total of 494 participants were recruited from the civilian, non-institutionalized population in Taiwan. Habitual consumption of BQ, smoking and drinking; socio-demographic variables; extraversion; and mood (tension, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, confusion, and self-esteem). All BQ chewers were evaluated on BQ dependence domains using DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 6-month BQ dependency rate among BQ chewers, defined by either DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria, ranged from 42.9 to 45.6%. BQ-only users had significantly lower scores on extraversion than substance nonusers. BQ-only users had statistically significant higher scores on confusion and total mood than substance nonusers. BQ-only users had significantly higher scores on fatigue, anger, tension, and depression, than substance nonusers, BQ users who smoke and/or drink, and smokers and/or drinkers only. The number of BQ dependence domains correlated significantly negatively with total mood scores. Conclusions/Importance: The results supported the two hypotheses: (a) BQ chewing is associated with low extraversion; and (b) BQ chewing is related to negative mood.

  15. The effect of stimulants and their combined use with cigarettes on mortality: the case of betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shao-Hsun; Sheu, Sheng-Jang

    2013-08-01

    Ten percent of the world's population use betel quid, making betel quid the fourth most used substance in the world. In Taiwan, there are an estimated 1.5 million users and the majority of them are also smokers. The number of people who died from oral cancer rose more than five times over the period from 1987 to 2006. In this study, we employ propensity score matching and the Weibull hazard model with instrumental variables to examine the health effects of betel quid chewing, in particular the health effect of its combined use with cigarettes. We show that betel quid chewing and smoking have a significant negative effect on health, and that the 10-year death hazard for joint users of betel quid and cigarettes doubles that for abstainers. Moreover, betel quid chewing is as harmful to health as smoking. We also find that betel quid chewing and smoking significantly increase the odds of dying from oral and oesophagus cancers.

  16. Caries prevalence and DMF-T index of Papuan’s students with Betel chewing habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Tebai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to find the extent of caries prevalence and DMF-T index in Papuan’s students with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Dormitory Bandung, 2007. Betel chewing habit is a chewing action of Areca nut (Areca Catechu Linn, Betel leaves (Piper Betel Folia, Betel fruit (Piper Betle Linn, lime talk (Calcium Hydroxide, and after chew to spent out of the mouth. The research is a descriptive research using the survey technique. Research samples are determined by purposive sampling, and a number of 80 samples are collected, consisting of Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Bandung between 18-to-30 years of age. Research results indicated that caries prevalence is 98.75% with a DMF-T index of 5.46. The conclusion of the reseach is that the caries prevalence and the DMF-T in Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Papuan’s Student Dormitory Bandung, 2007, is in the high category.

  17. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  18. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg(-1)) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg(-1)) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg(-1)), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg(-1) (SD 0.02 mg kg(-1)). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg(-1)) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg(-1)), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between betel quid chewing and radiographic alveolar bone loss among Taiwanese aboriginals: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Nan; Ting, Chun-Chan; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ko, Edward Chengchuan

    2014-11-04

    Betel quid chewing is associated with the periodontal status; however, results of epidemiological studies are inconsistent. To the best of our knowledge, no study has reported radiographic alveolar bone loss (RABL) associated with betel quid chewing. This survey was conducted in an aboriginal community in Taiwan because almost all betel quid chewers were city-dwelling cigarette smokers. In total, 114 subjects, aged 30-60 years, were included. Full-mouth intraoral RABL was retrospectively measured and adjusted for age, gender, and plaque index (PI). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between RABL and potential risk factors. Age-, gender-, and PI-adjusted mean RABL was significantly higher in chewers with or without cigarette smoking than in controls. Multiple regression analysis showed that the RABL for consumption of 100,000 pieces betel quid for the chewer group was 0.40 mm. Full-mouth plotted curves for adjusted mean RABL in the maxilla were similar between the chewer and control groups, suggesting that chemical effects were not the main factors affecting the association between betel quid chewing and the periodontal status. Betel quid chewing significantly increases RABL. The main contributory factors are age and oral hygiene; however, the major mechanism underlying this process may not be a chemical mechanism. Regular dental visits, maintenance of good oral hygiene, and reduction in the consumption of betel quid, additives, and cigarettes are highly recommended to improve the periodontal status.

  20. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O.; Haris, Parvez I.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg -1 ) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg -1 ) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg -1 ), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg -1 (SD 0.02 mg kg -1 ). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg -1 ) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg -1 ), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  1. Betel Quid and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in a Periurban Township in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Ko-Ko; Ohnmar, Mya; Hlaing, Moh-Moh; Oo, Yin-Thet-Nu; Win, Swe-Swe; Htike, Maung-Maung-Than; Aye, Phyu-Phyu; Shwe, Sein; Htwe, Moe-Thida; Thein, Zaw-Moe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe betel quid chewing practice and compare oral potentially malignant disorders between chewers and non-chewers of betel quid among residents in Dagon Myothit (East) Township, Myanmar. The study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a representative sample of 542 adults aged 18 years and above in the township. The trained interviewers collected data using a pretested structured questionnaire. On-site oral examination was done for suspected oral lesions. The mean age of the respondents was 45 years and 59% were women. Fifty-two percent of the respondents were currently in the habit of chewing betel quids (72% of men and 39% of women). Among 284 current betel quid chewers, 240 (85%) chewed betel quids together with tobacco. Out of 284 current betel quid chewers, 24 (8.5%) were found to have oral potentially malignant disorders; out of 258 betel quid non-chewers, only 1 (0.4%) was found to have oral potentially malignant disorders. This highlights the growing importance of smokeless tobacco use as public health problem.

  2. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBetel quid (BQ is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs.MethodsResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA to determine components that represent the brain’s functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups.ResultsSeventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t-tests, p < 0.001 uncorrected. We found increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal, bilateral frontoparietal, frontotemporal, occipital/parietal, frontotemporal/cerebellum, and temporal/limbic networks, and decreased connectivity in the parietal and medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks in the BQD compared to the HCs. The betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal (r = 0.39, p = 0.03 while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks (r = −0.35, p = 0.02.DiscussionOur findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  3. Radioprotective property of the ethanolic extract of Piper betel leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Roychowdhury, S.; Bandyopadhyay, S.K.; Subramanian, M.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Kamat, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The radioprotective activity of Piper betel ethanolic extract (PE) has been studied using rat liver mitochondria and pBR 322 plasmid DNA as two model in vitro systems. The extract effectively prevented γ-ray induced lipid peroxidation as assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated diene. Likewise, it prevented radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration dependent manner. The radioprotective activity of PE could be attributed to its hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging property along with its lymphoproliferative activity. The radical scavenging capacity of PE was primarily due to its constituent phenolics, which were isolated and identified as chevibetol and allyl pyrocatechol. (author)

  4. Lifetime risk of distinct upper aerodigestive tract cancers and consumption of alcohol, betel and cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Hwai-I; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Kelly J; You, San-Lin; Wang, Li-Yu; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Czau-Siung; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-09-15

    The cancer of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is a common cancers in the world. However, its lifetime risk by consumption of alcohol, betel and cigarettes remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to estimate lifetime risk of distinct UADT cancers and assess their associations with alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption. Three cohorts of 25,611 men were enrolled in 1982-1992 in Taiwan. The history of alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption was enquired through questionnaire interview. Newly developed UADT cancers were ascertained through computerized linkage with national cancer registry profile. Lifetime (30-80 years old) risk and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) of distinct UADT cancers by alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption were estimated. A total of 269 pathologically confirmed cases of UADT cancers were newly-diagnosed during 472,096 person-years of follow-up. The lifetime risk of UADT cancer was 9.42 and 1.65% for betel chewers and nonchewers, 3.22 and 1.21% for cigarette smokers and nonsmokers and 4.77 and 1.85% for alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers. The HRadj (95% confidence interval) of developing UADT cancer was 3.36 (2.51-4.49), 2.02 (1.43-2.84), 1.90 (1.46-2.49), respectively, for the consumption of betel, cigarette and alcohol. Alcohol, betel and cigarette had different effect on cancers at various anatomical sites of UADT. The cancer risk from the mouth, pharynx, esophagus to larynx increased for alcohol and cigarette consumption, but decreased for betel consumption. Alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption are independent risk predictors for distinct UADT cancers. © 2014 UICC.

  5. The influence of religious affiliation on heavy drinking, heavy smoking and heavy betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The results of a national survey of determinants of drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing behaviors are analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing are influenced by a variety of religions based on Taiwan data. Our results suggest that Buddhism, Taoism and practitioners of Chinese folk region are positively associated with heavy betel nut chewing while the religion effects on heavy smoking and drinking are statistically insignificant. Our findings on religion effects in Taiwan can be a valuable reference for comparison in Christian and western countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social and Cultural Context of Betel Quid Consumption in Taiwan and Implications for Prevention and Cessation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Ma, Wei-Fen; Lam, Cho; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Mi-Ting; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Li, Tsai-Chung; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Lu, I-Ying; Gritz, Ellen R

    2017-04-16

    In Taiwan, betel quid chewing is a part of social life for chewers. Betel quid itself, with or without tobacco, is a Group 1 human carcinogen. Betel quid chewing has become a severe health threat in Taiwan. The aim of the present study was to identify the individual, social, contextual, and cultural factors related to initiation, continuous use, and cessation of betel quid chewing. Four focus groups and 15 in depth face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2013 with current and former users of betel quid, members of a community organization located in central Taiwan. A thematic analysis identified themes evident across all groups. Study participants (N = 41) were 66% male and 34% female; mean age was 40.34 ± 9.23 years. Participants stated that betel quid initiation usually occurs during childhood and that the most frequent reasons for chewing were: to follow cultural/social traditions, to achieve an energetic feeling, and to avoid boredom. Participants perceived betel quid chewing as an addiction and a risk factor for cancer and other health-related conditions. The most frequently mentioned barriers to quitting betel quid included: peer pressure and selected withdrawal symptoms. For the development of culturally relevant and effective cessation interventions for betel quid in Taiwan, it is critical to understand and address perceptions of betel quid chewing and barriers to cessation.

  7. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G.; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pchewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pincreased arousal (Pchewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  8. White Matter Integrity Deficit Associated with Betel Quid Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulai Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, which has been regarded as a human carcinogen. Long-term BQ chewing may cause Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV dependence symptoms, which can lead to decreased cognitive functions, such as attention and inhibition control. Although betel quid dependence (BQD individuals have been reported with altered brain structure and function, there is little evidence showing white matter microstructure alternation in BQD individuals. The present study aimed to investigate altered white matter microstructure in BQD individuals using diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, BQD individuals exhibited higher mean diffusivity (MD in anterior thalamic radiation (ATR. Further analysis revealed that the ATR in BQD individuals showed less fractional anisotropy (FA than that in healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed that both the increase of MD and reduction of FA in BQD individuals were associated with severity of BQ dependence. These results suggested that BQD would disrupt the balance between prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas, causing declined inhibition control.

  9. White Matter Integrity Deficit Associated with Betel Quid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fulai; Zhu, Xueling; Kong, Lingyu; Shen, Huaizhen; Liao, Weihua; Jiang, Canhua

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, which has been regarded as a human carcinogen. Long-term BQ chewing may cause Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV dependence symptoms, which can lead to decreased cognitive functions, such as attention and inhibition control. Although betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals have been reported with altered brain structure and function, there is little evidence showing white matter microstructure alternation in BQD individuals. The present study aimed to investigate altered white matter microstructure in BQD individuals using diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, BQD individuals exhibited higher mean diffusivity (MD) in anterior thalamic radiation (ATR). Further analysis revealed that the ATR in BQD individuals showed less fractional anisotropy (FA) than that in healthy controls. Correlation analysis showed that both the increase of MD and reduction of FA in BQD individuals were associated with severity of BQ dependence. These results suggested that BQD would disrupt the balance between prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas, causing declined inhibition control.

  10. Antioxidant activity of piper betel leaf extract and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Jitesh S; Patro, Birija S; Mula, Soumyaditya; Gamre, Sunita; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2006-11-29

    The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay of the ethanol extracts of three varieties (Bangla, sweet, and Mysore) of Piper betel (pan) revealed the Bangla variety to possess the best antioxidant activity that can be correlated with the total phenolic content and reducing powers of the respective extracts. Column chromatography of the extract of the Bangla variety led to the isolation of chevibetol (CHV), allylpyrocatechol (APC), and their respective glucosides. The HPTLC analyses of the extracts revealed similar chemical profiles in all three P. betel varieties, although the concentrations of CHV and APC were significantly less in the sweet and Mysore varieties. Among the isolated compounds, APC showed the best results in all the in vitro experiments. It could prevent Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liposomes and rat brain homogenates as well as gamma-ray-induced damage of pBR322 plasmid DNA more efficiently than CHV. The superior anti-LPO and radioprotective activities of APC vis-à-vis those of CHV could not be explained by their respective Fe(II) chelation and .OH radical scavenging capacities. The better ability of APC to scavenge O2-. radicals and H2O2 might account for the results.

  11. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir R Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the betel leaf has protective antioxidant action. Materials and Methods: Salivary ascorbic acid levels of 60 subjects were estimated using the Dinitrophenyl hydrazine method. Results: The results revealed that quid chewers who used betel leaf had higher salivary ascorbic acid content compared to nonbetel leaf quid chewers. This could possibly be due to the protective antioxidants in the betel leaf.

  12. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shishir R; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Prasad, Rajendra; Bhat, Supriya; Fazil, K A

    2013-07-01

    Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the betel leaf has protective antioxidant action. Salivary ascorbic acid levels of 60 subjects were estimated using the Dinitrophenyl hydrazine method. The results revealed that quid chewers who used betel leaf had higher salivary ascorbic acid content compared to nonbetel leaf quid chewers. This could possibly be due to the protective antioxidants in the betel leaf.

  13. Developing a Betel Quid Cessation Program on the Island of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, John; Kawamoto, Crissy; Pokhrel, Pallav; Paulino, Yvette; Herzog, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is a psychoactive drug preparation typically made up of a combination of areca quid, slaked lime, piper betel leaf and tobacco. It is the fourth most commonly consumed drug in the world with global use concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region (Boucher and Mannan, 2002; Warnakulasuriya and Peters, 2002). The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified betel quid as a Group 1 carcinogen (IARC, 2004; Lin et al., 2006), and its use has been associated with oral and oropharyngeal cancer, oral lesions, oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, gum disease, and cancer of the pharynx and esophagus (IARC, 2004; Oakley et al., 2005; Shah et al., 2002; Warnakulasuriya, 2002). This paper reports on the feasibility of an innovative betel quid cessation program carried on the U.S. territory of Guam, and is the first of its kind. The program is described, along with the challenges encountered during the implementation process.

  14. A qualitative study on tobacco smoking and betel quid use among Burmese refugees in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Susan; Jackson, Janet; Johnson, Keryn; Sukara, Radmila; Franco, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are high rates of smoking among Burmese men in Wollongong, Australia. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the beliefs and experiences of Burmese refugees in Wollongong on smoking to guide the development of smoking cessation interventions. Three focus groups were conducted with Burmese refugees. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with service providers involved with Burmese refugees. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise responses to the questions. Participants were aware of the health effects of tobacco smoking but had little knowledge of support for quitting. Many participants chewed betel quid and were unaware of the health consequences. Service providers noted the lack of resources on smoking and betel quid use for Burmese people. Smoking cessation interventions for Burmese people should consider the co-related use of betel quid due to the possibility of inadvertently encouraging use of betel nut as an alternative to tobacco.

  15. The difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing Betel leaf (Piper Betle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ling Fu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long history of the use of plants to improve dental health and oral hygiene. The purpose of this research was to find out the difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel. The type of research used was quasi-experimental. Data collected were analyzed by using a paired t-test. The result shows that there is an increase of salivary pH by an average of 0.48 after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel. In conclusion, there is the difference between the salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel.

  16. Hypolipidemic activity of Piper betel in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rat

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Ernest David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of Piper betel (P. betel) in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia rat. Methods: The methanol leaf extract was tested for hypolipidemic effect in the albino rats at the selected optimum dosage of 250 mg/kg body weight and administered orally. Adult male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken study and evaluated. Results: In group II animals, the activity levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low densi...

  17. Defining a global research and policy agenda for betel quid and areca nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtash, Hedieh; Duncan, Kalina; Parascandola, Mark; David, Annette; Gritz, Ellen R; Gupta, Prakash C; Mehrotra, Ravi; Amer Nordin, Amer Siddiq; Pearlman, Paul C; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Wen, Chi-Pang; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Trimble, Edward L

    2017-12-01

    Betel quid and areca nut are known risk factors for many oral and oesophageal cancers, and their use is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. Additionally, betel quid and areca nut are associated with health effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, metabolic, respiratory, and reproductive systems. Unlike tobacco, for which the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides evidence-based policies for reducing tobacco use, no global policy exists for the control of betel quid and areca nut use. Multidisciplinary research is needed to address this neglected global public health emergency and to mobilise efforts to control betel quid and areca nut use. In addition, future research is needed to advance our understanding of the basic biology, mechanisms, and epidemiology of betel quid and areca nut use, to advance possible prevention and cessation programmes for betel quid and areca nut users, and to design evidence-based screening and early diagnosis programmes to address the growing burden of cancers that are associated with use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tobacco (kretek) smoking, betel quid chewing and risk of oral cancer in a selected Jakarta population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amtha, Rahmi; Razak, Ishak Abduk; Basuki, Bastaman; Roeslan, Boedi Oetomo; Gautama, Walta; Puwanto, Denny Joko; Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between tobacco consumption (kretek) and betel quid chewing with oral cancer risk. A total of 81 cases of oral cancers were matched with 162 controls in this hospital-based study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and details of risk habits (duration, frequency and type of tobacco consumption and betel quid chewing) were collected. Association between smoking and betel quid chewing with oral cancer were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Slightly more than half of the cases (55.6%) were smokers where 88.9% of them smoked kretek. After adjusting for confounders, smokers have two fold increased risk, while the risk for kretek consumers and those smoking for more than 10 years was increased to almost three-fold. Prevalence of betel quid chewing among cases and controls was low (7.4% and 1.9% respectively). Chewing of at least one quid per day, and quid combination of betel leaf, areca nut, lime and tobacco conferred a 5-6 fold increased risk. Smoking is positively associated with oral cancer risk. A similar direct association was also seen among betel quid chewers.

  19. Effect of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on salivary cortisol measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Martina; Urlacher, Samuel S

    2015-09-01

    Cultural practices may compromise the accuracy of salivary hormone measurements and must be considered when designing human biology research protocols. This study aims to evaluate the acute effect of one common human practice-chewing betel nut-on the measurement of salivary cortisol levels under field conditions. Data were collected from 17 adult habitual betel nut users (males = 11; females = 6; mean age = 32.8 years) from a small rural community in Papua New Guinea. Saliva was collected in time series from each participant before and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min after chewing betel nut. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and cortisol levels were compared across time using linear mixed effects modeling. Measured mean cortisol concentration fell nearly 40% immediately following betel nut use and remained significantly below baseline levels for the following 45 min (all P  0.16). Chewing betel nut is associated with a transient but significant reduction in measured levels of salivary cortisol. Future research must take this into account in populations where betel nut use is prevalent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sugandha; Vengal, Manoj; Raju, Bina; Patil, Neelkant; Sathosker, Sujatha; Bateja, Sumit; David, Jamil

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk indicators of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in chewers. A total of 1209 chewers were identified and categorized into three main groups based on the type of lesion: betel quid oral lichenoid lesions only, betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in association with quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions, and no lesions. Multinomial regression analyses were used to determine associations between dependent and independent variables. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions were more common in individuals who chewed quid comprising both tobacco and areca nut, and in those who chewed it two to three, or greater than three, times a day. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions + quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions were more likely to occur in females, and in individuals who chewed quid containing both tobacco and areca nut, in their processed and unprocessed forms, and greater than three times a day. The prevalence of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions was higher than that reported in previous studies conducted in India. Increase in the frequency and duration of quid chewing was associated with increased likelihood of developing these oral lichenoid lesions. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Betel nut chewing and the risk of chronic kidney disease: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Yu, Si-Yi; Lv, Zheng-Tao; Yao, Ying

    2018-06-01

    To investigate and quantify the potential association between betel nut chewing and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We searched five online databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Wanfang and CNKI to identify observational studies that published prior to May, 1, 2017. The primary outcome was the association between betel nut chewing and CKD expressed as odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) after adjustment for other covariates. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software; the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was used to confirm the stability of drawn conclusion. Five studies comprising a total of 10,562 CKD patients and 34,038 subjects without CKD that analyzed the relationship between betel nut chewing and CKD were included in our study; all the included studies were performed in Taiwan. After the adjustment for covariates, the combined adjusted ORs showed that betel nut used had 1.44 times higher risk to develop CKD compared with non-chewers (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.08-1.92). Betel nut chewing could significantly increase the risk of CKD, indicating that betel nut chewing may exist as an independent risk factor for CKD. Further investigation should be warranted.

  2. Betel nut chewing behaviour and its association with oral mucosal lesions and conditions in Ghaziabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumanth; Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the practices and behaviour among Betel nut users in Ghaziabad and to detect the clinically associated oral mucosal lesions and conditions. A community-based survey was conducted in Ghaziabad among 332 betel nut users. Data on betel nut use was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Oral mucosal lesions and conditions were recorded using WHO criteria. Out of 332 betel nut users, 32.8% consumed Gutkha. 62.3% users used betel nut with tobacco. Most of the study population started chewing betel nut because of peer pressure and the habit started at the workplace or school. A majority found that there was no physical discomfort due to the habit. The significant oral diseases detected were oral leukoplakia in 11.7% and oral submucous fibrosis in 6.1% of individuals. The findings of the present study revealed that 74.7% of the participants were current chewers. 30.4% of all participants had oral mucosal lesions and conditions.

  3. The effect of betel nut chewing on contour and object masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2011-11-01

    The betel nut is a common stimulant in many Asian countries. We employed the masking task developed by Enns and Di Lollo (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 345-352, 1997) to investigate the effects of betel nuts on sensory and attentional processing. In the masking task, participants needed to identify a target that was masked by either a contour mask or an object mask. Sensory processing was assessed by examining target identification in the contour mask condition when the target was presented only centrally, whereas attentional processing was assessed by examining target identification in the object mask condition when the target was presented randomly in either a central or a parafoveal location. The results showed that chewing betel nut and chewing gum produced significant contour masking with a large effect size, similar to the pure control condition, in which participants chewed nothing, and the placebo control condition, in which what participants chewed was disguised. This suggests that neither betel nut nor gum affects sensory processing. Alternatively, betel nut chewing could produce a reduction in object masking for the habitual chewers and the nonchewers, suggesting an effect of betel nut on attentional processing. This concentrated attention was also observed in the placebo control condition; thus, it cannot be exclusively driven by the expectation effect. Also, chewing per se reduced the attentional distribution foveally.

  4. Supplementation of Red Betel Leaf (Piper Crocatum) in Dairy Cattle Feed on Fermentation Characteristics by in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Prayitno, Caribu Hadi; Suwarno, Suwarno; Sarwanto, Doso; Hidayatun, Dinar; Solihah, Ma'ratul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact and efficiency of red betel leaf’s extract supplementation in the diet of dairy cattle on fermentation characteristics by in vitro.  The research method was experiment by using completely randomized design.  The treatments that were tested were R1: basal feed, R2:  R1 + 15 ppm of  red betel  leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R3: R1 + 30 ppm of  red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R4: R1 + 45 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) extract, R5: R...

  5. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  6. Anticarcinogenic effect of betel leaf extract against tobacco carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P R; Lalitha, V S; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1989-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated that betel quid offers some protection to tobacco induced carcinogenesis. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown betel leaf extract (BLE) to be antimutagenic against standard mutagens and tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNA), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In the present study, we have tested the anticarcinogenic effect of BLE using Swiss male mice. Two protocols of study were used to test this effect. In the first protocol, the effect of BLE was tested against the standard carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP) using Wattenberg's stomach tumor model, Cancer Res., 41 (1981) 2820-2823. In this protocol, BLE inhibited the tumorigenicity of BP to a significant extent. In the second protocol, the effect of BLE against the two tobacco-specific nitrosamines, NNN and NNK was studied using long-term studies on Swiss male mice. The nitrosamines were administered on the tongues of the mice, while the BLE was supplied in drinking water. Two doses of NNN (22 mg and 72 mg) and one dose of NNK (22 mg) were used. In this study, it was observed that the number of tumor bearing animals decreased, but the difference was significant only in the group treated with the low dose of NNN in combination with BLE. However, in all the BLE treated animals, irrespective of the dose of nitrosamine, the hepatic vitamin A and C levels were elevated significantly as compared to the corresponding nitrosamine-treated controls. These results indicate that BLE has a promising anticarcinogenic role to play in tobacco induced cancer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The association between hyperuricemia and betel nut chewing in Taiwanese men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tsai-Sung; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Liu, Wen-Hsin; Hsu, Yueh-Han

    2013-12-05

    Studies have associated betel nut chewing with cancers, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, chronic kidney disease, and proteinuria. This study investigated whether hyperuricemia is associated with betel nut chewing in men who participated in a health check-up program. From hospital records, we identified a total of 11,991 men who participated in the health check-up program from 2003 to 2009. They were divided into hyperuricemic group and non-hyperuricemic group. Laboratory tests, medical history, and status of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing were compared between the 2 groups. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hyperuricemia in association with betel nut consumption and other factors. Compared with the non-hyperuricemic group, the hyperuricemic group was slightly older (59.4 vs. 58.6 years) but less prevalent with betel nut use (11.8 vs. 13.6%, p = 0.003). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that hyperuricemia was negatively associated with betel nut chewing (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.84), older age (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93), and diabetes mellitus (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.50-0.64). On the other hand, hyperuricemia was positively associated with body mass index (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.62-1.90), drinking (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.25-1.49), hypertension (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.30-1.52), mixed hyperlipidemia (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.33-2.54), chronic kidney disease (OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.94-3.65), and proteinuria (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.38). Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia had no significant association with hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that betel nut chewing is negatively associated with hyperuricemia.

  8. Betel Nut Chewing Is Associated With Reduced Tacrolimus Concentration in Taiwanese Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W-Y; Lee, C-Y; Lin, P-Y; Hsieh, C-E; Ko, C-J; Lin, K-H; Lin, C-C; Ming, Y-Z; Chen, Y-L

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that arecoline, the major alkaloid component of betel nuts, alters the activity of enzymes in the cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) family. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant that protects against organ rejection in transplant recipients, not only is mainly metabolized by CYP3A enzymes but also has a narrow therapeutic range. We aimed to investigate whether dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus differed over time between betel nut-chewing and non-betel nut-chewing liver transplant recipients. In this retrospective case-control study, 14 active betel nut-using liver recipients were matched at a 1:2 ratio to 28 non-betel nut-using liver recipients by sex, age, graft source, duration of follow-up after liver transplantation, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Differences in liver function index, renal function index, and dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus over an 18-month period were compared between the 2 groups by using the Generalized Estimating Equation approach. Dose-adjusted blood trough levels of tacrolimus tended to be significantly (P = .04) lower in betel nut chewers (mean = 0.81, medium = 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 0.90) than in nonchewers (mean = 1.12, medium = 0.88, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.22) during the 18-month study period. However, there was no significant difference in renal and liver function index between the 2 groups. Liver transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus tend to have lower blood trough levels of the drug over time if they chew betel nuts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between betel quid chewing and carotid intima-media thickness in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Tyler R; Parvez, Faruque; Wu, Fen; Wang, Weijia; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Areca nut, more commonly known as betel nut, is the fourth most commonly used addictive substance in the world. Though recent evidence suggests it may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease, no studies have investigated whether betel nut use is related to subclinical atherosclerosis. We evaluated the association between betel nut use and subclinical atherosclerosis in 1206 participants randomly sampled from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Frequency and duration of betel nut use were assessed at baseline, and carotid IMT was measured on average 6.65 years after baseline. A positive association was observed between duration and cumulative exposure (function of duration and frequency) of betel nut use and IMT, with above-median use for duration (7 or more years) and cumulative exposure (30 or more quid-years) corresponding to a 19.1 μm [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.3-32.8; P ≤ 0.01] and 16.8 μm (95% CI: 2.9-30.8; P betel use such that the joint exposure was associated with a 42.4 μm (95% CI: 21.6-63.2; P ≤ 0.01) difference in IMT. Betel nut use at long duration or high cumulative exposure levels is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis as manifested through carotid IMT. This effect is especially pronounced among men and cigarette smokers. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. Yauk gyar mann yin (Be a man!): masculinity and betel quid chewing among men in Mandalay, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Thida; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Lin, Chu Fu; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Betel quid chewing is associated with various oral cancers and other health concerns, including reproductive health issues. Nevertheless, the practice is widespread in Myanmar, especially among men. This qualitative study elucidates the gendered aspects of betel quid chewing by examining how it links with masculine ideology among male betel quid chewers in Mandalay, Myanmar. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions, key-informant interviews and participant observation. The thematic content analysis was guided by Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity and Butler's notion of gender performativity. The findings indicated that young Mandalay men were drawn to betel quid chewing by the value they gave to satisfying their curiosity, power competition, risk-taking and a display of manliness. Thus, the practice of betel quid chewing, as defined by our participants, was perceived as manly, trendy, stylish and sexually attractive. For adult men, betel quid chewing was a social lubricant that assisted them in talking with clients and co-workers, thus enhancing their economic opportunities with other men. It also helped working-class men to work harder. Betel quid chewing harm-reduction programmes therefore need to be mindful of masculinity issues as well as the economic aspects of betel quid chewing.

  11. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Pbetel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pbetel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  12. Screening for oral potentially malignant disorders among areca (betel) nut chewers in Guam and Saipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Hurwitz, Eric L; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Gatewood, Robert R; Pierson, Kenneth D; Tenorio, Lynnette F; Novotny, Rachel; Palafox, Neal A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Badowski, Grazyna

    2014-12-11

    The Mariana Islands, including Guam and Saipan, are home to many ethnic subpopulations of Micronesia. Oral cancer incidence rates vary among subpopulations, and areca (betel) nut chewing, a habit with carcinogenic risks, is common. Our objectives were to conduct a screening program to detect oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in betel nut chewers, measure their betel nut chewing practices, and assess the prevalence of the oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a subset of betel nut chewers in these islands. A cross-section of 300 betel nut chewers ≥18 years old [in Guam (n = 137) and in Saipan (n = 163)] were recruited between January 2011-June 2012. We collected demographic, socioeconomic, and oral behavioural characteristics. Latent class analysis was used to identify chewing patterns from selected chewing behaviours. Following calibration of OPMD against an expert, a registered oral hygienist conducted oral examinations by house to house visits and referred positive cases to the study dentist for a second oral examination. Buccal smears were collected from a subset (n = 123) for HPV testing. Two classes of betel nut chewers were identified on 7 betel nut behaviours, smoking, and alcohol use; a key difference between the two Classes was the addition of ingredients to the betel quid among those in Class 2. When compared on other characteristics, Class 1 chewers were older, had been chewing for more years, and chewed fewer nuts per day although chewing episodes lasted longer than Class 2 chewers. More Class 1 chewers visited the dentist regularly than Class 2 chewers. Of the 300 participants, 46 (15.3%; 3.8% for Class 1 and 19.4% for Class 2) had OPMD and one (0.3%) was confirmed to have squamous cell carcinoma. The prevalence of oral HPV was 5.7% (7/123), although none were high-risk types. We found two patterns of betel nut chewing behaviour; Class 2 had a higher frequency of OPMD. Additional epidemiologic research is needed to

  13. Effects of betel nut on cardiovascular risk factors in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Mehboobali, Naseema; Haider, Ghulam; Pervez, Shahid; Azam, Iqbal

    2012-10-24

    Areca nut (commonly known as betel nut) chewing has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism by which betel nut ingestion could lead to development of CVD is not precisely known; however, dyslipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and inflammation could be some of the potential risk factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two dosages of betel nut on homocysteinemia, inflammation and some of the components of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, obesity and fasting hyperglycemia in a rat model. Thirty-six adult female Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10-12 weeks were divided into three equal groups. Group-1 served as the control group (n = 12) and received water, whereas groups 2 and 3 were given water suspension of betel nut orally in two dosages, 30 mg and 60 mg, respectively for a period of 5 weeks. At the end of the fifth week, the animals were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and liver, kidney, spleen and stomach were removed for histological examination.Plasma/serum was analyzed for glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) - a marker of inflammation. When the mean concentration values of 3 groups were compared using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD-test, there was a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p = 0.04) in the group receiving 30 mg/day betel nut compared to the control group. However, administration of a higher dose of betel nut (60 mg/day) had no significant effect on the serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and NAG. Histological examination of spleen revealed a dose-dependent extramedullary hematopoiesis. No other remarkable change in the tissues (liver, kidney and stomach) was observed.Mean serum/plasma levels of folate

  14. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazwi, Nordin Nur; Nalina, Thurairajah; Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Haji

    2013-12-11

    Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Five samples (betel leaf, areca nut, gambir, betel quid and betel quid containing calcium hydroxide) were extracted in deionized distilled water for 12 hours at 37°C. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, ferric reducing activity using FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity using FTC assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Phenolic composition was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Cytoprotective activity towards human gingival fibroblast cells was examined using MTT assay. Among the ingredients of betel quid, gambir demonstrated the highest antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 = 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/mL, FRAP - 5717.8 ± 537.6 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 1142.5 ± 106.8 μg TAE/mg) and cytoprotective (100.1 ± 4.6%) activities. Betel quid when compared with betel quid containing calcium hydroxide has higher antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 =59.4 ± 4.4 μg/mL, FRAP - 1022.2 ± 235.7 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 140.0 ± 22.3 μg TAE/mg), and cytoprotective (113.5 ± 15.9%) activities. However, all of the five samples showed good lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to vitamin E. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of quinic acid as the major compound of gambir and betel quid. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging (r = 0.972), reducing power (r = 0.981) and cytoprotective activity (r = 0.682). The betel quid has higher TPC, and antioxidant and

  15. Spatial short-term memory is impaired in dependent betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Meng-Chun; Shen, Bin; Li, Shuo-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2016-08-01

    Betel quid is regarded as a human carcinogen by the World Health Organization. It remains unknown whether chewing betel quid has a chronic effect on healthy betel quid chewers' memory. The present study aims to investigate whether chewing betel quid can affect short-term memory (STM). Three groups of participants (24 dependent chewers, 24 non-dependent chewers, and 24 non-chewers) were invited to carry out the matrix span task, the object span task, and the digit span task. All span tasks' results were adopted to assess spatial STM, visual STM, and verbal STM, respectively. Besides, there are three set sizes (small, medium, and large) in each span task. For the matrix span task, results showed that the dependent chewers had worse performances than the non-dependent chewers and the non-chewers at medium and large set sizes. For the object span task and digit span task, there were no differences in between groups. In each group, recognition performances were worse with the increasing set size and showing successful manipulation of memory load. The current study provided the first evidence that dependent betel quid chewing can selectively impair spatial STM rather than visual STM and verbal STM. Theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.

  16. Inhibitory effect of betel quid on the volatility of methyl mercaptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Chen, S L; Wu, M G

    2001-04-01

    Betel quid, a popular natural masticatory in Taiwan, is mainly composed of fresh areca fruit, Piper betle (leaf or inflorescence), and slaked lime paste. People say that halitosis disappears during betel quid chewing. In this study, the removal of mouth odor during betel quid chewing was discussed by using a model system which measured its inhibition on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Results showed that crude extracts of betel quid (the mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle, and slaked lime paste) and extracts of the mixture of areca fruit and slaked lime paste exhibited marked effects on the volatility of methyl mercaptan, and the inhibition function increased when increasing amounts of slaked lime paste were added. The same condition (increased inhibition) was also found by replacing the slaked lime paste with alkaline salts (calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide). Areca fruit, the major ingredient of betel quid, contained abundant phenolics. However, the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit did not show any inhibitory activity on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Great inhibitory activity occurred only when the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit was treated with alkali. Further studies by using gel filtration determined that the effect probably came from the oxidative polymerization of phenolics of areca fruit after alkaline treatment.

  17. Effect of betel quid on catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Hwang, L S

    1997-10-01

    Health damage and environmental pollution are serious problems caused by betel quid chewing in Taiwan. Many people acquire the habit of chewing betel quid due to its physiological effects, including increased stamina and a general feeling of well-being. In this study, a sympathetic model system of adrenal chromaffin cells and sensory evaluation were used to examine the physiological effects of betel quid and the interaction of all the ingredients (areca fruit, Piper betle inflorescence and red time paste) in betel quid. Physiological effects of cardioacceleration, a slightly drunk feeling, sweating and salivation occurred during the chewing of betel quid (a mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle inflorescence and red lime paste) and a mixture of areca fruit and red lime paste. Both induced much more basal catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells than did other ingredients and combinations of ingredients. It was evident that the responses in the sympathetic model system were closely correlated with the physiological feeling of well-being. The inhibitory effects of all the chewing juices on catecholamine secretion evoked by carbachol and a high concentration of potassium (high K+) showed that they perhaps affected the calcium influx through voltage-sensitive channels or the steps involved in secretion after calcium entry to stimulate basal catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells.

  18. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Osborne

    Full Text Available Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm and elevated face temperature (0.7°C (P<0.001 above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05 and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01 and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05 in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05 relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  19. Changes in plasma steroids and cytokines levels in betel chewing patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sindy; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Kuo, Song-Bor; Chen, Yifen; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Betel nut is the second largest economic food product in Taiwan. In Southeast Asia, the habit of chewing betel nut seems to be highly correlated with oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of oral submucous collagen fibers and limitation of mouth opening. Although the mechanism responsible for tissue damage is still unknown, prolonged irritation caused by betel nut and tobacco is considered to be a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. The effect of betel nut chewing on immune system remains unknown. Present study aims to investigate the change of plasma hormones including cortisol, testosterone, and inflammatory cytokine concentrations in male chewing betel nut compared with normal subjects. Heparinized blood was obtained from control group (normal young+mid-aged individuals), betel nut-chewing, and oral cancer male subjects. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital. Written informed consent was granted by the patients. Plasma cortisol and testosterone concentrations were detected by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-15, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were analyzed by ELISA with commercial monoclonal capture antibodies and polyclonal detection antibodies. The median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α were 3.14pg/ml, 3.14pg/ml, and 6.85pg/ml, respectively, in patients with oral cancer, compared with median plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α concentration of 2.64pg/ml, 5.86pg/ml, and 5.38pg/ml, respectively, in patients with betel nut-chewing habit. In contrast, the median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α in mid-aged males (aged 30-50) were 7.00pg/ml, 10.64pg/ml, and 31.73pg/ml, respectively, compared with median plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α of 4.48pg/ml, 33.36pg

  20. Dual role of betel leaf extract on thyroid function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Kar, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of betel leaf extract (0.10, 0.40, 0.80 and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) on the alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in male Swiss mice. Administration of betel leaf extract exhibited a dual role, depending on the different doses. While the lowest dose decreased thyroxine (T4) and increased serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, reverse effects were observed at two higher doses. Higher doses also increased LPO with a concomitant decrease in SOD and CAT activities. However, with the lowest dose most of these effects were reversed. These findings suggest that betel leaf can be both stimulatory and inhibitory to thyroid function, particularly for T3 generation and lipid peroxidation in male mice, depending on the amount consumed.

  1. Epidemiology of oral cavity cancer in taiwan with emphasis on the role of betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Wang, Bill-B; Lee, Jih-Chin; Kang, Bor-Hwang

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the epidemiological characteristics and the possible contributing etiology of oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. Data on oral cavity cancer from the period between 1986 and 1997 were compiled from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Annual Report. The amount of average annual consumption per person of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nut were extracted from the Annual Report of Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau and the Agriculture Counsel of Taiwan. The incidence of oral cavity cancer increased annually. Both the total and male incidence have increased substantially since 1993. Regarding the peak incidence, most cases were seen in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Multiple regression models indicated that 86.2% variation in the incidence of oral cavity cancer was explained by the annual average betel nut consumption per person. These results imply that those who chew betel nut belong to a high-risk group and require special consideration and attention regarding health education and health promotion.

  2. Betel chewing and arecoline affects eotaxin-1, asthma and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Meng-Chih; Duh, Tsai-Hui; Lee, Chih-Hung; Wang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Ping-Ho; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Wu, Chao-Chien; Ferri, Cleusa P; Stewart, Robert; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Betel nut is commonly used in many countries. Despite evidence suggesting an association with asthma, few studies have investigated the connection between betel nut use and asthma; thus, the underlying mechanism for the association with asthma is also unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between betel chewing and asthma as well as the associations of plasma arecoline (a biomarker for exposure) and eotaxin-1 (a potential mediator) with asthma and lung function. We recruited 600 hospital-based asthmatic patients and 1200 age- and gender-matched community controls in southern Taiwan. To clarify the mechanism of action for eotaxin-1 in the association between betel chewing and asthma, we also designed an in vitro experiment to study the functional associations between arecoline exposure and eotaxin-1 levels. A significant association was found between asthma and current betel chewing (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, 95% CI = 1.12-3.76), which was independent of potential confounders but was attenuated following adjustment for eotaxin-1. Arecoline and eotaxin-1 levels were positively correlated (Spearman r = 0.303, p = 0.02), while arecoline and arecaidine were negatively correlated with lung function. Functionally, arecoline alone does not induce eotaxin-1 release in vitro from dermal and gingival fibroblasts. However, in the presence of IL-4 and TNF-alpha, arecoline at 100 μg/ml induced more eotaxin-1 release than arecoline at 0 μg/ml (2700±98 pg/ml vs 1850±142 pg/ml, p = 0.01 in dermal fibroblast cells, and 1489±78 pg/ml vs 1044±95 pg/ml, p = 0.03 in gingival fibroblast cells, respectively). Betel chewing is associated with asthma in this population, with arecoline induction of eotaxin-1 supported as a plausible causal pathway.

  3. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handa Yujiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults. Method This study is part of a nationwide survey on oral mucosal lesions carried out among 11,697 adults in all fourteen states in Malaysia. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information and details on betel quid chewing habit such as duration, type and frequency. The Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated and plotted to compare the rates for the commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios for factors related to commencement or cessation of this habit. Results Of the total subjects, 8.2% were found to be betel quid chewers. This habit was more prevalent among females and, in terms of ethnicity, among the Indians and the Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak. Cessation of this habit was more commonly seen among males and the Chinese. Females were found to be significantly more likely to start (p Conclusion Factors that influence the development and cessation of this behaviour are gender, age, ethnicity, and also history of smoking habit while frequency and type of quid chewed are important factors for cessation of this habit.

  4. Psychoactive substances of the South Seas: betel, kava and pituri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawte, J

    1985-03-01

    Before white man brought his alcohol to the South Pacific, the indigenes were using many wild plants possessing psychoactive properties. The most prominent were betel in much of Melanesia, kava in much of Polynesia, and pituri in much of Australia. The use of each of these three drugs was widespread, institutionalised as a ritual and the occasion for extensive trade. Each was valued for its effect in reducing tension or in producing altered states of consciousness. Each was also capable of inducing intoxication. Since few physicians nowadays have had my opportunity to observe the use of all three of these substances, their main features are recalled here. Attention is paid to their traditional use and probable future use, to their pharmacological and clinical properties, and to their place in the zeitgeist of people and period. There is no indication that these substances will be espoused by the drug enthusiasts of the West as avidly as other ethno-psychopharmacological agents such as Peruvian coca leaf, the Indian hemp, the Asian poppy, or the American tobacco. The possibility, however, of some use in the West cannot be discounted.

  5. Altered Gray-Matter Volumes Associated With Betel Quid Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulai Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances. It has been suggested to be associated with various health issues, especially oral cancer. Evidence also points to possible decreased cognitive functions after long-term BQ chewing, such as attention and inhibition control. The present study aims to investigate the brain structure basis of BQ chewing in Hunan province of China. Twenty-five BQ chewers and 25 controls were recruited to participate in this study. Voxel-based morphormetry analysis revealed that there were three key regions showing structural differences between BQ chewers and controls, including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/insula, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, the GMV in the DLPFC could potentially predict BQ dependence scores, level of daily BQ chewing, and history of BQ chewing. These results suggested that participants who showed BQ chewing dependence may have deficit in inhibition control and affective decision-making, and the level of deficit was dependent on the level of daily BQ chewing, and history of BQ chewing. Understanding the neurobiology features of BQ chewing would help us develop novel ways to diagnose and prevent BQ dependence.

  6. Altered Gray-Matter Volumes Associated With Betel Quid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fulai; Kong, Lingyu; Zhu, Xueling; Jiang, Canhua; Fang, Changyun; Liao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances. It has been suggested to be associated with various health issues, especially oral cancer. Evidence also points to possible decreased cognitive functions after long-term BQ chewing, such as attention and inhibition control. The present study aims to investigate the brain structure basis of BQ chewing in Hunan province of China. Twenty-five BQ chewers and 25 controls were recruited to participate in this study. Voxel-based morphormetry analysis revealed that there were three key regions showing structural differences between BQ chewers and controls, including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)/insula, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, the GMV in the DLPFC could potentially predict BQ dependence scores, level of daily BQ chewing, and history of BQ chewing. These results suggested that participants who showed BQ chewing dependence may have deficit in inhibition control and affective decision-making, and the level of deficit was dependent on the level of daily BQ chewing, and history of BQ chewing. Understanding the neurobiology features of BQ chewing would help us develop novel ways to diagnose and prevent BQ dependence.

  7. The role of betel-quid chewing in smoking cessation among workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Li; Chen, Peter Y; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Min-Chien

    2014-07-28

    Current smokers exhibit a higher rate of betel-quid chewing than non-smokers. However, little is known regarding the extent to which betel-quid chewing may affect attempts to quit smoking and smoking cessation. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between betel-quid chewing and patterns of quitting smoking. Specifically, we explore whether betel-quid chewing is associated with (1) current smokers who have never attempted to quit versus those who have attempted to quit and have failed, those who are in the process of quitting, and successful cessation smokers, and (2) current smokers who have attempted to quit and have failed versus those who have successfully quit smoking. A telephone survey of 7,215 workers was conducted and obtained an 88.6% response rate. In the survey, the respondents' smoking and betel-quid chewing statuses were recorded and a list of covariates was assessed. After controlling for the effect of the covariates, betel-quid chewing was found to be more highly associated with current smokers who have never attempted to quit, compared to current smokers who are in the process of quitting (OR = 12.72; 95% CI = 1.05-154.26), successful cessation smokers (OR = 3.62; 95% CI = 2.32-5.65), and smokers who have attempted to quit and have failed (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.06-1.77), respectively. In addition, betel-quid chewing is more highly associated with a failure to quit smoking than with successfully quitting smoking (OR = 3.46; 95% CI = 2.17-5.51). The findings support four plausible reasons why betel-quid chewing may dissuade smokers from quitting. These reasons highlight additional avenues for potentially reducing the smoking population in workplaces, such as considering work contexts and social norms, and product sales in smoking-cessation campaigns.

  8. Antioxidant effect of betel leaf extract on dry-cured fish

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaimani, N.; Muraleedharan, V.; Joseph, K.G.; Unnikrishnan Nair, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) extract on control of autoxidation of fat in dry fish has been studied. Oil sardine has been selected for experiments since it contains very high amount of fat. The treatments were given with 5% (w/v) betel leaf extract in water at different stages of salt curing. FFA, PV and TVN values of the samples were determined periodically to assess the keeping quality and autoxidation. The sample, prepared by dipping the fish in the extract immediately afte...

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel.

  10. Cross sectional survey on association between alcohol, betel- nut, cigarette consumption and health promoting behavior of industrial workers in Ghaziabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Marya, Charu Mohan; Menon, Ipseeta; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The work force in industries are at risk of developing unduly high rates of health and behaviour related problems including abuse of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette (alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption). This study describes the relationships between alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption and health promoting behaviour among industrial workers. A cross sectional survey was conducted on workers in various industries of Ghaziabad city with concerned authority permission. A sample size of 732 workers was calculated based on pilot study. Through Simple random sampling 732 workers in 20 to 50 years age group with informed consent were interviewed through structured, pretested, validated questionnaire in vernacular language by one calibrated investigator. Data on socio demography, alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption pattern and health behaviour were collected. The association between health promoting behaviour and alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption was analysed by Logistic regression and Chi-square test through SPSS 16 at pbetel nut and cigarette consumption in study population was 88%. The prevalence of individual alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption were 82%, 68% and 79% respectively. Combined alcohol, betel nut and cigarette prevalence in study population was 58%. Alcohol and cigarette users were significantly higher (pbetel nut and cigarette users.

  11. Betel quid, chewing habits and difficult intubation: A case report and critical appraisal of evidence for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, P L; Hegde, Harihar V; Vijaykumar, T K; Nallamilli, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is used by 10-20% of world of population. Oral submucus fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic premalignant disease common in South Asian countries where betel quid is chewed. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial fibrosis of oral cavity and limited mouth opening, which can cause difficult intubation. A recent study in Taiwan has revealed long-term betel nut chewing is not predictor of difficult intubation. We describe two cases of OSF and critically analyze this study and its implications for clinical practice. OSF is now seen in Saudi Arabia and western countries with use of commercial betel quid substitutes. Although betel quid without tobacco is used in Taiwan, available evidence suggests rapid and early development of OSF where commercial chewing products like Pan Masala are used in India. Effects of betel quid may vary depending on the composition of quid and chewing habits. Studies where personal habits are involved must be analyzed carefully for external validity. Even though, Taiwan study is controlled, its validity outside Taiwan is highly questionable. Since OSF can cause unanticipated difficult intubation, thus during preanesthetic assessment, history of betel quid chewing, more importantly use of commercial chewing products is more likely to give clues to severity of OSF and possible difficult intubation. Further controlled trails in populations where commercial chewing products are used is necessary to detect association of chewing habits and difficult intubation.

  12. Clinical evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity cancer in a betel quid chewing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Wallace, Christopher G; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2014-08-01

    We sought to investigate whether there is evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) enrolled in a betel quid chewing area. We also assessed whether betel quid chewing is an independent risk factor for field cancerization in OSCC patients. We retrospectively examined the records of 1570 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2011. A total of 1243 study participants (79%) had a positive history of betel quid chewing before surgery. Of the 767 patients treated with surgery alone, 599 (78%) were preoperative chewers, whereas a history of preoperative betel quid chewing was identified in 644 (80%) of the 803 patients who received adjuvant therapy. The 5-year control, survival, and second primary tumors (SPTs) rates served as the main outcome measures. Regardless of the treatment modality, more than 70% of the SPTs were located in the oral cavity or soft palate. Despite a similar risk profile in terms of tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, and pathological margin status, preoperative chewers showed a significantly higher incidence of 5-year SPTs and local recurrences compared with non-chewers. Moreover, multivariate analysis demonstrated that preoperative betel quid chewing was an independent prognostic factor for 5-year local control and SPTs occurrence rates. Our results demonstrate that preoperative betel quid chewers had a higher incidence of local recurrence and SPTs than non-chewers, suggesting that field cancerization may occur in OSCC patients with a history of betel quid chewing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chewing betel quid and the risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomohide; Hara, Kazuo; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Betel nut (Areca nut) is the fruit of the Areca catechu tree. Approximately 700 million individuals regularly chew betel nut (or betel quid) worldwide and it is a known risk factor for oral cancer and esophageal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the influence of chewing betel quid on metabolic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. We searched Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Science Direct for pertinent articles (including the references) published between 1951 and 2013. The adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random effect model. Sex was used as an independent category for comparison. Of 580 potentially relevant studies, 17 studies from Asia (5 cohort studies and 12 case-control studies) covering 388,134 subjects (range: 94 to 97,244) were selected. Seven studies (N = 121,585) showed significant dose-response relationships between betel quid consumption and the risk of events. According to pooled analysis, the adjusted RR of betel quid chewers vs. non-chewers was 1.47 (PBetel quid chewing is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Thus, in addition to preventing oral cancer, stopping betel quid use could be a valuable public health measure for metabolic diseases that are showing a rapid increase in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific.

  14. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-02-07

    A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

  15. Betel Nut Chewing in Hawai‘i: Is it Becoming a Public Health Problem? Historical and Socio-Cultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Enrico I

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural significance of betel nut use among Micronesians, in light of the recent migration of Micronesians to Hawai‘i. The different ways of chewing betel nut are the result of historical changes within Micronesia over time due to Spanish and US colonialism as well as the introduction of tobacco. These divergent ways of chewing may have different risks or impacts on health and it remains to be seen whether or not betel nut will become a significant public health problem in Hawai‘i. PMID:22413101

  16. Chemopreventive efficacy of a betel leaf extract against benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, S V; Zariwala, M B; Amonkar, A J; Azuine, M A

    1991-09-01

    The effect of betel leaf extract and some of its constituents, eugenol, hydroxychavicol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, on benzo[a]pyrene-induced forestomach neoplasia in male Swiss mice was examined. Betel leaf and its constituents decreased the number of papillomas per animal with the maximum protection, considering molar dosage, exhibited by beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. Except for beta-carotene, eugenol, hydroxychavicol and alpha-tocopherol increased the levels of reduced glutathione in the liver while glutathione S-transferase activity was enhanced by all except eugenol. Of seven sources, Banarasi betel leaves showed the maximum amounts of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol.

  17. Effect of Piper betel leaf stalk extract on protein metabolism in reproductive tissues of male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    V Vengaiah; A Govardhan Naik; C Changamma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To know the impact of Piper betel leaf stalk (P. betel) extract on Protein and energy metabolism and its role in male albino rats. Methods: Healthy adult (3-4 months old) male Wistar strain albino rats were administered with betel leaf stalk extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day through oral gavages for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were autopsied. In order to assess antifertility effect in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland, esti...

  18. The difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing Betel leaf (Piper Betle)

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Ling Fu; Silvi Kintawati; Sri Tjahajawati

    2014-01-01

    There has been a long history of the use of plants to improve dental health and oral hygiene. The purpose of this research was to find out the difference of salivary pH before and after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (Piper betel). The type of research used was quasi-experimental. Data collected were analyzed by using a paired t-test. The result shows that there is an increase of salivary pH by an average of 0.48 after toothbrushing with toothpaste containing betel leaf (...

  19. Betel-quid dependence domains and syndrome associated with betel-quid ingredients among chewers: an Asian multi-country evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ling, Tian-You; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2014-07-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) contains biologically psychoactive ingredients; however, data are limited concerning the symptoms and syndrome of BQ dependence among chewers. The aims of this study were to evaluate the ingredients-associated BQ dependence syndrome and country-specific chewing features and behaviour for BQ dependence among chewers from six Asian communities. An intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study. Six Asian general communities in Taiwan, Mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Six multi-stage random samples of BQ chewers in the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (n = 2078). All chewers were evaluated for BQ dependence using the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The 12-month BQ dependence rate was 12.5-92.6% and 47.9-99.3% (P = 0.023) among tobacco-free and tobacco-added BQ chewers across the six Asian communities, with a higher dependence rate in chewers who used tobacco-free BQ with lime added than without (23.3-95.6% versus 4.0%, P ≤ 0.001). Taiwanese and Hunanese BQ chewers both notably endorsed the dependency domain of 'time spent chewing'. 'Tolerance' and 'withdrawal' were the major dependence domains associated with the Nepalese and Indonesian chewers, with high BQ dependence rates. Malaysian and Sri Lankan chewers formed a BQ dependence cluster linked closely to 'craving'. In Sri Lanka, the quantity consumed explained 90.5% (P betel quid users in Asian communities, more so if they use it with tobacco or lime. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  1. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

  2. Characteristic of betel nuts activated carbon and its application to Jumputan wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, L.; Sari, K. F.; Anggraini, L.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater from Jumputan production contains synthetic dye which is harmful to the environment. The contaminant can be reduced by adsorption process using activated carbon. The activated carbon was prepared from betel nuts with carbonization temperature of 500°C and 0.5 M HCl as an activator. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effect of various factors, such as the size particle of adsorbent, the dosage of adsorbent, and the contact time on Jumputan’s dye adsorption. The volume of treated solution was 200 mL. This solution agitated using a Jar Test at 150 rpm. The objectives of this work were to analyze the characteristic of the betel nuts, to analyze the characteristic of the activated carbon and to determine adsorbent’s ability to dye adsorption. Betel nuts compositions were analyzed with proximate analysis method. The adsorbents were carried out by SEM-EDS analysis. The dye adsorptions were analyzed with a portable spectrophotometer. The result shows betel nuts contains 60.86% carbohydrate, 32.56% water, 2.17% fat, 3.35% protein, and 1.06% ash. The major component of the activated carbon is carbon (C) of 86.27%, and the rest is Oxygen (9.18%) and Aurum (4.55%). The best condition is the adsorbent that has a particle size of 250 pm (60 mesh), the dosage of 20 grams, and the contact time of 15 minutes with dye removal of 76.4%.

  3. Nonlinear association between betel quid chewing and oral cancer: Implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Sreenath Arekunnath; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Wynant, Willy; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-09-01

    Betel quid chewing is a major oral cancer risk factor and the human papillomaviruses (HPV) may play an aetiological role in these cancers. However, little is known about the shape of the dose-response relationship between the betel quid chewing habit and oral cancer risk in populations without HPV. We estimate the shape of this dose-response relationship, and discuss implications for prevention. Cases with oral squamous cell carcinoma (350) and non-cancer controls (371) were recruited from two major teaching hospitals in South India. Information on socio-demographic and behavioral factors was collected using a questionnaire and the life grid technique. The effect of daily amount of use and duration of the habit were estimated jointly as risk associated with cumulative exposure (chew-years). The shape of the dose-response curve was estimated using restricted cubic spline transformation of chew-years in a conditional logistic regression model. Risk estimates for low dose combinations of daily amount and duration of the habit were computed from flexible regression. Most (72%) oral cancer cases were betel quid chewers in contrast to only 18% of controls. A nonlinear dose-response relationship was observed; the risk increased steeply at low doses and plateaued at high exposures to betel quid (>425 chew-years). A threefold increase in risk (OR=3.92, 95%CI: 1.87-8.21) was observed for the lowest dose; equivalent to the use of one quid per day for one year. Our findings may be used to counsel people to refrain from even low betel quid chewing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The association of betel quid, alcohol, and cigarettes with salivary gland tumor—A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I. Li

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study provided the first evidence to show the independent and combined impact of betel quid chewing with cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking on the SGT, and support the concept that cigarette smoking may associate with SGT carcinogenesis.

  5. Antimutagenic effects of betel leaf extract against the mutagenicity of two tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1989-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated chewing tobacco alone to be more hazardous than chewing tobacco with betel quid. Experimental studies have shown that betel leaf is antimutagenic against standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) are the only carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, including chewing tobacco, we tested the effect of an extract of betel leaf against the mutagenicity of the two important TSNA, viz., N'-nitrosonornicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay with TA100 +S9 and the in vivo micronucleus test. In both the test systems it was observed that betel leaf extract suppressed the mutagenic effects of both the nitrosamines to a significant extent.

  6. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities.

  7. Effectivity of Betel Leaf (Piper betle L. Gel Extract in Shortening Bleeding Time After Deciduous Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tedjasulaksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an Indonesian traditional medicine, betel leafis often used to stop nosebleed. Effective substances in betel leaves which serves to stop the bleeding is tannin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the betel leaf ethanol extract gel shortened bleeding time after the revocation of deciduous teeth. Method: This research was conducted at the Department of Dental Nursing Clinic, Health Polytechnic Denpasar.This study is pure experimental research design with Completely Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design. The total sample of 27 respondents were divided into a treatment group and two control groups. Anterior deciduous teeth on the physiological loose grade 3 or 4 is extracted, then the tooth socket is put pure gel for group 1 to group 2, epinephrine gel and gel ethanol extract of betel leaf for group 3. The bleeding time is calculated from the first moment the blood out until there is blood on filter paper that is placed on the tooth socket. Data were statistically analyzed with descriptive test and comparability test with One Way Anova. Result: The results showed bleeding time pure gel groups differ significantly with epinephrine group and the group of ethanol extract of betel leaf gel (p< 0.05. Bleeding time of epinephrine group did not differ significantly with betel leaf ethanol extract group (p>0.05. Conclusion: This means ethanol gel betel leaf extract can shorten bleeding after deciduous tooth extraction and it is suggested that the use of gel ethanol extract of betel leaves to cope with bleeding after tooth extraction.

  8. Aflatoxin B1 in betel nuts (Areca catechu L.) imported to Pakistan from different regions of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Iqbal, Javed; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Shamsuddin, Zuzzer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) levels were evaluated in betel nuts (Areca catechu L.) being imported to Pakistan during 2010-2011. In total, 278 betel nut samples (India = 21, Indonesia = 51, Sri-Lanka = 34 and Thailand = 172) were received from the Department of Customs and were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). All Indian origin betel nuts showed AFB1 contamination ranging from 11.7-262.0 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 92.5 µg kg(-1). Among Indonesian and Sri Lankan shipments, 80.4% and 73.5% betel nuts were contaminated with AFB1 ranging between 3.3-39.2 and 6.5-103.4 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 11.6 and 35.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. However, only 30.2% of Thailand origin samples showed AFB1 contamination ranging 3.3-77.0 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 6.6 µg kg(-1). The widespread occurrence of AFB1 increases the hazard associated with betel nuts. Thus, strict control is a pre-requisite for the production and import/export of psychoactive substances as betel nuts.

  9. Betel leaf toothpastes inhibit dental plaque formation on fixed orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizka Amelia Mayasari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brackets, archwires, ligatures, and other fixed orthodontic appliance components complicate the use of conventional oral-hygiene measures. This often results in significant plaque accumulation around the bracket bases. The addition of betel leaf extract in toothpaste is expected to inhibit the growth of dental plaque. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of betel leaf toothpaste in inhibiting plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Methods: This study was done on dental student of Airlangga University aged 18–24 years, have been wearing fixed orthodontic appliances for 1–2 years, have no systemic diseases. The samples were divided into two groups, consisting of 20 samples. First group of samples brushed their teeth with betel group of samples brushed their teeth with betel brushed their teeth with betel leaf toothpaste and the second using placebo. The subjects were instructed to brush their teeth using Scrub method until reaching zero (0 scor of orthodontic plaque index (OPI. Plaque scores were taken again 4 hours after brushing. The statistical analysis was done by using paired t test. Results: The average of accumulated plaque on group that use betel leaf toothpaste was 25.54 and placebo was 41.09. The result showed that there was significant difference in plaque accumulation between the group with betel leaf toothpaste and placebo 4 hours after brushing (p = 0.001. Conclusion: In conclusion, betel leaf toothpaste is effective in inhibiting the dental plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Latar belakang: Bracket, kawat busur, kawat ligatur dan komponen peranti ortodonti cekat yang lain mempersulit pembersihan gigi secara konvensional. Hal ini sering menyebabkan terjadinya akumulasi plak di sekitar dasar braket. Penambahan ekstrak daun sirih yang mempunyai efek bakterisid pada pasta gigi diharapkan dapat menghambat pertumbuhan plak. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk

  10. Protective effect of hydroxychavicol, a phenolic component of betel leaf, against the tobacco-specific carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonkar, A J; Padma, P R; Bhide, S V

    1989-02-01

    The phenolic compound, hydroxychavicol (HC), present in betel leaf, was synthesised and tested for its antimutagenic effect against the mutagenicity of the 2 tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in 2 different test systems, viz. the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and the micronucleus test using Swiss male mice. We are reporting the synthesis of HC of a high degree of purity. We observed that HC suppressed the mutagenic effects of NNN and NNK in both test systems used. These results indicate that HC may have a role to play in reducing the risk of oral cancer in betel quid with tobacco chewers.

  11. Antibacterial, mechanical, and barrier properties of sago starch film incorporated with Betel leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Leila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-05-01

    The antimicrobial, mechanical and barrier properties and light transmission of sago starch film incorporated with different percentage of Betel leaf extract (5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) were evaluated. With regard to mechanical properties, tensile strength decreased when the percentage of extract increased. Elongation at break (%) and seal strength (N/m) increased with increasing percentage of extract from 5% to 20%, while decreased for films containing 30% extract due to heterogeneity of films in this percentage. With regard to barrier properties, water vapour and oxygen barrier properties decreased in all samples when percentage of the extract increased. Antimicrobial activity of all the films increased against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as percentage of Betel leaf extract increased, except for Psuedomonas aeruginosa, which was not susceptible at any percentage of the extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydroxychavicol: a new anti-nitrosating phenolic compound from betel leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushan, M; Amonkar, A J; Nair, U J; D'Souza, A V; Bhide, S V

    1989-05-01

    Hydroxychavicol and eugenol are the phenolic compounds isolated from betel leaf (piper betel). The modulation of nitrosation of methylurea by sodium nitrite at pH 3.6 and 30 degrees C was studied. The formation of mutagenic N-nitrosomethylurea was monitored by checking the mutagenicity of reaction mixture in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 and TA1535 without S9 mix. Hydroxychavicol and eugenol exhibit dose-dependent suppression of nitrosation in vitro without affecting the survival of the bacteria. Pre- or post-treatment of bacterial cells from S. typhimurium strains TA100 and TA1535 with phenolics did not modify the mutagenicity of nitrosomethylurea. The blocking of hydroxy group(s) in the benzene ring by acetylation abolishes the anti-nitrosating activity of the molecule(s). The nitrosation inhibition by hydroxychavicol is through scavenging of nitrite ions in the media, thus making them non-available for the nitrosation of methylurea.

  13. Addressing a silent killer - The International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health, National Cancer Institute, in coordination with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research , The University of Texas at MD Anderson Cancer Center, Oral Cancer Research Coordinating Center, University of Malaya, Taiwan Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and with the generous support of the Malaysia Ministry of Health, hosted the International Conference on Betel Quid and Areca Nut in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia on April 27-28, 2016.

  14. Piper betel leaf: a reservoir of potential xenohormetic nutraceuticals with cancer-fighting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma R; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-05-01

    Plants contain a much greater diversity of bioactive compounds than any man-made chemical library. Heart-shaped Piper betel leaves are magnificent reservoirs of phenolic compounds with antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties. Widely consumed in South Asian countries, the glossy leaf contains a multitude of biophenolics such as hydroxychavicol, eugenol, chavibetol, and piperols. Convincing data underscore the remarkable chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive potential of betel leaves against a variety of cancer types. The leaf constituents modulate an extensive array of signaling molecules such as transcription factors as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) to control multiple nodes of various cellular proliferation and death pathways. Herein, we provide an overall perspective on the cancer-fighting benefits of the phenolic phytochemicals in betel leaves and a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms responsive to dose-driven ROS-mediated signaling cascades conscripted by bioactive phenolics to confer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive advantages. Intriguingly, these ROS-triggered responses are contextual and may either elicit a protective xenohormetic antioxidant response to premalignant cells to constitute a chemopreventive effect or generate a curative chemotherapeutic response by pro-oxidatively augmenting the constitutively elevated ROS levels in cancer cells to tip the balance in favor of selective apoptosis induction in cancer cells while sparing normal ones. In conclusion, this review provides an update on how distinct ROS levels exist in normal versus cancer cells and how these levels can be strategically modulated and exploited for therapeutic gains. We emphasize the yet untapped potential of the evergreen vine, betel leaf, for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic management of cancer.

  15. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term.

  16. Uranium trace analysis of a chewable betel-leaf preparation and tea-leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarvarti, S.K.; Nagpaul, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    Common ingredients of a chewable betel-leaf preparation and commercially available tea leaves were investigated for the presence of uranium traces using the fission track technique. Most of the results ranging from 0.012 to 0.046 ppm uranium correspond to α-activity in the range of 0.008-0.031 pCi/g. The single higher result for lime (used in the betel-leaf preparation) of 0.53 ppm, indicates an α-activity of 0.35 pCi/g. This range of uranium concentrations is similar to that found for other biological materials, foods and tobacco. Although it is lower than concentrations of some other α-emitters, e.g. 226 Ra and 232 Th in cereal grains and nuts, the notably high U concentration (50-100 times that of cigarette tobacco) and the high concentration of other trace elements in betel leaves may be potentially hazardous when used frequently in large amounts. (author)

  17. Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid and Oral Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jiun Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the association between smoking, alcoholic consumption, and betel quid chewing with oral cancer in a prospective manner. All male patients age ≥18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosa inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 10,657 participants were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 514 participants (4.8%. Three hundred forty-four participants received biopsy, and 230 patients were proven to have oral cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression found that those who smoked, consumed alcohol, and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to develop cancer (odds ratio: 46.87, 95% confidence interval: 31.84–69.00. Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cancer and should receive oral screening regularly so potential oral cancer can be detected as early as possible.

  18. Cumulative trauma disorders in betel pepper leaf-cullers visiting a rehabilitation clinic: experience in Taitung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yi; Pong, Ya-Ping; Wang, Her-Cherng; Su, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsai, Chang-Hsueh; Leong, Chau-Peng

    2005-04-01

    Betel pepper (Piper betle L.) cultivation is an important agricultural industry in Taitung, Taiwan, and culling leaves is very labor-intensive. This case study compares the proportion of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) between cullers and those with other occupations. Patients with musculoskeletal disorders in the rehabilitation clinic of a local hospital in Taitung were enrolled. This all female cohort was divided into a culler group (betel pepper cullers, n = 20), and a non-culler group (other occupations, n = 47). Three cullers were interviewed, and were also recorded to elucidate the related ergonomics. Patients were diagnosed using plain radiography and ultrasonography. The act of culling involves an overhead internal rotation of both shoulders with extended elbows while standing, followed by wrist flexion and forearm pronation. Flexing of the fingers is also required by the tools, 'iron nails' fitted onto both thumbs. The proportions of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were significantly higher among cullers than non-cullers (0.45 vs. 0.15, p = 0.011 and 0.40 vs. 0.06, p = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, the total frequency of CTDs displayed a positive linear correlation with employment duration (r = 0.618, p = 0.004). Proportions of occupational SIS and CTS were higher among betel pepper cullers than those with other occupations. These CTDs may have resulted from a prolonged static posture and repetitive motions during culling.

  19. The risk of cirrhosis in non-alcohol drinkers is greater in female than male betel nut chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Hua; Wang, Lee; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lan, Shou-Jen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2018-02-02

    The association of betel nut with liver cirrhosis among alcohol drinkers has been clearly shown. However, very few studies have shown such an association among non-alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between betel nut chewing and cirrhosis among non-alcohol drinkers. This study retrospectively analyzed data retrieved from the 2012 Adult Preventive Medical Services and the National Health Insurance Research Datasets in Taiwan. Participants' information included physical examination and lifestyle, alongside laboratory tests. Betel nut chewers were grouped into three categories: never, occasional and frequent. Diseases were diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Initially, 1573024 adults aged 40 years and above who engaged in the free adult preventive medical services in 2012 were recruited. However, only 1065246 of them were included in the analysis. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After multivariable adjustments, there were significant relationships between cirrhosis and betel nut chewing in both sexes (P-trend betel nut chewing and cirrhosis in both male and female non-alcohol drinkers. The risk of cirrhosis was greater in female than male chewers.

  20. The Effects of Chewing Betel Nut with Tobacco and Pre-pregnancy Obesity on Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Palauan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katherine E; Masterson, James; Mascardo, Joy; Grapa, Jayvee; Appanaitis, Inger; Temengil, Everlynn; Watson, Berry Moon; Cash, Haley L

    2016-08-01

    The small Pacific Island nation of Palau has alarmingly high rates of betel nut with tobacco use and obesity among the entire population including pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the effects of betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity on adverse birth outcomes. This study used retrospective cohort data on 1171 Palauan women who gave birth in Belau National Hospital in Meyuns, Republic of Palau between 2007 and 2013. The exposures of interest were pre-pregnancy obesity and reported betel nut with tobacco use during pregnancy. The primary outcomes measured were preterm birth and low birth weight among full-term infants. A significantly increased risk for low birth weight among full-term infants was demonstrated among those women who chewed betel nut with tobacco during pregnancy when other known risk factors were controlled for. Additionally, pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk for preterm birth when other known risk factors were controlled for. Both betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity were associated with higher risks for adverse birth outcomes. These findings should be used to drive public health efforts in Palau, as well as in other Pacific Island nations where these studies are currently lacking.

  1. Aberrant proteins featured in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers: an indication of early oral premalignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, Kala; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged chewing of betel quid is known to cause oral diseases, including cancer. The present study was performed to screen for aberrant proteins in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers compared to nonchewers. Saliva of female subjects (n = 10) who had been chewing betel quid for more than 20 years and nonbetel quid chewers (n = 10) of the same gender and range of age was analyzed by gel-based proteomics. Increased structural microheterogeneity of saliva haptoglobin beta chains indicated by shifts of focused spots similar to that earlier reported in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their relatively higher abundance compared to nonbetel quid chewers, were detected in saliva protein profiles of all chewers. In addition, the majority of the betel quid chewers also showed significant higher abundance of hemopexin, alpha-1B glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, complement C3, and transthyretin. These proteins had previously been associated with several different cancers. Our data demonstrated different forms of protein aberration in the saliva of betel quid chewers, which may be indicative of early oral precancerous conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparison of oral Candida species prevalence and carriage among gutka-chewers and betel-quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Hussain, Mudassir; Adnan, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Javed, Fawad

    2017-03-01

    To compare prevalence and carriage of Candida species among gutka-chewers and betel-quid-chewers. The cross-sectional case-control study was conducted between January and December, 2015 at the Oral Surgery department of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and the Dental department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised oral yeast samples of gutka-chewers, betel-quid-chewers, and non-chewers. A standardised questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and oral hygiene maintenance information. Oral Candida strains were collected, cultured and identified using standard techniques and yeast identification system. In all groups, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was determined. Lesions on the tongue and oral mucosa were clinically investigated and numbers of missing teeth were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the total 185 samples, 50(27%) were from gutka-chewers, 50(27%)betel-quid-chewers, and 85(46%) non-chewers. Oral Candida carriage was comparable among betel-quid-chewers (18 [36%])and gutka-chewers (20 [40%]), but it was significantly higher than the non-chewers (11 [12.9%]) (pbetel-quid-chewers (p>0.05). Prevalence and carriage of Candida species were comparable between betel-quid-chewers and gutka-chewers compared to non-chewers.

  3. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of betel leaf extract against the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, S V; Padma, P R; Amonkar, A J

    1991-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that betel leaf inhibits the mutagenic action of standard mutagens like benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Since tobacco-specific nitrosamines are the major carcinogens present in unburnt forms of tobacco, we studied the effect of an extract of betel leaf on the mutagenic and carcinogenic actions of one of the most potent, 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Betel-leaf extract and hydroxychavicol suppressed the mutagenicity of NNK in both the Ames and the micronucleus test. In studies in mice, betel-leaf extract reduced the tumorigenic effects of NNK by 25%. Concurrent treatment with the extract also inhibited the decreases in levels of vitamin A in liver and plasma induced by NNK. Betel leaf thus has protective effects against the mutagenic, carcinogenic and adverse metabolic effects of NNK in mice.

  4. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health.

  5. Preliminary study on fractions' activities of red betel vine (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) leaves ethanol extract toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawaty, Farida Juliantina; Julianto, Tatang Shabur; Tamhid, Hady Anshory

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to identify the antimycobacterial activity of fraction of red betel vine leaves ethanol extract (methanol fraction, ethyl acetate, and chloroform) toward M. tuberculosis. Red betel vine leaves ethanol extract was made with maceration method using ethanol solvent 70%. Resulted extract was then fractionated using Liquid Vacuum Chromatography (LVC) with methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform solvent. Each fractionation was exposed to M. tuberculosis with serial dilution method. Controls of fraction, media, bacteria, and isoniazid as standard drug were included in this research. The group of compound from the most active fraction was then identified. The research found that the best fraction for antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosisis chloroform fraction. The compound group of chloroform fraction was then identified. The fraction contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid. The fraction of methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform from red betel vine leaves has antimycobacterial activity toward M. tuberculosis. Chloroform fraction has the best antimycobacterial activity and it contains flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and terpenoid.

  6. Supplementation of Red Betel Leaf (Piper crocatum in Dairy Cattle Feed on Fermentation Characteristics by in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caribu Hadi Prayitno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact and efficiency of red betel leaf’s extract supplementation in the diet of dairy cattle on fermentation characteristics by in vitro.  The research method was experiment by using completely randomized design.  The treatments that were tested were R1: basal feed, R2:  R1 + 15 ppm of  red betel  leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R3: R1 + 30 ppm of  red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R4: R1 + 45 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R5: R1 + 60 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract. The parameters measured in this study were (1Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD,(2Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD  (3 total gas production  (4 methane production (CH4 and (5  total Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA.  The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed Orthogonal Polynomial Test.The results showed that the suplementation red batel extract in the diet of dairy cow was significant (P < 0.01 on DMD, OMD, total gas production, methane production (CH4  and total VFA.Orthogonal Polynomial test showed the effect of treatment on Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD, total gas and CH4 gas production were in the form of cubic curve, as well as Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD and Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA in the form of quadrate curvewith supplementation of red betel leaf.

  7. The effective concentration of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion as root canal irrigant solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Pangabdian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smear layer is a debris consisting of organic and inorganic particles of calcified tissue, necrotic tissue, pulp tissue, and dentinoblast and microorganism processes that can close the entrance to the dentin tubuli. Smear layer, will not only inhibit the penetration of disinfection materials and sealers to the dentin tubuli, but will also reduce the attachment of root canal filling material so that root canal irrigation solution is needed to dissolve the smear layer. Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum infusion, on the other hand, contains saponin characterized as “surfactants” which can dissolve smear layer. Nevertheless, the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion has still not been known clearly. Purpose: This study is aimed to determine the effective concentration of the red betel leaf infusion for cleaning root canal walls from smear layer. Methods: Fiveteen extracted human teeth with straight single roots were randomized into 5 groups (n=3. The specimens were then shaped by using rotary instruments up to a size of 25/.07. During instrumentation, each canal was irrigated with 10, 20, 30 and, 40% red betel leaf infusion for treatment groups, while another was irrigated with aquadest for the control group. Root canal cleanliness was observed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results: There were significant differences among treatment groups (p<0.05, except in the treatment groups irrigated with red betel leaf infusion with concentrations of 30% and 40% (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that red betel leaf infusion with a concentration of 30% is effective for cleaning the root canal walls from the smear layer.Latar belakang: Smear layer adalah suatu debris yang mengandung partikel organik dan anorganik dari jaringan terkalsifikasi, jaringan nekrotik, proses dentinoblas, jaringan pulpa dan mikroorganisme yang dapat menutup jalan masuk ke tubuli dentin. Smear layer akan menghalangi penetrasi dari bahan

  8. Reasons for betel quid chewing amongst dependent and non-dependent betel quid chewing adolescents: a school-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2018-05-09

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing in children is initiated in their adolescence. It is pivotal to understand adolescents' reasons behind chewing BQ. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reasons for BQ chewing amongst adolescents using reasons for betel quid chewing scale (RBCS) and their associated dependency on it. This is a cross-sectional school based survey. Out of 2200 adolescents from 26 schools of Karachi, 874 BQ chewers were assessed for their reasons of BQ chewing and dependency on it. Regression analyses were employed to report crude and adjusted (after adjusting for all reasons of BQ chewing) effect sizes with 95% confidence interval and P-value was set significant at < 0.05. Students who believed that BQ chewing relaxes them (stimulation construct) were twice as likely to be dependent on BQ (OR = 2.36, 95% CI (1.20-4.65) as compared with others. Participants who thought it eases their decision making (stimulation construct), were sizably more likely to be dependent on BQ (OR = 9.65, 95% CI (4.15-22.43) than those who did not consider ease in decision making important. Adolescents who considered not chewing as rude (social/cultural construct), were thrice more likely to be dependent on BQ (OR = 2.50, 95% CI (1.11-5.63) than others. Stimulation remained fundamental chewing reason followed by social/cultural trigger amongst adolescents. Any future intervention may get favorable results if it addresses ways to overcome stimulation and social/cultural barriers that are strongly associated with BQ chewing and dependency.

  9. The underlying mechanism of action for various medicinal properties of Piper betle (betel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslan, H; Suhaimi, F H; Thent, Zar Chi; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    Piper betle (betel) plant belongs to the Piperaceae family. Piper. betle is widely known for its potent medicinal properties. Various active compounds are present in Piper. betle such as allylpyrocatechol, hydroxychavicol, piperbetol, ethylpiperbetol, piperol A, piperol B, chavibetol, and alkaloids which account for these beneficial medicinal properties. In the present narrative review, we looked into the various active compounds present in the Piper betle and attempted to understand their underlying mechanism of action. Proper understanding of the molecular biology involving the mechanism of action may help in better drug formulation and provide better therapeutic actions in the field of alternative and complementary medicine.

  10. Cracking the Betel Nut: Cholinergic Activity of Areca Alkaloids and Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horenstein, Nicole A; Quadri, Marta; Stokes, Clare; Shoaib, Mohammed; Papke, Roger L

    2017-10-03

    The use of betel quid is the most understudied major addiction in the world. The neuropsychological activity of betel quid has been attributed to alkaloids of Areca catechu. With the goal of developing novel addiction treatments, we evaluate the muscarinic and nicotinic activity of the four major Areca alkaloids: arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine and four structurally related compounds. Acetylcholine receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied with two-electrode voltage clamp. Both arecoline- and guvacoline-activated muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), while only arecoline produced significant activation of nicotinic AChR (nAChR). We characterized four additional arecoline-related compounds, seeking an analog that would retain selective activity for a α4* nAChR, with diminished effects on mAChR and not be a desensitizer of α7 nAChR. We show that this profile is largely met by isoarecolone. Three additional arecoline analogs were characterized. While the quaternary dimethyl analog had a broad range of activities, including activation of mAChR and muscle-type nAChR, the methyl analog only activated a range of α4* nAChR, albeit with low potency. The ethyl analog had no detectable cholinergic activity. Evidence indicates that α4* nAChR are at the root of nicotine addiction, and this may also be the case for betel addiction. Our characterization of isoarecolone and 1-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) ethanone as truly selective α4*nAChR selective partial agonists with low muscarinic activity may point toward a promising new direction for the development of drugs to treat both nicotine and betel addiction. Nearly 600 million people use Areca nut, often with tobacco. Two of the Areca alkaloids are muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, and one, arecoline, is a partial agonist for the α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) associated with tobacco addiction. The profile of arecoline activity suggested its potential to be used as a

  11. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

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    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  12. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

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    Al Asmaul Husna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  13. Evaluation of chemopreventive effects of betel leaf on the genotoxicity of pan masala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, A H; Patel, R K; Rawal, U M; Adhvaryu, S G; Balar, D B

    1994-01-01

    The antigenotoxic effect of the aqueous extract of betel leaf (BL-ext.) against the pan masala was tested with the help of cytogenetic endpoints like chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) utilizing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Compared to the cultures treated with aqueous extract of pan masala alone, a reduction in CA and SCE frequencies in CHO cells was observed following a combined treatment with pan masala (with or without tobacco) extract and BL-ext. The protective effect of BL-ext. against the genomic damage caused by pan masala was statistically significant only after treating the cells for a longer period.

  14. Salivary ascorbic acid levels in betel quid chewers: A biochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Shishir R.; Babu, Subhas; Kumari, Suchetha; Prasad, Rajendra; Bhat, Supriya; Fazil, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quid chewing practice has been a part of our tradition since centuries with little known evidence of oral cancer. However, recent trends show a rise in occurrence of oral cancer often associated with tobacco and arecanut usage. Ascorbic acid is an important salivary antioxidant. Betel leaf which is used in quid is known to contain ascorbic acid. Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the salivary levels of ascorbic acid in traditional quid chewers so as to determine whether the b...

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (pbetel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  16. Oral lichenoid contact lesions induced by areca nut and betel quid chewing: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, Peter A; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut chewing is widely prevalent in many parts of Asia and Asian-migrant communities throughout the world. Global reports estimate 600 million users. Sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity has been found for BQ and its main ingredient, areca nut. BQ areca nut users have an increased risk of potentially malignant disorders. Among chewers, BQ remains in contact with the oral mucosa for prolonged periods. This review examines the clinical and pathological aspects of lichenoid lesions caused by areca nut and BQ, a condition that has received little attention in the published literature. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Areca (betel) nut chewing practices of adults and health behaviors of their children in the Freely Associated States, Micronesia: Findings from the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Ettienne, Reynolette; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shomour, Moria; Sigrah, Cecilia; Remengesau, Shelley D; Johnson, Emihner L; Alfred, Julia M; Gilmatam, Daisy F

    2017-10-01

    Chewing areca (betel) nut has been deemed carcinogenic. The practice has become a public health concern in Micronesia. The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program included an areca (betel) nut questionnaire in a survey of household characteristics in the Freely Associated States (FAS). This paper describes areca (betel) nut chewing practices of adults and the health behaviors of their children. A cross-section of 1200 children (2-8 year-olds) and their caregivers in Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Republic of Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and Yap were recruited. Socio-demographics, adult areca (betel) nut chewing practices, and other health behaviors of children and adults were assessed. Child anthropometric measurements were collected to estimate weight status. The FAS areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence was 42%, ranging from 3% (RMI) to 94% (Yap). Among chewers, 84% added tobacco, 97% added slaked lime, 85% added betel leaf, and 24% mixed the components with alcohol. Among FAS children, 95% practiced daily teeth-brushing and 53% visited the dentist annually. Compared to non-chewing households, areca (betel) nut chewing households were more likely to have very young children enrolled, more highly educated adults, and members that used tobacco and alcohol. The FAS areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence (42%) is above the world prevalence of 10-20%, with wide variability across the islands. The oral health findings in this study may inform future oral cancer prevention programs or policies. Regular monitoring of areca (betel) nut use is needed to measure the impact of such programs or policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ortho- and meta-tyrosine formation from phenylalanine in human saliva as a marker of hydroxyl radical generation during betel quid chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U J; Nair, J; Friesen, M D; Bartsch, H; Ohshima, H

    1995-05-01

    The habit of betel quid chewing, common in South-East Asia and the South Pacific islands, is causally associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. Reactive oxygen species formed from polyphenolic betel quid ingredients and lime at alkaline pH have been implicated as the agents responsible for DNA and tissue damage. To determine whether hydroxyl radical (HO.) is generated in the human oral cavity during chewing of betel quid, the formation of o- and m-tyrosine from L-phenylalanine was measured. Both o- and m-tyrosine were formed in vitro in the presence of extracts of areca nut and/or catechu, transition metal ions such as Cu2+ and Fe2+ and lime or sodium carbonate (alkaline pH). Omission of any of these ingredients from the reaction mixture significantly reduced the yield of tyrosines. Hydroxyl radical scavengers such as ethanol, D-mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide inhibited the phenylalanine oxidation in a dose-dependent fashion. Five volunteers chewed betel quid consisting of betel leaf, areca nut, catechu and slaked lime (without tobacco). Their saliva, collected after chewing betel quid, contained high concentrations of p-tyrosine, but no appreciable amounts of o- or m-tyrosine. Saliva samples from the same subjects after chewing betel quid to which 20 mg phenylalanine had been added contained o- and m-tyrosine at concentrations ranging from 1010 to 3000 nM and from 1110 to 3140 nM respectively. These levels were significantly higher (P betel quid, which ranged from 14 to 70 nM for o-tyrosine and from 10 to 35 nM for m-tyrosine. These studies clearly demonstrate that the HO. radical is formed in the human oral cavity during betel quid chewing and is probably implicated in the genetic damage that has been observed in oral epithelial cells of chewers.

  19. Betel nut chewing history is an independent prognosticator for smoking patients with locally advanced stage IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma receiving induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan-Ye; Chien, Chih-Yen; Luo, Sheng-Dean; Huang, Tai-Lin; Lin, Wei-Che; Fang, Fu-Min; Chiu, Tai-Jan; Chen, Yen-Hao; Lai, Chi-Chih; Hsu, Cheng-Ming; Li, Shau-Hsuan

    2016-03-22

    Smoking and betel nut chewing are well-known risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Smoking is also a strong prognosticator for patients with locally advanced HNSCC receiving induction chemotherapy. Smoking with or without betel nut chewing is a common practice in Asia. However, little is known regarding whether betel nut chewing can serve as a prognostic factor for smoking patients with locally advanced HNSCC receiving induction chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of betel nut chewing in such patients receiving induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (TPF). From January 2010 to December 2012, we retrospectively analyzed 162 smoking patients with locally advanced HNSCC who received induction chemotherapy with TPF at our institution. Background characteristics, including a history of betel nut chewing, were analyzed as potential prognostic factors. Among the 162 smoking patients, 131 patients (81%) were betel nut chewers, while 31 (19%) were non-betel nut chewers. One hundred fifty-six (96%) were men, and 6 (4%) were women. The median age was 53 years. The overall response rates to induction chemotherapy were 57 and 77% in patients with and without betel nut chewing history, respectively (P = 0.038). The 2-year progression survival rates were 37 and 67% in patients with and without betel nut chewing history, respectively (P = 0.004). The 2-year overall survival rates were 47 and 71% in patients with and without betel nut chewing history, respectively (P = 0.017). Betel nut chewing history was independently associated with a poor response to induction chemotherapy, an inferior progression-free survival rate, and a poor overall survival rate. Our results indicate that betel nut chewing history is independently associated with poor prognosis in smoking patients with locally advanced HNSCC receiving induction chemotherapy with TPF. Further investigation is warranted to

  20. Toksisitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah pada Tikus Putih Penderita Diabetes Melitus (TOXICITY OF RED BETEL EXTRACT IN DIABETIC WHITE RAT

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    Anak Agung Sagung Kendran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the toxicity of red betel  (Piper crocatum extract in diabeticwhite rat based on ALT and AST activities. This research used 20 male white rats, which randomlydivided into five groups, P1: given only aqua; P2: given alloxan 120mg/kg bw; P3: given alloxan 120 mg/kgbw and red betel leaf extract 50 mg/kg bw; P4: given alloxan 120 mg/kg bw and red betel leaf extract 100mg/kg bw; P5: given alloxan 120 mg/kg bw and glibenclamide suspension 1 mg/kg bw. ALT and ASTactivities were measured by using reflovet plus Machine. The collected data were analyzed by usinganalysis of covariance. The result showed no significant  effect (P>0.05 was observed on giving red betelleaf extract in diabetic white rat for ALT and AST activities.  It can be concluded that red betel leaf extractis potential for diabetic treatment in white rat  and it is not toxic for the rat’s ALT and AST activities.

  1. Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Ummu; Hambal, Muhammad; Rinidar; Athaillah, Farida; Ismail; Azhar; Vanda, Henni; Darmawi

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research was to in vitro evaluate the cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with ethanolic extract of betel nuts Veitchia merrillii . Phytochemical screening was done using FeCl 3 , Wagner and Dragendorff reagents, NaOH, MgHCl, and Liebermann-Burchard reaction test. Amount of 16 worms were segregated into four groups with three replicates. Four worms of each group submerged into phosphate buffered saline, 25 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml crude ethanolic extract of V. merrillii , and 15 mg/ml albendazole. The effect of these extract was observed 40 h after incubation as soon as worms death. The worms were sectioned transversally and were explored for any cuticular histopathological changes in their body surface under microscope. We found that the ethanolic extract of V. merrillii betel nuts contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii induces surface alterations caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms. We concluded that ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii possess anthelmintic activity caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.

  2. Betel-quid and alcohol use were associated with lipid accumulation product among male factory workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Fang; Chen, Chao-Tung; Wang, Pei-Ming; Koo, Malcolm

    2015-05-01

    In this study, cardiometabolic risk associated with betel-quid, alcohol and cigarette use, based on a simple index-lipid accumulation product (LAP), was investigated in Taiwanese male factory workers. Male factory workers were recruited during their annual routine health examination at a hospital in south Taiwan. The risk of cardiometabolic disorders was estimated by the use of LAP, calculated as (waist circumference [cm]-65)×(triglyceride concentration [mmol/l]). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the risk factors of natural logarithm-transformed LAP. Of the 815 participants, 40% (325/815) were current alcohol users, 30% (248/815) were current smokers and 7% (53/815) were current betel-quid users. Current betel-quid use, alcohol use, older age, lack of exercise and higher body mass index were found to be significant and independent factors associated with natural logarithm-transformed LAP. Betel-quid and alcohol, but not cigarette use, were independent risk factors of logarithm-transformed LAP, adjusting for age, exercise and body mass index in male Taiwanese factory workers. LAP can be considered as a simple and useful method for screening of cardiometabolic risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong-Hong; Hsia, Shih-Min; Shih, Yin-Hwa; Shieh, Tzong-Ming

    2017-06-06

    Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  4. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  5. Detection of food-borne bacteria in ready to eat betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Mazedul; Sarker, Md Atiqur Rahman; Rifa, Rafia Afroze; Islam, Md Ariful; Khatun, Mst Minara

    2017-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine bacterial load as well as characterize bacterial flora of ready to eat (RTE) betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh city. A total of 25 RTE betel leaf samples were collected from five local markets such as Kamal-Ranjit (KR) market, Shesh more, Kewatkhali, Jobber more, and Ganginar par. Total viable count of bacteria in betel leaf (log 10 mean colony forming unit±standard deviation/ml) was 7.58±0.04 for KR market, 7.72±0.06 for Shesh more, 7.62±0.04 for Kewatkhali, 7.40±0.03 for Jobber more, and 7.60±0.06 for Ganginar par. A total of 98 bacterial isolates belong to five genera ( Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were identified. The prevalence of E. coli was 17.34%, Salmonella spp. was 25.51%, Vibrio spp. was 19.39%, Bacillus spp. was 18.37%, and Staphylococcus spp. was 19.39%. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolates were sensitive to two antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Four isolates ( E. coli , Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were resistant to two antibiotics (ampicillin and cephalexin). Antibiogram profile of bacterial isolates of betel leaf suggests that they were multidrug resistance. Data of this study indicate that betel leaf sold at local market harbors multidrug resistance food-borne bacteria which might cause public health hazards if these antibiotic resistant transfer to human through food chain.

  6. The effectiveness of school educating program for betel quid chewing: A pilot study in Papua New Guinea

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    Gene Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effectiveness of educating program among primary and secondary school students in Papua New Guinea, where has the highest incidence of oral cancer all over the world. Methods: A cross-sectional school based survey was arranged in primary and secondary school in Papua New Guinea in June, 2015. A self-administrated questionnaire was administered before and after education done by health experts from Taiwan. The subjects were chosen by random. The schools provided the students we educated and did the questionnaires on. Results: Ninety five primary school students and 55 secondary school students in Papua New Guinea participated in the study. Before education, both groups lacked the knowledge that betel quid is harmful to health and had no motivation to quit betel quid consumption with the average score 4.580 out of the total score of 8 for primary school students, and the average score of 4.600 out of the total score of 8 for secondary school students. After education, improvements were noted in knowledge of betel quid among both groups, and reached the statistical significance for secondary school students (mean difference 0.700 ± 0.277, 95% CI 0.164–1.248, p-value = 0.018. Conclusion: A great achievement was gained by a short time of education. To prevent the incidence and mortality of oral cancer in Papua New Guinea, education programs should be arranged aggressively and effectively. Keywords: Betel nut, Betel quid, Education, Papua New Guinea

  7. Detection of food-borne bacteria in ready to eat betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh

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    Md. Mazedul Haque

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine bacterial load as well as characterize bacterial flora of ready to eat (RTE betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh city. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 RTE betel leaf samples were collected from five local markets such as Kamal-Ranjit (KR market, Shesh more, Kewatkhali, Jobber more, and Ganginar par. Results: Total viable count of bacteria in betel leaf (log10 mean colony forming unit±standard deviation/ml was 7.58±0.04 for KR market, 7.72±0.06 for Shesh more, 7.62±0.04 for Kewatkhali, 7.40±0.03 for Jobber more, and 7.60±0.06 for Ganginar par. A total of 98 bacterial isolates belong to five genera (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were identified. The prevalence of E. coli was 17.34%, Salmonella spp. was 25.51%, Vibrio spp. was 19.39%, Bacillus spp. was 18.37%, and Staphylococcus spp. was 19.39%. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolates were sensitive to two antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Four isolates (E. coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to two antibiotics (ampicillin and cephalexin. Antibiogram profile of bacterial isolates of betel leaf suggests that they were multidrug resistance. Conclusion: Data of this study indicate that betel leaf sold at local market harbors multidrug resistance food-borne bacteria which might cause public health hazards if these antibiotic resistant transfer to human through food chain.

  8. Cytotoxicity of Betel leaf (Piper betel L. against primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblast and its effects on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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    Suprapto Ma’at

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf (Piper betel L. has been used in modern and traditional medicine as antiseptic, antibacterial, and also prevention of plaque accumulation, but it still can stimulate cancer in lime-piper betel quid. Betel leaf also has anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose: The purpose of this study was examine the cytotoxicity of Betel leaf extract (BLE against primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblast and its effects on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated with LPS. Methods: MTT assay was used to investigate the survival rate of the culture with the survival rate result of the given culture extract 4%, 2% and 1% about 82%, 83.4% and 85%. There was no significant difference between treatment with various concentrations of the extract and the control (p>0.05. To evaluate the effect of Betel leaf extracts on the production of cytokines, proinflammatory was conducted by incubating the extracts of betel leaf with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from healthy volunteers isolated by density centrifugation method using Ficoll-Hypaque. Once coupled with various concentrations of betel leaf extract and lipopolysaccharide, and then incubated for 24 hours, the culture supernatant was used to determine the level of IFN-γ and TNF-α by ELISA method. Results: It is known that the survival rates of BLE 4%, 2% and 1% were 82%, 83.4% and 85%. There was no significant of difference between several concentrations of BLE and those in the control group (p>0.05. The production of IFN-γ and TNF-α stimulated with LPS was no significant difference between BLE 4%, 2% and 1% and that in the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that BLE is not toxic against primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblast, and the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by PBMC was not affected by BLE.Latar belakang: Daun

  9. Epidemiology of areca (betel) nut use in the mariana islands: Findings from the University of Guam/University of Hawai`i cancer center partnership program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Hurwitz, Eric L; Ogo, Joanne C; Paulino, Tristan C; Yamanaka, Ashley B; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Miller, Mary Jane; Palafox, Neal A

    2017-10-01

    Areca (betel) nut is considered a Group 1 human carcinogen shown to be associated with other chronic diseases in addition to cancer. This paper describes the areca (betel) nut chewing trend in Guam, and health behaviors of chewers in Guam and Saipan. The areca (betel) nut module in the Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was used to calculate the 5-year (2011-2015) chewing trend. To assess the association between areca (betel) nut chewing and health risks in the Mariana Islands, a cross-section of 300 chewers, ≥18years old, were recruited from households in Guam and Saipan. Self-reported socio-demographics, oral health behaviors, chronic disease status, diet, and physical activity were collected. Anthropometry was measured. Only areca (betel) nut-specific and demographic information were collected from youth chewers in the household. The 5-year areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence in Guam was 11% and increased among Non-Chamorros, primarily other Micronesians, from 2011 (7%) to 2015 (13%). In the household survey, most adult chewers (46%) preferred areca nut with betel leaf, slaked lime, and tobacco. Most youth chewers (48%) preferred areca nut only. Common adult chronic conditions included diabetes (14%), hypertension (26%), and obesity (58%). The 5-year areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence in Guam is comparable to the world estimate (10-20%), though rising among Non-Chamorros. Adult and youth chewers may be at an increased risk for oral cancer. Adult chewers have an increased risk of other chronic health conditions. Cancer prevention and intervention strategies should incorporate all aspects of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  11. Social cognitive determinants of betel quid chewing among college students in southern Taiwan: a revised Attitudes-Social Influence-Efficacy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2007-10-01

    Through Structural Equation Modeling, this study aimed to revise and examine the Attitudes-Social Influence-Efficacy Model in explaining the psychosocial process of betel quid use among Southern Taiwan college students. A representative sample of 3,741 college students were recruited from 14 colleges through stratified and random cluster sampling, yielding 3,162 valid participants. Results showed that the revised ASE model accounted for 26.5% of the variance in betel quid use and had a better model-fit evaluation than the original model. Intention to chew affected the use of betel quid, while both social influence and refusal self-efficacy had a direct impact on intention and use as well as an indirect effect on use through intention. Additionally, both positive and negative outcome expectancies predicted intention and betel quid use via refusal self-efficacy. Our results supported the revised ASE model for explaining the psychosocial processes of betel quid use, suggesting that more attention should be given towards the development of school-based preventive programs on diminishing social influence and promoting refusal self-efficacy in betel quid use.

  12. Association of Betel Nut with Carcinogenesis: Revisit with a Clinical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Rajeshwar N.; Mehrotra, Ravi; Choudhury, Yashmin; Asotra, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Betel nut (BN), betel quid (BQ) and products derived from them are widely used as a socially endorsed masticatory product. The addictive nature of BN/BQ has resulted in its widespread usage making it the fourth most abused substance by humans. Progressively, several additives, including chewing tobacco, got added to simple BN preparations. This addictive practice has been shown to have strong etiological correlation with human susceptibility to cancer, particularly oral and oropharyngeal cancers. The PUBMED database was searched to retrieve all relevant published studies in English on BN and BQ, and its association with oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Only complete studies directly dealing with BN/BQ induced carcinogenesis using statistically valid and acceptable sample size were analyzed. Additional relevant information available from other sources was also considered. This systematic review attempts to put in perspective the consequences of this widespread habit of BN/BQ mastication, practiced by approximately 10% of the world population, on oral cancer with a clinical perspective. BN/BQ mastication seems to be significantly associated with susceptibility to oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Addition of tobacco to BN has been found to only marginally increase the cancer risk. Despite the widespread usage of BN/BQ and its strong association with human susceptibility to cancer, no serious strategy seems to exist to control this habit. The review, therefore, also looks at various preventive efforts being made by governments and highlights the multifaceted intervention strategies required to mitigate and/or control the habit of BN/BQ mastication. PMID:22912735

  13. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  14. Alert for an epidemic of oral cancer due to use of the betel quid substitutes gutkha and pan masala: a review of agents and causative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Urmila; Bartsch, Helmut; Nair, Jagadeesan

    2004-07-01

    In south-east Asia, Taiwan and Papua New Guinea, smoking, alcohol consumption and chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco or areca nut with or without tobacco are the predominant causes of oral cancer. In most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime, catechu and several condiments according to taste, wrapped in a betel leaf. Almost all habitual chewers use tobacco with or without the betel quid. In the last few decades, small, attractive and inexpensive sachets of betel quid substitutes have become widely available. Aggressively advertised and marketed, often claimed to be safer products, they are consumed by the very young and old alike, particularly in India, but also among migrant populations from these areas world wide. The product is basically a flavoured and sweetened dry mixture of areca nut, catechu and slaked lime with tobacco (gutkha) or without tobacco (pan masala). These products have been strongly implicated in the recent increase in the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis, especially in the very young, even after a short period of use. This precancerous lesion, which has a high rate of malignant transformation, is extremely debilitating and has no known cure. The use of tobacco with lime, betel quid with tobacco, betel quid without tobacco and areca nut have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As gutkha and pan masala are mixtures of several of these ingredients, their carcinogenic affect can be surmised. We review evidence that strongly supports causative mechanisms for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of these substitute products. Although some recent curbs have been put on the manufacture and sale of these products, urgent action is needed to permanently ban gutkha and pan masala, together with the other established oral cancer-causing tobacco products. Further, education to reduce or eliminate home-made preparations needs to be accelerated.

  15. Exoproteome and Secretome Derived Broad Spectrum Novel Drug and Vaccine Candidates in Vibrio cholerae Targeted by Piper betel Derived Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barh, Debmalya; Barve, Neha; Gupta, Krishnakant; Chandra, Sudha; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Almeida, Síntia; Thiago Jucá Ramos, Rommel; Augusto Carvalho de Abreu, Vinicius; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Luiz de Paula Castro, Thiago; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Kumar, Anil; Narayan Misra, Amarendra; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Azevedo, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species. PMID:23382822

  16. Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Barh

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

  17. Implication for second primary cancer from visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions in betel-nut chewing related oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shyun-Yu; Feng, I-Jung; Wu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Che-Yi; Chang, Min-Te; Yu, Hsi-Chien; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions may be used to monitor for a second primary oral cancer. To control for bias, we focused on the visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions of patients with oral cancer with a positive betel-nut chewing habit. Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions that can predict second primary oral cancers were studied. Nine hundred ninety-seven patients with positive betel-nut chewing habits and oral cancer were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the relevance of their visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesion incidence and relative clinicopathological variables to the development of a second primary oral cancer. Second primary oral cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with positive visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions (P oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions make it a potentially valuable marker in follow-ups of patients with a positive betel-nut chewing habit with oral cancer, especially young patients with heterogeneous leukoplakia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The accumulation of two neolignan in the leaves, stems, and flower of red betel ( Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartini, Y S; Nugroho, L

    2017-01-01

    Organ for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite is not always a place for its biosynthesis, even the same compound was synthesized in the different organs in different plants. Neolignan is a secondary metabolite, known as an imunostimulant, synthesized through shikimic acid pathway with the important precursor is chorismic acid. The compound was known to be accumulated in the roots, stems and leaves of Piper regnellii with the concentration varies depending on the type of neolignan. It has been investigated the accumulation of two compound neolignans (Pc-1 and Pc-2) isolated from the methanol extract of red betel leaf ( Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav.) in the leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. Chromatographic methods used was Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the Pc-1 with purity of 100%, m/z 460.3 could be detected at the minute of 29.986, while the Pc-2 with purity of 96.681%, m/z 418.3 was detected at the minute of 29.495. The research was then continued to investigate the existence and accumulation of both compounds in leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. The GC-MS chromatogram shows that Pc-1 and Pc-2 could be detected in the leaves, stem and flower with various concentration among plant organs. Moreover, leaves contained the highest concentration of Pc-1 and Pc-2 compared to other plant organs. (paper)

  19. Evaluation of Female Breast Cancer Risk Among the Betel Quid Chewer: A Bio-Statistical Assessment in Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Nijara; Mahanta, Lipi B; Nath, Dilip C

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the female population of Assam, India. Chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco is common practice among female population of this region. Moreoverthe method of preparing the betel quid is different from other parts of the country.So matched case control study is conducted to analyse whetherbetel quid chewing plays a significant role in the high incidence of breast cancer occurrences in Assam. Here, controls are matched to the cases by age at diagnosis (±5 years), family income and place of residence with matching ratio 1:1. Conditional logistic regression models and odd ratios (OR) was used to draw conclusions. It is observed that cases are more habituated to chewing habits than the controls.Further the conditional logistic regression analysis reveals that betel quid chewer faces 2.353 times more risk having breast cancer than the non-chewer with p value 0.0003 (95% CI 1.334-4.150). Though the female population in Assam usually does not smoke, the addictive habits typical to this region have equal effect on the occurrence of breast cancer.

  20. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients - positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa - negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  1. The effectiveness of school educating program for betel quid chewing: A pilot study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gene; Hsieh, Ming-Yu; Chen, Andy Wei-Ge; Kao, Nina Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of educating program among primary and secondary school students in Papua New Guinea, where has the highest incidence of oral cancer all over the world. A cross-sectional school based survey was arranged in primary and secondary school in Papua New Guinea in June, 2015. A self-administrated questionnaire was administered before and after education done by health experts from Taiwan. The subjects were chosen by random. The schools provided the students we educated and did the questionnaires on. Ninety five primary school students and 55 secondary school students in Papua New Guinea participated in the study. Before education, both groups lacked the knowledge that betel quid is harmful to health and had no motivation to quit betel quid consumption with the average score 4.580 out of the total score of 8 for primary school students, and the average score of 4.600 out of the total score of 8 for secondary school students. After education, improvements were noted in knowledge of betel quid among both groups, and reached the statistical significance for secondary school students (mean difference 0.700 ± 0.277, 95% CI 0.164-1.248, p-value = 0.018). A great achievement was gained by a short time of education. To prevent the incidence and mortality of oral cancer in Papua New Guinea, education programs should be arranged aggressively and effectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  2. The accumulation of two neolignan in the leaves, stems, and flower of red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, Y. S.; Nugroho, L.

    2017-05-01

    Organ for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite is not always a place for its biosynthesis, even the same compound was synthesized in the different organs in different plants. Neolignan is a secondary metabolite, known as an imunostimulant, synthesized through shikimic acid pathway with the important precursor is chorismic acid. The compound was known to be accumulated in the roots, stems and leaves of Piper regnellii with the concentration varies depending on the type of neolignan. It has been investigated the accumulation of two compound neolignans (Pc-1 and Pc-2) isolated from the methanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav.) in the leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. Chromatographic methods used was Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the Pc-1 with purity of 100%, m/z 460.3 could be detected at the minute of 29.986, while the Pc-2 with purity of 96.681%, m/z 418.3 was detected at the minute of 29.495. The research was then continued to investigate the existence and accumulation of both compounds in leaves, stems, and flowers of red betel. The GC-MS chromatogram shows that Pc-1 and Pc-2 could be detected in the leaves, stem and flower with various concentration among plant organs. Moreover, leaves contained the highest concentration of Pc-1 and Pc-2 compared to other plant organs.

  3. Association of DSM-5 Betel-Quid Use Disorder With Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder in 6 Betel-Quid Endemic Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yang, Frances M; Hung, Chung-Chieh; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2018-03-01

    Betel-quid (BQ) is the fourth most popular psychoactive agent worldwide. An emerging trend across Asia is the addictive consumption of BQ, which is associated with oral cancer and other health consequences. To investigate the validity and pattern of DSM-5-defined BQ use disorder (BUD) and its association with oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) among Asian populations. In-person interviews were conducted from January 1, 2009, to February 28, 2010, among a random sample of 8922 noninstitutionalized adults from the Asian Betel-quid Consortium study, an Asian representative survey of 6 BQ-endemic populations. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. Participants were evaluated for BUD using DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder and for OPMD using a clinical oral examination. Current users of BQ with 0 to 1 symptoms were classified as having no BUD, those with 2 to 3 symptoms as having mild BUD, those with 4 to 5 symptoms as having moderate BUD, and those with 6 or more symptoms as having severe BUD. Among the 8922 participants (4564 women and 4358 men; mean [SD] age, 44.2 [0.2] years), DSM-5 symptoms showed sufficient unidimensionality to act as a valid measure for BUD. The 12-month prevalence of DSM-5-defined BUD in the 6 study populations was 18.0% (mild BUD, 3.2%; moderate BUD, 4.3%; and severe BUD, 10.5%). The 12-month proportion of DSM-5-defined BUD among current users of BQ was 86.0% (mild BUD, 15.5%; moderate BUD, 20.6%; and severe BUD, 50.0%). Sex, age, low educational level, smoking, and drinking were significantly associated with BUD. Among individuals who used BQ, family use, high frequency of use, and amount of BQ used were significantly linked to moderate to severe BUD. Compared with individuals who did not use BQ, those who used BQ and had no BUD showed a 22.0-fold (95% CI, 4.3-112.4) risk of OPMD (P < .001), whereas those with mild BUD showed a 9.6-fold (95% CI, 1.8-56.8) risk (P = .01), those

  4. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  5. [Effects of Betel shisanwei ingredients pill on AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hai-Ying; Wu, Jisiguleng; Bai, Liang-Feng; Bao, Wu-Ye; Hu, Rilebagen; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2014-05-01

    To observe the effects of Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel shisanwei ingredients pill on AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressive rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups according to the sugar consumption test (10 rats in each group), normal control group,model group,fluoxetine group (3.3 mg x kg(-1)) and low dose, medium dose and high dose group (0.25, 0.5, 1 g x kg(-1)) of Betel shisanwei ingredients pill. Except the normal control,the other groups were treated with the chronic unpredictable mild stress stimulation combined with lonely raising for 28 days. 10 mL x kg(-1) of drugs were given to each rat once daily,continuously for 28 days. The AC activity of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined by radiation immunity analysis (RIA), while cAMP and PKA quantity were determinated by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA). The AC activity, cAMP and PKA quantity of hippocampus and prefrontal of mouse model of Chronic stress depression decreased significantly than those of control group (P Betel shisanwei ingredients pill group indecreased significantly than those of model group (P Betel shisanwei ingredients pill. The AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depression model of rats is down-regulated, whereas Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel shisanwei ingredients pill could up-regulated it to resist depression.

  6. Oral mucosal lesions associated with betel quid, areca nut and tobacco chewing habits: consensus from a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 25-27, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, R B; Ikeda, N; Gupta, P C; Warnakulasuriya, S; van Wyk, C W; Shrestha, P; Axéll, T

    1999-01-01

    A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that "quid" be defined as "a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or both of the two basic ingredients, tobacco and/or areca nut, in raw or any manufactured or processed form." Clear delineations on contents of the quid (areca nut quid, tobacco quid, and tobacco and areca nut quid) are recommended as absolute criteria with finer subdivisions to be added if necessary. The betel quid refers to any quid wrapped in betel leaf and is therefore a specific variety of quid. The workshop proposed that quid-related lesions should be categorized conceptually into two categories: first, those that are diffusely outlined and second, those localized at the site where a quid is regularly placed. Additional or expanded criteria and guidelines were proposed to define, describe or identify lesions such as chewer's mucosa, areca nut chewer's lesion, oral submucous fibrosis and other quid-related lesions. A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to describe an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid habit.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Piper Betel Leaf Oil, Origanum vulgare Essential Oil and Fluconazole Suspension on Candida albicans − An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Makkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans. It usually responds to topical treatments such as clotrimazole troches, topical fluconazole, chlorhexidine mouthwash and nystatin suspension. Piper betel leaf oil and Origanum vulgare essential oil have shown some topical antifungal activity. Aim: To determine and compare the antifungal efficacy of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension against C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The zone of inhibition was measured by the cup–plate diffusion method using 100 μl volume of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension, which were pipetted into the wells of the inoculated Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plates. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimetres using Vernier calliper. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the broth macro-dilution test by pouring 1 ml of the respective concentrations of the test material to the individual test tubes along with 10 μl of the diluted test organism inoculum. Finally, MIC was calculated using a reflective viewer. Results: The zone of inhibition for O. vulgare essential oil (>40 mm was more than fluconazole suspension (>35 mm. MIC of O. vulgare essential oil, piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension was 1.6%, 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. Conclusion: O. vulgare essential oil was found to be a more effective antifungal agent than piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension.

  8. LIBS coupled with ICP/OES for the spectral analysis of betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, I.; Rehan, K.; Sultana, S.; Khan, M. Z.; Muhammad, R.

    2018-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was optimized and was applied for the elemental analysis and exposure of the heavy metals in betel leaves in air. Pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) in conjunction with a suitable detector (LIBS 2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc) having the optical resolution of 0.06 nm was used to record the emission spectra from 200 to 720 nm. Elements like Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, P, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr, and Zn were found to be present in the samples. The abundances of observed elements were calculated through normalized calibration curve method, integrated intensity ratio method, and calibration free-LIBS approach. Quantitative analyses were accomplished under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and optically thin plasma. LIBS findings were validated by comparing its results with the results obtained using a typical analytical technique of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP/OES). Limit of detection (LOD) of the LIBS system was also estimated for heavy metals.

  9. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN, are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN and genetic factors (MAO and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future.

  10. Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Chiang, Tai-An

    2017-01-01

    Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN), are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-κB activity, and stemness are known to be induced by BQ ingredients and are very closely related to the carcinogenesis of cancers of oral and pharynx. BQ abuse-related monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene was associated with the occurrence and progress of oral and pharyngeal cancers. In summary, our review article provides important insights into the potential roles of environmental BQ (specific alkaloid biomarkers and nitrosamine products MNPN) and genetic factors (MAO) and offers a basis for studies aiming to reduce or eliminate BQ-related OPMD and oral/pharyngeal cancer incidences in the future. PMID:29376073

  11. Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lin, Jing-Jing; Peng, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2007-01-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antimutation. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of PBL extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in a rat model. Fibrosis and hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl(4) (8%, 1 ml/kg body weight) thrice a week for 4 weeks. PBL extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST and ALT activities caused by CCl(4) intoxication. It also attenuated total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST alpha isoform activity, and on the other hand, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The histological examination showed the PBL extract protected liver from the damage induced by CCl(4) by decreasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-sma) expression, inducing active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression though Ras/Erk pathway, and inhibiting TIMP2 level that consequently attenuated the fibrosis of liver. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of PBL against liver fibrosis.

  12. Lymph node density as a prognostic predictor in patients with betel nut-related oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chin; Lin, Chun-Shu; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chih-Kung; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2018-04-01

    Lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a poor prognostic factor. The histopathologic stage (e.g., pN) is used to evaluate the severity of lymph node metastasis; however, the current staging system insufficiently predicts survival and recurrence. We investigated clinical outcomes and lymph node density (LND) in betel nut-chewing individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 389 betel nut-exposed patients with primary OSCC who underwent surgical resection in 2002-2015. The prognostic significance of LND was evaluated by overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the 5-year OS and DFS rates in all patients were 60.9 and 48.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that variables independently prognostic for OS were aged population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.1-2.5; P = .025), and cell differentiation classification (HR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4-4.2; P = .002). In pathologic N-positive patients, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for OS was used and indicated the best cutoff of 0.05, and the multivariate analysis showed that LND was an independent predictor of OS (HR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.7; P = .004). Lymph node density, at a cutoff of 0.05, was an independent predictor of OS and DFS. OS and DFS underwent multiple analyses, and LND remained significant. The pathologic N stage had no influence in the OS analysis. LND is a more reliable predictor of survival in betel nut-chewing patients for further post operation adjuvant treatment, such as reoperation or adjuvant radiotherapy.

  13. Relationships Among Smoking, Drinking, Betel Quid Chewing and Pregnancy-Related Nausea and Vomiting in Taiwanese Aboriginal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Hao Chou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the associations among smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing and pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting (N/V in Taiwanese aboriginal women. A total of 901 aboriginal women from 11 hospitals were recruited into this study. A structured questionnaire on demographic and obstetric information, smoking history, alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing habits, and N/V by checklist was used to collect data. The findings of this study indicated that the prevalence of N/V, maternal smoking, drinking, and betel quid chewing were 75.6% (n = 682, 22.8% (n = 201, 31.9% (n = 287, and 34.7% (n = 313 respectively. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, body mass index and antiemetics use revealed significant relationships between smoking habits and N/V before confirmation of pregnancy and during pregnancy. In comparison with those who did not smoke, women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day before pregnancy were 1.65 times more likely to develop N/V; and women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day during pregnancy were 2.79 times more likely to develop N/V. Based on the findings of this study, smoking was associated, with a dose-response effect, with pregnancy-related N/V. Reducing the intake of cigarettes could decrease the risk of pregnancy-related N/V. Health care providers should help these women decrease their uncomfortable symptoms and improve their experiences of pregnancy and birth outcome during critical times.

  14. Hydroxychavicol, a novel betel leaf component, inhibits platelet aggregation by suppression of cyclooxygenase, thromboxane production and calcium mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M C; Uang, B J; Tsai, C Y; Wu, H L; Lin, B R; Lee, C S; Chen, Y J; Chang, C H; Tsai, Y L; Kao, C J; Jeng, J H

    2007-09-01

    Platelet hyperactivity is important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Betel leaf (PBL) is consumed by 200-600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Hydroxychavicol (HC), a betel leaf component, was tested for its antiplatelet effect. We tested the effect of HC on platelet aggregation, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, ex vivo platelet aggregation and mouse bleeding time and platelet plug formation in vivo. The pharmacokinetics of HC in rats was also assessed. HC inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and TXB(2) production. HC inhibited the thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not platelet aggregation. SQ29548, suppressed collagen- and thrombin-induced TXB(2) production, but not thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. HC also suppressed COX-1/COX-2 enzyme activity and the AA-induced ROS production and Ca(2+) mobilization. HC further inhibited the ex vivo platelet aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (>100 nmole/mouse) and prolonged platelet plug formation (>300 nmole/mouse) in mesenteric microvessels, but showed little effect on bleeding time in mouse tail. Moreover, pharmacokinetics analysis found that more than 99% of HC was metabolized within 3 min of administration in Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. HC is a potent COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, ROS scavenger and inhibits platelet calcium signaling, TXB(2) production and aggregation. HC could be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases through its anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects, without effects on haemostatic functions.

  15. The effect of submersion denture base acrylic resin in a betel leaf ekstract solution against growth Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Izham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture base is a protesa which replace some or all of the lost original teeth and surrounding tissues. The Pupose of making protesa is for restore the function, appearance, comfort and impaired health result lost teeth. One part of the denture base is base plate. Microorganisms are often found in the oral cavity is Candida albicans (C.albicans approximately 40% in the oral cavity.C.albicans can penetrate the acrylic resin that can infect the soft tissue and is the cause of denture stomatitis therefore the disinfection of denture base is a important factor that must be done. In general betel leaves contant up to 4.2% essential oil compounds and phenyl propanoid and tannin. These compounds is a antimicroba and antifungal which can inhibit the growth of several type of bacteria among others Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aurens, Klebstella, Pasteurella and can turn off the C.albicans. The purpose of the research is to determine how the effect of submersion denture base acrylic resin in a betel leaf ekstract solution against growth C.albicans.Type of research is an experimental laboratory with a longitudinal design (follow-up study. The sampling method used is total sampling. The results showed that the number of C.albicans colonies n denture base acrylic resin which soaked betel leaf extract solution that the dilution 10-1  with consentration 2.5% total colony count is 2 and the results 2.0 x 101 CFU/ml, on a control solution that the dilution 10-2 total colony 355 and the result 3.55 x 104 CFU/ml, that the dilution  10-3 total colony 62 and the result 6.2 x 104 CFU/ml.

  16. Cytomorphometric analysis of oral buccal mucosal smears in tobacco and arecanut chewers who abused with and without betel leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufal, Ahammed; George, Antony; Jose, Maji; Khader, Mohasin Abdul; Jayapalan, Cheriyanthal Sisupalan

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco in any form (smoking or chewing), arecanut chewing, and alcohol are considered to be the major extrinsic etiological factors for potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity and for squamous cell carcinoma, the most common oral malignancy in India. An increase in nuclear diameter (ND) and nucleus-cell ratio (NCR) with a reduction in cell diameter (CD) are early cytological indicators of dysplastic change. The authors sought to identify cytomorphometric changes in ND, CD, and NCR of oral buccal cells in tobacco and arecanut chewers who chewed with or without betel leaf. Participants represented 3 groups. Group I consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut with betel leaf (BQT chewers). Group II consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut without betel leaf (Gutka chewers). Group III comprised 30 apparently healthy nonabusers. Cytological smears were prepared and stained with modified-Papanicolaou stain. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that ND was increased, with P values of .054 and .008, respectively, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that CD was statistically reduced, with P values of .037 and <.000, respectively, whereas comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and groups II and III showed that NCR was statistically increased, with P values of <.000, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. CD, ND, and NCR showed statistically significant changes in Group II in comparison with Group I, which could indicate larger and earlier risk of carcinoma for Gutka chewers than in BQT chewers.

  17. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ~72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. PMID:25064160

  18. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ~72% upon daily oral administration of 150mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship.

  20. P53 and bak mutations as a predictive factor for radiotherapy of oral cancer associated with betel quid chewing in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongyo, Tadashi; Nawa, Nobutoshi; Nomura, Taisei; Parida, Dillip K.; Rath, Goura K.

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid chewing is very common in India and Southeast Asian countries, where oral cancer comprises up to 40% of the total malignancies. Radiotherapy is usually adopted for oral cancer, but the prognosis is very poor. Therefore, identifying predictive parameters for radiotherapy is utmost important

  1. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chue, Amy L.; Carrara, Verena I.; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J.; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during

  2. Distinctive Features of Oral Cancer in Changhua County: High Incidence, Buccal Mucosa Preponderance, and a Close Relation to Betel Quid Chewing Habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Chun Su

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that the high incidence and buccal mucosa preponderance of oral cancer in Changhua may have an exceptionally close relation with patients' betel quid chewing habit, and other unknown etiologic factors may also be present locally. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:225-233

  3. The Utilization of VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil) in Manufacturing of Solid Soap with Red Betel Leaf Extract Addition (Paper Crotum Ruiz &Pav)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, M.

    2018-04-01

    Soap is a compound of sodium or potassium with fatty acids from vegetable oils or solid animal fats, soft or liquid, and foamy. Considering the potential of VCO as the raw material for making soap and supported by the benefits of red betel leaves, then this research is done by making solid bath soap from VCO which is supplemented with Red betel leaf extract. The purpose of this research is to make solid soap from VCO with an extract of red betel leaf based on SNINo.06-3532199. Analyzing VCO oil, which is used for the manufacture of soap, consists of analysis of saponification figures, Iodine number and peroxide number. Has made solid soap from VCO oil with Red betel leaf extract. From the five quality standards established under SNI 06-3532-1994 only two quality standards that can be done that is water quality and the amount of acidity. The percent of water quality obtained is 10% meanwhile the amount of acidity obtained is 9,32%. According to the data, it can be concluded that the solid soap made was not fulfill SNI 06-3532-1994.

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling of socio-cultural constructs among chamorro and non-chamorro micronesian betel nut chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Liu, Min; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2017-07-05

    Betel nut chewing is embedded within the cultures of South Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific. The determinants of betel nut consumption are complex. Ongoing consumption of betel nut is affected by cultural, social, and drug-specific effects (i.e. dependence). This study's first objective was to assess the psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of the socio-cultural constructs in a survey developed for betel nut chewers. The study's second objective was to investigate the influence of socio-cultural variables on betel nut chewing behaviors among Chamorro and non-Chamorro Micronesians in Guam. The current study was a secondary analysis of a larger study (N = 600; n = 375 chewers and n = 225 former chewers) that examined socio-cultural factors that influence why chewers chew betel nut, along with assessing chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit. The socio-cultural constructs of the survey were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The socio-cultural factors were a sufficient fit with data and the instrument is reliable and valid, as indicated by various model fit indices (χ 2 (13) = 18.49 with p = .14, TLI = .99, CFI = 1.00, SRMR = .02, RMSEA = .03 with 90% CIs [.00,.07]). Cronbach's alpha, the sign and magnitude of the factor loadings, the inter-factor correlations, and the large proportion of variance extracted for each factor, all indicate that the instrument is reliable and valid. Additionally, multivariate analyses showed that socio-cultural reasons were important contributing or chewing betel nut. Participants cited chewing because their friends and family members chewed, the behavior is embedded within their culture, and it would be considered rude and disrespectful to not chew. Based on the findings, this study provides important implications pertaining to

  5. Structural, optical, thermal and Photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanoparticles of Betel Leave by using Green synthesis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this present study reports the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Betel leaf extracts and zinc acetate. The functionalization of ZnO particles through Betel leaf extract mediated bio reduction of ZnO was investigated through X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence, thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis, hexagonal shaped ZnO-nanoparticles  with  size  about  50 nm  were synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis. The diameter of the nanoparticles in the range of 50 nm was found from scanning electron microscopy study. Photo luminescence study reveals the blue emission at 463nm respectively. hermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis show that the observed at 480oC, indicating that no decomposition occurs above this temperature. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye was examined using ZnO nanoparticles under solar as well as ultra violet light irradiation of the MB dye. The  method  stands out primarily due to the fact that it is eco-friendly and shuts down the demerits of conventional  physical  and  chemical  methods. These particles are anticipated to have extensive applications in various industries.

  6. The Incidence of Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers in Betel Quid-Chewing Populations in South Myanmar Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Nobuyoshi; Swe Swe Win; Zaw Moe Thein; Moe Thida Htwe; Yoshioka, Yohsuke; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Iida, Seiji; Myo Khin; Okada, Shigeru; Than Sein

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is a very common disease in South and Southeast Asia. Betel quid (BQ)- chewing and tobaccosmoking habits are etiological factors for oral cancer patients in these regions. We conducted an oral cancer screening in BQ-chewing endemic rural areas in South Myanmar for the early detection of oral cancer in BQ-chewing and smoking individuals. We examined 105 subjects who were at high risk of oral cancer due to their oral habits (BQ users and/or smokers). Three carcinoma cases were detected, and there were 8 dysplasia cases. The carcinoma detection rate was 2.9%, and the carcinoma and precancerous lesion detection rate was 10.5%. In Myanmar, oral cancer screening has been conducted sporadically on a voluntary basis, and nationwide surveys have never been performed. There are also few reports of oral cancer screening for high-risk groups among the general population in Myanmar. Our present findings highlight the need for further screening and surveys. Education on betel quid chewing- and tobacco- related oral diseases and screening for the early detection of oral cancer are of the utmost importance in the control and prevention of oral cancer.

  7. The use of preservatives consist of green tea, piper betel and potassium sorbate on boiled salted fish processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, F.; Hermana, I.; Hidayah, I.

    2018-03-01

    The main problem in boiled salted fish ikan pindang is mucus and mold on the surface of the fish which is produced relatively fast as well as the high level of histamine content especially when scombroid fish species are used as raw material. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of various preservatives to overcome such problems. Three combinations of preservatives P1 (green tea and sorbate), P3 (green tea, piper betel, sorbate), P4 (green tea and piper betel) and P0 (no preservative/control) resulted from the previous study were used in this study. Before being used, the preservatives were tested against deteriorating microorganisms commonly found in boiled salted products, of which the result showed that all microorganisms were inhibited. The preservatives were then applied at three different stages of the process of boiled salted fish, i.e. before boiling, during boiling and after boiling. Sensory attributes and microbial characteristics of the products were then evaluated. The results showed that the performance of all tested preservatives against deteriorating microorganisms was relatively similar. It was also shown that the application before and during boiling performed better.

  8. EFFECTIVITY OF EXTRACT RED BETEL LEAF (Piper crocatum WITH WEIGHT INCREASE OF MALE WHITE MICE (Rattus novergicus IN CONDUTION DIABETES WHICH INDUCE ALLOXAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to learn the level of effectiveness of ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum within increase weight of male white mouse in condition for diabetes mellitus. 20 male white mice (Rattus novergicus in 3 mounth with weight between 190-250 gram which adapted during 2 weeks. It classified to be 5 groups random, each group consisty by 4 mice. The first treatment as a negative control (healty mouse whitout giving treatment. The second treatment as alloxan positive control, the third treatment alloxan added by 2% suspension of ethaol extract from red betel leaf (dose 100 mg/kg bb per oral. The fifth treatment is alloxan added by 0.02% suspension glibenclamide (dose 1 ml/kg bb per oral. Giving extract betel leaf is done by oral with used sonde. Giving treatment at treatment III, IV and V is done everyday start from day 3 until the end of the day (21 day. The weight of mouse is measure at day 7, 14 and day 21 used analytical balanced. The result of this research show up that giving 2% ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum with dose (50 mg/kg bb, dose (100 mg/kg bb and glibenclamide 0,02% ( 1 ml/kg bb with significant can increase weight (P<0,05 of white mice which induce alloxan. Result of this research could be conclude that ethanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum can used for increase the weight.

  9. Effects of arecoline on adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake of adipocytes-A possible role of betel-quid chewing in metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Hsin-Fen; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Kuo, Ya-Ting; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Yeh, Szu-Ching; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of betel-quid chewing in adipocyte dysfunction, we determined the effects of arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, on adipogenic differentiation (adipogenesis), lipolysis, and glucose uptake by fat cells. Using mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we showed that arecoline inhibited adipogenesis as determined by oil droplet formation and adipogenic marker gene expression. The effects of arecoline on lipolysis of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined by the glycerol release assay, indicating that arecoline induced lipolysis in an adenylyl cyclase-dependent manner. The diabetogenic effects of arecoline on differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated by the glucose uptake assay, revealing that ≥ 300 μM arecoline significantly attenuated insulin-induced glucose uptake; however, no marked effect on basal glucose uptake was detected. Moreover, using 94 subjects that were randomly selected from a health check-up, we determined the association of betel-quid chewing with hyperlipidemia and its related risk factors. Hyperlipidemia frequency and serum triglyceride levels of betel-quid chewers were significantly higher than those of non-betel-quid chewers. In this study, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibits adipogenic differentiation, induces adenylyl cyclase-dependent lipolysis, and interferes with insulin-induced glucose uptake. Arecoline-induced fat cell dysfunction may lead to hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia/insulin-resistance. These findings provide the first in vitro evidence of betel-quid chewing modulation of adipose cell metabolism that could contribute to the explanation of the association of this habit with metabolic syndrome disorders.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of binahong leaf meal, betel nut meal or their combination on serum albumin and globulin, fecal endoparasites and bacterial counts in milk of Saanen goats suffering from subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Kusumanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect was investigated of dietary supplementation of binahong (Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis leaf meal, betel nut (Arecha catechu L. meal or their combination on serum albumin and globulin, fecal endoparasites and bacterial counts in the milk of Saanen goats suffering from subclinical mastitis. The goats were randomly allotted to one of four experimental groups: control diet (diet without binahong leaf meal or betel nut meal; CON, diet supplemented with binahong leaf meal (1 g/kg body weight; BNH, diet supplemented with betel nut meal (1 g/kg body weight; BTN and diet supplemented with a combination of binahong leaf meal and betel nut meal (both 0.5 g/kg body weight; BNH + BTN. After 14 d treatment, the pH was higher (p  0.05 in levels of serum albumin and globulin and milk production across the treatment diets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of binahong leaf meal, betel nut meal and a combination of both showed potential to reduce the load of endoparasites in the gastrointestinal tract and to reduce subclinical mastitis in lactating Saanen goats. Keywords: Antibiotics, Betel nut, Binahong, Saanen goat, Subclinical mastitis

  11. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Mukkavilli, Rao [Advinus Therapeutics, Karnataka (India); Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Reid, Michelle D. [Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Aneja, Ritu, E-mail: raneja@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to

  12. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to

  13. Intercountry prevalences and practices of betel-quid use in south, southeast and eastern Asia regions and associated oral preneoplastic disorders: an international collaborative study by Asian betel-quid consortium of south and east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Yin, Bang-Liang; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Liu, Zhi-Wen; Li, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2011-10-01

    Health risks stemming from betel-quid (BQ) chewing are frequently overlooked by people. Updated epidemiological data on the increased BQ use among Asian populations using comparable data collection methods have not been widely available. To investigate the prevalence, patterns of practice and associated types of oral preneoplastic disorders, an intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (the ABC study) was conducted for Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. A random sample of 8,922 subjects was recruited, and the data were analyzed using survey-data modules adjusted for the complex survey design. Chewing rates among men (10.7-43.6%) were significantly higher than women (1.8-34.9%) in Taiwan, Mainland China, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while women's rates (29.5-46.8%) were higher than that for men (9.8-12.0%) in Malaysia and Indonesia. An emerging, higher proportion of new-users were identified for Hunan in Mainland China (11.1-24.7%), where Hunan chewers have the unique practice of using the dried husk of areca fruit rather than the solid nut universally used by others. Men in the Eastern and South Asian study communities were deemed likely to combine chewing with smoking and drinking (5.6-13.6%). Indonesian women who chewed BQ exhibited the highest prevalence of oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral leukoplakia (9.1-17.3%). Lower schooling, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were identified as being associated with BQ chewing. In conclusion, the ABC study reveals the significant cultural and demographic differences contributing to practice patterns of BQ usage and the great health risks that such practices pose in the Asian region. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Gupta

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.Studies (case control and/or cohort were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias.Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls and four cohort studies (15,342 which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, P<0.001, (adjusted main-effect summary for cohort studies RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 2.56-11.71, P<0.001. Furthermore, meta-analysis of fifteen case control studies (4,648 cases; 7,847 controls has shown betel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, P<0.001. This is presumably due to the carcinogenicity of areca nut. There was no significant publication bias.There is convincing evidence that smokeless (aka chewing tobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco

  15. Protective single/combined treatment with betel leaf and turmeric against methyl (acetoxymethyl) nitrosamine-induced hamster oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuine, M A; Bhide, S V

    1992-05-28

    The inhibitory effect of oral administration of betel-leaf extract (BLE) and 2 of its constituents, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, as single agents or in combination with dietary turmeric on methyl(acetoxymethyl)nitrosamine (DMN-OAC)-induced oral carcinogenesis in Syrian hamsters was studied. DMN-OAC was administered twice monthly for 6 months. The chemopreventive effect of BLE or its constituents with turmeric was determined by comparing tumor incidence observed in treated groups with that seen in control animals. The apparent site-specific chemopreventive effect of BLE or its constituents was demonstrated by inhibition of tumor incidence, reduction of tumor burden, extension of the tumor latency period and regression of established, frank tumors. The inhibitory effect of BLE or its constituents combined with turmeric was higher than that of the individual constituents. The study suggests that BLE could be developed as a potential chemopreventive agent for human oral cancer.

  16. Betel Quid Dependency and Associated Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Environmental Factors among Adolescents: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2018-03-13

    Betel quid (BQ) is one of the fourth most commonly used substance globally. Though BQ is a psycho-active substance, yet little has been explored regarding dependency on it particularly among adolescents. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine adolescents' dependency on BQ, along with their intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental determinants of dependency. This cross-sectional study focused on 2200 school-going adolescents of Karachi, Pakistan in 2016. Primary outcome was dependency on BQ among adolescents. Both univariate and multivariate regressions were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (after adjustments for all intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors) with 95% confidence level. Out of 2200 students, 874 (39.7%) were found to be BQ users amongst whom 69 (7.9%) were dependent on BQ. Comparing the groups with only areca nut users as reference category, betel quid with tobacco additives chewers were considerably dependent (OR = 14.08, 95% CI 3.64-54.16). The individuals who chewed >5 chews per day (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.08-3.29) and chronic users (>1year) (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.09-3.74) were more likely to be dependent. Older students (>12 years) (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.06-4.23), and who studied in government schools were significantly dependent (OR = 3.32, 95% CI 1.80-6.10) than those who studied in private schools. In conclusion, intrapersonal characteristics like more than 5 chews per day, chronic chewers of more than a year, BQ with tobacco chewers, older adolescents and children studying in government schools were significantly associated with BQ dependency.

  17. Piper betel leaf extract: anticancer benefits and bio-guided fractionation to identify active principles for prostate cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Gundala, Sushma R; Lakshminarayana, N; Sagwal, Arpana; Asif, Ghazia; Pandey, Anjali; Aneja, Ritu

    2013-07-01

    Plant extracts, a concoction of bioactive non-nutrient phytochemicals, have long served as the most significant source of new leads for anticancer drug development. Explored for their unique medicinal properties, the leaves of Piper betel, an evergreen perennial vine, are a reservoir of phenolics with antimutagenic, antitumor and antioxidant activities. Here, we show that oral feeding of betel leaf extract (BLE) significantly inhibited the growth of human prostate xenografts implanted in nude mice compared with vehicle-fed controls. To gain insights into the 'active principles', we performed a bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanolic BLE employing solvents of different polarity strengths using classical column chromatography. This approach yielded 15 fractions, which were then pooled to 10 using similar retention factors on thin-layer chromatographs. Bioactivity assays demonstrated that one fraction in particular, F2, displayed a 3-fold better in vitro efficacy to inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells than the parent BLE. The presence of phenols, hydroxychavicol (HC) and chavibetol (CHV), was confirmed in F2 by nuclear magnetic resonance, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Further, the HC containing F2 subfraction was found to be ~8-fold more potent than the F2 subfraction that contained CHV, in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells as evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Removing CHV from F2 remarkably decreased the IC50 of this fraction, indicating that HC is perhaps the major bioactive constituent, which is present to an extent of 26.59% in BLE. These data provide evidence that HC is a potential candidate for prostate cancer management and warrants further preclinical evaluation.

  18. Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Pragyanshree; Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-06-01

    Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination.

  19. Remedy of contamination of multidrug resistant Salmonella and Escherichia coli from betel leaves (Piper betle keeping them fresh for long time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazrin Kamal

    2018-03-01

    Results: Total Salmonella counts in the betel leaves were 3.9×105, 4.9×106, 3.5×104, 1.1×103 and 1.5×103 CFU/mL, while E. coli counts were 5.5×107, 6.3×107, 4.4×105, 3.3×103 and 3.1×103 CFU/mL in the betel leaves collected from K.R. market, Kewatkhali Bazaar, whole sale market, borouj in Kushtia and borouj in Natore, respectively. Antibiogram study revealed that the isolated bacteria were sensitive to doxycyclline, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime. Application of 0.3% Salmosan-A Soln was found to be the most effective and suitable, where [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 73-80

  20. Betel quid chewing leads to the development of unique de novo malignancies in liver transplant recipients, a retrospective single center study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chan; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Yu-Chao; Wu, Ting-Jun; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chen-Fang; Soong, Ruey Shyang

    2016-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the choice of treatment not only for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure but also for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The development of de novo malignancies after liver transplantation plays an important role in late mortality; the incidence of late mortality has increased owing to improved survival. The incidence of de novo malignancies is 2.3% to 25%, which is 2 to 3 times that of malignancies in the general population. The most commonly reported de novo malignancies in solid organs are skin cancer, Karposi sarcoma, and colon cancer according to the frequency of exposure to a specific carcinogen. We hypothesized that exposure to different carcinogens would change the distribution of de novo malignancies among patients after OLT. In Taiwan, 10% of the population is exposed to a unique carcinogen, the betel quid, which is associated with a high incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) among the Taiwanese population.From 2004 to 2014, we retrospectively reviewed 484 cases post-OLT at our institution and 16 patients with 17 de novo malignancies were identified. Most of the patients had HNC, which is in contrast to previous literature reports.Univariate and multivariate analyses identified betel quid chewing as the main leading factor for HNC in the Taiwanese population.Routine screening of the oral mucosa in patients with the habit of betel quid chewing is recommended in Taiwan for the early detection of HNC. Routine screening with aggressive treatment after diagnosis of HNC in patients with the habit of chewing betel quid, who underwent OLT, resulted in good patient prognosis.

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE) for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE), Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls) and four cohort studies (15,342) which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE) = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, Pbetel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, Pbetel quid, and betel quid without tobacco, are both strong and independent risk factors for oral cancer in these populations. However, studies with better separation of the types of tobacco and the ways in which it is used, and studies with sufficient power to quantify dose-response relationships are still needed.

  2. Efektivitas antibakteri ekstrak daun sirih (Piper betle Linn)terhadap bakteri Enterococcus faecalis (Antibacterial effectiveness of betel leaf extract (Piper Betle Linn) to Enterococcus faecalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Armianty Armianty; Indrya Kirana Mattulada

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of bacteria which have resistance against the pulp tissue defense mechanism and often found in endodontic infections. This bacterial is may hold good colonization, can survive in the root canal without other bacteria, and is capable of producing toxins directly or through the induction of inflammation. Betel leaf (Piper betle Linn)contain essential oils, as the main components of the essential oils are phenols and compounds, among other derivate such a...

  3. Larvicidal effects of mineral turpentine, low aromatic white spirits, aqueous extracts of Cassia alata, and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle) on Chrysomya megacephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad W; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ihalamulla, Ranjan L; Arambewela, Lakshmi S R; Dissanayake, Roshinie D S C T

    2002-12-01

    Many methods have been employed, with variable success, in the treatment of cutaneous myiasis caused by Chrysomya species. Experiment 1: to assess the larvicidal effect of mineral turpentine (MT) and the main ingredient of MT, low aromatic white spirits (LAWS), on Chrysomya megacephala larvae in vitro. Experiment 2: to assess the larvicidal effects of aqueous extracts of winged senna (Cassia alata), and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle). In experiment 1, two samples of LAWS were obtained from two industrialists (samples 1 and 2). Adult flies of C. megacephala were bred in the insectory of the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. Petri dishes were prepared with pads of cotton wool. These cotton pads were soaked separately in MT, LAWS samples 1 and 2, and normal saline as a control. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. The activity of the larvae was observed and recorded half-hourly. MT and the two samples of LAWS were analyzed by chromatography. In experiment 2, volatile essential oil of betel was prepared using a standard steam distillation process. An ethanolic extract of betel was obtained after boiling the crushed leaf with water, and mixing the stock with ethanol. Betel oil dilutions of 1-4% were prepared using 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) as a solvent, with 0.05 g/100 mL sodium lauryl sulphate (as stabilizer) and 0.01 g/100 mL methyl paraben (as a preservative). Cotton wool swabs soaked in 1, 2, 3 and 4% essential oil of betel in 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) prepared as above, 1, 2, 3 and 4% ethanolic extract of betel, 50 and 25% aqueous extract of C. alata, and 50 and 25% aqueous extract of betel were placed in separate Petri dishes. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. 1% Tween 80 solvent with the stabilizer and the preservative, but without betel essential oil, was used as a negative control and MT was used as a positive control. Larval motility was assessed as before. MT and

  4. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yamin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity before and after fermentation. After four hours fermentation, supernatant of each samples were analyzed for VFA, NH3, number of bacteria and protozoa. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were analyzed after 48 h fermentation. The results showed that before fermentation, 8% BLM addition caused the bigest (P<0.05 inhibition diameter of Staphylococcus spp. growth compared to other lower levels. However after fermentation there were no significant differences among the addition levels of BLM. Two per cent of BLM addition produced higher VFA (P<0.05 than the other addition levels. Ammonia concentration, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were not different among the treatments. Addition of BLM significantly (P<0.01 decreased protozoa number, but did not affect bacterial count. It is concluded that the addition of 2% BLM in concentrate feed can be used effectively to inhibit the growth of mastitis causing bacteria (Staphylococcus spp. and does not disturb rumen fermentation condition.

  5. The influence of monoamine oxidase variants on the risk of betel quid-associated oral and pharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Huang, Bin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Wu, Ju-Hui; Huang, Jhen-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Ka-Wo

    2014-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

  6. Secondary Prevention of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Areas Where Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid Chewing are Prevalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuan Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  7. Mapping brain functional alterations in betel-quid chewers using resting-state fMRI and network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jun-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Syuan; Huang, Guo-Joe; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization regards betel quid (BQ) as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with its heavy use. BQ's possible effects of an enhanced reward system and disrupted inhibitory control may increase the likelihood of habitual substance use. The current study aimed to employ resting-state fMRI to examine the hypothesized enhanced reward system (e.g., the basal forebrain system) and disrupted inhibitory control (e.g., the prefrontal system) in BQ chewers. The current study recruited three groups of 48 male participants: 16 BQ chewers, 15 tobacco- and alcohol-user controls, and 17 healthy controls. We used functional connectivity (FC), mean fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (mfALFF), and mean regional homogeneity (mReHo) to evaluate functional alternations in BQ chewers. Graph theoretical analysis (GTA) and network-based statistical (NBS) analysis were also performed to identify the functional network differences among the three groups. Our hypothesis was partially supported: the enhanced reward system for the BQ chewers (e.g., habitual drug-seeking behavior) was supported; however, their inhibitory control was relatively preserved. In addition, we reported that the BQ chewers may have enhanced visuospatial processing and decreased local segregation. The current results (showing an enhanced reward system in the chewers) provided the clinicians with important insight for the future development of an effective abstinence treatment.

  8. The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ and areca nut (AN (major BQ ingredient are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

  9. Effects of ionic surfactants on the morphology of silver nanoparticles using Paan (Piper betel) leaf petiole extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zaheer; Bashir, Ommer; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Kumar, Sunil; Ahmad, Rabia

    2012-10-01

    Stable silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of silver ions with a Paan (Piper betel) leaf petiole extract in absence and presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The reaction process was simple and convenient to handle, and was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Absorbance of Ag-nanoparticles increases with the concentrations of Paan leaf extract, acts as reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. The polyphenolic groups of petiole extract are responsible to the rapid reduction of Ag(+) ions into metallic Ag(0). The results indicated that the shape of the spectra, number of peaks and its position strongly depend on the concentration of CTAB, which played a shape-controlling role during the formation of silver nanoparticles in the solutions, whereas SDS has no significant effect. The morphology (spherical, truncated triangular polyhedral plate and some irregular nanoparticles) and crystalline phase of the particles were determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased sensitivity of Hep G2 cells toward the cytotoxicity of cisplatin by the treatment of piper betel leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shun-Chieh; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2006-06-01

    Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological capabilities of de-toxication, anti-oxidation and anti-mutation. In this study we first examined the effect of PBL extract on the activity of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoforms, and found that it inhibited total GST and the alpha class of GST (GSTA), but not the pi class of GST (GSTP), and the mu class of GST (GSTM), activity in Hep G2 cells. RT-PCR results verified a reduction in the expression of GSTA1. Next, we examined whether PBL extract could increase the sensitivity of Hep G2 cells to anti-cancer drugs. The data showed that the cytotoxicity of cisplatin was significantly enhanced by the presence of PBL extract, accompanied by a reduction in the expression of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2). These effects of PBL extract were compared to its major constitute, eugenol. Although eugenol decreased MRP2 level more effectively than PBL extract, it exhibited less sensitizing effect. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PBL extract was able to increase the sensitivity of Hep G2 cells to cisplatin via at least two mechanisms, reducing the expression of MRP2 and inhibiting the activity of total GST and the expression of GSTA. The data of this study support an application of PBL as an additive to reduce drug resistance.

  11. Tobacco-Smoking, Alcohol-Drinking, and Betel-Quid-Chewing Behaviors: Development and Use of a Web-Based Survey System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Huang, Chu-Ching; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Ching-Yen; Lee, Hsiu-Lan

    2018-06-11

    Smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid are health-risk behaviors for several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with severe impacts on health. However, health care providers often have limited time to assess clients' behaviors regarding smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid and intervene, if needed. The objective of this study was to develop a Web-based survey system; determine the rates of tobacco-smoking, alcohol-drinking, and betel-quid-chewing behaviors; and estimate the efficiency of the system (time to complete the survey). Patients and their family members or friends were recruited from gastrointestinal medical-surgical, otolaryngology, orthopedics, and rehabilitation clinics or wards at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data for this descriptive, cross-sectional study were extracted from a large series of research studies. A Web-based survey system was developed using a Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP stack solution. The Web survey was set up to include four questionnaires: the Chinese-version Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the Chinese-version Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Betel Nut Dependency Scale, and a sociodemographic form with several chronic diseases. After the participants completed the survey, the system automatically calculated their score, categorized their risk level for each behavior, and immediately presented and explained their results. The system also recorded the time each participant took to complete the survey. Of 782 patient participants, 29.6% were addicted to nicotine, 13.3% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 1.5% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Of 425 family or friend participants, 19.8% were addicted to nicotine, 5.6% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 0.9% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Regarding the mean time to complete the survey, patients took 7.9 minutes (SD 3.0; range 3-20) and

  12. AURKA Phe31Ile polymorphism interacted with use of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarettes at multiplicative risk of oral cancer occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Pin; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Lee, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Yi-Shan; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Hua, Chun-Hung; Chen, Yuan-Chien; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-11-01

    The expression levels of two DNA repair genes (CHAF1A and CHAF1B) and a chromosome segregation gene (AURKA) were susceptible to arecoline exposure, a major alkaloid of areca nut. We hypothesize that genetic variants of these genes might also be implicated in the risk of oral cancer and could be modified by substance use of betel quid or alcohol and cigarettes. A case-control study, which included 507 patients with oral cancer and 717 matched controls, was performed in order to evaluate the cancer susceptibility by the tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in AURKA, CHAF1A, and CHAF1B using a genotyping assay and gene-environment interaction analysis. The Phe31Ile polymorphism (rs2273535, T91A) of AURKA was significantly associated with an increased risk of oral cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.5). The gene dosage of the 91A allele also showed a significant trend in risk of oral cancer (P = 0.008). Furthermore, we found the AURKA 91AA homozygote was modifiable by substance use of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarettes (ABC), leading to increased risk of oral cancer in an additive or a multiplicative model (combined effect indexes = 1.2-4.0 and 1.5-2.2, respectively). However, no association was observed between the genetic variants of CHAF1A or CHAF1B and oral cancer risk in the study. These findings reveal the functional Phe31Ile polymorphism tagSNP of AURKA may be a strong susceptibility gene in ABC-related oral cancer occurrence. The results of this betel-related oral cancer study provide the evidence of environment-gene interaction for early prediction and molecular diagnosis.

  13. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Association of Smokeless Tobacco and of Betel Quid without Tobacco with Incidence of Oral Cancer in South Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Methods Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary ORRE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary ORRE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Results Meta-analysis of fifteen case–control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls) and four cohort studies (15,342) which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies ORRE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86–9.50, Poral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35–3.40, Poral cancer in these populations. However, studies with better separation of the types of tobacco and the ways in which it is used, and studies with sufficient power to quantify dose-response relationships are still needed. PMID:25411778

  14. Effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and betel quid chewing on upper digestive diseases: a large cross-sectional study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yun-Shiuan; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Yu, Fang-Jung; Wang, Yao-Kuang; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Wu, I-Chen

    2017-09-29

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor of upper digestive diseases. Findings on alcohol's effect on these diseases are inconsistent and with the exception of its association with esophageal cancer, little is known about betel quid chewing. This study investigated the association between use of these three substances and upper digestive diseases. We collected data from 9,275 patients receiving upper endoscopies between April 2008 and December 2013. Polynomial regressions were used to analyze the association between risk factors and diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Meta-analysis for use of these substances and esophageal diseases was also performed. Participants who simultaneously consumed cigarettes, alcohol and betel quid had a 17.28-fold risk of esophageal cancer (95% CI = 7.59-39.33), 2.99-fold risk of Barrette's esophagus (95% CI = 2.40-4.39), 1.60-fold risk of grade A-B erosive esophagitis (95% CI = 1.29-2.00), 2.00-fold risk of gastric ulcer (95% CI = 1.52-2.63), 2.12-fold risk of duodenitis (95% CI = 1.55-2.89) and 1.29-fold risk of duodenal ulcer (95% CI = 1.01-1.65). Concurrent consumption of more substances was associated with significantly higher risk of developing these diseases. Meta-analysis also revealed use of the three substances came with a high risk of esophageal diseases. In conclusions, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and betel quid chewing were associated with upper digestive tract diseases.

  15. The usefulness of cytogenetic parameters, level of p53 protein and endogenous glutathione as intermediate end-points in raw betel-nut genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpawat, K; Chatterjee, A

    2003-07-01

    Betel-nut (BN) chewing related oral mucosal lesions are potential hazards to a large population worldwide. Genotoxicity of betel alkaloids, polyphenol and tannin fractions have been reported. It has been shown earlier that BN ingredients altered the level of endogenous glutathione (GSH) which could modulate the host susceptibility to the action of other chemical carcinogens. The north-east Indian variety of BN, locally known as 'kwai', is raw, wet and consumed unprocessed with betel-leaf and slaked lime and contains higher alkaloids, polyphenol and tannins as compared to the dried one. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of DNA damage, pattern of cell kinetics, the level of p53-protein and endogenous GSH in kwai chewers in the tribal population of Meghalaya state in the northeastern region of India with an aim to see whether these end-points could serve as biomarkers of genetic damage of relevance for genotoxic/carcinogenic process. The present data show higher DNA damage, delay in cell kinetics, p53 expression and lower GSH-level in heavy chewers (HC) than nonchewers (NC). The influence of bleomycin (BLM) on chromatid break induction in G2-phase of peripheral blood lymphocytes in NC and HC has been analysed to determine individual susceptibility to carcinogenic assaults. HC showed higher induction of chromatid breaks than NC. Risk assessment in this study suggests an interaction between carcinogen exposure and mutagen sensitivity measures, risk estimates being higher in those individuals who both consume kwai and express sensitivity to free radical oxygen damage in vitro. From this study it seems that besides cytogenetical parameters, the level of endogenous GSH and the level of p53 protein could act as effective biomarkers for kwai chewers.

  16. PRE-CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS FROM BETEL-LIKE SCENT PIPER SPECIES IDENTIFIED POTENTIAL CANCER TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanubol, Arisa; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sudmoon, Runglawan

    2017-01-01

    Nine Piper species with betel-like scents are sources of industrial and medicinal aromatic chemicals, but there is lack of information on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity for human safety, including how these plants impact human cervical cancer cell line. Plant leaves were extracted with hexane and hydro-distilled for essential oils. The extracts and oils were pre-clinically studied based on cyto - and genotoxicity using microculture tetrazolium (MTT) and comet assays. The crude extracts showed an IC 50 in leukocytes and HeLa cells of 58.59-97.31 mg/ml and 34.91-101.79 mg/ml, the LD 50 is higher than 5000 mg/kg. With lower values than the crude extracts, the essential oils showed an IC 50 in leukocytes and HeLa cells of 0.023-0.059 μg/ml and 0.025-0.043 μg/ml the LD 50 is less than 50 mg/kg. IC 50 values showed that the essential oils were highly toxic than the crude extracts. At the level of human genetic materials, the crude extracts of two species, including P. betloides and P. crocatum , showed a significant toxicity ( p Piper species showed insignificant toxicity in leukocytes. For HeLa cells, the eight-studied species showed significant toxicity in HeLa cells, whereas only P. submultinerve showed insignificant toxicity. The crude extracts and essential oils should be tested as putative cervical cancer treatments due to less toxicity in human normal cells.

  17. Effects of aqueous extracts of "Betel quid" and its constituents on testosterone production by dispersed mouse interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Kaphle, Krishna; Wang, Pei-Hwa; Jong, De-Shien; Wu, Leang-Shin; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2004-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) is a favorite chewing item among many communities in different parts of Asia where it is popular by different names. BQ is a unique combination of nut or fruit from the Areca catechu Linn. (AN) tree, leaf from the Piper betle Linn. (BL) vine, slaked lime, paste of bark from the Acacia catechu tree and other spices. AN has been used successfully in various traditional medicines by different civilizations over several ages. Initially condemned by the medical communities for its health hazards, identification and application of potent pharmacologically bioactive compounds from different constituents of BQ have rekindled growing interest in related investigations. Curious about the stimulating role of BQ, we investigated the potential steroidogenic activity of hot water extract from BQ and its constituents and arecoline on testosterone producing ability in an in vitro experiment. Enzyme dissociated interstitial cells from adult mouse testes (ICR strain) were cultured with/without different doses of the extracts and the level of testosterone produced was assayed by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique. It was found that at lower doses of arecoline, AN and BL extracts had significantly stimulated testosterone production over the basal level (p effect on testosterone production. Combinations of arecoline at low doses with 10 ng/ml ovine leutinizing hormone (oLH) showed increases in testosterone produced, while cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) co-culture showed dose-related inhibition. Our current finding hints at the possible dose-dependent dualistic role of AN and BL extracts and arecoline for testosterone production employing possible non-cAMP-dependent pathway of steroidogenesis. However, the identity of the active compounds besides arecoline and the exact mechanism involved remains to be further investigated.

  18. Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chen, Shiao-Yun; Liao, Chang-Hui; Tung, Yuan-Yii; Lin, Bor-Ru; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2002-05-01

    There are 2 to 6 billion betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. Areca nut (AN), a BQ component, modulates arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, which is crucial for platelet function. AN extract (1 and 2 mg/ml) stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation, with induction of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production. Contrastingly, Piper betle leaf (PBL) extract inhibited AA-, collagen-, and U46619-induced platelet aggregation, and TXB2 and prostaglandin-D2 (PGD2) production. PBL extract also inhibited platelet TXB2 and PGD2 production triggered by thrombin, platelet activating factor (PAF), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), whereas little effect on platelet aggregation was noted. Moreover, PBL is a scavenger of O2(*-) and *OH, and inhibits xanthine oxidase activity and the (*)OH-induced PUC18 DNA breaks. Deferoxamine, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and neomycin prevented AN-induced platelet aggregation and TXB2 production. Indomethacin, genistein, and PBL extract inhibited only TXB2 production, but not platelet aggregation. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and dimethylthiourea (DMT) showed little effect on AN-induced platelet aggregation, whereas catalase and DMT inhibited the AN-induced TXB2 production. These results suggest that AN-induced platelet aggregation is associated with iron-mediated reactive oxygen species production, calcium mobilization, phospholipase C activation, and TXB2 production. PBL inhibited platelet aggregation via both its antioxidative effects and effects on TXB2 and PGD2 production. Effects of AN and PBL on platelet aggregation and AA metabolism is crucial for platelet activation in the oral mucosa and cardiovascular system in BQ chewers.

  19. Shelf Life Extension of Tomato Paste Through Organoleptically Acceptable Concentration of Betel Leaf Essential Oil Under Accelerated Storage Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep

    2018-05-01

    This study was attempted with two objectives: (1) to find an acceptable concentration of betel leaf essential oil (BLEO) based on sensory evaluation that can be employed in tomato paste; (2) to evaluate the effect of the acceptable concentration of BLEO in the paste during accelerated storage under 89 ± 1.2% RH at 39 ± 1 °C. Linguistic data obtained from sensory evaluation of tomato paste treated with 4 different concentrations of BLEO were analyzed using fuzzy logic approach. The organoleptically acceptable concentration was determined to be 0.25 mg/g of BLEO in tomato paste. The effect of the selected concentration of BLEO on different physicochemical and microbial attributes of tomato paste during accelerated storage was studied. Untreated tomato paste was found to have 12% less total antioxidant capacity than treated paste at the end of storage. Based on a * /b * value in CIELAB color space, the BLEO treated paste efficiently extended the shelf life by 14 days with respect to untreated paste samples under accelerated storage conditions. BLEO comes with a tag contributing to green consumerism, and its application as food preservative is no less than a value addition to the product. Essential oil is considered to have promising potential as an alternative food preservative, and its use is practically possible if they could overcome the sensory barrier, while retaining the preservative potency. The importance of identifying the sensory attributes for commercial success of essential oil treated food product was considered in this study. It contributes to the potency of organoleptically acceptable concentration of BLEO in shelf life extension of tomato paste under accelerated storage conditions. At industrial level, the estimated shelf life of treated tomato paste can be increased by incorporating more hurdles alongside BLEO. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Inhibitory effect of Piper betel leaf extracts on copper-mediated LDL oxidation and oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation via inducing reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gwo-Chin; Wu, Pei-Fang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2013-12-15

    Piper betel leaf (PBL) has the biological capabilities of detoxification and can work as an anti-inflammatory agent and an anti-oxidant. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of the extract of Piper betel leaves (PBLs) on the basis of Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation, and its ability to prevent foam cell formation in a model for oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages. Our data demonstrated that PBLs were able to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and are able to reduce the lipid accumulation in macrophages. We showed the underlying mechanisms to be the following: PBLs up-regulated the protein levels of the class A and class B scavenger receptors, the membrane lipid transporter ABCA1, and its upstream regulator Liver X receptor (LXR) in the macrophages exposed to oxLDL. The results suggested that PBLs activated the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism to enhance the metabolism of the oxLDL that could prevent both lipid accumulation and foam cell formation and further minimise the possible damage of vessels caused by the oxLDL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High ERCC1 expression predicts cisplatin-based chemotherapy resistance and poor outcome in unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck in a betel-chewing area

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    Chien Chih-Yen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was to evaluate the effect of excision repair cross-complementation group 1(ERCC1 expression on response to cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy (IC followed by concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT in locally advanced unresectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC patients. Methods Fifty-seven patients with locally advanced unresectable HNSCC who received cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT from January 1, 2006 through January 1, 2008. Eligibility criteria included presence of biopsy-proven HNSCC without a prior history of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess ERCC1 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens from paraffin blocks. Clinical parameters, including smoking, alcohol consumption and betel nuts chewing, were obtained from the medical records. Results The 12-month progression-free survival (PFS and 2-year overall survival (OS rates of fifty-seven patients were 61.1% and 61.0%, respectively. Among these patients, thirty-one patients had low ERCC1 expression and forty-one patients responded to IC followed by CCRT. Univariate analyses showed that patients with low expression of ERCC1 had a significantly higher 12-month PFS rates (73.3% vs. 42.3%, p Conclusions Our study suggest that a high expression of ERCC1 predict a poor response and survival to cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT in patients with locally advanced unresectable HNSCC in betel nut chewing area.

  2. Is areca innocent? The effect of areca (betel) nut chewing in a population of pregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amy L; Carrara, Verena I; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; van Vugt, Michele; Lee, Sue J; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-09-01

    Eight manuscripts have specifically examined the effects of areca (betel) nut use in pregnant women, seven of which have documented adverse effects on birth weight, newborn neurological status, gender ratio and pregnancy outcomes such as anaemia and miscarriage following areca nut use during pregnancy. A retrospective cohort analysis of migrant and refugee pregnant women attending antenatal clinics along the Thai-Myanmar border (July 1997 to November 2006) was conducted to examine the adverse effects of areca nut use routinely recorded on enrolment. Of 7685 women, 2284 (29.7%) never used areca or smoked (cheroots), 2484 (32.3%) only used areca, 438 (5.7%) only smoked cheroots and 2479 (32.3%) used both areca and cheroots. Pieces of ripe areca nut in a leaf with lime, without tobacco, were used particularly among older multigravid women. Adverse pregnancy effects were not observed in areca nut users compared with non-users. Smoking, but not areca nut use, had a dose-related effect on miscarriage. Areca nut use in conjunction with smoking reduced the adverse effects of smoking on birth weight, further supporting a lack of effect of areca nut. Areca (betel) nut-related adverse pregnancy outcomes were not observed in this population, whereas smoking was clearly harmful. Differences from previous reports may result from the amount or types of areca nut, or quid content, consumed between countries. Smoking, but not areca nut, reduction is likely to improve pregnancy outcomes on the Thai-Myanmar border.

  3. Inhibition of DNA synthesis in cultured lymphocytes and tumor cells by extracts of betel nut, tobacco, and miang leaf, plant substances associated with cancer of the ororespiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J A; Huber, S A; Lucas, Z J

    1979-12-01

    The high incidence of oropharyngeal, esophageal, and laryngeal cancers in certain parts of the world has been ascribed to conjugated tannins found in certain folk medicinal herbs. We extracted miang leaf and betel nut with phosphate-buffered saline (0.14 M NaCl, 0.15 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) and found that the extracts inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes and by rat mammary tumor and mouse L-cells in logarithmic growth. Pretreating the lymphocytes for 1 or 4 hr with the extracts inhibited phytohemagglutinin-induced thymidine incorporation 72 hr later. At concentrations of 2.5 volumes % or lower, miang and betel nut extracts inhibited thymidine incorporation by 40 to 98% without any apparent signs of toxicity as demonstrated by the 66Rb equilibrium assay. In addition, neither extract inhibited cytotoxicity of rat mammary tumor cells by immune syngeneic spleen cells. The molecular weights of the inhibitory factors were between 1,000 and 10,000 daltons as determined by ultrafiltration and were unaffected by boiling for 3 min or by treatment with alcohol and, therefore, are probably not proteins. This in vitro demonstration of inhibition of DNA synthesis by these plant extracts presumably enriched for conjugated tannins may relate to inhibition of growth of rats and chicks fed conjugated tanin-contaminated sorghum feed. The carcinogenic potential of either these extracts or conjugated tannins is not yet established.

  4. Src Family Kinases Mediate Betel Quid-Induced Oral Cancer Cell Motility and Could Be a Biomarker for Early Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Jeff Yi-Fu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ-chewing oral cancer is a prevalent disease in many countries of Southeast Asia. Yet, the precise disease mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BQ extract-induced cell motility in three oral cancer cells (Ca9-22, SAS, and SCC9 presumably involves the Src family kinases (SFKs. Besides, BQ extract can markedly induce cell migration of wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs but not MEFs lacking three SFK members, namely, Src, Yes, and Fyn, indicating the requirement of SFKs for BQ-induced cell motility. Betel quid extract can also elevate cellular SFK activities because phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 at the catalytic domain is increased, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of an in vitro substrate, enolase. Furthermore, we identified that areca nut, a major component of BQ, is the key factor accounting for BQ-induced cell migration and invasion through SFKs-mediated signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, particularly in BQ-chewing cases, the activity of SFKs was significantly higher in tumor-adjacent mucosa than that in solid tumor areas (P < .01. These results suggest a possible role of SFKs in tumor-host interface and thus in early tumor invasion in vivo. Consistent with this is the observation that activation of SFKs is colocalized with invasive tumor fronts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Together, we conclude that SFKs may represent a potential biomarker of invasion and therapeutic target in BQ-induced oral cancer.

  5. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-03-11

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Cross-sectional health examination survey. This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1-10/day, 11-20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into 'Yes' or 'No'. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥ 3.0 mg/L. After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥ 3.0 mg/L) in the second (1-10/day, n=133), third (11-20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by further prospective studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  6. Population-based screening program for reducing oral cancer mortality in 2,334,299 Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Lin; Su, William Wang-Yu; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiu, Han-Mo; Chang, Dun-Cheng; Jou, Yann-Yuh; Wu, Chien-Yuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2017-05-01

    To reduce oral cancer mortality, an organized, population-based screening program for the early detection of oral premalignancy and oral cancer was designed for high-risk individuals with habits of betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking, or both. The objective of this report was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this program in reducing the incidence of advanced disease and deaths from oral cancer. A nationwide, population-based screening program for oral cancer has been conducted in Taiwan since 2004. Residents aged ≥ 18 years with oral habits of cigarette smoking and/or betel quid chewing were invited. The standardized mortality ratio method was used to compare the observed numbers of advanced oral cancers and deaths from oral cancer among screening attendees with the expected numbers derived from mortality among nonattendees. An intention-to-treat analysis of the relative rate of reductions in advanced-stage oral cancers and oral cancer mortality also was conducted. The overall screening rate was 55.1%. The relative risk of death from oral cancer was 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.56) as a result of screening compared with the expected risk of oral cancer deaths in the absence of screening. The corresponding relative risk was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72-0.77) after adjusting for self-selection bias. The relative risk of advanced oral cancer for the screened group versus the nonscreened group was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.59-0.64), which increased to 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.82) after adjustment for self-selection bias. An organized, population-based oral cancer screening program targeting more than 2 million Taiwanese cigarette smokers and/or betel quid chewers demonstrated the effectiveness of reducing stage III or IV oral cancers and oral cancer mortality. These evidence-based findings corroborate and support the screening strategy of oral visual inspection for the prevention of oral cancer among high-risk individuals in areas with a high incidence of oral

  7. Profil saliva pada penyirih di Kecamatan Rembon Kabupaten Tana Toraja Salivary profile of betel quid tobacco chewers in District of Rembon, Tana Toraja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Marcelina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid tobacco (BQT chewing is a process of chewing betel leaves, areca nut, lime, gambier, and tobacco. Chewing and chemical stimulation of BQT can affect the salivary profile. The purpose of this study is to observe the differences of salivary profile such as volume, pH, and salivary inorganic component (Na + and phosphate between BQT chewers and non-chewers. This study is an observation analytic with cross sectional design on 30-60 years old women that live in Rembon district of Tana Toraja (n=96 using cluster random sampling technique. Salivary volume was measured by measured glass, salivary pH was measured by indicator pH (Macherey-Nagel. The content of the salivary inorganic component was seen using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in BPTP Laboratory, Maros. Data were analyzed by t-test and chi square test using SPSS v 15.0. The result were mean of salivary volume (chewers=3.88 ml/10 s; p=0.051. Mean of salivary pH (chewers=6.92; p=0.001. Mean of salivary Na+  (chewers=0.38 ppm; p=0.112, Mg2+ (chewers=11.9 ppm; p=0.002, phosphate (chewers=156.8 ppm; p=0.001, Ca 2+ (chewers=174.8 ppm; p=0.000, K concluded that there was no significant difference on salivary volume, pH, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg(chewers=445.9 ppm; p=0.429. It was +and K+ content between chewers and non chewers, but the content of salivary Mg 2+, Ca2+and phosphate had significant difference.

  8. Altered Long- and Short-Range Functional Connectivity in Patients with Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study

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    Tao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease. Brain structural abnormalities may constitute an abnormal neural network that underlies the risk of drug dependence. We hypothesized that individuals with Betel Quid Dependence (BQD have functional connectivity alterations that can be described by long- and short-range functional connectivity density(FCD maps. Methods: We tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from subjects of the Han ethnic group in Hainan, China. Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33 and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs (n = 32 in a rs-fMRI study to observe FCD alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Results: Compared with HCs, long-range FCD was decreased in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and increased in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL and bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL in the BQD group. Short-range FCD was reduced in the right ACC and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, and increased in the left CPL. The short-range FCD alteration in the right ACC displayed a negative correlation with the Betel Quid Dependence Scale (BQDS (r=-0.432, P=0.012, and the long-range FCD alteration of left IPL showed a positive correlation with the duration of BQD(r=0.519, P=0.002 in BQD individuals. Conclusions: fMRI revealed differences in long- and short- range FCD in BQD individuals, and these alterations might be due to BQ chewing, BQ dependency, or risk factors for developing BQD.

  9. The Effectiveness of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) As Compatibilizer on the Preparation of Betel Nut Fiber (BNF) and Polypropylene (PP) /Polystyrene (PS) Wood Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Izzaty Khalid; Azizah Baharum; Siti Sarah Ramli; Siti Norhana Mohd Nor

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as compatibilizing agent in producing wood composites of betel nut fiber/ polypropylene (BNF/ PP) and betel nut fiber/ polystyrene (BNF/ PS). Wood composite was prepared by blending 40 % of matrix polymer and 60 % of treated and untreated BNF using internal mixer Brabender Plasticoder at 170 degree Celsius with 50 rpm rotor speed for 13 minutes. The treatment was done prior to blending the materials by immersing the BNF in PDMS and HMDSO solutions with 1 %, 3 % and 5 % of concentrations for 24 hours. The effects of 1 % HMDSO treatment on BNF/ PP composite contributed to high flexure strength and impact strength which are 19.2 MPa and 7.9 kJ/M2 respectively while the percentage of water absorption showed the minimum value of 6.7%. The impact strength of BNF/ PS composite treated with 3% HMDSO showed maximum value that is 4.7 kJ/ M 2 and minimum percentage of water absorption, 6.8 %. However, the flexure strength of untreated BNF/ PS composite is higher than treated BNF/ PS composite with value of 4.7 MPa. The morphology of treated BNF/ PP composites from SEM micrographs showed better interface interaction between fibers and matrices. FTIR spectra showed the presence of siloxane groups such as Si-O, Si-CH 3 , Si-(CH 3 ) and Si(CH 3 ) as a result of HMDSO and PDMS treatment. Based on the characterization analysis, HMDSO treated composite of BNF/ PP showed more effective interfacial interaction between BNF and matrices. (author)

  10. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Caves, Dayna; Haddad, Pierre S; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Johns, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. We investigated the dietary habits of Kalo residents from coastal Central Province who are avid BQ chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of DM2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent Wanigelans who abstain from BQ yet have an unusually high incidence of DM2. In Kalo, guava bud (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) were consumed much more frequently than in Wanigela, whereas the inverse was observed for mangrove bean (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L) Lam.). These plants, along with BQ and its component ingredients areca nut (Areca catechu L) and Piper betle L inflorescence, were assessed for their ability to mediate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A dose-dependent inhibition of glucose uptake from methanolic extracts of BQ, areca nut and P. betle inflorescence supports previous reports of prodiabetic activity. Conversely, guava bud extract displayed significant insulin-mimetic and potentiating activity. Noni fruit, noni leaf, commercial noni juice and mangrove bean all displayed insulin-like activity but had little or no effect on insulin action. Habitual intake of guava and noni is proposed to offer better protection against DM2 development and/or betel quid diabetogenicity than cooked mangrove bean. These findings provide empirical support that DM2 risk reduction can be accomplished using traditional foods and medicines.

  11. Longer Duration and Earlier Age of Onset of Paternal Betel Chewing and Smoking Increase Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Human Offspring, Independently, in a Community-Based Screening Program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Boucher, Barbara J; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-08-02

    Transgenerational effects of paternal Areca catechu nut chewing on offspring metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in humans, on obesity and diabetes mellitus experimentally, and of paternal smoking on offspring obesity, are reported, likely attributable to genetic and epigenetic effects previously reported in betel-associated disease. We aimed to determine the effects of paternal smoking, and betel chewing, on the risks of early MetS in human offspring. The 13 179 parent-child trios identified from 238 364 Taiwanese aged ≥20 years screened at 2 community-based integrated screening sessions were tested for the effects of paternal smoking, areca nut chewing, and their duration prefatherhood on age of detecting offspring MetS at screen by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Offspring MetS risks increased with prefatherhood paternal areca nutusage (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.53) versus nonchewing fathers (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.67-6.43) with >10 years paternal betel chewing, 1.62 (95% CI, 0.88-2.96) for 5 to 9 years, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.80-2.54) for betel usage prefatherhood (Ptrend=0.0002), with increased risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.26-3.04) for paternal areca nut usage from 20 to 29 years of age, versus from >30 years of age (adjusted hazard ratio,1.61; 95% CI, 0.22-11.69). MetS offspring risk for paternal smoking increased dosewise (Ptrendbetel quid chewing and smoking, prefatherhood, independently predicted early occurrence of incident MetS in offspring, corroborating previously reported transgenerational effects of these habits, and supporting the need for habit-cessation program provision. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Incidence and Outcomes of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Fourth Primary Tumors: A Long-term Follow-up Study in a Betel Quid Chewing Endemic Area.

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    Adel, Mohamad; Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Fang, Ku-Hao; Wang, Yu-Chien; Chang, Kai-Ping; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Yang, Lan Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the incidence and outcomes of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and fourth primary tumors (PTs) in a betel-chewing endemic area.We retrospectively examined the records of 1836 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2014. The outcome measures included the incidence and number of multiple PTs, the main risk factors, and their associations with overall survival (OS).Of the 1836 patients, 1400 (76.3%) had a single PT, 344 (18.7%) a second PT, 67 (3.6%) a third PT, and 25 (1.4%) a fourth PT. Univariate analyses (log-rank test) identified the following factors as significantly associated with a fourth PT: simultaneous first and second PTs, betel quid chewing, buccal subsite, and pT3-4 status. After allowance for the potential confounding effect of other risk factors, all of these factors retained their independent prognostic significance in stepwise multivariate analyses, the only exception being betel chewing. The incidences of second, third, and fourth PTs at 5 and 10 years were 20.2%/34.6%, 4.0%/8.6%, and 1.0%/2.3%, respectively. The 5 and 10-year OS rates (calculated from the diagnosis of each PTs) for patients with a single, second, third, and fourth PTs were 68%/61%, 43%/37%, 45%/39%%, and 30%/30%, respectively (P betel quid-chewing endemic area. Long-term survival rates of patients treated with radical surgery seems acceptable, being 4-fold higher than their counterparts.

  13. Imported edible leaves collected at retail sale in England during 2017 with an emphasis on betel and curry leaves: Microbiological quality with respect to Salmonella, Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and levels of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlin, J; Aird, H; Charlett, A; Chattaway, M; Elviss, N; Hartman, H; Jenkins, C; Jørgensen, F; Larkin, L; Sadler-Reeves, L; Willis, C

    2018-05-26

    to investigate the microbiological quality of imported fresh leaves on retail-sale during 2017 with respect to Salmonella, Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and levels of E.coli. 279 samples of imported edible leaves (69 banana, 77 betel, 118 curry and 15 other types) were tested. Salmonella spp. which were confirmed by whole genome sequencing and isolated from 44 samples, 26% from curry leaves, 14% from betel and 2.4% from all other leaf types: 80% of all samples contained ≥10 2 , 44% ≥10 3 and 22% ≥10 4 cfu of E.coli cfu/g. All samples where Salmonella were detected also yielded ≥20 cfu of E.coli/g. 54 samples were tested for STEC which was detected in 6 samples and isolated from three: one was identified as STEC O157:H7. this report further highlights an ongoing problem of Salmonella contamination of imported fresh edible leaves. amongst all food tested by Public Health England (approximately 11,000 per annum), curry leaves were the herb most commonly contaminated with Salmonella, and betel leaves were the most commonly contaminated ready-to-eat food. The high proportion with unsatisfactory E. coli levels and the detection of STEC suggests risks of contamination by multiple enteric pathogens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Larvicidal efficacy of essential oil of betel leaf ( Piper betle on the larvae of the old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in vitro

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    Wardhana April

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chrysomya bezziana are the commonest cause of wound myiasis in some parts of the world. This obligatory parasite is important in humans and in commercial livestock. Kumarasinghe et al have reported that essential oil of betel leaf (EOBL is larvicidal to C. megacephala but there are no publications on its effect on C. bezziana . This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of essential oil of betel leaf ( Piper betle against the larvae of C. bezziana in vitro . EOBL was prepared at the Industrial Technology Institute Colombo, Sri Lanka, according to a standard protocol. The experiment on larvae was carried out at the Research Institute for Veterinary Sciences in Bogor, Indonesia. EOBL concentrations of 2%, 3% and 4% were prepared with Tween 80. Two ml of 4%, 3% and 2% EOBL in 1% Tween 80 (v/v/aq were poured into separate Petri dishes. Ten 1st and 2nd instar larvae were placed in each Petri dish. Asuntol (Chaumaphos 1% was used as positive control and distilled water with 1% tween 80 was the negative control. Larval mortality was assessed half-hourly. The experiment was repeated five times and averages were compared. Sustained immobility of the larvae, after exposure to the relevant substances was considered as death. The efficacy of EOBL depended on, the stages of C. bezziana larvae and the concentration. With 4% EOBL, all first instar larvae were killed within two hours and the second instar larvae were killed by four hours. The positive control showed no mortality until four hours but all larvae were weak, from the first 30 minutes. In the negative control, larvae were mobile and active. EOBL 3% killed all the first instar larvae by 150 minutes and 74% of the second instar at four hours. By 210 minutes, 2% preparation had killed 100% of the first instars. EOBL is an effective larvicidal for C. bezziana first and second instar larvae in vitro . This natural product has a great potential to be developed as a novel larvicide against this

  15. MicroRNA-17-5p post-transcriptionally regulates p21 expression in irradiated betel quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Y.; HungKuang Univ., Taichung; Lin, K.C.; Chiou, J.F.; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei; Jeng, S.C.; Cheng, W.H.; Chang, C.I.; Lin, W.C.; Wu, L.L.; Lee, H.L.; Chen, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. OC3 is an oral carcinoma cell line that was established from cells collected from a long-term betel nut chewer who does not smoke. After we found that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is induced in OC3 cells, we used this cell line to examine the biological role(s) of this microRNA in response to exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A combined SYBR green-based real-time PCR and oligonucleotide ligation assay was used to examine the expression of the miR-17 polycistron in irradiated OC3 cells. The roles of miR-17-5p and p21 were evaluated with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) that were designed and used to inhibit their expression. Expression of the p21 protein was evaluated by Western blotting. The clonogenic assay and annexin V staining were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Cells in which miR-17-5p was stably knocked down were used to create ectopic xenografts to evaluate in vivo the role of miR-17-5p. Results: A radiation dose of 5 Gy significantly increased miR-17-5p expression in irradiated OC3 cells. Inhibition of miR-17-5p expression enhanced the radiosensitivity of the OC3 cells. We found that miR-17-5p downregulates radiation-induced p21 expression in OC3 cells and, by using a tumor xenograft model, it was found that p21 plays a critical role in increasing the radiosensitivity of OC3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: miR-17-5p is induced in irradiated OC3 cells and it downregulates p21 protein expression, contributing to the radioresistance of OC3 cells. (orig.)

  16. MicroRNA-17-5p post-transcriptionally regulates p21 expression in irradiated betel quid chewing-related oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; HungKuang Univ., Taichung (China). Dept. of Biotechnology; Lin, K.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Chiou, J.F. [Taipei Medical Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hospice and Palliative Center; Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Cancer Center; Jeng, S.C. [Taipei Medical Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Cheng, W.H.; Chang, C.I. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Hemato-Ongology; Lin, W.C. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Thoracic Surgery; Wu, L.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Lee, H.L. [Taipei Medical Univ., Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Chen, R.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital and National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. OC3 is an oral carcinoma cell line that was established from cells collected from a long-term betel nut chewer who does not smoke. After we found that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is induced in OC3 cells, we used this cell line to examine the biological role(s) of this microRNA in response to exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A combined SYBR green-based real-time PCR and oligonucleotide ligation assay was used to examine the expression of the miR-17 polycistron in irradiated OC3 cells. The roles of miR-17-5p and p21 were evaluated with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) that were designed and used to inhibit their expression. Expression of the p21 protein was evaluated by Western blotting. The clonogenic assay and annexin V staining were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis, respectively. Cells in which miR-17-5p was stably knocked down were used to create ectopic xenografts to evaluate in vivo the role of miR-17-5p. Results: A radiation dose of 5 Gy significantly increased miR-17-5p expression in irradiated OC3 cells. Inhibition of miR-17-5p expression enhanced the radiosensitivity of the OC3 cells. We found that miR-17-5p downregulates radiation-induced p21 expression in OC3 cells and, by using a tumor xenograft model, it was found that p21 plays a critical role in increasing the radiosensitivity of OC3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: miR-17-5p is induced in irradiated OC3 cells and it downregulates p21 protein expression, contributing to the radioresistance of OC3 cells. (orig.)

  17. The use of fuzzy logic to determine the concentration of betel leaf essential oil and its potency as a juice preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep

    2018-02-01

    The present study was attempted to determine organoleptically acceptable concentration of betel leaf essential oil (BLEO) in raw apple juice using fuzzy logic approach, and to evaluate the efficacy of the acceptable concentration in the juice under refrigerated storage. The presence of BLEO components in treated juice was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Based on similarity values, the acceptable concentration in the juice was found to be 0.19µl/ml of BLEO. Total antioxidant capacity of untreated juice was found to be 16% less than treated juice at the end of storage. The treated juice exceeded total aerobic plate count of 2 log 10 (cfu/ml) on 15th day of storage. Based on safe limits of microbial load, the shelf life of treated juice was extended by 6days as compared to untreated juice under refrigerated storage. BLEO contributes to green consumerism and its application as food preservative will add value to the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers.

  19. Individual, social and environmental determinants of smokeless tobacco and betel quid use amongst adolescents of Karachi: a school-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azmina; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2017-11-28

    With 600 million people using betel quid (BQ) globally, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use being more wide-spread; the duo is an uphill public health concern in South Asian countries. SLT and/or BQ use increases the risk for morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. Because SLT and/or BQ use is initiated during adolescence, it renders this group more vulnerable; and particular attention is needed to curb SLT and/or BQ use to reduce related disease burden. We aimed to observe the differential individual, social and environmental features amongst SLT and/or BQ users to determine the key influencers of its use in adolescents. This study was a cross-sectional survey of 2140 adolescents from secondary schools of Karachi, Pakistan. The main outcome measure was SLT and/or BQ use based on their consumption in the past 30 days. Univariate and multivariate regression binary logistic analyses were employed while reporting results in both crude form and adjusted odds ratio (after adjusting for all remaining individual, social and environmental level variables) with 95% confidence level. A p-value of co-education schools. Students whose peers (OR = 6.79, 95% CI 4.67-9.87, p-value co-education, parents and peers use, lack of knowledge based sessions on harmful health effects of SLT and/or BQ, and easy availability of the product from hawkers outside school all contribute towards enhanced risk of SLT and/or BQ use in adolescents.

  20. The effectiveness of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn extract gel and cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao L extract gel application against the hardness of enamel surface in vitro.

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    Juni Jekti Nugroho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Nowadays several ways  have been evolved  to increase the hardness of the enamel surface as an effort to prevent caries. One of the alternatives that can be used is application of gel with herbal basic material. Material and Methods : The use of herbal basic material is preferred by people because the side effects are relatively small compared to synthetic drugs. Piper betle and cocoa beans are medicinal plants that is often used by people to inhibit caries. This is because piper betle and cocoa beans contain hardness that may influence the enamel surface. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of piper betle extract gel and cocoa bean extract gel against the hardness of enamel surface. The samples, maxillary first premolar teeth, which has been extracted and does not have caries, were divided into 3 treatment groups: piper betle extract gel, cocoa bean extract gel, and distilled water as a negative control. Each treatment group consisted of 8 samples. The samples are decoronated in cemento-enamel junction (CEJ areas and planted on orthoplast blocks with labial surface facing up. Samples were applied in labial enamel surface to 5, 15 and 35 minutes period times. Samples before and after the application in each treatment group were measured using Universal Hardness Tester. Data were collected and analyzed using ANNOVA Repeated test. Results : Showed there were significant differences (p 0.05 of enamel surface hardness before and after the application of piper betel extract gel and distilled water. Conclusion : Therefore it can be concluded that cocoa been extract gel is more effective to increase the hardness of email surface.

  1. The Role of Physical Activity in Harm Reduction among Betel Quid Chewers from a Prospective Cohort of 419,378 Individuals.

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    Feng En Lo

    Full Text Available To assess the benefits of regular exercise in reducing harms associated with betel quid (BQ chewing.The study cohort, 419,378 individuals, participated in a medical screening program between 1994 and 2008, with 38,324 male and 1,495 female chewers, who consumed 5-15 quids of BQ a day. Physical activity of each individual, based on "MET-hour/week", was classified as "inactive" or "active", where activity started from a daily 15 minutes/day or more of brisk walking (≥3.75 MET-hour/week. Hazard ratios for mortality and remaining years in life expectancy were calculated.Nearly one fifth (18.7% of men, but only 0.7% of women were chewers. Chewers had a 10-fold increase in oral cancer risk; and a 2-3-fold increase in mortality from lung, esophagus and liver cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with doubling of all-cause mortality. More than half of chewers were physically inactive (59%. Physical activity was beneficial for chewers, with a reduction of all-cause mortality by 19%. Inactive chewers had their lifespan shortened by 6.3 years, compared to non-chewers, but being active, chewers improved their health by gaining 2.5 years. The improvement, however, fell short of offsetting the harms from chewing.Chewers had serious health consequences, but being physically active, chewers could mitigate some of these adverse effects, and extend life expectancy by 2.5 years and reduce mortality by one fifth. Encouraging exercise, in addition to quitting chewing, remains the best advice for 1.5 million chewers in Taiwan.

  2. A Comprehensive Analysis on the Association between Tobacco-Free Betel Quid and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer in Taiwanese Men.

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    Yuan-Hua Wu

    Full Text Available Although betel quid (BQ is an established risk factor of head and neck cancer (HNC, insufficiencies exist in the literature regarding the dose-response, BQ types, HNC sites, and BQ cessation. The current study was conducted to fill these insufficiencies.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association between BQ and HNC. In-person interview was conducted to collect data on BQ chewing. The current analysis included 487 men newly diagnosed with HNC and 617 male controls who were frequency-matched to the cases by age. The association between BQ and HNC was assessed using multivariable unconditional logistic regression.Ever BQ chewing was associated with an increased HNC risk regardless of the BQ types. A non-linear positive association between BQ and HNC was observed, with a steep rise in HNC risk for the first 5 pack-years or 200,000 minutes of BQ consumption. Every year of BQ cessation was associated with a 2.9% reduction in HNC risk; however, the risk did not reduce to the level of non-BQ chewers even after 20 years of BQ cessation. Eliminating BQ chewing may prevent 51.6% of HNCs, 62.6% of oral cancers, and 41.3% of pharyngeal cancers in Taiwan.Our results supported the positive association between BQ and HNC. BQ cessation is effective in reducing HNC risk and should be encouraged. Because BQ cessation may not reduce the HNC risk to the level of non-BQ chewers, it is important to prevent the initiation of BQ chewing.

  3. Radionuclides detected in lime samples that consumed with tobacco and betel nuts by people of Northeast India where head and neck squamous cells cancer (HNSCC) is prevalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilip Bhattacharjee; Satoru Endo; Kenichi Tanaka; Masaharu Hoshi

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is a very predominant type of cancer amongst the population of northeastern states of India than the rest of the world. Epidemiological and other data suggest consumption of betel nuts with/without tobacco and lime or tobacco alone with lime is a probable cause of high cancer incidence. The fundamental question arises that why this particular cancer is induced more in this region while people follow the similar habits elsewhere. Here we report the results on analysis of lime samples, collected from 12 different locations spectrophotometrically by high-purity germanium detector. The calculated activity of radionuclides showed to an average of 2.68, 0.10 and 0.83 Bq/gm for 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th series respectively for ten samples which are about 8 times higher than the normal background level of 0.37, 0.02 and 0.02 Bq/gm for 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th series found in control samples, collected from outside of northeast. The results conclusively showed for the first time that the lime samples almost throughout the northeastern India contain high proportion of radionuclides of uranium, thorium and actinides series. Further, annual effective dose of gamma radiation calculations from these results of earth's crust in northeast showed that gamma rays emitted at an average dose of up to 2.5 mSv/year/consumer approximately. This dose calculation in the oral cavity is underestimated as short range radiations by decay of alpha, beta and electron-capture etc are not considered in the present study. Continuous exposure of such low dose radiations emitting from different radionuclides to the sensitive squamous cells of the oral cavity for a long twenty years or more amounting to a total minimum dose of at least 50 mSv evidently contributes towards excessive HNSCC to the people of northeast than other parts of India.

  4. PROJETO ARBORIZAÇÃO, JARDINAGEM E HORTA – COMUNIDADE BETEL: Contribuições Para a Formação Acadêmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Carolina Matias Lucatelli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe apresentar osresultados e discussões de um projeto aplicado na Escola Municipal de EducaçãoBásica Comunidade Betel, extensão da Escola Municipal de Educação BásicaRodrigo damasceno, juntamente com o sexto semestre 2011/1 de pedagogia daUniversidade do Estado de Mato Grosso (UNEMAT-campus de Sinop na disciplina de Geografia para o Início da Escolarização(GIE, sob regência da professora Ma. Edneuza Alves Trugillo. Contou também coma colaboração de duas professoras da escola envolvida.            O projeto “Arborização, jardinagem ehorta” foi pensado e realizado envolvendo três disciplinas do semestre, sãoelas “Ciências para o Início da escolarização”, “Artes para o Início daEscolarização”, mas principalmente a disciplina de GIE.             Desenvolvido em cinco encontros naescola o projeto objetivou ações para a transformação visual do ambiente em relaçãoa elementos da natureza e paisagem através de três elementos: jardinagem,arborização e plantio de horta na escola. Mediada pelas  ações e práticas realizadas, a disciplina docurso buscou articular a teoria à prática contribuindo para a formação acadêmicada turma como costa na Matriz curricular do Curso de Pedagogia- campus universitário de Sinop- e naementa da disciplina, justificando assim a ação na escola.

  5. Modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-12-23

    The current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (Piper betle L. var. Tamluk Mitha) essential oil (BLEO) and modelling its effect on growth of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of BLEO revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. Among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), β-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and caryophyllene (11.3%) were found to be the major compounds of BLEO. A disc diffusion and disc volatilization method were used to evaluate antifungal activity of the oil against a selected food spoilage mould. The logistic model was used to study the kinetics of spore germination. Prediction and validation of antifungal effect of BLEO was performed on semi-synthetic medium (apple juice agar) using predictive microbiological tools. The Baranyi and Roberts model was used to estimate maximum growth rate (μmax in mm/day) and apparent lag time (λ in days) of the mould. Secondary modelling was performed using a re-parameterized Monod-type equation based on cardinal values to study the effect of different BLEO concentration on estimated growth parameters. Emax (minimum concentration of oil at which mould growth was inhibited) and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration of BLEO at which lag time is infinite) value of BLEO against P. expansum was estimated to be 0.56 and 0.74 μl/ml, respectively, which was found to be similar on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as apple juice agar (AJA) medium. The correlation between estimated growth parameters of the mould on both the media was obtained with satisfactory statistical indices (R(2) and RMSE). This study revealed inhibitory efficacy of BLEO on spore germination, mycelial growth and apparent lag time of P. expansum in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, BLEO has potential to be used as a natural food preservative. Copyright © 2015

  6. Chemopreventive efficacy of betel leaf extract and its constituents on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced carcinogenesis and their effect on drug detoxification system in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuine, M A; Amonkar, A J; Bhide, S V

    1991-04-01

    Effects of topically applied betel leaf extract (BLE) and its constituents. beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, eugenol and hydroxychavicol on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin tumors were evaluated in two strains of mice. BLE, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, significantly inhibited the tumor formation by 83, 86, 86% in Swiss mice and 92, 94 and 89% in male Swiss bare mice respectively. Hydroxychavicol showed 90% inhibition in Swiss bare mice at 24 weeks of treatment. Eugenol showed minimal protection in both strains of mice. The mean latency period and survivors in BLE, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and hydroxychavicol treated groups were remarkably high as compared to DMBA alone treated group. Intraperitoneal injection of betal leaf constituents showed a significant effect on both glutathione and glutathione S-transferase levels in the Swiss mouse skin.

  7. Comparative distribution of Lysyl Oxidase (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphism among tea-garden workers (habitual chewers of betel quid of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Gopal Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chewing of processed arecanut products with tobacco and betel quid has been attributed to many oral pathological conditions. These products are very popular among the youngsters of lower economic groups. Genetic predisposition has been now identified as a major risk factor for increasing the susceptibility toward the disease among these chewers. Aims: Our study mainly aims to find out the predisposition of LOX (G473A and NQO1 (C609T polymorphisms and present a comparison between the population (habitually exposed to processed arecanut and smokeless tobacco products of a metro-city Kolkata and the tea-garden workers of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Settings and Design: Subjects for the study was recruited from various oral health check-up camps organized in the tea-gardens of Darjeeling district and Kolkata city. Materials and Methods: Genotyping analysis was done through a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based approach. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-way contingency table analysis software (JAVASTAT: http://statpages.org/ctab2 × 2.html using 95% confidence interval was used to study the distribution of genotypes among the populations. A P T (609 was found to be significantly higher among the north Bengal tea-garden workers [OR 0.480 (0.280-0.82 P = 0.01; 0.218 (0.091-0.524 P = 0.0001], respectively. Interestingly CT (21% in both and TT (8% and 7%, respectively were found to be equally distributed in the two populations. For LOX G > A (473 a significantly higher number of Kolkata individuals were found to carry the heterozygous GA allele in individuals aged <30 years [OR 3.779 (1.684-6.547 P = 0.001]. However, none were carrier of heterozygous GA allele of Kolkata population as compared with 29% north Bengal tea-garden workers aged above 31 years. Conclusions: A close observation of occurrence of oral diseases over time among such a population will be helpful to identify risk

  8. Cemaran Kapang pada Pakan Sapi dan Uji In Vitro Sirih terhadap Pertumbuhan Kapang Aspergillus flavus (MOLD CONTAMINATION IN CATTLE FEED AND IN VITRO ASSAY OF PIPER BETEL AGAINTS GROWTH OF MOLD CONTAMINANT ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of mold in feed and Ingridients of feed is important because pathogenic and toxigenic mold will contaminate and cause mycotic and mycotoxicosis on livestock especially cattle. Information regarding the data is required in an attempt to controll of mold contaminant. Base on the previous study piper betel leaf (Piper betle showed high activity as antimold. The aim of this study were to obtain data of mold contamination in cattle feed and ingredients of feed from the provinces of Banten, Lampung, Jakarta and West Java, and to test piper betel as an antimold herbal from traditional medicinal plants originated from Indonesia. Isolation and identification of fungi were conducted on the flour, glycerides, onggok, corn, peanut, coconut, coffee, concentrates, lamtoro, pineapple, rice, grass, palm, cassava, tofu lees, fish meal, bone meal from the provinces of Banten, Lampung, Jakarta and West Java. Isolation was done by plating the samples on agar medium, The mold have grown on media was identified. Feed that has been mixed with the extracts and powders plus mold inoculum was incubated. After 3=7 days incubation, colony forming unit (CFU of the mixtures were counted. The results showed that the majority of feed contaminated with mold, but still below the threshold. The mold contamination in wheat flour, corn, concentrates and tofu lees exceeds from the threshold. Aspergillus sp, A. amstelodami, A. clavatus, A. Candidus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. niger, Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Hyphomycetes sp., Mycelia sterilata, Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus sp. Penicillium sp were most commonly found in the feed as much as 2.56 x 107 CFU. At a concentration of 10%. in vitro test showed that the piper betel leaf in powder form is more effective than extract form to inhibit the growth of A.flavus The conclusion of this study was flour, corn, concentrates and tofu lees contaminated by molds

  9. [Review of the CD Betel Nuts by Christopher Roberts (1996)

    OpenAIRE

    Senft, G.

    2001-01-01

    (TMCD 9602). Taipei: Trees Music & Art, 12-1, Lane 10, Sec. 2, Hsin Yi Rd. Taipei, TAIWAN. Distributed by Sony Music Entertainment (Taiwan)Ltd.,6th fl. No 35 , Lane 11, Kwang-Fu N. Rd., Taipei TAIWAN (CD accompanied by a full color bucklet)

  10. Hydroxychavicol: a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Nakao, Kikuyo; Hirata, Noriko; Namba, Kensuke; Nomi, Takao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Moriyama, Kenzo; Shintani, Takahiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piper betle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  11. Phytochemical Analysis, Identification and Quantification of Antibacterial Active Compounds in Betel Leaves, Piper betle Methanolic Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahidah, A; Saad, C R; Hassan, M D; Rukayadi, Y; Norazian, M H; Kamarudin, M S

    2017-01-01

    The problems of bacterial diseases in aquaculture are primarily controlled by antibiotics. Medicinal plants and herbs which are seemed to be candidates of replacements for conventional antibiotics have therefore gained increasing interest. Current study was performed to investigate the presence of phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activities and composition of antibacterial active compounds in methanolic extract of local herb, Piper betle . Qualitative phytochemical analysis was firstly carried out to determine the possible active compounds in P. betle leaves methanolic extract. The antibacterial activities of major compounds from this extract against nine fish pathogenic bacteria were then assessed using TLC-bioautography agar overlay assay and their quantity were determined simultaneously by HPLC method. The use of methanol has proved to be successful in extracting numerous bioactive compounds including antibacterial compounds. The TLC-bioautography assay revealed the inhibitory action of two compounds which were identified as hydroxychavicol and eugenol. The $-caryophyllene however was totally inactive against all the tested bacterial species. In this study, the concentration of hydroxychavicol in extract was found to be 374.72±2.79 mg g-1, while eugenol was 49.67±0.16 mg g-1. Based on these findings, it could be concluded that hydroxychavicol and eugenol were the responsible compounds for the promising antibacterial activity of P. betle leaves methanolic extract. This inhibitory action has significantly correlated with the amount of the compounds in extract. Due to its potential, the extract of P. betle leaves or it compounds can be alternative source of potent natural antibacterial agents for aquaculture disease management.

  12. Isolation And Identification Of Antioxidant Compounds Leaf Betel Seating (Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiwi Diastutia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirih duduk or Piper sarmentosum Roxb. ex Hunter have been long used the people in Indonesia for traditional medicine to cure various diseases. This research was aimed to isolate and identify antioxidant compounds from P. sarmentosum leaves. The isolation bioactive compounds of P. sarmentosum leaves was performed by extraction the powder of P. sarmentosum leaves using methanol. The methanol extract was fractionated using n-hexane and ethylacetate in their various composition.  The fractions respectively was examined their antioxidant activity. The most active extract was fractionated again performed by coloumn chromatography Identification of the bioactive compounds was carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrometry, infra red (IR spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS. The result showed that the methanol extract of  P. sarmentosum leaves have antioxidant activity. The fractionation was performed by coloumn chromatography using n-hexane-ethylacetate (4:6 eluent, a bioactive compound of sinamic acid derivative was 4-ethoxy-2-hidroxy-3,5-dimethoxy sinamic acid could be purely isolated. Keywords: Piper sarmentosum, antioxidant, sinamic acid derivative. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Pre-clinical evaluation of extracts and essential oils from betel-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts and oils were preclinically studied based on cyto - and genotoxicity using microculture tetrazolium (MTT) and comet assays. Results: The crude extracts showed an IC50 in leukocytes and HeLa cells of 58.59 -97.31 mg/ml and 34.91-101.79 mg/ml, the LD50 is higher than 5000 mg/kg. With lower values than the ...

  14. Dental Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Resource Center Burmese (myanma bhasa) Expand Section Betel Nut - English PDF Betel Nut - myanma bhasa (Burmese) PDF Orange County North ... California Dental Association Karen (S’gaw Karen) Expand Section Betel Nut - English PDF Betel Nut - S’gaw Karen (Karen) ...

  15. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a new window. Burmese (myanma bhasa) Expand Section Betel Nut - English PDF Betel Nut - myanma bhasa (Burmese) PDF Orange County North ... California Dental Association Karen (S’gaw Karen) Expand Section Betel Nut - English PDF Betel Nut - S’gaw Karen (Karen) ...

  16. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Shamim Khan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  17. Head and Neck Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck include the following: Paan (betel quid) . Immigrants from Southeast Asia who use paan (betel quid) ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. ...

  18. GAMBARAN KEPERCAYAAN TENTANG KHASIAT MENYIRIH PADA MASYARAKAT PAPUA DI KELURAHAN ARDIPURA I DISTRIK JAYAPURA SELATAN KOTA JAYAPURA

    OpenAIRE

    Kamisorei, Rahel Violin; Devy, Shrimarti Rukmini

    2018-01-01

    Indonesian people has long know the, betel leaf, areca nut, and lime is material to betel chewing. Chewing the betel leaf is believed can care teeth by ancestors. They are convinced that slacking can strengthen teeth, cure small cuts in the mouth, eliminate bad breath. Indigenous Papuans engage in slaughtering behavior because of the belief inherited from the ancestors. The frequency of betel chewing practiced by indigenous people of Papua is > 2 times a day by consuming more than two areca n...

  19. Comparing Immunohistologic and Demographic Variables of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    occurrence at 5th to 61h 14 decade, tobacco-alcohol association, betel nut chewing, HPV infection and are similar histologically [3,4]. Alcohol...it is of increased significance in areas oflndia and Southeast Asia [5]. The "chewing" of betel quid is the most common etiological factor in these...pai1s of the world. Betel quid is a combination of betel leaf, areca nut, and slaked lime. Often, tobacco is added and the product is known as

  20. MUTAGENICITY OF NITRITE-TREATED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF 'PIPER BETLE'; L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betel quid is chewed as a masticatory material by people in certain areas of Asia. The quid chewing has been related to oral cancer by epidemiological study. The mutagenic components in the aqueous extracts of betel quid ingredients were studied. Only nitrite-treated aqueous extr...

  1. PEMANFAATAN REBUSAN DAUN SIRIH MERAH (Piper crocatum DALAM MENURUNKAN TINGKAT KEJADIAN MASTITIS BERDASARKANN UJI CMT DAN SCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razan Harastha Sjuhada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The red betel leaves (Piper crocatum known as herbal antiseptic that contain many substances like essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin. The red betel leaves can be use to replace chemical antiseptic and more safe to use for teat dipping for dairy cow. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of teat dipping with red betel leaves decoction to decrease subclinical mastitis level and somatic cell based on CMT and SCC. The method in this research was experiment with Randomize Block Design with 3 treatments and 5 replications. The data analyzed with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, if there were significant effects it would be continue by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The results showed that teat dipping with red betel leaves decoction had a significant different (P<0.05 to decrease mastitis level. Teat dipping with red betel leaves decoction 20% concentration could decrease mastitis level up to 30%. Teat dipping with red betel leaves decoction had a significant difference (P<0.05 to decrease the amount of somatic cell too. Teat dipping with red betel leaves stew 20% concentration could decrease the amount of somatic cell up to 1.98% or 0.12CFU/ml. The conclusion that teat dipping with red betel leaves decoction 20% was the best concentration and gave the best results to decrease mastitis level and somatic cell.

  2. Conserved host-pathogen PPIs. Globally conserved inter-species bacterial PPIs based conserved host-pathogen interactome derived novel target in C. pseudotuberculosis, C. diphtheriae, M. tuberculosis, C. ulcerans, Y. pestis, and E. coli targeted by Piper betel compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Debmalya; Gupta, Krishnakant; Jain, Neha

    2013-01-01

    of Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA). In this study, we used computational approaches to develop common conserved intra-species protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks first time for four Cp strains (Cp FRC41, Cp 316, Cp 3/99-5, and Cp P54B96) followed by development of a common conserved inter...

  3. Green Antibiotic Daun Sirih (Piper betle l. Sebagai Pengganti Antibiotik Komersial untuk Penanganan Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabby Lutviandhitarani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Green antibiotic betel leaf (Piper betle l. as a substitute  for commercial antibiotic in mastitis treatment  ABSTRACT. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible antibacterial activity of betel leaf on the amount and microscopic appearance of mastitis-causing bacteria. The randomized block design with 5 treatment groups were : K group (mastitis milk only as negative control, Ab group (mastitis milk + antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin as positive control,  S1 group (mastitis milk + 1,25 ml betel leaf water extract, S2 group (mastitis milk+ 2,5 ml betel leaf water extract, and S3 group (mastitis milk + 5 ml betel leaf water extract. The result showed that the amount of bacteria in the betel leaves groups (S1, S2, and S3 groups were lower (P 0,05. Moreover, this research showed that betel leaf water extract had the same effectiveness with commercial antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin to inhibit the growth of bacteria as indicated by the same amount of bacteria (P>0,05 among the betel leaf groups (S1, S2, and S3 groups and the Ab group. Gram-positive and negative bacteria were seen in the K group. However, only Gram-negative bacteria were visible in the betel leaf groups (S1, S2, and S3 groups and in the Ab groups, indicating that betel leaf had the same effectiveness as penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria.

  4. The relationship between areca nut usage and heart rate in lactating Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, S; Mascie-Taylor, C G N; Rosetta, L

    2002-01-01

    The betel-nut quid, a piece of areca nut chewed alone or mixed with tobacco and slaked lime wrapped in betel vine leaf, is widely used in Asian populations as a stimulant (due to the cholinergic agent, arecoline) or as a relaxant (due to arecaidine and guvacine). This study, which formed part of a larger project assessing the effect of energy expenditure on the duration of post-partum amenorrhoea, provided the opportunity to assess the role of chronic areca nut usage on heart rate and oxygen consumption during resting periods and during graded stepping tests. The mothers (n = 47), all of whom were lactating, were aged between 19 and 39, of low nutritional status and anaemic and they all chewed betel quid daily. Moderate users of betel quid (defined as more than 3 times a day) were found, on average, to have a significantly lower heart rate at rest and during exercise than low betel quid users (less than 3 times a day) but there was no modification in oxygen consumption. Chronic betel quid use does not seem to affect the assessment of 24h energy expenditure provided that subjects are denied access to betel nut usage before and during calibration.

  5. DAYA HAMBAT SARI DAUN SIRIH MERAH (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI ESCHERICHIA COLI DAN Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustina Indriati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sirih merah (piper crocatum ruiz & pav has been used, since ancient society, as drugs.  The chemical compounds contained in red betel are as antibacterial, the compounds are: flavonoids, alkaloids. tannins and essential oils. The research has been conducted in order to determine the inhibition of red betel leaf extract (piper crocatum ruiz & pav on the growth of the bacteria Escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus. This study uses RAL with 6 treatments and 3 replications: A treatment (red betel leaf extract 10%, B (red betel leaf extract 20%, C (red betel leaf extract 30%, D (red leaf extract 40% , E (red betel leaf extract 50% and F (amoxicilin 10% as controls. The results showed no real influence with inhibition diameter on treatment A (6.69 mm, treatment B (8.88 mm, treatment C (7.76 mm, treatment D (9.53 mm, treatment E (12 , 79mm and treatment F (9.45 mm. From staphylococcus aureus it  was obtained significant results with a diameter of inhibition in treatment C (7.70 mm, treatment A (8.22 mm, treatment D (8.58 mm, treatment B (9.53 mm, treatment E (10.39 mm and treatment F (17.59 mm. The red betel leaf extract was able to inhibit the growth of bacteria Escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus Key words: Sirih merah, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus

  6. PEMBERIAN TEPUNG DAUN SIRIH (Piper Betle L. PADA SAPI PERAH LAKTASI PASCA PUNCAK PRODUKSI UNTUK MENGOBATI DAN MENCEGAH MASTITIS SUBKLINIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Sudarman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to find the best administration method of betel leaf meal in long term to prevent and to treat subclinical mastitis of lactating dairy cows. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications and used twelve cows. The treatments were P0 (without betel leaf meal, as control, P1 (administration of betel leaf meal every day, P2 (administration of betel leaf meal with one week interval and P3 (administration of betel leaf meal in 3 weeks and 1 week off. Parameters measured were somatic cell count, milk composition, milk production, immunoglobulin (IgG, level of glucose and triglyceride. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences amongst treatments were examined by Duncan multiple range test. Results showed that number of somatic cells in the control (P0 increased by 17.22%, whereas P1, P2 and P3 decreased somatic cell count by 95.74, 97.17 and 89.03%, respectively. Supplementation of betel leaves did not significantly affect milk composition, IgG, glucose and triglyceride. It was concluded that supplementation of betel leaf meal with one week interval (P2 was the best method in lowering the number of somatic cells and increasing milk production without changing the composition of milk.

  7. Kebiasaan Menyirih dan Kesehatan Rongga Mulut Lansia di Desa Hilibadalu Kabupaten Nias

    OpenAIRE

    Lombu, Elvis Sofyan

    2015-01-01

    Betel chewing is part of tradition that completes the structure of culture and usually closely related to habits in the community in certain areas in Indonesia. This habit is a tradition made hereditary in the majority of the rural population which was originally closely related to local customs. But this habit can lead to health problems in the oral cavity. This research aims to find out how betel chewing betel and oral health by using a descriptive research design. The population in this re...

  8. Chrome Tanning Leather of Giant Sea Perch Combined with Seed Extract Areca Nut on the Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustami - Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanning is the process of converting raw hide protein to leather, which are stable, not easily decompose, and is suitable for a variety of uses. The use of vegetable based tanning materials in the leather tanning process has not been carried out. Vegetable based materials that were used are betel nuts. This plant contains tannin which is the main agent in the process of leather tanning. The aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of snapper leather treated with betel nut extract. Soxhlet extracting method with methanol as a solvent were used to obtain tannin from betel nuts. Tanned Snapper Leather were analyzed for physical quality, elongation strength, tensile strength, tear strength, and sewing strength. The result showed that methanol extracted betel nut with 10% concentration gives the optimum physical characteristics.Keywords: areca nut, chrome, snapper, snapper

  9. Association between tobacco consumption and periodontal diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Zakir Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The relationship between smoking and chewing betel leaf and periodontal diseases provide strong evidence that tobacco products could be in a straight line responsible for developing periodontal diseases.

  10. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Kadashetti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Chewing tobacco/betel quid is a strong risk factor in the development of PMD and oral cancer. Also age, gender, SES, education, and occupation influence the development of PMD and oral cancer.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 951 - 1000 of 1309 ... Vol 4, No 4 (2007), Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Effects Of ... and antiulcerogenic effect of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract, Abstract .... of extracts and essential oils from betel-like scent Piper species ...

  12. Effect of Piper betle L. and its extracts on the growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C C; Yu, R C

    1984-01-01

    Ground powder of the leaf and fruit of Piper betle L., a tropical spice plant grown in Southeast Asia, was prepared and extracted by chloroform, ethanol and water with one solvent only or with 3 solvents in sequence. The betel powder and various extracts were added to YES broth to determine their effects on the growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Results showed that betel leaf powder exhibited higher antimycotic activity than fruit. One half percent of ground leaf powder completely inhibited the growth and aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus. Among the solvent extracts, chloroform and ethanol extracts of betel leaf prepared from a single solvent extraction showed more antimycotic activity. The ethanol extract of betel leaf at the level of 450 micrograms/ml would eliminate A. parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. The antimycotic activity of this ethanol extract was most pronounced at pH 4.

  13. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  14. Karakterisasi Simplisia, Skrining Fitokimia dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun dari Dua Varietas Sirih (Piper betle L.) Terhadap Bakteri Streptococcus mutans Penyebab Karies Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Sulastri

    2010-01-01

    Leaf of betle (Piper betle L) has beeen used traditionally as medicine, for example as mouthwash, prevent caries and wound curing. This betle have many varieties which was differented by it colour, form and taste. Part of betle are different from colour, form, taste. Part of betle are red betle, Malay betel, black betel, silver betle, forest betle and prawn, but some people more used to sirih Melayu. It happened because almost people do not recordnice varieties of Piper betle. This observat...

  15. Helligt og profant rum i Det Gamle Testamente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2010-01-01

    Helligstedets kulturevolution illusreret emd scener fra Det Gamle Testamente: Moses og tornebusken; Jakob i Betel; templet i Jerusalem. Markering af helligstedet ved indeksikale tegn for at vække opmærksomhed og fastholde i hukommelse......Helligstedets kulturevolution illusreret emd scener fra Det Gamle Testamente: Moses og tornebusken; Jakob i Betel; templet i Jerusalem. Markering af helligstedet ved indeksikale tegn for at vække opmærksomhed og fastholde i hukommelse...

  16. Green Antibiotic Daun Sirih (Piper betle l.) Sebagai Pengganti Antibiotik Komersial untuk Penanganan Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabby Lutviandhitarani; Dian Wahyu Harjanti; Fajar Wahyono

    2015-01-01

    (Green antibiotic betel leaf (Piper betle l.) as a substitute  for commercial antibiotic in mastitis treatment)  ABSTRACT. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible antibacterial activity of betel leaf on the amount and microscopic appearance of mastitis-causing bacteria. The randomized block design with 5 treatment groups were : K group (mastitis milk only as negative control), Ab group (mastitis milk + antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin as positive control),  ...

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-07

    34forgive and forget" that the Israeli prime minister tricked their president, and to turn a new leaf in relations with him. This optimism is based...as groundnut, cashew and pan. The 30,000-odd betel vines have added a distinctive character to Baliapal-Bhograi and, according to many, it is...extensive betel cultivation that provides the base for the area’s prosperity. The "pan baraja", as the rectangular enclosures used for growing betal

  18. HEMOSTATIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Piper betle, Linn LEAVES TO MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadakata Sinulingga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage occurs in most of the dental care. Untreated hemorrhage could cause excessive blood loss, hypotension, and cyanosis. A Natural resource that reported has an hemostatic effect is ethanol extract of betel leaves (Piper betel, Linn.The aim of this study is to find the minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice. The experimental study used pretest-posttest with control group design was conducted on 35 mice that divided into 7 group which are negative control, positive control (feracrylum 1%, the ethanol extract of betel leaves 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. All mice were injected heparin intravenously. Mice’s tail was cut at diameter 3 mm and pretest bleeding time was counted. Mice’s tail was recut at diameter 4 mm, given treatment for 5 seconds and posttest bleeding time was counted. Results of paired t-test showed that reduction of bleeding time between pretest and posttest was significant (p<0,050. The enhancement of ethanol extract of betel leaves concentration leads to better hemostatic effect. Results of ANOVA test showed that comparison of posttest bleeding time among groups was significant (p<0,050. The minimum concentration of ethanol extract of betel leaves which capable of shortening the bleeding time in mice is 5%.

  19. Constituents of areca chewing related to esophageal cancer risk in Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M-T; Wu, D-C; Hsu, H-K; Kao, E-L; Lee, J-M

    2004-01-01

    Two most common types of areca chewing are noted in Taiwan: raw betel fruit with Piper betle inflorescence or folded in betel leaf. Piper betle inflorescence contains carcinogens, whereas betel leaf includes anticarcinogenic agents. One hundred and twenty-six esophageal squamous-cell-carcinoma patients and 279 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. Areca chewers were 4.4 times (95% CI, 2.2-8.8) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than non-chewers. Sixty-five of the patients were areca chewers, of which, 61 (93.9%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, none chewed it with betel leaf and four (6.1%) chewed both. Of the 24 controls who were chewers, 10 (41.7%), three (12.5%) and 11 (45.8%) chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence, betel leaf, and both, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects who chewed areca with Piper betle inflorescence were 24.4 times (95% CI 3.9-154.4) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than those who chewed areca with betel leaf or with both leaf and inflorescence. Our epidemiologic findings suggest parts of the same Piper plant contains carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic substances.

  20. Perbedaan Daya Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Hijau ( Piper betle L. dan Daun Sirih Merah ( Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav terhadap Pertumbuhan Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristika Aulia Syahrinastiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSirih hijau (Piper betle L. dan sirih merah (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav dipercaya memiliki khasiat mencegah penyakit infeksi saluran kemih yang disebabkan oleh Escherichia coli. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan perbedaan daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih hijaudan daun sirih merah terhadap pertumbuhan Escherichia coli. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental dengan desain post test only control group. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. Hasil penelitian adalah: 1. Efek daya hambat ekstrak daun sirih merah pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%, yaitu 0,6cm, 1,1cm, 1,2cm, dan 1,2cm; 2. Ekstrak daun sirih hijau tidak memiliki efek daya hambat pada konsentrasi 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%. Kesimpulan eksperimen ini adalah ekstrak daun sirih merah memiliki efek daya hambat lebih baik daripada ekstrak daun sirih hijau.Kata kunci: ekstrak daun sirih hijau, ekstrak daun sirih merah, escherichia coli, daerah bebas hambat AbstractGreen betel (Piper betle L. and red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav are trusted of possessing an efficacy of preventing urinary tract infection caused by Eschericia coli. The objective of this study was to explain the difference of inhibition zones between the green betel and the red betel towards the growth of Eschericia coli. The type of this research was experimental study with post test only control group design. This research was carried out in Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Andalas University.The results of this research were: 1.The inhibition zones of red betel extract in concentration of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% were 0.6 cm, 1.1 cm, 1.2 cm, and 1.2 cm; 2. The extract of green betel had none of inhibition zones in concentration of of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. In conclusion, the red betel extract has better inhibition zones than the green betel extrac.Keywords: green betel extract, red betel extract, eschericia coli, inhibition zone

  1. Perbandingan Daya Hambat Larutan Antiseptik Povidone iodine dengan Ekstrak Daun Sirih terhadap Candida albicans secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septriana Putri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Candida albicansb (C. albicans adalah salah satu mikroorganisme penyebab masalah kesehatan reproduksi wanita, yaitu keputihan (fluor albus. Penggunaan larutan povidone iodine dan bahan alam seperti ekstrak daun sirih menjadi pilihan masyarakat sebagai pembersih alat kewanitaan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membandingkandaya hambat larutan antiseptik povidone iodine dan ekstrak daun sirih terhadap jamur C. albicans secara in vitro. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap lima isolat jamur C. albicans dengan larutan kontrol akuades.Perlakuan terdiri dari povidone iodine, ekstrak daun sirih dengan konsentrasi 5%, 10%, dan 20%.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa povidone iodine memiliki daya hambat terhadap C. albicans. Ekstrak daun sirih dengan konsentrasi 5% dan 10% tidak memiliki daya hambat terhadap C. albicans, namun ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 20% memiliki daya hambat terhadap C. albicans. Analisis statistik dengan uji ANOVA yang dilanjutkan dengan uji Post-hoc menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna antara daya hambat larutan povidone iodine dan ekstrak daun sirih 20% terhadap kontrol(p < 0.05.Larutan povidone iodine memiliki daya hambat dua kali lebih besar terhadap pertumbuhan C. albicans dibandingkan ekstrak daun sirih 20%. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa larutan povidone iodine dan ekstrak daun sirih 20% dapat menghambat pertumbuhan jamur C. albicans secara in vitro. Kata kunci: povidone iodine, ekstrak daun sirih, Candida albicansAbstract Candida albicans (C. albicans is one of the frequent causes of  reproductive health problems in women, namely vaginal discharge (fluor albus. The antiseptic solution, povidone iodine, is still an option to overcome vaginal discharge. The use of natural materials such as betel (Piper betle L. leaves extract also become a popular choice as adouche for women. The objective of this study was to compare the inhibitory activity of povidone iodine solution and betel leaf extract against the growth of

  2. Pengaruh Suplementasi Infusa Daun Sirih (Piper betle L. terhadap Kualitas Telur Puyuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fensa Eka Widjaya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural feed additive supplementation could lead to higher production performance of quails on many occasions. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Piper betle L. (betel leaf infuse supplementation on egg characteristics of quails. Quails were raised in Slamet Quail Farm, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia for 3 months. Quails had been fed adlibtum using a commercial diet. Betel leaf supplementation in different concentration had been given to replace drinking water. The treatments were P0: 0% supplementation, P1: 10% supplementation was given since day old quail (DOQ, P2: 20% supplementation was given since DOQ, P3: 30% supplementation was given since DOQ, P4: 10% supplementation was given since laying phase, P5: 20% supplementation was given since laying phase, P6: 30% supplementation was given since laying phase. The results showed that betel leaf infuse supplementation reduced the weight of egg shell, increasing the weight of egg albumin and increased egg weight significantly (P0.05 on another egg quality variables. It could be concluded that betel leaf infuses supplementation could affect the egg shell, albumin, and egg weight without affecting other egg quality traits. Overall, betel leaf supplementation could be applicated because it could increase egg albumin quality and egg weight. Even though additional handling is needed because betle leaf infuses supplementation could reduce egg shell quality and the egg could break easily.

  3. Comparison of knowledge, attitude and practices of betelnut users in two socio-economic areas of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Shah, Syed Raza; Hussain, Mehwish; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Nisar, Nighat

    2013-10-01

    To gain an insight on the knowledge, attitude and practices of those who chew betel nut in two different socioeconomic regions of Karachi. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Saddar and Defence areas of Karachi over a five-week period in March-April 2012. Individual interviews following verbal consent were conducted using a pre-coded questionnaire, which was divided into 3 sections to analyse the knowledge, attitude and practices of the chewers. The data was entered and analysed using SPSS v. 16.0. Pearson's chi-square was used as the primary statistical test. A total of 370 subjects, 185 (50%) from each area, comprised the study. Majority of the chewers in Defence had higher educational qualification and income. Most of the participants in both areas acknowledged that betel nut chewing can potentially result in mouth (n = 274; 74.1%) and throat cancers (n = 267; 72.2%). A large part of the sample (n = 299; 80.8%) conceded that betel nut chewing is a bad habit, and almost half the sample was addicted to it (n = 194; 52.4%). Awareness regarding the detrimental effects of betel nut was satisfactory amongst the subjects, but the population was not willing to quit the habit. We recommend a two-pronged approach, offering widespread educational and awareness campaigns to prevent increased consumption of betel nuts, and professional counselling services for those already addicted.

  4. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Shyam B Verma,2 Fareedi Mukram Ali,3 Kishor Patil4 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Nirvana Skin Clinic, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; 3Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India; 4Departments of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. Keywords: betel nut, betel quid, oral disease, squamous cell carcinoma, tobacco, fibrosis

  5. UJI TOKSISITAS SUBKRONIS INFUSA DAUN SIRIH MERAH (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav PADA TIKUS: STUDI TERHADAP GAMBARAN MIKROSKOPIS JANTUNG DAN KADAR SGOT DARAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasius Kuncarli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav is one of the plants used as traditional medicine community. To determine the level of safety of long-term consumption, then tested subchronic toxicity. The study aimed to determine the relationship spectrum of toxic effects of infusion with changes in levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and cardiac histopathology. The study was purely experimental, randomized study design complete unidirectional pattern. A total of 40 Wistar rats (20 males and 20 females, 2-3 months were divided randomly into 4 groups: control group distilled water and 1.38; 2.07; 3.105 g/KgBW of red betel leaf infusion with administration once daily for 28 days. Observations were made before treatment and on day 28 by orbital sinus sampling through to measurement of blood levels of SGOT be analyzed by one way ANOVA and partially dissected mouse to see the damage to the heart. The results showed there was no significant change (p <0.05 in SGOT levels compared the control group. Histology showed no specific changes were observed after administrating 28 days of red betel leaf infusion. The red betel leaf infusion did not cause significant change in SGOT level and histology of heart. Keywords : red betel, subchronic toxicity tests, SGOT, cardiac histology.

  6. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P

    2011-07-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

  7. Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Madhusudanan, K P

    2010-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betle. In this paper we have attempted to profile eight locally available betel cultivars using the recently developed mass spectral ionization technique of direct analysis in real time (DART). Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART MS data of these betel cultivars. The results show that the cultivars of Piper betle could be differentiated using DART MS data. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A Method for Determining Spiral-Bevel Gear Tooth Geometry for Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    to0itated Ins.pecttion aind Pceci.i’i (;Irtdtite Lit Spiral Betel pp 1i7 33;4. Gear.. NA.SA- CR 4083.AASCONI FR 87 -C’ 1 1,I98-1 4 ((taint. SB H...ti-io..n. NASA 1t) 27115. A .NSC( (Nt IR [,It\\. 1ii. 1... ei al, Nietlid 1h1 irCiciteatin Lit Spiral Betel Gear.. W%’itl 86 (’-42. 1987. C𔃻...P.C , Silrlace Geiiiitetr. ’I StraiLght lintl Spiril A.SM1 ilpaper X4-DET:- 169. Oct. 1984 Betel Gear... j NCIec trait.. Nutittlat. Dc... .o iIlt

  9. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions among Dental Patients with Mixed Habits in Salem District - A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R.; Mohan, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The practice of betel nut chewing with or without tobacco is still practiced in south india, salem inspite of its harmful effects. Methodology: 200 Patients visiting the outpatient department, Oral medicine and radiology from Aug 2015 to Aug 2016. Result and Conclusion: In our study, 3 women were exclusively churut smokers. Thirty-eight percent of the dental patients were beedi smoker, 32% were tobacco chewers, 12% were both betel nut and tobacco chewers, 8% were exclusively betel nut chewers, 1% of the dental population were exclusively churut smokers. Mean age group of the study population is 50.2 (14.4). There are 28 females and 172 males in the study group. Chi-square test revealed a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001) between males and females based on soft-tissue findings and no statistically significant difference (P = 0.572) between males and females based on distribution of hard-tissue findings. PMID:29284937

  10. PEMBERIAN AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRIH MERAH (Piper crocatum Ruiz &Pav TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DAN KOLESTEROL DARAH MENCIT PUTIH JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Yudiana Shinta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find of the effect of the water decoction of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav on blood glucose levels and cholesterol male white mice. The method used in this study deskripstif exploration using betel leaf stew and given to a white male mice are sonde at a dose of 0.13 ml / 20gBB, 0.13 to 0.39 ml / 20gBB 0.13 and 0.26 ml / 20gBB during seven days and examined glucose and cholesterol levels of the mice. Research results show that the water decoction of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav can lower blood glucose levels of male white mice were significantly (p <0.05 by ANOVA statistical analysis.

  11. Chrome Tanning Leather of Giant Sea Perch Combined with Seed Extract Areca Nut on the Physical Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bustami - Ibrahim; Ella - Salamah; Nurul - Hak; Ade Komalasari Suhendar

    2014-01-01

    Tanning is the process of converting raw hide protein to leather, which are stable, not easily decompose, and is suitable for a variety of uses. The use of vegetable based tanning materials in the leather tanning process has not been carried out. Vegetable based materials that were used are betel nuts. This plant contains tannin which is the main agent in the process of leather tanning. The aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of snapper leather treated with betel n...

  12. Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF : A study of 101 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Tupkari

    2007-01-01

    The study showed male preponderance affecting individuals in second and third decades of life. All the patients had the habit of chewing betel leaves, betel nuts, tobacco, gutkha, alone or in various combinations. The associated causative factors were high chilli intake, nutritional deficiencies, and the clinical features were varied such as burning sensation, intolerance to spicy food, restricted mouth opening and difficulty in speech and deglutition. Histopathology was the characteristic of OSMF and was consistent with clinical grades of the disease but could not be corelated to the degree of mouth opening. The study of 101 cases of oral submucous fibrosis is reported.

  13. Prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in out-patients at two Malaysian and Thai dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axéll, T; Zain, R B; Siwamogstham, P; Tantiniran, D; Thampipit, J

    1990-04-01

    At the Faculties of Dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients of mean ages 33.8 and 31.0 yr, respectively, were examined for the presence of oral mucosal lesions. Tobacco in some form was regularly used by 31.7% and 27.5% of the study populations in CM and KL, respectively. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit. In CM three persons chewed betel quids and nine smoked banana leaf cigars daily. In addition, there were 24 habitual chewers of tea leaves (miang). In KL six persons chewed betel quids daily. In CM and KL three cases each (1.3%) of tobacco-associated leukoplakias were found. In KL an additional idiopathic leukoplakia was registered. One and three cases of betel related lesions were found in CM and KL, respectively. One case of a squamous cell carcinoma was found in a 45-yr-old Indian woman in KL who had been chewing betel with tobacco daily for many years. High prevalence figures were found for lichen planus, 3.8% in CM and 2.1% in KL, and an extremely high one, 48.3%, in CM for episodes of aphthous ulcers experienced during the last 2 yr. Comparatively low prevalence figures were found for herpes labialis. As could be expected melanin pigmentation was prevalent while only low figures were encountered for denture-related lesions and amalgam tattoos.

  14. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mutational Profile in Taiwanese Population | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major oral cancer subtype that is the fourth most common cancer affecting Taiwanese men. Despite known risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel nut chewing often indulged by Taiwanese men, the genetic contribution to the incidence or progression of OSCC has yet been elucidated in the Taiwanese population.

  15. Modifiable Lifestyle Behaviors Are Associated With Metabolic Syndrome in a Taiwanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuei-Man; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Shu-Hua; Tan, Jung-Ying; Huang, Chien-Ning; Liao, Wen-Chun

    2015-11-01

    To explore associations between metabolic syndrome and modifiable lifestyle behaviors among the adult population in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a nationally representative sample that participated in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. The sample (2,337 participants older than 19 years) provided data on demographic characteristics, modifiable lifestyle behaviors, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemistry panel. These data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression to determine factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 25.2%, and this prevalence increased with age. In univariate regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with age, living with family members, educational level, and modifiable lifestyle behaviors (smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing, and physical activity). Individuals with a smoking history and currently chewing betel quid had the highest risk for metabolic syndrome. The risk for metabolic syndrome might be reduced by public health campaigns to encourage people to quit smoking cigarettes and chewing betel quid. Implementing more modifiable lifestyle behaviors in daily life will decrease metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Considering that betel quid chewing and tobacco smoking interact to adversely affect metabolic syndrome risk, public health campaigns against both behaviors seem to be a cost-effective and efficient health promotion strategy to reduce the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Combination of capillary GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR for the characterization of the rhizome oil of Piper betle L. (Piperaceae) from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, L.; Dung, N.X.; Bighelli, A.; Casanova, J.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The essential oil from the rhizomes of Piper betle L. (betel), collected around Hue, was obtained in 0.20% yield. The oil was examined by a combination of capillary GC and GC/MS. 13C-NMR studies confirmed the structure assignments proposed by retention data and mass spectra of the components with a

  17. Oral submucous fibrosis: An update on current theories of pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arakeri, G.; Rai, K.K.; Hunasgi, S.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Gao, S.; Brennan, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, many theories linking oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) to various risk factors have been proposed. Spicy, pungent foods and irritants such as supari (areca nut), paan (betel leaves), tobacco (through chewing or smoking)-the common Asian habits of chewing the aforementioned

  18. International Cancer of the Head and Neck, Genetics and Environment (InterCHANGE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Evaluate the Association Between Certain Environmental Exposures (e.g. Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Drinking, Betel Nut Chewing…) and Head and Neck Cancers; Assess the Effect of Genetic Factors, Including Both SNP and Copy Number Variation (CNV) Through Analysis of Both Main Effect and Gene-gene Interaction

  19. What Is the "Areca" in "Areca Nuts"? Extraction and Neuroactive Bioassay of Arecoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Katherine; Bakas, Tim; Sanai, Farid; Allan, Robin; Hinton, Tina

    2016-01-01

    A series of three practical sessions are designed to give students firsthand experience with the preparation of natural product extracts and assay using a live tissue preparation. Areca or betel nuts are the seeds from the fruit of the "Areca catechu" palm tree that is known to contain a number of pharmacologically active alkaloids. The…

  20. How Home Visits Transformed My Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaafouri-Kreuzer, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Recalling her year as the "English-speaking unicorn" in a class of refugee and immigrant students representing a myriad of languages, the author tells how visiting students at their homes was the strategy that most helped her help students. From discovering that a betel-nut habit was causing one student's hyperactivity to seeing another…

  1. PENGARUH KOMBINASI MACAM ZPT DENGAN LAMA PERENDAMAN YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP KEBERHASILAN PEMBIBITAN SIRIH MERAH (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav SECARA STEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Anang Budianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants is one of Indonesia's agricultural potential to be developed and one of the medicinal plants that have bright prospects for the development of red betel, because in addition to be consumed as a medicinal plant, also as an ornamental plant. Effect of combination treatment with a long range of ZPT different immersion able to stimulate root growth in cuttings of red betel. This study aims to determine the effect of PGR combination with a long range of different immersion to the successful breeding of red betel cuttings. The study was conducted at the experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of the University Trunojoyo Madura, in January to April 2012. The research method used was Randomized Design Group (RAK single factor with seven treatments and repeated four times. Range of ZPT is used there are two, namely IBA and NAA, while the use of immersion time is one hour, two hours and three hours. The results showed that the IBA with a three-hour long immersion gives a significant influence on the variable root length, root number and root dry weight, whereas NAA with the old one-hour immersion is a very real influence on the observations of variable length and dry weight of leaf buds.Keyword : red betel, ZPT, IBA, NAA

  2. Bellman Continuum (3rd) International Workshop (13-14 June 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    normal distribution with mean zero and variance a? In that example 01 is e, -7 is the collection of Betel sets. on e, and PI is the infinite product of...medium (in a Petri dish). Next we extended this approach and tried tc simu- late tumor growth in the tissue qf a tobacco leaf (13). D1 D2 D3 I + STEM

  3. Southeast Asia Report, No. 1321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-03

    export shrimp paste, fish sauce or betel to Kampuchean, Thais will agree with no problem. And if someone says that if he were a senior person he...management and focus, some of these failing farms have turned over a new leaf , improving labor pro- ductivity and the living conditions of laborers

  4. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 13, No 10 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo immunomodulatory effect and histopathological features of mouse liver and kidney treated with neolignans isolated from red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) leaf · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. YS Hartini, S Wahyuono, S Widyarini, ...

  5. Peningkatan Ketebalan Epitel Mukosa Bukal setelah Aplikasi Ekstrak Daun Sirih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Yohana

    2015-06-01

    epitel diuji menggunakan uji parametric uji T independen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan peningkatan ketebalan epitel yang bermakna dicapai oleh kelompok ketiga (±15,61 μm, p=0,002, sedangkan pada kelompok pertama dan kedua tidak terdapat peningkatan ketebalan epitel (p=0,261. Aplikasi ekstrak daun sirih dapat meningkatkan ketebalan epitel mukosa bukal tikus wistar.   Increase in Buccal Mucous Epithelium Thickness after Application of Betel Leaf Extract. Betel leaf (Piper Betle Linn is a herbal ingredient. It is widely used because of its antibacterial power, anti-inflamatory and antioxidant properties. It is readily available in affordable price. The aim of this study is to determine of buccal mucous epithelium thickness of Wistar rats after the application of betel leaf extract. This was an experimental laboratory research which was performed in three groups of Wistar rats. The first group was the control group. The second and third group were those given betel leaf extract for 15 and 35 days. Each group contained nine rats. The rats were sacrificed at the time determined and made histological slide with HE staining for observation of epithelial thickness. The data of the size of epithelium were tested using independent parametric T test. The result shows a significant increase in buccal mucous epithelium thickness on the third group (15,61μm, p=0,002. Conversely, there is no increase in buccal mucous epithelium thickness on another group (p=0,261. In conclusion, the increase in buccal mucous epithelium thickness of Wistar rats occurred after the application of betel leaf extract.

  6. The impact of the cigarette market opening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C P; Cheng, T Y; Eriksen, M P; Tsai, S P; Hsu, C C

    2005-06-01

    To assess the effect of the opening of the Taiwanese cigarette market on cigarette consumption, changes in market share, and the effects on tobacco control efforts. With the use of key word "Taiwan", the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of the University of California, San Francisco, was searched for internal documents related to smuggling activities, promotion of light cigarettes, and market share analyses in Taiwan. Age adjusted smoking rates and cigarette and betel quid consumption before and after market opening were compared. By 2000, the market share of imported cigarettes increased from less than 2% in 1986 to nearly 50%, and per capita cigarette consumption increased 15% following market opening. Because of the sharp increase in smuggling, with contraband cigarettes being as popular as legal imports, and the rapid proliferation of retail outlets, such as betel quid stalls, the market penetration by foreign tobacco companies was greater in Taiwan than among the other Super 301 Asian countries. Aggressive cigarette marketing strategies were associated with a 6% increase in adult male smoking prevalence, and with a 13% increase in the youth rate, within three years after market opening. The market opening also had an incidental effect on increasing the popularity of betel quid. Betel quid chewing has since become a major public health problem in Taiwan. The opening of the cigarette market in 1987 had a long lasting impact on Taiwan. It increased smoking prevalence and the market has become dominated by foreign companies. The seriousness of smuggling and its associated loss of revenue by the government, the extent of increased youth smoking and its associated future health care costs, and the increased use of betel quid and the associated doubling of oral cancer mortality rates each pose significant problems to Taiwan. However, the market opening galvanised anti-smoking sentiment and forced the government to initiate and intensify a series of tobacco control

  7. PEMANFAATAN PESTISIDA NABATI PADA PENGENDALIAN HAMA PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L. MENUJU PERTANIAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    suhartini suhartini

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT The use of chemical pesticides has many negative impacts on the environment, it is necessary for the use of biological pesticide towards sustainable agriculture or environmentally friendly agriculture. In the village were encountered many types of leaves that can be used as a biological pesticide, and therefore this study aims to determine the effectiveness of pesticide plant extracts of the leaves of some plants covering the leaves of tobacco, elephantopus, yellow wood and green betel on mortality of Plutella xylostella pests in plants mustard greens (Brassica juncea L, heavy wet mustard and mustard leaf damage    This study uses a completely randomized design with the treatment of various crops as a pesticide vegetable. The treatments used 6 kinds (degree ie negative control (P0, the leaves of tobacco (P1, the leaves of elephantopus (P2, the leaves of yellow wood (P3, the leaves of greens betel (P4 and chemical pesticides as a positive control (P5 with each grade of 10 %. Parameters measured were mortality pests, heavy wet mustard greens and mustard greens leaf damage rate. The analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA.    The results showed that the extract from the leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, the leaves of elephantopus, the leaves of yellow wood (Arcangelisia flava L. and the leaves of green betel (Piper betle Linn. With a 10 percent concentration of the extract on a variety of  leaves are not yet significant effect on mortality pests Plutella xylostella, heavy wet of mustard greens (brassica juncea l. and severity of leaf mustard greens (brassica juncea l.. The leaf extract the most influence on mortality Plutella xylostella sequential is an extract of the leaves tobacco, the leaves of greens betel, the leaves of yellow wood and the leaves of elephantopus. While the effect on weight of wet mustard greens (Brassica juncea l. in order are as follows: the leaves of yellow wood, the leaves of green betel, the leaves of elephantopus, and the

  8. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Areca nut chewing has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but its association with erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated. To investigate the association between areca nut chewing and risk of ED. Consecutive men at public health centers for oral malignancy screening or health checkup were invited to complete a questionnaire. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Of the 2,652 respondents, 1,038 (mean age = 43.8 ± 11.1 years) were eligible for the areca nut chewing group and 1,090 non-areca nut chewers were selected as the age-matched control group. In the areca nut group, the mean duration of chewing was 13.2 ± 9.6 years, 61.7% consumed more than 10 portions per day, and 76.2% used it with betel leaf, 16.7% used it with betel inflorescence, and 7.1% used it with betel leaf and inflorescence. Smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were more predominant in areca nut chewers compared with controls. ED defined by self-report and by SHIM score was more prevalent in areca nut chewers than in controls (13.7% vs 9.8% and 48.7% vs 43.3%, respectively; P betel inflorescence was associated with a higher risk of ED (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-3.28) with a dose-dependent effect, whereas using it with betel leaf was not (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26) after adjustment of possible confounders. Areca nut chewing with betel inflorescence was associated with an increased risk of ED. These findings warrant further studies. Huang Y-J, Jiann B-P. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2017;5:e163-e168. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efek perendaman rebusan Daun Sirih Merah (Piper crocatum terhadap kekerasan permukaan resin komposit

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    Devi Puspita Handayani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of immersion of decoction water of Red Betel Leaf (Piper crocatum on the surface hardness of composite resin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of immersion of decoction water of red betel leaf on the surface hardness of composite resin compared to alcoholic mouth rinse. It was a pure experimental study with post-test only with control group design. The total samples were 27 samples divided into 2 treatment groups and 1 control group, each of which consisted of 9 samples. The treatment groups were immersed in the decoction water of red betel leaf and alcoholic mouth rinse. The control group was immersed in aquadest. After the immersion, the samples were measured using Vickers Micro hardness Tester. Analysis with one way anova and post hoc Bonferroni showed a significant difference (p<0.05 on the surface hardness of composite resin after being immersed in decoction water of red betel leaf(79,81±3,76 kg/mm2 and alcoholic mouth rinse (67,11±2,51 kg/mm2. Based on this research, it can be concluded that there was an effect of immersion of decoction water of red betel leaf if compared with alcoholic mouth rinse. The value of surface hardness of composite resin immersed in alcoholic mouth rinse was lower than the decoction water of red betel leaf. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek perendaman dalam rebusan daun sirih merah terhadap kekerasan permukaan resin komposit bila dibandingkan dengan obat kumur beralkohol. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental murni dengan post-test only with control group design. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 27 yang dibagi dalam 2 kelompok perlakuan dan 1 kelompok kontrol dengan masing-masing kelompok sebanyak 9 sampel. Kelompok perlakuan direndam dengan air rebusan daun sirih merah dan obat kumur beralkohol. Kelompok kontrol direndam dengan akuades steril. Setelah itu dilakukan pengukuran menggunakan Vickers Microhardness Tester. Hasil uji One Way Anova dan Post Hoc

  10. Oral submucous fibrosis-Review and case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostehy, M. R. E.; AlJassem, A. A.; ElMahmeed, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a disease that involves the oral mucosa and produces fibrous changes in several sites of the mouth. It could lead to severe oral deformities with inability to open the mouth, tongue depapillation, and sometimes horseness of voice. Clinical importance of the disease is due to two reasons, namely: (1) it is a disease that results from the use of betel-nut chewing in Indians as well as other nationalities adopting the oral habit of betel-nut chewing, (2) it is generally accepted to be a premalignant condition of the oral cavity.This paper reviews the disease and presents a severe case of this malady recorded in an Indian who chews pan-supari. (author)

  11. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements of basic ingredients of pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I; Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive use of pan, by one-tenth of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in its ingredients. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 36 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in its four basic ingredients, leaf of betel pepper, betel nut, catechu and lime. The radiochemical separation methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in these ingredients is provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pan was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  12. Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Rachana V; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

    2014-12-01

    Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against halitosis. It is also used for its deworming property. Along with these beneficial effects of areca nut one of its most harmful effects on the human body in general and oral cavity in particular is the development of potentially malignant disorder called Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The present paper discusses in detail the effects of the components of areca nut on pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Key words:Areca nut, oral submucous fibrosis, potentially malignant disorder, supari.

  13. FORMULASI PASTA GIGI BERBAHAN AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH HITAM SEBAGAI ANTIMIKROBA PENYEBAB RADANG GUSI (GINGIVITIS DAN GIGI BERLUBANG (CARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Prasetya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to obtain a formula toothpaste preparations with active ingredient is extracts of black betel leaf which effectively kills microbes cause inflammation of the gums (gingivitis and tooth perforated (caries. The active ingredient is obtained by performing maceration followed by fractionation of the extract. Test of antimicrobial activity against microorganisms Streptococcus mutans & Candida albicans using the diffusion method, which will get an effective concentration to be used for toothpaste formulations with active ingredient is black betel leaf. Then continued with the test and evaluation of the effectiveness of the final dosage form of toothpaste preparations. Obtained from the test concentration of 20% n-hexane extract fraction of black betel leaf have the greatest antimicrobial power against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. And after optimization of the base, obtained the good mass forming of toothpaste with base PGA (Pulvis Gummi Arabica at concentration of 30%. Key words: antimicrobial activity, tooth paste, black betel leaf, formulations   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh formula sediaan pasta gigi berbahan aktif ekstrak sirih hitam yang efektif membunuh mikroba penyebab radang gusi (gingivitis dan gigi berlubang (caries. Bahan aktif diperoleh dengan cara melakukan maserasi yang dilanjutkan dengan fraksinasi dari ekstrak tersebut. Uji aktivitas antimikroba terhadap mikroorganisme Streptococcus mutans & Candida albican menggunakan metode difusi, yang mana akan didapatkan konsentrasi efektif yang akan digunakan untuk formulasi pasta gigi berbahan aktif sirih hitam. Dilanjutkan dengan uji efektivitas dan evaluasi sediaan akhir berupa sediaan pasta gigi. Dari pengujian tersebut diperoleh konsentrasi 20% ekstrak fraksi n-heksana daun sirih hitam mempunyai daya antimikroba paling besar terhadap Streptococcus mutans dan Candida albican. Dan setelah dilakukan optimasi basis, didapatkan penggunaan basis

  14. Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilhari, Ayomi; Weerasekera, Manjula M; Siriwardhana, Anusha; Maheshika, Oshanthi; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Karunathilaka, Sunil; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Fernando, Neluka

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka. Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Direct microscopy and culture followed by colony count and phenotypic identification were performed to identify pathogenic Candida species. Candida infection was seen in 47% of patients with oral leukoplakia. Candida albicans (94.7%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (5.3%). Majority of Candida-infected lesions were seen in the buccal mucosa region. Alteration of taste (p = 0.021), having other oral lesions (p = 0.008), angular cheilitis (p = 0.024) and periodontitis (p = 0.041) showed a significant association with Candida-associated leukoplakia. Increasing age showed a significant tendency for Candida infection (p = 0.020). Smoking (p = 0.026) and betel-quid chewing (p = 0.006) were also found to be significantly associated, although alcohol consumption alone did not show a significant association. Oral leukoplakia patients who had all three habits: alcohol consumption, smoking and betel-quid chewing had a significant association with Candida infection (p = 0.004). Patients who had a combination of risk factors: smoking, betel-quid chewing and alcohol consumption were seen to have a significant association with Candida infection. Further betel-quid chewing alone and smoking singly was also significantly associated with Candida infection in oral leukoplakia.

  15. Estimation of uranium in some edible and commercial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, S.; Goswami, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    The trace contents of uranium have been estimated in some edible and commercial plants by PTA (particle track analysis) method. The groups of food plants studied are cereals, pulses, underground vegetables, leafy vegetables, and fruit vegetables. The commercial plants and ingredients taken are betel leaves, tobacco leaves, areca nuts, and lime. Among the different samples studied, the average uranium content, in general, is found to vary from 0.25 to 2.67 ppm. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Archaeological and Historical Reconnaissance Survey of the Ugum River Valley, Guam, Mariana Islands,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    important food plant in Micro- neisa; and betel nut (Areca catechu), chewed for its stimulant effect . Although feral yams (Dioscorea sp.) were not found...determining action required to mitigate the adverse effects of proposed dam construction and sub- sequent flooding of the upper Ugum River drainage. The dam...A:33). Plant identifications were made with reference to Stone (1970). Zone 1 is a mixed, broad- leafed , tropical forest (Fosberg’s Unit 2;. Tracey et

  17. Efek Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Sirih (Piper betle L) Dengan Amoksisilin Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Remon Gortap

    2017-01-01

    The combination of antibiotic and plant extract is a new concept and has been used for the treatment of resistant bacterial infections. Betel leaves have antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus because they contain secondary metabolites such as flavonoid, saponin, tanin, and steroid/ triterpenoid. Extract combination with amoxicillin needs to be tested to determine the effectiveness of a single comparison. This study aims was to investigated the characteristi...

  18. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of Purnark against benzo(a)pyrene-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaisas, S D; Bhide, S V

    1994-01-01

    Human lymphocytes were used as an assay system to test chemopreventive activity of natural products. Purnark, a mixture of extracts of turmeric, betel leaf and catechu, was tested for its chemoprotective activity against BP induced DNA damage. Sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei were used as markers to assess the protective activity of Purnark. Purnark gave 50-60% protection against BP induced SCEs and micronuclei. Purnark at 100 micrograms dose did not show any genotoxicity.

  19. OPERATION RANCH HAND. The Air Force and Herbicides in Southeast Asia, 1961-1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the development of the capability to deliver chemical sprays and powders from aircraft. Spraying poisonous liquids on leaf -eating insect pests ucing...the use the fol- lowing year of the airplane to control leaf worms on cotton plants in Louisi- ana. Air Service planes and pilots were also involved in...attributed to herbicides. The report cautioned, however, that there was some browning of about fifty coconut palm, banana, and betel nut trees that may

  20. Human Factors Engineering. Part 2. HEDGE (Human Factors Engineering Data Guide for Evaluation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-30

    his. telly Ir~O -rtkm1 dew. *or ~ ~ ~ ~ o IrIs leaf .13-2oses 1m I~ ~ wvv wit Ro.w=soI ll., o.W W n t,,. A wop. SOW -ao rmA ido 104151*854044.. .10.0...Footivoielortomb idntitffed. fhetld torae’, Idetoififed. . Eont lskhtiamate a, betel . *Minitttedecadln en Wbt L SID-t 21; -eoOt(r nbiriwoe. -TI "ostep*=’to it

  1. A Comprehensive Study of the Tocks Island Lake Project and Alternatives. Part E. Land Use and Secondary Effects of Tocks Island Lake Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    waterleaf family Hydrophyllum canadense Broad-leaved water leaf Labiatae - Mint family Monarda didyma. Oswego tea, bee balm -- stream banks in Reservoir...ID (8) 0 0. Betel (70 (72) (7W)4j 0 ~ 0)0 Ur 0 0 84 0 Lower 4 X X X - -~i tD 00zareth (62/H) U0) 63 U Ln X " - -j ID/.US- 0. vv4r V) 1 -0 0.- &a &I

  2. Uji Toksisitas Subkronis Infusa Daun Sirih Merah (Piper Crocatum Ruiz & Pav) Pada Tikus: Studi Terhadap Gambaran Mikroskopis Jantung Dan Kadar Sgot Darah

    OpenAIRE

    Kuncarli, Ignasius; Djunarko, Ipang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) is one of the plants used as traditional medicine community. To determine the level of safety of long-term consumption, then tested subchronic toxicity. The study aimed to determine the relationship spectrum of toxic effects of infusion with changes in levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and cardiac histopathology. The study was purely experimental, randomized study design complete unidirectional pattern. A total of 40 Wista...

  3. WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF UNGUENTUM DOSAGE FORM OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF Areca catechu L. NUT IN Mus musculus albinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Vonna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity test of ethanol extract of betel nut ointment (Areca catechu L. in wound healing on mice (Mus musculus albinus has been carried out to determine the ability of the ethanol extract of betel nut ointment in wound healing and determine the concentration which was accelerate the wound healing on mice between 2 concentrations. This experimental research method used completely randomized design (CRD using 20 mices divided into 4 treatment groups ; ointment base, povidone iodine ointment, ethanol extract of betel nut ointment (SEEBP 2% and SEEBP 4%. Each treatment groups was tested in the incision which was made along the 15 mm parallel to the spine (Os. Vetebre with the depth until subcutaneous skin layers. The ointment was applied twice a day for about 21 days and observed changes every day for during the period of observation. The results showed that the average length of time of the scab formation, the scab exfoliation, and the wound healing successively are for the ointment base was 6.6; 10.2 and 18.2 days, povidone iodine ointment was 7; 11.2 and 14.8 days, SEEBP 2% was 5.75; 7.75 and 13.25 days, SEEBP 4% was 4.2; 8.8 and 12.8 days. ANOVA and LSD results of scab formation time showed a significant difference between SEEBP 4% with base ointment and povidone iodine ointment (p <0.05. Results of the exfoliation scab showed a significance difference between SEEBP 2% with base ointment and povidone iodine ointment (p <0.05. The duration of wound healing showed that there was significance difference between SEEBP 2%, SEBP 4% and povidone iodine ointment with ointment base  (p<0.05.Thus, betel nut ointment as an effect on healing process. The concentration which can accelerate wound healing in mice is SEEBP 4%.

  4. Personal Affairs: Child Development Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-15

    compete in the local labor market . Installations may not use the high cost range to compensate for inadequate funding with appropriated funds. Higher...for quarters or living quarters allowance (BAQ/LQA) soldiers or civilians would receive if they lived off post or fair market value for on–post quarters...Kernels), Arrowhead, Avocado (leaves), Azaleas, Betel Nut Palm, Bittersweet, Bleeding Heart, Buckeye, Buttercups, Caladium, Calla Lily, Castor Bean, Cat

  5. Arsenic and other trace elements in Bangladeshi food and non-food and their relationship to human health

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that over 30 million people are exposed to arsenic from drinking contaminated groundwater in Bangladesh. Furthermore, due to the use of contaminated water for irrigation purposes, arsenic and other toxic elements are entering the food chain of Bangladeshis. In this thesis, the total levels of toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb) and essential elements (Mn, Se, Zn) in 1,120 samples of Bangladeshi foods (including rice, vegetables, fish) and non-foods (betel quid and baked clay) imported...

  6. Retrospective study on risk habits among oral cancer patients in Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, D S; Prasad, K V V; Shavi, Girish R; Ariga, Jitendra; Rajesh, G; Krishna, Madhusudan

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies on oral cancer patient profiles related to risk habits could provide etiologic clues for prevention in specific geographic areas. To study risk habit characteristics of oral cancer patients. A cross sectional retrospective case record study of oral cancer patients who reported during 1991-2000 to Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India was conducted. Data on socio-demography, histopathology, site of cancer and risk habit profiles of the patients were recorded in a predesigned Performa by one calibrated examiner with internal validity checks. The 1,472 oral cancer patients constituted 11% of total cancer patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years, ranging from 12-88, with a male: female ratio of 2:1. 1,110 (75%) oral cancer patients had risk habits, 55% were habituated for >10 years and 25% were habit free. 751(51%) patients had individual and 359(24%) had combined risk habits. Majority 59% were chewers of betel quid alone (17%)/betel quid with tobacco (42%); smokers were (31%) and alcohol users were (14%) of patients. Chewers of gutkha, khaini were more in 40 years. Risk habituates were highest (87%) in patients with cancer of buccal mucosa, commonly affected site attributed to chewing habit in (51%) of patients. The prevalence of oral cancer was higher among elderly males predominantly with risk habits of betel quid/tobacco chewing and smoking for more than 10 years.

  7. Interactions between environmental factors and melatonin receptor type 1A polymorphism in relation to oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yan Lin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effect of melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of oral cancer.Three polymorphisms of the MTNR1A gene from 618 patients with oral cancer and 560 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The CTA haplotype of the studied MTNR1A polymorphisms (rs2119882, rs13140012, rs6553010 was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, MTNR1A gene polymorphisms exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and tobacco use on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Finally, oral-cancer patients with betel quid-chewing habit who had T/T allele of MTNR1A rs13140012 were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis.These results support gene-environment interactions of MTNR1A polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid-chewing habits possibly altering oral-cancer susceptibility and metastasis.

  8. PENGARUH LAMA DAN SUHU PENYIMPANAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle linn DENGAN AQUADES TERHADAP DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptococcus agalactiae PENYEBAB MASTITIS PADA SAPI PERAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sanjaya Kusuma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Green betle leaf (Piper betle L. is one of the plants used by the people of Indonesia for tradisional medicine. Green betle leaf contains antibacterial compounds consisting of phenol and its derivatives. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of green betle leaf (Piper betle L. againt the bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae caused mastitis in dairy cows. Bacterial inhibition test by paper disc method. Data analysis using ANOVA by Nested design with 6 treatment and 6 repetitions. The results of this study green betle leaf (Piper betle L. extract inhibiting the growth of bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae was significantly different (P<0,01. The conclusion were the extract of green betel leaf (Piper betle L. can inhibit the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae and storage temperature has no effect, but storage periode gives effect the quality of green betel leaf extract (Piper betle L., so that the leaf extract storage green betel with distilled solvent recommended on 2nd days at refrigerator.

  9. A study to analyze the different patterns of quid usage among subjects with chewer′s mucosa

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    Saba Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Betel chewer′s mucosa, although not considered as a potentially malignant lesion, has been suggested to be a precursor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF. Thus a study was undertaken to asses various quid chewing patterns in patients with chewer′s mucosa and to evaluate possible association between chewer′s mucosa and a particular quid usage patter. Materials and methods: The study was done on 150 subjects clinically diagnosed of having chewers mucosa lesion. After complete oral examination, a detailed habit history was taken through preformed questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Among the 150 subjects males to female ratio was 8:2- Majority of the subjects were within the age group of 20 to 30 years and chewed a combination of betel leaf, arecanut, tobacco, lime- Majority of the subjects of chewer′s mucosa used the quid for a duration of 1 to 5 years, a frequency of three to five quid per day. Conclusion: In the present study, chewers mucosa was seen in majority of the subjects who used the quid for a duration of 1 to 5 years, a frequency of three to five quid per day and chewed the quid containing betel leaf, arecanut, tobacco, lime as its constituents.

  10. PENGARUH GEL EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH MERAH (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav TERHADAP PENYEMBUHAN LUKA BAKAR PADA KELINCI (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    Fina Ulviani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on Gel Formulation of red betel leaf extract (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav for the treatment of burn wounds in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus has been conducted. This study aimed to determine variation’s effect of concentration in gel of red betel leaf extract for the treatment of burn wounds in rabbits which had been wounded using hot metal. In this study, the viscous extract was formulated into gel with concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. The Gel’s Physical quality evaluation included organoleptic, pH, homogeneity and dispersive ability tests on day 0 until day 28. The gel activity test was performed on 5 rabbits divided into five treatment groups. Each rabbit was burn-wounded using hot metal plate at diameter of 20 mm. Each group was given five wounds consisting of a negative control, 1%, 2%, 3% of extract formula and a positive control. The diameter measurement of the wounds was done on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and the 21st day. Data of wound healing percentage was statistically analyzed with Two-Way ANOVA. The results showed that the gel with 3% of red betel leaf extract of which percentage of healing as much as 85.81% compared to gel extract 1% and 2% with percentage 65,32% dan 76,58%.

  11. Clinical features and histological types of 35 cases of carcinoma esophagus: experience from two hospitals in Bangladesh

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    Md. Nazmul Hoque

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Esophageal malignancy is a fatal disease. Squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma are two most common types. The present study aimed to describe demographic characteristics, clinical features, histological types and associated among the selected Bangladeshi patients with esophageal cancers. Methods:This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2016 at two hospitals in Bangladesh. Total 35 adult patients diagnosed as having esophageal cancer were consecutively and purposively included in this study. Age, gender, history of chewing betel nut and smoking, clinical presentation and laboratory parameters were recorded systematically in a predesigned data sheet. Results:Among the 35 patients with esophageal cancer, 80% were more than 50 yrs of age while 71.4% and 28.6% were male and female respectively. Out of these cases, 27 (77.1% had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and 8 (22.9% had adenocarcinoma. Out of 27 SCC, 15 (55.6% had lesion in mid-esophagus, 9 (33.3% in lower and 3 (11.1% in upper esophagus. All adenocarcinoma were present in lower esophagus. History of smoking and chewing betel nut were not significantly associated with esophageal cancers. Conclusions: Esophageal carcinoma was common in elderly male and SCC was more frequent compared to adenocarcinoma. Further study with larger number of samples is required to determine the role of smoking and betel nut chewing in esophageal cancers in Bangladeshi population. IMC J Med Sci 2017; 11(2: 36-39

  12. Anti-microbial principles of selected remedial plants from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupathi, Rao G; Suresh, Babu K; Ujwal, Kumar J; Sujana, P; Raoa, A Veerabhadr; Sreedhar, A S

    2011-08-01

    To examine the anti-bacterial activity of leaf extracts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Piper betel L. (Piperaceae), and seed extracts of Bombax ceiba L. (Borabacaceae). We have partially purified plant extracts by solvent extraction method, and evaluated the effect of individual fractions on bacterial growth using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacterial strains. Compared with Morus and Bombax fractions, Piper fractions showed significant growth inhibition on all the three types of bacteria studied. The EtOAc-hexane fractions of Piper leaves exhibited significant anti-bacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 µg/mL culture against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The EtOAc-fractions I, II, and IV inhibited bacterial colony formation on soft agar in addition to growth inhibition. A combination treatment of piper fractions with ampicillin resulted in significant growth inhibition in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and combination with anticancer drug geldanamycin (2µg/mL) showed selective growth inhibition against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Three major compounds, i.e., eugenol, 3-hexene-ol and stigmasterol, were primarily identified from Piper betel leaf extractions. Among the individual compounds, eugenol treatment showed improved growth inhibition compared with stigmasterol and 3-hexene-ol. We are reporting potential anti-bacterial compounds from Piper betel against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria either alone or in combination with drug treatment.

  13. THE COMPOSITION AND THE CONTENT OF PIGMENTS FROM SOME DYEING PLANT FOR IKAT WEAVING IN TIMORRESE REGENCY, EAST NUSA TENGGARA

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    Neltji Herlina Ati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikat weaving is one of traditional-home industry using plant pigments as a dye which have not been known for their pigments composition. So, the research was carried out to know the composition and the content of pigments in young leaf teak, noni root, turmeric tuber, casuarine bark and betel-nut root. The result showed that pigment composition in young leaf teak consisted of β-carotene, pheophytine, phelargonydine 3-glucosyde, phelargonydine 3,7-diglucosyde, chlorophyllide and two other pigments that have not been identified. Most of the pigments composition in betel-nut root have not been identified, but one of them was condensed tanin. Noni root had pigment composition which consisted of hydrolised tanin, flavonoid and morindon. Pigment composition in turmeric tuber were curcumin, demethoxy curcumin and bis-demethoxy curcumin. Whereas casuarine bark had pigment composition which consisted of delphynidine, cyanydine and phelargonydine. The highest pigment concentration in young leaf teak, betel-nut root, noni root, tumeric tuber and casuarine bark was pheophytine, tanin condensation, morindon, curcumin and cyanidine, respectively.   Keywords: ikat weaving, chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin

  14. Combined effect of genetic polymorphisms of AURKA and environmental factors on oral cancer development in Taiwan.

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    Chia-Hsuan Chou

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the sixth and fourth most common cause of cancer death in men worldwide and in Taiwan, respectively. AURKA, which encodes a centrosome-related serine/threonine kinase, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in many human cancers, particularly advanced OSCC. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to estimate AURKA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and environmental risk factors to determine OSCC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics.We enrolled a total of 876 OSCC patients and 1200 controls. Four SNPs of AURKA, namely rs1047972, rs2273535, rs2064863, and rs6024836, were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Among the 1420 smokers, the AURKA polymorphism carriers with the betel nut chewing habit had a higher risk of oral cancer than AURKA wild-type (WT carriers without the betel nut chewing habit. Patients with the AURKA rs2064863 gene had a 1.365-fold higher risk of stage III or IV OSCC (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.029-1.811 than those with the rs2064863 WT gene. Furthermore, carriers of the AURKA rs1047972/rs2273535/rs2064863 C-A-T haplotype had a 1.736-fold (95% CI 1.110-2.715 higher risk of OSCC than controls (C-T-T, the most common haplotype. Among patients with the betel quid chewing habit, carriers of other haplotypes (C-T-T, C-A-G, T-A-T, T-A-G, T-T-T, and C-T-G had a 12.857-fold (95% CI 10.731-15.404 increased risk, and carriers of the C-A-T haplotype had the highest risk (AOR: 31.120; 95% CI 13.864-69.850 of OSCC, compared with those without the betel quid chewing who harbored other haplotypes.In conclusion, betel nut chewing combined with the AURKA C-A-T haplotypes lead to a high risk of OSCC. These findings reveal a novel genetic-environmental predisposition for oral tumorigenesis.

  15. Efektivitas Sirih Merah dalam Perawatan Luka Perineum di Bidan Praktik Mandiri

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    Susilo Damarini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Angka kejadian ruptur perineum pada primipara persalinan normal adalah sekitar 88,9%. Piper crocatum extract atau ekstrak daun sirih merah diketahui mempunyai kandungan kimia yang berefek antiseptik dan antibakteri. Sebagian besar persalinan normal di Kota Bengkulu mengalami ruptur spontan atau episiotomi. Dari 10 persalinan, ada 7 pasien yang mengalami robekan perineum dan kering rata-rata dalam 7 hari, dengan perawatan menggunakan iodin atau merendam/ cebok rebusan daun sirih. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menilai efektivitas penyembuhan luka perineum ibu nifas dengan menggunakan daun sirih merah dan obat antiseptik. Metode penelitian quasi eksperimental, populasi ibu pospartum dengan luka perineum yang ditolong oleh bidan praktik mandiri. Sampel perlakuan 35 orang dan kelompok kontrol 35 orang. Sampel diambil secara accidental sampling. Waktu penelitian bulan Mei – Agustus 2012 di Kota Bengkulu. Variabel lainnya yaitu status kesehatan, obat antibiotik dan status gizi. Analisis menggunakan uji Mann - Whitney Test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata lama penyembuhan luka perineum menggunakan infusum sirih merah adalah 2 - 3 hari sedangkan pada kelompok obat antiseptik rata-rata lama penyembuhan 5 – 6 hari, artinya bahwa daun sirih merah lebih efektif dibandingkan dengan iodine dalam perawatan luka perineum pada masa pospartum. The incidence of perineal rupture in primiparous normal deliveries is 88.9%. Piper crocatum Extract or red betel leaf extract are known contained antiseptic and antibacterial effect. Mostly normal deliveries in Bengkulu City experienced spontaneous rupture or episiotomy. From 10 births, 7 patients experienced perineal laceration and were dry in 7 days by treatment using iodine or soak/ wiping with betel leaf decoction. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of red betel leaf in healing perineal wound of postpartum mother in Independent Practice Midwife in Bengkulu City 2013. The method of

  16. Efektifitas Berkumur Rebusan Daun Sirih Dibandingkan Rebusan Daun Saga terhadap Perubahan Derajat Keasaman Air Ludah

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    Ratna Wilis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extract from betel leaf stew and saga leaves to gargle can change the pH of saliva. Changes are measured by a pH of 0-14 to saliva, alkaline, and neutrality. By 2013, nationwide primary school children who experience dental and mouth problems of 25,9%, the picture shows that dental and oral health status is still problematic. The objective of the study was to measure the effectiveness of gargling with the decoction of betel leaf and the decoction of saga leaves to the degree of acidity of saliva in the students. The research design is quasi-experiment, conducted on 26 elementary students of Banda Aceh as many as 60 students and divided into 3 groups. Collecting data by measuring saliva pH between gargling with betel leaf stew and sago leaf stew, both before and after treatments. Data analysis used T-Test statistic at CI:95%. The result of the research was descriptive of saliva pH average after rinsing with betel leaf (6,9, higher than saliva pH after gargling with saga leaf (7,3. This shows a significant difference between after goulash stewing betel leaves after gargling stew saga leaves (p<0,05. In conclusion, gargle stew of betel leaf is more effective compared to glyskin sago stew to the change of pH saliva acidity degree. Suggestion, use of leaf saga as a mouthwash is very good for the community through the addition of other concentrates so as to have a favorite aroma of the community. Keywords:             Saliva, acidity, pH, betel and saga leaf extract Sari dari rebusan daun sirih dan daun saga  untuk berkumur dapat mengalami perubahan pH air ludah. Perubahan diukur dengan pH skala 0 – 14 terhadap keasaman ludah, basa dan netral.  Tahun 2013, secara nasional anak-anak sekolah dasar yang mengalami permasalahan gigi dan mulut sebesar 25,9%, gambaran tersebut menunjukan bahwa status kesehatan gigi dan mulut masih bermasalah. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengukur efektifitas berkumur dengan rebusan daun sirih dan rebusan daun saga

  17. Developmental response of Spodoptera litura Fab. to treatments of crude volatile oil from Piper betle L. and evaluation of toxicity to earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sakthi-Bhagavathy, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Evaluations of biological effects of (Pb-CVO) the crude volatile oil of Piper betle leaves on the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura were conducted. Pb-CVO was subjected to GC-MS analysis and twenty vital compounds were isolated from the betel leaf oil. Pb-CVO was tested at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) against S. litura. The treated insects exhibited dose depended mortality. The mortality rate was significantly higher at the 1.0 and 1.5% Pb-CVO. The LC50 (Lethal concentration) were observed at 0.48% Pb-CVO. Larval and pupal durations increased in all treatment concentrations (0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) whereas, pupal weight decreased compared to control. Adult longevity of S. litura was reduced in all treatments but predominantly in the 0.4 and 0.5% Pb-CVO. Correspondingly, mean fecundity rate was reduced at all concentrations compared to control. Histological studies of larvae mid-gut profiles of S. litura were severely damaged in 1.0 and 1.5% and showed abnormalities in mid-gut cells with 0.25 and 0.5% Pb-CVO treatments. Earthworm toxicity illustrated that 0.1% of chemical insecticides (monocrotophos and cypermethrin) varied widely in their contact toxicities compared to 0.5 and 1.0% Pb-CVO and control in both contact filter paper and artificial soil test. These findings suggest that twenty essential compounds of betel leaf oil were significant inhibitors of the development and caused behavioral changes of S. litura. Treatment with betel leaf oil at these concentrations had no adverse effect on earthworm populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Land use change and landslide characteristics analysis for community-based disaster mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Lin

    2013-05-01

    On August 8, 2009, Typhoon Morakot brought heavy rain to Taiwan, causing numerous landslides and debris flows in the Taihe village area of Meishan Township, Chiayi County, in south-central Taiwan. In the Taihe land is primary used for agriculture and land use management may be a factor in the area's landslides. This study explores Typhoon Morakot-induced landslides and land use changes between 1999 and 2009 using GIS with the aid of field investigation. Spot 5 satellite images with a resolution of 2.5 m are used for landslide interpretation and manually digitalized in GIS. A statistical analysis for landslide frequency-area distribution was used to identify the landslide characteristics associated with different types of land use. There were 243 landslides with a total area of 2.75 km(2) in the study area. The area is located in intrinsically fragile combinations of sandstone and shale. Typhoon Morakot-induced landslides show a power-law distribution in the study area. Landslides were mainly located in steep slope areas containing natural forest and in areas planted with bamboo, tea, and betel nut. Land covered with natural forest shows the highest landslide ratio, followed by bamboo, betel nut, and tea. Landslides thus show a higher ratio in areas planted with shallow root vegetation such as bamboo, betel nut, and tea. Furthermore, the degree of basin development is proportional to the landslide ratio. The results show that a change in vegetation cover results in a modified landslide area and frequency and changed land use areas have higher landslide ratios than non-changed. Land use management and community-based disaster prevention are needed in mountainous areas of Taiwan for hazard mitigation.

  19. Oral Submucous Fibrosis – The Indian Scenario: Review and Report of Three Treated Cases

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    Kamala Rawson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a premalignant condition mainly associated with the practice of chewing betel quid containing areca nut, a habit common among south Asian people. It is characterized by inflammation, increased deposition of submucosal collagen, and formation of fibrotic bands in the oral and paraoral tissues, which increasingly limit mouth opening. In this paper, we review literature on OSF and the different stages of the disease to help dentists make an early diagnosis and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. We also present three cases after treatment with biweekly intralesional injections which resulted in improvement of the subjective symptoms.

  20. Comparative study of Candida in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals = Estudo comparativo de Candida em fibrose submucosa oral e indivíduos saudáveis

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    Anila, K.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: A incidência e intensidade de Candida (primariamente C. albicans foi maior nos pacientes com FSO que nos sujeitos controle, mas estes achados estavam dentro dos limites normais (3-47%. Portanto, Candida pode não ser um fator etiológico na transformação maligna. Entretanto, ainda há controvérsias se o hábito de mascar ‘betel’ em casos de FSO teria um efeito inibidor ou promoveria a aderência e invasão de Candida

  1. Running away experience and psychoactive substance use among adolescents in Taiwan: multi-city street outreach survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Heng; Chen, Wen-Chun; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J

    2010-01-20

    This study aimed to examine: 1) the relationship between being a runaway and the time since the first absconding event and adolescent substance use; 2) whether different kinds of psychoactive substances have a different temporal relationship to the first absconding event; and 3) whether the various reasons for the first absconding event are associated with different risks of substance use. Participants were drawn from the 2004-2006 nationwide outreach programs across 26 cities/towns in Taiwan. A total of 17,133 participants, age 12-18 years, who completed an anonymous questionnaire on their experience of running away and substances use and who were now living with their families, were included in the analysis. The lifetime risk of tobacco, alcohol, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use increased steadily from adolescents who had experienced a trial runaway episode (one time lasting or= 2 times or lasting > 1 day), when compared to those who had never ran away. Adolescents who had their first running away experience > 6 months previously had a greater risk of betel nut or illegal drug/inhalant use over the past 6-months than those with a similar experience within the last 6 months. Both alcohol and tobacco use were most frequently initiated before the first running away, whereas both betel nut and illegal drug/inhalant use were most frequently initiated after this event. When adolescents who were fleeing an unsatisfactory home life were compared to those who ran away for excitement, the risk of alcohol use was similar but the former tended to have a higher risk of tobacco, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use. More significant running away and a longer time since the first absconding experience were associated with more advanced substance involvement among adolescents now living in a family setting. Once adolescents had left home, they developed additional psychoactive substance problems, regardless of their reasons for running away. These findings have

  2. Potential topical natural repellent against Ae. aegypti, Culex sp. and Anopheles sp. mosquitoes

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    Dewi Nur Hodijah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Minyak atsiri daun sirih diketahui mempunyai daya proteksi. Dibuatkan losion berdasarkan pengantar sediaan farmasi yang ditambahkan minyak atsiri daun nilam. Sediaan losion dipilih agar dapat menempel lebih lama di permukaan kulit. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk membandingkan daya proteksi antara losion dengan penambahan minyak nilam dan losion tanpa penambahan minyak nilam dibandingkan daya proteksi dengan DEET. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratorium. Semua nyamuk uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Konsentrasi minyak atsiri daun sirih dalam losion adalah 4%; konsentrasi minyak nilam sebagai zat pengikat adalah 0,4%. Formula yang digunakan yaitu formula dasar yang ada pada pengantar sediaan farmasi. Uji repelensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metoda yang direkomendasikan oleh Komisi pestisida.Hasil: Dihasilkan formulasi losion yang stabil dan masih memenuhi standar formulasi sediaan. Berdasarkan hasil, diperoleh data bahwa DEET dan losion hasil modifikasi memiliki rata-rata daya proteksi di atas 90% selama 6 jam terhadap nyamuk Ae.aegypti dan Culex sp. Kesimpulan: Penambahan minyak nilam pada losion sirih dapat meningkatkan daya proteksi terhadap hinggapan nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan Culex sp. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:44-8Kata kunci:repelen alamiah, minyak atsiri, daun sirih, daun nilam, Ae. aegypti, Culex sp.AbstractBackground: Betel leaf essential oil lotion has been known to have insect repellent properties. A lotion was made based on a pharmaceutical formula from a monograph where patchouli leaf essential oil was added. A lotion preparation was intended to enhance adherence of the formula on the surface of the skin. The purpose of this study was to compare protection percentage of lotion with patchouli oil and without patchouli oil lotion compared to DEET.Methods: This study is an experimental laboratory-based research. All mosquitoes

  3. Running away experience and psychoactive substance use among adolescents in Taiwan: multi-city street outreach survey

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    Lew-Ting Chih-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine: 1 the relationship between being a runaway and the time since the first absconding event and adolescent substance use; 2 whether different kinds of psychoactive substances have a different temporal relationship to the first absconding event; and 3 whether the various reasons for the first absconding event are associated with different risks of substance use. Methods Participants were drawn from the 2004-2006 nationwide outreach programs across 26 cities/towns in Taiwan. A total of 17,133 participants, age 12-18 years, who completed an anonymous questionnaire on their experience of running away and substances use and who were now living with their families, were included in the analysis. Results The lifetime risk of tobacco, alcohol, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use increased steadily from adolescents who had experienced a trial runaway episode (one time lasting ≤ 1 day, to those with extended runaway experience (≥ 2 times or lasting > 1 day, when compared to those who had never ran away. Adolescents who had their first running away experience > 6 months previously had a greater risk of betel nut or illegal drug/inhalant use over the past 6-months than those with a similar experience within the last 6 months. Both alcohol and tobacco use were most frequently initiated before the first running away, whereas both betel nut and illegal drug/inhalant use were most frequently initiated after this event. When adolescents who were fleeing an unsatisfactory home life were compared to those who ran away for excitement, the risk of alcohol use was similar but the former tended to have a higher risk of tobacco, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use. Conclusions More significant running away and a longer time since the first absconding experience were associated with more advanced substance involvement among adolescents now living in a family setting. Once adolescents had left home, they

  4. Enhancement of radiomodulatory effect through liposome encapsulated radio-modifier on cancer bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Rapthap, C.; Sharan, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    Efficacy of a radioprotective drug, 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), in its free form and after its encapsulation into liposomes have been studied in normal and cancer bearing mice. Cancer was induced in micy by oral administration of aqueous extract of betel nut (AEBN) for 3 months. Radioprotection afforded by free MPG and liposome encapsulated MPG (LEM) in normal and cancerous tissue were evaluated by monitoring levels of glutathione (GSH) and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) enzyme and state of structural organization of chromatin. The results of our studies reveal that in cancerous tissues LEM afforded better radioprotection than the free form of MPG. (orig.)

  5. Malignant transformation of a potentially low risk lichenoid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashir, K.R.; Chatra, L.

    2012-01-01

    Lichenoid reaction represents a family of oral lesions identical, both clinically and histologically to oral lichen planus. The triggering factor for this lesion varies from medicines to dental materials, usually demonstrating a cause-effect relationship unlike lichen planus. We present a typical case of lichenoid reaction on the buccal mucosa that appeared in response to betel quid which progressed to carcinoma during a follow-up period of 6 months. Lichenoid reactions occurring in response to known carcinogens and that occurring in risk group population has to be observed more cautiously. (author)

  6. Enhancement of radiomodulatory effect through liposome encapsulated radio-modifier on cancer bearing mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Rapthap, C. [North-Eastern Hill Univ., Shillong (India). Immunology Lab.; Srivastava, P.N. [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India); Sharan, R.N. [North-Eastern Hill Univ., Shillong (India). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1999-07-01

    Efficacy of a radioprotective drug, 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG), in its free form and after its encapsulation into liposomes have been studied in normal and cancer bearing mice. Cancer was induced in micy by oral administration of aqueous extract of betel nut (AEBN) for 3 months. Radioprotection afforded by free MPG and liposome encapsulated MPG (LEM) in normal and cancerous tissue were evaluated by monitoring levels of glutathione (GSH) and {gamma}-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) enzyme and state of structural organization of chromatin. The results of our studies reveal that in cancerous tissues LEM afforded better radioprotection than the free form of MPG. (orig.)

  7. Transformation of Eugenol and Safrole into Hydroxychavicol

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    Budi Arifin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxychavicol is found in betel leaf at low concentration and is reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimutagenic activities. This study aimed to synthesize hydroxychavicol from eugenol and safrole. Isolation of eugenol from clove oil by alkaline extraction method gave 71% yield, while the isolation of safrole from lawang oil by alkaline extraction method, followed by purification using preparative thin layer chromatography, gave 7% yield. Eugenol demethylation and safrole demethylenation with AlCl3 reagent were successfully produced hydroxychavicol. The yields were 28% and 24%, respectively. Mechanisms of the synthesis are proposed in this article.

  8. KARAKTERISTIK DAN STABILITAS SEDIAAN GEL MULUT BERBAHAN AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH HITAM BERBASIS HYDROXY ETHYL CELLULOSE (HEC

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    Fajar Prasetya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain mouth gel formula ​​from extract of black betel leaves which effectively kill microbes that cause inflammation of the gums (gingivitis and tooth decay (caries. The mouth gel formulation ​​from black betel leaves extract has been made by various concentrate of Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose (HEC as a mucoadhesive polymer. The optimized mouth gel base determine by evaluation the physical which includes organoleptic, viscosity, pH, the spreadability, and consistency after 16 days storage. The evaluation test was done with pH 7.21 (which lowest - 7.78 (the highest. The spreadability after 16 days storage of 50 grams for formula 1, formula 2, formula 3 each is 11.33 cm, 5.60 cm, and 4.70 cm. The consistency of the mouth gel formulation ​​from black betel leaves extract on formula 1, formula 2, and formula 3 are no changes occurred up to 16 days of storage. The viscosity obtained after 16 days of storage for formula 1, formula 2, and formula 3 respectively are 4.30 dpas, 37 dpas, and 80 dpas. The result showed that formula 2 has better formulation. Keywords: antimicrobials ,mouth gel, black betel, gingivitis, cavities ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan formula gel mulut dari ekstrak daun sirih hitam yang secara efektif membunuh mikroba yang menyebabkan peradangan pada gusi (gingivitis dan kerusakan gigi (karies. Formulasi gel mulut dari hitam sirih ekstrak daun telah dibuat oleh berbagai konsentrasi Hidroksi Etil Selulosa (HEC sebagai polimer mukoadhesif. Dioptimalkan basis gel mulut menentukan dengan evaluasi fisik yang meliputi organoleptik, viskositas, pH, spreadability, dan konsistensi setelah 16 hari penyimpanan. Tes evaluasi dilakukan dengan pH 7.21 (yang terendah - 7.78 (tertinggi. The spreadability setelah 16 hari penyimpanan 50 gram untuk formula 1, rumus 2, rumus 3 masing-masing adalah 11,33 cm, 5,60 cm, dan 4,70 cm. Konsistensi formulasi gel mulut dari daun sirih hitam ekstrak formula 1, rumus

  9. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  10. Evaluation of sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid on Piper betle leaves and its effect on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Richu; Ganguli, Abhijit; Ghosh, Moushumi; Sohal, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    The sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid and its effect on health beneficial properties of Piper betle leaves were determined. Betel leaves artificially inoculated with Aeromonas, Salmonella and Yersinia were subjected to organic acid (citric acid, acetic acid and lactic acid) treatment. Pathogen populations reduced by 4 log upon individual inoculation and up to 2 log in a mixed cocktail following treatment with 2% acetic acid during storage up to 20 h at 28 degrees C, indicating a residual antimicrobial effect on pathogen during storage. Antioxidant potential ethanolic extracts of both raw and treated P. betle leaves were assayed for free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Polyphenols, flavonoids and the reducing power of treated and untreated P. betle were also compared. No significant (P>0.05) changes were observed in antioxidant status; flavonoids, polyphenols and reducing power of treated betel leaves. Results indicate the feasibility of a simple intervention strategy for inactivating pathogens in edible leaves of P. betle.

  11. Non-adherence to life-style modification and its factors among type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Afnan, Fadia; Ali, Liaquat

    2014-01-01

    Non-adherence to preventive and therapeutic life-style recommendations among patients with diabetes is special challenge in the management of these patients. This study aimed to measure the proportion of non-adherence to life-style modification and factors associated with these among a group of Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Under an analytical cross-sectional design 374 type 2 diabetic patients (age >20 years), diagnosed for at least 1 year, were selected from different health care centers operated by the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: Diet (88%), exercise (25%), routine blood glucose testing (32%), foot care (70%), smoking (6%) and betel quid chewing habit (25%). Binary logistic regression suggests that higher education group (P = 0.013), rural area (P = 0.013) and attendance to diabetes education classes (P = 0.043) showed good adherence to diet and non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.014), older age (P = 0.037) are associated to non-adherence to exercise. Unemployed patients showed more non-adherence to blood glucose testing (P = 0.045) than others. Non-attendance to diabetes education class (P = 0.037) and business occupation group (P = 0.039) showed significant association to smoking and betel quid intake habit respectively.

  12. Smokeless tobacco use and perceptions of risk among students in Mumbai municipal schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M L; Chadha, D; Bhutia, T D

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 15% of youth in India use tobacco. However, few studies have explored the use, knowledge, and attitudes of smokeless tobacco use among youth. To determine the patterns of use as well as knowledge and perceptions of smokeless tobacco among youth in Mumbai attending municipal schools. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 1053 students in the 8th and 9th grades in 16 municipal schools in Mumbai to determine the knowledge and perceptions about smokeless tobacco products as well as the patterns of use. Ever use of smokeless tobacco was reported by 47 (4.7%) students in the survey. Twenty-nine (2.9%) students reported ever using smoked tobacco. Students were more likely to identify cigarettes and bidis as tobacco products compared to smokeless tobacco products such as gutkha, mishri, and khaini. Betel nut products were used by 178 (17.9%) students. The high rate of smokeless tobacco and betel nut use coupled with low levels of knowledge about their contents and harms suggests that tobacco control programs targeting youth should ensure that these products are adequately explained and understood by students.

  13. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Ching-Yi; Lan, Yu-Ching

    2017-08-24

    Background : This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods : Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results : Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%), being curious about the products (32.0%), enjoying the flavor (31.3%), or preparing for school exams (26.7%). Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents' home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink's effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions : In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  14. Separation of polyphenols and arecoline from areca nut (Areca catechu L.) by solvent extraction, its antioxidant activity, and identification of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Yogita V; Singhal, Rekha S

    2013-08-15

    Areca nut (Areca catechu L.) or betel nut, a commercial cash crop, is a rich source of polyphenols but also contains toxic alkaloids, mainly arecoline. Separation of these bioactive polyphenols from toxic constituents could propel the safe and beneficial use of betel nut; also it will help arecanut processing industries to produce arecoline-free products. With the aim to develop an effective method for maximum extraction of polyphenols with minimum arecoline, several factors such as nature of the solvent, pH (2-10), substrate concentration (6-14 %) and extraction time (30-150 min) under shaking conditions were evaluated. Qualitative analysis was done using spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Maximum extraction of polyphenols (407.47 mg GAE g(-1)), total tannin and its antioxidant activity with minimum arecoline (1.73 mg g(-1) of sample) was achieved by using 80% acetone at pH 4 for 90 min with 10% w/v substrate under shaking conditions. Solvent extraction under optimized parameters gave maximum polyphenols with minimum extraction of arecoline, and highest ratio of polyphenols to arecoline. HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results confirmed the presence of catechin and epicatechin in the extract, which suggests its potential as a source of bioactives. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Screening for Oral Cavity Cancer: A 1-year Experience of a Regional Hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, T H; Yuan, C H; Chen, R F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the risk factors affecting precancerous lesions, and cancer of oral cavity, and to assess efficacy of visual screening for oral mucosal lesions. The medical records of patients older than 30 years of age with history of habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing that received screening for oral mucosal lesions between January 2012 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' age, gender, risk factors, screening findings, and histopathology results of biopsy were included for further analysis. A total of 1341 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 1080 males and 261 females ranging from 30 to 96 years of age, with a mean age of 53.9±13.6 years. After screening, 226 (16.9%) were found to be positive of oral lesions. Among these 226 patients, 69 (30.5%) underwent biopsy under local anesthesia, and the histopathology showed malignancy in 13 (5.8%). All of the confirmed malignant cases were squamous cell carcinoma. Among them, 12 received further staging examination and one was lost to follow-up resulting in unknown stage. The early stage oral cavity cancer (stage I and II) accounted for 84.6% (11/13). The detection rate of early stage oral cavity cancer in our study was reasonable. Therefore, visual screening for oral cavity cancer is recommended for patients with habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing.

  16. Smokeless tobacco: a major public health problem in the SEA region: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash C; Ray, Cecily S; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Singh, Poonam K

    2011-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco use is on the upswing in some parts of the world, including parts of SEAR. It is therefore important to monitor this problem and understand the possible consequences on public health. Material for this review was obtained from documents and data of the World Health Organization, co-authors, colleagues, and searches on key words in PubMed and on Google. Smokeless tobacco use in SEAR, as betel quid with tobacco, declined with increased marketing of cigarettes from the early twentieth century. Smokeless tobacco use began to increase in the 1970s in South Asia, with the marketing of new products made from areca nut and tobacco and convenient packaging. As a consequence, oral precancerous conditions and cancer incidence in young adults have increased significantly. Thailand's successful policies in reducing betel quid use through school health education from the 1920s and in preventing imports of smokeless tobacco products from 1992 are worth emulating by many SEAR countries. India, the largest manufacturing country of smokeless tobacco in the Region, is considering ways to regulate its production. Best practices require the simultaneous control of smokeless and smoking forms of tobacco. Governments in SEAR would do well to adopt strong measures now to control this problem.

  17. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jung Chang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods: Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results: Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%, being curious about the products (32.0%, enjoying the flavor (31.3%, or preparing for school exams (26.7%. Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents’ home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink’s effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions: In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  18. Incidence of tempero-mandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome in rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M B; Rao, C B

    1981-08-01

    The incidence and clinical course of the tempero-mandibular joint dysfunction syndrome was studied among 1187 subjects over the age of 16, who attended the rural dental consultations held at various places in the State of Karnataka, India. The study revealed an incidence of 20.3%. Contracy to earlier reports, the incidence was higher in males than in females and more married females were affected than unmarried. Clicking appeared to be the predominant symptom in all age groups. The incidence of pain increased with age. Of all patients 43.75% were not aware of a clicking joint; 53.7% persons with clicking and 14% with pain were not disturbed by their symptoms. The findings of the study failed to establish any relationship between unilateral missing teeth and the occurrence of the pain dysfunction syndrome (PDS). The chewing habits (betel leaf, tobacco, betel nut) which are prevalent in India appeared to have no effect on the incidence of PDS. It is suggested that more epidemiological studies should be carried out in different parts of the world with varying social, political and economic systems to enable better understanding of the global incidence of PDS.

  19. Analysis and Toxicity of Plain (PMP) and Blended (PMT) Indian Pan Masala (PM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Suresh Kumar; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H

    2013-02-01

    Betel leaf combined with areca nut is known as betel quid pan masala (PM), and tobacco with areca nut, catechu and lime is pan masala (PMT) blended with gulkhand. These narcotics are popular among young and old individuals. A prima facia chemical analysis and a toxicity assessment of PM in mice were conducted to study the relationship between longtime consumption of PM and health hazards. Chemical analysis of different types of PM was done employing HPLC, GLC, AAS, ES, TLC, GCMS and sequential extraction for PAH, pesticides, metals and minerals, electrolytes, drugs and xenobiotics. Ethanolic PM extracts were tested by IP and PO routes in inbred Swiss mice. PAH, which are known xenobiotics for pre-cancerous lesions, were significantly high (peffect on blood and organ weights (kidney, heart, spleen and liver), but we did observe attenuated testis. However, in the bone marrow of the mice, chromosomes were most affected in the mice fed PM-Zarda blend for 3 months. The chromosomal abnormalities included ploidy, loss, breaks, gaps, deletions and exchanges in ring chromosomes. The PM caused sperm head anomalies (narrow, blunt, triangular and banana shapes), and the sperm were irregular, amorphous, tailless and rudimentary, with the maximum effect among the groups fed PM for 3 months. Significantly higher levels (p<0.01) of testis glycogen, cholesterol and protein were found. The group fed for 16 days showed no change in red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood corpuscles (WBC), hemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation counts.

  20. PEMANFAATAN TANAMAN ATRAKTAN MENGENDALIKAN HAMA KEONG MAS PADI

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    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2018-01-01

    In Indonesia, many plantation as use as beneficial plants. This study aims to obtain an effective formula that can be used as a biopesticide to control snail pests during the vegetative phase from May to July 2017 using random non-factorial methods at two rice planting locations in the Village Lae parira, Dairi, North Sumatra. Design with 6 treatments and 3 replicates (ie control, neem leaves (Azadirachta indica, tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tabacum, sweet potato leaf (Manihot glaziovii, noni fruit, Morinda citrifolia, and betel nut (Areca catechu and papaya (Carica papaya as an eco-friendly herbaceous and biopesticide. Based on the study recorded in sampling for 7 days with 6 treatments had significant effect on the percentage affected by the clump of rice attacked and the percentage of death. Pearson correlation value recorded percentage of death and percentage of impacted  showed a very significant relationship. Neem is the best biopesticide in controlling mollusicides, followed by betel nuts, tobacco, poisonous yams and noni. Death of 100% snail mas will prevent damage to the clump of rice plants Dairi, North Sumatra. All biopesticide treatments were tested to control snail pests in rice plants that will increase agicultural productivity in maintaining food security in Dairi, North Sumatra.

  1. The aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis: the stimulation of collagen synthesis by extracts of areca nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canniff, J P; Harvey, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic disabling disease developing in up to 0.5% of the estimated 500 million habitual chewers of the "betel" quid. The quid, or chew, usually comprises a leaf of the Piper betel vine in which is wrapped fragments of the nut of Areca catechu, together with slaked lime and varied additives, including tobacco. The precise aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) remains obscure, but epidemiological and animal studies have pointed to a close association with the prolonged usage of A. catechu nuts. Epithelial atypia and epidermoid carcinoma have been reported in 15% and 7%, respectively, of patients with established OSF. Preparations from varieties of A. catechu nuts have been tested for their ability to stimulate collagen synthesis in microwell cultures of human fibroblasts, using a pulse of 3H-proline and subsequent analysis of the cultures for radioactive collagen. Crude extracts of three varieties of areca nuts were extracted with ethanol and lyophilised before dilution in the culture medium. Control media contained identical concentrations of ethanol where appropriate. The three extracts at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml stimulated collagen synthesis by approximately 150%, suggesting that this effect might be involved in the aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis.

  2. Susceptibility characterisation of Candida spp. to four essential oils

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    C C Rath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, anti-Candida activity of four essential oils i.e. Black cumin (Nigella sativa, Curry leaf (Murraya koienigii, Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi, and Betel leaf (Piper betel were screened against four human pathogenic species of Candida viz. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the oils ranged between 15.62 and 250 μl/ml while studied through tube dilution method. The oils retained their anti-Candida activities even after heat treatment (at 45ΊC, 60ΊC, 100ΊC for 1 hour and also on autoclaving. Both Ajwain and Black Cumin leaf oils showed better anti-Candida activity against Candida albicans, resulting in an irreversible damage to the cells. The anti-Candida activity of these essential oils could be attributable to the membrane inhibition mechanism. The activity of the oils is reported to be microbicidal (Candida-cidal.

  3. Prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders in workers of Udupi taluk

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    Yeturu Sravan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD among industrial workers of Udupi taluk, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of industrial workers aged >18 years from randomly selected industries in Udupi Taluk. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants to assess sociodemographic factors and abusive habits (Tobacco, Alcohol, and Betel quid followed by clinical oral examination by single trained and calibrated examiner. Results: A total of 396 completed all steps of the survey and were included for analysis. A total of 14, 11.4, and 14.4% were tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid users, respectively. A total of 8.6% (n = 34 have at least one PMD. A significantly higher number of participants with single (11.4% or combined habits (60.4% had oral lesions while none of the participants without habits reported any oral lesions (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Prevalence of abusive habits and oral premalignant lesions or conditions was substantial among the workers. The cause and effect relationship and dose-response were also shown to be significantly associated. Prevention and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major cornerstones for the control of oral cancer.

  4. Patterns of maternal tobacco use among Cambodian women: findings from a nationwide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N; Kheam, They; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran S; Yel, Daravuth

    2013-09-01

    Although current trends indicate that the rate of cigarette smoking tends to be low among women in the Western Pacific Region (Malaysia) identify that a large proportion of women of reproductive age and older chew tobacco--often as part of a betel quid mixture that includes other potentially harmful ingredients (eg, areca nut). Our findings from currently pregnant women identified during a nationwide survey of adult tobacco use in Cambodia indicate that 13.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8% to 17%) were current users of smoked or smokeless (in the form of a betel quid) tobacco. Most pregnant women who used tobacco indicated that their habit was either initiated (29.1%; 95% CI = 16.3-46.3) or increased (33.7%; 95% CI = 18.3-53.5) during pregnancy. Pregnancy-related symptoms such as morning sickness were reported as the reason for more than half (54.9%; 95% CI = 34.8-73.4) of the currently pregnant users to have started a tobacco habit during their lifetime. Among those pregnant women who did not use tobacco, we found strong associations (odds ratios from 2 to 14) with beliefs about the harmful effects of tobacco on adult health, faith-based beliefs in addictive substances, and beliefs that influential members of the community, health professionals, and children should not use tobacco. Our findings indicate that tobacco cessation and prevention programs in Cambodia should specifically target pregnant and reproductive-age women.

  5. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

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    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  6. Periodontal disease in a remote Asian population: association between clinical and microbiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnvik, Christine; Söljegård, Emelie; Charalampakis, Georgios; Suksu-Art, Narong; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to clinically and microbiologically describe the periodontal conditions in a remote adult Asian population with poor oral hygiene. The subjects were 30-60-year-old adults of Karen Hill tribes with no access to dental care. Eighty-six subjects were selected randomly. Clinical registrations included number of remaining teeth, plaque index (PlI), bleeding on probing (BoP), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and probing pocket depth (PPD). Subgingival plaque samples were collected and analyzed with the checkerboard method. Subjects of the study group had mean number of remaining teeth of 26.5 despite the abundant plaque and a high bleeding score. Severe periodontitis (CAL ≥ 7 mm) was recorded in 12.9% of the youngest age group (30-39 years) while it was significantly higher (52%) in the middle group (40-49 years) and (60%) in the eldest age group (50-60 years). Pathological pocketing (PPD ≥ 7 mm) was significantly lower in all age groups. Age, betel chewing, and a microbiological cluster including at least one of Prevotella tannerae, Filifactor alocis and Porphyromonas endodontalis significantly correlated with the severity of periodontal disease. Age, betel chewing, and a new bacterial complex other than the "red complex" correlated to periodontal breakdown in this remote adult Asian population. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  8. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants

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    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of plants is an important task in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In the current study, Ocimum species, Pimenta officinalis and Piper betel were considered as medicinal plants by evaluation of phytochemical composition like phenol content, Flavonoid content, antioxidant content and other activities like antibacterial, antifungal, lethal dosage (LD 50 of the plant extracts. Among the selected plants P. officinalis shown higher medicinal properties and is selected for molecular characterization. Methods: Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and also estimated Total phenols, flavonoids content, Total Antioxidants, Cytotoxic assay on Artemia salina for determining lethal dosage (LD50, matK gene was sequenced by using ABI Prism 3700. Leaf extract of P. officinalis plant is further selected for GC-chromatographic analysis to know its chemical composition. DNA was isolated by different protocols, optimized, and is used for the PCR amplification of trnL-gene which is a universal marker among plants in molecular taxonomy. The trnL-gene is amplified by using PCR. The product obtained from PCR is purified and the sample is used for sequencing so that it can be used for comparative studies. Results: P.offcinalis has shown good antimicrobial activity against all organisms . A. flavus is resistant against O. sanctum (B. Phenolic content (26.5 毺 g/g is found to be rich in P. betel where as flavonoid and Antioxidant content are significant in P. betel. The chromatogram revealed the presence of high concentration of Eugenol in the leaf sample. On submitting to BLASTN, the genetic sequence has found similarity with Pimenta dioica plastid partial matK gene and Ugni molinae trnK gene. MatK did not shown any interactions with trnK or trnL genes. MatK has shown interactions with various genes like ycf5, pclpp, psbh, atph, NDVI, rpoc1, ndha, ndhd, psai. Conclusions: we can

  9. Tobacco usage among rural Bajaus in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, C Y

    1998-09-01

    As part of a larger study to bring attention to smoking and smokeless tobacco use among the indigenous people of Sabah State in Malaysia, the Bajaus were interviewed in a cross-sectional survey. 74.4% of the men smoked compared to 3.3% of the women and 77% of women used smokeless tobacco compared to 4.3% of men. Local handrolled cigarettes called kirais were popular and smokeless tobacco was used as an ingredient in the ritual of betel-quid chewing. Tobacco was also used because it was thought to have medicinal effects. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was significantly lower among the better educated women but for smoking, education had no relation with prevalence. Both habits could be easily maintained as they were cheap practices which were socially and culturally accepted. Awareness of the adverse effects of such tobacco habits was poor and intervention programs to curb tobacco use is required.

  10. Oral melanin pigmentation in 467 Thai and Malaysian people with special emphasis on smoker's melanosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, C A; Axéll, T

    1991-01-01

    At the faculties of dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients were interviewed concerning tobacco and chewing habits and examined for the presence of oral melanin pigmentation. Tobacco was regularly used by 32% and 28% of the studied populations in CM and KL. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit, but the chewing of betel and tea leaves (miang) and the smoking of banana leaf cigars (khi yo) was also registered. The genetically acquired pigmentation dominated. Although nearly all non-tobacco users in the Malay and Indian populations had oral melanin pigmentation, it was found that tobacco smokers had significantly more oral surfaces pigmented than non-tobacco users. Among Thais, the percentage of pigmented individuals was significantly higher among tobacco smokers. It was concluded that tobacco smoking stimulates oral melanocytes to a higher melanin production also in dark-skinned ethnic groups.

  11. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene. © 2012 APJPH.

  12. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

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    István Ujváry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural products are also mentioned.

  13. The alternative choices of masticatory customs by local people in Wasur National Park, Merauke, Papua

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    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The flora diversity and the interesting customs in East Indonesia, particularly in Papua, have not been explored intensively. This study encountered the relationship between traditional customs and usage of plant species by the local people in Wasur National Park Area, Merauke sub-district, Merauke district. One of them was masticatory. It has been well known by Indonesians in most parts of Indonesia, including societies in Wasur National Park. The major societies live in Wasur National Park are Kanum, Morori and Marind. Besides gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxburgh and sirih (Piper betle L., the young fruit of betel nut (Areca catechu L. is usually consumed it as masticatory materials, by man and women. Several plant species, usually used alternative choices by Kanum, Morori and Marind were openg (Exocarpus latifolius R.Br.; Santalaceae, tawal (Celastraceae, sambiwal (Erythroxylum ecarinatum Burck; Erythroxylaceae, ntuo (Cryptocaria nitida R.A.Philippi; Lauraceae and agya (Endiandra montana C.T. White; Lauraceae.

  14. Purification of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Piper betle leaf and its characterization in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Lee, Miau-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to purify protein(s) from Piper betle leaf for identification and further characterization. A functionally unknown protein was purified to apparent homogeneity with a molecular mass of 15.7 kDa and identified as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purified SOD appeared to be monomeric and converted to its dimeric form with increased enzymatic activity in betel nut oral extract. This irreversible conversion was mainly induced by slaked lime, resulting from the increase in pH of the oral cavity. Oral extract from chewing areca nut alone also induced SOD dimerization due to the presence of arginine. The enhanced activity of the SOD dimer was responsible for the continuous production of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity. Thus, SOD may contribute to oral carcinogenesis through the continuous formation of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity, in spite of its protective role against cancer in vivo.

  15. Search for β-Secretase Inhibitors from Natural Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shinichi; Murata, Kazuya; Yoshioka, Yuri; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The growing number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients prompted us to seek effective natural resources for the prevention of AD. We focused on the inhibition of β-secretase, which is known to catalyze the production of senile plaque. Sixteen spices used in Asian countries were selected for the screening. Among the extracts tested, hexane extracts obtained from turmeric, cardamom, long pepper, cinnamon, Sichuan pepper, betel, white turmeric and aromatic ginger showed potent inhibitory activities. Their active principles were identified as sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, fatty acid derivatives and phenylpropanoids using GC-MS analyses. The chemical structures and IC50 values of the compounds are disclosed. The results suggest that long-term consumption'of aromatic compounds from spices could be effective in the prevention of AD.

  16. Factors Influencing the Initiation of Smokeless Tobacco Consumption Among Low Socioeconomic Community in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Harun, Md Golam Dostogir; Chowdhury, A B M Alauddin; Ahmed, Kapil; Khan, Hafiz T A

    2017-07-01

    This study explored factors influencing the initiation of smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption in a low socioeconomic urban community in Bangladesh. The study conducted four focus group discussions among 33 informants involves school teachers, community leaders, women, and betel-nut shops owners. The results were prepared by thematic analysis of the transcripts where informants mean age was 30 ( SD ± 6.8) years with varying level of education. Tradition of hospitality, curiosity, offer from an elderly person, and avoiding nausea during pregnancy and at time of quitting smoking were key factors for the initiation of SLT consumption. The results also revealed most people were aware about the danger of SLT consumption but, in practice, consumed frequently. The research suggested that doctors might advise people not to use any form of SLT while they seeking health services. Furthermore, community-based awareness program could minimize the wider use of SLT among low-income community in Bangladesh.

  17. Investigation of poly-herbal aqueous extract for potential anti-ulcer activity

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    Deepak S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous polyherbal extract of betel, clove, fennel and black catechu was evaluated for gastro-protective (antiulcer activity in rats using the aspirin and ethanol induced ulcer models. Efficacy was assessed by determination of ulcer index and percentage of ulcer protection.  Antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging procedure. Oral administration of the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg and (500 mg/kg showed dose dependent antiulcer activity and protected gastric lesions by about 65 to 75% respectively compared to standard drug Omeprazole (98%. The findings suggest that the polyherbal extract have significant gastro-protective activity.                                                                   

  18. Foreign body aspiration masquerading as difficult asthma

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    Rai S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to assess patients of difficult/therapy resistant asthma carefully in order to identify whether there are any correctable factors that may contribute to their poor control. It is critical to make a diagnosis of asthma and to exclude other airway diseases. A 65-years-old lady presented with repeated acute episodes of dyspnoea and wheezing. She was on regular medication for bronchial asthma for 18 years. There was no history of foreign body aspiration or loss of consciousness. Her chest radiograph was normal. She showed poor response to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB showed intracordal cyst of the left vocal cord and 1cm size irregular piece of betel nut in right main bronchus, which was removed endoscopically with the help of dormia basket, following which her condition improved and asthma was controlled on inhaled bronchodilators.

  19. Studies of Water Absorption Behavior of Plant Fibers at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Dip

    2010-05-01

    Moisture absorption of natural fiber plastic composites is one major concern in their outdoor applications. The absorbed moisture has many detrimental effects on the mechanical performance of these composites. A knowledge of the moisture diffusivity, permeability, and solubility is very much essential for the application of natural fibers as an excellent reinforcement in polymers. An effort has been made to study the water absorption behavior of some natural fibers such as bowstring hemp, okra, and betel nut at different temperatures to improve the long-term performance of composites reinforced with these fibers. The gain in moisture content in the fibers due to water absorption was measured as a function of exposure time at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 340 K. The thermodynamic parameters of the sorption process, such as diffusion coefficients and corresponding activation energies, were estimated.

  20. Oral submucous fibrosis in children: Report of three cases and review

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    Tulasi Lakshmi Duggirala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a chronic, insidious, generalized, and debilitating condition of the oral mucosa predominantly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Oral submucous fibrosis is etiologically linked to the consumption of the areca nut in flavored formulations or as an ingredient in the betel quid chewed by the communities in these countries. The sweet supari, in their multicolored attractive pouches, is the most common chewed product in children. It is considered a harmless mouth freshener and therefore is consumed in larger amount and is kept in the mouth for a longer time and swallowed by the ignorant children. Factors involved in the consumption of sweet supari are levels of awareness, household environment, peer pressure, low cost, easy availability, etc. Here, we report three cases of OSMF in a 9-year-old girl, 13-year-old boy and a 15-year-old girl and literature review.

  1. A characterization NMR of secondary metabolites from lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Anis Asmi; Khalid, Rozida; Bakar, Muntaz Abu

    2018-04-01

    The research study was carried out to extract, isolate and characterize the secondary metabolites of lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum. Most of the lichen samples were obtained from betel nut trees and needle flowers which were collected from 17 different places around UKM Bangi campus. Each lichen sample was dried before being grinded and extracted in methanol for nine days. This process was repeated three times at room temperature. Subsequently, the resulting residues were filtered to obtain the crude extracts and further analysed using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Vacuum Column Chromatography (VLC). In order to derive the pure compounds, the isolation step was proceeded using Radial Chromatography (RC). These isolated compounds were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonances (NMR) and identified as methyl haematomatte (1), methyl chlorohaematomatte (2) and methyl β-orsellinate (3).

  2. Human-Rhesus Monkey conflict at Rampur Village under Monohardi Upazila in Narsingdi District of Bangladesh

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    M.F. Ahsan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-Rhesus monkey conflicts were recorded at Rampur Village under Khidirpur Union Parishad of Monohardi upazila under Narsingdi District in Bangladesh from April to September 2012. There were three groups of Rhesus monkeys living in the area. The focal study group comprised 26 individuals (4 adult males, 6 adult females, 10 juveniles and 6 infants. The monkeys consumed parts of 10 plant species. From the questionnaire survey, it was found that the greatest damage caused by monkeys was on betel leaf vines and the least damage on vegetables. Eighty percent respondents opted to conserve the monkeys and 20% opined status quo. Some restricted areas (especially khas lands may be identified and planted with some fruit trees for survival of monkeys and for reducing conflicts with humans.

  3. Cancer of the oral cavity- a growing concern in the Micronesia: a case report from the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Sangita; Bhandary, Prahlad

    2003-03-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is of growing concern worldwide. In the Micronesia, there has been a recent increase in use of betel nut and tobacco chewing in addition to already existing problem of smoking and alcohol drinking. These deleterious habits have further added the risk for development of oral cancers in the Marshall Islands. The oral cancers have good prognosis, which is directly related to the early diagnosis and treatment. Advanced staged cancers need mutilating surgery in addition to radiotherapy and carry high mortality rate. The epidemiology, etiology and recent approaches in the management of oral cavity cancer has been discussed along with a case report of advanced cancer of the floor of the mouth from the Marshall Islands.

  4. Oral submucous fibrosis: An update on current theories of pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Hunasgi, Santosh; Merkx, M A W; Gao, Shan; Brennan, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 40 years, many theories linking oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) to various risk factors have been proposed. Spicy, pungent foods and irritants such as supari (areca nut), paan (betel leaves), tobacco (through chewing or smoking)-the common Asian habits of chewing the aforementioned agents-have all been incriminated as causative agents. Systemic factors such as nutritional deficiency, genetic predisposition and autoimmunity have also been proposed in the pathogenesis of OSMF. However, the precise aetiology of OSMF is still unknown, and no conclusive evidence has been found despite many extensive investigations on implicated factors. Most of the ideas proposed have been derived from the existing clinical and epidemiological data. We present a comprehensive review of the various theories regarding the pathogenesis of the condition, but have not concentrated on malignant transformation in this article. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. /sup 32/P-postlabelling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in human oral mucosal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, B.P.; Stich, H.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exfoliated mucosal cells were collected from the oral cavity of three groups at high risk for oral cancer: Indian betel nut chewers, Filipino inverted smokers (burning end of cigar in mouth) and Indian Khaini tobacco chewers. DNA was extracted from these samples, as well as from samples of exfoliated cells of Canadian non-smoking controls. DNA was analyzed for the presence of aromatic DNA adducts using /sup 32/P-postlabelling analysis. Five chromatographically distinct adducts were found in samples from both the high risk groups and the nonsmoking controls. Individual adducts were detectable in approximately 30-95% of samples, depending on the adduct and population group. Estimated levels of specific adducts ranged from non-detectable (prevalence relative to normal nucleotides less than 1 X 10(-9)) to occasionally greater than 1 X 10(-7). No adducts were found in high risk groups which did not also appear in control subjects.

  6. A case-control study of lung cancer in Karachi, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhurgri, Y.; Decullier, E.; Bhurgri, A.; Sheikh Nassar; Ahmed Usman; Brennan, P.; Boffetta, P. [Karachi Cancer Registry, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the causes of lung cancer in Pakistan. 320 patients (282 men and 38 women) with lung cancer treated at the Liaquat National Post Graduate Medical Centre, the Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center and the Civil Hospital, all in Karachi, and 640 controls (561 men and 79 women) were enrolled. A total of 275 patients and 222 controls reported having a history of smoking (57% of men and 14% of women). An increased risk of developing lung cancer was observed among individuals with a history of smoking (odds ratio (OR) 22.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-37.3) and among current smokers (OR 30.2; 95% CI 17.8-51.3). The risk decreased with the number of years since quitting (most apparent 10 years after smoking cessation). Chewing betel quid (containing betel leaf, lime, areca nut and tobacco) was only marginally associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, heavy exposure to this habit resulted in a significantly elevated odds ratio (OR2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). The OR for snuff use was significantly increased (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.7), with a significant trend with years of exposure and average level of consumption. Having ever lived in a flat with a heating system (coal, wood, electricity and kerosene) was associated with an OR of 3.6 (95% CI 2.5-5.3). Using gas, electricity or kerosene for cooking was associated with a reduced OR compared with the use of wood, whereas the OR for the use of coal was 2.7 (95& CI 0.9-8.7). The primary role of tobacco smoking as the cause of lung cancer in Pakistan was confirmed. 13 refs.

  7. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of small molecular weight compounds (under 10 KDa) as biomarkers of rat hearts undergoing arecoline challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Chang, Mu-Hsin; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Min; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2013-04-01

    Statistical and clinical reports indicate that betel nut chewing is strongly associated with progression of oral cancer because some ingredients in betel nuts are potential cancer promoters, especially arecoline. Early diagnosis for cancer biomarkers is the best strategy for prevention of cancer progression. Several methods are suggested for investigating cancer biomarkers. Among these methods, gel-based proteomics approach is the most powerful and recommended tool for investigating biomarkers due to its high-throughput. However, this proteomics approach is not suitable for screening biomarkers with molecular weight under 10 KDa because of the characteristics of gel electrophoresis. This study investigated biomarkers with molecular weight under 10 KDa in rats with arecoline challenge. The centrifuging vials with membrane (10 KDa molecular weight cut-off) played a crucial role in this study. After centrifuging, the filtrate (containing compounds with molecular weight under 10 KDa) was collected and spotted on a sample plate for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Compared to control, three extra peaks (m/z values were 1553.1611, 1668.2097 and 1740.1832, respectively) were found in sera and two extra peaks were found in heart tissue samples (408.9719 and 524.9961, respectively). These small compounds should play important roles and may be potential biomarker candidates in rats with arecoline. This study successfully reports a mass-based method for investigating biomarker candidates with small molecular weight in different types of sample (including serum and tissue). In addition, this reported method is more time-efficient (1 working day) than gel-based proteomics approach (5~7 working days).

  8. Knowledge and Health Belief Attitudes of Oral Cancer and Its Screening Among At-Risk Southern Thai Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwankong, Srisuk; Sriplung, Hutcha; Kerdpon, Duangporn

    2018-06-01

    Oral cancer is one of the leading cancers in Thailand; southern Thai Muslims seem to have a longer delay in attending treatment for oral cancer than Buddhists in the same area. Visual screenings of high-risk populations have been suggested to be an effective prevention method. This study assessed oral cancer knowledge and belief attitudes influencing oral cancer screening in Thai Muslim high-risk groups. Twelve semi-structured in-depth interviews and the focus group discussion were conducted based on the health belief model. Stratified purposeful sampling was used to recruit the participants. Inclusion criteria were those who practiced the risk habits for oral cancer and were 40 years of age or older, smokers (20+ cigarettes per day for at least 20 years) and/or betel quid chewers (10+ times per day for at least 10 years). Participants lacked knowledge about oral cancer in terms of signs and symptoms and predisposing factors. This influenced misleading belief attitudes concerning susceptibility of oral cancer, barriers, and their self-efficacy to have oral cancer screening examinations. Betel quid chewing was not regarded as a risk habit but as having a protective role against the disease. Perceived susceptibility was also seen by some to be dependent upon Allah's will. Traditional medication was mentioned as a preferred alternative to modern treatment. The latter was believed by some to be the cause of death for cancer patients. Interventions to promote oral cancer knowledge and right belief attitudes for oral cancer screening are clearly indicated.

  9. Status of epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in northeast Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Singh, Laishram C; Singh, Avninder P; Sharma, Jagannath; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Debnath, Arundhati; Rai, Avdhesh K; Phukan, Rup K; Mahanta, Jagadish; Kataki, Amal C; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer incidence is reported in high frequency in northeast India. The etiology is different from other population at India due to wide variations in dietary habits or nutritional factors, tobacco/betel quid chewing and alcohol habits. Since DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNA-mediated epigenetic processes alter the gene expression, the involvement of these processes might be useful to find out epigenetic markers of esophageal cancer risk in northeast Indian population. The present investigation was aimed to carryout differential expression profiling of chromatin modification enzymes in tumor and normal tissue collected from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Differential mRNA expression profiling and their validation was done by quantitative real time PCR and tissue microarray respectively. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the epidemiological data. mRNA expression data was analyzed by Student t-test. Fisher exact test was used for tissue microarray data analysis. Higher expression of enzymes regulating methylation (DOT1L and PRMT1) and acetylation (KAT7, KAT8, KAT2A and KAT6A) of histone was found associated with ESCC risk. Tissue microarray done in independent cohort of 75 patients revealed higher nuclear protein expression of KAT8 and PRMT1 in tumor similar to mRNA expression. Expression status of PRMT1 and KAT8 was found declined as we move from low grade to high grade tumor. Betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking and dried fish intake were significantly associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer among the study subject. Study suggests the association of PRMT1 and KAT8 with esophageal cancer risk and its involvement in the transition process of low to high grade tumor formation. The study exposes the differential status of chromatin modification enzymes between tumor and normal tissue and points out that relaxed state of chromatin facilitates more transcriptionally active

  10. ADAMTS14 Gene Polymorphism and Environmental Risk in the Development of Oral Cancer.

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    Shih-Chi Su

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a common malignancy that is shown to be causally associated with hereditary and acquired factors. ADAMTS14 is a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs metalloproteinase family that plays an important role in extracellular matrix (ECM assembly and degradation. Elevation or deficiency of certain ADAMTS proteinases has been known to be implicated in a wide range of pathological processes including atherosclerosis, arthritis, and cancer. The present study aimed to explore the impact of ADAMTS14 gene polymorphisms, combined with environmental risks on the susceptibility to oral tumorigenesis.Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the ADAMTS14 gene, including rs10823607, rs12774070, rs4747096, and rs61573157 were evaluated from 1200 normal controls and 850 patients with oral cancer. We failed to detect a significant association of four individual SNPs with oral cancer between case and control group. However, while considering behavioral exposure of environmental carcinogens, the presence of four ADAMTS14 SNPs, combined with betel nut chewing and/or smoking, profoundly leveraged the risk of oral cancer. Moreover, we observed a significant association of rs12774070, which is predicted to alter the expression and function of ADAMTS14 by in silico and bioinformatics analyses, with poor tumor cell differentiation (AOR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.38-0.92; p = 0.02 in patients who chewed betel nuts.These results implicate the interaction between ADAMTS14 gene polymorphisms and environmental mutagens as a risk factor of oral tumorigenesis and suggest a correlation of rs12774070 with the degree of oral tumor cell differentiation.

  11. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

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    Saleh Farzana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of knowledge about diabetes mellitus (DM among newly diagnosed diabetics in Bangladesh are unknown. This study assessed the relationship between knowledge and practices among newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients. Methods Newly diagnosed adults with type 2 diabetes (N = 508 were selected from 19 healthcare centers. Patients’ knowledge and self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using a cross-sectional design. Knowledge questions were divided into basic and technical sections. Knowledge scores were categorized as poor (mean + 1 SD. Chi square testing and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine the relationship between diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices. Results Approximately 16%, 66%, and 18% of respondents had good, average, and poor (GAP basic knowledge respectively and 10%, 78%, and 12% of respondents had GAP technical knowledge, about DM. About 90% of respondents from both basic and technical GAP did not test their blood glucose regularly; a significant relationship existed between basic knowledge and glucose monitoring. Technical knowledge and foot care were significantly related, though 81% with good technical knowledge and about 70% from average and poor groups did not take care of their feet. Approximately 85%, 71%, and 52% of the GAP technical knowledge groups, consumed betel nuts; a significant relationship existed between technical knowledge and consumption of betel nuts. Around 88%, 92%, and 98% of GAP technical knowledge groups failed to follow dietary advice from a diabetes educator. About 26%, 42%, and 51% of GAP basic and technical sometimes ate meals at a fixed time (p Conclusions Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics had similar levels of basic and technical knowledge of DM. Health education and motivation should create positive changes in diabetes-control-related self-care practices.

  12. Arecoline-induced growth arrest and p21WAF1 expression are dependent on p53 in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, W.-W.; Guh, J.-Y.; Tsai, J.-F.; Hwang, C.-C.; Chen, H.-C.; Huang, J.-S.; Yang, Y.-L.; Hung, W.-C.; Chuang, L.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    Betel-quid use is associated with the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and arecoline, the major alkaloid of betel-quid, is hepatotoxic in mice. Therefore, we studied the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of arecoline in normal rat hepatocytes (Clone-9 cells). Arecoline dose-dependently (0.1-1 mM) decreased cell cycle-dependent proliferation while inducing DNA damage at 24 h. Moreover, arecoline (1 mM)-induced apoptosis and necrosis at 24 h. Arecoline dose-dependently (0.1-0.5 mM) increased transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA, gene transcription and bioactivity and neutralizing TGF-β antibody attenuated arecoline (0.5 mM)-inhibited cell proliferation at 24 h. Arecoline (0.5 mM) also increased p21 WAF1 protein expression and p21 WAF1 gene transcription. Moreover, arecoline (0.5 mM) time-dependently (8-24 h) increased p53 serine 15 phosphorylation. Pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) and the loss of the two p53-binding elements in the p21 WAF1 gene promoter attenuated arecoline-induced p21 WAF1 gene transcription at 24 h. Pifithrin-α also attenuated arecoline (0.5 mM)-inhibited cell proliferation at 24 h. We concluded that arecoline induces cytotoxicity, DNA damage, G 0 /G 1 cell cycle arrest, TGF-β1, p21 WAF1 and activates p53 in Clone-9 cells. Moreover, arecoline-induced p21 WAF1 is dependent on p53 while arecoline-inhibited growth is dependent on both TGF-β and p53

  13. Total, direct, and indirect effects of paan on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2015-03-01

    Paan (betel leaf and betel nut quid) used with or without tobacco has been positively associated with oral cancer. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition caused by paan, lies on the causal pathway between paan use and oral cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the effect of paan consumption on oral cancer risk when it is mediated by OSMF. We used mediation methods proposed by VanderWeele, which are based on causal inference principles, to characterize the total, direct, and indirect effects of paan, consumed with and without tobacco, on oral cancer mediated by OSMF. We reanalyzed case-control data collected from three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, between July 1996 and March 1998. For paan without tobacco, the total effect on oral cancer was OR 7.39, 95 % CI 1.01, 38.11, the natural indirect effect (due to OSMF among paan users) was OR 2.48, 95 % CI 0.99, 10.44, and the natural direct effect (due to paan with OSMF absent) was OR 3.32, 95 % CI 0.68, 10.07. For paan with tobacco, the total direct effect was OR 15.68, 95 % CI 3.00, 54.90, the natural indirect effect was OR 2.18, 95 % CI 0.82, 5.52, and the natural direct effect was OR 7.27, 95 % CI 2.15, 20.43. Paan, whether or not it contained tobacco, raised oral cancer risk irrespective of OSMF. Oral cancer risk was higher among those who used paan with tobacco.

  14. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  15. Oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey

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    Sudhir Hongal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Based on a convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of study and who fulfilled the selection criteria were approached. A cross section of the general population was also surveyed. An interviewer-based, predesigned, structured, close-ended 18-item questionnaire that had been designed based on the primary objective of the study was used. All the obtained data were analyzed using software, Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Results: According to 188 (86.2% males, 187 (87.4% females and 168 (81.2% eunuchs, good oral health can improve the general health. Most of the study participants including 211 (98.6% females, 210 (96.3% males and 205 (99% eunuchs use either tooth paste or tooth powder to clean their teeth. While, a majority of eunuchs, i.e., 113 (54.6%, were having habit of chewing smokeless tobacco containing products such as betel nut, betel quid, gutkha, etc., The difference in use of tobacco products was statistically significant. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral hygiene practices which are performed among eunuch population. Efforts to increase the awareness of oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of this population.

  16. Association of interleukin-1β -511 C/T polymorphism with tobacco-associated cancer in northeast India: a study on oral and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Meena; Yadav, Dhirendra Singh; Devi, Thoudam Regina; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Singh, Khangembam Jitenkumar; Latha, Santhi P; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Verma, Yogesh; Zomavia, Eric; Sharma, Jagannath; Chandra Kataki, Amal; Saxena, Sunita; Kapur, Sujala

    2014-01-01

    The IL-1β -511 C/T polymorphism is associated with increased IL-1 production and with increased risk of developing cancers. In this study, 251 patients (125 with gastric cancer [GC] and 126 with oral cancer [OC]) and 207 normal controls from northeast (NE) India were genotyped for the IL-1β -511 C/T polymorphism by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing. Analysis of results showed betel-quid chewing to be a major risk factor (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.05-3.87; P = 0.035) for OC. Inheritance of the IL-1β -511 CT or TT resulted in a 2.6- to 3.05-fold increase in the risk of developing OC relative to that of participants who possessed the reference genotype (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.06-6.22; P = 0.036 and OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.22-7.63; P = 0.017), after adjusting for potential confounders. The dominant genetic model also confirmed the presence of the T allele as a significant risk factor for OC (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.15-6.42; P = 0.02). In GC, interaction of the CT genotype with tobacco and betel-quid chewing habits conferred a significant 78% and 89% reduced risk of cancer, respectively. In conclusion, for the NE Indian population, the IL-1β -511 CC and CT genotypes were significantly associated with increased risk of OC. However, the interaction of the CT genotype with risk habits may play a preventive role for GC but not for OC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and its association with P53 codon 72 polymorphism in tobacco addicted oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients of Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Jatin K; Patnaik, Srinivas; Das, Bibhu R

    2002-02-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects the squamous epithelial cells of oral cavity and cervix leading to formation of warts that develops into the cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 encode E6 oncoprotein, which binds to and induces degradation of the tumour suppressor protein p53. A common polymorphism of p53, encoding either proline (Pro) or arginine (Arg) at position 72, affects the susceptibility of p53 to E6 mediated degradation in vivo. Oral cancer is a pressing problem in India due to the widespread habit of chewing betel quid, which plays an important role in etiology of this disease. In the present study an attempt has been made to analyze the genetic predisposition of the Indian population to HPV infection and oral carcinogenesis. In our study a total of 110 cases of Oral Cancer highly addicted to betel quid and tobacco chewing are analyzed for HPV 16/18 infection and its association with polymorphism at p53 codon 72. Of these a total number of 37 patients (33.6%) have shown the presence of HPV, among which the presence of HPV-16, 18 and 16/18 coinfection is 22.7%, 14.5% and 10%, respectively. Our results also indicate that the p53 codon 72 genotype frequencies in Indian Oral Cancer patients are 0.55 (Arg) and 0.45 (Pro) as per Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In our study, striking reduction in Pro/Pro allele frequency has been found in HPV positive cases, indicating Arg/Arg genotype to be more susceptible to HPV infection and oral carcinogenesis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Association of periodontal disease with lifestyle, diabetes mellitus and oral health care practices in an indigenous Bangladeshi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the potential association of periodontal diseases among the indigenous "Garo" population in Bangladesh with their lifestyle, diabetes mellitus and routine oral health care practices. Adult males and females of the community were selected for the study. Data were recorded through one to one, face-to-face interview using a set of standard questionnaire. All teeth except the third molars were examined at 6 sites for gingival colour and swelling, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depths (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Gingival Index (GI was recorded according to Loe and Silness. The greatest score for each of the 6 sites was used for assessing the PPD and CAL. Of 240 subjects, 64% were female. The mean number of teeth present was 26, and the mean number of affected teeth was 8.9 (PPD ≥3 mm. The mean ± standard deviations of GI, PPD and CAL of the community were 0.43±0.70, 2.34±0.47 and 2.70±0.77 respectively. Betel-leaf was chewed by 75%, 57.5% were tooth brush user and remaining 42.5% used traditional ways. A statistically significant difference in PPD and CAL was found between smokers and non-smokers; tooth-brush users and non-users; diabetics and non-diabetics. PPD and CAL were significantly high among frequent betel-leaf chewers and in older age-group. Without having an access to a professional dentist or part of any oral health care awareness programme, the relatively low prevalence of periodontal diseases can possibly be attributed, in part, to the traditional eating habits of the indigenous "Garo" population.

  19. Immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and depression of antioxidant status by arecoline in albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Romi [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Saha, Indraneel [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Pal, Suman [Microbiology Laboratory, Bose Institute, Kankurgachi, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Bhattacharyya, Arindam [Microbiology Laboratory, Bose Institute, Kankurgachi, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Sa, Gaurisankar [Microbiology Laboratory, Bose Institute, Kankurgachi, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Nag, Tapas C [Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 020 (India); Das, Tania [Microbiology Laboratory, Bose Institute, Kankurgachi, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Maiti, B R [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India)

    2006-10-03

    Background: There are about 600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Betal quid chewing is one of the major risk factors of hepatocarcinoma, oropharyngeal and esophagus cancers. Arecoline, the main Areca alkaloid of the betel nut is reported to have cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects in various cells. It shows strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucosal fibrosis, leukoplakia and oral cancer, and has also been found to impose toxic manifestations in immune, hepatic and other defense systems of the recipient. Aim: The precise molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of arecoline deserve investigation. To clarify the action of arecoline on defense systems, immune, hepatic and detoxification system were studied in mice. Method: Cell count and cell cycle of the splenocytes were studied for evaluating cell immunity. Liver function test (LFT) was followed by assaying different enzyme systems from serum (SGPT, SGOT and ALP) and liver (GST for detoxication enzyme, SOD and catalase for antioxidant enzymes and GSH for non-enzymatic antioxidant) and by ultrastructural studies of hepatocytes. Results: Here we report that arecoline arrested splenic lymphocyte cell cycle at lower concentration with induced apoptosis at higher concentration thereby causing immunosuppression in arecoline recipients. Besides, it resulted in hepatotoxicity in arecoline recipient mice by disrupting the hepatocyte ultrastructure, as judged by liver ultrastructural studies that showed decreased nuclear size, RER with profusely inflated cysternae and abundance of lipid droplets, and by up regulating hepatotoxic marker enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) in serum. Arecoline also caused depression of antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) that are known to neutralize reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: All these above-mentioned results led us to conclude that arecoline attacks multiple targets to finally

  20. Immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and depression of antioxidant status by arecoline in albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Romi; Saha, Indraneel; Pal, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Arindam; Sa, Gaurisankar; Nag, Tapas C.; Das, Tania; Maiti, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There are about 600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Betal quid chewing is one of the major risk factors of hepatocarcinoma, oropharyngeal and esophagus cancers. Arecoline, the main Areca alkaloid of the betel nut is reported to have cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects in various cells. It shows strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucosal fibrosis, leukoplakia and oral cancer, and has also been found to impose toxic manifestations in immune, hepatic and other defense systems of the recipient. Aim: The precise molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of arecoline deserve investigation. To clarify the action of arecoline on defense systems, immune, hepatic and detoxification system were studied in mice. Method: Cell count and cell cycle of the splenocytes were studied for evaluating cell immunity. Liver function test (LFT) was followed by assaying different enzyme systems from serum (SGPT, SGOT and ALP) and liver (GST for detoxication enzyme, SOD and catalase for antioxidant enzymes and GSH for non-enzymatic antioxidant) and by ultrastructural studies of hepatocytes. Results: Here we report that arecoline arrested splenic lymphocyte cell cycle at lower concentration with induced apoptosis at higher concentration thereby causing immunosuppression in arecoline recipients. Besides, it resulted in hepatotoxicity in arecoline recipient mice by disrupting the hepatocyte ultrastructure, as judged by liver ultrastructural studies that showed decreased nuclear size, RER with profusely inflated cysternae and abundance of lipid droplets, and by up regulating hepatotoxic marker enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) in serum. Arecoline also caused depression of antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) that are known to neutralize reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: All these above-mentioned results led us to conclude that arecoline attacks multiple targets to finally

  1. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y-W; Sung, H-Y; Yang, C-L; Shih, S-F

    2003-03-01

    Since market liberalization in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT dollars 4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT dollars 10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes--a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT 1000/month dollars on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT 1000 dollars (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is the most

  2. PERBEDAAN DAYA HAMBAT PASTA GIGI BERBAHAN HERBAL TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Susi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKaries gigi dan penyakit periodontal dapat dicegah dengan mengontrol pembentukan plak secara teratur. Penggunaan pasta gigi herbal dapat memberikan efek kimia untuk mengontrol pembentukan plak. Studi terdahulu mendapatkan bahwa pasta gigi herbal dapat mengurangi jumlah bakteri utama pada rongga mulut yaitu Streptococcus mutans. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti perbedaan daya hambat beberapa pasta gigi herbal (mengandung siwak, cengkeh, dan daun sirih terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans. Metode penelitian adalah eksperimental dengan meletakkan cakram yang sudah direndam dengan pasta gigi ke medium agar darah yang mengandung koloni Streptococcus mutans. Uji daya hambat bakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi. Terbentuknya zona bening di sekitar koloni bakteri menunjukkan adanya penghambatan pertumbuhan bakteri uji. Hasil uji satu arah ANOVA menunjukkan adanya perbedaan daya hambat yang bermakna antar pasta gigi herbal yang digunakan (p<0.05. Ketiga pasta gigi didapakan memiliki kemampuan antibakteri kuat dengan rata-rata zona hambat 16.075 mm, 13.375 mm dan 11.080 mm. Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa pasta gigi herbal mempunyai efek anti bakteri terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans dengan efek anti bakteri terkuat di tunjukkan oleh pasta gigi mengandung cengkeh.AbstractDental caries and periodontal disease can be eliminated by regularly control plaque formation. The usage of herbal toothpaste is able to give chemical effect toward plaque control. Previous studies shown that the usage of herbal toothpaste was able to reduce the growth of Streptococcus mutans, the main bacteria in the mouth. The study aimed at investigating the difference of zone of inhibition of several herbal toothpastes (siwak- , cloves- , and betel leaves- contained toward the growth of Streptococcus mutans.This study was experimental research using disc that had been immersed and subsequently put it onto Blood agar medium that contain Streptococcus mutans

  3. Antifertility effect of betal leaf stalk (Tambul patrabrint): a preliminary experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, P V; Chaturvedi, C; Dixit, S N

    1970-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine possible antifertility properties of the stalk of the betel plant, Piper betle, which is extensively cultivated in warm moist parts of India for its leaves. The thin stalks were dried, powdered, and extracted with alcohol; the residue was used in the study and named betel leaf stalk extract (BLSE). It was macerated with gum acacia, suspended in distilled water, and diluted to 25 mg/ml. The drug was fed by oral intubation. Initially 20 rats were used in 2 groups, one receiving BLSE 50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days and the other vehicle only. Both were caged with males for 15 days. Only 2 of 10 rats receiving BLSE gave birth to litters while 9 of 10 controls delivered. Number of pups was also reduced. In another experiment using 60 female rats to 30 while BLSE at 50 mg/100 gm body weight was fed for 3 days during diestrus to 30 while 30 controls received vehicle only. Successful mating was confirmed by sperm in vaginal smears. 8 of 30 treated rats delivered 3.5 pups each while 29 of 30 controls delivered 7 pups per rat. In a third experiment 10 female rats were given BLSE 50mg/100 gm body weight, 10 vehicle only, and 10 neoclinesterol 150 mcg/100 gm body weight for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5 the animals were sacrificed and weights of uterus and ovaries recorded. Antiestrogenic properties were studied in oophorectomized rats given stilbestrol 150 mcg/100 gm body weight by injection, then fed 150 mcg/100 gm body weight of neoclinesterol or BLSE, 50 mg/100 gm, but the neoclinesterol. Vaginal smears were examined for cornification on Days 2, 3, and 4. Progestational activity was studied in 12 immature female rabbits injected with stilbestrol then treated with BLSE or leutocycline. Tests for estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of BLSE were negative. A mild progestational activity was found in immature estrogen-primed rabbits but some follicle depressant type action was noted as several graffian follicles were seen in their

  4. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  5. Use of illicit substances among schoolchildren in colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Ratnayake, Himali Erandathie; Palmer, Paula; Matthews, David R; Katulanda, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the usage patterns and correlates of illicit drug use among schoolchildren in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out among grade 10 and 12 students using a self-administered questionnaire. From the 6000 students selected, 5353(89.22%) responded. Betel chewing with tobacco was seen in 28.48% males and 10.44% females. Substances such as Barbul, Madana Modaka, and cough syrups that are not established as illicit drugs were used as psychoactive substances. Ingredients of some of these compounds are not fully understood or regulated. Prevalence of cannabis use was 3.85% in males and 0.24% in females. Studying nonscience subjects for Advanced Level, doing sports, low academic performance, and peer smoking significantly increased the odds of using one or more substances (P substances were used by schoolchildren. More strategies to prevent further aggravation of these behaviors are needed. Constituents of some compounds are not understood and need further evaluation. Recognized high-risk groups can be targets for preventive and cessation programs.

  6. Oral submucous fibrosis: A clinico-histopathological study in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a precancerous condition associated with the use of areca nut in various forms. There are very few reports to correlate the clinical stage to histopathological grading in OSF. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted on 75 OSF cases who visited our hospital in Chennai from 2000-2003. A detailed history of each patient was recorded along with a clinical examination. Biopsy was performed for histopathological correlation. Clinical stage of the disease in terms of the ability to open one′s mouth was correlated with histopathological grading. Results: The male to female ratio of OSF cases was 6:1. All forms of areca nut products were associated with OSF. Chewing of paanmasala was associated with early presentation of OSF as compared to chewing of the betel nut. Out of 57 cases, which were in clinical stage II, 91.2% had histological grading of I and II in equal proportions and 8.8% had histological grade III. Out of 13 cases that showed a clinical stage of III, 52% showed a histological grade of II, 40% grade III and 8% grade I. Conclusion: In the present study, there was no direct correlation between clinical stages and histopathological grading. The possibility of difference in the severity and extent of fibrosis in different regions of the oral mucosa and involved muscles were considered as contributory factors for this variation.

  7. Dental plaque pH and ureolytic activity in children and adults of a low caries population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, Linnea; Dahlén, Anna; Eriksson, Cecilia; Suksuart, Narong; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the plaque pH level and ureolytic activity among children and adults of Karen Hill tribes. Thirty-four children aged 6-10 years and 46 adults aged 20-38 years were interviewed regarding oral hygiene practices, sucrose intake and betel chewing. Caries experience (DMFT and DT), calculus, bleeding on probing (BoP) and Plaque index (PlI) were registered. Ureolytic activity in supragingival plaque was tested at two interproximal sites (11/12 and 41/42) with the rapid urease test (RUT). Registration of plaque pH was performed at two interproximal sites (15/16 and 31/41) before, during and 30 min after rinsing with an urea solution (0.25%). Four interproximal plaque samples (one from each quadrant) per individual were collected to test the bacterial composition using the checkerboard technique. Children and adults had similarly low DMFT and DT values. Children had a higher baseline pH and a higher ureolytic activity in the maxilla (p plaque pH is related to the ureolytic activity, which explains the low acidogenic plaque microflora and the low caries levels in the Karen population.

  8. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jamil Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  9. Factors associated with tobacco smoking among 6-10 grade school students in an urban taluka of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factors related to tobacco smoking among students of grade 6-10 in an urban setting in Sindh, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in public and private schools of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, from January 2008 to June 2009. Methodology: A sample of 501 students from grade 6-10 were selected through simple random sampling and probability proportional to size. Students answered to a pre-tested questionnaire on socio demography and tobacco use. Descriptive statistics were used to determine frequency distribution. Results: About 9% of the students were smoking some form of tobacco. Ten percent had tried cigarette smoking and about 80% and 61% were chewing Areca nuts and 'Paan' (concoction of Areca nuts, tobacco, hydrated lime, herbs and spices wrapped in betel leaf. Being old, male gender, peer influence, personal attitude toward future smoking, chewing 'Gutka' (concoction of tobacco, Areca nuts and hydrated lime) and having a more educated mother was associated with greater frequency of smoking any form of tobacco. Conclusion: High frequency of tobacco smoking, the attitude toward tobacco consumption and a very high consumption of Areca nuts and other chewable tobacco products by the children warrants urgent action in order to control the tobacco epidemic in Pakistan. (author)

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis and mapping of oral cancer risk in changhua county (taiwan): an application of generalized bayesian maximum entropy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chiang, Chi-Ting; Lin, Shu-De; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2010-02-01

    Incidence rate of oral cancer in Changhua County is the highest among the 23 counties of Taiwan during 2001. However, in health data analysis, crude or adjusted incidence rates of a rare event (e.g., cancer) for small populations often exhibit high variances and are, thus, less reliable. We proposed a generalized Bayesian Maximum Entropy (GBME) analysis of spatiotemporal disease mapping under conditions of considerable data uncertainty. GBME was used to study the oral cancer population incidence in Changhua County (Taiwan). Methodologically, GBME is based on an epistematics principles framework and generates spatiotemporal estimates of oral cancer incidence rates. In a way, it accounts for the multi-sourced uncertainty of rates, including small population effects, and the composite space-time dependence of rare events in terms of an extended Poisson-based semivariogram. The results showed that GBME analysis alleviates the noises of oral cancer data from population size effect. Comparing to the raw incidence data, the maps of GBME-estimated results can identify high risk oral cancer regions in Changhua County, where the prevalence of betel quid chewing and cigarette smoking is relatively higher than the rest of the areas. GBME method is a valuable tool for spatiotemporal disease mapping under conditions of uncertainty. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives : The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka, smoking (bidi, cigarette, comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI, family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods : This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ′cancer cases′ and 167 ′normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results : The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1, those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5 and age >55 years (OR = 19.3 had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions : In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain.

  12. Antihyperglycemic activity of Piper betle leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumari, P; Prakasam, A; Pugalendi, K V

    2006-01-01

    Piper betle, an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk (Siddha and Ayurvedha) reputation in the rural southern India. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. betle on glucose metabolism since it is consumed as betel-quid after meals. Plasma levels of glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and activities of liver hexokinase and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in control and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats were assayed. Oral administration of leaf suspension of P. betle (75 and 150 mg/kg of body weight) for 30 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose (from 205.00 +/- 10.80 mg/dL to 151.30 +/- 6.53 mg/dL) and glycosylated hemoglobin and decreased activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, while liver hexokinase increased (P betle at a dose of 75 mg/kg of body weight exhibited better sugar reduction than 150 mg/kg of body weight. In addition, protection against body weight loss of diabetic animals was also observed. The effects produced by P. betle were compared with the standard drug glibenclamide. Thus, the present study clearly shows that P. betle intake influences glucose metabolism beneficially.

  13. Inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by phenolic compounds extracted of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Darab; Mior Ahmad, Zainal Abidin; Yee How, Tan; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Shahnazi, Sahar

    2013-12-01

    Food contamination by aflatoxins is an important food safety concern for agricultural products. In order to identify and develop novel antifungal agents, several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been evaluated for their bioactivities. Anti-infectious activity of Piper betle used in traditional medicine of Malaysia has been reported previously. Crude methanol extract from P. betel powdered leaves was partitioned between chloroform and water. The fractions were tested against A. flavus UPMC 89, a strong aflatoxin producing strain. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis were tested by disk diffusion and macrodillution techniques, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques using AFB1 standard. The chloroform soluble compounds were identified using HPLC-Tandem mass spectrometry technique. The results, evaluated by measuring the mycelial growth and quantification of aflatoxin B1(AFLB1) production in broth medium revealed that chloroform soluble compounds extract from P. betle dried leaves was able to block the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway at concentration of 500μg/ml without a significant effect on mycelium growth. In analyzing of this effective fractions using HPLC-MS(2) with ESI ionization technique, 11 phenolic compounds were identified. The results showed that the certain phenolic compounds are able to decline the aflatoxin production in A. flavus with no significant effect on the fungus mycelia growth. The result also suggested P. betle could be used as potential antitoxin product.

  14. Conservation Benefits of Tropical Multifunctional Land-Uses in and Around a Forest Protected Area of Bangladesh

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    Sharif A. Mukul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competing interests in land for agriculture and commodity production in tropical human-dominated landscapes make forests and biodiversity conservation particularly challenging. Establishment of protected areas in this regard is not functioning as expected due to exclusive ecological focus and poor recognition of local people’s traditional forest use and dependence. In recent years, multifunctional land-use systems such as agroforestry have widely been promoted as an efficient land-use in such circumstances, although their conservation effectiveness remains poorly investigated. We undertake a rapid biodiversity survey to understand the conservation value of four contrasting forms of local land-use, namely: betel leaf (Piper betle agroforestry; lemon (Citrus limon agroforestry; pineapple (Ananas comosus agroforestry; and, shifting cultivation–fallow managed largely by the indigenous communities in and around a highly diverse forest protected area of Bangladesh. We measure the alpha and beta diversity of plants, birds, and mammals in these multifunctional land-uses, as well as in the old-growth secondary forest in the area. Our study finds local land-use critical in conserving biodiversity in the area, with comparable biodiversity benefits as those of the old-growth secondary forest. In Bangladesh, where population pressure and rural people’s dependence on forests are common, multifunctional land-uses in areas of high conservation priority could potentially be used to bridge the gap between conservation and commodity production, ensuring that the ecological integrity of such landscapes will be altered as little as possible.

  15. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka.

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    Arawwawala, L D A M; Arambewela, L S R; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2014-01-01

    Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF HAE AND CEE PROVIDED MARKED DOSE DEPENDENT (HAE: r (2) = 0.97; CEE: r (2) = 0.96) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.

  16. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dentists.

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    Kebabcıoğlu, Özge; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among dentists who attended 101st FDI World Dental Congress, İstanbul, Turkey. Among 170 dentists who agreed to participate, there were 13 oral surgeons, 6 restorative dentists, 4 endodontists, 4 orthodontists, 6 periodontists, 5 pedodontists, and 14 prosthodontists. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentists' attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 170 participant dentists, there were 69 (40.6%) male dentists and 101 (59.4%) female dentists. Largest number of them identified tobacco (98.8%) and alcohol usage (91.2%), prior oral cancer lesions (95.3%), viral infections (90.0%), UV exposure (86.5%), and betel quid chewing (80.6%), and lower numbers reported older age (56.5%) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (52.4%). Oral medicine specialists scored marginally higher in indicating erythroplakia and leukoplakia most likely to be precancerous and squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p ral cancer detection and prevention.

  17. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Students.

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    Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among undergraduate dental students in Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry. A validated questionnaire which tested oral cancer awareness was given to third- and fifth-year students of the dental faculty of Marmara University. A total of 198 students participated in this survey. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentistry student's attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 198 participant dentistry students, there were 99 (50%) third-grade and 99 (50%) fifth-grade students. The largest number of the third- and last-grade students identified tobacco (98%) and alcohol usage (87.4%), prior oral cancer lesions (94.9%), viral infections (91.9%), UV exposure (94.4%), betel quid chewing (84.8%), older age (62.1%), and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (85.4%). Both groups showed higher scores in indicating squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p oral cancer detection and prevention.

  18. Pengendalian Penyakit Busuk Pangkal Batang Lada dengan Ekstrak Pinang, Gambir, Sirih, dan Kapur Sirih

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    Dedek Kusvianti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pepper is an important commodity in Indonesia due to its export value. Infection of Phytophthora capsici causing stem rot disease is very critical for the production of pepper plants. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of extracts of areca, gambir, betle, and lime paste for controlling stem rot disease. In vitro and in vivo experiments was designed to evaluate 2 factors, i.e. type and concentration of extracts. In vitro experiment was conducted by growing 4 day old and 5 mm in diameter of P. capsici isolate on V8 media containing the extracts tested. In vivo experiment was done by dipping pepper leaves on the extracts, followed by dropping zoospores of P. capsici on underneath of leaf surface. Mixture of 4 extracts (areca + gambir + betel + lime paste of 0.005% and 0.01%; and areca extract of 0.04% was able to inhibit the growth of P. capsici colonies effectively in vitro. Similarly, mixture of 4 extracts of 0.01% effectively suppressed disease severity in vivo with equal effect with those of propineb fungicide of 0.2%.

  19. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  20. Treatment Outcome of Diode Laser for Symptomatic Relief in Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis: A Pilot Study

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    Jithender Mudigonda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a progressive premalignant condition largely occurring in Indian subcontinent due to habitual chewing of betel nut. Major symptoms of the condition include burning sensation to spicy food and progressive trismus. Since aetiology and pathogenesis of this condition is not fully understood; the management of patient focuses on symptomatic relief of trismus and burning sensation. Materials and Method : This was a pilot study to compare the outcome of diode laser (category A to steroid and hyaluronidase injections (category B in early stage of OSMF. Results : By the end of six months, patients in either of the categories showed significant improvement in reduction of symptoms, however; patients in category A showed greater significance in mouth opening ( p=0.002 vs. p=0.011 and reduction in burning sensation (p=0.002 vs. p=0.004. Conclusion: Although laser excision is not an answer for OSMF, it is a simple surgical procedure with effective results in the management of symptoms of OSMF. Improved mouth opening further facilitates periodic inspection of mucosa for initial signs of malignant transformation.

  1. Domestication, Conservation, and Livelihoods: A Case Study of Piper peepuloides Roxb.—An Important Nontimber Forest Product in South Meghalaya, Northeast India

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    H. Tynsong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild pepper (Piper peepuloides Roxb., family: Piperaceae is an evergreen climber which grows wild in tropical evergreen forests and subtropical evergreen forests of northeast India. This plant grows luxuriantly in the areas with high rainfall at lower elevations ranging from 100 to 800 m above mean sea level. In Meghalaya, to meet the market demand, farmers have domesticated it in arecanut agroforests and betel leaf agroforests. We found that the mean density of wild pepper in arecanut agroforest is 585 stem/ha and only 85 stem/ha in natural forest. In India, wild pepper is used in a variety of Ayurvedic medicines. Local people of Meghalaya uses powdered dry seeds mixed with honey and egg yolk for the treatment of severe cough. The study reveals that the average gross annual production of wild pepper is 7 quintals/ha, and final market price fetches Rs. 336,000/ha, out of which 42% of the money goes to the grower, 16% to local trader, 23% to dealer, 17% to retailer, 1.2% to wages of labourers, and 0.6% to transport.

  2. The association between problematic cellular phone use and risky behaviors and low self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2010-04-28

    Cellular phone use (CPU) is an important part of life for many adolescents. However, problematic CPU may complicate physiological and psychological problems. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 11,111 adolescent students in Southern Taiwan were randomly selected into this study. We used the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire to identify the adolescents with problematic CPU. Meanwhile, a series of risky behaviors and self-esteem were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the associations between problematic CPU and risky behaviors and low self-esteem regarding gender and age. The results indicated that positive associations were found between problematic CPU and aggression, insomnia, smoking cigarettes, suicidal tendencies, and low self-esteem in all groups with different sexes and ages. However, gender and age differences existed in the associations between problematic CPU and suspension from school, criminal records, tattooing, short nocturnal sleep duration, unprotected sex, illicit drugs use, drinking alcohol and chewing betel nuts. There were positive associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. It is worthy for parents and mental health professionals to pay attention to adolescents' problematic CPU.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Pseudomonas Species Associated with Spoilage of Chilled Fish

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    Osan Bahurmiz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from spoiled chilled tilapia (Oreochromis sp. was evaluated in this study. In the first stage of this study, red tilapia was subjected to chilled storage (4°C for 3 weeks, and spoilage bacteria were isolated and identified from the spoiled fish. Pseudomonas was the dominant bacteria isolated from the spoiled fish and further identification revealed that P. putida, P. fluorescens and Pseudomonas spp. were the main species of this group. In the second stage, methanolic extracts of 15 selected plant species were screened for their antimicrobial activity, by agar disc diffusion method, against the Pseudomonas isolates. Results indicated that most of the extracts had different degrees of activity against the bacterial isolates. The strongest activity was exhibited by bottlebrush flower (Callistemon viminalis extract. This was followed by extracts from guava bark (Psidium guajava and henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis. Moderate antimicrobial activities were observed in extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum, leaf and peel of tamarind (Tamarindus indica, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, wild betel leaf (Piper sarmentosum and fresh thyme (Thymus spp.. Weak or no antimicrobial activity was observed from the remaining extracts. The potential antimicrobial activity shown by some plant extracts in this study could significantly contribute to the fish preservation.

  4. Antibacterial and glucosyltransferase enzyme inhibitory activity of helmyntostachyszelanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuspradini, H.; Putri, AS; Mitsunaga, T.

    2018-04-01

    Helminthostachyszeylanica is a terrestrial, herbaceous, fern-like plant of southeastern Asia and Australia, commonly known as tunjuk-langit. This kind of plant have a medicinal properties such as treatment of malaria, dysentery and can be eaten with betel in the treatment of whooping cough. To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of the plant, the antimicrobial activities of extracts of the stem and leaves were evaluated. The bacteria used in this study is Streptococcus sobrinus, a species of gram-positive, that may be associated with human dental caries. The dried powdered plant parts were extracted using methanol and 50% aqueous extract and screened for their antibacterial effects of Streptococcus sobrinus using the 96 well-plate microdilution broth method. The inhibitory activities of its related enzyme were also determined. The plant extracts showed variable antibacterial and Glucosyltransferase enzyme inhibitory activity while some extracts could not cause any inhibition. It was shown that 50% ethanolics of Helminthostachyzeylanica stem have a potency as anti dental caries agents.

  5. Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Resected Oral Cavity Cancer and Simultaneous Second Primary Malignancies.

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    Chun-Ta Liao

    Full Text Available Simultaneous second primary tumors (SSPT are not uncommon in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC living in areas where the habit of betel quid chewing is widespread. We sought to identify the main prognostic factors in OSCC patients with SSPT and incorporate them into a risk stratification scheme.A total of 1822 consecutive patients with primary OSCC treated between January 1996 and February 2014 were analyzed for the presence of SSPT. The 18-month and 5-year overall survival (OS rates served as the main outcome measures.Of the 1822 patients, 77 (4% were found to have SSPT (i.e, two malignancies identified within one month of each other. The 18-month and 5-year OS rates in patients without SSPT and with SSPT were 82% and 69%, and 72% and 53%, respectively (p = 0.0063. Patients with SSPT were further divided into patients with either esophageal cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (eso-HCC subgroup, n = 8 and other tumors (NO eso-HCC subgroup, n = 69. After multivariate analysis, neck nodal extracapsular spread (ECS, n = 18 and the presence of eso-HCC were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. The 18-month OS rates of SSPT patients with both eso-HCC and ECS (n = 5 vs. the remaining patients (n = 72 were 0% and 78%, respectively (p < 0.0001.OSCC patients with neck nodal ECS and esophageal cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma as SSPT have a dismal short-term prognosis.

  6. Biomarkers in molecular epidemiology study of oral squamous cell carcinoma in the era of precision medicine

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    Qing-Hao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer, which occurs in the mouth, lips, and tongue, is a multifactorial disease whose etiology involves environment, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are regarded as the primary risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and betel use, other chemicals, radiation, environmental, and genetics are reported as relevant risk factors for oral carcinogenesis. The human papillomavirus infection is an independent risk factor. Traditional epidemiology studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for OSCC. Molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that the susceptibility to OSCC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in OSCC are unclear. Advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies provide great opportunities for researchers to explore and identify (a the details of such risk factors and (b genetic susceptibility involved in OSCC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era into the era of genome-wide association study. In the era of precision medicine, molecular epidemiology studies should focus on biomarkers for cancer genomics and their potential utility in clinical practice. Here, we briefly reviewed several molecular epidemiology studies of OSCC, focusing on biomarkers as valuable utility in risk assessment, clinical screening, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction of OSCC in the era of precision medicine.

  7. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India

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    Mathew Anuna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2% of the population. Fordyce′s condition was observed most frequently (6.55% followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%, fissured tongue (5.71%, leukoedema (3.78%, smoker′s palate (2.77%, recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%, oral malignancies (1.76%, leukoplakia (1.59%, median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%, candidiasis (1.3%, lichen planus (1.20%, varices (1.17%, traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%, denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer′s mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%, herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%, and mucocele (0.16%. Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker′s palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.

  8. Associations between Substance Use and Body Mass Index: Moderating Effects of Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Taiwanese Adolescents

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    Tai-Ling Liu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between substance use and body mass index (BMI among adolescents in Southern Taiwan. A total of 10,259 adolescent students aged 11–19 years were selected by stratified random sampling for proportional representation of districts, schools and grades in Southern Taiwan, and completed the questionnaires. The body weight, body height, experience of substance use and sociodemographic characteristics including sex, age, residential background and paternal/maternal educational levels were collected. The association between substance use and BMI, and the moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics were examined. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, BMI was higher for adolescents who smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol than for those who do not regularly smoke or drink. Chewing betel nuts and using illicit drugs were not significantly associated with BMI. Paternal education level had a moderating effect on the association between smoking and BMI. Smoking, alcohol drinking, and low paternal education level were associated with higher BMI among adolescents. Thus, healthcare professionals should pay more attention to the weight-related problems among these adolescents.

  9. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  10. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  11. Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Darrin V. Bann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system plays a key role in preventing tumor formation by recognizing and destroying malignant cells. For over a century, researchers have attempted to harness the immune response as a cancer treatment, although this approach has only recently achieved clinical success. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, betel nut use, and human papillomavirus infection. Unfortunately, worldwide mortality from HNSCC remains high, partially due to limits on therapy secondary to the significant morbidity associated with current treatments. Therefore, immunotherapeutic approaches to HNSCC treatment are attractive for their potential to reduce morbidity while improving survival. However, the application of immunotherapies to this disease has been challenging because HNSCC is profoundly immunosuppressive, resulting in decreased absolute lymphocyte counts, impaired natural killer cell function, reduced antigen-presenting cell function, and a tumor-permissive cytokine profile. Despite these challenges, numerous clinical trials testing the safety and efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches to HNSCC treatment are currently underway, many of which have produced promising results. This review will summarize immunotherapeutic approaches to HNSCC that are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF ORAL LEUKOPLAKIA - ANALYSIS OF THE LITERATURE

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    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder affecting oral cavity. Various surgical and non-surgical treatments have been reported, but currently there is no universal consensus on the most appropriate one and on the duration or interval of follow-up of patients with this condition. The aim of this article is to present a review of the management of oral leukoplakia according to the literature until now. Management of oral leukoplakia should begin with elimination of risk factors (if any such as tobacco abuse, betel chewing, alcohol abuse, superimposed candida infection over the lesion etc. Conservative treatment includes use of chemopreventive agents such as vitamins (vitamins A, C, E, fenretinide (Vitamin A analogue, carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, bleomycin, protease inhibitor, anti-inflammatory drugs, green tea, curcuma etc. Surgical treatment includes conventional surgery, electrocoagulation, cryosurgery, and laser surgery (excision or evaporation. The main purpose of oral leukoplakia management is to avoid malignant transformation of the lesion or if this happened to detect this in early stages.

  13. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  14. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, A; Husain, S S; Hosain, M; Fikree, F F; Pitiphat, W; Siddiqui, A R; Hayder, S J; Haider, S M; Ikram, M; Chuang, S K; Saeed, S A

    2000-04-01

    Oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men in Pakistan. Tobacco is smoked and chewed extensively in Pakistan. Paan is a quid of piper betel leaf that contains areca nut, lime, condiment, sweeteners, and sometimes tobacco, which is also used extensively. We did this study to clarify the independent association of paan and oral cancer. Between July 1996 and March 1998, we recruited biopsy-proven, primary cases of oral squamous-cell carcinoma, from 3 tertiary teaching centers in Karachi, Pakistan, and controls pair-matched for age, gender, hospital and time of occurrence, excluding persons with a past or present history of any malignancy. There were 79 cases and 149 controls. Approximately 68% of the cases were men, 49 years old on average, the youngest being 22 years old and the eldest 80. People with oral submucous fibrosis were 19.1 times more likely to develop oral cancer than those without it, after adjusting for other risk factors. People using paan without tobacco were 9.9 times, those using paan with tobacco 8.4 times, more likely to develop oral cancer as compared with non-users, after adjustment for other covariates. This study identifies an independent effect of paan without tobacco in the causation of oral cancer. Its findings may be of significance in South Asian communities where paan is used, and among health-care providers who treat persons from South Asia.

  15. A biological evaluation of DNA damage detected by comet assay in healthy populations residing in areas that differ in lung cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heepchantree, Worapa; Paratasilpin, Thipmani; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2006-06-01

    The comet assay was performed to evaluate the effect of environmental exposure between human populations residing in two areas that differ in lung cancer incidence, Saraphi (n = 91) and Chom Thong (n = 94). Three parameters, the tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment, were used to detect DNA damage in peripheral blood and stimulated lymphocytes with and without the DNA repair inhibitor, aphidicolin. Internal standards, cryopreserved isolated lymphocytes, and isolated lymphocytes irradiated with 2 Gy gamma rays, were used to correct the interexperimental variability. Results revealed a significant difference between two populations only when the tail length was used to measure DNA damage. The evaluation of various potential confounding factors, such as gender, pesticide exposure, smoking, alcohol drinking, and fermented tea leaf or betel nut chewing, indicated no significant influence in DNA damage. In conclusion, significant difference in DNA damage, detected only by tail length between the two populations residing in the areas with different incidence of lung cancer, may reflect a nonhazardous level of exposure to toxic substances.

  16. Hydroxyl radical formation and oxidative DNA damage induced by areca quid in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Lan; Chi, Chin-Wen; Liu, Tsung-Yun

    2002-02-01

    Chewing areca quid (AQ) has been implicated as a major risk factor for the development of oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies have suggested that AQ-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the contributing factors for oral carcinogenesis. However, the AQ used in Taiwan is different from that used in other countries. This study is designed to test whether ROS are generated and the consequent effects in locally prepared AQ in vivo. We measured the hydroxyl radical formation, as represented by the presence of o- and m-tyrosine in saliva from volunteers who chewed AQ containing 20 mg phenylalanine. Their saliva contained significantly higher amounts (p betel leaf. We further tested the oxidative DNA damaging effect of the reconstituted AQ, as evidenced by the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels, in hamster buccal pouch. Following daily painting for 14 d, the 8-OH-dG level in hamster buccal pouch is significantly elevated (p < .05) in the AQ-treated group versus the controls. These findings demonstrate that ROS, such as hydroxyl radical, are formed in the human oral cavity during AQ chewing, and chewing such prepared AQ might cause oxidative DNA damage to the surrounding tissues.

  17. Antioxidative and antiplatelet effects of aqueous inflorescence Piper betle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Daniel; Chan, Chiu-Po; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wang, Tong-Mei; Lin, Bor-Ru; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2003-03-26

    Piper betle, belonging to the Piperaceae family, is a tropical plant, and its leaf and inflorescence are popularly consumed by betel quid (BQ) chewers in Taiwan and many other South and Southeast Asian countries. However, little is known about the biochemical properties of inflorescence Piper betle (IPB) toward reactive oxygen species (ROS) and platelet functions. In the present work, aqueous IPB extract was shown to be a scavenger of H(2)O(2), superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of about 80, 28, and 73 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also prevented the hydroxyl radical induced PUC18 plasmid DNA breaks at concentrations higher than 40 microg/mL. Since ROS are crucial for platelet aggregation, we further found that IPB extract also inhibited the arachidonic acid (AA) induced and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with an IC(50) of 207 and 335 microg/mL, respectively. IPB extract also inhibited the AA-, collagen- (>100 microg/mL of IPB), and thrombin (>250 microg/mL of IPB)-induced thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) production by more than 90%. However, IPB extract showed little effect on thrombin-induced aggregation. These results indicated that aqueous components of IPB are potential ROS scavengers and may prevent the platelet aggregation possibly via scavenging ROS or inhibition of TXB(2) production.

  18. Effect of Sameera Pannaga Rasa (arsenomercurial formulation) in the management of Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) - Randomized double blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashru, Mayur; Galib, R; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Asthma represents a profound world-wide public health problem. The most effective anti-asthmatic drugs currently available include β2-agonists and glucocorticoids which can controls asthma in about 90-95% of patients. In Ayurveda, this miserable condition is comparable with Tamaka Shwasa type of Shwasa Roga. In the present study, 52 patients were treated with Sameera Pannaga Rasa at a dose of 30 mg twice a day for 4 weeks along with Nagavallidala (leaf of Piper betel Linn.) The results were assessed in terms of clinical recovery, symptomatic relief, pulmonary function improvement and on subjective and objective parameters. A significant improvement in subjective parameters, control on asthma, recurrence of asthma, increase in peak expiratory flow rate, considerable decrease in total and absolute, acute eosinophil count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed. Overall marked improvement was found in 33.33%, moderate improvement in 44.44% and mild improvement in 20.00% was observed. The study reveals that Sameera Pannaga Rasa can be used as an effective drug in bronchial asthma.

  19. Vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnie, I; Salleh, M N; Mohamed, S; Head, R J; Abeywardena, M Y

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the vasodilatory actions of nine edible tropical plant extracts were investigated. Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato leaf), Piper betle (betel leaf), Anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf), Gynandropsis gynandra (maman leaf), Carica papaya (papaya leaf), and Mentha arvensis (mint leaf) extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring preparations, while Piper betle and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass stalk) showed comparable vasorelaxation on isolated perfused mesenteric artery preparation. The vascular effect on the aortic ring preparations were mainly endothelium-dependent, and mediated by nitric oxide (NO) as supported by the inhibition of action in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or by the removal of endothelium. In contrast, vasodilatory actions in resistance vessels (perfused mesenteric vascular beds) appear to involve several biochemical mediators, including NO, prostanoids, and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities varied among different extracts and found to be independent of vascular relaxation effects. This study demonstrates that many edible plants common in Asian diets to possess potential health benefits, affording protection at the vascular endothelium level.

  20. Control Of Book Termites Using Solid Attractants At The Central Library Of Universitas Sumatera Utara USU

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    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified the extent of damage due to the activity of Captotermes sp Microtermis sp Formica sp Araneus sp and Stegonium sp on books in the USU Library. Furthermore prevention of dominant pest attack on the book containing cellulose as the main food of termites termites control action term control by Action Research method action research Kurt Lewin adoption is done intensively from July to September 2017. used are of neem leaf Azadirachta indica tobacco leaf Nicotiana tabacum rubber cassava leaf Manihot glaziovii and betel nut Areca catechu which can be used as Termite Baiting System TBS. This method includes three stages in the form of planning planning activity and reflection actuating and reflexion and evaluation evaluation. The results show the higher number of termites in F1799.3 0.328 with zero days after application. Based on the research recorded in sampling for 3 months with 4 treatments had a significant effect on the percentage of the number of termites that died and collected with the value of F is 86.27 p amp706 0000 and the percentage of death is F 59.13 p amp706 0000. Pearson correlation value recorded percentage of termite mortality r 0.349 and percentage of book affected r -0597 showed a very significant relationship. Pinet pellet is the best attractant in controlling termite pests followed by tobacco plants poisonous yams and neem. Optimal FFB techniques in its use can control termite colonies in an environmentally friendly manner.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the effects of some plant essential oils on Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of Chalkbrood disease

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    Mohammad Javed Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is one of the major fungal pathogens of honey bee broods and the causative agent of Chalkbrood disease. The factors responsible for the pathogenesis of Chalkbrood disease are still not fully understood, and the increasing resistance of A. apis to commonly used antifungal agents necessitates a search for new agents to control this disease. The in vitro antifungal activities of 27 plant essential oils against two isolates of A. apis (Aksu-4 and Aksu-9 were evaluated. Out of the 27 plant essential oils tested, 21 were found to be effective in killing both isolates of A. apis. Based on their minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values, the effective oils were grouped into three categories: highly effective, moderately effective and minimally effective. Mountain pepper oil, Kala Bhangra oil, spearmint oil, babuna oil, betel leaf oil, carrot seed oil, cumin seed oil and clove bud oil were highly effective, with MBC values between 50.0 μg/mL and 600.0 μg/mL. Mountain pepper was the most effective essential oil, with an MBC value of 50.0 μg/mL. Citral and caryophyllene containing oils were the most effective with MIC 50 ppm. The essential oils tested exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against both strains of A. apis, and they may contain compounds that could play an important role in the treatment or prevention of Chalkbrood disease of honeybee.

  2. DAYA HAMBAT SARI TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI STRAIN Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Dwi Hilda Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus infection can be treated with Methicilin, β lactam class of antibiotics that have drug targets in the cell wall. Bacteria S. aureus that is resistant to methicillin called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. One alternative that can be used in strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that have this is to use medicinal plants. This study aimed to know the ability of medicinal plant extracts inhibit the growth of bacterial strains of MRSA. This kind of research is experimental research. Medicinal plants tested were Garlic, Turmeric, Aloe Vera, Daun Salam, Curcuma, Ginger, Betel Leaf and Alpinia galanga. As a control, which is used Amphicillin, β lactam antibiotic class. The method used to determine the diameter of inhibition area of medicinal plant extracts is paper diffusion method. The results showed that all medicinal plants can inhibit bacterial growth of MRSA strains characterized by the inhibition zone formed on each treatment. The ability of garlic and turmeric extract better than Amphicillin and other medicinal plants to inhibit bacterial growth of MRSA strains. Kata kunci: inhibit,  growth, bacteria, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

  3. Changes in buccal micronucleus cytome parameters associated with smokeless tobacco and pesticide exposure among female tea garden workers of Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Afifa; Giri, Sarbani; Roy, Prasenjit; Giri, Anirudha

    2014-03-01

    Assam is the highest tea producing state in India. A large number of workers are engaged in various units of tea industry. There are few reports on the health status of the tea garden workers. The present cytogenetic biomonitoring study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effect associated with workers in tea industries in southern Assam. Smokeless tobacco chewing along with betel nut is very common practice among the workers. Workers also get exposed periodically to mixture of pesticides. Employing buccal micronucleus cytome assay, exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed in 90 female tea garden and compared to 90 age and sex matched non-chewer control as well as 70 chewers who are not tea garden workers. Statistically significant (pworkers compared to both the control groups. The frequency of cell proliferation biomarkers was highest in the chewer controls whereas genotoxic and cell death parameters were highest in tea garden workers. Linear correlation analysis revealed strong positive correlation between the duration of occupation and the frequency of micronucleus (r=0.597; pworkers was relatively lower compared to the control group. Pesticide exposure and chewing areca nut along with smokeless tobacco use may be responsible for changes in cytome parameters in exfoliated buccal cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Poral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  5. Concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash C; Maulik, Pallab K; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Saxena, Shekhar

    2005-01-01

    The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco and its deleterious effects have been reported in the western literature. However, studies on the relationship between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in India are limited. This study outlines the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in a western Indian cohort after controlling for various sociodemographic factors. A total of 35 102 men, 45 years of age and above were interviewed for concurrent alcohol and tobacco use. The sample was part of an earlier cohort drawn from the general population. The data were analysed after controlling for age, education, religion and mother-tongue. Among alcohol users, 51.1% smoked tobacco and 35.6% used smokeless tobacco. The relative risk of alcohol use was highest among those smoking cigarettes or beedis and among those using mishri with betel quid and tobacco. The risk of alcohol use increased with the frequency of tobacco use. The risk also increased with higher amounts of alcohol consumption, but peaked at around 100-150 ml of absolute alcohol use. The study highlights the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among the Indian population. This has important public health implications since concurrent use of these is synergistic for increased risk of oropharyngeal cancers.

  6. Bidi smokers at increased risk of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2005-01-01

    Source articles were searched for using Medline, the Cochrane Library and within the references lists of identified articles. Articles were selected that included data enabling construction of 2 x 2 tables to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For each study, two-way contingency tables were constructed, based on exposure frequency distributions, for cases and controls. Unadjusted OR and 95% CI were recalculated based on the reported data using standard procedures. Separate contingency tables were made for bidi smoking, cigarette smoking and both types of smoking if the data were available in the same article. The overall OR combined across all studies, and its 95% CI, was calculated using a random-effects model for bidi and cigarette smoking. Tests for publication bias and heterogeneity were conducted. Confounding factors, for example, betel quid chewing or alcohol use, were not included in the meta-regression model. An increased risk of oral cancer was found for bidi smokers compared with people who had never smoked (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.0-5.0) whereas no significant pattern of risk was found for cigarette smokers (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7-1.8). There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled OR estimate. The results clearly indicate that bidi smokers are at increased risk of oral cancer. It is important that this information be incorporated into smoking prevention and cessation efforts, particularly in the urban poor and rural mass in south Asian countries where bidi smoking is widespread.

  7. Temperament of juvenile delinquents with history of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Chen, Sue-Huei; Huang, Chien

    2007-01-01

    The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated. Cloninger's Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported to predict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, we aimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquency and substance abuse. Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history of substance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwestern Taiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjects were assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders on an individual base. The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were significantly younger, consumed less betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse. Consistent with the results of Cloninger's studies, novelty seeking positively correlated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inversely correlated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substance abuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.

  8. The genomics of oral cancer and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, Y B

    2009-01-01

    Oral cancer is the most common malignancy in India, where it is epidemiologically linked to the chewing of betel quid and other carcinogens. But various point mutations were detectable in the p53 and p15 genes. Hence, this review was conducted with the aim to find out genetic risks as well as markers for oral cancers and wound healing. Tobacco-related cancers are associated with polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes in terms of genotype frequencies and cigarette smoking dose. Expression of E6/E7 were also found in tumors, most of which were derived from the oropharynx. Presence of homozygous arginine at codon 72 renders p53 about seven times more susceptible to E6-mediated proteolytic degradation. Erythropoietin, vascular permeability factor (VPF, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF), and PDGF has been implicated as one of the principal mitogens involved in cutaneous wound healing. Activation of NF-kB is associated with enhanced cell survival. Human papilloma virus status is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in tonsilar cancer and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer.

  9. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anirudh

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers in India, unlike in the West are the most common cancers encountered, be it a primary or a tertiary referral practice. This makes the study and management of these cancers an important issue especially for the otolaryngologist. It is well known that the most common variant of oral cancers is the squamous cell carcinoma. Also the etiology is well established; with tobacco use in both smoking and smokeless forms, alcohol, betel nut and recently the Human Papilloma virus infection being implicated. Certain conditions which definitely increase the probability of getting oral cancers are known and this study aims in revisiting these aspects of pre-malignancy. The progression from a pre-cancerous lesion/condition to frank cancer is well established across many studies and many specialties. Also timely recognizing these pre-cancerous conditions and administration of proper treatment will greatly help in reducing the morbidity and mortality from subsequent much advanced and dangerous oral cancer. Keeping these facts in mind this study was planned to study the established pre-cancerous lesions which are known to progress to oral cancers.

  10. Genotypic distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms in oral cancer: global scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Shaleen; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2016-11-01

    Globocan 2012 reports the global oral cancer incidence of 300,373 new oral cancer cases annually, contributing to 2.1 % of the world cancer burden. The major well-established risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco, betel/areca nut, alcohol and high-risk oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) 16/18. However, only 5-10 % of individuals with high-risk lifestyle develop oral cancer. Thus, genomic variants in individuals represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence susceptibility to oral cancer. With a view to understanding the role of genomic variants in oral cancer, we reviewed SNPs in case-control studies with a minimum of 100 cases and 100 controls. PubMed and HuGE navigator search engines were used to obtain data published from 1990 to 2015, which identified 67 articles investigating the role of SNPs in oral cancer. Single publications reported 93 SNPs in 55 genes, with 34 SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. Meta-analysis of data in multiple studies defined nine SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. The genes were associated with critical functions deregulated in cancers, including cell proliferation, immune function, inflammation, transcription, DNA repair and xenobiotic metabolism.

  11. Ras oncogenes in oral cancer: the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan; Tsuchida, Nobuo

    2012-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of head and neck is associated with high morbidity and mortality in both Western and Asian countries. Several risk factors for the development of oral cancer are very well established, including tobacco chewing, betel quid, smoking, alcohol drinking and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Apart from these risk factors, many genetic factors such as oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and regulatory genes are identified to involve in oral carcinogenesis with these risk factors dependent and independent manner. Ras is one of the most frequently genetically deregulated oncogene in oral cancer. In this review, we analyze the past 22years of literature on genetic alterations such as mutations and amplifications of the isoforms of the ras oncogene in oral cancer. Further, we addressed the isoform-specific role of the ras in oral carcinogenesis. We also discussed how targeting the Akt and MEK, downstream effectors of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, respectively, would probably pave the possible molecular therapeutic target for the ras driven tumorigenesis in oral cancer. Analysis of these ras isoforms may critically enlighten specific role of a particular ras isoform in oral carcinogenesis, enhance prognosis and pave the way for isoform-specific molecular targeted therapy in OSCC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Epidemiology and risk factors of the oral carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlodowska, Justyna; Szumiło, Justyna; Podlodowski, Wiktor; Starosławska, Elzbieta; Burdan, Franciszek

    2012-02-01

    Oral cancer is the eleventh most common malignancy in the world, with squamous cell carcinoma being a predominant histologic type. The highest incidence is observed in India, Australia, Brazil, France and South Africa. In Europe the most affected regions are France, French-language cantons of Switzerland, northern Italy and countries of the Middle-East Europe. In most regions cancer is much more common in man. Oral cancer accounts for 1.34% of all registered malignant tumors in Poland in 2008. Etiology of the oral squamous cell carcinoma is complex. The most important risk factors, especially in well-developed countries are tobacco smoking and alcohol exposure. Alcohol promotes cancer development not only administered as a stimulant but also as a component of mouthwashes. Betel chewing, human papilloma virus infection, deficiency of vitamin A, riboflavin and iron, poor mouth hygiene and immunosuppressive therapy are also associated with higher incidence of oral carcinoma. More recently, relation between individual increased susceptibility to oral cancer and some genes polymorphisms, especially those encoding cytokines and enzymes engaged in alcohol metabolism has been found.

  13. The genomics of oral cancer and wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Y

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common malignancy in India, where it is epidemiologically linked to the chewing of betel quid and other carcinogens. But various point mutations were detectable in the p53 and p15 genes. Hence, this review was conducted with the aim to find out genetic risks as well as markers for oral cancers and wound healing. Tobacco-related cancers are associated with polymorphisms of the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes in terms of genotype frequencies and cigarette smoking dose. Expression of E6/E7 were also found in tumors, most of which were derived from the oropharynx. Presence of homozygous arginine at codon 72 renders p53 about seven times more susceptible to E6-mediated proteolytic degradation. Erythropoietin, vascular permeability factor (VPF, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF, and PDGF has been implicated as one of the principal mitogens involved in cutaneous wound healing. Activation of NF-kB is associated with enhanced cell survival. Human papilloma virus status is a significantly favorable prognostic factor in tonsilar cancer and may be used as a marker in order to optimize the treatment of patients with this type of cancer.

  14. Giant Atretic Occipital Lipoencephalocele in an Adult with Bony Outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimkar, Kshama; Sood, Dinesh; Soni, Pawan; Chauhan, Narvir; Surya, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    We present unique case of a giant extracranial atretic occipital lipoencephalocele in an adult patient with new bone formation within it which was not associated with any developmental malformation of brain. Resection of the lipoencephalocele was performed for esthetic reasons. 18 year old female patient presented to the surgery OPD with complains of a large mass in the occipital region present since birth. It was of size of a betel nut at the time of birth and gradually increased in size over a long period of time. It was painless and not associated with any other constitutional symptoms. On examination the rounded fluctuant mass was present in the midline in occipital region covered with alopecic skin with dimpling in the overlying skin. On MRI there was mass showing both T1 and T2 hyperintense signal area suggestive of fat component. Herniation of meninges and atretic brain parenchyma was also seen through a defect in the occipital bone in the midline. There was a Y shaped bony outgrowth seen arising from occipital bone into the mass which was quite unusual in association with an atretic lipoencephalocele. A large lipoencephalocele with bony outgrowth in an adult patient is a rare presentation of atreic occipital encephalocele.

  15. The association between problematic cellular phone use and risky behaviors and low self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents

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    Ko Chih-Hung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular phone use (CPU is an important part of life for many adolescents. However, problematic CPU may complicate physiological and psychological problems. The aim of our study was to examine the associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A total of 11,111 adolescent students in Southern Taiwan were randomly selected into this study. We used the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire to identify the adolescents with problematic CPU. Meanwhile, a series of risky behaviors and self-esteem were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the associations between problematic CPU and risky behaviors and low self-esteem regarding gender and age. Results The results indicated that positive associations were found between problematic CPU and aggression, insomnia, smoking cigarettes, suicidal tendencies, and low self-esteem in all groups with different sexes and ages. However, gender and age differences existed in the associations between problematic CPU and suspension from school, criminal records, tattooing, short nocturnal sleep duration, unprotected sex, illicit drugs use, drinking alcohol and chewing betel nuts. Conclusions There were positive associations between problematic CPU and a series of risky behaviors and low self-esteem in Taiwanese adolescents. It is worthy for parents and mental health professionals to pay attention to adolescents' problematic CPU.

  16. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

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    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  17. Risk factors for chronic periodontitis in Sri Lankan adults: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2017-09-07

    To determine risk factors for chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year olds in Sri Lanka. Cases and controls for this population based unmatched case-control study were identified from a broader cross-sectional study which was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year old adults in Colombo district Sri Lanka. The study included 694 cases and 706 controls. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioural factors, a physical examination to record anthropometric measurements and an oral examination. Being a male, a Muslim, belonging to the 45-60 year old age group, having less tha